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Sample records for algorithm achieves high

  1. A new adaptive GMRES algorithm for achieving high accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Sosonkina, M.; Watson, L.T.; Kapania, R.K.; Walker, H.F.

    1996-12-31

    GMRES(k) is widely used for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. However, it is inadequate either when it converges only for k close to the problem size or when numerical error in the modified Gram-Schmidt process used in the GMRES orthogonalization phase dramatically affects the algorithm performance. An adaptive version of GMRES (k) which tunes the restart value k based on criteria estimating the GMRES convergence rate for the given problem is proposed here. The essence of the adaptive GMRES strategy is to adapt the parameter k to the problem, similar in spirit to how a variable order ODE algorithm tunes the order k. With FORTRAN 90, which provides pointers and dynamic memory management, dealing with the variable storage requirements implied by varying k is not too difficult. The parameter k can be both increased and decreased-an increase-only strategy is described next followed by pseudocode.

  2. The Rice coding algorithm achieves high-performance lossless and progressive image compression based on the improving of integer lifting scheme Rice coding algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Xie Cheng; Su, Yan; Wei, Zhang

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, a modified algorithm was introduced to improve Rice coding algorithm and researches of image compression with the CDF (2,2) wavelet lifting scheme was made. Our experiments show that the property of the lossless image compression is much better than Huffman, Zip, lossless JPEG, RAR, and a little better than (or equal to) the famous SPIHT. The lossless compression rate is improved about 60.4%, 45%, 26.2%, 16.7%, 0.4% on average. The speed of the encoder is faster about 11.8 times than the SPIHT's and its efficiency in time can be improved by 162%. The speed of the decoder is faster about 12.3 times than that of the SPIHT's and its efficiency in time can be rasied about 148%. This algorithm, instead of largest levels wavelet transform, has high coding efficiency when the wavelet transform levels is larger than 3. For the source model of distributions similar to the Laplacian, it can improve the efficiency of coding and realize the progressive transmit coding and decoding.

  3. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented. PMID:25048471

  4. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented.

  5. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  6. Achievable Polarization for Heat-Bath Algorithmic Cooling.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Briones, Nayeli Azucena; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-04-29

    Pure quantum states play a central role in applications of quantum information, both as initial states for quantum algorithms and as resources for quantum error correction. Preparation of highly pure states that satisfy the threshold for quantum error correction remains a challenge, not only for ensemble implementations like NMR or ESR but also for other technologies. Heat-bath algorithmic cooling is a method to increase the purity of a set of qubits coupled to a bath. We investigated the achievable polarization by analyzing the limit when no more entropy can be extracted from the system. In particular, we give an analytic form for the maximum polarization achievable for the case when the initial state of the qubits is totally mixed, and the corresponding steady state of the whole system. It is, however, possible to reach higher polarization while starting with certain states; thus, our result provides an achievable bound. We also give the number of steps needed to get a specific required polarization. PMID:27176508

  7. The efficient algorithms for achieving Euclidean distance transformation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Frank Y; Wu, Yi-Ta

    2004-08-01

    Euclidean distance transformation (EDT) is used to convert a digital binary image consisting of object (foreground) and nonobject (background) pixels into another image where each pixel has a value of the minimum Euclidean distance from nonobject pixels. In this paper, the improved iterative erosion algorithm is proposed to avoid the redundant calculations in the iterative erosion algorithm. Furthermore, to avoid the iterative operations, the two-scan-based algorithm by a deriving approach is developed for achieving EDT correctly and efficiently in a constant time. Besides, we discover when obstacles appear in the image, many algorithms cannot achieve the correct EDT except our two-scan-based algorithm. Moreover, the two-scan-based algorithm does not require the additional cost of preprocessing or relative-coordinates recording.

  8. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  9. High Rate Pulse Processing Algorithms for Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui; Breus, Dimitry; Hennig, Wolfgang; Sabourov, Konstantin; Collins, Jeffrey W.; Warburton, William K.; Bertrand Doriese, W.; Ullom, Joel N.; Bacrania, Minesh K.; Hoover, Andrew S.; Rabin, Michael W.

    2009-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that microcalorimeter spectrometers based on superconducting transition-edge-sensors can readily achieve sub-100 eV energy resolution near 100 keV. However, the active volume of a single microcalorimeter has to be small in order to maintain good energy resolution, and pulse decay times are normally on the order of milliseconds due to slow thermal relaxation. Therefore, spectrometers are typically built with an array of microcalorimeters to increase detection efficiency and count rate. For large arrays, however, as much pulse processing as possible must be performed at the front end of readout electronics to avoid transferring large amounts of waveform data to a host computer for post-processing. In this paper, we present digital filtering algorithms for processing microcalorimeter pulses in real time at high count rates. The goal for these algorithms, which are being implemented in readout electronics that we are also currently developing, is to achieve sufficiently good energy resolution for most applications while being: a) simple enough to be implemented in the readout electronics; and, b) capable of processing overlapping pulses, and thus achieving much higher output count rates than those achieved by existing algorithms. Details of our algorithms are presented, and their performance is compared to that of the "optimal filter" that is currently the predominantly used pulse processing algorithm in the cryogenic-detector community.

  10. Algorithm for Determination of Orion Ascent Abort Mode Achievability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    For human spaceflight missions, a launch vehicle failure poses the challenge of returning the crew safely to earth through environments that are often much more stressful than the nominal mission. Manned spaceflight vehicles require continuous abort capability throughout the ascent trajectory to protect the crew in the event of a failure of the launch vehicle. To provide continuous abort coverage during the ascent trajectory, different types of Orion abort modes have been developed. If a launch vehicle failure occurs, the crew must be able to quickly and accurately determine the appropriate abort mode to execute. Early in the ascent, while the Launch Abort System (LAS) is attached, abort mode selection is trivial, and any failures will result in a LAS abort. For failures after LAS jettison, the Service Module (SM) effectors are employed to perform abort maneuvers. Several different SM abort mode options are available depending on the current vehicle location and energy state. During this region of flight the selection of the abort mode that maximizes the survivability of the crew becomes non-trivial. To provide the most accurate and timely information to the crew and the onboard abort decision logic, on-board algorithms have been developed to propagate the abort trajectories based on the current launch vehicle performance and to predict the current abort capability of the Orion vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the algorithm architecture for determining abort achievability as well as the scalar integration scheme that makes the onboard computation possible. Extension of the algorithm to assessing abort coverage impacts from Orion design modifications and launch vehicle trajectory modifications is also presented.

  11. Self Regulated Learning of High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathod, Ami

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on high achievers of Senior Secondary school. Main objectives were to identify the self regulated learners among the high achievers, to find out dominant components and characteristics operative in self regulated learners and to compare self regulated learning of learners with respect to their subject (science and non…

  12. THE HIGH ENERGY TRANSIENT EXPLORER TRIGGERING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    E. FENIMORE; M. GALASSI

    2001-05-01

    The High Energy Transient Explorer uses a triggering algorithm for gamma-ray bursts that can achieve near the statistical limit by fitting to several background regions to remove trends. Dozens of trigger criteria run simultaneously covering time scales from 80 msec to 10.5 sec or longer. Each criteria is controlled by about 25 constants which gives the flexibility to search wide parameter spaces. On orbit, we have been able to operate at 6{sigma}, a factor of two more sensitive than previous experiments.

  13. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  14. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  15. High Achievers: 23rd Annual Survey. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This report presents data from an annual survey of high school student leaders and high achievers. It is noted that of the nearly 700,000 high achievers featured in this edition, 5,000 students were sent the survey and 2,092 questionnaires were completed. Subjects were high school juniors and seniors selected for recognition by their principals or…

  16. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  17. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  18. Achieving Algorithmic Resilience for Temporal Integration through Spectral Deferred Corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, R. W.; Kolla, H.; Minion, M. L.; Bell, J. B.

    2015-04-06

    Spectral deferred corrections (SDC) is an iterative approach for constructing higher- order accurate numerical approximations of ordinary differential equations. SDC starts with an initial approximation of the solution defined at a set of Gaussian or spectral collocation nodes over a time interval and uses an iterative application of lower-order time discretizations applied to a correction equation to improve the solution at these nodes. Each deferred correction sweep increases the formal order of accuracy of the method up to the limit inherent in the accuracy defined by the collocation points. In this paper, we demonstrate that SDC is well suited to recovering from soft (transient) hardware faults in the data. A strategy where extra correction iterations are used to recover from soft errors and provide algorithmic resilience is proposed. Specifically, in this approach the iteration is continued until the residual (a measure of the error in the approximation) is small relative to the residual on the first correction iteration and changes slowly between successive iterations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this strategy for both canonical test problems and a comprehen- sive situation involving a mature scientific application code that solves the reacting Navier-Stokes equations for combustion research.

  19. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  20. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 18th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Communications, Inc., Lake Forest, IL.

    This document contains factsheets and news releases which cite findings from a national survey of 1,985 high achieving high school students. Factsheets describe the Who's Who Among American High School Students recognition and service program for high school students and explain the Who's Who survey. A summary report of this eighteenth annual…

  1. 21st Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students during the spring of 1990, to determine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. A survey of high achievers sent to 5,000 students was completed and returned by approximately 2,000 students. All students were members of the junior or senior class during the…

  2. 22nd Annual Survey of High Achievers: Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Northbrook, IL.

    This study surveyed high school students (N=1,879) who were student leaders or high achievers in the spring of 1991 for the purpose of determining their attitudes. Students were members of the junior or senior high school class during the 1990-91 academic year and were selected for recognition by their principals or guidance counselors, other…

  3. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 26th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    A national survey of 3,351 high achieving high school students (junior and senior level) was conducted. All students had A or B averages. Topics covered include lifestyles, political beliefs, violence and entertainment, education, cheating, school violence, sexual violence and date rape, peer pressure, popularity, suicide, drugs and alcohol,…

  4. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 24th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey represents information compiled by the largest national survey of adolescent leaders and high achievers. Of the 5,000 students selected demographically from "Who's Who Among American High School Students," 1,957 responded. All students surveyed had "A" or "B" averages, and 98% planned on attending college. Questions were asked about…

  5. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  6. High Ability Readers and the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Parke, Cynthia J.; Bramble, Joan G.

    2004-01-01

    To close the achievement gap, the "No Child Left Behind" law calls for all students to make appropriate yearly progress. This presumably means that progress is being made by capable readers at the same time progress is being made by struggling readers. However, there appear to be unintended effects of "No Child Left Behind" that may impede the…

  7. High-Achieving Students in the Era of NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom; Parkas, Steve; Duffett, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This report contains two separate studies examining the status of high-achieving students in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) era. Part I, An Analysis of NAEP Data, authored by Brookings Institution scholar Tom Loveless, examines achievement trends for high-achieving students (defined, like low-achieving students, by their performance on the…

  8. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  9. High School Employment and Youths' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Donna S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper asks whether employment during high school impacts youths' grade point average. Unlike much of the prior literature, it allows for the endogeneity of the hours and dropout decisions, uses ASVAB test scores, and tests whether youth employment is dynamic. The results indicate that high school employment and its lag have small, negative…

  10. Achieving strategic surety for high consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    A strategic surety roadmap for high consequence software systems under the High Integrity Software (HIS) Program at Sandia National Laboratories guides research in identifying methodologies to improve software surety. Selected research tracks within this roadmap are identified and described detailing current technology and outlining advancements to be pursued over the coming decade to reach HIS goals. The tracks discussed herein focus on Correctness by Design, and System Immunology{trademark}. Specific projects are discussed with greater detail given on projects involving Correct Specification via Visualization, Synthesis, & Analysis; Visualization of Abstract Objects; and Correct Implementation of Components.

  11. Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Meichu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics…

  12. Norview High School: Leadership Fosters Achievment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Often little unsaid things demonstrate what is truly important in a school. When teachers have common planning time and all of the department chairs share a single space as they do at Norview High School in Norfolk, VA, the unmistakable message is that instructional collaboration and leadership are expected and valued. Norview, an urban,…

  13. Achieving High-Temperature Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmis, Ferhat

    Topological insulators (TIs) are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens new opportunities for creating next-generation electronic and spintronic devices, including TI-based quantum computation. Introducing ferromagnetic order into a TI system without compromising its distinctive quantum coherent features could lead to a realization of several predicted novel physical phenomena. In particular, achieving robust long-range magnetic order at the TI surface at specific locations without introducing spin scattering centers could open up new possibilities for devices. Here, we demonstrate topologically enhanced interface magnetism by coupling a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) to a TI (Bi2Se3); this interfacial ferromagnetism persists up to room temperature, even though the FMI (EuS) is known to order ferromagnetically only at low temperatures (<17 K). The induced magnetism at the interface resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and spin-momentum locking feature of the TI surface is found to greatly enhance the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature of the TI/FMI bilayer system. Due to the short range nature of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction, the time-reversal symmetry is broken only near the surface of a TI, while leaving its bulk states unaffected. The topological magneto-electric response originating in such an engineered TI could allow for an efficient manipulation of the magnetization dynamics by an electric field, providing an energy efficient topological control mechanism for future spin-based technologies. Work supported by MIT MRSEC through the MRSEC Program of NSF under award number DMR-0819762, NSF Grant DMR-1207469, the ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301, and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF grant DMR-1231319.

  14. Highly Scalable Matching Pursuit Signal Decomposition Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Daniel; Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2009-01-01

    standard algorithm. When the utmost accuracy must be achieved, the modified algorithm extracts atoms more conservatively but still exhibits computational gains over classical MPD. The MPD++ algorithm was demonstrated using an over-complete dictionary on real life data. Computational times were reduced by factors of 1.9 and 44 for the emphases of accuracy and performance, respectively. The modified algorithm extracted similar amounts of energy compared to classical MPD. The degree of the improvement in computational time depends on the complexity of the data, the initialization parameters, and the breadth of the dictionary. The results of the research confirm that the three modifications successfully improved the scalability and computational efficiency of the MPD algorithm. Correlation Thresholding decreased the time complexity by reducing the dictionary size. Multiple Atom Extraction also reduced the time complexity by decreasing the number of iterations required for a stopping criterion to be reached. The Course-Fine Grids technique enabled complicated atoms with numerous variable parameters to be effectively represented in the dictionary. Due to the nature of the three proposed modifications, they are capable of being stacked and have cumulative effects on the reduction of the time complexity.

  15. Achieving ultra-high temperatures with a resistive emitter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; Holmes, Nicholas; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Norton, Dennis; Vengel, Tony; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to also develop larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing of systems incorporating these detectors. In addition to larger formats, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than can be generated with current technology in order to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024 x 1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During earlier phases of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1400 K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. A 'scalable' Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is also being developed under the same UHT program to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon via (TSV) and Quilt Packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the yield limitations inherent in large-scale integrated circuits. Results of design verification testing of the completed RIIC will be presented and discussed.

  16. Self-Concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…

  17. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  18. Smart and Bored: Are We Failing Our High Achievers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Some high achievers are not as easy to engage. Sometimes motivating high achievers is "a matter of being more sensitive to what they are interested in," says Don Ambrose, a professor of education at Rider University in New Jersey. But too often classrooms are not set up for that kind of sensitivity. Research shows that schools are consistently…

  19. Perspectives of High-Achieving Women on Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Helen

    2010-01-01

    High-achieving women are significantly less likely to enter the teaching profession than they were just 40 years ago. Why? While the social and economic reasons for this decline have been well documented in the literature, what is lacking is a discussion with high-achieving women, as they make their first career decisions, about their perceptions…

  20. Test-Taking Strategies of High and Low Mathematics Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Sas, Maggie; Sas, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored test-preparation and test-taking strategies that high school students used in algebra tests. From a pool of high school students (N = 156), 61 students participated in interviews, and of those interviewed, 26 represented those who were high achieving as well as highly interested in mathematics (n = 15) vs. those who were low…

  1. Effectiveness of High Schools in Australia: Holding Power and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Sheret, Michael

    High schools in Australia are increasingly expected to be effective in holding students at school to year 12 as well as in promoting achievement. Analysis of quantitative data gathered as part of a longitudinal study of 22 New South Wales (Australia) schools shows that schools differ in their holding power as well as in the achievement levels of…

  2. Tracking and Detracking: High Achievers in Massachusetts Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tracking--the practice of grouping students into separate classes or courses based on their prior academic achievement--at the middle-school level, and the percentage of high-achieving students in tracked and untracked schools. It focuses on Massachusetts, a leader in "reforming" tracking, and the changes that have…

  3. Some Correlates of High School Foreign Language Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.

    This paper investigates the influences of traditional kinds of verbal and quantitative achievement and aptitude variables on high school foreign language achievement, as measured by Modern Language Association and University of Washington tests of language skills administered to entering college students. The report focuses on: (1) the sample and…

  4. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.

    2011-01-01

    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  5. Mobility and Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Janet Denise

    2013-01-01

    Student mobility is an issue for high poverty schools in the shadow of increased rigor and accountability for student performance. Whereas mobility is not a sole cause for poor achievement, it is a contributing factor for students in poverty who are already considered to be at risk of low achievement. Student mobility creates a hardship for…

  6. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 29th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report presents the 1998 statistical findings of the annual survey to determine the attitudes of national high school student leaders. Questionnaires were completed by 3,123 high school juniors and seniors, all of whom were selected for recognition in "Who's Who among American High School Students." In addition to demographic information, the…

  7. Fuzzy Pool Balance: An algorithm to achieve a two dimensional balance in distribute storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenjing; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    The limitation of scheduling modules and the gradual addition of disk pools in distributed storage systems often result in imbalances among their disk pools in terms of both disk usage and file count. This can cause various problems to the storage system such as single point of failure, low system throughput and imbalanced resource utilization and system loads. An algorithm named Fuzzy Pool Balance (FPB) is proposed here to solve this problem. The input of FPB is the current file distribution among disk pools and the output is a file migration plan indicating what files are to be migrated to which pools. FPB uses an array to classify the files by their sizes. The file classification array is dynamically calculated with a defined threshold named Tmax that defines the allowed pool disk usage deviations. File classification is the basis of file migration. FPB also defines the Immigration Pool (IP) and Emigration Pool (EP) according to the pool disk usage and File Quantity Ratio (FQR) that indicates the percentage of each category of files in each disk pool, so files with higher FQR in an EP will be migrated to IP(s) with a lower FQR of this file category. To verify this algorithm, we implemented FPB on an ATLAS Tier2 dCache production system. The results show that FPB can achieve a very good balance in both free space and file counts, and adjusting the threshold value Tmax and the correction factor to the average FQR can achieve a tradeoff between free space and file count.

  8. High contrast laminography using iterative algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Jakubek, J.

    2011-01-01

    3D X-ray imaging of internal structure of large flat objects is often complicated by limited access to all viewing angles or extremely high absorption in certain directions, therefore the standard method of computed tomography (CT) fails. This problem can be solved by the method of laminography. During a laminographic measurement the imaging detector is placed close to the sample while the X-ray source irradiates both sample and detector at different angles. The application of the state-of-the-art pixel detector Medipix in laminography together with adapted tomographic iterative alghorithms for 3D reconstruction of sample structure has been investigated. Iterative algorithms such as EM (Expectation Maximization) and OSEM (Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization) improve the quality of the reconstruction and allow including more complex physical models. In this contribution results and proposed future approaches which could be used for resolution enhancement are presented.

  9. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able to show an…

  10. The High Dispersion Background Algorithm in NEWSIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.; Grady, C. A.; O'Brien, P.; de la Pena, M.; Nichols, J.; Garhart, M.; Coulter, B.; Michalitsianos, A.

    1993-12-01

    A two-dimensional interpolating scheme, followed by modeling of the point spread function, is outlined for use in the final archiving NEWSIPS program in removing background fluxes of high dispersion IUE images. So far our tests have been limited mainly to SWP camera images. An integral facet of our background removal algorithm, basisiue, is its execution in a totally automated environment. Toward this end several conditioning steps are required before the background fluxes can be sampled. These include the removal of ``wiggles" of echelle orders as well as rotation of the camera format and removal of order ``splaying" and avoiding pixels with high fluxes due to permanent image blemishes and cosmic ray hits. Image-specific pixels with such pathologies are eliminated, along with on-order pixels, for a sample of pixels along 26 "swaths" (SWP camera) in the cross-dispersion direction. Smoothed, one-dimensional 7-th degree Chebyshev fits are then computed from the interpolated fluxes modified by a global point spread function determined from the interorder overlap pattern in an ensemble of science images. A second set of continuous Chebyshev functions, perpendicular to the first, is computed next along the positions of the IUE orders by interpolating across fluxes determined from the first set. Thus, this algorithm determines both the of background fluxes at arbitrary locations on the image and also determines the amount of interorder flux-overlap among short-wavelength orders, which is necessary to the final extraction of spectral fluxes. This work has been supported under NASA Contact NAS5-31230 to the Computer Sciences Corporation.

  11. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 27th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 27th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,370 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1996 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  12. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens: 28th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This report details the 28th annual study to examine the attitudes of student leaders in U.S. high schools. Participating in the survey were 3,210 adolescents, primarily 16- and 17-year-olds, who had been featured in the 1997 edition of "Who's Who Among American High School Students." The report presents demographic information on the survey…

  13. Attitudes and Opinions from the Nation's High Achieving Teens. 25th Annual Survey of High Achievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.

    This survey was conducted during the spring of 1994 for the purpose of determining the attitudes of student leaders in the nation's high schools. Eight thousand surveys were sent out to students, of which 3177 were returned. All students surveyed were members of the junior or senior class during the 1993-94 academic year. They were selected for…

  14. Student Achievement for Whom? High-Performing and Still "Playing the Game," the Meaning of School Achievement among High Achieving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…

  15. Feature extraction and classification algorithms for high dimensional data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David

    1993-01-01

    Feature extraction and classification algorithms for high dimensional data are investigated. Developments with regard to sensors for Earth observation are moving in the direction of providing much higher dimensional multispectral imagery than is now possible. In analyzing such high dimensional data, processing time becomes an important factor. With large increases in dimensionality and the number of classes, processing time will increase significantly. To address this problem, a multistage classification scheme is proposed which reduces the processing time substantially by eliminating unlikely classes from further consideration at each stage. Several truncation criteria are developed and the relationship between thresholds and the error caused by the truncation is investigated. Next an approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. It is shown that all the features needed for classification can be extracted from decision boundaries. A characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is introduced. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: it predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal means or equal covariances as some previous algorithms do. In addition, the decision boundary feature extraction algorithm can be used both for parametric and non-parametric classifiers. Finally, some problems encountered in analyzing high dimensional data are studied and possible solutions are proposed. First, the increased importance of the second order statistics in analyzing high dimensional data is recognized

  16. High School Employment and Academic Achievement: A Note for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…

  17. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  18. Brain Hemisphericity and Mathematics Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sanny F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the brain hemisphericity and mathematics achievement of high school students. The respondents of the study were the 168 first year high school students of Colegio de San Jose, during school year 2010-2011 who were chosen through stratified random sampling. The descriptive and interview methods of research were used in…

  19. GADIS: Algorithm for designing sequences to achieve target secondary structure profiles of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Tyler S; Crabtree, Michael D; Shammas, Sarah L; Posey, Ammon E; Clarke, Jane; Pappu, Rohit V

    2016-09-01

    Many intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) participate in coupled folding and binding reactions and form alpha helical structures in their bound complexes. Alanine, glycine, or proline scanning mutagenesis approaches are often used to dissect the contributions of intrinsic helicities to coupled folding and binding. These experiments can yield confounding results because the mutagenesis strategy changes the amino acid compositions of IDPs. Therefore, an important next step in mutagenesis-based approaches to mechanistic studies of coupled folding and binding is the design of sequences that satisfy three major constraints. These are (i) achieving a target intrinsic alpha helicity profile; (ii) fixing the positions of residues corresponding to the binding interface; and (iii) maintaining the native amino acid composition. Here, we report the development of a G: enetic A: lgorithm for D: esign of I: ntrinsic secondary S: tructure (GADIS) for designing sequences that satisfy the specified constraints. We describe the algorithm and present results to demonstrate the applicability of GADIS by designing sequence variants of the intrinsically disordered PUMA system that undergoes coupled folding and binding to Mcl-1. Our sequence designs span a range of intrinsic helicity profiles. The predicted variations in sequence-encoded mean helicities are tested against experimental measurements. PMID:27503953

  20. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  1. Behind the High Achievement of East Asian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2002-01-01

    Studied reasons for the high achievement students from Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Questionnaire data provided by students participating show that the superior results of these students may have come at the expense of other aspects of student development. Results…

  2. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  3. Learning Environment, Motivation, and Achievement in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement. Discusses the focus of shared perceptions and instruction and indicates that shared perceptions focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students'…

  4. High Achieving Girls in Mathematics: What's Wrong with Working Hard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Ann C.; Berenson, Sarah B.

    2003-01-01

    The participation of women in graduate studies and mathematics-related careers remains a social and economic problem in the United States. Part of a larger study to understand this lack of participation, here we present preliminary findings of girls who are high achievers in middle grades mathematics. This interpretive study documents girls'…

  5. Relationship between High School Leadership Team Practices and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated if a relationship existed between student achievement in 10th grade Missouri Assessment Program mathematics and 11th grade communication arts scores in 2007 and high school leadership team perceptions of the extent to which they demonstrated leadership practices. The secondary purpose was to compare perceptional…

  6. Improving Student Achievement in Today's High Schools: What Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Marie S.

    This paper is based on a study of two high schools in Maine that achieved outstanding and consistent gains in English, math, and science over a 5-year period. Three strands of inquiry were used for the study: surveys, interviews, and observations. A multiple-perspective approach was used to integrate the information so as to evaluate the…

  7. Mercer Middle School Case Study: High Science and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To spotlight effective practices, the Washington State Board of Education (SBE) is highlighting schools that are closing achievement gaps and performing at high levels. In 2009, the SBE partnered with the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to create the Washington Accountability Index. The Index is a new way to measure schools'…

  8. Supplementary Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.; Meroe, Aundra Saa, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education…

  9. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  10. Test Score Decline Among High Achievers: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jerrold; Hsia, Jayjia

    Since 1967, the mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score has declined. Likewise, the numbers of candidates receiving high SAT scores have been decreasing steadily. The same downward trend in student achievement can be seen among student groups from grade 4 through post graduate studies. In recent years, policy has been directed towards making…

  11. Student Achievement through the Development of Complete High School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Michael Frederick, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation undertook an investigation of school culture and achievement in the high school setting. The national data set ELS:2002 was used as the pool of variables because it allows for a complete picture of school culture comprising students, parents, administrators, and teachers. The data were selected based on current literature and…

  12. The High Trust Classroom: Raising Achievement from the Inside Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lonnie

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a roadmap to developing a high-trust classroom, a classroom: (1) With increased student achievement; (2) With few discipline problems; (3) Where students are intrinsically motivated; and (4) Where the teacher can confidently use creative lesson planning. The author presents a simple step by step approach to earning the trust of…

  13. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…

  14. Learning environment, motivation, and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbitt Nolen, Susan

    2003-04-01

    In a study of the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement, 377 students in 22 introductory science classrooms completed surveys in the fall and spring of their ninth-grade year. Hierarchical linear regression was used to model the effects of variables at both the classroom and individual level simultaneously. High intraclass agreement (indicated by high parameter reliability) on all classroom environment measures indicated that students shared perceptions of the classroom learning environment. Controlling for other factors, shared perceptions that only the most able could succeed in science classrooms and that instruction was fast-paced and focused on correct answers negatively predicted science achievement, as measured on a districtwide curriculum-linked test. Shared perceptions that classrooms focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students' self-reported satisfaction with learning. Implications of these results for both teaching and research into classroom environments are discussed.

  15. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  16. The Will to Achieve: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of African American High Achieving Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Natalie Faye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to understand the experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents. The experiences of high achieving African American students and their parents have been missing from literature on the academic achievement of African American students. Much of the literature that has been published…

  17. Heuristic-based scheduling algorithm for high level synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, Gulam; Tan, Han-Ngee; Chng, Chew-Lye

    1992-01-01

    A new scheduling algorithm is proposed which uses a combination of a resource utilization chart, a heuristic algorithm to estimate the minimum number of hardware units based on operator mobilities, and a list-scheduling technique to achieve fast and near optimal schedules. The schedule time of this algorithm is almost independent of the length of mobilities of operators as can be seen from the benchmark example (fifth order digital elliptical wave filter) presented when the cycle time was increased from 17 to 18 and then to 21 cycles. It is implemented in C on a SUN3/60 workstation.

