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Sample records for algorithm incorporating preference

  1. Working with clients by incorporating their preferences.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Kelley A; Swift, Joshua K; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-09-01

    Working with clients by integrating their therapy preferences into the treatment decision-making process has been identified as an important part of evidence-based practice in psychology. Accommodating client preferences has also been demonstrated to lead to fewer treatment dropouts and improved therapy outcomes. In this article, we present a number of clinical interventions or techniques for addressing client preferences in psychotherapy. Clinical examples demonstrating the techniques are also provided. PMID:24000835

  2. Incorporating patients' preferences into medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Current models of care emphasize the importance of including patients' values in the decision-making process. This is particularly important for decisions for which there are few data supporting a clear strategy or treatment choice. Constructing preferences for complex decisions requires that patients be able to consider multiple trade-offs between specific risks and benefits. Several marketing research techniques have been recently applied to heath care settings to facilitate this process. Most can be programmed to generate patients' preferences or priorities, which can then be used to improve patient-physician communication. In this article, we will describe some of the currently available approaches that have been successfully used in the health care setting. We provide case examples to illustrate the potential value of adopting each of these approaches in clinical practice. PMID:23132890

  3. Incorporating User Preferences Within an Optimal Traffic Flow Management Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph Lucio; Sheth, Kapil S.; Guiterrez-Nolasco, Sebastian Armardo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of future decision support tools for Traffic Flow Management in the National Airspace System will depend on two major factors: computational burden and collaboration. Previous research has focused separately on these two aspects without consideration of their interaction. In this paper, their explicit combination is examined. It is shown that when user preferences are incorporated with an optimal approach to scheduling, runtime is not adversely affected. A benefit-cost ratio is used to measure the influence of user preferences on an optimal solution. This metric shows user preferences can be accommodated without inordinately, negatively affecting the overall system delay. Specifically, incorporating user preferences will increase delays proportionally to increased user satisfaction.

  4. Incorporating public preferences in planning urban water supply reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Charles W.; Smith, Mark Griffin

    1993-10-01

    This study has two objectives: (1) to compare the attitudes of the water-using public, water officials, and elected officials toward the risk of water supply shortage; and (2) to develop a methodology for incorporating water users' valuation of reliability in system design. Using contingent valuation techniques, we have measured the benefits and costs of different reliability levels in terms of water users' willingness to pay (WTP) for increases in reliability and in terms of their willingness to accept (WTA) compensation in the form of lower water bills for lower levels of reliability. Three cities in northern Colorado with diverse baseline levels of water supply reliability (Aurora, Boulder, and Longmont) are the study sites. Contrary to our hypothesis that water managers are unjustifiably risk averse, we find that water managers' preferences are consistent with customer WTP (WTA) values associated with the risk of water shortages and the system costs associated with reliability. Water managers in Boulder (high reliability) were willing to consider reductions in the level of system reliability while water managers in Aurora and Longmont (low reliability) favored the status quo or increased reliability. While these attitudes were sometimes contrary to a majority of customers' expressed interests in change, they were shown to be justified by comparison of supply system costs (savings) with aggregate WTP for additional reliability (WTA for less reliability).

  5. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    PubMed Central

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  6. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples.

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  7. Algorithms for Learning Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    concepts to estimate quantitative measures of the user s preferences from training examples (preferred subsets) specified by the user. Once preferences have been learned, the system uses those preferences to select preferred subsets from new sets. The method was found to be viable when tested in computational experiments on menus, music playlists, and rover images. Contemplated future development efforts include further tests on more diverse sets and development of a sub-method for (a) estimating the parameter that represents the relative importance of diversity versus depth, and (b) incorporating background knowledge about the nature of quality functions, which are special functions that specify depth preferences for features.

  8. How to incorporate generic refraction models into multistatic tracking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouse, D. F.

    The vast majority of literature published on target tracking ignores the effects of atmospheric refraction. When refraction is considered, the solutions are generally tailored to a simple exponential atmospheric refraction model. This paper discusses how arbitrary refraction models can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. Attention is paid to multistatic tracking problems, where uncorrected refractive effects can worsen track accuracy and consistency in centralized tracking algorithms, and can lead to difficulties in track-to-track association in distributed tracking filters. Monostatic and bistatic track initialization using refraction-corrupted measurements is discussed. The results are demonstrated using an exponential refractive model, though an arbitrary refraction profile can be substituted.

  9. 78 FR 45538 - The Patient Preference Initiative: Incorporating Patient Preference Information Into the Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    .... Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on September 18 and 19, 2013, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m... organization. If time and space permit, onsite registration on the day of the workshop will be available.... To ensure adequate time for review and incorporation prior to the workshop, FDA...

  10. Is It that Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahmer, Emiel; Koolen, Ruud; Theune, Mariet

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order.…

  11. Viewer preferences for classes of noise removal algorithms for high definition content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Sachin

    2012-03-01

    Perceived video quality studies were performed on a number of key classes of noise removal algorithms to determine viewer preference. The noise removal algorithm classes represent increase in complexity from linear filter to nonlinear filter to adaptive filter to spatio-temporal filter. The subjective results quantify the perceived quality improvements that can be obtained with increasing complexity. The specific algorithm classes tested include: linear spatial one channel filter, nonlinear spatial two-channel filter, adaptive nonlinear spatial filter, multi-frame spatio-temporal adaptive filter. All algorithms were applied on full HD (1080P) content. Our subjective results show that spatio-temporal (multi-frame) noise removal algorithm performs best amongst the various algorithm classes. The spatio-temporal algorithm improvement compared to original video sequences is statistically significant. On the average, noise-removed video sequences are preferred over original (noisy) video sequences. The Adaptive bilateral and non-adaptive bilateral two channel noise removal algorithms perform similarly on the average thus suggesting that a non-adaptive parameter tuned algorithm may be adequate.

  12. Investigating preferences for color-shape combinations with gaze driven optimization method based on evolutionary algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Tim; Zanker, Johannes M.

    2013-01-01

    Studying aesthetic preference is notoriously difficult because it targets individual experience. Eye movements provide a rich source of behavioral measures that directly reflect subjective choice. To determine individual preferences for simple composition rules we here use fixation duration as the fitness measure in a Gaze Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (GDEA), which has been demonstrated as a tool to identify aesthetic preferences (Holmes and Zanker, 2012). In the present study, the GDEA was used to investigate the preferred combination of color and shape which have been promoted in the Bauhaus arts school. We used the same three shapes (square, circle, triangle) used by Kandinsky (1923), with the three color palette from the original experiment (A), an extended seven color palette (B), and eight different shape orientation (C). Participants were instructed to look for their preferred circle, triangle or square in displays with eight stimuli of different shapes, colors and rotations, in an attempt to test for a strong preference for red squares, yellow triangles and blue circles in such an unbiased experimental design and with an extended set of possible combinations. We Tested six participants extensively on the different conditions and found consistent preferences for color-shape combinations for individuals, but little evidence at the group level for clear color/shape preference consistent with Kandinsky's claims, apart from some weak link between yellow and triangles. Our findings suggest substantial inter-individual differences in the presence of stable individual associations of color and shapes, but also that these associations are robust within a single individual. These individual differences go some way toward challenging the claims of the universal preference for color/shape combinations proposed by Kandinsky, but also indicate that a much larger sample size would be needed to confidently reject that hypothesis. Moreover, these experiments highlight the

  13. A new algorithm for grid-based hydrologic analysis by incorporating stormwater infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yosoon; Yi, Huiuk; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2011-08-01

    We developed a new algorithm, the Adaptive Stormwater Infrastructure (ASI) algorithm, to incorporate ancillary data sets related to stormwater infrastructure into the grid-based hydrologic analysis. The algorithm simultaneously considers the effects of the surface stormwater collector network (e.g., diversions, roadside ditches, and canals) and underground stormwater conveyance systems (e.g., waterway tunnels, collector pipes, and culverts). The surface drainage flows controlled by the surface runoff collector network are superimposed onto the flow directions derived from a DEM. After examining the connections between inlets and outfalls in the underground stormwater conveyance system, the flow accumulation and delineation of watersheds are calculated based on recursive computations. Application of the algorithm to the Sangdong tailings dam in Korea revealed superior performance to that of a conventional D8 single-flow algorithm in terms of providing reasonable hydrologic information on watersheds with stormwater infrastructure.

  14. Helical Foldamers Incorporating Photoswitchable Residues for Light-Mediated Modulation of Conformational Preference.

    PubMed

    Mazzier, Daniela; Crisma, Marco; De Poli, Matteo; Marafon, Giulia; Peggion, Cristina; Clayden, Jonathan; Moretto, Alessandro

    2016-06-29

    An E unsaturated fumaramide linkage may be introduced into Aib peptide foldamer structures by standard coupling methods and photoisomerized to its Z (maleamide) isomer by irradiation with UV light. As a result of the photoisomerization, a new hydrogen-bonded contact becomes possible between the peptide domains located on either side of the unsaturated linkage. Using the fumaramide/maleamide linker to couple a chiral and an achiral fragment allows the change in hydrogen bond network to communicate a conformational preference, inducing a screw sense preference in the achiral domain of the maleamide-linked foldamers that is absent from the fumaramides. Evidence for the induced screw sense preference is provided by NMR and CD, and also by the turning on by light of the diastereoselectivity of a peptide chain extension reaction. The fumaramide/maleamide linker thus acts as a "conformational photodiode" that conducts stereochemical information as a result of irradiation by UV light. PMID:27258674

  15. 36 CFR 13.320 - Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorization pursuant to 36 CFR part 51 or other applicable National Park Service procedures. CIRI must submit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.320 Preference... refusal to provide new visitor services within that portion of Lake Clark National Park and Preserve...

  16. 36 CFR 13.320 - Preference to Cook Inlet Region, Incorporated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorization pursuant to 36 CFR part 51 or other applicable National Park Service procedures. CIRI must submit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.320 Preference... refusal to provide new visitor services within that portion of Lake Clark National Park and Preserve...

  17. Maximizing the nurses' preferences in nurse scheduling problem: mathematical modeling and a meta-heuristic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Hamed; Salmasi, Nasser

    2015-04-01

    The nurse scheduling problem (NSP) has received a great amount of attention in recent years. In the NSP, the goal is to assign shifts to the nurses in order to satisfy the hospital's demand during the planning horizon by considering different objective functions. In this research, we focus on maximizing the nurses' preferences for working shifts and weekends off by considering several important factors such as hospital's policies, labor laws, governmental regulations, and the status of nurses at the end of the previous planning horizon in one of the largest hospitals in Iran i.e., Milad Hospital. Due to the shortage of available nurses, at first, the minimum total number of required nurses is determined. Then, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the problem optimally. Since the proposed research problem is NP-hard, a meta-heuristic algorithm based on simulated annealing (SA) is applied to heuristically solve the problem in a reasonable time. An initial feasible solution generator and several novel neighborhood structures are applied to enhance performance of the SA algorithm. Inspired from our observations in Milad hospital, random test problems are generated to evaluate the performance of the SA algorithm. The results of computational experiments indicate that the applied SA algorithm provides solutions with average percentage gap of 5.49 % compared to the upper bounds obtained from the mathematical model. Moreover, the applied SA algorithm provides significantly better solutions in a reasonable time than the schedules provided by the head nurses.

  18. Determining the Effectiveness of Incorporating Geographic Information Into Vehicle Performance Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sera White

    2012-04-01

    This thesis presents a research study using one year of driving data obtained from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) located in Sacramento and San Francisco, California to determine the effectiveness of incorporating geographic information into vehicle performance algorithms. Sacramento and San Francisco were chosen because of the availability of high resolution (1/9 arc second) digital elevation data. First, I present a method for obtaining instantaneous road slope, given a latitude and longitude, and introduce its use into common driving intensity algorithms. I show that for trips characterized by >40m of net elevation change (from key on to key off), the use of instantaneous road slope significantly changes the results of driving intensity calculations. For trips exhibiting elevation loss, algorithms ignoring road slope overestimated driving intensity by as much as 211 Wh/mile, while for trips exhibiting elevation gain these algorithms underestimated driving intensity by as much as 333 Wh/mile. Second, I describe and test an algorithm that incorporates vehicle route type into computations of city and highway fuel economy. Route type was determined by intersecting trip GPS points with ESRI StreetMap road types and assigning each trip as either city or highway route type according to whichever road type comprised the largest distance traveled. The fuel economy results produced by the geographic classification were compared to the fuel economy results produced by algorithms that assign route type based on average speed or driving style. Most results were within 1 mile per gallon ({approx}3%) of one another; the largest difference was 1.4 miles per gallon for charge depleting highway trips. The methods for acquiring and using geographic data introduced in this thesis will enable other vehicle technology researchers to incorporate geographic data into their research problems.

  19. Evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective optimization: fuzzy preference aggregation and multisexual EAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonissone, Stefano R.

    2001-11-01

    There are many approaches to solving multi-objective optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. We need to select methods for representing and aggregating preferences, as well as choosing strategies for searching in multi-dimensional objective spaces. First we suggest the use of linguistic variables to represent preferences and the use of fuzzy rule systems to implement tradeoff aggregations. After a review of alternatives EA methods for multi-objective optimizations, we explore the use of multi-sexual genetic algorithms (MSGA). In using a MSGA, we need to modify certain parts of the GAs, namely the selection and crossover operations. The selection operator groups solutions according to their gender tag to prepare them for crossover. The crossover is modified by appending a gender tag at the end of the chromosome. We use single and double point crossovers. We determine the gender of the offspring by the amount of genetic material provided by each parent. The parent that contributed the most to the creation of a specific offspring determines the gender that the offspring will inherit. This is still a work in progress, and in the conclusion we examine many future extensions and experiments.

  20. Analysis of Factors for Incorporating User Preferences in Air Traffic Management: A system Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Kapil S.; Gutierrez-Nolasco, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors that impact user flight schedules during air traffic congestion. In pre-departure flight planning, users file one route per flight, which often leads to increased delays, inefficient airspace utilization, and exclusion of user flight preferences. In this paper, first the idea of filing alternate routes and providing priorities on each of those routes is introduced. Then, the impact of varying planning interval and system imposed departure delay increment is discussed. The metrics of total delay and equity are used for analyzing the impact of these factors on increased traffic and on different users. The results are shown for four cases, with and without the optional routes and priority assignments. Results demonstrate that adding priorities to optional routes further improves system performance compared to filing one route per flight and using first-come first-served scheme. It was also observed that a two-hour planning interval with a five-minute system imposed departure delay increment results in highest delay reduction. The trend holds for a scenario with increased traffic.

  1. Incorporating a Wheeled Vehicle Model in a New Monocular Visual Odometry Algorithm for Dynamic Outdoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanhua; Xiong, Guangming; Chen, Huiyan; Lee, Dah-Jye

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments. PMID:25256109

  2. Incorporating a wheeled vehicle model in a new monocular visual odometry algorithm for dynamic outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanhua; Xiong, Guangming; Chen, Huiyan; Lee, Dah-Jye

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments. PMID:25256109

  3. Freeing Space for NASA: Incorporating a Lossless Compression Algorithm into NASA's FOSS System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiechtner, Kaitlyn; Parker, Allen

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) system can gather and store up to 1,536,000 bytes (1.46 megabytes) per second. Since the FOSS system typically acquires hours - or even days - of data, the system can gather hundreds of gigabytes of data for a given test event. To store such large quantities of data more effectively, NASA is modifying a Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (LZO) lossless data compression program to compress data as it is being acquired in real time. After proving that the algorithm is capable of compressing the data from the FOSS system, the LZO program will be modified and incorporated into the FOSS system. Implementing an LZO compression algorithm will instantly free up memory space without compromising any data obtained. With the availability of memory space, the FOSS system can be used more efficiently on test specimens, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that can be in flight for days. By integrating the compression algorithm, the FOSS system can continue gathering data, even on longer flights.

  4. Efficient fuzzy Bayesian inference algorithms for incorporating expert knowledge in parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Mohammad Mahdi; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Bayesian inference has traditionally been conceived as the proper framework for the formal incorporation of expert knowledge in parameter estimation of groundwater models. However, conventional Bayesian inference is incapable of taking into account the imprecision essentially embedded in expert provided information. In order to solve this problem, a number of extensions to conventional Bayesian inference have been introduced in recent years. One of these extensions is 'fuzzy Bayesian inference' which is the result of integrating fuzzy techniques into Bayesian statistics. Fuzzy Bayesian inference has a number of desirable features which makes it an attractive approach for incorporating expert knowledge in the parameter estimation process of groundwater models: (1) it is well adapted to the nature of expert provided information, (2) it allows to distinguishably model both uncertainty and imprecision, and (3) it presents a framework for fusing expert provided information regarding the various inputs of the Bayesian inference algorithm. However an important obstacle in employing fuzzy Bayesian inference in groundwater numerical modeling applications is the computational burden, as the required number of numerical model simulations often becomes extremely exhaustive and often computationally infeasible. In this paper, a novel approach of accelerating the fuzzy Bayesian inference algorithm is proposed which is based on using approximate posterior distributions derived from surrogate modeling, as a screening tool in the computations. The proposed approach is first applied to a synthetic test case of seawater intrusion (SWI) in a coastal aquifer. It is shown that for this synthetic test case, the proposed approach decreases the number of required numerical simulations by an order of magnitude. Then the proposed approach is applied to a real-world test case involving three-dimensional numerical modeling of SWI in Kish Island, located in the Persian Gulf. An expert

  5. Incorporation of a Chemical Kinetics Model for Composition B in a Parallel Finite-Element Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, Elizabeth; Pauler, Denise

    2009-06-01

    A thermal degradation model for Composition B (Comp B) explosive is being evaluated for incorporation into a finite-element algorithm [1]. The RDX component of Comp B dominates the thermal degradation since its decomposition process occurs at lower temperatures than TNT. The model assumes that solid and liquid RDX decompose by the same mechanisms, but along different reaction pathways [2, 3]. A steady-state approximation is applied to the gaseous intermediates and is compared to the full transient analysis for the entire reaction scheme. The parallel finite-element algorithm is used to predict the pressure increase on the interior of the metal casing of confined Comp B due to the production of gases during thermal decomposition. =0pt References [1] E. M. Kallman, ``Scalable Cluster-Based Galerkin Analysis for Kinetics Models of Energetic Materials,'' SIAM CSE, March 2-6, 2009. [2] D. K. Zerkle, ``Composition B Decomposition and Ignition Model,'' 13th International Detonation Symposium, July 23-28, 2006. [3] J. M. Zucker, A. J. Barra, D. K. Zerkle, M. J. Kaneshige and P. M. Dickson, ``Thermal Decomposition Models for High Explosive Compositions,'' 14th APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, July 31-August 5, 2005.

  6. What is the preferred strength setting of the sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction algorithm in abdominal CT imaging?

    PubMed

    Hardie, Andrew D; Nelson, Rachel M; Egbert, Robert; Rieter, William J; Tipnis, Sameer V

    2015-01-01

    Our primary objective in this study was to determine the preferred strength setting for the sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction algorithm (SAFIRE) in abdominal computed tomography (CT) imaging. Sixteen consecutive clinical CT scans of the abdomen were reconstructed by use of traditional filtered back projection (FBP) and 5 SAFIRE strengths: S1-S5. Six readers of differing experience were asked to rank the images on preference for overall diagnostic quality. The contrast-to-noise ratio was not significantly different between SAFIRE S1 and FBP, but increased with increasing SAFIRE strength. For pooled data, S2 and S3 were preferred equally but both were preferred over all other reconstructions. S5 was the least preferred, with FBP the next least preferred. This represents a marked disparity between the image quality based on quantitative parameters and qualitative preference. Care should be taken to factor in qualitative in addition to quantitative aspects of image quality when one is optimizing iterative reconstruction images. PMID:25164978

  7. Observational case series: an algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography in the medicolegal investigation of human remains after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Berran, Philip J; Mazuchowski, Edward L; Marzouk, Abubakr; Harcke, H Theodore

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), digital radiographs, and external examination was used to triage cases for noninvasive or complete autopsy after a natural disaster. The algorithm was applied to 27 individuals who died during or soon after the earthquake that struck the Republic of Haiti on January 12, 2010. Of the 27 cases reviewed, 7 (26%) required a complete autopsy to determine cause and manner of death. In the remaining 20 (74%), cause and manner of death were determined with a reasonable degree of medical certainty after review of circumstances, an external examination, and postmortem imaging by MDCT and digital radiography (noninvasive autopsy). MDCT was particularly useful in detecting skeletal fractures caused by blunt force injury which were not evident on digital radiographs. The algorithm incorporating postmortem MDCT can be useful in the triage of human remains for autopsy after a natural disaster. PMID:24684535

  8. An advanced image fusion algorithm based on wavelet transform: incorporation with PCA and morphological processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Essock, Edward A.; Hansen, Bruce C.

    2004-05-01

    There are numerous applications for image fusion, some of which include medical imaging, remote sensing, nighttime operations and multi-spectral imaging. In general, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and various pyramids (such as Laplacian, ratio, contrast, gradient and morphological pyramids) are the most common and effective methods. For quantitative evaluation of the quality of fused imagery, the root mean square error (RMSE) is the most suitable measure of quality if there is a "ground truth" image available; otherwise, the entropy, spatial frequency or image quality index of the input images and the fused images can be calculated and compared. Here, after analyzing the pyramids" performance with the four measures mentioned, an advanced wavelet transform (aDWT) method that incorporates principal component analysis (PCA) and morphological processing into a regular DWT fusion algorithm is presented. Specifically, at each scale of the wavelet transformed images, a principle vector was derived from two input images and then applied to two of the images" approximation coefficients (i.e., they were fused by using the principal eigenvector). For the detail coefficients (i.e., three quarters of the coefficients), the larger absolute values were chosen and subjected to a neighborhood morphological processing procedure which served to verify the selected pixels by using a "filling" and "cleaning" operation (this operation filled or removed isolated pixels in a 3-by-3 local region). The fusion performance of the advanced DWT (aDWT) method proposed here was compared with six other common methods, and, based on the four quantitative measures, was found to perform the best when tested on the four input image types. Since the different image sources used here varied with respect to intensity, contrast, noise, and intrinsic characteristics, the aDWT is a promising image fusion procedure for inhomogeneous imagery.

  9. A dynamic model of the marriage market-part 1: matching algorithm based on age preference and availability.

    PubMed

    Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L

    2013-09-01

    The matching algorithm in a dynamic marriage market model is described in this first of two companion papers. Iterative Proportional Fitting is used to find a marriage function (an age distribution of new marriages for both sexes), in a stable reference population, that is consistent with the one-sex age distributions of new marriages, and includes age preference. The one-sex age distributions (which are the marginals of the two-sex distribution) are based on the Picrate model, and age preference on a normal distribution, both of which may be adjusted by choice of parameter values. For a population that is perturbed from the reference state, the total number of new marriages is found as the harmonic mean of target totals for men and women obtained by applying reference population marriage rates to the perturbed population. The marriage function uses the age preference function, assumed to be the same for the reference and the perturbed populations, to distribute the total number of new marriages. The marriage function also has an availability factor that varies as the population changes with time, where availability depends on the supply of unmarried men and women. To simplify exposition, only first marriage is treated, and the algorithm is illustrated by application to Zambia. In the second paper, remarriage and dissolution are included. PMID:23357512

  10. CHASTE: incorporating a novel multi-scale spatial and temporal algorithm into a large-scale open source library.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Miguel O; Bordas, Rafel; Pathmanathan, Pras; Pitt-Francis, Joe; Cooper, Jonathan; Garny, Alan; Gavaghan, David J; Rodriguez, Blanca; Southern, James A; Whiteley, Jonathan P

    2009-05-28

    Recent work has described the software engineering and computational infrastructure that has been set up as part of the Cancer, Heart and Soft Tissue Environment (CHASTE) project. CHASTE is an open source software package that currently has heart and cancer modelling functionality. This software has been written using a programming paradigm imported from the commercial sector and has resulted in a code that has been subject to a far more rigorous testing procedure than that is usual in this field. In this paper, we explain how new functionality may be incorporated into CHASTE. Whiteley has developed a numerical algorithm for solving the bidomain equations that uses the multi-scale (MS) nature of the physiology modelled to enhance computational efficiency. Using a simple geometry in two dimensions and a purpose-built code, this algorithm was reported to give an increase in computational efficiency of more than two orders of magnitude. In this paper, we begin by reviewing numerical methods currently in use for solving the bidomain equations, explaining how these methods may be developed to use the MS algorithm discussed above. We then demonstrate the use of this algorithm within the CHASTE framework for solving the monodomain and bidomain equations in a three-dimensional realistic heart geometry. Finally, we discuss how CHASTE may be developed to include new physiological functionality--such as modelling a beating heart and fluid flow in the heart--and how new algorithms aimed at increasing the efficiency of the code may be incorporated. PMID:19380318

  11. Incorporating a Constrained Optimization Algorithm into Remote- Sensing/Precision Agriculture Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George; Khatib, Nader; Kim, Byoungsoo

    application of costly treatments. This model will incorporate information from remote sensing, in-situ weather sources, soil measurements, crop models, and tacit farmer knowledge of the relative productivity of the selected control regions of the farm to provide incremental advice throughout the growing season on water and chemical treatments. Genetic and meta-heuristic algorithms will be used to solve the constrained optimization problem that possesses complex constraints and a non-linear objective function. *

  12. Incorporating a constrained optimization algorithm into remote sensing/precision agriculture methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader; Kim, Byoungsoo

    2003-08-01

    Optimization Algorithm" to further improve these processes will be presented. The objective function of the model will used to maximize the farmer's profit via increasing yields while decreasing environmental damage and decreasing applications of costly treatments. This model will incorporate information from Remote Sensing, from in-situ weather sources, from soil history, and from tacit farmer knowledge of the relative productivity of selected "Management Zones" of the farm, to provide incremental advice throughout the growing season on the optimum usage of water and chemical treatments.