  18. Achieving High Performance on the i860 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, King; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The i860 is a high performance microprocessor used in the Intel Touchstone project. This paper proposes a paradigm for programming the i860 that is modelled on the vector instructions of the Cray computers. Fortran callable assembler subroutines were written that mimic the concurrent vector instructions of the Cray. Cache takes the place of vector registers. Using this paradigm we have achieved twice the performance of compiled code on a traditional solve.

  19. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  20. Fast two-dimensional super-resolution image reconstruction algorithm for ultra-high emitter density.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaqing; Gumpper, Kristyn; Chi, Yuejie; Sun, Mingzhai; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-07-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy achieves sub-diffraction-limit resolution by localizing a sparse subset of stochastically activated emitters in each frame. Its temporal resolution is limited by the maximal emitter density that can be handled by the image reconstruction algorithms. Multiple algorithms have been developed to accurately locate the emitters even when they have significant overlaps. Currently, compressive-sensing-based algorithm (CSSTORM) achieves the highest emitter density. However, CSSTORM is extremely computationally expensive, which limits its practical application. Here, we develop a new algorithm (MempSTORM) based on two-dimensional spectrum analysis. With the same localization accuracy and recall rate, MempSTORM is 100 times faster than CSSTORM with ℓ(1)-homotopy. In addition, MempSTORM can be implemented on a GPU for parallelism, which can further increase its computational speed and make it possible for online super-resolution reconstruction of high-density emitters.

  1. Scalable Nearest Neighbor Algorithms for High Dimensional Data.

    PubMed

    Muja, Marius; Lowe, David G

    2014-11-01

    For many computer vision and machine learning problems, large training sets are key for good performance. However, the most computationally expensive part of many computer vision and machine learning algorithms consists of finding nearest neighbor matches to high dimensional vectors that represent the training data. We propose new algorithms for approximate nearest neighbor matching and evaluate and compare them with previous algorithms. For matching high dimensional features, we find two algorithms to be the most efficient: the randomized k-d forest and a new algorithm proposed in this paper, the priority search k-means tree. We also propose a new algorithm for matching binary features by searching multiple hierarchical clustering trees and show it outperforms methods typically used in the literature. We show that the optimal nearest neighbor algorithm and its parameters depend on the data set characteristics and describe an automated configuration procedure for finding the best algorithm to search a particular data set. In order to scale to very large data sets that would otherwise not fit in the memory of a single machine, we propose a distributed nearest neighbor matching framework that can be used with any of the algorithms described in the paper. All this research has been released as an open source library called fast library for approximate nearest neighbors (FLANN), which has been incorporated into OpenCV and is now one of the most popular libraries for nearest neighbor matching. PMID:26353063

  2. Scalable Nearest Neighbor Algorithms for High Dimensional Data.

    PubMed

    Muja, Marius; Lowe, David G

    2014-11-01

    For many computer vision and machine learning problems, large training sets are key for good performance. However, the most computationally expensive part of many computer vision and machine learning algorithms consists of finding nearest neighbor matches to high dimensional vectors that represent the training data. We propose new algorithms for approximate nearest neighbor matching and evaluate and compare them with previous algorithms. For matching high dimensional features, we find two algorithms to be the most efficient: the randomized k-d forest and a new algorithm proposed in this paper, the priority search k-means tree. We also propose a new algorithm for matching binary features by searching multiple hierarchical clustering trees and show it outperforms methods typically used in the literature. We show that the optimal nearest neighbor algorithm and its parameters depend on the data set characteristics and describe an automated configuration procedure for finding the best algorithm to search a particular data set. In order to scale to very large data sets that would otherwise not fit in the memory of a single machine, we propose a distributed nearest neighbor matching framework that can be used with any of the algorithms described in the paper. All this research has been released as an open source library called fast library for approximate nearest neighbors (FLANN), which has been incorporated into OpenCV and is now one of the most popular libraries for nearest neighbor matching.

  3. Generating high temperature tolerant transgenic plants: Achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Grover, Anil; Mittal, Dheeraj; Negi, Manisha; Lavania, Dhruv

    2013-05-01

    Production of plants tolerant to high temperature stress is of immense significance in the light of global warming and climate change. Plant cells respond to high temperature stress by re-programming their genetic machinery for survival and reproduction. High temperature tolerance in transgenic plants has largely been achieved either by over-expressing heat shock protein genes or by altering levels of heat shock factors that regulate expression of heat shock and non-heat shock genes. Apart from heat shock factors, over-expression of other trans-acting factors like DREB2A, bZIP28 and WRKY proteins has proven useful in imparting high temperature tolerance. Besides these, elevating the genetic levels of proteins involved in osmotic adjustment, reactive oxygen species removal, saturation of membrane-associated lipids, photosynthetic reactions, production of polyamines and protein biosynthesis process have yielded positive results in equipping transgenic plants with high temperature tolerance. Cyclic nucleotide gated calcium channel proteins that regulate calcium influxes across the cell membrane have recently been shown to be the key players in induction of high temperature tolerance. The involvement of calmodulins and kinases in activation of heat shock factors has been implicated as an important event in governing high temperature tolerance. Unfilled gaps limiting the production of high temperature tolerant transgenic plants for field level cultivation are discussed.

  4. Generic algorithms for high performance scalable geocomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, the characteristics of computing hardware have changed a lot. For example, instead of a single general purpose CPU core, personal computers nowadays contain multiple cores per CPU and often general purpose accelerators, like GPUs. Additionally, compute nodes are often grouped together to form clusters or a supercomputer, providing enormous amounts of compute power. For existing earth simulation models to be able to use modern hardware platforms, their compute intensive parts must be rewritten. This can be a major undertaking and may involve many technical challenges. Compute tasks must be distributed over CPU cores, offloaded to hardware accelerators, or distributed to different compute nodes. And ideally, all of this should be done in such a way that the compute task scales well with the hardware resources. This presents two challenges: 1) how to make good use of all the compute resources and 2) how to make these compute resources available for developers of simulation models, who may not (want to) have the required technical background for distributing compute tasks. The first challenge requires the use of specialized technology (e.g.: threads, OpenMP, MPI, OpenCL, CUDA). The second challenge requires the abstraction of the logic handling the distribution of compute tasks from the model-specific logic, hiding the technical details from the model developer. To assist the model developer, we are developing a C++ software library (called Fern) containing algorithms that can use all CPU cores available in a single compute node (distributing tasks over multiple compute nodes will be done at a later stage). The algorithms are grid-based (finite difference) and include local and spatial operations such as convolution filters. The algorithms handle distribution of the compute tasks to CPU cores internally. In the resulting model the low-level details of how this is done is separated from the model-specific logic representing the modeled system

  5. Generic algorithms for high performance scalable geocomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, the characteristics of computing hardware have changed a lot. For example, instead of a single general purpose CPU core, personal computers nowadays contain multiple cores per CPU and often general purpose accelerators, like GPUs. Additionally, compute nodes are often grouped together to form clusters or a supercomputer, providing enormous amounts of compute power. For existing earth simulation models to be able to use modern hardware platforms, their compute intensive parts must be rewritten. This can be a major undertaking and may involve many technical challenges. Compute tasks must be distributed over CPU cores, offloaded to hardware accelerators, or distributed to different compute nodes. And ideally, all of this should be done in such a way that the compute task scales well with the hardware resources. This presents two challenges: 1) how to make good use of all the compute resources and 2) how to make these compute resources available for developers of simulation models, who may not (want to) have the required technical background for distributing compute tasks. The first challenge requires the use of specialized technology (e.g.: threads, OpenMP, MPI, OpenCL, CUDA). The second challenge requires the abstraction of the logic handling the distribution of compute tasks from the model-specific logic, hiding the technical details from the model developer. To assist the model developer, we are developing a C++ software library (called Fern) containing algorithms that can use all CPU cores available in a single compute node (distributing tasks over multiple compute nodes will be done at a later stage). The algorithms are grid-based (finite difference) and include local and spatial operations such as convolution filters. The algorithms handle distribution of the compute tasks to CPU cores internally. In the resulting model the low-level details of how this is done is separated from the model-specific logic representing the modeled system

  6. An improved dehazing algorithm of aerial high-definition image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wentao; Ji, Ming; Huang, Xiying; Wang, Chao; Yang, Yizhou; Li, Tao; Wang, Jiaoying; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    For unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV) images, the sensor can not get high quality images due to fog and haze weather. To solve this problem, An improved dehazing algorithm of aerial high-definition image is proposed. Based on the model of dark channel prior, the new algorithm firstly extracts the edges from crude estimated transmission map and expands the extracted edges. Then according to the expended edges, the algorithm sets a threshold value to divide the crude estimated transmission map into different areas and makes different guided filter on the different areas compute the optimized transmission map. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is substantially the same as the one based on dark channel prior and guided filter. The average computation time of the new algorithm is around 40% of the one as well as the detection ability of UAV image is improved effectively in fog and haze weather.

  7. Unlocking Emergent Talent: Supporting High Achievement of Low-Income, High Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Clarenbach, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This report takes a comprehensive look at achievement for low-income promising learners--past, present, and future. At its core, it challenges the nation to move beyond its near-singular focus of achieving minimum performance for all students, to identifying and developing the talent of all students who are capable of high achievement, including…

  8. Do Algorithms Homogenize Students' Achievements in Secondary School Better than Teachers' Tracking Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapproth, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Two objectives guided this research. First, this study examined how well teachers' tracking decisions contribute to the homogenization of their students' achievements. Second, the study explored whether teachers' tracking decisions would be outperformed in homogenizing the students' achievements by statistical models of tracking decisions. These…

  9. A highly accurate heuristic algorithm for the haplotype assembly problem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in human DNA. The sequence of SNPs in each of the two copies of a given chromosome in a diploid organism is referred to as a haplotype. Haplotype information has many applications such as gene disease diagnoses, drug design, etc. The haplotype assembly problem is defined as follows: Given a set of fragments sequenced from the two copies of a chromosome of a single individual, and their locations in the chromosome, which can be pre-determined by aligning the fragments to a reference DNA sequence, the goal here is to reconstruct two haplotypes (h1, h2) from the input fragments. Existing algorithms do not work well when the error rate of fragments is high. Here we design an algorithm that can give accurate solutions, even if the error rate of fragments is high. Results We first give a dynamic programming algorithm that can give exact solutions to the haplotype assembly problem. The time complexity of the algorithm is O(n × 2t × t), where n is the number of SNPs, and t is the maximum coverage of a SNP site. The algorithm is slow when t is large. To solve the problem when t is large, we further propose a heuristic algorithm on the basis of the dynamic programming algorithm. Experiments show that our heuristic algorithm can give very accurate solutions. Conclusions We have tested our algorithm on a set of benchmark datasets. Experiments show that our algorithm can give very accurate solutions. It outperforms most of the existing programs when the error rate of the input fragments is high. PMID:23445458

  10. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  11. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  12. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  13. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  14. Design considerations for achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.; Haines, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices requires close attention to both the overall system configuration and the design details of joints and seals. This paper describes the factors in selecting the system configuration, from a vacuum standpoint, for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) DCT-8 Tokamak device. The DCT-8 (driven current tokamak) is the eighth design in a series of tokamak concepts defined to cover the magnetic confinement and development gap between the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). Leak detection concept development is considered a vital activity, as well as the definition of a configuration that minimizes the consequences of leaks. A major part of the vacuum boundaries of the magnet system and the plasma system is common. For the major penetrations, primary and secondary seals are provided with vacuum control over the region between seals. The intent is to instrument these cavities and provide automated recordings of these measurements for leak maintenance.

  15. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, X John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recontruction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  16. A fast directional algorithm for high-frequency electromagnetic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Paul; Ying Lexing

    2011-06-20

    This paper is concerned with the fast solution of high-frequency electromagnetic scattering problems using the boundary integral formulation. We extend the O(N log N) directional multilevel algorithm previously proposed for the acoustic scattering case to the vector electromagnetic case. We also detail how to incorporate the curl operator of the magnetic field integral equation into the algorithm. When combined with a standard iterative method, this results in an almost linear complexity solver for the combined field integral equations. In addition, the butterfly algorithm is utilized to compute the far field pattern and radar cross section with O(N log N) complexity.

  17. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  18. Algorithms for high aspect ratio oriented triangulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posenau, Mary-Anne K.

    1995-01-01

    Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize

  19. Benchmarking Procedures for High-Throughput Context Specific Reconstruction Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Maria P.; Pfau, Thomas; Sauter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in high-throughput data acquisition has shifted the focus from data generation to processing and understanding of how to integrate collected information. Context specific reconstruction based on generic genome scale models like ReconX or HMR has the potential to become a diagnostic and treatment tool tailored to the analysis of specific individuals. The respective computational algorithms require a high level of predictive power, robustness and sensitivity. Although multiple context specific reconstruction algorithms were published in the last 10 years, only a fraction of them is suitable for model building based on human high-throughput data. Beside other reasons, this might be due to problems arising from the limitation to only one metabolic target function or arbitrary thresholding. This review describes and analyses common validation methods used for testing model building algorithms. Two major methods can be distinguished: consistency testing and comparison based testing. The first is concerned with robustness against noise, e.g., missing data due to the impossibility to distinguish between the signal and the background of non-specific binding of probes in a microarray experiment, and whether distinct sets of input expressed genes corresponding to i.e., different tissues yield distinct models. The latter covers methods comparing sets of functionalities, comparison with existing networks or additional databases. We test those methods on several available algorithms and deduce properties of these algorithms that can be compared with future developments. The set of tests performed, can therefore serve as a benchmarking procedure for future algorithms. PMID:26834640

  20. Benchmarking Procedures for High-Throughput Context Specific Reconstruction Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria P; Pfau, Thomas; Sauter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in high-throughput data acquisition has shifted the focus from data generation to processing and understanding of how to integrate collected information. Context specific reconstruction based on generic genome scale models like ReconX or HMR has the potential to become a diagnostic and treatment tool tailored to the analysis of specific individuals. The respective computational algorithms require a high level of predictive power, robustness and sensitivity. Although multiple context specific reconstruction algorithms were published in the last 10 years, only a fraction of them is suitable for model building based on human high-throughput data. Beside other reasons, this might be due to problems arising from the limitation to only one metabolic target function or arbitrary thresholding. This review describes and analyses common validation methods used for testing model building algorithms. Two major methods can be distinguished: consistency testing and comparison based testing. The first is concerned with robustness against noise, e.g., missing data due to the impossibility to distinguish between the signal and the background of non-specific binding of probes in a microarray experiment, and whether distinct sets of input expressed genes corresponding to i.e., different tissues yield distinct models. The latter covers methods comparing sets of functionalities, comparison with existing networks or additional databases. We test those methods on several available algorithms and deduce properties of these algorithms that can be compared with future developments. The set of tests performed, can therefore serve as a benchmarking procedure for future algorithms.

  1. A High Precision Terahertz Wave Image Reconstruction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qijia; Chang, Tianying; Geng, Guoshuai; Jia, Chengyan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    With the development of terahertz (THz) technology, the applications of this spectrum have become increasingly wide-ranging, in areas such as non-destructive testing, security applications and medical scanning, in which one of the most important methods is imaging. Unlike remote sensing applications, THz imaging features sources of array elements that are almost always supposed to be spherical wave radiators, including single antennae. As such, well-developed methodologies such as Range-Doppler Algorithm (RDA) are not directly applicable in such near-range situations. The Back Projection Algorithm (BPA) can provide products of high precision at the the cost of a high computational burden, while the Range Migration Algorithm (RMA) sacrifices the quality of images for efficiency. The Phase-shift Migration Algorithm (PMA) is a good alternative, the features of which combine both of the classical algorithms mentioned above. In this research, it is used for mechanical scanning, and is extended to array imaging for the first time. In addition, the performances of PMA are studied in detail in contrast to BPA and RMA. It is demonstrated in our simulations and experiments described herein that the algorithm can reconstruct images with high precision. PMID:27455269

  2. A High Precision Terahertz Wave Image Reconstruction Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qijia; Chang, Tianying; Geng, Guoshuai; Jia, Chengyan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    With the development of terahertz (THz) technology, the applications of this spectrum have become increasingly wide-ranging, in areas such as non-destructive testing, security applications and medical scanning, in which one of the most important methods is imaging. Unlike remote sensing applications, THz imaging features sources of array elements that are almost always supposed to be spherical wave radiators, including single antennae. As such, well-developed methodologies such as Range-Doppler Algorithm (RDA) are not directly applicable in such near-range situations. The Back Projection Algorithm (BPA) can provide products of high precision at the the cost of a high computational burden, while the Range Migration Algorithm (RMA) sacrifices the quality of images for efficiency. The Phase-shift Migration Algorithm (PMA) is a good alternative, the features of which combine both of the classical algorithms mentioned above. In this research, it is used for mechanical scanning, and is extended to array imaging for the first time. In addition, the performances of PMA are studied in detail in contrast to BPA and RMA. It is demonstrated in our simulations and experiments described herein that the algorithm can reconstruct images with high precision. PMID:27455269

  3. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  4. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  5. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Mathematics between Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Fifth Grade Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbone, A. Sue

    Possible gender differences in attitudes toward mathematics were studied between low-achieving and high-achieving fifth-grade students in selected elementary schools within a large, metropolitan area. The attitudes of pre-adolescent children at an intermediate grade level were assessed to determine the effects of rapidly emerging gender-related…

  6. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day. PMID:25587974

  7. A high fuel consumption efficiency management scheme for PHEVs using an adaptive genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day.

  8. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  9. Trajectory optimization of spacecraft high-thrust orbit transfer using a modified evolutionary algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Abolfazl

    2016-10-01

    This article introduces a new method to optimize finite-burn orbital manoeuvres based on a modified evolutionary algorithm. Optimization is carried out based on conversion of the orbital manoeuvre into a parameter optimization problem by assigning inverse tangential functions to the changes in direction angles of the thrust vector. The problem is analysed using boundary delimitation in a common optimization algorithm. A method is introduced to achieve acceptable values for optimization variables using nonlinear simulation, which results in an enlarged convergence domain. The presented algorithm benefits from high optimality and fast convergence time. A numerical example of a three-dimensional optimal orbital transfer is presented and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is shown.

  10. Achieving High Throughput for Data Transfer over ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.; Townsend, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    File-transfer rates for ftp are often reported to be relatively slow, compared to the raw bandwidth available in emerging gigabit networks. While a major bottleneck is disk I/O, protocol issues impact performance as well. Ftp was developed and optimized for use over the TCP/IP protocol stack of the Internet. However, TCP has been shown to run inefficiently over ATM. In an effort to maximize network throughput, data-transfer protocols can be developed to run over UDP or directly over IP, rather than over TCP. If error-free transmission is required, techniques for achieving reliable transmission can be included as part of the transfer protocol. However, selected image-processing applications can tolerate a low level of errors in images that are transmitted over a network. In this paper we report on experimental work to develop a high-throughput protocol for unreliable data transfer over ATM networks. We attempt to maximize throughput by keeping the communications pipe full, but still keep packet loss under five percent. We use the Bay Area Gigabit Network Testbed as our experimental platform.

  11. Student Perception of Academic Achievement Factors at High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the "product" is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size, etc. But there is little evidence of learner…

  12. Learning Styles and High School Students' Chemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of students' learning styles on their chemistry achievement, and whether matching between teaching and learning styles also affects students' chemistry achievement. Two hundred and sixty-five tenth-grade students enrolled in a chemistry course and seven chemistry teachers participated in…

  13. Does Recreational Computer Use Affect High School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Berland, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies…

  14. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  15. Achievement of Hispanic Students in American High Schools: Background Characteristics and Achievement. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Francois; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    Presenting data and analyses from the first wave of the study "High School and Beyond" (HS&B), a longitudinal study of United States high school sophomores and seniors, the report focuses on the composition of the Hispanic tenth and twelfth grade student population with respect to various characteristics; i.e., language use and proficiency, length…

  16. Orientation estimation algorithm applied to high-spin projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. F.; Lin, J.; Zhang, X. M.; Li, J.

    2014-06-01

    High-spin projectiles are low cost military weapons. Accurate orientation information is critical to the performance of the high-spin projectiles control system. However, orientation estimators have not been well translated from flight vehicles since they are too expensive, lack launch robustness, do not fit within the allotted space, or are too application specific. This paper presents an orientation estimation algorithm specific for these projectiles. The orientation estimator uses an integrated filter to combine feedback from a three-axis magnetometer, two single-axis gyros and a GPS receiver. As a new feature of this algorithm, the magnetometer feedback estimates roll angular rate of projectile. The algorithm also incorporates online sensor error parameter estimation performed simultaneously with the projectile attitude estimation. The second part of the paper deals with the verification of the proposed orientation algorithm through numerical simulation and experimental tests. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the orientation estimator can effectively estimate the attitude of high-spin projectiles. Moreover, online sensor calibration significantly enhances the estimation performance of the algorithm.

  17. A novel highly parallel algorithm for linearly unmixing hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Raúl; López, Sebastián.; Callico, Gustavo M.; López, Jose F.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    Endmember extraction and abundances calculation represent critical steps within the process of linearly unmixing a given hyperspectral image because of two main reasons. The first one is due to the need of computing a set of accurate endmembers in order to further obtain confident abundance maps. The second one refers to the huge amount of operations involved in these time-consuming processes. This work proposes an algorithm to estimate the endmembers of a hyperspectral image under analysis and its abundances at the same time. The main advantage of this algorithm is its high parallelization degree and the mathematical simplicity of the operations implemented. This algorithm estimates the endmembers as virtual pixels. In particular, the proposed algorithm performs the descent gradient method to iteratively refine the endmembers and the abundances, reducing the mean square error, according with the linear unmixing model. Some mathematical restrictions must be added so the method converges in a unique and realistic solution. According with the algorithm nature, these restrictions can be easily implemented. The results obtained with synthetic images demonstrate the well behavior of the algorithm proposed. Moreover, the results obtained with the well-known Cuprite dataset also corroborate the benefits of our proposal.

  18. Preferences of High Achieving High School Students in Their Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to identify the needs and preference of high-achieving high school students. In terms of career related programs in high school, students listed AP courses and mentoring as their preferred career-related programs. Also, students stated that career guidance by counselors, workshops or sessions, and tech prep were the…

  19. Threatened and Placed at Risk: High Achieving African American Males in Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the risk and protective factors of 11 high-achieving African American males attending 4 urban charter high schools in a Midwestern city to determine what factors account for their resilience and success in mathematics courses, and in high school more generally. This research was guided by a Phenomenological Variant of…

  20. The Effect of Music Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, H. A.; Stephens, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on high school students, comparing those with some music credits to those with none. No statistically significant difference was found in their mean math grade point averages (GPA) or their mean cumulative GPAs. Students were then separated into two groups based on the number of music credits. Students who had earned at least…

  1. Support the Design of Improved IUE NEWSIPS High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms: Improved IUE High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Pat

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the design of improved IUE NEWSIPS high dispersion extraction algorithms. The purpose of this work was to evaluate use of the Linearized Image (LIHI) file versus the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file, evaluate various extraction, and design algorithms for evaluation of IUE High Dispersion spectra. It was concluded the use of the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file was acceptable. Since the Gaussian profile worked well for the core and the Lorentzian profile worked well for the wings, the Voigt profile was chosen for use in the extraction algorithm. It was found that the gamma and sigma parameters varied significantly across the detector, so gamma and sigma masks for the SWP detector were developed. Extraction code was written.

  2. "Brains before "Beauty"?" High Achieving Girls, School and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky; Read, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the "winners" of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in earlier…

  3. High-Achieving Middle Schools for Latino Students in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesse, Dan; Davis, Alan; Pokorny, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics of middle schools in which Latino students from low-income families made substantial achievement gains. Nine schools in Texas were selected where Latino students had shown strong gains in the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. Data from onsite interviews, focus groups, and documents were…

  4. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  5. Success Despite Socioeconomics: A Case Study of a High-Achieving, High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Thomas Brent; Smith, Samuel J.; Claxton, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of a high-achieving, high-poverty school describes the school's leadership, culture, and programs that contributed to its success. Data were collected from two surveys (the School Culture Survey and the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education), observations at the school site, and interviews with school personnel. The…

  6. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  7. An automatic geo-spatial object recognition algorithm for high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergul, Mustafa; Alatan, A. Aydın.

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel automatic geo-spatial object recognition algorithm for high resolution satellite imaging. The proposed algorithm consists of two main steps; a hypothesis generation step with a local feature-based algorithm and a verification step with a shape-based approach. In the hypothesis generation step, a set of hypothesis for possible object locations is generated, aiming lower missed detections and higher false-positives by using a Bag of Visual Words type approach. In the verification step, the foreground objects are first extracted by a semi-supervised image segmentation algorithm, utilizing detection results from the previous step, and then, the shape descriptors for segmented objects are utilized to prune out the false positives. Based on simulation results, it can be argued that the proposed algorithm achieves both high precision and high recall rates as a result of taking advantage of both the local feature-based and the shape-based object detection approaches. The superiority of the proposed method is due to the ability of minimization of false alarm rate and since most of the object shapes contain more characteristic and discriminative information about their identity and functionality.

  8. A fast general-purpose clustering algorithm based on FPGAs for high-throughput data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annovi, A.; Beretta, M.

    2010-05-01

    We present a fast general-purpose algorithm for high-throughput clustering of data "with a two-dimensional organization". The algorithm is designed to be implemented with FPGAs or custom electronics. The key feature is a processing time that scales linearly with the amount of data to be processed. This means that clustering can be performed in pipeline with the readout, without suffering from combinatorial delays due to looping multiple times through all the data. This feature makes this algorithm especially well suited for problems where the data have high density, e.g. in the case of tracking devices working under high-luminosity condition such as those of LHC or super-LHC. The algorithm is organized in two steps: the first step (core) clusters the data; the second step analyzes each cluster of data to extract the desired information. The current algorithm is developed as a clustering device for modern high-energy physics pixel detectors. However, the algorithm has much broader field of applications. In fact, its core does not specifically rely on the kind of data or detector it is working for, while the second step can and should be tailored for a given application. For example, in case of spatial measurement with silicon pixel detectors, the second step performs center of charge calculation. Applications can thus be foreseen to other detectors and other scientific fields ranging from HEP calorimeters to medical imaging. An additional advantage of this two steps approach is that the typical clustering related calculations (second step) are separated from the combinatorial complications of clustering. This separation simplifies the design of the second step and it enables it to perform sophisticated calculations achieving offline quality in online applications. The algorithm is general purpose in the sense that only minimal assumptions on the kind of clustering to be performed are made.

  9. A high performance hardware implementation image encryption with AES algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmani, Ali; Jafari, Mohamad; Miremadi, Seyed Sohrab

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes implementation of a high-speed encryption algorithm with high throughput for encrypting the image. Therefore, we select a highly secured symmetric key encryption algorithm AES(Advanced Encryption Standard), in order to increase the speed and throughput using pipeline technique in four stages, control unit based on logic gates, optimal design of multiplier blocks in mixcolumn phase and simultaneous production keys and rounds. Such procedure makes AES suitable for fast image encryption. Implementation of a 128-bit AES on FPGA of Altra company has been done and the results are as follow: throughput, 6 Gbps in 471MHz. The time of encrypting in tested image with 32*32 size is 1.15ms.

  10. A DRAM compiler algorithm for high performance VLSI embedded memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldin, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    In many applications, the limited density of the embedded SRAM does not allow integrating the memory on the same chip with other logic and functional blocks. In such cases, the embedded DRAM provides the optimum combination of very high density, low power, and high performance. For ASIC's to take full advantage of this design strategy, an efficient and highly reliable DRAM compiler must be used. The embedded DRAM architecture, cell, and peripheral circuit design considerations and the algorithm of a high performance memory compiler are presented .