  13. Incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and foliar respiration acclimation algorithms modifies modeled ecosystem responses to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wythers, Kirk R.; Reich, Peter B.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-03-01

    Evidence suggests that respiration acclimation (RA) to temperature in plants can have a substantial influence on ecosystem carbon balance. To assess the influence of RA on ecosystem response variables in the presence of global change drivers, we incorporated a temperature-sensitive Q10 of respiration and foliar basal RA into the ecosystem model PnET-CN. We examined the new algorithms' effects on modeled net primary production (NPP), total canopy foliage mass, foliar nitrogen concentration, net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and ecosystem respiration/gross primary production ratios. This latter ratio more closely matched eddy covariance long-term data when RA was incorporated in the model than when not. Averaged across four boreal ecotone sites and three forest types at year 2100, the enhancement of NPP in response to the combination of rising [CO2] and warming was 9% greater when RA algorithms were used, relative to responses using fixed respiration parameters. The enhancement of NPP response to global change was associated with concomitant changes in foliar nitrogen and foliage mass. In addition, impacts of RA algorithms on modeled responses of NEE closely paralleled impacts on NPP. These results underscore the importance of incorporating temperature-sensitive Q10 and basal RA algorithms into ecosystem models. Given the current evidence that atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperature will continue to rise, and that ecosystem responses to those changes appear to be modified by RA, which is a common phenotypic adjustment, the potential for misleading results increases if models fail to incorporate RA into their carbon balance calculations.

  14. A discrete artificial bee colony algorithm incorporating differential evolution for the flow-shop scheduling problem with blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu-Yan; Gong, Dunwei; Sun, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    A flow-shop scheduling problem with blocking has important applications in a variety of industrial systems but is underrepresented in the research literature. In this study, a novel discrete artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is presented to solve the above scheduling problem with a makespan criterion by incorporating the ABC with differential evolution (DE). The proposed algorithm (DE-ABC) contains three key operators. One is related to the employed bee operator (i.e. adopting mutation and crossover operators of discrete DE to generate solutions with good quality); the second is concerned with the onlooker bee operator, which modifies the selected solutions using insert or swap operators based on the self-adaptive strategy; and the last is for the local search, that is, the insert-neighbourhood-based local search with a small probability is adopted to improve the algorithm's capability in exploitation. The performance of the proposed DE-ABC algorithm is empirically evaluated by applying it to well-known benchmark problems. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the compared algorithms in minimizing the makespan criterion.

  15. INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

  16. A simple algorithm for sequentially incorporating gravity observations in seismic traveltime tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Blakely, R.J.; Brocher, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geologic structure of the Earth's upper crust can be revealed by modeling variation in seismic arrival times and in potential field measurements. We demonstrate a simple method for sequentially satisfying seismic traveltime and observed gravity residuals in an iterative 3-D inversion. The algorithm is portable to any seismic analysis method that uses a gridded representation of velocity structure. Our technique calculates the gravity anomaly resulting from a velocity model by converting to density with Gardner's rule. The residual between calculated and observed gravity is minimized by weighted adjustments to the model velocity-depth gradient where the gradient is steepest and where seismic coverage is least. The adjustments are scaled by the sign and magnitude of the gravity residuals, and a smoothing step is performed to minimize vertical streaking. The adjusted model is then used as a starting model in the next seismic traveltime iteration. The process is repeated until one velocity model can simultaneously satisfy both the gravity anomaly and seismic traveltime observations within acceptable misfits. We test our algorithm with data gathered in the Puget Lowland of Washington state, USA (Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound [SHIPS] experiment). We perform resolution tests with synthetic traveltime and gravity observations calculated with a checkerboard velocity model using the SHIPS experiment geometry, and show that the addition of gravity significantly enhances resolution. We calculate a new velocity model for the region using SHIPS traveltimes and observed gravity, and show examples where correlation between surface geology and modeled subsurface velocity structure is enhanced.

  17. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for metal-backed solar cells optimized using simulated annealing algorithm incorporated with solar spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2011-07-01

    Broadband omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coatings for solar cells optimized using simulated annealing (SA) algorithm incorporated with the solar (irradiance) spectrum at Earth's surface (AM1.57 radiation) are described. Material dispersions and reflections from the planar backside metal are considered in the rigorous electromagnetic calculations. Optimized AR coatings for bulk crystalline Si and thin-film CuIn(1-x)GaxSe(2) (CIGS) solar cells as two representative cases are presented and the effect of solar spectrum in the AR coating designs is investigated. In general, the angle-averaged reflectance of a solar-spectrum-incorporated AR design is shown to be smaller and more uniform in the spectral range with relatively stronger solar irradiance. By incorporating the transparent conductive and buffer layers as part of the AR coating in CIGS solar cells (2μm-thick CIGS layer), a single MgF(2) layer could provide an average reflectance of 8.46% for wavelengths ranging from 350 nm to 1200 nm and incident angles from 0° to 80°. PMID:21747557

  18. A global aerosol classification algorithm incorporating multiple satellite data sets of aerosol and trace gas abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning de Vries, M. J. M.; Beirle, S.; Hörmann, C.; Kaiser, J. W.; Stammes, P.; Tilstra, L. G.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Wagner, T.

    2015-09-01

    Detecting the optical properties of aerosols using passive satellite-borne measurements alone is a difficult task due to the broadband effect of aerosols on the measured spectra and the influences of surface and cloud reflection. We present another approach to determine aerosol type, namely by studying the relationship of aerosol optical depth (AOD) with trace gas abundance, aerosol absorption, and mean aerosol size. Our new Global Aerosol Classification Algorithm, GACA, examines relationships between aerosol properties (AOD and extinction Ångström exponent from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), UV Aerosol Index from the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, GOME-2) and trace gas column densities (NO2, HCHO, SO2 from GOME-2, and CO from MOPITT, the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument) on a monthly mean basis. First, aerosol types are separated based on size (Ångström exponent) and absorption (UV Aerosol Index), then the dominating sources are identified based on mean trace gas columns and their correlation with AOD. In this way, global maps of dominant aerosol type and main source type are constructed for each season and compared with maps of aerosol composition from the global MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) model. Although GACA cannot correctly characterize transported or mixed aerosols, GACA and MACC show good agreement regarding the global seasonal cycle, particularly for urban/industrial aerosols. The seasonal cycles of both aerosol type and source are also studied in more detail for selected 5° × 5° regions. Again, good agreement between GACA and MACC is found for all regions, but some systematic differences become apparent: the variability of aerosol composition (yearly and/or seasonal) is often not well captured by MACC, the amount of mineral dust outside of the dust belt appears to be overestimated, and the abundance of secondary organic aerosols is underestimated in comparison

  19. Incorporating chemical modification constraints into a dynamic programming algorithm for prediction of RNA secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, David H.; Disney, Matthew D.; Childs, Jessica L.; Schroeder, Susan J.; Zuker, Michael; Turner, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic programming algorithm for prediction of RNA secondary structure has been revised to accommodate folding constraints determined by chemical modification and to include free energy increments for coaxial stacking of helices when they are either adjacent or separated by a single mismatch. Furthermore, free energy parameters are revised to account for recent experimental results for terminal mismatches and hairpin, bulge, internal, and multibranch loops. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, in vivo modification was performed on 5S rRNA in both Escherichia coli and Candida albicans with 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl) carbodiimide metho-p-toluene sulfonate, dimethyl sulfate, and kethoxal. The percentage of known base pairs in the predicted structure increased from 26.3% to 86.8% for the E. coli sequence by using modification constraints. For C. albicans, the accuracy remained 87.5% both with and without modification data. On average, for these sequences and a set of 14 sequences with known secondary structure and chemical modification data taken from the literature, accuracy improves from 67% to 76%. This enhancement primarily reflects improvement for three sequences that are predicted with <40% accuracy on the basis of energetics alone. For these sequences, inclusion of chemical modification constraints improves the average accuracy from 28% to 78%. For the 11 sequences with <6% pseudoknotted base pairs, structures predicted with constraints from chemical modification contain on average 84% of known canonical base pairs. PMID:15123812

  20. Incorporating patient preferences into drug development and regulatory decision making: Results from a quantitative pilot study with cancer patients, carers, and regulators.

    PubMed

    Postmus, D; Mavris, M; Hillege, H L; Salmonson, T; Ryll, B; Plate, A; Moulon, I; Eichler, H-G; Bere, N; Pignatti, F

    2016-05-01

    Currently, patient preference studies are not required to be included in marketing authorization applications to regulatory authorities, and the role and methodology for such studies have not been agreed upon. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) conducted a pilot study to gain experience on how the collection of individual preferences can inform the regulatory review. Using a short online questionnaire, ordinal statements regarding the desirability of different outcomes in the treatment of advanced cancer were elicited from 139 participants (98 regulators, 29 patient or carers, and 12 healthcare professionals). This was followed by face-to-face meetings to gather feedback and validate the individual responses. In this article we summarize the EMA pilot study and discuss the role of patient preference studies within the regulatory review. Based on the results, we conclude that our preference elicitation instrument was easy to implement and sufficiently precise to learn about the distribution of the participants' individual preferences. PMID:26715217

  1. Improving performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary embolisms by incorporating a new pulmonary vascular-tree segmentation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Song, XiaoFei; Chapman, Brian E.; Zheng, Bin

    2012-03-01

    We developed a new pulmonary vascular tree segmentation/extraction algorithm. The purpose of this study was to assess whether adding this new algorithm to our previously developed computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme of pulmonary embolism (PE) could improve the CAD performance (in particular reducing false positive detection rates). A dataset containing 12 CT examinations with 384 verified pulmonary embolism regions associated with 24 threedimensional (3-D) PE lesions was selected in this study. Our new CAD scheme includes the following image processing and feature classification steps. (1) A 3-D based region growing process followed by a rolling-ball algorithm was utilized to segment lung areas. (2) The complete pulmonary vascular trees were extracted by combining two approaches of using an intensity-based region growing to extract the larger vessels and a vessel enhancement filtering to extract the smaller vessel structures. (3) A toboggan algorithm was implemented to identify suspicious PE candidates in segmented lung or vessel area. (4) A three layer artificial neural network (ANN) with the topology 27-10-1 was developed to reduce false positive detections. (5) A k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier optimized by a genetic algorithm was used to compute detection scores for the PE candidates. (6) A grouping scoring method was designed to detect the final PE lesions in three dimensions. The study showed that integrating the pulmonary vascular tree extraction algorithm into the CAD scheme reduced false positive rates by 16.2%. For the case based 3D PE lesion detecting results, the integrated CAD scheme achieved 62.5% detection sensitivity with 17.1 false-positive lesions per examination.

  2. Incorporation of Fixed Installation Costs into Optimization of Groundwater Remediation with a New Efficient Surrogate Nonlinear Mixed Integer Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Christine; Wan, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Optimization of nonlinear water resources management issues which have a mixture of fixed (e.g. construction cost for a well) and variable (e.g. cost per gallon of water pumped) costs has been not well addressed because prior algorithms for the resulting nonlinear mixed integer problems have required many groundwater simulations (with different configurations of decision variable), especially when the solution space is multimodal. In particular heuristic methods like genetic algorithms have often been used in the water resources area, but they require so many groundwater simulations that only small systems have been solved. Hence there is a need to have a method that reduces the number of expensive groundwater simulations. A recently published algorithm for nonlinear mixed integer programming using surrogates was shown in this study to greatly reduce the computational effort for obtaining accurate answers to problems involving fixed costs for well construction as well as variable costs for pumping because of a substantial reduction in the number of groundwater simulations required to obtain an accurate answer. Results are presented for a US EPA hazardous waste site. The nonlinear mixed integer surrogate algorithm is general and can be used on other problems arising in hydrology with open source codes in Matlab and python ("pySOT" in Bitbucket).