  11. Solution of the hydrodynamic device model using high-order non-oscillatory shock capturing algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Emad; Jerome, Joseph; Osher, Stanley

    1989-01-01

    A micron n+ - n - n+ silicon diode is simulated via the hydrodynamic model for carrier transport. The numerical algorithms employed are for the non-steady case, and a limiting process is used to reach steady state. The simulation employs shock capturing algorithms, and indeed shocks, or very rapid transition regimes, are observed in the transient case for the coupled system, consisting of the potential equation and the conservation equations describing charge, momentum, and energy transfer for the electron carriers. These algorithms, termed essentially non-oscillatory, were successfully applied in other contexts to model the flow in gas dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, and other physical situations involving the conservation laws in fluid mechanics. The method here is first order in time, but the use of small time steps allows for good accuracy. Runge-Kutta methods allow one to achieve higher accuracy in time if desired. The spatial accuracy is of high order in regions of smoothness.

  12. High performance graphics processor based computed tomography reconstruction algorithms for nuclear and other large scale applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Edward Steven,

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a fast computed tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm based on graphics processing units (GPU) that achieves significant improvement over traditional central processing unit (CPU) based implementations. The main challenge in developing a CT algorithm that is capable of handling very large datasets is parallelizing the algorithm in such a way that data transfer does not hinder performance of the reconstruction algorithm. General Purpose Graphics Processing (GPGPU) is a new technology that the Science and Technology (S&T) community is starting to adopt in many fields where CPU-based computing is the norm. GPGPU programming requires a new approach to algorithm development that utilizes massively multi-threaded environments. Multi-threaded algorithms in general are difficult to optimize since performance bottlenecks occur that are non-existent in single-threaded algorithms such as memory latencies. If an efficient GPU-based CT reconstruction algorithm can be developed; computational times could be improved by a factor of 20. Additionally, cost benefits will be realized as commodity graphics hardware could potentially replace expensive supercomputers and high-end workstations. This project will take advantage of the CUDA programming environment and attempt to parallelize the task in such a way that multiple slices of the reconstruction volume are computed simultaneously. This work will also take advantage of the GPU memory by utilizing asynchronous memory transfers, GPU texture memory, and (when possible) pinned host memory so that the memory transfer bottleneck inherent to GPGPU is amortized. Additionally, this work will take advantage of GPU-specific hardware (i.e. fast texture memory, pixel-pipelines, hardware interpolators, and varying memory hierarchy) that will allow for additional performance improvements.

  13. Relationship between High School Mathematical Achievement and Quantitative GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The demand for STEM graduates has increased, but the number of incoming freshmen who declare a STEM major has remained stagnant. High school courses, such as calculus, can open or close the gate for students interested in careers in STEM. The purpose of this study was to determine if high school mathematics preparation was a significant…

  14. Relationships among Stress, Coping, and Mental Health in High-Achieving High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Hardesty, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in 139 students participating in an International Baccalaureate (IB) high school diploma program. Mental health was assessed using both positive indicators (life satisfaction, academic achievement, academic self-efficacy) and negative indicators (psychopathology) of…

  15. The Information Search Process of High-, Middle-, and Low-Achieving High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a model of the information search process as a complex series of stages involving thoughts and feelings as well as actions. A study that sought to verify the model using high school seniors from three different achievement levels is described, and the implications for library instruction are discussed. (five references) (CLB)

  16. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  17. Examining Organizational Practices That Predict Persistence among High-Achieving Black Males in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This article summarizes an increasing trend of antideficit Black male research in mathematics and highlights opportunities to add to the research. A review of the literature shows that antideficit researchers often examine relationships between individual traits and persistence of high-achieving Black males in mathematics.…

  18. Japanese High School Entrance Examinations and Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togashi, Yutaka

    1985-01-01

    The Japanese high school entrance examinations were examined in detail for social studies, mathematics, and science test items. Most items measured knowledge and comprehension rather than synthesis, analysis, or scientific thinking. Implications for middle school instruction were discussed. (GDC)

  19. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  20. High pressure humidification columns: Design equations, algorithm, and computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Enick, R.M.; Klara, S.M.; Marano, J.J.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the detailed development of a computer model to simulate the humidification of an air stream in contact with a water stream in a countercurrent, packed tower, humidification column. The computer model has been developed as a user model for the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulator. This was done to utilize the powerful ASPEN flash algorithms as well as to provide ease of use when using ASPEN to model systems containing humidification columns. The model can easily be modified for stand-alone use by incorporating any standard algorithm for performing flash calculations. The model was primarily developed to analyze Humid Air Turbine (HAT) power cycles; however, it can be used for any application that involves a humidifier or saturator. The solution is based on a multiple stage model of a packed column which incorporates mass and energy, balances, mass transfer and heat transfer rate expressions, the Lewis relation and a thermodynamic equilibrium model for the air-water system. The inlet air properties, inlet water properties and a measure of the mass transfer and heat transfer which occur in the column are the only required input parameters to the model. Several example problems are provided to illustrate the algorithm`s ability to generate the temperature of the water, flow rate of the water, temperature of the air, flow rate of the air and humidity of the air as a function of height in the column. The algorithm can be used to model any high-pressure air humidification column operating at pressures up to 50 atm. This discussion includes descriptions of various humidification processes, detailed derivations of the relevant expressions, and methods of incorporating these equations into a computer model for a humidification column.

  1. A moving frame algorithm for high Mach number hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trac, Hy; Pen, Ue-Li

    2004-07-01

    We present a new approach to Eulerian computational fluid dynamics that is designed to work at high Mach numbers encountered in astrophysical hydrodynamic simulations. Standard Eulerian schemes that strictly conserve total energy suffer from the high Mach number problem and proposed solutions to additionally solve the entropy or thermal energy still have their limitations. In our approach, the Eulerian conservation equations are solved in an adaptive frame moving with the fluid where Mach numbers are minimized. The moving frame approach uses a velocity decomposition technique to define local kinetic variables while storing the bulk kinetic components in a smoothed background velocity field that is associated with the grid velocity. Gravitationally induced accelerations are added to the grid, thereby minimizing the spurious heating problem encountered in cold gas flows. Separately tracking local and bulk flow components allows thermodynamic variables to be accurately calculated in both subsonic and supersonic regions. A main feature of the algorithm, that is not possible in previous Eulerian implementations, is the ability to resolve shocks and prevent spurious heating where both the pre-shock and post-shock fluid are supersonic. The hybrid algorithm combines the high-resolution shock capturing ability of the second-order accurate Eulerian TVD scheme with a low-diffusion Lagrangian advection scheme. We have implemented a cosmological code where the hydrodynamic evolution of the baryons is captured using the moving frame algorithm while the gravitational evolution of the collisionless dark matter is tracked using a particle-mesh N-body algorithm. Hydrodynamic and cosmological tests are described and results presented. The current code is fast, memory-friendly, and parallelized for shared-memory machines.

  2. Achieving high-value cardiac imaging: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wiener, David H

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac imaging is under intense scrutiny as a contributor to health care costs, with multiple initiatives under way to reduce and eliminate inappropriate testing. Appropriate use criteria are valuable guides to selecting imaging studies but until recently have focused on the test rather than the patient. Patient-centered means are needed to define the true value of imaging for patients in specific clinical situations. This article provides a definition of high-value cardiac imaging. A paradigm to judge the efficacy of echocardiography in the absence of randomized controlled trials is presented. Candidate clinical scenarios are proposed in which echocardiography constitutes high-value imaging, as well as stratagems to increase the likelihood that high-value cardiac imaging takes place in those circumstances.

  3. Achieving high CRI from warm to super white

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Edward; Tormey, Ellen S.

    2007-09-01

    Light sources which produce a high color rendering index (CRI) have many applications in the lighting industry today. High color rendering accents the rich color which abounds in nature, interior design, theatrical costumes and props, clothing and fabric, jewelry, and machine vision applications. Multi-wavelength LED sources can pump phosphors at multiple stokes shift emission regimes and when combined with selected direct emission sources can allow for greater flexibility in the production of warm-white and cool white light of specialty interest. Unique solutions to R8 and R14 CRI >95 at 2850K, 4750K, 5250K, and 6750K presented.

  4. Community Schools Seek to Improve High School Achievement, College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Community Schools, an alliance of more than 150 national, state, and local organizations, is bringing public schools in partnership with community resources to improve student success. While that might seem like an abstract idea, it has very concrete goals, such as boosting high school graduation rates and college readiness.…

  5. High-Achieving Schools Put Equity Front and Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Sonia Caus; Gerzon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    How does professional learning look and feel in high-poverty schools where every student makes at least one year's worth of progress every year? How do schools and leaders put all the varied components of professional learning together so that they support all students learning every day? What professional learning grounds and sustains…

  6. Organizational Citizenship of Faculty and Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but…

  7. Academic Dishonesty among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Gifted high school students are essentially absent in the research concerning academic integrity; however, over the past few years, educators of gifted students have noticed an increase in the occurrences of academic dishonesty among students in gifted classrooms (Abilock, 2009). This research may be analyzed to provide some insight into the…

  8. Vocational Interests of Intellectually Gifted and Highly Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Koller, Olaf; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of "trait complexes," specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected. Aims: Vocational interests of gifted and highly…

  9. Common Core and America's High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    While the merit and politics of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been much debated and discussed, one topic has been virtually ignored: What do the standards portend for America's high-ability students? This brief addresses that question and provides guidance for CCSS-implementing districts and schools as they seek to help these…

  10. The Relationship between Highly Qualified Teachers and Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macken, Sherry Lou

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the percentage of highly qualified teachers and standardized measures of student proficiency in the core academic subjects of mathematics, reading, science, social studies, and writing. Signed into law in January of 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires teachers…

  11. More High-Achieving Students Are Choosing Community Colleges First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2008-01-01

    Certainly, "Tonight Show" host Jay Leno has nurtured the perception that community colleges are a punishment for underperforming high school students by joking that community colleges aren't "real colleges." This article shows that this perception belies the reality that contemporary community colleges serve students seeking trade skills but also…

  12. Park View High School: A World of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Entering the lobby of Park View High School in Sterling, VA, is like entering another world. The diversity in the student body is reflected in flags from 63 of the 80 countries that are represented in the student population, and in a special project for Hispanic Heritage Month, which covers the walls of an entire hallway. The school walls,…

  13. Testing Theories of Learning: Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Cool, Valerie A.

    Theories of school learning consistently point to variables such as ability, time (e.g., homework), quality of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework as important influences on learning. In this study, path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of these variables on high school learning, with learning measured by both…

  14. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  15. Algorithmic Tools for Mining High-Dimensional Cytometry Data.

    PubMed

    Chester, Cariad; Maecker, Holden T

    2015-08-01

    The advent of mass cytometry has led to an unprecedented increase in the number of analytes measured in individual cells, thereby increasing the complexity and information content of cytometric data. Although this technology is ideally suited to the detailed examination of the immune system, the applicability of the different methods for analyzing such complex data is less clear. Conventional data analysis by manual gating of cells in biaxial dot plots is often subjective, time consuming, and neglectful of much of the information contained in a highly dimensional cytometric dataset. Algorithmic data mining has the promise to eliminate these concerns, and several such tools have been applied recently to mass cytometry data. We review computational data mining tools that have been used to analyze mass cytometry data, outline their differences, and comment on their strengths and limitations. This review will help immunologists to identify suitable algorithmic tools for their particular projects.

  16. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    PubMed

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  17. Principals’ Perception of Influence on Factors Affecting Student Achievement in Low- and High-Achieving Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Collette M.; Owens, Emiel W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare and contrast influences principals have on staffing, curriculum issues, and discipline policies in high- and low-performing urban high schools. The data for the present study were drawn from the first year follow up of the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002-2004 (ELS: 02), administered by the National…

  18. Defining and Evaluating Classification Algorithm for High-Dimensional Data Based on Latent Topics

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Le; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Automatic text categorization is one of the key techniques in information retrieval and the data mining field. The classification is usually time-consuming when the training dataset is large and high-dimensional. Many methods have been proposed to solve this problem, but few can achieve satisfactory efficiency. In this paper, we present a method which combines the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) algorithm and the Support Vector Machine (SVM). LDA is first used to generate reduced dimensional representation of topics as feature in VSM. It is able to reduce features dramatically but keeps the necessary semantic information. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is then employed to classify the data based on the generated features. We evaluate the algorithm on 20 Newsgroups and Reuters-21578 datasets, respectively. The experimental results show that the classification based on our proposed LDA+SVM model achieves high performance in terms of precision, recall and F1 measure. Further, it can achieve this within a much shorter time-frame. Our process improves greatly upon the previous work in this field and displays strong potential to achieve a streamlined classification process for a wide range of applications. PMID:24416136

  19. Achievement of a 920-MHz High Resolution NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashi, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Tadashi; Goto, Atsushi; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Shinji; Wada, Hitoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi; Miki, Takashi; Ito, Satoshi; Hamada, Mamoru; Hayashi, Seiji

    2002-06-01

    We have developed a 920-MHz NMR system and performed the proton NMR measurement of H 2O and ethylbenzene using the superconducting magnet operating at 21.6 T (920 MHz for proton), which is the highest field produced by a superconducting NMR magnet in the persistent mode. From the NMR measurements, it is verified that both homogeneity and stability of the magnet have a specification sufficient for a high resolution NMR.

  20. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  1. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  3. High-Speed General Purpose Genetic Algorithm Processor.

    PubMed

    Hoseini Alinodehi, Seyed Pourya; Moshfe, Sajjad; Saber Zaeimian, Masoumeh; Khoei, Abdollah; Hadidi, Khairollah

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ultrafast steady-state genetic algorithm processor (GAP) is presented. Due to the heavy computational load of genetic algorithms (GAs), they usually take a long time to find optimum solutions. Hardware implementation is a significant approach to overcome the problem by speeding up the GAs procedure. Hence, we designed a digital CMOS implementation of GA in [Formula: see text] process. The proposed processor is not bounded to a specific application. Indeed, it is a general-purpose processor, which is capable of performing optimization in any possible application. Utilizing speed-boosting techniques, such as pipeline scheme, parallel coarse-grained processing, parallel fitness computation, parallel selection of parents, dual-population scheme, and support for pipelined fitness computation, the proposed processor significantly reduces the processing time. Furthermore, by relying on a built-in discard operator the proposed hardware may be used in constrained problems that are very common in control applications. In the proposed design, a large search space is achievable through the bit string length extension of individuals in the genetic population by connecting the 32-bit GAPs. In addition, the proposed processor supports parallel processing, in which the GAs procedure can be run on several connected processors simultaneously.

  4. Advancing Minority High Achievement: National Trends and Promising Programs and Practices. A Report Prepared for the National Task Force on Minority High Achievement, the College Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Stringfield, Sam; Rachuba, Laura

    This report documents recent national progress in advancing the achievements of elementary-aged minority children, the potential for replicable whole-school reform designs to contribute to this advancement, and the individual, classroom, and school characteristics that distinguish those minority students who attain high levels of achievement. The…

  5. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in a Rural Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Willie A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement is viewed as critical to the development of effective schools and student achievement. The relationship between parental involvement and achievement test scores at a rural high school in Florida was not known. This high school has not met the state standards as determined by the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT)…

  6. High Achievement in Mathematics Education in India: A Report from Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at characterizing the conditions that lead to high achievement in mathematics in India. The study involved eight schools in the greater Mumbai region. The main result of the study is that the notion of high achievement itself is problematic, as reflected in the reports about mathematics achievement within and…

  7. Simulations of high-Tc superconductors using the DCA+ algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staar, Peter

    2015-03-01

    For over three decades, the high Tc-cuprates have been a gigantic challenge for condensed matter theory. Even the simplest representation of these materials, i.e. the single band Hubbard model, is hard to solve quantitatively and its phase-diagram is therefore elusive. In this talk, we present the recent algorithmic and implementation advances to the Dynamical Cluster Approximation (DCA). The algorithmic advances allow us to determine self-consistently a continuous self-energy in momentum space, which in turn reduces the cluster-shape dependency of the superconducting transition temperature and thus accelerates the convergence of the latter versus cluster-size. Furthermore, the introduction of the smooth self-energy suppresses artificial correlations and thus reduces the fermionic sign-problem, allowing us to simulate larger clusters at much lower temperatures. By combining these algorithmic improvements with a very efficient GPU accelerated QMC-solver, we are now able to determine the superconducting transition temperature accurately and show that the Cooper-pairs have indeed a d-wave structure, as was predicted by Zhang and Rice.

  8. Predicting delay in reading achievement in a highly transparent language.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, L; Ahonen, T; Lyytinen, H

    2001-01-01

    A random sample of 91 preschool children was assessed prior to receiving formal reading instruction. Verbal and nonverbal measures were used as predictors for the time of instruction required to accurately decode pseudowords in the highly orthographically regular Finnish language. After 2 years, participants were divided into four groups depending on the duration of instruction they had required to reach 90 % accuracy in their reading of pseudowords. Participants were classified as precocious decoders (PD), who could read at school entry; early decoders (ED), who learned to read within the first 4 months of Grade 1; ordinary decoders (OD), who learned to read within 9 months; and late decoders (LD), who failed to reach the criterion after 18 months of reading instruction at Grade 2. Phonological awareness played a significant role only in differentiating PD from ED and OD. However, phonological awareness failed to predict the delayed learning process of LD. LD differed from all other groups in visual analogical reasoning in an analysis not containing phonological awareness measures. Letter knowledge and visual analogical reasoning explained above 90% of the PD-LD difference. Preschool composite (objects, colors, and digits) naming speed measures best predicted reading fluency at the end of Grade 2. The supportive role of orthographic knowledge in phonological awareness, the role of visual analogical reasoning, and the inability of phonological measures to discriminate late decoders are discussed.

  9. Achieving High-Frequency Optical Control of Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Beneduce, Brandon M.; Drew, Iain R.

    2014-01-01

    The optogenetic tool channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is widely used to excite neurons to study neural circuits. Previous optogenetic studies of synapses suggest that light-evoked synaptic responses often exhibit artificial synaptic depression, which has been attributed to either the inability of ChR2 to reliably fire presynaptic axons or to ChR2 elevating the probability of release by depolarizing presynaptic boutons. Here, we compare light-evoked and electrically evoked synaptic responses for high-frequency stimulation at three synapses in the mouse brain. At synapses from Purkinje cells to deep cerebellar nuclei neurons (PC→DCN), light- and electrically evoked synaptic currents were remarkably similar for ChR2 expressed transgenically or with adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression vectors. For hippocampal CA3→CA1 synapses, AAV expression vectors of serotype 1, 5, and 8 led to light-evoked synaptic currents that depressed much more than electrically evoked currents, even though ChR2 could fire axons reliably at up to 50 Hz. The disparity between optical and electrical stimulation was eliminated when ChR2 was expressed transgenically or with AAV9. For cerebellar granule cell to stellate cell (grc→SC) synapses, AAV1 also led to artificial synaptic depression and AAV9 provided superior performance. Artificial synaptic depression also occurred when stimulating over presynaptic boutons, rather than axons, at CA3→CA1 synapses, but not at PC→DCN synapses. These findings indicate that ChR2 expression methods and light stimulation techniques influence synaptic responses in a neuron-specific manner. They also identify pitfalls associated with using ChR2 to study synapses and suggest an approach that allows optogenetics to be applied in a manner that helps to avoid potential complications. PMID:24872574

  10. An optimal point spread function subtraction algorithm for high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, D; Marois, C; Doyon, R; Artigau, E; Nadeau, D

    2006-09-19

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is limited by bright quasi-static speckles in the point spread function (PSF) of the central star. This limitation can be reduced by subtraction of reference PSF images. We have developed an algorithm to construct an optimal reference PSF image from an arbitrary set of reference images. This image is built as a linear combination of all available images and is optimized independently inside multiple subsections of the image to ensure that the absolute minimum residual noise is achieved within each subsection. The algorithm developed is completely general and can be used with many high contrast imaging observing strategies, such as angular differential imaging (ADI), roll subtraction, spectral differential imaging, reference star observations, etc. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated for ADI data. It is shown that for this type of data the new algorithm provides a gain in sensitivity by up 22 to a factor 3 at small separation over the algorithm previously used.

  11. Statistical classification techniques in high energy physics (SDDT algorithm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří

    2016-08-01

    We present our proposal of the supervised binary divergence decision tree with nested separation method based on the generalized linear models. A key insight we provide is the clustering driven only by a few selected physical variables. The proper selection consists of the variables achieving the maximal divergence measure between two different classes. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo simulations of physics processes corresponding to a data sample of top quark-antiquark pair candidate events in the lepton+jets decay channel. The data sample is produced in pp̅ collisions at √S = 1.96 TeV. It corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb-1 recorded with the D0 detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The efficiency of our algorithm achieves 90% AUC in separating signal from background. We also briefly deal with the modification of statistical tests applicable to weighted data sets in order to test homogeneity of the Monte Carlo simulations and measured data. The justification of these modified tests is proposed through the divergence tests.

  12. Connected Component Labeling algorithm for very complex and high-resolution images on an FPGA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, Kurt; Huber, Felix

    2015-10-01

    Connected Component Labeling (CCL) is a basic algorithm in image processing and an essential step in nearly every application dealing with object detection. It groups together pixels belonging to the same connected component (e.g. object). Special architectures such as ASICs, FPGAs and GPUs were utilised for achieving high data throughput, primarily for video processing. In this article, the FPGA implementation of a CCL method is presented, which was specially designed to process high resolution images with complex structure at high speed, generating a label mask. In general, CCL is a dynamic task and therefore not well suited for parallelisation, which is needed to achieve high processing speed with an FPGA. Facing this issue, most of the FPGA CCL implementations are restricted to low or medium resolution images (≤ 2048 ∗ 2048 pixels) with lower complexity, where the fastest implementations do not create a label mask. Instead, they extract object features like size and position directly, which can be realized with high performance and perfectly suits the need for many video applications. Since these restrictions are incompatible with the requirements to label high resolution images with highly complex structures and the need for generating a label mask, a new approach was required. The CCL method presented in this work is based on a two-pass CCL algorithm, which was modified with respect to low memory consumption and suitability for an FPGA implementation. Nevertheless, since not all parts of CCL can be parallelised, a stop-and-go high-performance pipeline processing CCL module was designed. The algorithm, the performance and the hardware requirements of a prototype implementation are presented. Furthermore, a clock-accurate runtime analysis is shown, which illustrates the dependency between processing speed and image complexity in detail. Finally, the performance of the FPGA implementation is compared with that of a software implementation on modern embedded

  13. A high throughput architecture for a low complexity soft-output demapping algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, I.; Wasenmüller, U.; Wehn, N.

    2015-11-01

    Iterative channel decoders such as Turbo-Code and LDPC decoders show exceptional performance and therefore they are a part of many wireless communication receivers nowadays. These decoders require a soft input, i.e., the logarithmic likelihood ratio (LLR) of the received bits with a typical quantization of 4 to 6 bits. For computing the LLR values from a received complex symbol, a soft demapper is employed in the receiver. The implementation cost of traditional soft-output demapping methods is relatively large in high order modulation systems, and therefore low complexity demapping algorithms are indispensable in low power receivers. In the presence of multiple wireless communication standards where each standard defines multiple modulation schemes, there is a need to have an efficient demapper architecture covering all the flexibility requirements of these standards. Another challenge associated with hardware implementation of the demapper is to achieve a very high throughput in double iterative systems, for instance, MIMO and Code-Aided Synchronization. In this paper, we present a comprehensive communication and hardware performance evaluation of low complexity soft-output demapping algorithms to select the best algorithm for implementation. The main goal of this work is to design a high throughput, flexible, and area efficient architecture. We describe architectures to execute the investigated algorithms. We implement these architectures on a FPGA device to evaluate their hardware performance. The work has resulted in a hardware architecture based on the figured out best low complexity algorithm delivering a high throughput of 166 Msymbols/second for Gray mapped 16-QAM modulation on Virtex-5. This efficient architecture occupies only 127 slice registers, 248 slice LUTs and 2 DSP48Es.

  14. Real-time high-resolution downsampling algorithm on many-core processor for spatially scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhari, Adamu Muhammad; Ling, Huo-Chong; Baskaran, Vishnu Monn; Wong, KokSheik

    2015-01-01

    The progression toward spatially scalable video coding (SVC) solutions for ubiquitous endpoint systems introduces challenges to sustain real-time frame rates in downsampling high-resolution videos into multiple layers. In addressing these challenges, we put forward a hardware accelerated downsampling algorithm on a parallel computing platform. First, we investigate the principal architecture of a serial downsampling algorithm in the Joint-Scalable-Video-Model reference software to identify the performance limitations for spatially SVC. Then, a parallel multicore-based downsampling algorithm is studied as a benchmark. Experimental results for this algorithm using an 8-core processor exhibit performance speedup of 5.25× against the serial algorithm in downsampling a quantum extended graphics array at 1536p video resolution into three lower resolution layers (i.e., Full-HD at 1080p, HD at 720p, and Quarter-HD at 540p). However, the achieved speedup here does not translate into the minimum required frame rate of 15 frames per second (fps) for real-time video processing. To improve the speedup, a many-core based downsampling algorithm using the compute unified device architecture parallel computing platform is proposed. The proposed algorithm increases the performance speedup to 26.14× against the serial algorithm. Crucially, the proposed algorithm exceeds the target frame rate of 15 fps, which in turn is advantageous to the overall performance of the video encoding process.

  15. Robust Optimization Design Algorithm for High-Frequency TWTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chevalier, Christine T.

    2010-01-01

    Traveling-wave tubes (TWTs), such as the Ka-band (26-GHz) model recently developed for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, are essential as communication amplifiers in spacecraft for virtually all near- and deep-space missions. This innovation is a computational design algorithm that, for the first time, optimizes the efficiency and output power of a TWT while taking into account the effects of dimensional tolerance variations. Because they are primary power consumers and power generation is very expensive in space, much effort has been exerted over the last 30 years to increase the power efficiency of TWTs. However, at frequencies higher than about 60 GHz, efficiencies of TWTs are still quite low. A major reason is that at higher frequencies, dimensional tolerance variations from conventional micromachining techniques become relatively large with respect to the circuit dimensions. When this is the case, conventional design- optimization procedures, which ignore dimensional variations, provide inaccurate designs for which the actual amplifier performance substantially under-performs that of the design. Thus, this new, robust TWT optimization design algorithm was created to take account of and ameliorate the deleterious effects of dimensional variations and to increase efficiency, power, and yield of high-frequency TWTs. This design algorithm can help extend the use of TWTs into the terahertz frequency regime of 300-3000 GHz. Currently, these frequencies are under-utilized because of the lack of efficient amplifiers, thus this regime is known as the "terahertz gap." The development of an efficient terahertz TWT amplifier could enable breakthrough applications in space science molecular spectroscopy, remote sensing, nondestructive testing, high-resolution "through-the-wall" imaging, biomedical imaging, and detection of explosives and toxic biochemical agents.

  16. MTF compensation algorithm based on blind deconvolution for high-resolution remote sensing satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jihye; Chun, Joohwan; Lee, Donghwan

    2012-05-01

    In high resolution remote sensing satellite imaging system, image restoration is an important step to visualize ne details and mitigate the noise. The raw image data often presents poor imaging quality due to various reasons and Point Spread Function (PSF) measures such blurriness characteristic of the image using point source. Satellite image from Korea Multi-purpose Satellite 2 (KOMPSAT-2) also requires Modular Transfer Function (MTF) compensation process to achieve more realistic image which entails removing ringing artifacts at the edges and restraining excess use of denoising eect in order to keep it more realistic. This paper focuses on the deconvolution of KOMPSAT-2 image utilizing PSF attained from Korea Aerospace Research Institute compared to deconvolution with the estimated PSF blur kernel. The deconvolution algorithm considered are Richard-Lucy, Damped Richard-Lucy, Bilateral Richard-Lucy and Sparse Prior deconvolution algorithms.

  17. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  18. The Effects of Magnet Schools on Neighborhood High Schools: An Examination of Achievement among Entering Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neild, Ruth Curran

    2004-01-01

    Magnet schools have been criticized for intensifying the concentration of disadvantaged, low-achieving students at neighborhood high schools. This article investigates the impact of academically selective magnet high schools on the average achievement of ninth graders enrolling in neighborhood high schools in a large urban school district. The…

  19. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  20. Preferred Homework Style and Homework Environment in High- versus Low-Achieving Chinese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Lee, Kit-hung

    This study compared preferred homework styles of Chinese students who were characterized by: (1) high versus low self-perceived homework achievement and attitude; (2) high versus low teacher-rated homework completion and quality; (3) high versus low academic achievement in mathematics. Gender differences in homework styles were also examined.…

  1. Algorithms for High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Lambert, James

    2010-01-01

    Two image-data-processing algorithms are essential to the successful operation of a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. The system was described in High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System (NPO-30700) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 51. To recapitulate from the cited article: Like prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Most of the prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems rely on standard video cameras, which operate at frame rates of about 30 Hz. Such systems are limited to slow, full-frame operation. The video camera in the present system includes a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector plus electronic circuitry capable of implementing an advanced control scheme that effects readout from a small region of interest (ROI), or subwindow, of the full image. Inasmuch as the image features of interest (the cornea and pupil) typically occupy a small part of the camera frame, this ROI capability can be exploited to determine the direction of gaze at a high frame rate by reading out from the ROI that contains the cornea and pupil (but not from the rest of the image) repeatedly. One of the present algorithms exploits the ROI capability. The algorithm takes horizontal row slices and takes advantage of the symmetry of the pupil and cornea circles and of the gray-scale contrasts of the pupil and cornea with respect to other parts of the eye. The algorithm determines which horizontal image slices contain the pupil and cornea, and, on each valid slice, the end coordinates of the pupil and cornea

  2. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS UNDERLYING ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH-GRADE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM W.

    ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WAS STUDIED BETWEEN OVER- AND UNDER-ACHIEVING STUDENTS IN THE ELEVENTH-GRADE TO DEVELOP AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF MOTIVATION FOR USE IN PREDICTING ACADEMIC SUCCESS OR FAILURE. APPROXIMATELY 800 STUDENTS IN PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS WERE SELECTED FOR VALIDATION AND CROSS-VALIDATION SAMPLES. THEY WERE DIVIDED BY SEX AND ACHIEVEMENT.…

  3. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  4. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  5. Statistically significant performance results of a mine detector and fusion algorithm from an x-band high-resolution SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Arnold C.; Pachowicz, Peter W.

    2004-09-01

    Current mine detection research indicates that no single sensor or single look from a sensor will detect mines/minefields in a real-time manner at a performance level suitable for a forward maneuver unit. Hence, the integrated development of detectors and fusion algorithms are of primary importance. A problem in this development process has been the evaluation of these algorithms with relatively small data sets, leading to anecdotal and frequently over trained results. These anecdotal results are often unreliable and conflicting among various sensors and algorithms. Consequently, the physical phenomena that ought to be exploited and the performance benefits of this exploitation are often ambiguous. The Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision Laboratory and Electron Sensors Directorate has collected large amounts of multisensor data such that statistically significant evaluations of detection and fusion algorithms can be obtained. Even with these large data sets care must be taken in algorithm design and data processing to achieve statistically significant performance results for combined detectors and fusion algorithms. This paper discusses statistically significant detection and combined multilook fusion results for the Ellipse Detector (ED) and the Piecewise Level Fusion Algorithm (PLFA). These statistically significant performance results are characterized by ROC curves that have been obtained through processing this multilook data for the high resolution SAR data of the Veridian X-Band radar. We discuss the implications of these results on mine detection and the importance of statistical significance, sample size, ground truth, and algorithm design in performance evaluation.

  6. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  7. Parallel algorithms for high-speed SAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallorqui, Jordi J.; Bara, Marc; Broquetas, Antoni; Wis, Mariano; Martinez, Antonio; Nogueira, Leonardo; Moreno, Victoriano

    1998-11-01

    The mass production of SAR products and its usage on monitoring emergency situations (oil spill detection, floods, etc.) requires high-speed SAR processors. Two different parallel strategies for near real time SAR processing based on a multiblock version of the Chirp Scaling Algorithm (CSA) have been studied. The first one is useful for small companies that would like to reduce computation times with no extra investment. It uses a cluster of heterogeneous UNIX workstations as a parallel computer. The second one is oriented to institutions, which have to process large amounts of data in short times and can afford the cost of large parallel computers. The parallel programming has reduced in both cases the computational times when compared with the sequential versions.

  8. International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yangyang, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

  9. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  10. High-Achieving and Average Students' Reading Growth: Contrasting School and Summer Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Much is unknown about how initially high-achieving students grow academically, especially given the measurement issues inherent in assessing growth for the highest performing students. This study compared initially high-achieving and average students' growth in reading (in a cohort of third-grade students from 2,000 schools) over 3 years.…

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  12. The Meaning High-Achieving African-American Males in an Urban High School Ascribe to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, LaTasha; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers, educators, administrators, policymakers and members of the general public doubt the prevalence of high-achieving African-American males in urban high schools capable of excelling in mathematics. As part of a larger study, the current study explored the educational experiences of four high-achieving African-American males…

  13. Genetic algorithm-support vector regression for high reliability SHM system based on FBG sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XiaoLi; Liang, DaKai; Zeng, Jie; Asundi, Anand

    2012-02-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network has attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, FBG sensor network is embedded or glued in the structure simply with series or parallel. In this case, if optic fiber sensors or fiber nodes fail, the fiber sensors cannot be sensed behind the failure point. Therefore, for improving the survivability of the FBG-based sensor system in the SHM, it is necessary to build high reliability FBG sensor network for the SHM engineering application. In this study, a model reconstruction soft computing recognition algorithm based on genetic algorithm-support vector regression (GA-SVR) is proposed to achieve the reliability of the FBG-based sensor system. Furthermore, an 8-point FBG sensor system is experimented in an aircraft wing box. The external loading damage position prediction is an important subject for SHM system; as an example, different failure modes are selected to demonstrate the SHM system's survivability of the FBG-based sensor network. Simultaneously, the results are compared with the non-reconstruct model based on GA-SVR in each failure mode. Results show that the proposed model reconstruction algorithm based on GA-SVR can still keep the predicting precision when partial sensors failure in the SHM system; thus a highly reliable sensor network for the SHM system is facilitated without introducing extra component and noise.

  14. Fast intra-prediction algorithms for high efficiency video coding standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibeya, Hassan; Belghith, Fatma; Ben Ayed, Mohammed Ali; Masmoudi, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    High efficiency video coding (HEVC) is the latest video compression standard that provides significant performance improvement on the compression ratio compared to all existing video coding standards. The intra-prediction procedure plays an important role in the HEVC encoder, and it is being achieved by providing up to 35 intra-modes with a larger coding unit requiring a high computational complexity that needs to be alleviated. Toward this end, the paper proposes two fast intra-mode decision algorithms that exploit the features of video sequences. First, an early detection of zero transform and quantified coefficients method is applied to generate threshold values employed for early termination of the intra-decision process and hence accelerates the encoding procedure. Another fast intra-mode decision algorithm is elaborated that relies on a refinement technique. Based on statistical analyses of frequently chosen modes, only a small part of the candidate modes is chosen for intra-prediction process, which reduces the complexity of the intra-encoding procedure. The performance of the proposed algorithms is verified through comparative analysis of encoding time, visual image quality, and compression ratio. Compared to HM 10.0, the encoding time reduction can reach 69% with only a slight degradation of image quality and compression ratio.

  15. Nonlinear speech analysis algorithms mapped to a standard metric achieve clinically useful quantification of average Parkinson's disease symptom severity

    PubMed Central

    Tsanas, Athanasios; Little, Max A.; McSharry, Patrick E.; Ramig, Lorraine O.

    2011-01-01

    The standard reference clinical score quantifying average Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom severity is the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). At present, UPDRS is determined by the subjective clinical evaluation of the patient's ability to adequately cope with a range of tasks. In this study, we extend recent findings that UPDRS can be objectively assessed to clinically useful accuracy using simple, self-administered speech tests, without requiring the patient's physical presence in the clinic. We apply a wide range of known speech signal processing algorithms to a large database (approx. 6000 recordings from 42 PD patients, recruited to a six-month, multi-centre trial) and propose a number of novel, nonlinear signal processing algorithms which reveal pathological characteristics in PD more accurately than existing approaches. Robust feature selection algorithms select the optimal subset of these algorithms, which is fed into non-parametric regression and classification algorithms, mapping the signal processing algorithm outputs to UPDRS. We demonstrate rapid, accurate replication of the UPDRS assessment with clinically useful accuracy (about 2 UPDRS points difference from the clinicians' estimates, p < 0.001). This study supports the viability of frequent, remote, cost-effective, objective, accurate UPDRS telemonitoring based on self-administered speech tests. This technology could facilitate large-scale clinical trials into novel PD treatments. PMID:21084338

  16. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  17. Lipid target achievement among patients with very high and high cardiovascular risk in a lipid clinic.

    PubMed

    Barkas, Fotios; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Kostapanos, Michael S; Liamis, George; Tziallas, Dimitrios; Elisaf, Moses

    2015-04-01

    This was a retrospective study that assessed achievement of lipid-lowering treatment targets in the setting of a University Hospital Lipid Clinic. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines was recorded in 1000 consecutive adult patients followed for ≥3 years (mean 8 years). The LDL-C targets according to the NCEP ATP III were attained by 66% and 86% of patients with "very high" (n = 477) and "high" (n = 408) cardiovascular risk, respectively. Fewer patients were within LDL-C goals according to the ESC/EAS guidelines: 25% and 42%. Overall, 92% of the patients were on statins: 67% were on statin monotherapy, while 33% were on combinations with ezetimibe (25%), ω-3 fatty acids (5%), fibrates (4%), or colesevelam (2%). Even in a specialist lipid clinic, a large proportion of patients are not at goal according to the recent ESC/EAS guidelines. PMID:24830420

  18. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Zhao-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2015-11-25

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30-60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1-5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200-500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application.

  19. Achieving high strength and high ductility in magnesium alloy using hard-plate rolling (HPR) process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui–Yuan; Yu, Zhao–Peng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chun–Guo; Zha, Min; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi–Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are highly desirable for a wide range of lightweight structural components. However, rolling Mg alloys can be difficult due to their poor plasticity, and the strong texture yielded from rolling often results in poor plate forming ability, which limits their further engineering applications. Here we report a new hard-plate rolling (HPR) route which achieves a large reduction during a single rolling pass. The Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) plates processed by HPR consist of coarse grains of 30–60 μm, exhibiting a typical basal texture, fine grains of 1–5 μm and ultrafine (sub) grains of 200–500 nm, both of the latter two having a weakened texture. More importantly, the HPR was efficient in gaining a simultaneous high strength and uniform ductility, i.e., ~371 MPa and ~23%, respectively. The superior properties should be mainly attributed to the cooperation effect of the multimodal grain structure and weakened texture, where the former facilitates a strong work hardening while the latter promotes the basal slip. The HPR methodology is facile and effective, and can avoid plate cracking that is prone to occur during conventional rolling processes. This strategy is applicable to hard-to-deform materials like Mg alloys, and thus has a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:26603776

  20. Decreased latent inhibition is associated with increased creative achievement in high-functioning individuals.

    PubMed

    Carson, Shelley H; Peterson, Jordan B; Higgins, Daniel M

    2003-09-01

    Reductions in latent inhibition (LI), the capacity to screen from conscious awareness stimuli previously experienced as irrelevant, have been generally associated with the tendency towards psychosis. However, "failure" to screen out previously irrelevant stimuli might also hypothetically contribute to original thinking, particularly in combination with high IQ. Meta-analysis of two studies, conducted on youthful high-IQ samples. demonstrated that high lifetime creative achievers had significantly lower LI scores than low creative achievers (r(effect size) = .31, p = .0003, one-tailed). Eminent creative achievers (participants under 21 years who reported unusually high scores in a single domain of creative achievement) were 7 times more likely to have low rather than high LI scores, chi2 (1, N = 25) = 10.69, phi = .47. p = .003.

  1. Understanding and Reversing Underachievement, Low Achievement, and Achievement Gaps among High-Ability African American Males in Urban School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the achievement gap, with attention devoted to underachievement and low achievement among African American males in urban school contexts. More specifically, the article explains problems and issues facing or confronting these Black male students in urban education settings. A central part of this discussion is grounded in…

  2. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  3. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  4. Low and High Mathematics Achievement in Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    First and fifth grade students who scored high or low on a mathematics test were tested for intellectual ability and reading achievement. Students and their mothers were interviewed. Results indicated that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their…

  5. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  6. A Quantitative Comparison of Pennsylvania High School Student Achievement by Middle States Association's Accreditation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    As public school accountability for student achievement has continued to increase, prior to and as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools have sought ways of bringing new instructional services to their students to raise their levels of achievement. Some Pennsylvania public high schools have attempted to improve student…

  7. Achievement Motivation in High School: Contrasting Theoretical Models in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Celay, I. Montero; Tapia, J. Alonso

    1992-01-01

    Three models of achievement motivation in the classroom are contrasted. Results with 155 high school students suggest that the model of C. S. Dweck and E. S. Elliott offers a better explanation of the relationships among achievement motivation, attributions, emotional reactions, expectancies, and performance than do the other models. (SLD)

  8. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  9. Early Reading Skills and Academic Achievement Trajectories of Students Facing Poverty, Homelessness, and High Residential Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Supkoff, Laura M.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation tested the importance of early academic achievement for later achievement trajectories among 18,011 students grouped by level of socioeconomic risk. Students considered to be at highest risk were those who experienced homelessness or high residential mobility (HHM). HHM students were compared with students eligible for free…

  10. Intergenerational Closure and Academic Achievement in High School: A New Evaluation of Coleman's Conjecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Stephen L.; Todd, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    This article reexamines the conjecture of James S. Coleman that intergenerational social closure promotes student achievement in high schools, analyzing the best national data on academic achievement and social networks: the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Education Longitudinal Study. The results show that within the Catholic school sector, schools…

  11. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  12. Gender and High School Chemistry: Student Perceptions on Achievement in a Selective Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Andrew; Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on research undertaken in a middle-class Australian school. The focus of the research was on the relationship between gender and students' engagement with high school chemistry. Achievement data from many OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] countries suggest that middle-class girls are achieving equally…

  13. Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect of three variables on academic achievement. Homework had a positive effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time students spent on homework. (Author/JAZ)

  14. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  15. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  16. Do Peers Influence Achievement in High School Economics? Evidence from Georgia's Economics End of Course Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher; Scafidi, Benjamin; Swinton, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide the first estimates of the impact of peers on achievement in high school economics. The estimates are obtained by analyzing three years of data on all high school students who take Georgia's required economics course and its accompanying high-stakes End of Course Test (Georgia Department of Education). They use an instrumental…

  17. A Study of Professional Learning Communities and Science Achievement in Large High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincannon, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the science achievement and high school completion rates of students in a large high school implementing professional learning community concepts and practices with two large high schools not participating in professional learning community concepts and practices. The primary methodology employed was a…

  18. The Outward Bound Bridging Course for Low-Achieving High School Males: Effect on Academic Achievement and Multidimensional Self-Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Richards, Garry

    The Outward Bound Bridging Course is a 6-week residential program designed to improve academic achievement and self-concepts in low-achieving high school males. During 1980-1984, five courses were conducted for 66 Australian high school males. Most of them were ninth grade students, chosen on the basis of poor academic performance, an apparent…

  19. A Comparison of Emotional-Motivational (A-R-D Theory) Personality Characteristics in Learning Disabled, Normal Achieving, and High Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufano, Linda D.

    The study examined emotional-motivational personality characteristics of 15 learning disabled, 15 normal achieving, and 15 high achieving students (grades 3-5). The study tested the hypothesis derived from the A-R-D (attitude-reinforcer-discriminative) theory of motivation that learning disabled (LD) children differ from normal and high achieving…

  20. Multipole Algorithms for Molecular Dynamics Simulation on High Performance Computers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, William Dewey

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental problem in modeling large molecular systems with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is the underlying N-body problem of computing the interactions between all pairs of N atoms. The simplest algorithm to compute pair-wise atomic interactions scales in runtime {cal O}(N^2), making it impractical for interesting biomolecular systems, which can contain millions of atoms. Recently, several algorithms have become available that solve the N-body problem by computing the effects of all pair-wise interactions while scaling in runtime less than {cal O}(N^2). One algorithm, which scales {cal O}(N) for a uniform distribution of particles, is called the Greengard-Rokhlin Fast Multipole Algorithm (FMA). This work describes an FMA-like algorithm called the Molecular Dynamics Multipole Algorithm (MDMA). The algorithm contains several features that are new to N-body algorithms. MDMA uses new, efficient series expansion equations to compute general 1/r^{n } potentials to arbitrary accuracy. In particular, the 1/r Coulomb potential and the 1/r^6 portion of the Lennard-Jones potential are implemented. The new equations are based on multivariate Taylor series expansions. In addition, MDMA uses a cell-to-cell interaction region of cells that is closely tied to worst case error bounds. The worst case error bounds for MDMA are derived in this work also. These bounds apply to other multipole algorithms as well. Several implementation enhancements are described which apply to MDMA as well as other N-body algorithms such as FMA and tree codes. The mathematics of the cell -to-cell interactions are converted to the Fourier domain for reduced operation count and faster computation. A relative indexing scheme was devised to locate cells in the interaction region which allows efficient pre-computation of redundant information and prestorage of much of the cell-to-cell interaction. Also, MDMA was integrated into the MD program SIgMA to demonstrate the performance of the program over

  1. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  2. Evaluation of English Achievement Test: A Comparison between High and Low Achievers amongst Selected Elementary School Students of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Zubair; Latif, Farah; Akhtar, Samina; Mushtaq, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Validity, reliability and item analysis are critical to the process of evaluating the quality of an educational measurement. The present study evaluates the quality of an assessment constructed to measure elementary school student's achievement in English. In this study, the survey model of descriptive research was used as a research method.…

  3. Ontological Problem-Solving Framework for Assigning Sensor Systems and Algorithms to High-Level Missions

    PubMed Central

    Qualls, Joseph; Russomanno, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of knowledge models to represent sensor systems, algorithms, and missions makes opportunistically discovering a synthesis of systems and algorithms that can satisfy high-level mission specifications impractical. A novel ontological problem-solving framework has been designed that leverages knowledge models describing sensors, algorithms, and high-level missions to facilitate automated inference of assigning systems to subtasks that may satisfy a given mission specification. To demonstrate the efficacy of the ontological problem-solving architecture, a family of persistence surveillance sensor systems and algorithms has been instantiated in a prototype environment to demonstrate the assignment of systems to subtasks of high-level missions. PMID:22164081

  4. Atmospheric Correction Prototype Algorithm for High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Earth Observing Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the creation of a prototype algorithm for atmospheric correction using high spatial resolution earth observing imaging systems. The objective of the work was to evaluate accuracy of a prototype algorithm that uses satellite-derived atmospheric products to generate scene reflectance maps for high spatial resolution (HSR) systems. This presentation focused on preliminary results of only the satellite-based atmospheric correction algorithm.

  5. A high-performance FFT algorithm for vector supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Many traditional algorithms for computing the fast Fourier transform (FFT) on conventional computers are unacceptable for advanced vector and parallel computers because they involve nonunit, power-of-two memory strides. A practical technique for computing the FFT that avoids all such strides and appears to be near-optimal for a variety of current vector and parallel computers is presented. Performance results of a program based on this technique are given. Notable among these results is that a FORTRAN implementation of this algorithm on the CRAY-2 runs up to 77-percent faster than Cray's assembly-coded library routine.

  6. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Leadership of Kuwaiti High and Low Achieving 11th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Leadership components (L) of high school students in the state of Kuwait. The possibility of predicting each leadership component via emotional intelligence components was investigated for high and low achievers. A sample of 11th grade students from Kuwaiti…

  7. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Expanding College Opportunities for High-Achieving, Low Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of providing low-income, high-achieving high school seniors with college application guidance and information about the costs of college. The "application guidance" included information about deadlines and requirements for college applications at nearby institutions, at the state's flagship institution, and at in-…

  8. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  9. Effects of an Elementary Dual Language Immersion School Program on Junior High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Brian; Vega, Diego; Kronauge, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a two-way immersion elementary school program on academic achievement at the end of the elementary school and the end of the first year of junior high school. Longitudinal high stakes test data in reading, writing, and mathematics were collected on native English speakers and native Spanish…

  10. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Achievement in At-Risk High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jarrett Graham

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this quantitative survey study was the examination of the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement in 164 at-risk high school students. The study used Bandura's self-efficacy as the theoretical framework. The research questions involved understanding the levels of self-efficacy in at-risk high school students and…

  11. Small Classes in the Early Grades, Academic Achievement, and Graduating From High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Gerber, Susan B.; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This investigation addressed 3 questions about the long-term effects of early school experiences: (a) Is participation in small classes in the early grades (K-3) related to high school graduation? (b) Is academic achievement in K-3 related to high school graduation? (c) If class size is related to graduation, is the relationship explained by the…

  12. Mathematics Achievement with Digital Game-Based Learning in High School Algebra 1 Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Terri Lynn Kurley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of digital game-based learning (DGBL) on mathematics achievement in a rural high school setting in North Carolina. A causal comparative research design was used in this study to collect data to determine the effectiveness of DGBL in high school Algebra 1 classes. Data were collected from the North Carolina…

  13. Towards Promoting Biliteracy and Academic Achievement: Educational Programs for High School Latino English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Alberto M.; Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The Latino student presently faces many obstacles to achieve educational equity and excellence at the high school level. This article examines academic programming for Latino middle and high school English language learners (ELLs) and provides recommendations for addressing programming that promotes biliteracy policy and programming as a valued…

  14. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  15. Achieve Scholarship Spending on Expanding Access to Rigorous High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Legislature enacted the Achieve Scholarship program, which provides a $1,200 scholarship to high school graduates who took rigorous courses in high school and met certain income and other eligibility criteria. In deliberations about this new program, concerns were expressed that certain rigorous courses like Advanced Placement,…

  16. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  17. Applying the CHAID Algorithm to Analyze How Achievement Is Influenced by University Students' Demographics, Study Habits, and Technology Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Bahar; Kiliç, Eylem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze three separate constructs (demographics, study habits, and technology familiarity) that can be used to identify university students' characteristics and the relationship between each of these constructs with student achievement. A survey method was used for the current study, and the participants included…

  18. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  19. General purpose versus special algorithms for high-speed flows with shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, B. V. K. Satya; Zienkiewicz, O. C.; Manzari, M. T.; Lyra, P. R. M.; Morgan, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we compare the performance of a new general algorithm developed recently in application to problems of high Mach number flows with the performance of specialised algorithms applicable only to such flows. It appears that the results for most examples compare well, the biggest difference occurring in that of high Mach number compression corner.

  20. One high-accuracy camera calibration algorithm based on computer vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Jianming; Wei, Xiangquan

    2015-12-01

    Camera calibration is the first step of computer vision and one of the most active research fields nowadays. In order to improve the measurement precision, the internal parameters of the camera should be accurately calibrated. So one high-accuracy camera calibration algorithm is proposed based on the images of planar targets or tridimensional targets. By using the algorithm, the internal parameters of the camera are calibrated based on the existing planar target at the vision-based navigation experiment. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is obviously improved compared with the conventional linear algorithm, Tsai general algorithm, and Zhang Zhengyou calibration algorithm. The algorithm proposed by the article can satisfy the need of computer vision and provide reference for precise measurement of the relative position and attitude.

  1. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dashan; Guo, Jie; Lei, Xiujun; Zhu, Changan

    2016-01-01

    The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features. PMID:27110784

  2. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dashan; Guo, Jie; Lei, Xiujun; Zhu, Changan

    2016-04-22

    The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.

  3. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dashan; Guo, Jie; Lei, Xiujun; Zhu, Changan

    2016-01-01

    The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features. PMID:27110784

  4. Patterns of Self-Regulation: Patterns of Self-Regulatory Strategy Use among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruban, Lilia; Reis, Sally M.

    2006-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study attempts to provide insights into the nature, idiosyncrasies, and inter- and intra-individual patterns of academic self-regulatory strategy use among two different populations of university students. Low-achieving (n = 49) and high-achieving students (n = 131) described their self-regulatory strategy use in their…

  5. Factors That Influence School Board Actions to Support Student Achievement: A Multi-Case Study of High-Achieving Rural School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the actions taken by school boards that advance student achievement in high-achieving rural public school districts. Much of what is discussed in the literature on school improvement efforts is centered on the work carried out by school personnel at the school level. What is…

  6. High frequency wide-band transformer uses coax to achieve high turn ratio and flat response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Parry, T.

    1966-01-01

    Center-tap push-pull transformer with toroidal core helically wound with a single coaxial cable creates a high frequency wideband transformer. This transformer has a high-turn ratio, a high coupling coefficient, and a flat broadband response.

  7. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized an innovative teaching strategy. Fifty-eight eighth-grade high achieving students were selected as the comparison group. The Secondary School Student Questionnaire was conducted to measure all participants' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. In addition, 12 target students from the experimental group (i.e., six active and six passive students) were recruited for weekly classroom observations and follow-up interviews during the intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative findings revealed that experimental group students experienced significant impact as seen through increased attitudes and decreased anxiety of learning science. Implications for practice and research are provided.

  8. School factors affecting postsecondary career pursuits of high-achieving girls in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hyunsil

    This study examined the influences of secondary school experiences of high-achieving girls in math and science on their postsecondary career pursuits in science fields. Specifically, using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the study investigated how science class experiences in high school affect science career persistence of high-achieving girls over and above personal and family factors. Selecting the top 10% on the 8 th grade math and science achievement tests from two panel samples of 1988--1994 and 1988--2000, this study examined which science instructional experiences (i.e., lecture-oriented, experiment-oriented, and student-oriented) best predicted college major choices and postsecondary degree attainments in the fields of science after controlling for personal and family factors. A two-stage test was employed for the analysis of each panel sample. The first test examined the dichotomous career pursuits between science careers and non-science careers and the second test examined the dichotomous pursuits within science careers: "hard" science and "soft" science. Logistic regression procedures were used with consideration of panel weights and design effects. This study identified that experiment-oriented and student-oriented instructional practices seem to positively affect science career pursuits of high-achieving females, while lecture-oriented instruction negatively affected their science career pursuits, and that the longitudinal effects of the two positive instructional contributors to science career pursuits appear to be differential between major choice and degree attainment. This study also found that the influences of instructional practices seem to be slight for general females, while those for high-achieving females were highly considerable, regardless of whether negative or positive. Another result of the study found that only student-oriented instruction seemed to have positive effects for high-achieving males. In

  9. Computationally efficient algorithm for high sampling-frequency operation of active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Nirmal Kumar; Das, Debi Prasad; Panda, Ganapati

    2015-05-01

    In high sampling-frequency operation of active noise control (ANC) system the length of the secondary path estimate and the ANC filter are very long. This increases the computational complexity of the conventional filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm. To reduce the computational complexity of long order ANC system using FXLMS algorithm, frequency domain block ANC algorithms have been proposed in past. These full block frequency domain ANC algorithms are associated with some disadvantages such as large block delay, quantization error due to computation of large size transforms and implementation difficulties in existing low-end DSP hardware. To overcome these shortcomings, the partitioned block ANC algorithm is newly proposed where the long length filters in ANC are divided into a number of equal partitions and suitably assembled to perform the FXLMS algorithm in the frequency domain. The complexity of this proposed frequency domain partitioned block FXLMS (FPBFXLMS) algorithm is quite reduced compared to the conventional FXLMS algorithm. It is further reduced by merging one fast Fourier transform (FFT)-inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) combination to derive the reduced structure FPBFXLMS (RFPBFXLMS) algorithm. Computational complexity analysis for different orders of filter and partition size are presented. Systematic computer simulations are carried out for both the proposed partitioned block ANC algorithms to show its accuracy compared to the time domain FXLMS algorithm.