  3. Incorporating stakeholder preferences in the selection of technologies for using invasive alien plants as a bio-energy feedstock: applying the analytical hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    De Lange, W J; Stafford, W H L; Forsyth, G G; Le Maitre, D C

    2012-05-30

    Invasive alien plants (IAPs) impose significant social costs on the population of the Agulhas Plain region in South Africa due to their adverse impacts on ecosystem goods and services (decreased water supply and increased fire risk). While the cost of clearing IAPs is considerable, this paper assesses opportunities to reduce some of the social and environmental burdens (e.g. disruptions of ecosystems which have negative impacts on livelihoods) by using IAP biomass to produce bio-energy. However, such an initiative could increase financial dependency on these plants and is thus considered to be a major risk factor which could create adverse incentives to illegally grow these plants. A participatory decision-making process with active stakeholder participation is a key element in managing such an initiative. We used a multi-stakeholder engagement process and the analytical hierarchy process to define and weigh suitable criteria for the assessment of different "IAP biomass to bio-energy" technology scenarios on the Agulhas Plain. Feasible scenarios were constructed by means of an expert panel which were then ranked according to stakeholder preference. The six criteria were: minimising impacts on natural resources; job creation; certainty of benefits to local people in the study area; development of skills for life; technology performance and cost efficiency. This ranking was largely determined by the preference for resource efficiency in terms of minimising impacts on natural ecosystems and the localisation of benefits. The smaller, modular technologies were consequently preferred since these realise direct local benefits while developing local skills and capacity in their manufacture, sales and maintenance. The rankings as obtained in this study are context-bound, which implies that the findings only have limited application to areas with similar biophysical and socio-economic characteristics. However, the method itself is fully generalisable, and the same

  4. Incorporating information about pre-implantation genetic diagnosis into discussions about testing and risk-management for BRCA1/2 mutations: A qualitative study of patient preferences

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Karen; Rubin, Lisa; Werner-Lin, Allison; Sagi, Michal; Kemel, Yelena; Stern, Rikki; Phillips, Aliza; Cholst, Ina; Kauff, Noah; Offit, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies show that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are interested in learning about reproductive options such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent passing their risk onto their children. However, attitudes vary widely, and the procedure raises complex ethical and psychosocial issues. This complexity, plus the highly technical nature of PGD, makes it difficult to integrate PGD information into genetic counseling sessions that already cover probabilistic, emotionally-charged risk information. Method Thirty-three reproductive age BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who had previously undergone genetic counseling viewed a tutorial about PGD and were interviewed about attitudes towards PGD, and preferences about how to include PGD information in genetic counseling. Results Most participants preferred to be briefly informed of availability of PGD information, and to receive written materials about PGD, but with the option of deferring detailed discussion if they already feel overloaded or perceive that PGD is not immediately relevant to their risk management and/or childbearing plans. For some, the stress of testing temporarily interfered with information processing, producing states of cognitive avoidance (“in a fog,” “tuning out”). Some preferred to discuss PGD with a physician with whom they had an ongoing relationship (e.g., OB/GYN, primary care provider, oncologist). Conclusions Providers offering cancer genetic testing can consider indicating availability of PGD information, while attending to patients’ level of interest and ability to absorb information. Research is needed to link patient responses to information overload to psychosocial outcomes (e.g., distress, decision quality). Continuing medical education is needed to support providers in facilitating informed decisions about PGD. PMID:22736296

  5. A production-inventory model with permissible delay incorporating learning effect in random planning horizon using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Mohuya B.; Bera, Shankar; Das, Debasis; Kar, Samarjit

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a production-inventory model for deteriorating items with stock-dependent demand under inflation in a random planning horizon. The supplier offers the retailer fully permissible delay in payment. It is assumed that the time horizon of the business period is random in nature and follows exponential distribution with a known mean. Here learning effect is also introduced for the production cost and setup cost. The model is formulated as profit maximization problem with respect to the retailer and solved with the help of genetic algorithm (GA) and PSO. Moreover, the convergence of two methods—GA and PSO—is studied against generation numbers and it is seen that GA converges rapidly than PSO. The optimum results from methods are compared both numerically and graphically. It is observed that the performance of GA is marginally better than PSO. We have provided some numerical examples and some sensitivity analyses to illustrate the model.

  6. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  7. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M.; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  8. Incorporating an Exercise Detection, Grading, and Hormone Dosing Algorithm Into the Artificial Pancreas Using Accelerometry and Heart Rate.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Peter G; Resalat, Navid; El Youssef, Joseph; Reddy, Ravi; Branigan, Deborah; Preiser, Nicholas; Condon, John; Castle, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present several important contributions necessary for enabling an artificial endocrine pancreas (AP) system to better respond to exercise events. First, we show how exercise can be automatically detected using body-worn accelerometer and heart rate sensors. During a 22 hour overnight inpatient study, 13 subjects with type 1 diabetes wearing a Zephyr accelerometer and heart rate monitor underwent 45 minutes of mild aerobic treadmill exercise while controlling their glucose levels using sensor-augmented pump therapy. We used the accelerometer and heart rate as inputs into a validated regression model. Using this model, we were able to detect the exercise event with a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 99.5%. Second, from this same study, we show how patients' glucose declined during the exercise event and we present results from in silico modeling that demonstrate how including an exercise model in the glucoregulatory model improves the estimation of the drop in glucose during exercise. Last, we present an exercise dosing adjustment algorithm and describe parameter tuning and performance using an in silico glucoregulatory model during an exercise event. PMID:26438720

  9. Improvement of remote monitoring on water quality in a subtropical reservoir by incorporating grammatical evolution with parallel genetic algorithms into satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Tan, Chih-Hung; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Wang, Tai-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Parallel GEGA was constructed by incorporating grammatical evolution (GE) into the parallel genetic algorithm (GA) to improve reservoir water quality monitoring based on remote sensing images. A cruise was conducted to ground-truth chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration longitudinally along the Feitsui Reservoir, the primary water supply for Taipei City in Taiwan. Empirical functions with multiple spectral parameters from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data were constructed. The GE, an evolutionary automatic programming type system, automatically discovers complex nonlinear mathematical relationships among observed Chl-a concentrations and remote-sensed imageries. A GA was used afterward with GE to optimize the appropriate function type. Various parallel subpopulations were processed to enhance search efficiency during the optimization procedure with GA. Compared with a traditional linear multiple regression (LMR), the performance of parallel GEGA was found to be better than that of the traditional LMR model with lower estimating errors. PMID:17692356

  10. Including adaptation and mitigation responses to climate change in a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm framework for urban water supply systems incorporating GHG emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton, F. L.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-08-01

    Cities around the world are increasingly involved in climate action and mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, in the context of responding to climate pressures in the water sector, very few studies have investigated the impacts of changing water use on GHG emissions, even though water resource adaptation often requires greater energy use. Consequently, reducing GHG emissions, and thus focusing on both mitigation and adaptation responses to climate change in planning and managing urban water supply systems, is necessary. Furthermore, the minimization of GHG emissions is likely to conflict with other objectives. Thus, applying a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), which can evolve an approximation of entire trade-off (Pareto) fronts of multiple objectives in a single run, would be beneficial. Consequently, the main aim of this paper is to incorporate GHG emissions into a MOEA framework to take into consideration both adaptation and mitigation responses to climate change for a city's water supply system. The approach is applied to a case study based on Adelaide's southern water supply system to demonstrate the framework's practical management implications. Results indicate that trade-offs exist between GHG emissions and risk-based performance, as well as GHG emissions and economic cost. Solutions containing rainwater tanks are expensive, while GHG emissions greatly increase with increased desalinated water supply. Consequently, while desalination plants may be good adaptation options to climate change due to their climate-independence, rainwater may be a better mitigation response, albeit more expensive.

  11. Efficient quadrature multichannel processor algorithms for MCD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corden, I. R.; Carrasco, R. A.

    1992-06-01

    The forthcoming third generation of satellites incorporating multichannel demodulator (MCD) processors, and the needs apparent within aviation systems, induce the requirement for efficient band processing algorithms with specific regard to the quadrature processing arrangement. This paper presents a coherent z-domain formulation of the pertinent digital transmultiplexer algorithms for the on-board processing (OBP) scenario, with a view to establishig a set of desirable algorithmic properties suitable for the preferred complex oriented quadrature processing algorithms. Stemming from the principles set forth, an ensemble of new algorithms based upon mixes of Hilbert transforming and real transform algorithms is presented, wherein the established concepts relating to the telephone network transmultiplexer algorithms are able to be exploited in certain cases. Further, the computational load of one of the methods is lower than that of a known prominent OBP related technique. The computational necessities of the various algorithms are laid down for comparative purposes in addition to the mathematical descriptions.

  12. Incorporation of an evolutionary algorithm to estimate transfer-functions for a parameter regionalization scheme of a rainfall-runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents a framework, which enables the use of an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) for the calibration and regionalization of the hydrological model COSEROreg. COSEROreg uses an updated version of the HBV-type model COSERO (Kling et al. 2014) for the modelling of hydrological processes and is embedded in a parameter regionalization scheme based on Samaniego et al. (2010). The latter uses subscale-information to estimate model via a-priori chosen transfer functions (often derived from pedotransfer functions). However, the transferability of the regionalization scheme to different model-concepts and the integration of new forms of subscale information is not straightforward. (i) The usefulness of (new) single sub-scale information layers is unknown beforehand. (ii) Additionally, the establishment of functional relationships between these (possibly meaningless) sub-scale information layers and the distributed model parameters remain a central challenge in the implementation of a regionalization procedure. The proposed method theoretically provides a framework to overcome this challenge. The implementation of the EA encompasses the following procedure: First, a formal grammar is specified (Ryan et al., 1998). The construction of the grammar thereby defines the set of possible transfer functions and also allows to incorporate hydrological domain knowledge into the search itself. The EA iterates over the given space by combining parameterized basic functions (e.g. linear- or exponential functions) and sub-scale information layers into transfer functions, which are then used in COSEROreg. However, a pre-selection model is applied beforehand to sort out unfeasible proposals by the EA and to reduce the necessary model runs. A second optimization routine is used to optimize the parameters of the transfer functions proposed by the EA. This concept, namely using two nested optimization loops, is inspired by the idea of Lamarckian Evolution and Baldwin Effect

  13. Computation of Domain-Averaged Shortwave Irradiance by a One-Dimensional Algorithm Incorporating Correlations between Optical Thickness and Direct Incident Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional radiative transfer algorithm that accounts for correlations between the optical thickness and the incident direct solar radiation is developed to compute the domain-averaged shortwave irradiance profile. It divides the direct irradiance into four components and treats the direct irradiance in two separate, clear and cloudy columns to account for the fact that clouds attenuate the direct irradiance more than clear-sky. The horizontal inhomogeneity of clouds in the cloudy column is treated by the gamma weighted two-stream approximation, which assumes that the optical thickness of clouds follows a gamma distribution. The algorithm inputs the cloud fraction, cumulative cloud fraction as a function of height, and a parameter expressing the shape of the probability density function of the cloud optical thickness distribution in addition to inputs required for a two-stream radiative transfer model. These cloud property inputs can be obtained using ground- and satellite-based instruments. Therefore, the algorithm can treat realistic cloud overlap features and horizontal inhomogeneity of clouds in a framework of one- dimensional radiative transfer. Heating rates computed by the algorithm using cloud fields generated by cloud resolving models agree with those computed with a Monte Carlo model. If optical properties in computational layers that divide a vertically extensive cloud are correlated, the irradiance profile computed by the algorithm further improves.