  10. A New Switching-Based Median Filtering Scheme and Algorithm for Removal of High-Density Salt and Pepper Noise in Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraj, V.; Ebenezer, D.

    2010-12-01

    A new switching-based median filtering scheme for restoration of images that are highly corrupted by salt and pepper noise is proposed. An algorithm based on the scheme is developed. The new scheme introduces the concept of substitution of noisy pixels by linear prediction prior to estimation. A novel simplified linear predictor is developed for this purpose. The objective of the scheme and algorithm is the removal of high-density salt and pepper noise in images. The new algorithm shows significantly better image quality with good PSNR, reduced MSE, good edge preservation, and reduced streaking. The good performance is achieved with reduced computational complexity. A comparison of the performance is made with several existing algorithms in terms of visual and quantitative results. The performance of the proposed scheme and algorithm is demonstrated.

  11. ASYMPTOTICALLY OPTIMAL HIGH-ORDER ACCURATE ALGORITHMS FOR THE SOLUTION OF CERTAIN ELLIPTIC PDEs

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid Kunyansky, PhD

    2008-11-26

    The main goal of the project, "Asymptotically Optimal, High-Order Accurate Algorithms for the Solution of Certain Elliptic PDE's" (DE-FG02-03ER25577) was to develop fast, high-order algorithms for the solution of scattering problems and spectral problems of photonic crystals theory. The results we obtained lie in three areas: (1) asymptotically fast, high-order algorithms for the solution of eigenvalue problems of photonics, (2) fast, high-order algorithms for the solution of acoustic and electromagnetic scattering problems in the inhomogeneous media, and (3) inversion formulas and fast algorithms for the inverse source problem for the acoustic wave equation, with applications to thermo- and opto- acoustic tomography.

  12. "It's a Way of Life for Us": High Mobility and High Achievement in Department of Defense Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire E.; Owens, Debra E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the academic performance of students in U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools, which have high student mobility. Some observers contend that these students' high achievement is a function of their middle class family and community characteristics. Asserts that DoDEA schools simultaneously "do the right things" and…

  13. Spatial Experiences of High Academic Achievers: Insights from a Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckbacher, Lisa Marie; Okamoto, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between types of spatial experiences and spatial abilities among 13- to 14-year-old high academic achievers. Each participant completed two spatial tasks and a survey assessing favored spatial activities across five categories (computers, toys, sports, music, and art) and three developmental periods (early…

  14. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  15. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  16. Impact of Physical Environment on Academic Achievement of High School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.

    1983-01-01

    To study the relationship of the physical environment to high school students' academic achievement, 60 students participated in an experiential career exploration program at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center while 108 students participated in a traditional careers program. Tests indicated the former group improved more in career choice…

  17. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  18. The Federal Transformation Intervention Model in Persistently Lowest Achieving High Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Patner, Michelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act federal mandate of the Transformation Intervention Model (TIM) outlined by the School Improvement Grant, which was designed to turn around persistently lowest achieving schools. The study was conducted in four high schools in a large Southern California urban district that selected the…

  19. Excellence in English in Middle and High School: How Teachers' Professional Lives Support Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.

    The Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA) has been studying the characteristics of successful English programs in middle and high schools. This report discusses the findings of the first two years of their 5-year Excellence in English study and focuses on the educational practices that support student literacy as well as the…

  20. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of High School Students in Kanyakumari District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Deepa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to find the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of high school students with reference to the background variables. Survey method was employed. Two tools are used in this study namely self-made Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue SF) and the…

  2. Conflicts and Communication between High-Achieving Chinese American Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent…

  3. Comparing Computer Game and Traditional Lecture Using Experience Ratings from High and Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Michael; Green, Richard; Nilsen, Trond; Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Computer games are purported to be effective instructional tools that enhance motivation and improve engagement. The aim of this study was to investigate how tertiary student experiences change when instruction was computer game based compared to lecture based, and whether experiences differed between high and low achieving students. Participants…

  4. New Counter-School Cultures: Female Students' Drug Use at a High-Achieving Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Adam; Bonell, Chris; Rhodes, Tim

    2009-01-01

    We draw on case-study research at a high-achieving secondary school in London to illustrate how school experiences may influence drug use and reproduce inequalities in reconstructed ways in late modernity. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with students and teachers, and observations. We focus in particular on the…

  5. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  6. Examining the Relationships between Math Achievement and the Resiliency of High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Mona

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between math achievement and student resiliency among high school seniors. Seniors from nine school districts in southeast Texas participated by answering a short demographic survey and the "Healthy Kids Resiliency Assessment" (Constantine & Benard, 2001). A total of 457 surveys were…

  7. An Exploratory Study Contrasting High- and Low-Achieving Students' Percent Word Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether schema-based instruction (SBI), a promising method for teaching students to represent and solve mathematical word problems, impacted the learning of percent word problems. Of particular interest was the extent that SBI improved high- and low-achieving students' learning and to a lesser degree on the indirect effect of…

  8. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  9. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  10. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  11. Confronting the Universal Disbelief that Poor Children Can Achieve at High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In her first year as superintendent of the Atlanta Public Schools, Beverly Hall encountered what she describes as the nearly universal disbelief that poor children of color can achieve high levels of learning. This chapter recounts how she confronted this and other obstacles and challenges as the new leader of the Atlanta Public Schools. Hall is…

  12. Faculty Perceptions of High-Achieving Male Collegians: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    Critical race theory was employed as an interpretive framework to explore faculty perceptions of the academic accomplishments of high-achieving Black and White male collegians. Using photo elicitation methodology, faculty participants responded to a randomly assigned photograph of and vignette about either a Black or White male student. While most…

  13. A Study of the Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Academic Achievement in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    The number of public high schools implementing a semester 4 x 4 block scheduling design within the state of South Carolina has tripled since 2005. However, minimal local research has been conducted regarding the impact of block scheduling on student academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist…

  14. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  15. The Relationship between Student Attendance and Academic Achievement in a Selected South Dakota High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research available on the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement in secondary school. This quantitative, non-experimental study, conducted within a South Dakota high school of students in grades 9-12 during the years 2006-2012, examined the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement…

  16. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  17. Narrowing the Academic Achievement Gap among High School Latino Students through Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    The low academic achievement among Latino students in many inner city high schools leads to higher failure, dropout, and absenteeism rates, as well as lower standardized test scores and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to explore whether Latino parental attitudes toward and perceptions, level of, and form of involvement may be…

  18. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest about good…

  19. Students' High School Organizational Leadership Opportunities and Their Influences on Academic Achievement and Civic Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elemen, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…

  20. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the "story" of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the "law of comparative judgments," over…

  1. Further Evidence of an Engagement-Achievement Paradox among U.S. High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, David J.; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Achievement, engagement, and students' quality of experience were compared by racial and ethnic group in a sample of students (N = 586) drawn from 13 high schools with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic student populations. Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 3,529 samples of classroom experiences were analyzed along with self-reported…

  2. Ego Identity, Cognitive Ability, and Academic Achievement: Variances, Relationships, and Gender Differences Among High School Sophomores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrabel, Thomas J.

    This study examined the contributions of cognitive quantitative ability, cognitive verbal ability, normed test achievement and grade point average to the ego identity of 202 high school sophomores. The instrumentation used in this study was as follows: (1) Rasmussen Ego Identity Scale: Revised Short Form; (2) The 3-R's Abilities and Achievement…

  3. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  4. The Relationship between Student Achievement and Charter High Schools in Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if differences in student achievement existed between traditional public and charter high schools in the District of Columbia. The study examined student outcomes on the standardized state test in reading and math from 2006 to 2010 utilizing descriptive statistics, crosstab analysis, chi-square tests…

  5. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  6. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  7. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  8. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey…

  9. One-to-One Computing and Student Achievement in Ohio High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy L.; Larwin, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of one-to-one computing on student achievement in Ohio high schools as measured by performance on the Ohio Graduation Test (OGT). The sample included 24 treatment schools that were individually paired with a similar control school. An interrupted time series methodology was deployed to examine OGT data over a period…

  10. Turkish High School Students' Biology Achievement in Relation to Academic Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumusak, Necmettin; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the contribution of motivational beliefs, cognitive, and metacognitive strategy use to Turkish high school students' achievement in biology. In order to investigate the specified purpose of the study, 519 tenth-grade students were administered the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith,…

  11. Moving beyond Time and Choice: Challenge, Motivation and Achievement during Independent Reading in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perks, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In response to concerns about poor engagement and achievement in reading, some high schools have implemented independent reading programs to give students time to read self-selected texts during school. Some schools are also adopting the Lexile framework as a tool for matching readers with challenging texts in order to improve reading motivation…

  12. The Impact of Reading Success Academy on High School Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlison, Kelly; Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the Reading Success Academy on the reading achievement of the selected group of ninth-grade students in a comprehensive high school. We examine in what ways the Reading Success Academy may improve the reading proficiency rates and amount of reading growth of ninth-grade students. The results indicate that…

  13. Effect of Textbook Readability on Student Achievement in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, D. Neil

    2001-01-01

    Notes the readability level of many high school chemistry textbooks is far above students' reading levels. Conducts two separate studies, making every effort to keep the two classes as similar as possible in all aspects except text. Finds strong evidence that changing the chemistry textbook resulted in an increase in student achievement. Suggests…

  14. Organizational Practices of High-Achieving Rural School Districts in California's San Joaquin Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerksen, Amanda López; Wise, Donald

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, researchers have identified "best practices" used by high-achieving school districts. However, little research exists regarding rural school systems, making it difficult to determine whether the best practices identified are relevant within this context. This study filled a void in research by focusing on the…

  15. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  16. Balancing Dreams and Realities: The College Choice Process for High-Achieving Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Ebelia

    2015-01-01

    This study's narratives of 17 high-achieving Latinas revealed how their college choice was a constant balancing of individual and family expectations, being "close, but far enough away," and "getting your money's worth." With the use of critical race theory, further analysis revealed the influence of "familismo" on…

  17. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level…

  18. The Relationship between Illinois School District Superintendent Longevity and High School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libka, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent changes in school district superintendents may be having a detrimental impact on student achievement. Rapid changes in leadership today parallel the present (NCLB) era of high stakes state assessments. The goal of the study was to provide correlation research that would have a positive effect on school district management, superintendent…

  19. Teachers and Student Achievement in the Chicago Public High Schools. WP 2002-28. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; Barrow, Lisa; Sander, William

    2003-01-01

    Using unique administrative data on Chicago public high school students and their teachers, we are able to estimate the importance of teachers on student mathematical achievement. We find that teachers are educationally and statistically important. To be sure, sampling variation and other measurement issues can strongly influence estimates of…

  20. School Board-Superintendent Relations in Support of High Student Achievement. The Informed Educator Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porch, Stephanie; Protheroe, Nancy

    The context of school district governance is changing and becoming more complex. The individual roles of school board members and superintendents, and the relationship between school board members and superintendents are becoming increasingly important in light of the recent mandates for high student achievement. This brief looks at issues…

  1. The Transition Experiences of High-Achieving, Low-Income Undergraduates in an Elite College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Paul J., II

    2012-01-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study describes the lived experiences of high-achieving, low-income undergraduates and their transition into a college environment historically reserved for wealthy students. The results of this study indicate that these students are flourishing in full need-based financial aid programs as a result of their own…

  2. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  3. Raising Reading Achievement in Middle and High Schools: Five Simple-to-Follow Strategies. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Elaine K.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), raising literacy levels in secondary schools has taken on a new urgency. Recognized literacy author, Elaine K. McEwan, focuses her revised second edition on enhancing the "five big ideas" for raising reading achievement with seven cognitive strategies of highly effective readers and more than…

  4. School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and…

  5. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  6. Consequences of the Confucian Culture: High Achievement but Negative Psychological Attributes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2010-01-01

    In "Unforgiving Confucian culture: A breeding ground for high academic achievement, test anxiety and self-doubt?" Stankov (in press) provides three reasons for caution against over-glorifying the academic excellence of Confucian Asian learners, namely that it may lead to a reluctance to change their rote learning approach which is not conducive to…

  7. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  8. Shift and Mean Algorithm for Functional Imaging with High Spatio-Temporal Resolution.

    PubMed

    Rama, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Understanding neuronal physiology requires to record electrical activity in many small and remote compartments such as dendrites, axon or dendritic spines. To do so, electrophysiology has long been the tool of choice, as it allows recording very subtle and fast changes in electrical activity. However, electrophysiological measurements are mostly limited to large neuronal compartments such as the neuronal soma. To overcome these limitations, optical methods have been developed, allowing the monitoring of changes in fluorescence of fluorescent reporter dyes inserted into the neuron, with a spatial resolution theoretically only limited by the dye wavelength and optical devices. However, the temporal and spatial resolutive power of functional fluorescence imaging of live neurons is often limited by a necessary trade-off between image resolution, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and speed of acquisition. Here, I propose to use a Super-Resolution Shift and Mean (S&M) algorithm previously used in image computing to improve the SNR, time sampling and spatial resolution of acquired fluorescent signals. I demonstrate the benefits of this methodology using two examples: voltage imaging of action potentials (APs) in soma and dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells and calcium imaging in the dendritic shaft and spines of CA3 pyramidal cells. I show that this algorithm allows the recording of a broad area at low speed in order to achieve a high SNR, and then pick the signal in any small compartment and resample it at high speed. This method allows preserving both the SNR and the temporal resolution of the signal, while acquiring the original images at high spatial resolution.

  9. Shift and Mean Algorithm for Functional Imaging with High Spatio-Temporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Rama, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Understanding neuronal physiology requires to record electrical activity in many small and remote compartments such as dendrites, axon or dendritic spines. To do so, electrophysiology has long been the tool of choice, as it allows recording very subtle and fast changes in electrical activity. However, electrophysiological measurements are mostly limited to large neuronal compartments such as the neuronal soma. To overcome these limitations, optical methods have been developed, allowing the monitoring of changes in fluorescence of fluorescent reporter dyes inserted into the neuron, with a spatial resolution theoretically only limited by the dye wavelength and optical devices. However, the temporal and spatial resolutive power of functional fluorescence imaging of live neurons is often limited by a necessary trade-off between image resolution, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and speed of acquisition. Here, I propose to use a Super-Resolution Shift and Mean (S&M) algorithm previously used in image computing to improve the SNR, time sampling and spatial resolution of acquired fluorescent signals. I demonstrate the benefits of this methodology using two examples: voltage imaging of action potentials (APs) in soma and dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells and calcium imaging in the dendritic shaft and spines of CA3 pyramidal cells. I show that this algorithm allows the recording of a broad area at low speed in order to achieve a high SNR, and then pick the signal in any small compartment and resample it at high speed. This method allows preserving both the SNR and the temporal resolution of the signal, while acquiring the original images at high spatial resolution. PMID:26635526

  10. A predictor-corrector guidance algorithm for use in high-energy aerobraking system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Powell, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    A three-degree-of-freedom predictor-corrector guidance algorithm has been developed specifically for use in high-energy aerobraking performance evaluations. The present study reports on both the development and capabilities of this guidance algorithm to the design of manned Mars aero-braking vehicles. Atmospheric simulations are performed to demonstrate the applicability of this algorithm and to evaluate the effect of atmospheric uncertainties upon the mission requirements. The off-nominal conditions simulated result from atmospheric density and aerodynamic characteristic mispredictions. The guidance algorithm is also used to provide relief from the high deceleration levels typically encountered in a high-energy aerobraking mission profile. Through this analysis, bank-angle modulation is shown to be an effective means of providing deceleration relief. Furthermore, the capability of the guidance algorithm to manage off-nominal vehicle aerodynamic and atmospheric density variations is demonstrated.

  11. Course Syllabi: High Expectations...High Achievement. Social Studies (and) History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray State Univ., KY.

    The document describes social studies and history courses offered in the junior high and senior high schools of Henry County, Tennessee. The syllabi were developed as part of a Teacher's Corps Demonstration Project. The overall objectives of the syllabi are to inform students and parents of the minimum competencies expected in social studies and…

  12. High Expectations--High Achievement on Literacy: "What Shall We Do in This Hangman's Hour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo

    Finland is a country of great expectations on literacy and literacy education. High expectations and demands have, however, a darker side. High expectations of society, parents, and teachers may have an effect on the students' self-esteem. The economic recession in the early 1990s strongly accelerated the change in literacy demands and…

  13. The Information Search Process of High, Middle, and Low Achieving High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    Traditionally, library instruction has been based on the sources in the library and not on the process of seeking information. A new approach to library skills may be needed to enable students to become effective information users. This study investigated the information search process of 140 high school seniors in six high schools. Subjects were…

  14. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  15. No More 1s: High Expectations Can Lead to High Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Laureen; DiMartino, Lisa; Kerr, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The school district in Middletown, New York, in the state's Orange County, today serves close to 7,000 students in four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The district is classified by the state in the highest of three Need-to-Resource-Capacity groups, an urban or suburban school district with high student needs in…

  16. Temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping and hardware implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Minglei; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Yiyang; Li, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scene-based non-uniformity correction algorithm for infrared image processing-temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping (THP and GM). The main sources of non-uniformity are: (1) detector fabrication inaccuracies; (2) non-linearity and variations in the read-out electronics and (3) optical path effects. The non-uniformity will be reduced by non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithms. The NUC algorithms are often divided into calibration-based non-uniformity correction (CBNUC) algorithms and scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithms. As non-uniformity drifts temporally, CBNUC algorithms must be repeated by inserting a uniform radiation source which SBNUC algorithms do not need into the view, so the SBNUC algorithm becomes an essential part of infrared imaging system. The SBNUC algorithms' poor robustness often leads two defects: artifacts and over-correction, meanwhile due to complicated calculation process and large storage consumption, hardware implementation of the SBNUC algorithms is difficult, especially in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. The THP and GM algorithm proposed in this paper can eliminate the non-uniformity without causing defects. The hardware implementation of the algorithm only based on FPGA has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption, and (2) small hardware delay: less than 20 lines, it can be transplanted to a variety of infrared detectors equipped with FPGA image processing module, it can reduce the stripe non-uniformity and the ripple non-uniformity.

  17. Achieving highly dispersed nanofibres at high loading in carbon nanofibre-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianli; Nash, Philip; Li, Jiajun; Shi, Chunsheng; Zhao, Naiqin

    2009-06-01

    In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. In the current work, a novel approach, consisting of in situ synthesis of CNFs within the Cu powders and mixing Cu ions with the in situ CNF(Ni/Y)-Cu composite powders in a solvent, was developed to highly disperse CNFs in a Cu matrix. The composite, produced by vacuum hot pressing, shows extremely high strength, 3.6 times more than that of the matrix material alone. It is worth mentioning that this method can disperse CNFs at high loading in a metal matrix, inferring good potential for applications, such as electronic packaging materials.

  18. Modeling stability of growth between mathematics and science achievement during middle and high school.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Ma, Lingling

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the authors introduced a multivariate multilevel model to estimate the consistency among students and schools in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement during the entire middle and high school years with data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY). There was no evident consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students, and this inconsistency was not much influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. However, there was evident consistency in the average rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among schools, and this consistency was influenced by student characteristics and school characteristics. Major school-level variables associated with parental involvement did not show any significant impacts on consistency among either students or schools. Results call for educational policies that promote collaboration between mathematics and science departments or teachers.

  19. Relationship of constructivist learning environment to student attitudes and achievement in high school mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefs, Theresa Marie

    This study investigated the relationship of constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices to student achievement and attitudes (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and learning strategies) in Algebra and Biology. Further, these relationships were examined as a function of student gender and prior achievement. A purposive sample of 804 high school students enrolled in Biology I, Algebra I, or Advanced Algebra was selected for inclusion in this study. Although the dimensions of constructivist learning environment that contributed to predicting student achievement and attitudes varied by content area and criterion, the results of the present study generally provide strong support for a positive relationship between constructivist learning environment and student attitudes, but little support for a direct relationship to student achievement. Teacher reports of overall constructivist learning environment were not correlated with achievement or attitudes. Observer reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with student intrinsic value and learning strategies. Student reports of constructivist learning environment were correlated with all three attitude measures. Multiple regression findings showed that neither overall constructivist learning environment nor standards-based teaching practices predicted achievement in any of the content areas. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were significant positive predictors of student intrinsic value and learning strategies in all three content areas, after controlling for student and classroom demographic variables. Overall constructivist learning environment and standards-based teaching practices were also significant positive predictors of self-efficacy in Algebra 1. In addition, standards-based teaching practices was a significant positive predictor of student self-efficacy in Biology. No specific dimensions of constructivist learning

  20. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    PubMed

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  1. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  2. Achievement Motivation of the High School Students: A Case Study among Different Communities of Goalpara District of Assam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Achievement motivation is a consistent striving force of an individual to achieve success to a certain standard of excellence in competing situation. In this study an attempt was made to study the effect of achievement motivation on the academic achievement of the high school students of tribal and non tribal communities in relation to their sex…

  3. How One Historically Underperforming Rural and Highly Diverse High School Achieved a Successful Turnaround

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Gerri M.; Huggins, Kristin S.; Scheurich, James J.

    2010-01-01

    "Central High School," a rural school composed largely of students of color from low income homes, experienced a quick, remarkable turnaround of student academic success, measured by State and Federal accountability standards. This turnaround began with an external restructuring grant initiative that required a state-approved external consultant.…

  4. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented. PMID:24973297

  5. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented.

  6. Genetic algorithm based optimization of pulse profile for MOPA based high power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Tang, Ming; Shi, Jun; Fu, Songnian; Li, Lihua; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Xueping; Liu, Jian; Shum, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Although the Master Oscillator Power-Amplifier (MOPA) based fiber laser has received much attention for laser marking process due to its large tunabilty of pulse duration (from 10ns to 1ms), repetition rate (100Hz to 500kHz), high peak power and extraordinary heat dissipating capability, the output pulse deformation due to the saturation effect of fiber amplifier is detrimental for many applications. We proposed and demonstrated that, by utilizing Genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique, the input pulse profile from the master oscillator (current-driven laser diode) could be conveniently optimized to achieve targeted output pulse shape according to real parameters' constraints. In this work, an Yb-doped high power fiber amplifier is considered and a 200ns square shaped pulse profile is the optimization target. Since the input pulse with longer leading edge and shorter trailing edge can compensate the saturation effect, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial functions are used to describe the input pulse with limited number of unknowns(<5). Coefficients of the polynomial functions are the optimization objects. With reasonable cost and hardware limitations, the cubic input pulse with 4 coefficients is found to be the best as the output amplified pulse can achieve excellent flatness within the square shape. Considering the bandwidth constraint of practical electronics, we examined high-frequency component cut-off effect of input pulses and found that the optimized cubic input pulses with 300MHz bandwidth is still quite acceptable to satisfy the requirement for the amplified output pulse and it is feasible to establish such a pulse generator in real applications.

  7. Solvent additive to achieve highly ordered nanostructural semicrystalline DPP copolymers: toward a high charge carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    An, Tae Kyu; Kang, Il; Yun, Hui-jun; Cha, Hyojung; Hwang, Jihun; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Yu Jin; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Park, Chan Eon

    2013-12-23

    A facile spin-coating method in which a small percentage of the solvent additive, 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), is found to increase the drying time during film deposition, is reported. The field-effect mobility of a PDPPDBTE film cast from a chloroform-CN mixed solution is 0.46 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The addition of CN to the chloroform solution facilitates the formation of highly crystalline polymer structures. PMID:24115273

  8. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  9. A highly efficient multi-core algorithm for clustering extremely large datasets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, the demand for computational power in computational biology has increased due to rapidly growing data sets from microarray and other high-throughput technologies. This demand is likely to increase. Standard algorithms for analyzing data, such as cluster algorithms, need to be parallelized for fast processing. Unfortunately, most approaches for parallelizing algorithms largely rely on network communication protocols connecting and requiring multiple computers. One answer to this problem is to utilize the intrinsic capabilities in current multi-core hardware to distribute the tasks among the different cores of one computer. Results We introduce a multi-core parallelization of the k-means and k-modes cluster algorithms based on the design principles of transactional memory for clustering gene expression microarray type data and categorial SNP data. Our new shared memory parallel algorithms show to be highly efficient. We demonstrate their computational power and show their utility in cluster stability and sensitivity analysis employing repeated runs with slightly changed parameters. Computation speed of our Java based algorithm was increased by a factor of 10 for large data sets while preserving computational accuracy compared to single-core implementations and a recently published network based parallelization. Conclusions Most desktop computers and even notebooks provide at least dual-core processors. Our multi-core algorithms show that using modern algorithmic concepts, parallelization makes it possible to perform even such laborious tasks as cluster sensitivity and cluster number estimation on the laboratory computer. PMID:20370922

  10. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-10-21

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

  11. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35–58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. PMID:25288728

  12. High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Karin; Bäckström, Britt; Häggström, Marie; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed. PMID:27428686

  13. Nutrition and education. III. Educational achievement and food habits of Chilean elementary and high school graduates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Vásquez, M; Aguayo, M; Ballester, D; Marambio, M; Zacarías, I

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the educational achievement (EA) of Chilean elementary and high-school graduates with their food habits. For this purpose, a random sample of 550 schoolers from the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, graduating from elementary and high school (1:1) of both sexes (1:1), from public and private schools and from high, medium and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1), was selected. Food habits were determined through a specially designed questionnaire and defined as the frequency of consumption of the food groups, expressed as days per week. The EA was established through the Achievement Evaluation Program (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary-and high-school graduates-, respectively. Results revealed that EA was found significantly and positively correlated with the frequency of consumption of dairy products, meat products and eggs, in both elementary and high school graduates. A significant and inverse correlation between EA and the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption was observed in both educational levels, and with miscellaneous products, only in elementary school graduates. Food habits explained 24.4% and 16.6% of the EA variance, in elementary and high school graduates, respectively. The frequency of consumption of dairy products was the independent variable with the greatest explanatory power in EA variance (approximately above 70% of the explained variance). These results are important to consider for educational planning focused on the School Feeding Program.

  14. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  15. A finite element algorithm for high-lying eigenvalues with Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a finite element algorithm that computes eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator for two-dimensional problems with homogeneous Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions, or combinations of either for different parts of the boundary. We use an inverse power plus Gauss-Seidel algorithm to solve the generalized eigenvalue problem. For Neumann boundary conditions the method is much more efficient than the equivalent finite difference algorithm. We checked the algorithm by comparing the cumulative level density of the spectrum obtained numerically with the theoretical prediction given by the Weyl formula. We found a systematic deviation due to the discretization, not to the algorithm itself.

  16. Dry Blending to Achieve Isotopic Dilution of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Roger Neil; Chipman, Nathan Alan; Rajamani, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    The end of the cold war produced large amounts of excess fissile materials in the United States and Russia. The Department of Energy has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies for disposition of these excess materials. To date, many of these planning strategies have included isotopic dilution of highly enriched uranium as a means of reducing the proliferation and safety risks. Isotopic dilution by dry blending highly enriched uranium with natural and/or depleted uranium has been identified as one non-aqueous method to achieve these risk (proliferation and criticality safety) reductions. This paper reviews the technology of dry blending as applied to free flowing oxide materials.

  17. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  18. Algorithms and architectures for high performance analysis of semantic graphs.

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, Bruce Alan

    2005-09-01

    analysis. Since intelligence datasets can be extremely large, the focus of this work is on the use of parallel computers. We have been working to develop scalable parallel algorithms that will be at the core of a semantic graph analysis infrastructure. Our work has involved two different thrusts, corresponding to two different computer architectures. The first architecture of interest is distributed memory, message passing computers. These machines are ubiquitous and affordable, but they are challenging targets for graph algorithms. Much of our distributed-memory work to date has been collaborative with researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has focused on finding short paths on distributed memory parallel machines. Our implementation on 32K processors of BlueGene/Light finds shortest paths between two specified vertices in just over a second for random graphs with 4 billion vertices.