  14. Effectiveness of Ventricular Intrinsic Preference (VIP™) and Ventricular AutoCapture (VAC) algorithms in pacemaker patients: Results of the validate study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rakesh; Jaswal, Aparna; Chennapragada, Sridevi; Kamath, Prakash; Hiremath, Shirish M.S.; Kahali, Dhiman; Anand, Sumit; Sood, Naresh K.; Mishra, Anil; Makkar, Jitendra S.; Kaul, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past clinical studies have demonstrated that frequent and unnecessary right ventricular pacing in patients with sick sinus syndrome and compromised atrio-ventricular conduction (AVC) produces long-term adverse effects. The safety and efficacy of two pacemaker algorithms, Ventricular Intrinsic Preference™ (VIP) and Ventricular AutoCapture (VAC), were evaluated in a multi-center study in pacemaker patients. Methods We evaluated 80 patients across 10 centers in India. Patients were enrolled within 15 days of dual chamber pacemaker (DDDR) implantation, and within 45 days thereafter were classified to either a compromised AVC (cAVC) arm or an intact AVC (iAVC) arm based on intrinsic paced/sensed (AV/PV) delays. In each arm, patients were then randomized (1:1) into the following groups: VIP OFF and VAC OFF (Control group; CG), or VIP ON and VAC ON (Treatment Group; TG). Subsequently, the AV/PV delays in the CG groups were mandatorily programmed at 180/150 ms, and to up to 350 ms in the TG groups. The percentage of right ventricular pacing (%RVp) evaluated at 12-month post-implantation follow-ups were compared between the two groups in each arm. Additionally, in-clinic time required for collecting device data was compared between patients programmed with the automated AutoCapture algorithm activated (VAC ON) vs. the manually programmed method (VAC OFF). Results Patients randomized to the TG with the VIP algorithm activated exhibited a significantly lower %RVp at 12 months than those in the CG in both the cAVC arm (39±41% vs. 97±3%; p=0.0004) and the iAVC arm (15±25% vs. 68±39%; p=0.0067). In-clinic time required to collect device data was less in patients with the VAC algorithm activated. No device-related adverse events were reported during the year-long study period. Conclusions In our study cohort, the use of the VIP algorithm significantly reduced the %RVp, while the VAC algorithm reduced in-clinic time needed to collect device data. PMID

  15. From community preferences to design: Investigation of human-centered optimization algorithms in web-based, democratic planning of watershed restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbar-Sebens, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    Web 2.0 technologies are useful resources for reaching out to larger stakeholder communities and involve them in policy making and planning efforts. While these technologies have been used in the past to support education and communication endeavors, we have developed a novel, web-based, interactive planning tool that involves the community in using science-based methods for the design of potential runoff management strategies on their landscape. The tool, Watershed REstoration using Spatio-Temporal Optimization of Resources (WRESTORE), uses a democratic voting process coupled with visualization interfaces, computational simulation and optimization models, and user modeling techniques to support a human-centered design approach. The tool can be used to engage diverse watershed stakeholders and landowners via the internet, thereby improving opportunities for outreach and collaborations. Users are able to (a) design multiple types of conservation practices at their field-scale catchment and at the entire watershed scale, (b) examine impacts and limitations of their decisions on their neighboring catchments and on the entire watershed, (c) compare alternatives via a cost-benefit analysis, (d) vote on their "favorite" designs based on their preferences and constraints, and (e) propose their "favorite" alternatives to policy makers and other stakeholders. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the effectiveness of WRESTORE for designing alternatives of conservation practices to reduce peak flows in a Midwestern watershed, present results on multiple approaches for engaging with larger communities, and discuss potential for future developments.

  16. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  17. Recommendations for a standard UK approach to incorporating umbilical cord blood into clinical transplantation practice: an update on cord blood unit selection, donor selection algorithms and conditioning protocols.

    PubMed

    Hough, Rachael; Danby, Robert; Russell, Nigel; Marks, David; Veys, Paul; Shaw, Bronwen; Wynn, Rob; Vora, Ajay; Mackinnon, Stephen; Peggs, Karl S; Crawley, Charles; Craddock, Charlie; Pagliuca, Antonio; Cook, Gordon; Snowden, John A; Clark, Andrew; Marsh, Judith; Querol, Sergio; Parkes, Guy; Braund, Henny; Rocha, Vanderson

    2016-02-01

    Allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation offers a potentially curative treatment option for a wide range of life-threatening malignant and non-malignant disorders of the bone marrow and immune system in patients of all ages. With rapidly emerging advances in the use of alternative donors, such as mismatched unrelated, cord blood and haploidentical donors, it is now possible to find a potential donor for almost all patients in whom an allograft is indicated. Therefore, for any specific patient, the transplant physician may be faced with a myriad of potential choices, including decisions concerning which donor to prioritize where there is more than one, the optimal selection of specific umbilical cord blood units and which conditioning and graft-versus-host disease prophylactic schedule to use. Donor choice may be further complicated by other important factors, such as urgency of transplant, the presence of alloantibodies, the disease status (homozygosity or heterozygosity) of sibling donors affected by inherited disorders and the cytomegalovirus serostatus of patient and donor. We report UK consensus guidelines on the selection of umbilical cord blood units, the hierarchy of donor selection and the preferred conditioning regimens for umbilical cord blood transplantation, with a summary of rationale supporting these recommendations. PMID:26577457

  18. Multi-species prostate implant treatment plans incorporating {sup 192}Ir and {sup 125}I using a Greedy Heuristic based 3D optimization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Chaswal, V.; Yoo, S.; Thomadsen, B. R.; Henderson, D. L.

    2007-02-15

    The goals of interstitial implant brachytherapy include delivery of the target dose in a uniform manner while sparing sensitive structures, and minimizing the number of needles and sources. We investigated the use of a multi-species source arrangement ({sup 192}Ir with {sup 125}I) for treatment in interstitial prostate brachytherapy. The algorithm utilizes an 'adjoint ratio', which provides a means of ranking source positions and is the criterion for the Greedy Heuristic optimization. Three cases were compared, each using 0.4 mCi {sup 125}I seeds: case I is the base case using {sup 125}I alone, case II uses 0.12 mCi {sup 192}Ir seeds mixed with {sup 125}I, and case III uses 0.25 mCi {sup 192}Ir mixed with {sup 125}I. Both multi-species cases result in lower exposure of the urethra and central prostate region. Compared with the base case, the exposure to the rectum and normal tissue increases by a significant amount for case III as compared with the increase in case II, signifying the effect of slower dose falloff rate of higher energy gammas of {sup 192}Ir in the tissue. The number of seeds and needles decreases in both multi-species cases, with case III requiring fewer seeds and needles than case II. Further, the effect of {sup 192}Ir on uniformity was investigated using the 0.12 mCi {sup 192}Ir seeds in multi-species implants. An increase in uniformity was observed with an increase in the number of 0.12 mCi {sup 192}Ir seeds implanted. The effects of prostate size on the evaluation parameters for multi-species implants were investigated using 0.12 mCi {sup 192}Ir and 0.4 mCi {sup 125}I, and an acceptable treatment plan with increased uniformity was obtained.

  19. A preference-based multi-objective model for the optimization of best management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Qiu, Jiali; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of best management practices (BMPs) at the watershed scale is notably complex because of the social nature of decision process, which incorporates information that reflects the preferences of decision makers. In this study, a preference-based multi-objective model was designed by modifying the commonly-used Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The reference points, achievement scalarizing functions and an indicator-based optimization principle were integrated for searching a set of preferred Pareto-optimality solutions. Pareto preference ordering was also used for reducing objective numbers in the final decision-making process. This proposed model was then tested in a typical watershed in the Three Gorges Region, China. The results indicated that more desirable solutions were generated, which reduced the burden of decision effort of watershed managers. Compare to traditional Genetic Algorithm (GA), those preferred solutions were concentrated in a narrow region close to the projection point instead of the entire Pareto-front. Based on Pareto preference ordering, the solutions with the best objective function values were often the more desirable solutions (i.e., the minimum cost solution and the minimum pollutant load solution). In the authors' view, this new model provides a useful tool for optimizing BMPs at watershed scale and is therefore of great benefit to watershed managers.

  20. Temporal Constraint Reasoning With Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time (specifically, associated with durations or orderings of events) on the basis of preferences. For example. a pair of events might be constrained to occur in a certain order, and, in addition. it might be preferable that the delay between them be as large, or as small, as possible. This paper explores problems in which a set of temporal constraints is specified, where each constraint is associated with preference criteria for making local decisions about the events involved in the constraint, and a reasoner must infer a complete solution to the problem such that, to the extent possible, these local preferences are met in the best way. A constraint framework for reasoning about time is generalized to allow for preferences over event distances and durations, and we study the complexity of solving problems in the resulting formalism. It is shown that while in general such problems are NP-hard, some restrictions on the shape of the preference functions, and on the structure of the preference set, can be enforced to achieve tractability. In these cases, a simple generalization of a single-source shortest path algorithm can be used to compute a globally preferred solution in polynomial time.

  1. Scaling Preference Data for Program Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James

    The present study devised a computerized assignment-by-preference algorithm for a ninth-grade exploratory curriculum. The problem addressed was one of maximally mapping all students into 8 of 12 vocational programs in terms of their preferences for studying each of the programs and the assignment restrictions established by the school. To minimize…

  2. Exploration of new multivariate spectral calibration algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Melgaard, David Kennett; Martin, Laura Elizabeth; Wehlburg, Christine Marie; Pell, Randy J.; Guenard, Robert D.

    2004-03-01

    A variety of multivariate calibration algorithms for quantitative spectral analyses were investigated and compared, and new algorithms were developed in the course of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. We were able to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid classical least squares/partial least squares (CLSIPLS) calibration algorithms to maintain calibrations in the presence of spectrometer drift and to transfer calibrations between spectrometers from the same or different manufacturers. These methods were found to be as good or better in prediction ability as the commonly used partial least squares (PLS) method. We also present the theory for an entirely new class of algorithms labeled augmented classical least squares (ACLS) methods. New factor selection methods are developed and described for the ACLS algorithms. These factor selection methods are demonstrated using near-infrared spectra collected from a system of dilute aqueous solutions. The ACLS algorithm is also shown to provide improved ease of use and better prediction ability than PLS when transferring calibrations between near-infrared calibrations from the same manufacturer. Finally, simulations incorporating either ideal or realistic errors in the spectra were used to compare the prediction abilities of the new ACLS algorithm with that of PLS. We found that in the presence of realistic errors with non-uniform spectral error variance across spectral channels or with spectral errors correlated between frequency channels, ACLS methods generally out-performed the more commonly used PLS method. These results demonstrate the need for realistic error structure in simulations when the prediction abilities of various algorithms are compared. The combination of equal or superior prediction ability and the ease of use of the ACLS algorithms make the new ACLS methods the preferred algorithms to use for multivariate spectral calibrations.

  3. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  4. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  5. Lifestyle Preferences as Determinants of Women's Differentiated Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    A 1999 British survey of 1,960 females and 1,691 males incorporated preference theory. Results showed that women's lifestyle preferences are a major determinant of fertility, employment patterns, and job choice. However, lifestyle preferences no longer determine occupational choice. (Contains 71 references.) (Author/JOW)

  6. Student Preferences for Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Student preferences among instructional methods are largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. The algorithmic rigor of courses and the societal culture can influence these preferences. This study explored students' preferences of instructional methods for learning in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differ in algorithmic…

  7. Strategies for Global Optimization of Temporal Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Khatib, Lina; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh

    2004-01-01

    A temporal reasoning problem can often be naturally characterized as a collection of constraints with associated local preferences for times that make up the admissible values for those constraints. Globally preferred solutions to such problems emerge as a result of well-defined operations that compose and order temporal assignments. The overall objective of this work is a characterization of different notions of global preference, and to identify tractable sub-classes of temporal reasoning problems incorporating these notions. This paper extends previous results by refining the class of useful notions of global temporal preference that are associated with problems that admit of tractable solution techniques. This paper also answers the hitherto open question of whether problems that seek solutions that are globally preferred from a Utilitarian criterion for global preference can be found tractably.

  8. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  9. Successful Manipulation in Stable Marriage Model with Complete Preference Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hirotatsu; Matsui, Tomomi

    This paper deals with a strategic issue in the stable marriage model with complete preference lists (i.e., a preference list of an agent is a permutation of all the members of the opposite sex). Given complete preference lists of n men over n women, and a marriage µ, we consider the problem for finding preference lists of n women over n men such that the men-proposing deferred acceptance algorithm (Gale-Shapley algorithm) adopted to the lists produces µ. We show a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a set of preference lists of women over men. Our condition directly gives an O(n2) time algorithm for finding a set of preference lists, if it exists.

  10. Preference Learning and Ranking by Pairwise Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    This chapter provides an overview of recent work on preference learning and ranking via pairwise classification. The learning by pairwise comparison (LPC) paradigm is the natural machine learning counterpart to the relational approach to preference modeling and decision making. From a machine learning point of view, LPC is especially appealing as it decomposes a possibly complex prediction problem into a certain number of learning problems of the simplest type, namely binary classification. We explain how to approach different preference learning problems, such as label and instance ranking, within the framework of LPC. We primarily focus on methodological aspects, but also address theoretical questions as well as algorithmic and complexity issues.