  19. Modular architecture for high performance implementation of the FFT algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Spiecha, K. ); Jarocki, R. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper presents a new VLSI-oriented architecture to compute discrete Fourier transform. It consists of a homogeneous structure of processing elements. The structure has a performance equal to 1/{ital t} transforms per second, where {ital t} is the time needed for the execution of a single butterfly computation or the time needed for the collection of a complete vector of samples, whichever occurs to be longer. Although the system is not optimal (it achieves {ital O(N}{sup 3} log{sup 4} {ital N)} area time{sup 2} performance), the architecture is modular and makes it possible to design a system which performs FFT of any size without any extra circuitry. Moreover, the system can provide a built-in self-test and self-restructuring. The system consists of only one type of integrated circuit, its structure being irrespective of the transform size, which considerably reduces the cost of implementation.

  20. Heterogeneity in High Math Achievement across Schools: Evidence from the American Mathematics Competitions. NBER Working Paper No. 18277

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Glenn; Swanson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores differences in the frequency with which students from different schools reach high levels of math achievement. Data from the American Mathematics Competitions is used to produce counts of high-scoring students from more than two thousand public, coeducational, non-magnet, non-charter U.S. high schools. High-achieving students…

  1. Acculturation, Social Support and Academic Achievement of Mexican and Mexican American High School Students: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Eric J.; Ehly, Stewart; Garcia-Vasquez, Enedina

    2002-01-01

    Concern about the high dropout rate among Mexican American high school students promoted a study to investigate how acculturation and social support influence academic achievement. Students who were highly integrated and strongly bicultural tended to have higher academic achievement. Females tended to have high GPAs; males were slightly more…

  2. High performances CNTFETs achieved using CNT networks for selective gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorintin, Louis; Bondavalli, Paolo; Legagneux, Pierre; Pribat, Didier

    2009-08-01

    Our study deals with the utilization of carbon nanotubes networks based transistors with different metal electrodes for highly selective gas sensing. Indeed, carbon nanotubes networks can be used as semi conducting materials to achieve good performances transistors. These devices are extremely sensitive to the change of the Schottky barrier heights between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) and drain/source metal electrodes: the gas adsorption creates an interfacial dipole that modifies the metal work function and so the bending and the height of the Schottky barrier at the contacts. Moreover each gas interacts specifically with each metal identifying a sort of electronic fingerprinting. Using airbrush technique for deposition, we have been able to achieve uniform random networks of carbon nanotubes suitable for large area applications and mass production such as fabrication of CNT based gas sensors. These networks enable us to achieve transistors with on/off ratio of more than 5 orders of magnitude. To reach these characteristics, the density of the CNT network has been adjusted in order to reach the percolation threshold only for semi-conducting nanotubes. These optimized devices have allowed us to tune the sensitivity (improving it) of our sensors for highly selective detection of DiMethyl-Methyl-Phosphonate (DMMP, a sarin stimulant), and even volatile drug precursors using Pd, Au and Mo electrodes.

  3. Strategies to achieve high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhui; Jin, Yongcan; Jameel, Hasan; Park, Sunkyu

    2015-01-01

    Three strategies were presented to achieve high solids loading while maximizing carbohydrate conversion, which are fed-batch, splitting/thickening, and clarifier processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at water insoluble solids (WIS) of 15% using washed dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. The carbohydrate concentration increased from 31.8 to 99.3g/L when the insoluble solids content increased from 5% to 15% WIS, while the final carbohydrate conversion was decreased from 78.4% to 73.2%. For the fed-batch process, a carbohydrate conversion efficiency of 76.8% was achieved when solid was split into 60:20:20 ratio, with all enzymes added first. For the splitting/thickening process, a carbohydrate conversion of 76.5% was realized when the filtrate was recycled to simulate a steady-state process. Lastly, the clarifier process was evaluated and the highest carbohydrate conversion of 81.4% was achieved. All of these results suggests the possibility of enzymatic hydrolysis at high solids to make the overall conversion cost-competitive.

  4. Real-time visual sensing system achieving high-speed 3D particle tracking with nanometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Jhiang, Sissy M; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a real-time visual sensing system, which is created to achieve high-speed three-dimensional (3D) motion tracking of microscopic spherical particles in aqueous solutions with nanometer resolution. The system comprises a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera, a field programmable gate array (FPGA), and real-time image processing programs. The CMOS camera has high photosensitivity and superior SNR. It acquires images of 128×120 pixels at a frame rate of up to 10,000 frames per second (fps) under the white light illumination from a standard 100 W halogen lamp. The real-time image stream is downloaded from the camera directly to the FPGA, wherein a 3D particle-tracking algorithm is implemented to calculate the 3D positions of the target particle in real time. Two important objectives, i.e., real-time estimation of the 3D position matches the maximum frame rate of the camera and the timing of the output data stream of the system is precisely controlled, are achieved. Two sets of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the system. First, the visual sensing system was used to track the motion of a 2 μm polystyrene bead, whose motion was controlled by a three-axis piezo motion stage. The ability to track long-range motion with nanometer resolution in all three axes is demonstrated. Second, it was used to measure the Brownian motion of the 2 μm polystyrene bead, which was stabilized in aqueous solution by a laser trapping system. PMID:24216655

  5. Academic achievement in the high school years: the changing role of school engagement.

    PubMed

    Chase, Paul A; Hilliard, Lacey J; Geldhof, G John; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    School engagement is an important theoretical and practical cornerstone to the promotion of academic accomplishments. This article used a tripartite-behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-model of school engagement to assess the relationship between school engagement and academic success among high school students, and to determine whether a reciprocal relationship exists between these constructs. Data were derived from 710 youth (69% female) who took part in Waves 6 through 8 (Grades 10 through 12) of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the invariance of the tripartite model of school engagement. Results of a structural equation model showed that the components of school engagement and academic achievement were mutually predictive and that these predictions varied from grade to grade. Future possibilities for evaluating the relationship between school engagement and academic achievement, as well as the implications for educational policy and practice, are discussed.

  6. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  7. Dose prediction accuracy of anisotropic analytical algorithm and pencil beam convolution algorithm beyond high density heterogeneity interface

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Suresh B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that photon beam radiation therapy requires dose calculation algorithms. The objective of this study was to measure and assess the ability of pencil beam convolution (PBC) and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) to predict doses beyond high density heterogeneity. Materials and Methods: An inhomogeneous phantom of five layers was created in Eclipse planning system (version 8.6.15). Each layer of phantom was assigned in terms of water (first or top), air (second), water (third), bone (fourth), and water (fifth or bottom) medium. Depth doses in water (bottom medium) were calculated for 100 monitor units (MUs) with 6 Megavoltage (MV) photon beam for different field sizes using AAA and PBC with heterogeneity correction. Combinations of solid water, Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC), and Styrofoam were then manufactured to mimic phantoms and doses for 100 MUs were acquired with cylindrical ionization chamber at selected depths beyond high density heterogeneity interface. The measured and calculated depth doses were then compared. Results: AAA's values had better agreement with measurements at all measured depths. Dose overestimation by AAA (up to 5.3%) and by PBC (up to 6.7%) was found to be higher in proximity to the high-density heterogeneity interface, and the dose discrepancies were more pronounced for larger field sizes. The errors in dose estimation by AAA and PBC may be due to improper beam modeling of primary beam attenuation or lateral scatter contributions or combination of both in heterogeneous media that include low and high density materials. Conclusions: AAA is more accurate than PBC for dose calculations in treating deep-seated tumor beyond high-density heterogeneity interface. PMID:24455541

  8. Nutrition and education. II. Educational achievement and nutrient intake of Chilean elementary and high school graduates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Vásquez, M; Marambio, M; Ballester, D; Zacarías, I; Aguayo, M

    1991-12-01

    The interrelationships between educational achievement (EA) and nutrient intake were investigated in 550 Chilean adolescent schoolers graduating from elementary and high school. The random sample included schoolers from both educational levels (1:1), from public and private schools (1:1), and from high, medium, and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1). Standard procedures for 24-hour dietary recall interviews were used to collect data, and adequacy of intake was assessed by the FAO/WHO Pattern. EA was measured by means of the Achievement Evaluation Program (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary and high school, respectively. In elementary school graduates, results showed a significant and positive correlation between EA (AEP) and energy, protein, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, calcium and vitamin A intake (Multiple r = 0.456 p less than 0.01; r2 = 0.208). The School Feeding Program beneficiaries who belonged to the low SES presented the lowest EA (AEP) together with a deficient nutrient intake, especially for energy, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A and calcium, at the same time that they registered the lowest values for those anthropometric parameters, indicators of past nutrition, that is to say height-for-age, weight-for-age, head circumference-for-age and a higher upper-to-lower segment ratio, as compared with non-beneficiaries from the same SES and with those from the higher strata. In high-school graduates, EA (AAT) was found to be significantly and positively correlated with protein, calcium, riboflavin and iron intake (Multiple r = 0.438 p less than 0.001; r2 = 0.192). Nevertheless, these interrelationship are strongly related to SES and sex. Results showed that educational achievement (EA) is significantly and positively associated with nutrient intake, this fact being important for educational planning related to the School Feeding Program. PMID:1841532

  9. Phase-unwrapping algorithm for images with high noise content based on a local histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses, Jaime; Gharbi, Tijani; Humbert, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    We present a robust algorithm of phase unwrapping that was designed for use on phase images with high noise content. We proceed with the algorithm by first identifying regions with continuous phase values placed between fringe boundaries in an image and then phase shifting the regions with respect to one another by multiples of 2pi to unwrap the phase. Image pixels are segmented between interfringe and fringe boundary areas by use of a local histogram of a wrapped phase. The algorithm has been used successfully to unwrap phase images generated in a three-dimensional shape measurement for noninvasive quantification of human skin structure in dermatology, cosmetology, and plastic surgery.

  10. Adaptive algorithm for active control of high-amplitude acoustic field in resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Červenka, M.; Bednařík, M.; Koníček, P.

    2008-06-01

    This work is concerned with suppression of nonlinear effects in piston-driven acoustic resonators by means of two-frequency driving technique. An iterative adaptive algorithm is proposed to calculate parameters of the driving signal in order that amplitude of the second harmonics of the acoustic pressure is minimized. Functionality of the algorithm is verified firstly by means of numerical model and secondly, it is used in real computer-controlled experiment. The numerical and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can be successfully used for generation of high-amplitude shock-free acoustic field in resonators.

  11. Phase-unwrapping algorithm for images with high noise content based on a local histogram.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Jaime; Gharbi, Tijani; Humbert, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    We present a robust algorithm of phase unwrapping that was designed for use on phase images with high noise content. We proceed with the algorithm by first identifying regions with continuous phase values placed between fringe boundaries in an image and then phase shifting the regions with respect to one another by multiples of 2pi to unwrap the phase. Image pixels are segmented between interfringe and fringe boundary areas by use of a local histogram of a wrapped phase. The algorithm has been used successfully to unwrap phase images generated in a three-dimensional shape measurement for noninvasive quantification of human skin structure in dermatology, cosmetology, and plastic surgery.

  12. Understanding the mathematics and science achievement and growth trajectories of high ability high school students using hierarchical linear modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen-Ferrer, Bellasanta

    2009-12-01

    This study used longitudinal data and individual, family, and academic-related matriculation variables to examine trends in initial status and growth trajectories in overall academics, mathematics, and science achievement among 224 high ability high school Asian students. Results indicate that females have an advantage in both initial status and growth rates in overall academics and science. None of the family variables entered in the models were found to be significantly related to overall academics grade point average. All available matriculation variables entered into the models explained less than or at most about half the variance in initial achievement status and growth rate in overall academics and science but not in mathematics. These results strongly imply that other factors, notably family and school and/or classroom-related variables, not measured by the ones used in the models could explain the expected variance in initial status and growth rate of the students especially in Mathematics.

  13. Next Generation Seismic Imaging; High Fidelity Algorithms and High-End Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevc, D.; Ortigosa, F.; Guitton, A.; Kaelin, B.

    2007-05-01

    uniquely powerful computing power of the MareNostrum supercomputer in Barcelona to realize the promise of RTM, incorporate it into daily processing flows, and to help solve exploration problems in a highly cost-effective way. Uniquely, the Kaleidoscope Project is simultaneously integrating software (algorithms) and hardware (Cell BE), steps that are traditionally taken sequentially. This unique integration of software and hardware will accelerate seismic imaging by several orders of magnitude compared to conventional solutions running on standard Linux Clusters.

  14. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  15. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L; Smith, Gregory M; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-11

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m(2) with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today's OLEDs in performance.

  16. A strategy for achieving high reliability for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) have been used since the early 1960s to put numerous payloads, including humans, into space. Yet, in spite of their widespread use since that time, ELV reliability has not improved much. Why has this been the case? And, more importantly, what might be done to substantially improve the reliability of future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) to levels needed for commercial viability, i.e., approaching that of the U.S. commercial airline industry? This paper attempts to answer these questions-by reviewing the history of launch vehicles, identifying factors important to their reliability and safety, and in doing so, offering a potential strategy for achieving high RLV reliability. The conclusion reached is that there is every reason to believe that high reliability (~0.99999 per mission) is achievable for future RLVs, if key features to enhance their inherent robustness, forgiveness, and recoverability are considered and integrated into RLV design and operation at the outset. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a catalyst for further discussions intended to ensure that high reliability is realized for RLVs. .

  17. Achieving high bit rate logical stochastic resonance in a bistable system by adjusting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Gu, Feng-Shou; Feng, Guo-Jin; Yang, Yong-Min; Ball, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The phenomenon of logical stochastic resonance (LSR) in a nonlinear bistable system is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments. However, the bit rates of the logical signals are relatively low and not suitable for practical applications. First, we examine the responses of the bistable system with fixed parameters to different bit rate logic input signals, showing that an arbitrary high bit rate LSR in a bistable system cannot be achieved. Then, a normalized transform of the LSR bistable system is introduced through a kind of variable substitution. Based on the transform, it is found that LSR for arbitrary high bit rate logic signals in a bistable system can be achieved by adjusting the parameters of the system, setting bias value and amplifying the amplitudes of logic input signals and noise properly. Finally, the desired OR and AND logic outputs to high bit rate logic inputs in a bistable system are obtained by numerical simulations. The study might provide higher feasibility of LSR in practical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51379526).

  18. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification

    PubMed Central

    MULLER, CHANDRA; RIEGLE-CRUMB, CATHERINE; SCHILLER, KATHRYN S.; WILKINSON, LINDSEY; FRANK, KENNETH A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. Setting This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994–1995. Population/Participants/Subjects Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). Research Design Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students’ achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  19. Race and Academic Achievement in Racially Diverse High Schools: Opportunity and Stratification.

    PubMed

    Muller, Chandra; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Schiller, Kathryn S; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Frank, Kenneth A

    2010-04-01

    BACKGROUND/CONTEXT: Brown v Board of Education fundamentally changed our nation's schools, yet we know surprisingly little about how and whether they provide equality of educational opportunity. Although substantial evidence suggests that African American and Latino students who attend these schools face fewer learning opportunities than their White counterparts, until now, it has been impossible to examine this using a representative sample because of lack of data. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE/RESEARCH QUESTION/FOCUS OF STUDY: This study uses newly available data to investigate whether racially diverse high schools offer equality of educational opportunity to students from different racial and ethnic groups. This is examined by measuring the relative representation of minority students in advanced math classes at the beginning of high school and estimating whether and how this opportunity structure limits the level of achievement attained by African American and Latino students by the end of high school. SETTING: This study uses data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and its partner study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a stratified, nationally representative study of students in U.S. high schools first surveyed in 1994-1995. POPULATION/PARTICIPANTS/SUBJECTS: Two samples of racially diverse high schools were used in the analysis: one with African Americans, Whites, and Asians (26 schools with 3,149 students), and the other with Latinos, Whites, and Asians (22 schools with 2,775 students). RESEARCH DESIGN: Quantitative analyses first assess how high schools vary in the extent to which minority students are underrepresented in advanced sophomore math classes. Hierarchical multilevel modeling is then used to estimate whether racial-ethnic differences in representation in advanced math have an impact on African American and Latino students' achievement by the end of high school, relative to the Whites and Asians

  20. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  1. High School Principal Instructional Leadership Behavior in High and Low Need and High and Low Achievement Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Theodore T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher perceptions of the ten specific principal instructional leadership behaviors of Hallinger's Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale as they relate to school need, school achievement, years of experience as a teacher, and years working with the current principal. This quantitative…

  2. Parallelization and Algorithmic Enhancements of High Resolution IRAS Image Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yu; Prince, Thomas A.; Tereby, Susan; Beichman, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite caried out a nearly complete survey of the infrared sky, and the survey data are important for the study of many astrophysical phenomena. However, many data sets at other wavelengths have higher resolutions than that of the co-added IRAS maps, and high resolution IRAS images are strongly desired both for their own information content and their usefulness in correlation. The HIRES program was developed by the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) to produce high resolution (approx. 1') images from IRAS data using the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM). We describe the port of HIRES to the Intel Paragon, a massively parallel supercomputer, other software developments for mass production of HIRES images, and the IRAS Galaxy Atlas, a project to map the Galactic plane at 60 and 100(micro)m.

  3. Number Sense-Based Strategies Used by High-Achieving Sixth Grade Students Who Experienced Reform Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies used by high-achieving 6th grade students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to solve basic arithmetic problems involving number sense. The sample for the study consisted of 15 high-achieving boys and 15 high-achieving girls in grade 6 from 2 schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Data for the…

  4. Achieving high mass-throughput of therapeutic proteins through parvovirus retentive filters.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Glen R; Basha, Jonida; Lacasse, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Parvovirus retentive filters that assure removal of viruses and virus-like particles during the production of therapeutic proteins significantly contribute to total manufacturing costs. Operational approaches that can increase throughput and reduce filtration area would result in a significant cost savings. A combination of methods was used to achieve high throughputs of an antibody or therapeutic protein solution through three parvovirus retentive filters. These methods included evaluation of diatomaceous earth or size-based prefilters, the addition of additives, and the optimization of protein concentration, temperature, buffer composition, and solution pH. An optimum temperature of 35°C was found for maximizing throughput through the Virosart CPV and Viresolve Pro filters. Mass-throughput values of 7.3, 26.4, and 76.2 kg/m(2) were achieved through the Asahi Planova 20N, Virosart CPV, and Viresolve Pro filters, respectively, in 4 h of processing. Mass-throughput values of 73, 137, and 192 kg/m(2) were achieved through a Millipore Viresolve Pro filter in 4.0, 8.8, and 22.1 h of processing, respectively, during a single experiment. However, large-scale parvovirus filtration operations are typically controlled to limit volumetric throughput to below the level achieved during small-scale virus spiking experiments. The virus spike may cause significant filter plugging, limiting throughput. Therefore newer parvovirus filter spiking strategies should be adopted that may lead to more representative viral clearance data and higher utilization of large-scale filter capacity.

  5. The Relation of High-Achieving Adolescents' Social Perceptions and Motivation to Teachers' Nominations for Advanced Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The discrepancies between test-based and teacher-based criteria of high achievement are well-documented for students of all ages. This study seeks to determine whether certain high school students who score high on tests of academic achievement are more likely than others to be nominated for advanced academic programs by their teachers. Using…

  6. Stride Search: a general algorithm for storm detection in high-resolution climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosler, Peter A.; Roesler, Erika L.; Taylor, Mark A.; Mundt, Miranda R.

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses the problem of identifying extreme climate events such as intense storms within large climate data sets. The basic storm detection algorithm is reviewed, which splits the problem into two parts: a spatial search followed by a temporal correlation problem. Two specific implementations of the spatial search algorithm are compared: the commonly used grid point search algorithm is reviewed, and a new algorithm called Stride Search is introduced. The Stride Search algorithm is defined independently of the spatial discretization associated with a particular data set. Results from the two algorithms are compared for the application of tropical cyclone detection, and shown to produce similar results for the same set of storm identification criteria. Differences between the two algorithms arise for some storms due to their different definition of search regions in physical space. The physical space associated with each Stride Search region is constant, regardless of data resolution or latitude, and Stride Search is therefore capable of searching all regions of the globe in the same manner. Stride Search's ability to search high latitudes is demonstrated for the case of polar low detection. Wall clock time required for Stride Search is shown to be smaller than a grid point search of the same data, and the relative speed up associated with Stride Search increases as resolution increases.

  7. High Intensive Processes and Extreme States of Matter: Achievements and Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Simonenko, V. A.

    2006-08-03

    The paper briefly presents some main highlights of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) achievements starting from its origin in the 1940s to the current time. A decisive role of high explosives (HE) is emphasized in studying high intensive processes and high energy density states of matter. Mechanisms of detonation and kinetics of energy release still remain acute in the HE studying. Research and scientific applications of nuclear explosions opened a new stage in HEDP development. They provided a million-fold increase of energy density if compared to that of high explosives. High intensive heat waves and strong shock waves were studied and used to measure dense plasma opacities and matter properties under extreme conditions. This data remains important for the development of theoretical models of matter. Powerful pulsed facilities (lasers, electric explosion installations, and charged particle accelerators) were constructed to extend opportunities for the HEDP research. One of their main goals is to study inertial confinement fusion. HEDP technologies and results are very useful in space and astrophysical research, and on the contrary, astrophysical studies enrich HEDP with new models, problems and solutions.

  8. Robust and highly performant ring detection algorithm for 3d particle tracking using 2d microscope imaging

    PubMed Central

    Afik, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional particle tracking is an essential tool in studying dynamics under the microscope, namely, fluid dynamics in microfluidic devices, bacteria taxis, cellular trafficking. The 3d position can be determined using 2d imaging alone by measuring the diffraction rings generated by an out-of-focus fluorescent particle, imaged on a single camera. Here I present a ring detection algorithm exhibiting a high detection rate, which is robust to the challenges arising from ring occlusion, inclusions and overlaps, and allows resolving particles even when near to each other. It is capable of real time analysis thanks to its high performance and low memory footprint. The proposed algorithm, an offspring of the circle Hough transform, addresses the need to efficiently trace the trajectories of many particles concurrently, when their number in not necessarily fixed, by solving a classification problem, and overcomes the challenges of finding local maxima in the complex parameter space which results from ring clusters and noise. Several algorithmic concepts introduced here can be advantageous in other cases, particularly when dealing with noisy and sparse data. The implementation is based on open-source and cross-platform software packages only, making it easy to distribute and modify. It is implemented in a microfluidic experiment allowing real-time multi-particle tracking at 70 Hz, achieving a detection rate which exceeds 94% and only 1% false-detection. PMID:26329642

  9. The Pentagon-S process: A systematic approach for achieving high confidence in high-consequence products

    SciTech Connect

    D`Antonio, P.E.; Covan, J.M.; Ekman, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a systematic approach for achieving high confidence in major products requiring high reliability for use in high-consequence applications. A high-consequence application is one in which product failure could result in significant loss of life, damage to major systems or to the environment, financial loss, or political repercussions. The application of this process has proven to be of significant benefit in the early identification, verification, and correction of potential product design and manufacturing process failure modes. Early identification and correction of these failures modes and the corresponding controls placed on safety-critical features, ensures product adherence to safety-critical design requirements, and enhances product quality, reliability, and the cost effectiveness of delivered products. Safety-critical features include design features such as materials and dimensions, as well as manufacturing features such as assembly processes, inspections, and testing.

  10. Effectiveness of Problem Solving Method In Dynamics And Academic Achievement of High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, F.; Hamidi, F.; Mohammadzadeh, A.; Ahmadi, M. K. A.

    2010-07-01

    The present research as a per and post tests design with control group investigates the effectiveness of problem solving method as independent variable on academic achievement of students in the second grade of high school in the physics topic of dynamics. The sample consists of four random groups as experimental and control groups which were chosen from the students of the second grade of high school. Each sample consists of 25 participants. The experimental groups were taught in problem solving method without any changing in method for control groups. Data was analyzed using Mixed Analysis Of Variance (MANOVA). Result showed a significant difference between two methods of learning (P<0.05). Further the evaluation of their attitude about problem solving method has been showed that a significant percentage of participants in experimental group were interested to continue that method in other physical topics.

  11. High Quality Typhoon Cloud Image Restoration by Combining Genetic Algorithm with Contourlet Transform

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Changjiang; Wang Xiaodong

    2008-11-06

    An efficient typhoon cloud image restoration algorithm is proposed. Having implemented contourlet transform to a typhoon cloud image, noise is reduced in the high sub-bands. Weight median value filter is used to reduce the noise in the contourlet domain. Inverse contourlet transform is done to obtain the de-noising image. In order to enhance the global contrast of the typhoon cloud image, in-complete Beta transform (IBT) is used to determine non-linear gray transform curve so as to enhance global contrast for the de-noising typhoon cloud image. Genetic algorithm is used to obtain the optimal gray transform curve. Information entropy is used as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is able to well enhance the global for the typhoon cloud image while well reducing the noises in the typhoon cloud image.

  12. Cooperative scheduling of imaging observation tasks for high-altitude airships based on propagation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  13. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  14. Where Are the Academically Successful Puerto Rican Students? Five Success Factors of High Achieving Puerto Rican High School Students. JSRI Working Paper No. 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William; Garrett, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    High achieving Puerto Rican high school students are largely missing not only from urban high schools, but also from the educational research. The purpose of this article, then, is to describe the five success factors that ten low-income urban high school students from this ethnic group attributed to their high academic achievement. These success…

  15. High-performance modeling acoustic and elastic waves using the parallel Dichotomy Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Fatyanov, Alexey G.; Terekhov, Andrew V.

    2011-03-01

    A high-performance parallel algorithm is proposed for modeling the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in inhomogeneous media. An initial boundary-value problem is replaced by a series of boundary-value problems for a constant elliptic operator and different right-hand sides via the integral Laguerre transform. It is proposed to solve difference equations by the conjugate gradient method for acoustic equations and by the GMRES(k) method for modeling elastic waves. A preconditioning operator was the Laplace operator that is inverted using the variable separation method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is using the Dichotomy Algorithm , which was designed for solving a series of tridiagonal systems of linear equations, in the context of the preconditioning operator inversion. Via considering analytical solutions, it is shown that modeling wave processes for long instants of time requires high-resolution meshes. The proposed parallel fine-mesh algorithm enabled to solve real application seismic problems in acceptable time and with high accuracy. By solving model problems, it is demonstrated that the considered parallel algorithm possesses high performance and efficiency over a wide range of the number of processors (from 2 to 8192).

  16. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  17. High school students' perceptions of EFL teacher control orientations and their English academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Theories distinguish between student-initiated and teacher-initiated regulation of students' learning activities, or between strong, shared, or loose teacher control during the completion of learning tasks. Empirical validations for such distinctions are scarce, however. AIM. The present study aimed at (a) investigating students' perceptions of control behaviours exhibited by their English teachers; and (b) exploring the contribution of different types of teacher control behaviours to students' cognitive outcomes (English Achievement). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 732 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students studying in three major fields of high school (Mathematics, Natural Science, and Humanities). The participants (16-17 years of age) were selected from third-grade classes of 27 EFL teachers working in 25 high schools of 6 main different geographical regions in the Isfahan province, Iran. METHOD. To obtain a comprehensive picture of different control types exhibited by Iranian EFL teachers, the control subscales of the two existing questionnaires, i.e., the Questionnaire on Instructional Behaviours (QIB), adapted by Den Brok et al. (2004) and the Questionnaire on Lesson Activities (QLA) used by Den Brok (2001) were merged to form the Questionnaire of Teacher Control (QTC). The development of this Persian instrument involved several steps: translation and back translation by the researchers, one expert translator, and two EFL teachers; piloting; and a final administration of the questionnaire to the student sample. With respect to the second aim of the study, data regarding students' performances on the Standardized National English Achievement Tests were gathered from local educational offices and schools. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Statistical analyses supported acceptable reliability and validity of the instrument. A main factor structure with three types of teacher control (strong/high, shared/mid, and loose/low) was found to underlie students

  18. Tuning charge balance in PHOLEDs with ambipolar host materials to achieve high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Chopra, Neetu; So, Franky; Sapochak, Linda S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2009-08-27

    The efficiency and stability of blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) continue to be a primary roadblock to developing organic solid state white lighting. For OLEDs to meet the high power conversion efficiency goal, they will require both close to 100% internal quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in a white light emitting device.1 It is generally accepted that such high quantum efficiency, can only be achieved with the use of organometallic phosphor doped OLEDs. Blue OLEDs are particularly important for solid state lighting. The simplest (and therefore likely the lowest cost) method of generating white light is to down convert part of the emission from a blue light source with a system of external phosphors.2 A second method of generating white light requires the superposition of the light from red, green and blue OLEDs in the correct ratio. Either of these two methods (and indeed any method of generating white light with a high color rendering index) critically depends on a high efficiency blue light component.3 A simple OLED generally consists of a hole-injecting anode, a preferentially hole transporting organic layer (HTL), an emissive layer that contains the recombination zone and ideally transports both holes and electrons, a preferentially electron-transporting layer (ETL) and an electron-injecting cathode. Color in state-of-the-art OLEDs is generated by an organometallic phosphor incorporated by co-sublimation into the emissive layer (EML).4 New materials functioning as hosts, emitters, charge transporting, and charge blocking layers have been developed along with device architectures leading to electrophosphorescent based OLEDs with high quantum efficiencies near the theoretical limit. However, the layers added to the device architecture to enable high quantum efficiencies lead to higher operating voltages and correspondingly lower power efficiencies. Achievement of target luminance power efficiencies will require new strategies for lowering

  19. Science literacy in high school students: A comparison of achievement in two curriculum approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlister, Diane C.

    2009-12-01

    Academic achievement as measured by the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in science for 367 students in two science curriculum options, integrated science and the traditional subject-specific courses, in one central Florida high school were compared. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) of science curriculum choice was analyzed for three variables, total FCAT score, earth science subscore, and scientific thinking subscore. Covariate of academic ability as defined by grade point average (GPA) and academic focus as defined by post secondary plans were considered for use. Analysis of statistically significant results was completed through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). While statistically significant results were found in favor of the traditional curriculum group, additional statistical analysis of the curriculum groups for differences in socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and instructional level led to a logistic regression to explore the ability of these variables, GPA, and total FCAT score to predict curriculum group membership. GPA, level of instruction and FCAT score were found to be statistically significant predictors. Final conclusions to the study indicated a significant difference in scientific literacy for the two groups in favor of the traditional curriculum. However, logistic regression results indicated that due to significant differences in SES, gender, GPA, and level of instruction for the groups, the differences in academic achievement were probably due to factors other than curriculum design. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research were presented.

  20. A Comparison of Strategic Development for Multiplication Problem Solving in Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Barrett, Dave E.; Xin, Yan Ping; Liu, Ru-de

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the differences of strategy use between low-, average-, and high-achieving students when solving different multiplication problems. Nineteen high-, 48 average-, and 17 low-achieving students participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete three different multiplication tests and to explain how…

  1. Robust and Fragile Mathematical Identities: A Framework for Exploring Racialized Experiences and High Achievement among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.

    2015-01-01

    I introduce the construct of fragile and robust identities for the purpose of exploring the experiences that influenced the mathematical and racial identities of high-achieving Black college students in mathematics and engineering. These students maintained high levels of academic achievement in these fields while enduring marginalization,…

  2. What Can Teacher Education Programs Do to Prepare Teachers to Teach High-Achieving Culturally Diverse Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard; Tenore, F. Blake; Laughter, Judson

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss what teacher education programs can do to prepare teachers to teach high-achieving culturally diverse male students. They suggest that special attention needs to be directed at the educational experiences of high-achieving Black male students. They also believe that diverse male learners, and especially high…

  3. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  4. Automatic, Real-Time Algorithms for Anomaly Detection in High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.

    2008-12-01

    Earth observing satellites are generating data at an unprecedented rate, surpassing almost all other data intensive applications. However, most of the data that arrives from the satellites is not analyzed directly. Rather, multiple scientific teams analyze only a small fraction of the total data available in the data stream. Although there are many reasons for this situation one paramount concern is developing algorithms and methods that can analyze the vast, high dimensional, streaming satellite images. This paper describes a new set of methods that are among the fastest available algorithms for real-time anomaly detection. These algorithms were built to maximize accuracy and speed for a variety of applications in fields outside of the earth sciences. However, our studies indicate that with appropriate modifications, these algorithms can be extremely valuable for identifying anomalies rapidly using only modest computational power. We review two algorithms which are used as benchmarks in the field: Orca, One-Class Support Vector Machines and discuss the anomalies that are discovered in MODIS data taken over the Central California region. We are especially interested in automatic identification of disturbances within the ecosystems (e,g, wildfires, droughts, floods, insect/pest damage, wind damage, logging). We show the scalability of the algorithms and demonstrate that with appropriately adapted technology, the dream of real-time analysis can be made a reality.

  5. Genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  6. Conflicts and communication between high-achieving Chinese American adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Chang, Tzu-Fen; Han, Eun-Jin; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interview data collected on 18 high-achieving Chinese American students, the authors examine domains of acculturation-based conflicts, parent and child internal conflicts, and conflict resolution in their families. Their analyses show that well-established negative communication patterns in educational expectations, divergent attitudes toward other races and country of origin, and cultural and language barriers contributed to parent-child conflicts. Their findings also illustrate important internal conflicts both adolescents and parents had along the cultural tightrope of autonomy and relatedness. Finally, the vertical in-group conflict resolution style that was evidenced in youths' accounts raises questions about cultural differences in constructive versus destructive conflict resolution styles.

  7. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  8. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  9. Achieving Highly Efficient, Selective, and Stable CO2 Reduction on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjie; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Liu, Mingjie; Sharma, Pranav P; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ma, Lulu; Zou, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yakobson, Boris I; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-05-26

    The challenge in the electrosynthesis of fuels from CO2 is to achieve durable and active performance with cost-effective catalysts. Here, we report that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), doped with nitrogen to form resident electron-rich defects, can act as highly efficient and, more importantly, stable catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to CO. The unprecedented overpotential (-0.18 V) and selectivity (80%) observed on nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) are attributed to their unique features to facilitate the reaction, including (i) high electrical conductivity, (ii) preferable catalytic sites (pyridinic N defects), and (iii) low free energy for CO2 activation and high barrier for hydrogen evolution. Indeed, DFT calculations show a low free energy barrier for the potential-limiting step to form key intermediate COOH as well as strong binding energy of adsorbed COOH and weak binding energy for the adsorbed CO. The highest selective site toward CO production is pyridinic N, and the NCNT-based electrodes exhibit no degradation over 10 h of continuous operation, suggesting the structural stability of the electrode.

  10. High-resolution combined global gravity field modelling: Solving large kite systems using distributed computational algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingerle, Philipp; Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    One of the major obstacles in modern global gravity field modelling is the seamless combination of lower degree inhomogeneous gravity field observations (e.g. data from satellite missions) with (very) high degree homogeneous information (e.g. gridded and reduced gravity anomalies, beyond d/o 1000). Actual approaches mostly combine such data only on the basis of the coefficients, meaning that previously for both observation classes (resp. models) a spherical harmonic analysis is done independently, solving dense normal equations (NEQ) for the inhomogeneous model and block-diagonal NEQs for the homogeneous. Obviously those methods are unable to identify or eliminate effects as spectral leakage due to band limitations of the models and non-orthogonality of the spherical harmonic base functions. To antagonize such problems a combination of both models on NEQ-basis is desirable. Theoretically this can be achieved using NEQ-stacking. Because of the higher maximum degree of the homogeneous model a reordering of the coefficient is needed which leads inevitably to the destruction of the block diagonal structure of the appropriate NEQ-matrix and therefore also to the destruction of simple sparsity. Hence, a special coefficient ordering is needed to create some new favorable sparsity pattern leading to a later efficient computational solving method. Such pattern can be found in the so called kite-structure (Bosch, 1993), achieving when applying the kite-ordering to the stacked NEQ-matrix. In a first step it is shown what is needed to attain the kite-(NEQ)system, how to solve it efficiently and also how to calculate the appropriate variance information from it. Further, because of the massive computational workload when operating on large kite-systems (theoretically possible up to about max. d/o 100.000), the main emphasis is put on to the presentation of special distributed algorithms which may solve those systems parallel on an indeterminate number of processes and are

  11. A High-Order Finite-Volume Algorithm for Fokker-Planck Collisions in Magnetized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Z; Cohen, R H; Rognlien, T D; Xu, X Q

    2007-04-18

    A high-order finite volume algorithm is developed for the Fokker-Planck Operator (FPO) describing Coulomb collisions in strongly magnetized plasmas. The algorithm is based on a general fourth-order reconstruction scheme for an unstructured grid in the velocity space spanned by parallel velocity and magnetic moment. The method provides density conservation and high-order-accurate evaluation of the FPO independent of the choice of the velocity coordinates. As an example, a linearized FPO in constant-of-motion coordinates, i.e. the total energy and the magnetic moment, is developed using the present algorithm combined with a cut-cell merging procedure. Numerical tests include the Spitzer thermalization problem and the return to isotropy for distributions initialized with velocity space loss cones. Utilization of the method for a nonlinear FPO is straightforward but requires evaluation of the Rosenbluth potentials.

  12. Superintendent Leadership and Student Achievement in Suburban High Schools: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellner, Steven Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the critical nature of the connection between student achievement and superintendent leadership. A great deal of scholarship has addressed either student achievement or leadership and previous evidence has suggested the impact of both parental education and racioethnicity on student achievement, but few studies have…

  13. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  14. Why Try? Factors that Differentiate Underachieving Gifted Students from High Achieving Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoach, D. Betsy; Siegle, Del

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the relationship between student scores on the five sub-scales of the School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised (SAAS-R) and the academic achievement of known groups of gifted achievers and gifted underachievers. The study examined whether gifted achievers and gifted underachievers…

  15. Achieving a high-reliability organization through implementation of the ARCC model for systemwide sustainability of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    High-reliability health care organizations are those that provide care that is safe and one that minimizes errors while achieving exceptional performance in quality and safety. This article presents major concepts and characteristics of a patient safety culture and a high-reliability health care organization and explains how building a culture of evidence-based practice can assist organizations in achieving high reliability. The ARCC (Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration) model for systemwide implementation and sustainability of evidence-based practice is highlighted as a key strategy in achieving high reliability in health care organizations.

  16. A fast and high performance multiple data integration algorithm for identifying human disease genes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrating multiple data sources is indispensable in improving disease gene identification. It is not only due to the fact that disease genes associated with similar genetic diseases tend to lie close with each other in various biological networks, but also due to the fact that gene-disease associations are complex. Although various algorithms have been proposed to identify disease genes, their prediction performances and the computational time still should be further improved. Results In this study, we propose a fast and high performance multiple data integration algorithm for identifying human disease genes. A posterior probability of each candidate gene associated with individual diseases is calculated by using a Bayesian analysis method and a binary logistic regression model. Two prior probability estimation strategies and two feature vector construction methods are developed to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions The proposed algorithm is not only generated predictions with high AUC scores, but also runs very fast. When only a single PPI network is employed, the AUC score is 0.769 by using F2 as feature vectors. The average running time for each leave-one-out experiment is only around 1.5 seconds. When three biological networks are integrated, the AUC score using F3 as feature vectors increases to 0.830, and the average running time for each leave-one-out experiment takes only about 12.54 seconds. It is better than many existing algorithms. PMID:26399620

  17. A new algorithm for generating highly accurate benchmark solutions to transport test problems

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1997-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for solving the neutron transport equation in its discrete-variable form. The new algorithm is based on computing the full matrix relating the scalar flux spatial moments in all cells to the fixed neutron source spatial moments, foregoing the need to compute the angular flux spatial moments, and thereby eliminating the need for sweeping the spatial mesh in each discrete-angular direction. The matrix equation is solved exactly in test cases, producing a solution vector that is free from iteration convergence error, and subject only to truncation and roundoff errors. Our algorithm is designed to provide method developers with a quick and simple solution scheme to test their new methods on difficult test problems without the need to develop sophisticated solution techniques, e.g. acceleration, before establishing the worthiness of their innovation. We demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm by applying it to the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Nodal (AHOT-N) method, and using it to solve two of Burre`s Suite of Test Problems (BSTP). Our results provide highly accurate benchmark solutions, that can be distributed electronically and used to verify the pointwise accuracy of other solution methods and algorithms.

  18. A reconstruction algorithm based on sparse representation for Raman signal processing under high background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Xu, Y.; Que, J.; He, H.; Wang, X.; Tang, M.

    2016-02-01

    Background noise is one of the main interference sources of the Raman spectroscopy measurement and imaging technique. In this paper, a sparse representation based algorithm is presented to process the Raman signals under high background noise. In contrast with the existing de-noising methods, the proposed method reconstructs the pure Raman signals by estimating the Raman peak information. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is its high anti-noise capacity and low pure Raman signal reduction contributed by its reconstruction principle. Meanwhile, the Batch-OMP algorithm is applied to accelerate the training of the sparse representation. Therefore, it is very suitable to be adopted in the Raman measurement or imaging instruments to observe fast dynamic processes where the scanning time has to be shortened and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the raw tested signal is reduced. In the simulation and experiment, the de-noising result obtained by the proposed algorithm was better than the traditional Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter and the fixed-threshold wavelet de-noising algorithm.

  19. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions. PMID:27500429

  20. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  1. Achievement of high nuclear spin polarization using lanthanides as low-temperature NMR relaxation agents.

    PubMed

    Peat, David T; Horsewill, Anthony J; Köckenberger, Walter; Perez Linde, Angel J; Gadian, David G; Owers-Bradley, John R

    2013-05-28

    Many approaches are now available for achieving high levels of nuclear spin polarization. One of these methods is based on the notion that as the temperature is reduced, the equilibrium nuclear polarization will increase, according to the Boltzmann distribution. The main problem with this approach is the length of time it may take to approach thermal equilibrium at low temperatures, since nuclear relaxation times (characterized by the spin-lattice relaxation time T1) can become very long. Here, we show, by means of relaxation time measurements of frozen solutions, that selected lanthanide ions, in the form of their chelates with DTPA, can act as effective relaxation agents at low temperatures. Differential effects are seen with the different lanthanides that were tested, holmium and dysprosium showing highest relaxivity, while gadolinium is ineffective at temperatures of 20 K and below. These observations are consistent with the known electron-spin relaxation time characteristics of these lanthanides. The maximum relaxivity occurs at around 10 K for Ho-DTPA and 20 K for Dy-DTPA. Moreover, these two agents show only modest relaxivity at room temperature, and can thus be regarded as relaxation switches. We conclude that these agents can speed up solid state NMR experiments by reducing the T1 values of the relevant nuclei, and hence increasing the rate at which data can be acquired. They could also be of value in the context of a simple low-cost method of achieving several-hundred-fold improvements in polarization for experiments in which samples are pre-polarized at low temperatures, then rewarmed and dissolved immediately prior to analysis.

  2. Autonomous Information Fading and Provision to Achieve High Response Time in Distributed Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Arfaoui, Helene; Mori, Kinji

    In highly dynamic electronic commerce environment, the need for adaptability and rapid response time to information service systems has become increasingly important. In order to cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed. FIF is a distributed information service system architecture, sustained by push/pull mobile agents to bring high-assurance of services through a recursive demand-oriented provision of the most popular information closer to the users to make a tradeoff between the cost of information service allocation and access. In this paper, based on the analysis of the relationship that exists among the users distribution, information provision and access time, we propose the technology for FIF design to resolve the competing requirements of users and providers to improve users' access time. In addition, to achieve dynamic load balancing with changing users preference, the autonomous information reallocation technology is proposed. We proved the effectiveness of the proposed technology through the simulation and comparison with the conventional system.

  3. The influence of momentary classroom goal structures on student engagement and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science. This study examined the relationship between classroom goal structures in high school science and two different learning outcomes: (1) students' cognitive engagement in science and (2) students' science course grades. To achieve this aim, classroom goal structures were examined as both a variable feature of the classroom that shifts from activity to activity (i.e., momentary classroom goal structure), and as a single global characteristic describing the dominant goal structure of a classroom over time (i.e., global classroom goal structure). Students' momentary cognitive engagement significantly increased when instructional moments were mastery or performance goal structured compared to moments that had no identifiable goal structure. However, no relationships were found between global classroom goal structure and cognitive engagement or science course grades.

  4. Design strategies for achieving high triplet energy electron transporting host materials for blue electrophosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Sapochak, Linda S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Vecchi, Paul A.; Qiao, Hong; Burrows, Paul E.

    2006-12-01

    High efficiency small molecule organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) based on light emission from an electrophosphorescent dopant dispersed in an organic host matrix are well known. Achieving blue phosphorescent OLEDs is particularly challenging because the host triplet energy should ideally be > 2.8 eV to prevent back-transfer of energy from the dopant to the host matrix resulting in loss of efficiency. A design strategy for developing new host materials with high triplet energies by using phosphine oxide (P=O) moieties as points of saturation in order to build sublimable, electron transporting host materials starting from small, wide bandgap molecular building blocks (i.e., biphenyl, phenyl, naphthalene, octafluorobiphenyl, and N-ethylcarbazole) is described. Electrophosphorescent OLEDs using the organic phosphine oxide compounds as host materials for the sky blue organometallic phosphor, iridium(III)bis(4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2’) picolinate (FIrpic) give maximum external quantum efficiencies of ~ 8% and maximum luminance power efficiencies up to 25 lm/W.

  5. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  6. MS Amanda, a Universal Identification Algorithm Optimized for High Accuracy Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Today’s highly accurate spectra provided by modern tandem mass spectrometers offer considerable advantages for the analysis of proteomic samples of increased complexity. Among other factors, the quantity of reliably identified peptides is considerably influenced by the peptide identification algorithm. While most widely used search engines were developed when high-resolution mass spectrometry data were not readily available for fragment ion masses, we have designed a scoring algorithm particularly suitable for high mass accuracy. Our algorithm, MS Amanda, is generally applicable to HCD, ETD, and CID fragmentation type data. The algorithm confidently explains more spectra at the same false discovery rate than Mascot or SEQUEST on examined high mass accuracy data sets, with excellent overlap and identical peptide sequence identification for most spectra also explained by Mascot or SEQUEST. MS Amanda, available at http://ms.imp.ac.at/?goto=msamanda, is provided free of charge both as standalone version for integration into custom workflows and as a plugin for the Proteome Discoverer platform. PMID:24909410

  7. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Algorithms in a Computer Science Course for High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    Computer science for high school faces many challenging issues. One of these is whether the students possess the appropriate cognitive ability for learning the fundamentals of computer science. Online tests were created based on known cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms and were implemented among the second grade students in the…

  8. A quasi-Newton acceleration for high-dimensional optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Alexander, David; Lange, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In many statistical problems, maximum likelihood estimation by an EM or MM algorithm suffers from excruciatingly slow convergence. This tendency limits the application of these algorithms to modern high-dimensional problems in data mining, genomics, and imaging. Unfortunately, most existing acceleration techniques are ill-suited to complicated models involving large numbers of parameters. The squared iterative methods (SQUAREM) recently proposed by Varadhan and Roland constitute one notable exception. This paper presents a new quasi-Newton acceleration scheme that requires only modest increments in computation per iteration and overall storage and rivals or surpasses the performance of SQUAREM on several representative test problems.

  9. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  10. A Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of African American Male Students Enrolled in Two Types of Nontraditional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…

  11. A study of the temperatures achievable by expansion of high pressure gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. R.; Stollery, J. L.

    1980-08-01

    An experimental investigation of the achievement of cryogenic temperatures by the adiabatic isentropic expansion of a gas is presented. The test apparatus is a light piston tunnel, and the working gas nitrogen. It was determined that cryogenic temperatures were achieved by a polytropic process with an exponent of between 1.3 and 1.4. To achieve a temperature of 120 K from an initial temperature of 300 K, a pressure ratio of 35 will typically be required.

  12. Finite element solution for energy conservation using a highly stable explicit integration algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Manhardt, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical derivation of a finite element solution algorithm for the transient energy conservation equation in multidimensional, stationary multi-media continua with irregular solution domain closure is considered. The complete finite element matrix forms for arbitrarily irregular discretizations are established, using natural coordinate function representations. The algorithm is embodied into a user-oriented computer program (COMOC) which obtains transient temperature distributions at the node points of the finite element discretization using a highly stable explicit integration procedure with automatic error control features. The finite element algorithm is shown to posses convergence with discretization for a transient sample problem. The condensed form for the specific heat element matrix is shown to be preferable to the consistent form. Computed results for diverse problems illustrate the versatility of COMOC, and easily prepared output subroutines are shown to allow quick engineering assessment of solution behavior.

  13. Progress on a Taylor weak statement finite element algorithm for high-speed aerodynamic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Freels, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    A new finite element numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithm has matured to the point of efficiently solving two-dimensional high speed real-gas compressible flow problems in generalized coordinates on modern vector computer systems. The algorithm employs a Taylor Weak Statement classical Galerkin formulation, a variably implicit Newton iteration, and a tensor matrix product factorization of the linear algebra Jacobian under a generalized coordinate transformation. Allowing for a general two-dimensional conservation law system, the algorithm has been exercised on the Euler and laminar forms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Real-gas fluid properties are admitted, and numerical results verify solution accuracy, efficiency, and stability over a range of test problem parameters.

  14. Performance improvements of wavelength-shifting-fiber neutron detectors using high-resolution positioning algorithms

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, C. L.

    2016-05-17

    On the basis of FluoroBancroft linear-algebraic method [S.B. Andersson, Opt. Exp. 16, 18714 (2008)] three highly-resolved positioning methodswere proposed for wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF) neutron detectors. Using a Gaussian or exponential-decay light-response function (LRF), the non-linear relation of photon-number profiles vs. x-pixels was linearized and neutron positions were determined. The proposed algorithms give an average 0.03-0.08 pixel position error, much smaller than that (0.29 pixel) from a traditional maximum photon algorithm (MPA). The new algorithms result in better detector uniformity, less position misassignment (ghosting), better spatial resolution, and an equivalent or better instrument resolution in powder diffraction than the MPA. Moreover,more » these characters will facilitate broader applications of WLSF detectors at time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction beamlines, including single-crystal diffraction and texture analysis.« less

  15. An infrared small target detection algorithm based on high-speed local contrast method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zheng; Yang, Jingli; Jiang, Shouda; Li, Junbao

    2016-05-01

    Small-target detection in infrared imagery with a complex background is always an important task in remote sensing fields. It is important to improve the detection capabilities such as detection rate, false alarm rate, and speed. However, current algorithms usually improve one or two of the detection capabilities while sacrificing the other. In this letter, an Infrared (IR) small target detection algorithm with two layers inspired by Human Visual System (HVS) is proposed to balance those detection capabilities. The first layer uses high speed simplified local contrast method to select significant information. And the second layer uses machine learning classifier to separate targets from background clutters. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm pursue good performance in detection rate, false alarm rate and speed simultaneously.

  16. Representation of high frequency Space Shuttle data by ARMA algorithms and random response spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, P. D.; Mushung, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    High frequency Space Shuttle lift-off data are treated by autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) digital algorithms. These algorithms provide useful information on the spectral densities of the data. Further, they yield spectral models which lend themselves to incorporation to the concept of the random response spectrum. This concept yields a reasonably smooth power spectrum for the design of structural and mechanical systems when the available data bank is limited. Due to the non-stationarity of the lift-off event, the pertinent data are split into three slices. Each of the slices is associated with a rather distinguishable phase of the lift-off event, where stationarity can be expected. The presented results are rather preliminary in nature; it is aimed to call attention to the availability of the discussed digital algorithms and to the need to augment the Space Shuttle data bank as more flights are completed.

  17. Signal Partitioning Algorithm for Highly Efficient Gaussian Mixture Modeling in Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, Andrzej; Marczyk, Michal; Pietrowska, Monika; Widlak, Piotr; Polanska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Mixture - modeling of mass spectra is an approach with many potential applications including peak detection and quantification, smoothing, de-noising, feature extraction and spectral signal compression. However, existing algorithms do not allow for automated analyses of whole spectra. Therefore, despite highlighting potential advantages of mixture modeling of mass spectra of peptide/protein mixtures and some preliminary results presented in several papers, the mixture modeling approach was so far not developed to the stage enabling systematic comparisons with existing software packages for proteomic mass spectra analyses. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for Gaussian mixture modeling of proteomic mass spectra of different types (e.g., MALDI-ToF profiling, MALDI-IMS). The main idea is automated partitioning of protein mass spectral signal into fragments. The obtained fragments are separately decomposed into Gaussian mixture models. The parameters of the mixture models of fragments are then aggregated to form the mixture model of the whole spectrum. We compare the elaborated algorithm to existing algorithms for peak detection and we demonstrate improvements of peak detection efficiency obtained by using Gaussian mixture modeling. We also show applications of the elaborated algorithm to real proteomic datasets of low and high resolution. PMID:26230717

  18. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively.

  19. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  20. The Relationship between Professional Learning Community Implementation and Academic Achievement and Graduation Rates in Georgia High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardinger, Regina Gail

    2013-01-01

    Many educational administrators in Georgia continue to struggle with low student academic achievement and low high school graduation rates. DuFour's professional learning community (PLC) theory suggests a positive relationship between levels of PLC implementation and academic achievement and between levels of PLC implementation and graduation…

  1. The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities, Personal Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine if there was a relationship between professional learning community (PLC), personal teacher efficacy (PTE), and student achievement. The study examined teacher perception of PLC implementation and PET as it related to student achievement at the high school level on the Virginia End-of Course…

  2. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  3. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on motivation as a…

  4. (Re)Defining the Narrative: High-Achieving Nontraditional Black Male Undergraduates at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goings, Ramon B.

    2016-01-01

    Using Harper's anti-deficit achievement framework as a theoretical guide, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the academic and social experiences of four nontraditional, high-achieving, Black male undergraduates attending one historically Black university. Findings show that the participants were intrinsically motivated…

  5. A Multi-Institutional Study of the Relationship between High School Mathematics Achievement and Performance in Introductory College Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Danielle N.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Harwell, Michael; LeBeau, Brandon; Monson, Debra; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of prior mathematics achievement and completion of a commercially developed, National Science Foundation-funded, or University of Chicago School Mathematics Project high school mathematics curriculum on achievement in students' first college statistics course. Specifically, we examined the relationship between…

  6. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  7. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutuli, J. J.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Herbers, Janette E.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses examined academic achievement data across third through eighth grades ("N" = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General greater than RM…

  8. The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical…

  9. An Emerging Professional Identity: Influences on the Achievement of High-Ability First-Generation College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Rinker, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Using a qualitative interview design, this study examined factors contributing to the academic achievement of gifted first-generation college females. Findings indicated an emerging professional identity as the primary influence on achievement. The participants' high ability served as a passport to accessing coursework, extracurricular…

  10. Low-complexity, high-speed, and high-dynamic range time-to-impact algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, Anders; Forchheimer, Robert

    2012-10-01

    We present a method suitable for a time-to-impact sensor. Inspired by the seemingly "low" complexity of small insects, we propose a new approach to optical flow estimation that is the key component in time-to-impact estimation. The approach is based on measuring time instead of the apparent motion of points in the image plane. The specific properties of the motion field in the time-to-impact application are used, such as measuring only along a one-dimensional (1-D) line and using simple feature points, which are tracked from frame to frame. The method lends itself readily to be implemented in a parallel processor with an analog front-end. Such a processing concept [near-sensor image processing (NSIP)] was described for the first time in 1983. In this device, an optical sensor array and a low-level processing unit are tightly integrated into a hybrid analog-digital device. The high dynamic range, which is a key feature of NSIP, is used to extract the feature points. The output from the device consists of a few parameters, which will give the time-to-impact as well as possible transversal speed for off-centered viewing. Performance and complexity aspects of the implementation are discussed, indicating that time-to-impact data can be achieved at a rate of 10 kHz with today's technology.