  11. Measuring Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann L.; Sullivan, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Measures of preference are useful predictors of children's food consumption patterns. The paper discusses children's affective response to food and describes the preference assessment procedure which obtains information on children's likes and dislikes. The methodology helps investigate factors influencing development of preferences and food…

  12. Colonoscopic Perforation Management by Laparoendoscopy: An Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Damadi, Amir; Mittal, Vijay K.; Itawi, Ed; Rana, Gurteshwar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The role of laparoscopy in the management of iatrogenic colonoscopic injuries has increased with surgeons becoming facile with minimally invasive methods. However, with a limited number of reported cases of successful laparoscopic repair, the exact role of this modality is still being defined. Drawing from previous literature and our own experiences, we have formulated a simple algorithm that has helped us treat colonoscopic perforations. Methods: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients treated for colonoscopic perforations since the algorithm's introduction. For each patient, initial clinical assessment, management, and postoperative recovery were carefully documented. A Medline search was performed, incorporating the following search words: colonoscopy, perforation, and laparoscopy. Twenty-three articles involving 106 patients were identified and reviewed. Results: Between May 2009 and August 2012, 7 consecutive patients with colonoscopic perforations were managed by 2 surgeons using the algorithm. There were no complications and no deaths, with a mean length of stay of 4.43 days (range, 2–7 days). Of the 7 patients, 6 required surgery. A single patient was managed conservatively and later underwent an elective colon resection. Conclusions: Traditionally, laparotomy was the preferred method for treating colonoscopic perforations. Our initial experience reinforces previous views that laparoendoscopic surgery is a safe and effective alternative to traditional surgery for managing this complication. We have formulated a simple algorithm that we have found helpful for surgeons considering a laparoscopic approach to managing this condition. PMID:24680138

  13. Food Culture, Preferences and Ethics in Dysphagia Management.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Belinda

    2015-11-01

    Adults with dysphagia experience difficulties swallowing food and fluids with potentially harmful health and psychosocial consequences. Speech pathologists who manage patients with dysphagia are frequently required to address ethical issues when patients' food culture and/ or preferences are inconsistent with recommended diets. These issues incorporate complex links between food, identity and social participation. A composite case has been developed to reflect ethical issues identified by practising speech pathologists for the purposes of illustrating ethical concerns in dysphagia management. The case examines a speech pathologist's role in supporting patient autonomy when patients and carers express different goals and values. The case presents a 68-year-old man of Australian/Italian heritage with severe swallowing impairment and strong values attached to food preferences. The case is examined through application of the dysphagia algorithm, a tool for shared decision-making when patients refuse dietary modifications. Case analysis revealed the benefits and challenges of shared decision-making processes in dysphagia management. Four health professional skills and attributes were identified as synonymous with shared decision making: communication, imagination, courage and reflection. PMID:26481206

  14. Qualified answers that reflect user needs and preferences

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Lobo, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces a formalism to describe the needs and preferences of database users. Because of the precise formulation of these concepts, we have found an automatic and {ital very simple} mechanism to incorporate user needs and preferences into the query answering process. In the formalism, the user provides a lattice of domain independent values that define preferences and needs and a set of domain specific {ital user constraints} qualified with lattice values. The constraints are automatically incorporated into a relational or deductive database through a series of syntactic transformations that produces an annotated deductive database. Query answering procedures for deductive databases are then used, with minor modifications, to obtain annotated answers to queries. Because preference declaration is separated from data representation and management, preferences can be easily altered without touching the database. Also, the query language allows users to ask for answers at different preference levels. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Measuring Student Preferences for Stimulus-Response (Rote) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Robert A.; Higbea, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The study developed and distributed a survey to measure students' preference for stimulus-response learning. The responses of undergraduate and graduate students suggest the desire to maximize grades fosters a strong preference for instructors who tell students what they need to know and exam questions that incorporate terms and keywords similar…

  16. Roots of sex preference.

    PubMed

    Lee H-t; Choe, E H

    1982-12-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of not yet fully analyzed 1974 World Fertility Survey for Korea data on sex preference, and also parental gender role stereotyping and gender preference, as they relate to sex preference and fertility behavior of the individual parents of childbearing age. The data includes the mother's background and numbers of children desired. Fertility preferences reflect sociocultural, economic and psychological aspects of individual parents' habits and perceptions of the world. Attitude, which is difficult to measure, is often connected to and can predict behavior. Age, residence, educational level, and spouse's occupation are related. Sex preference for sons is affected by how many parents hope to send a son to college (75.2%), compared to those hoping to send a daughter to college (52%). Parents under 25 also prefer boys. Gender preference is the pattern of sociocultural behavior associated with the awareness of being masculine or feminine. Sex preference is the patterns arising from the biological fact of being male or female. A 1981 son preference survey covered the province of Kyongbuk, conservative in gender preference, polling 832 women, ages 15 to 49. The survey covered questions about gender associated activities, occupations and personality traits. These items were divided into 4 gender role discriminant scales, covering most and least masculine or feminine degrees within each category. Respondents with less extreme gender role stereotyping are less sex biased; extreme sex preference is closely related to the respondents' extreme gender role stereotypic traits. Korean society has conferred differential value upon gender specific work and the main criterion for the division of labor is gender, not biological sex. This contributes to a parent's sex preferential attitude, which is unlikely to change without a modification of premodern neoconfucian gender based behaviors. PMID:12264918

  17. Class Scheduling Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Irving E.; And Others

    In order to ascertain students' preferences for the number of times a class should meet each week, 375 questionnaires administered to students during the 1989 summer session at Cuyahoga Community College, Western Campus (Ohio) were evaluated. Results indicated that 49% of respondents preferred classes meeting twice each week, and 29% preferred…

  18. The Learning Preference Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezler, Agnes G.; Rezmovic, Victor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development, validity, and reliability of the Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and its use with health professions students and practitioners. Use of the LPI allows identification of individual learning preferences with a fair degree of accuracy. Ways to improve motivation for learning are suggested. (JOW)

  19. Fractal Plate Reconstructions, Incorporating Asymmetric Spreading and Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, R.

    2011-12-01

    Accretionary plate boundaries - spreading centers and associated transform faults - possess fractal structure like coastlines. Their apparent length demonstrates self-similarity over a range of scales, maximizing multiplicity (entropy) in a recursive chaotic process. Further, optimal, combined oceanic plate reconstructions, incorporating asymmetric accretion over a range of ages produce fractal structure. The minimum fractal configuration as a function of the reconstruction parameters approximates the Lagrangian constraint (the information) in the maximum entropy formalism. The optimal fractal spectrum itself represents maximum entropy of the reconstructed data describing the spreading center for the preferred rotation parameters. Because fractals are intrinsically discontinuous (and analytic derivatives are unavailable), conventional non-linear least squares approaches are inapplicable. Instead, derivative-free, iterative conjugate gradient and simplex algorithms are utilized. In order to allow for kinematic calculations and integrated reconstructions of diverse data ages, parameters are spline-interpolated, rate-normalized, pseudo-vectors. The new formalism provides a unique fitting criterion and algorithm for simultaneous plate and spreading-center reconstruction and kinematics. It also provides a fractal template for reconstructions of other tectonic types.

  20. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  1. Tractable Pareto Optimization of Temporal Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert; Morris, Paul; Khatib, Lina; Venable, Brent

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on temporal constraint problems where the objective is to optimize a set of local preferences for when events occur. In previous work, a subclass of these problems has been formalized as a generalization of Temporal CSPs, and a tractable strategy for optimization has been proposed, where global optimality is defined as maximizing the minimum of the component preference values. This criterion for optimality, which we call 'Weakest Link Optimization' (WLO), is known to have limited practical usefulness because solutions are compared only on the basis of their worst value; thus, there is no requirement to improve the other values. To address this limitation, we introduce a new algorithm that re-applies WLO iteratively in a way that leads to improvement of all the values. We show the value of this strategy by proving that, with suitable preference functions, the resulting solutions are Pareto Optimal.

  2. The Accuracy of Managerial Prediction of Employee Preference: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Rost, Kristen; McMahon, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which managers could accurately predict what items/activities their employees report as preferred was examined. First, managers were asked to rank order a list of items/activities they thought their employees would most prefer to be incorporated into a performance improvement plan. Next, employee preference for these same items was…

  3. The preference for potential.

    PubMed

    Tormala, Zakary L; Jia, Jayson S; Norton, Michael I

    2012-10-01

    When people seek to impress others, they often do so by highlighting individual achievements. Despite the intuitive appeal of this strategy, we demonstrate that people often prefer potential rather than achievement when evaluating others. Indeed, compared with references to achievement (e.g., "this person has won an award for his work"), references to potential (e.g., "this person could win an award for his work") appear to stimulate greater interest and processing, which can translate into more favorable reactions. This tendency creates a phenomenon whereby the potential to be good at something can be preferred over actually being good at that very same thing. We document this preference for potential in laboratory and field experiments, using targets ranging from athletes to comedians to graduate school applicants and measures ranging from salary allocations to online ad clicks to admission decisions. PMID:22775472

  4. [Food preferences among students].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, R; Villalbí, J R

    1993-07-01

    The results of a food preference survey using a questionnaire on 2,567 schoolchildren of sixth, seventh and eighth grade (11 to 14 years of age) from 26 public schools in the city of Barcelona (Spain) are presented. Foods based on potatoes and cereals have the maximum acceptability, followed by dairy and meat products. Chicken is the meat with highest acceptance. Fish has a medium acceptance, and preference for dry beans and peas, fruits and vegetables is lower, although it is high for some specific foods. Important differences among sexes are observed. Boys have higher preference for meat, milk and yogurt, and girls for fish and some vegetables. Differences among genders increase with increasing age. These results are relevant for planning interventions on diet in schools from a health promotion perspective, and for the planning of school lunch programs. PMID:8363142

  5. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  6. Genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  7. Preferring the Contemporary Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study that indicated that readers of college newspapers prefer a front page style that is contemporary and emphasizes a horizontal layout to either an avant-garde style that features an entirely horizontal layout or a traditional layout having a vertical page. (TJ)

  8. Cognitive Preferences and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.; O'Donnell, Teresa Flores

    This document reports on a study into the relationships between cognitive preferences, achievement, and ethnicity of first year algebra students. The sample consisted of 175 students from two high schools in the Denver (Colorado) metropolitan area. The two schools were chosen because of the diversity of ethnic groups in the student populations.…

  9. Expanding a First-Order Logic Mitigation Framework to Handle Multimorbid Patient Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Michalowski, Martin; Wilk, Szymon; Rosu, Daniela; Kezadri, Mounira; Michalowski, Wojtek; Carrier, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multimorbidity is a challenge for physicians who have to manage a constantly growing number of patients with simultaneous diseases. Adding to this challenge is the need to incorporate patient preferences as key components of the care process, thanks in part to the emergence of personalized and participatory medicine. In our previous work we proposed a framework employing first order logic to represent clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and to mitigate possible adverse interactions when concurrently applying multiple CPGs to a multimorbid patient. In this paper, we describe extensions to our methodological framework that (1) broaden our definition of revision operators to support required and desired types of revisions defined in secondary knowledge sources, and (2) expand the mitigation algorithm to apply revisions based on their type. We illustrate the capabilities of the expanded framework using a clinical case study of a multimorbid patient with stable cardiac artery disease who suffers a sudden onset of deep vein thrombosis. PMID:26958226

  10. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    PubMed Central

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  11. A preference test for sweet taste that uses edible strips.

    PubMed

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y; Stull, Judith C; Abarintos, Ray A; Khan, Neiladri K; Park, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  12. Preferences, needs and QALYs.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J

    1996-01-01

    Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) have become a household word among health economists. Their use as a means of comparing the value of health programmes and medical interventions has stirred up controversy in the medical profession and the academic community. In this paper, I argue that QALY analysis does not adequately take into account the differentiated nature of the health state values it measures. Specifically, it does not distinguish between needs and preferences with respect to its valuation of health states. I defend the view that needs and preferences are clearly distinguishable, and that the concept of needs cannot be dispensed with, as many health economists suggest. It is argued that the scale along which health states are measured in QALY analysis is not a continuous interval scale, but one which concerns two distinctly different value dimensions. Measuring the values of health state intervals may reveal the weighting attached to the different value dimensions. PMID:8910777

  13. Son preference in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Haughton, J; Haughton, D

    1995-01-01

    This article assesses the strength of son preference in Vietnam, as reflected in fertility behavior. It formulates and estimates a proportional hazards model applied to birth intervals, and a contraceptive prevalence model, using household survey data from 2,636 ever-married women aged 15-49 with at least one living child who were interviewed for the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Son preference is found to be strong by world standards, but nevertheless, it has a minor effect on fertility; in its absence, the total fertility rate would fall by roughly 10 percent from the current level of about 3.2 children per woman of reproductive age. PMID:8826072

  14. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches. PMID:6525751

  15. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so? PMID:26158988

  16. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  17. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  18. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  19. Construction project selection with the use of fuzzy preference relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Nabi

    2016-06-01

    In the article, author describes the problem of the construction project variant selection during pre-investment phase. As a solution, the algorithm basing on fuzzy preference relation is presented. The article provides an example of the algorithm used for selection of the best variant for construction project. The choice is made basing on criteria such as: net present value (NPV), level of technological difficulty, financing possibilities, and level of organizational difficulty.