  11. A comparison of rural high school students in Germany with rural Tennessee high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, R. Fredrick

    This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing

  12. New Powder Metallurgical Approach to Achieve High Fatigue Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Ravi Chandran, K. S.; Kumar, Pankaj; Sun, Pei; Zak Fang, Z.; Koopman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recently, manufacturing of titanium by sintering and dehydrogenation of hydride powders has generated a great deal of interest. An overarching concern regarding powder metallurgy (PM) titanium is that critical mechanical properties, especially the high-cycle fatigue strength, are lower than those of wrought titanium alloys. It is demonstrated here that PM Ti-6Al-4V alloy with mechanical properties comparable (in fatigue strength) and exceeding (in tensile properties) those of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can be produced from titanium hydride powder, through the hydrogen sintering and phase transformation process. Tensile and fatigue behavior, as well as fatigue fracture mechanisms, have been investigated under three processing conditions. It is shown that a reduction in the size of extreme-sized pores by changing the hydride particle size distribution can lead to improved fatigue strength. Further densification by pneumatic isostatic forging leads to a fatigue strength of ~550 MPa, comparable to the best of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys prepared by other methods and approaching the fatigue strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The microstructural factors that limit fatigue strength in PM titanium have been investigated, and pathways to achieve greater fatigue strengths in PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been identified.

  13. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  14. Effect of bead and illustrations models on high school students' achievement in molecular genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2006-05-01

    Our main goal in this study was to explore whether the use of models in molecular genetics instruction in high school can contribute to students' understanding of concepts and processes in genetics. Three comparable groups of 11th and 12th graders participated: The control group (116 students) was taught in the traditional lecture format, while the others received instructions which integrated a bead model (71 students), or an illustration model (71 students). Similar instructions and the same guiding questions accompanied the two models. We used three instruments: a multiple-choice and an open-ended written questionnaire, as well as personal interviews. Five of the multiple-choice questions were also given to students before receiving their genetics instruction (pretest). We found that students who used one of the two types of models improved their knowledge in molecular genetics compared to the control group. However, the open-ended questions revealed that bead model activity was significantly more effective than illustration activity. On the basis of these findings we conclude that, though it is advisable to use a three-dimensional model, such as the bead model, engaging students in activities with illustrations can still improve their achievement in comparison to traditional instruction.

  15. Achieving high survival of tournament-caught black bass: past efforts and future needs and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold; Gilliland, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of black bass (Micropterus spp.) tournaments in the 1960s and 1970s caused concern among fisheries managers and anglers about the impacts of tournament-caused mortality on bass populations. Tournament organizers voluntarily implemented live-release events in the early 1980s. As catch-and-release practices became more common, procedures to improve the survival of tournament-caught fish were developed and have evolved. The objectives of this paper are to review education and outreach efforts to improve survival of tournament-caught black bass, suggest research needs and opportunities to achieve greater survival, and show the relevance of high survival to contemporary black bass management. Since 1985, a succession of informational products describing those techniques have been developed and distributed to anglers. Although research has confirmed the effectiveness of the recommended procedures and documented that angler and tournament organizer behavior has changed and the survival of tournament-caught black bass has increased, the impacts of the outreach efforts on tournament practices have not been quantified. Continued efforts towards increasing angler awareness of proper handling techniques may benefit from better communication, endorsement by professional anglers, and the use of incentives by state agencies to encourage better fish care.

  16. Polyandrous females benefit by producing sons that achieve high reproductive success in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Firman, Renée C

    2011-09-22

    Females of many taxa often copulate with multiple males and incite sperm competition. On the premise that males of high genetic quality are more successful in sperm competition, it has been suggested that females may benefit from polyandry by accruing 'good genes' for their offspring. Laboratory studies have shown that multiple mating can increase female fitness through enhanced embryo viability, and have exposed how polyandry influences the evolution of the ejaculate. However, such studies often do not allow for both female mate choice and male-male competition to operate simultaneously. Here, I took house mice (Mus domesticus) from selection lines that had been evolving with (polygamous) and without (monogamous) sperm competition for 16 generations and, by placing them in free-ranging enclosures for 11 weeks, forced them to compete for access to resources and mates. Parentage analyses revealed that female reproductive success was not influenced by selection history, but there was a significant paternity bias towards males from the polygamous selection lines. Therefore, I show that female house mice benefit from polyandry by producing sons that achieve increased fitness in a semi-natural environment.

  17. Untangling the debate surrounding strategies for achieving sustainable high coverage of insecticide-treated nets.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Warren

    2005-01-01

    On the question of how to achieve the goal of long-term high utilisation of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), most protagonists fall into one of two camps: free distribution or market development. The 'free distribution' camp argue that given the health benefit to be gained and lives saved, not to mention the relative cost effectiveness of ITNs, such an intervention should be provided free and paid for by governments or donors. In addition, they argue that it is unrealistic to ask the poorest of the population, who are often the ones at most risk, to pay for an ITN, and this risks producing greater inequalities in health. The market advocates counter that free distribution compromises sustainability, both in terms of demand and supply. Firstly they argue that, without a price, people will be less inclined to value ITNs. In turn this could mean lower utilisation, and a lower inclination to replace such an asset at the end of its useful life. In addition, on the supply side, without a price there is little chance of a local market developing for ITNs, although this would be the surest way to ensure a sustainable supply. It is hard to argue with either viewpoint, as both have merit. This article considers three major issues in the debate, and attempts to draw policy conclusions.

  18. Longitudinal Analysis of Chinese High School Student's Stress in School and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, few studies have examined the effects of adolescents' stress in school on the change rates of their academic achievement. In the present study, we seek to examine the longitudinal relationships between adolescents' stress in school and the change rates of their academic achievement. The results indicated that for those whose…

  19. Culture, Motivation, and Reading Achievement: High School Students in 41 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing Yin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how cultural values and family cultural capital were linked to adolescents' motivation and reading achievement using multilevel analyses on reading tests and questionnaire responses of 193,841 fifteen-year-olds in 41 countries. In countries that valued more rigid gender roles, girls had lower reading achievement than girls in…

  20. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  1. School Readiness Factors for Predicting High and Low Achieving Students in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davion, Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    When analyzed according to race and ethnicity, poverty level, parental education level, as well as other related factors in schools in America, academic achievement disparities negatively impact educational outcomes for poor children and children of color on a consistent basis. At all educational levels, academic achievement and attainments of…

  2. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  3. College Performance of New Maryland High School Graduates. Student Outcome and Achievement Report (SOAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SOAR (Student Outcome and Achievement Report) relies upon two sets of data, the academic performance data (which are collected directly from the colleges and universities) and the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test)/ACT (American College Testing Program) data, to examine the relationship between students' academic achievements and…

  4. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  5. What’s Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961

  6. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  7. High-resolution climate data over conterminous US using random forest algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new methodology to create high-resolution precipitation data using the random forest algorithm. We have used two approaches: physical downscaling from GCM data using a regional climate model, and interpolation from ground observation data. Physical downscaling method can be applied only for a small region because it is computationally expensive and complex to deploy. On the other hand, interpolation schemes from ground observations do not consider physical processes. In this study, we utilized the random forest algorithm to integrate atmospheric reanalysis data, satellite data, topography data, and ground observation data. First we considered situations where precipitation is same across the domain, largely dominated by storm like systems. We then picked several points to train random forest algorithm. The random forest algorithm estimates out-of-bag errors spatially, and produces the relative importance of each of the input variable.This methodology has the following advantages. (1) The methodology can ingest any spatial dataset to improve downscaling. Even non-precipitation datasets can be ingested such as satellite cloud cover data, radar reflectivity image, or modeled convective available potential energy. (2) The methodology is purely statistical so that physical assumptions are not required. Meanwhile, most of interpolation schemes assume empirical relationship between precipitation and elevation for orographic precipitation. (3) Low quality value in ingested data does not cause critical bias in the results because of the ensemble feature of random forest. Therefore, users do not need to pay a special attention to quality control of input data compared to other interpolation methodologies. (4) Same methodology can be applied to produce other high-resolution climate datasets, such as wind and cloud cover. Those variables are usually hard to be interpolated by conventional algorithms. In conclusion, the proposed methodology can produce reasonable

  8. Louisiana High School Weathers the Storm to Become a Leader in Student Achievement and High Graduation Rates. "High Schools That Work" Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Warren Easton Charter High School in New Orleans, Louisiana, has weathered changes of many types, including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. After having to close for the 2005-2006 school year, the school reopened as a charter school with a board and stepped up its efforts to raise student achievement. Now the school is receiving attention for the…

  9. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  10. Closing the Academic Achievement Gap on the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) through Professional Learning Communities (PLC) Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenrostro, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance that DuFour's nine characteristics of highly effective schools have on closing the academic achievement gap on the California High School Exit Exam, as perceived by high school principals. The study also examined the strategies believed to be most important in…

  11. The High-Potential Fast-Flying Achiever: Themes from the English Language Literature 1976-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Yochanan

    1997-01-01

    Review of business management literature from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada identified the following: the images of high flyer, fast track, and high achiever; the meaning of success; emphasis on performance; corporate rites of passage; and opportunities for women to be high flyers. (SK)

  12. Case Studies of Talented Students Who Achieve and Underachieve in an Urban High School. Research Monograph 95120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; Hebert, Thomas P.; Diaz, Eva I.; Maxfield, Lori R.; Ratley, Michael E.

    This 3-year study compared characteristics of high ability students who were identified as high achievers with students of similar ability who underachieved in school. The 35 students attended a large urban high school comprised of 60 percent Puerto Rican students, 20 percent African American, and the remainder White, Asian, and other. Qualitative…

  13. Achieving high research reporting quality through the use of computational ontologies.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Amrapali; Cofiel, Luciana; Shah, Jatin; Pradhan, Shreyasee; Chan, Edwin; Dameron, Olivier; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Ang, Beng Ti

    2010-12-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses constitute one of the central pillars of evidence-based medicine. However, clinical trials are poorly reported which delays meta-analyses and consequently the translation of clinical research findings to clinical practice. We propose a Center of Excellence in Research Reporting in Neurosurgery (CERR-N) and the creation of a clinically significant computational ontology to encode Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) studies in neurosurgery. A 128 element strong computational ontology was derived from the Trial Bank ontology by omitting classes which were not required to perform meta-analysis. Three researchers from our team tagged five randomly selected RCT's each, published in the last 5 years (2004-2008), in the Journal of Neurosurgery (JoN), Neurosurgery Journal (NJ) and Journal of Neurotrauma (JoNT). We evaluated inter and intra observer reliability for the ontology using percent agreement and kappa coefficient. The inter-observer agreement was 76.4%, 75.97% and 74.9% and intra-observer agreement was 89.8%, 80.8% and 86.56% for JoN, NJ and JoNT respectively. The inter-observer kappa coefficient was 0.60, 0.54 and 0.53 and the intra-observer kappa coefficient was 0.79, 0.82 and 0.79 for JoN, NJ and JoNT journals respectively. The high degree of inter and intra-observer agreement confirms tagging consistency in sections of a given scientific manuscript. Standardizing reporting for neurosurgery articles can be reliably achieved through the integration of a computational ontology within the context of a CERR-N. This approach holds potential for the overall improvement in the quality of reporting of RCTs in neurosurgery, ultimately streamlining the translation of clinical research findings to improvement in patient care. PMID:20953737

  14. Examining the Effects of a Reformed Junior High School Science Class on Students' Math Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Sawada, Daiyo

    2000-01-01

    Examines an eighth grade science class that integrated mathematics and science through the use of technology. Reports that integrating mathematics and science classes positively affected students' achievement in math. (Contains 20 references.) (Author/ASK)

  15. Inverse regression-based uncertainty quantification algorithms for high-dimensional models: Theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang; Li, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Many uncertainty quantification (UQ) approaches suffer from the curse of dimensionality, that is, their computational costs become intractable for problems involving a large number of uncertainty parameters. In these situations, the classic Monte Carlo often remains the preferred method of choice because its convergence rate O (n - 1 / 2), where n is the required number of model simulations, does not depend on the dimension of the problem. However, many high-dimensional UQ problems are intrinsically low-dimensional, because the variation of the quantity of interest (QoI) is often caused by only a few latent parameters varying within a low-dimensional subspace, known as the sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) subspace in the statistics literature. Motivated by this observation, we propose two inverse regression-based UQ algorithms (IRUQ) for high-dimensional problems. Both algorithms use inverse regression to convert the original high-dimensional problem to a low-dimensional one, which is then efficiently solved by building a response surface for the reduced model, for example via the polynomial chaos expansion. The first algorithm, which is for the situations where an exact SDR subspace exists, is proved to converge at rate O (n-1), hence much faster than MC. The second algorithm, which doesn't require an exact SDR, employs the reduced model as a control variate to reduce the error of the MC estimate. The accuracy gain could still be significant, depending on how well the reduced model approximates the original high-dimensional one. IRUQ also provides several additional practical advantages: it is non-intrusive; it does not require computing the high-dimensional gradient of the QoI; and it reports an error bar so the user knows how reliable the result is.

  16. A novel robust and efficient algorithm for charge particle tracking in high background flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, C.; Cisbani, E.; Del Dotto, A.

    2015-05-01

    The high luminosity that will be reached in the new generation of High Energy Particle and Nuclear physics experiments implies large high background rate and large tracker occupancy, representing therefore a new challenge for particle tracking algorithms. For instance, at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) (VA,USA), one of the most demanding experiment in this respect, performed with a 12 GeV electron beam, is characterized by a luminosity up to 1039cm-2s-1. To this scope, Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) based trackers are under development for a new spectrometer that will operate at these high rates in the Hall A of JLab. Within this context, we developed a new tracking algorithm, based on a multistep approach: (i) all hardware - time and charge - information are exploited to minimize the number of hits to associate; (ii) a dedicated Neural Network (NN) has been designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector; (iii) the measurements of the associated hits are further improved in resolution through the application of Kalman filter and Rauch- Tung-Striebel smoother. The algorithm is shortly presented along with a discussion of the promising first results.

  17. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly.

  18. A Jitter-Mitigating High Gain Antenna Pointing Algorithm for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourkland, Kristin L.; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Blaurock, Carl

    2007-01-01

    This paper details a High Gain Antenna (HGA) pointing algorithm which mitigates jitter during the motion of the antennas on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft. SDO has two HGAs which point towards the Earth and send data to a ground station at a high rate. These antennas are required to track the ground station during the spacecraft Inertial and Science modes, which include periods of inertial Sunpointing as well as calibration slews. The HGAs also experience handoff seasons, where the antennas trade off between pointing at the ground station and pointing away from the Earth. The science instruments on SDO require fine Sun pointing and have a very low jitter tolerance. Analysis showed that the nominal tracking and slewing motions of the antennas cause enough jitter to exceed the HGA portion of the jitter budget. The HGA pointing control algorithm was expanded from its original form as a means to mitigate the jitter.

  19. Supercomputer implementation of finite element algorithms for high speed compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1986-01-01

    Prediction of compressible flow phenomena using the finite element method is of recent origin and considerable interest. Two shock capturing finite element formulations for high speed compressible flows are described. A Taylor-Galerkin formulation uses a Taylor series expansion in time coupled with a Galerkin weighted residual statement. The Taylor-Galerkin algorithms use explicit artificial dissipation, and the performance of three dissipation models are compared. A Petrov-Galerkin algorithm has as its basis the concepts of streamline upwinding. Vectorization strategies are developed to implement the finite element formulations on the NASA Langley VPS-32. The vectorization scheme results in finite element programs that use vectors of length of the order of the number of nodes or elements. The use of the vectorization procedure speeds up processing rates by over two orders of magnitude. The Taylor-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin algorithms are evaluated for 2D inviscid flows on criteria such as solution accuracy, shock resolution, computational speed and storage requirements. The convergence rates for both algorithms are enhanced by local time-stepping schemes. Extension of the vectorization procedure for predicting 2D viscous and 3D inviscid flows are demonstrated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the finite element procedures for realistic problems that require hundreds of thousands of nodes.

  20. Algorithm for Automatic Behavior Quantification of Laboratory Mice Using High-Frame-Rate Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yuman; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for automatic behavior quantification in laboratory mice to quantify several model behaviors. The algorithm can detect repetitive motions of the fore- or hind-limbs at several or dozens of hertz, which are too rapid for the naked eye, from high-frame-rate video images. Multiple repetitive motions can always be identified from periodic frame-differential image features in four segmented regions — the head, left side, right side, and tail. Even when a mouse changes its posture and orientation relative to the camera, these features can still be extracted from the shift- and orientation-invariant shape of the mouse silhouette by using the polar coordinate system and adjusting the angle coordinate according to the head and tail positions. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated by analyzing long-term 240-fps videos of four laboratory mice for six typical model behaviors: moving, rearing, immobility, head grooming, left-side scratching, and right-side scratching. The time durations for the model behaviors determined by the algorithm have detection/correction ratios greater than 80% for all the model behaviors. This shows good quantification results for actual animal testing.

  1. Academic achievement trajectories of homeless and highly mobile students: resilience in the context of chronic and acute risk.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, J J; Desjardins, Christopher David; Herbers, Janette E; Long, Jeffrey D; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S

    2013-01-01

    Analyses examined academic achievement data across third through eighth grades (N = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General > RM > FM > HHM). Achievement gaps appeared stable or widened between HHM students and lower risk groups. Math and reading achievement were lower, and growth in math was slower in years of HHM identification, suggesting acute consequences of residential instability. Nonetheless, 45% of HHM students scored within or above the average range, suggesting academic resilience. Results underscore the need for research on risk and resilience processes among HHM students to address achievement disparities.

  2. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Desjardins, Christopher David; Herbers, Janette E.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Heistad, David; Chan, Chi-Keung; Hinz, Elizabeth; Masten, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses examined academic achievement data across 3rd through 8th grades (N = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) to other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced-price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General > RM > FM > HHM). Achievement gaps appeared stable or widened between HHM students and lower-risk groups. Math and reading achievement were lower and growth in math was slower in years of HHM identification, suggesting acute consequences of residential instability. Nonetheless, 45% of HHM students scored within or above the average range, suggesting academic resilience. Results underscore the need for research on risk and resilience processes among HHM students to address achievement disparities. PMID:23110492

  3. An elliptic phase-shift algorithm for high speed three-dimensional profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fuqin; Li, Zhao; Chen, Jia; Deng, Jiangwen; Fung, Kenneth S. M.; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2013-03-01

    A high throughput is often required in many machine vision systems, especially on the assembly line in the semiconductor industry. To develop a non-contact three-dimensional dense surface reconstruction system for real-time surface inspection and metrology applications, in this work, we project sinusoidal patterns onto the inspected objects and propose a high speed phase-shift algorithm. First, we use an illumination-reflectivity-focus (IRF) model to investigate the factors in image formation for phase-measuring profilometry. Second, by visualizing and analyzing the characteristic intensity locus projected onto the intensity space, we build a two-dimensional phase map to store the phase information for each point in the intensity space. Third, we develop an efficient elliptic phase-shift algorithm (E-PSA) for high speed surface profilometry. In this method, instead of calculating the time-consuming inverse trigonometric function, we only need to normalize the measured image intensities and then index the built two-dimensional phase map during real-time phase reconstruction. Finally, experimental results show that it is about two times faster than conventional phase-shift algorithm.

  4. MTRC compensation in high-resolution ISAR imaging via improved polar format algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Hao; Li, Na; Xu, Shiyou; Chen, Zengping

    2014-10-01

    Migration through resolution cells (MTRC) is generated in high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. A MTRC compensation algorithm for high-resolution ISAR imaging based on improved polar format algorithm (PFA) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, in the situation that a rigid-body target stably flies, the initial value of the rotation angle and center of the target is obtained from the rotation of radar line of sight (RLOS) and high range resolution profile (HRRP). Then, the PFA is iteratively applied to the echo data to search the optimization solution based on minimum entropy criterion. The procedure starts with the estimated initial rotation angle and center, and terminated when the entropy of the compensated ISAR image is minimized. To reduce the computational load, the 2-D iterative search is divided into two 1-D search. One is carried along the rotation angle and the other one is carried along rotation center. Each of the 1-D searches is realized by using of the golden section search method. The accurate rotation angle and center can be obtained when the iterative search terminates. Finally, apply the PFA to compensate the MTRC by the use of the obtained optimized rotation angle and center. After MTRC compensation, the ISAR image can be best focused. Simulated and real data demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. The Predictive Relation of a High School Mathematic GPA to High-Stakes Assessment Achievement Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Course grades, which often include non-achievement factors such as effort and behavior and are subject to individual teacher grading philosophies, suffer from issues of unreliability. Yet, course grades continue to be utilized as a primary tool for reporting academic achievement to students and parents and are used by most colleges and…

  6. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  7. The Relationship of Mental Pressure with Optimism and Academic Achievement Motivation among Second Grade Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…

  8. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  9. Big School, Small School: (Re)Testing Assumptions about High School Size, School Engagement and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Carolan, Brian V.; Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In…

  10. Opening Doors to the Future: Preparing Low-Achieving Middle Grades Students To Succeed in High School. 2002 Outstanding Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This publication describes the efforts of 15 schools to address systemic change needed to help low-achieving students move successfully from middle to high school. Section 1, "Getting Students Ready for High School," examines "Interdisciplinary Approach Helps Eighth-Graders Improve Their Scores on State Tests"; "Two-Year Interdisciplinary Program…

  11. The Grasshopper and the Ant: Motivational Responses of Low-Achieving Students to High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Engel, Mimi

    2001-01-01

    Examined the responses of 102 low achieving sixth and eighth graders to Chicago's highly publicized efforts to end social promotion. Students generally described increased work efforts, and students with high levels of work effort generally had greater than average learning gains and positive outcomes in terms of promotion. About one-third of…

  12. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  13. Gender Differences in Korean High School Students' Science Achievements and Attitudes towards Science in Three Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Baker, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of high schools' gender organization on Korean tenth-grade students' science achievements, and their attitudes towards science. The high schools involved included an all-male institution, an all-female institution, and a co-educational institution. Three schools, three principals, three science teachers, and 302…

  14. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  15. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  16. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  17. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  18. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  19. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  20. The Contribution of Cultural Capital to Students' Mathematics Achievement in Medium and High Socioeconomic Gradient Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses the issue of how different forms of cultural capital may influence children's mathematics achievement in economies with different socioeconomic gradients. Data from 73,178 parent-child dyads from 10 economies with different socioeconomic gradients who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment…

  1. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  2. A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

  3. Three Dopaminergic Polymorphisms Are Associated with Academic Achievement in Middle and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Wright, John Paul; DeLisi, Matt; Howard, Matthew O.

    2010-01-01

    Although academic achievement is a heritable construct, to date research has yet to explore its molecular genetic underpinnings. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current longitudinal study investigated the associations between polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4) and…

  4. Striking Differences: The Impact of Moderate and High Trauma on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Reigner, Ronald; Packard, Abbot

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood traumatic exposure, such as violence and loss of a significant other, and reading achievement. With a sample of 163 urban elementary children (grades 2-5), the impact of traumatic events on 3 years of reading scores was examined. Results suggested that violence exposure had an adverse effect…

  5. The Road to Retention: A Closer Look at Institutions that Achieve High Course Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Janet C.; Fetzner, Marie J.

    2009-01-01

    Although online course completion rates are commonly believed to be lower than in other delivery modes, some programs achieve equal or better course completion rates. This issue presents studies that suggest certain practices contribute to student success. Readers are invited to contribute to work-in-progress on key factors for a framework of…

  6. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH GRADE PUERTO RICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM M.; CHRISTENSEN, EDWARD W.

    THIS STUDY INVOLVED--(1) EXPLORING ACADEMIC MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUERTO RICAN 11TH-GRADE STUDENTS, (2) CREATING A MEASURE FOR THESE FACTORS WHICH MIGHT BE USABLE IN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AREAS, AND (3) INVESTIGATING THE CHILD-REARING AND OTHER PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THE METHOD INVOLVED THREE STAGES--(1)…

  7. Keeping Expectations High While Helping Lower-Achieving Students Meet Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa; Morrill, Laura; Adler, Mary

    2002-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, the Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA) began a new initiative called the Partnership for Literacy. In this implementation study, teachers from a range of middle schools in Wisconsin and New York worked in partnership with each other and with an instructional facilitator to adopt and adapt strategies that have…

  8. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  9. What's Past Is Prologue: Relations between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at…

  10. Analyzing Academic Achievement of Junior High School Students by an Improved Rough Set Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Ping-Feng; Lyu, Yi-Jia; Wang, Yu-Min

    2010-01-01

    Rough set theory (RST) is an emerging technique used to deal with problems in data mining and knowledge acquisition. However, the RST approach has not been widely explored in the field of academic achievement. This investigation developed an improved RST (IMRST) model, which employs linear discriminant analysis to determine a reduct of RST, and…

  11. Homogeneous Grouping in the Context of High-Stakes Testing: Does It Improve Reading Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo-Gonzalez, Trena

    2012-01-01

    As accountability reform intensifies, urban school districts strive to meet No Child Left Behind mandates to avoid severe penalties. This study investigated the resurgence of homogeneous grouping methods as a means to increase reading achievement and meet English Language Arts Adequate Yearly Progress requirements. Specifically, this study…

  12. Effect of Blended Learning Environment Model on High School Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar; Demirkol, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the students' academic performance by comparing the blended learning environment and traditional learning environment. It has been observed whether there is a significant difference between the academic achievement grade dispersions and the male-female students' grades. The study has been carried out in Diyarbakir…

  13. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  14. Self-Regulation, Executive Function, Working Memory, and Academic Achievement of Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloran, Roberta Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation, executive function and working memory are areas of cognitive processing that have been studied extensively. Although many studies have examined the constructs, there is limited empirical support suggesting a formal link between the three cognitive processes and their prediction of academic achievement. Thus, the present study…

  15. The Effect of Community Linguistic Isolation on Language-Minority Student Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Timothy Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Research on language-minority student outcomes has revealed sizeable and persistent achievement gaps. The reasons for these gaps are often closely linked with other factors related to underperformance, including generational status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Using sociocultural second-language acquisition theories and community…

  16. Mathematically Gifted Students and High Achievement: The Role of Motivation and Classroom Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Kollmayer, Marlene; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    One of the most intriguing questions for those who study intellectually gifted students is why some of them reach peak performances at school and others don't. Moderator theories of giftedness assume that domain-specific gifts are transformed into achievement in a process influenced by non-cognitive and environmental variables. Thus, the current…

  17. The Role of Schools, Families, and Psychological Variables on Math Achievement of Black High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS;1988/2000), the author conducted hierarchical linear regression analyses, with a nested design, to estimate the influence of affective variables--parent involvement, teacher perceptions, and school environments--on Black students' math achievement in grade 10. Drawing on…

  18. Inferring Adequate Yearly Progress of Schools from Student Achievement in Highly Mobile Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenberg, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Many attempts at educational reform, among them No Child Left Behind and a recent Philadelphia effort, assume that the quality of the educational programs being offered by schools can be inferred from the achievements of the children who attend them. This article explores the reasonableness of this assumption for Philadelphia public schools by…

  19. Sustaining Success toward Closing the Achievement Gap: A Case Study of One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Kimberly Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Coleman Report (1966), the focus on closing the achievement gap has been a critical component of educational policy for political leaders and field research by educators. The economic crisis which California and the nation at large currently face creates a challenging situation in attempting to narrow the gap.…

  20. A High Precision Position Sensor Design and Its Signal Processing Algorithm for a Maglev Train

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Song; Long, Zhiqiang; He, Ning; Chang, Wensen

    2012-01-01

    High precision positioning technology for a kind of high speed maglev train with an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system is studied. At first, the basic structure and functions of the position sensor are introduced and some key techniques to enhance the positioning precision are designed. Then, in order to further improve the positioning signal quality and the fault-tolerant ability of the sensor, a new kind of discrete-time tracking differentiator (TD) is proposed based on nonlinear optimal control theory. This new TD has good filtering and differentiating performances and a small calculation load. It is suitable for real-time signal processing. The stability, convergence property and frequency characteristics of the TD are studied and analyzed thoroughly. The delay constant of the TD is figured out and an effective time delay compensation algorithm is proposed. Based on the TD technology, a filtering process is introduced in to improve the positioning signal waveform when the sensor is under bad working conditions, and a two-sensor switching algorithm is designed to eliminate the positioning errors caused by the joint gaps of the long stator. The effectiveness and stability of the sensor and its signal processing algorithms are proved by the experiments on a test train during a long-term test run. PMID:22778582