  20. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  1. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  2. Multiobjective optimization with a modified simulated annealing algorithm for external beam radiotherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Aubry, Jean-Francois; Beaulieu, Frederic; Sevigny, Caroline; Beaulieu, Luc; Tremblay, Daniel

    2006-12-15

    Inverse planning in external beam radiotherapy often requires a scalar objective function that incorporates importance factors to mimic the planner's preferences between conflicting objectives. Defining those importance factors is not straightforward, and frequently leads to an iterative process in which the importance factors become variables of the optimization problem. In order to avoid this drawback of inverse planning, optimization using algorithms more suited to multiobjective optimization, such as evolutionary algorithms, has been suggested. However, much inverse planning software, including one based on simulated annealing developed at our institution, does not include multiobjective-oriented algorithms. This work investigates the performance of a modified simulated annealing algorithm used to drive aperture-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy inverse planning software in a multiobjective optimization framework. For a few test cases involving gastric cancer patients, the use of this new algorithm leads to an increase in optimization speed of a little more than a factor of 2 over a conventional simulated annealing algorithm, while giving a close approximation of the solutions produced by a standard simulated annealing. A simple graphical user interface designed to facilitate the decision-making process that follows an optimization is also presented.

  3. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  4. Radiation shielding materials and containers incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound ("PYRUC") shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  5. Dynamic image fusion and general observer preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Doe, Joshua M.

    2010-04-01

    Recent developments in image fusion give the user community many options for ways of presenting the imagery to an end-user. Individuals at the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate have developed an electronic system that allows users to quickly and efficiently determine optimal image fusion algorithms and color parameters based upon collected imagery and videos from environments that are typical to observers in a military environment. After performing multiple multi-band data collections in a variety of military-like scenarios, different waveband, fusion algorithm, image post-processing, and color choices are presented to observers as an output of the fusion system. The observer preferences can give guidelines as to how specific scenarios should affect the presentation of fused imagery.

  6. Synthesis of Greedy Algorithms Using Dominance Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedunuri, Srinivas; Smith, Douglas R.; Cook, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Greedy algorithms exploit problem structure and constraints to achieve linear-time performance. Yet there is still no completely satisfactory way of constructing greedy algorithms. For example, the Greedy Algorithm of Edmonds depends upon translating a problem into an algebraic structure called a matroid, but the existence of such a translation can be as hard to determine as the existence of a greedy algorithm itself. An alternative characterization of greedy algorithms is in terms of dominance relations, a well-known algorithmic technique used to prune search spaces. We demonstrate a process by which dominance relations can be methodically derived for a number of greedy algorithms, including activity selection, and prefix-free codes. By incorporating our approach into an existing framework for algorithm synthesis, we demonstrate that it could be the basis for an effective engineering method for greedy algorithms. We also compare our approach with other characterizations of greedy algorithms.

  7. Patient Preferences for OCD treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapana R.; Simpson, Helen Blair

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore preferences for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that OCD patients will select a combination of medication and psychotherapy as their most preferred choice overall. Methods The authors designed a treatment preference survey using two health economics methods, forced choice and contingent ranking methods, to elicit preferences for OCD treatment available in mainstream care (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [SRIs]), Exposure and Ritual Prevention [EX/RP], and their combination), and for novel treatments under development at OCD research clinics. This survey was given by telephone to 89 individuals with OCD who called the OCD research clinic at the New York State Psychiatric Institute between July 2008 and January 2009. Results Most participants chose combination treatment (43%) or EX/RP (42%) over SRI medication (16%). Participants ranked investigational psychotherapy as their most preferred novel treatment (endorsed by 48% of participants) and deep brain stimulation as their least preferred novel treatment (endorsed by 77% of participants). Qualitative data suggest that prior treatment experience, concerns about medications, and logistical and practical concerns about treatment regimens affect preferences. Conclusions Patients with OCD have identifiable treatment preferences. In this sample of convenience, most preferred either combination treatment or psychotherapy. Future studies should investigate prospectively what modifies these preferences and how these preferences affect treatment outcome. PMID:21114948

  8. Melodic algorithms for pulse oximetry to allow audible discrimination of abnormal systolic blood pressures.

    PubMed

    Chima, Ranjit S; Ortega, Rafael; Connor, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    An anesthesiologist must remain vigilant of the patient's clinical status, incorporating many independent physiological measurements. Oxygen saturation and heart rate are represented by continuous audible tones generated by the pulse oximeter, a mandated monitoring device. Other important clinical parameters--notably blood pressure--lack any audible representation beyond arbitrarily-configured threshold alarms. Attempts to introduce further continuous audible tones have apparently foundered; the complexity and interaction of these tones have exceeded the ability of clinicians to interpret them. Instead, we manipulate the tonal and rhythmic structure of the accepted pulse oximeter tone pattern melodically. Three melodic algorithms were developed to apply tonal and rhythmic variations to the continuous pulse oximeter tone, dependent on the systolic blood pressure. The algorithms distort the original audible pattern minimally, to facilitate comprehension of both the underlying pattern and the applied variations. A panel of anesthesia practitioners (attending anesthesiologists, residents and nurse anesthetists) assessed these algorithms in characterizing perturbations in cardiopulmonary status. Twelve scenarios, incorporating combinations of oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension and hypertension, were tested. A rhythmic variation in which additional auditory information was conveyed only at halftime intervals, with every other "beat" of the pulse oximeter, was strongly favored. The respondents also strongly favored the use of musical chords over single tones. Given three algorithms of tones embedded in the pulse oximeter signal, anesthesiologists preferred a melodic tone to signal a significant change in blood pressure. PMID:24474369

  9. Constrained least squares estimation incorporating wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Stephen D.; Welsh, Byron M.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    1998-11-01

    We address the optimal processing of astronomical images using the deconvolution from wave-front sensing technique (DWFS). A constrained least-squares (CLS) solution which incorporates ensemble-averaged DWFS data is derived using Lagrange minimization. The new estimator requires DWFS data, noise statistics, optical transfer function statistics, and a constraint. The constraint can be chosen such that the algorithm selects a conventional regularization constant automatically. No ad hoc parameter tuning is necessary. The algorithm uses an iterative Newton-Raphson minimization to determine the optimal Lagrange multiplier. Computer simulation of a 1m telescope imaging through atmospheric turbulence is used to test the estimation scheme. CLS object estimates are compared with the corresponding long exposure images. The CLS algorithm provides images with superior resolution and is computationally inexpensive, converging to a solution in less than 10 iterations.

  10. A Clinical Algorithm for Early Identification and Intervention of Cervical Muscular Torticollis.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common newborn pediatric muscular deformity of the neck. The purpose of this article is to suggest a clinical algorithm for pediatric clinicians to promote prompt identification and intervention for infants with CMT. Early intervention for a child with CMT at less than 1 month of age yields a 98% success rate by 2.5 months of age, with the infant achieving near normal range of motion. Intervention initiated at 6 months of age or later can require 9 to 10 months of therapy with less success in achieving full range of motion of the cervical musculature. The clinical algorithm proposed here incorporates the American Physical Therapy Association guideline for CMT to optimize outcomes for the child and reduce health care expenditures. Current evidence and guidelines demonstrate that primary care providers are the primary diagnostic clinicians, while physical therapists are the preferred provider for the treatment of CMT. PMID:26307184

  11. Multi-objective engineering design using preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, J.; Martinez, M.; Blasco, X.

    2008-03-01

    System design is a complex task when design parameters have to satisy a number of specifications and objectives which often conflict with those of others. This challenging problem is called multi-objective optimization (MOO). The most common approximation consists in optimizing a single cost index with a weighted sum of objectives. However, once weights are chosen the solution does not guarantee the best compromise among specifications, because there is an infinite number of solutions. A new approach can be stated, based on the designer's experience regarding the required specifications and the associated problems. This valuable information can be translated into preferences for design objectives, and will lead the search process to the best solution in terms of these preferences. This article presents a new method, which enumerates these a priori objective preferences. As a result, a single objective is built automatically and no weight selection need be performed. Problems occuring because of the multimodal nature of the generated single cost index are managed with genetic algorithms (GAs).

  12. Circadian preference and cognitive functioning among rehabilitation inpatients.

    PubMed

    Paradee, Christine V; Rapport, Lisa J; Hanks, Robin A; Levy, James A

    2005-02-01

    The influence of circadian preference was examined among 56 morning-oriented rehabilitation inpatients with cognitive (n=28) and noncognitive (n=28) impairments. Each individual was tested twice: morning (preferred time) and evening (nonpreferred time); sessions and test batteries were counterbalanced to control for practice effects. Standard measures assessed attention, language, memory, visuospatial, and executive functions. Persons with cognitive impairment showed disproportionate vulnerability to the effects of circadian preference and time of testing, performing more poorly at nonpreferred than preferred times. Substantial effects (eta2 .12 to .48) were found on tests of executive functioning and tasks incorporating similar higher-order demands (e/g/. complex figure copy). Results are supported by tympanic temperature changes during a vigilance task, and index of cerebral blood flow in response to cognitive challenge. Cognitive reserve theory is suggested as an explanation for the differential effects. These findings may have implications for inpatient therapeutic interventions and discharge planning. PMID:15814478

  13. Quantum algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Daniel S.

    This thesis describes several new quantum algorithms. These include a polynomial time algorithm that uses a quantum fast Fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases (commonly found in ab initio physics and chemistry problems) for which all known classical algorithms require exponential time. Fast algorithms for simulating many body Fermi systems are also provided in both first and second quantized descriptions. An efficient quantum algorithm for anti-symmetrization is given as well as a detailed discussion of a simulation of the Hubbard model. In addition, quantum algorithms that calculate numerical integrals and various characteristics of stochastic processes are described. Two techniques are given, both of which obtain an exponential speed increase in comparison to the fastest known classical deterministic algorithms and a quadratic speed increase in comparison to classical Monte Carlo (probabilistic) methods. I derive a simpler and slightly faster version of Grover's mean algorithm, show how to apply quantum counting to the problem, develop some variations of these algorithms, and show how both (apparently distinct) approaches can be understood from the same unified framework. Finally, the relationship between physics and computation is explored in some more depth, and it is shown that computational complexity theory depends very sensitively on physical laws. In particular, it is shown that nonlinear quantum mechanics allows for the polynomial time solution of NP-complete and #P oracle problems. Using the Weinberg model as a simple example, the explicit construction of the necessary gates is derived from the underlying physics. Nonlinear quantum algorithms are also presented using Polchinski type nonlinearities which do not allow for superluminal communication. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  14. Zinc Incorporation Into Hydroxylapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.; Chappell, H; Dove, M; Reeder, R; Lee, Y

    2009-01-01

    By theoretical modeling and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the local coordination structure of Zn incorporated into hydroxylapatite was examined. Density function theory (DFT) calculations show that Zn favors the Ca2 site over the Ca1 site, and favors tetrahedral coordination. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results suggest one dominant coordination environment for the incorporated Zn, and no evidence was observed for other Zn-containing phases. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting of the synthetic samples confirms that Zn occurs in tetrahedral coordination, with two P shells at 2.85-3.07 {angstrom}, and two higher Ca shells at 3.71-4.02 {angstrom}. These fit results are consistent with the most favored DFT model for Zn substitution in the Ca2 site.

  15. Boron incorporation into mullite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesser, K. J.; Beran, A.; Voll, D.; Schneider, H.

    2008-03-01

    Boron-doped mullites were synthesized using aluminium nitrate-nonahydrate, tetraethoxysilane and boric acid in a sol gel process with subsequent annealing at 950 and 1300 °C for five hours. Two different bulk compositions with constant Al2O3 contents (60 and 70 mol%, respectively) and varying SiO2 plus B2O3 contents were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction analyses yielded a linear decrease of the lattice parameters with increasing bulk B2O3 content, which was interpreted as to be due to boron incorporation. Related to the increasing boron content, corresponding infrared spectra revealed a slight and continuous shift for most of the absorption bands. These data show that mullite is able to incorporate large amounts of boron into its structure (up to about 20 mol% B2O3 depending on the bulk composition of the starting materials). Infrared analyses suggest that boron is incorporated into the mullite structure in form of planar three-fold coordinated BO3 groups.

  16. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  17. Effects of Style, Tempo, and Performing Medium on Children's Music Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert

    1981-01-01

    Fifth-graders listened to a tape incorporating fast and slow vocal and instrumental excerpts within the generic styles of rock/pop, country, older jazz, newer jazz, art music, and band music. A preference hierarchy emerged favoring the popular styles. Across pooled styles, faster tempos and instrumentals were slightly preferred. (Author/SJL)

  18. Sea-ice habitat preference of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the Bering Sea: A multiscaled approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, Alexander Edward

    , walruses were preferentially occupying fragmented pack ice seascapes range 50 -- 89% of the time, when, all throughout the Bering Sea, only range 41 -- 46% of seascapes consisted of fragmented pack ice. Traditional knowledge of a walrus' use of sea ice is investigated through semi-directed interviews conducted with subsistence hunters and elders from Savoonga and Gambell, two Alaskan Native communities on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. Informants were provided with a large nautical map of the land and ocean surrounding St. Lawrence Island and 45 printed large-format aerial photographs of walruses on sea ice to stimulate discussion as questions were asked to direct the topics of conversation. Informants discussed change in sea ice conditions over time, walrus behaviors during the fall and spring subsistence hunts, and sea-ice characteristics that walruses typically occupy. These observations are compared with ice-patch preferences analyzed from aerial imagery. Floe size was found to agree with remotely-sensed ice-patch analysis results, while floe shape was not distinguishable to informants during the hunt. Ice-patch arrangement descriptors concentration and density generally agreed with ice-patch analysis results. Results include possible preference of ice-patch descriptors at the ice-patch scale and fragmented pack ice preference at the seascape scale. Traditional knowledge suggests large ice ridges are preferential sea-ice features at the ice-patch scale, which are rapidly becoming less common during the fall and spring migration of sea ice through the Bering Sea. Traditional knowledge, combined with a scientific analysis and field work to study species habitat preferences and, ultimately, habitat partitioning, can stem from these results. Future work includes increased sophistication of the synthetic aperture radar classification algorithm, experimentation with various spatial scales to determine the optimal scale for walrus' life-cycle events, and incorporation of

  19. Haplotyping algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, E.; Lange, K.; O`Connell, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Haplotyping is the logical process of inferring gene flow in a pedigree based on phenotyping results at a small number of genetic loci. This paper formalizes the haplotyping problem and suggests four algorithms for haplotype reconstruction. These algorithms range from exhaustive enumeration of all haplotype vectors to combinatorial optimization by simulated annealing. Application of the algorithms to published genetic analyses shows that manual haplotyping is often erroneous. Haplotyping is employed in screening pedigrees for phenotyping errors and in positional cloning of disease genes from conserved haplotypes in population isolates. 26 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Characterization techniques for incorporating backgrounds into DIRSIG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Scott D.; Schott, John R.

    2000-07-01

    The appearance of operation hyperspectral imaging spectrometers in both solar and thermal regions has lead to the development of a variety of spectral detection algorithms. The development and testing of these algorithms requires well characterized field collection campaigns that can be time and cost prohibitive. Radiometrically robust synthetic image generation (SIG) environments that can generate appropriate images under a variety of atmospheric conditions and with a variety of sensors offers an excellent supplement to reduce the scope of the expensive field collections. In addition, SIG image products provide the algorithm developer with per-pixel truth, allowing for improved characterization of the algorithm performance. To meet the needs of the algorithm development community, the image modeling community needs to supply synthetic image products that contain all the spatial and spectral variability present in real world scenes, and that provide the large area coverage typically acquired with actual sensors. This places a heavy burden on synthetic scene builders to construct well characterized scenes that span large areas. Several SIG models have demonstrated the ability to accurately model targets (vehicles, buildings, etc.) Using well constructed target geometry (from CAD packages) and robust thermal and radiometry models. However, background objects (vegetation, infrastructure, etc.) dominate the percentage of real world scene pixels and utilizing target building techniques is time and resource prohibitive. This paper discusses new methods that have been integrated into the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model to characterize backgrounds. The new suite of scene construct types allows the user to incorporate both terrain and surface properties to obtain wide area coverage. The terrain can be incorporated using a triangular irregular network (TIN) derived from elevation data or digital elevation model (DEM) data from actual

  1. Carotenoid incorporation into microsomes: yields, stability and membrane dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socaciu, Carmen; Jessel, Robert; Diehl, Horst A.

    2000-12-01

    The carotenoids β-carotene (BC), lycopene (LYC), lutein (LUT), zeaxanthin (ZEA), canthaxanthin (CTX) and astaxanthin (ASTA) have been incorporated into pig liver microsomes. Effective incorporation concentrations in the range of about 1-6 nmol/mg microsomal protein were obtained. A stability test at room temperature revealed that after 3 h BC and LYC had decayed totally whereas, gradually, CTX (46%), LUT (21%), ASTA (17%) and ZEA (5%) decayed. Biophysical parameters of the microsomal membrane were changed hardly by the incorporation of carotenoids. A small rigidification may occur. Membrane anisotropy seems to offer only a small tolerance for incorporation of carotenoids and seems to limit the achievable incorporation concentrations of the carotenoids into microsomes. Microsomes instead of liposomes should be preferred as a membrane model to study mutual effects of carotenoids and membrane dynamics.

  2. On the performance of explicit and implicit algorithms for transient thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The status of an effort to increase the efficiency of calculating transient temperature fields in complex aerospace vehicle structures is described. The advantages and disadvantages of explicit and implicit algorithms are discussed. A promising set of implicit algorithms, known as the GEAR package is described. Four test problems, used for evaluating and comparing various algorithms, have been selected and finite element models of the configurations are discribed. These problems include a space shuttle frame component, an insulated cylinder, a metallic panel for a thermal protection system and a model of the space shuttle orbiter wing. Calculations were carried out using the SPAR finite element program, the MITAS lumped parameter program and a special purpose finite element program incorporating the GEAR algorithms. Results generally indicate a preference for implicit over explicit algorithms for solution of transient structural heat transfer problems when the governing equations are stiff. Careful attention to modeling detail such as avoiding thin or short high-conducting elements can sometimes reduce the stiffness to the extent that explicit methods become advantageous.

  3. Voter-Weighted Environmental Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the political economy of preferences with respect to the environment using a new stated preference survey that presents the first benefit values for national water quality levels. The mean valuation greatly exceeds the median value, as the distribution of valuations is highly skewed. The study couples the survey valuations…

  4. Music, Hemisphere Preference and Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.

    Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to test…

  5. Preferences for Academic Advising Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Susan B.; Dickman, Marcia M.; Fuqua, Dale R.

    2005-01-01

    This psychometric study was designed to test the feasibility of measuring college students' preferences for developmental and prescriptive advising styles as separate constructs. Part 5 of the Academic Advising Inventory (Winston & Sandor, 1984b) was revised into two independent scales, one for measuring preferences for developmental advising and…

  6. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  7. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  8. Gender Preferences in Learning Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rae; Gray, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Reports on preference patterns among gender and age groups for school-science topics and learning experiences among respondents chosen to be nationally representative of Scottish primary and secondary pupils. Finds that girls have a stronger preference for biological topics than boys. Concludes that much of what goes on in science classrooms is…

  9. Children Reason about Shared Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…

  10. Caregiver Preferences regarding Technology's Role in Supporting Adolescent Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi-Hayes, Josette M.; Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Cataldo, Rosa; Huang, Jiayu; Pati, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Background. Health technology provides a wealth of strategies to address chronic health issues, such as childhood obesity. Few studies have assessed parental preferences regarding use of health technology to support weight management for adolescents. Objective. This study determined caregiver beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards using traditional methods and technology-based health applications to address weight management among overweight adolescents. Methods. Self-administered surveys were distributed to caregivers of children ages 11–18 years in Stony Brook Children's Hospital outpatient offices with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age, gender. The data were entered into StudyTrax research platform and analyzed using SAS. Results.  N = 114. Mean BMI z-score = 1.95 ± 0.50. Two-thirds (65.8%) of caregivers preferred a weight management program that includes both traditional and technology components. Most parents rated involvement in program development (68.1%), access to content (72.4%) as very important. Those who believed their child's weight was a problem (p = 0.01) were more likely than other parents to prefer a program that combined both traditional and technology components. Conclusions. Parents' perceptions of their child's weight drove preferences about incorporating technology elements into a weight management program. Future weight management programs should incorporate parental content preferences and be tailored to different age groups. PMID:27347500

  11. Magnesium incorporation into hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Laurencin, Danielle; Almora-Barrios, Neyvis; de Leeuw, Nora H; Gervais, Christel; Bonhomme, Christian; Mauri, Francesco; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Knowles, Jonathan C; Newport, Robert J; Wong, Alan; Gan, Zhehong; Smith, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    The incorporation of Mg in hydroxyapatite (HA) was investigated using multinuclear solid state NMR, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and computational modeling. High magnetic field (43)Ca solid state NMR and Ca K-edge XAS studies of a ∼10% Mg-substituted HA were performed, bringing direct evidence of the preferential substitution of Mg in the Ca(II) position. (1)H and (31)P solid state NMR show that the environment of the anions is disordered in this substituted apatite phase. Both Density Functional Theory (DFT) and interatomic potential computations of Mg-substituted HA structures are in agreement with these observations. Indeed, the incorporation of low levels of Mg in the Ca(II) site is found to be more favourable energetically, and the NMR parameters calculated from these optimized structures are consistent with the experimental data. Calculations provide direct insight in the structural modifications of the HA lattice, due to the strong contraction of the M⋯O distances around Mg. Finally, extensive interatomic potential calculations also suggest that a local clustering of Mg within the HA lattice is likely to occur. Such structural characterizations of Mg environments in apatites will favour a better understanding of the biological role of this cation. PMID:21144581

  12. CAVITY CONTROL ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski, J. Hovater

    2010-09-01

    A digital low level radio frequency (RF) system typically incorporates either a heterodyne or direct sampling technique, followed by fast ADCs, then an FPGA, and finally a transmitting DAC. This universal platform opens up the possibilities for a variety of control algorithm implementations. The foremost concern for an RF control system is cavity field stability, and to meet the required quality of regulation, the chosen control system needs to have sufficient feedback gain. In this paper we will investigate the effectiveness of the regulation for three basic control system algorithms: I&Q (In-phase and Quadrature), Amplitude & Phase and digital SEL (Self Exciting Loop) along with the example of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV cavity field control system.

  13. Promoting Understanding of Linear Equations with the Median-Slope Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael Todd

    2005-01-01

    The preliminary findings resulting when invented algorithm is used with entry-level students while introducing linear equations is described. As calculations are accessible, the algorithm is preferable to more rigorous statistical procedures in entry-level classrooms.

  14. Excursion-Set-Mediated Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Baskaran, Subbiah

    1995-01-01

    Excursion-set-mediated genetic algorithm (ESMGA) is embodiment of method of searching for and optimizing computerized mathematical models. Incorporates powerful search and optimization techniques based on concepts analogous to natural selection and laws of genetics. In comparison with other genetic algorithms, this one achieves stronger condition for implicit parallelism. Includes three stages of operations in each cycle, analogous to biological generation.

  15. A fuzzy set preference model for market share analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing, and market segmentation. The success of new products depends on accurate market share prediction and design decisions based on consumer preferences. The vague linguistic nature of consumer preferences and product attributes, combined with the substantial differences between individuals, creates a formidable challenge to marketing models. The most widely used methodology is conjoint analysis. Conjoint models, as currently implemented, represent linguistic preferences as ratio or interval-scaled numbers, use only numeric product attributes, and require aggregation of individuals for estimation purposes. It is not surprising that these models are costly to implement, are inflexible, and have a predictive validity that is not substantially better than chance. This affects the accuracy of market share estimates. A fuzzy set preference model can easily represent linguistic variables either in consumer preferences or product attributes with minimal measurement requirements (ordinal scales), while still estimating overall preferences suitable for market share prediction. This approach results in flexible individual-level conjoint models which can provide more accurate market share estimates from a smaller number of more meaningful consumer ratings. Fuzzy sets can be incorporated within existing preference model structures, such as a linear combination, using the techniques developed for conjoint analysis and market share estimation. The purpose of this article is to develop and fully test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation), and how much to make (market share

  16. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  17. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1‑x O x ). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths.

  18. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

  19. Preferences and beliefs in ingroup favoritism

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Jim A. C.; Faber, Nadira S.; Crockett, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Ingroup favoritism—the tendency to favor members of one’s own group over those in other groups—is well documented, but the mechanisms driving this behavior are not well understood. In particular, it is unclear to what extent ingroup favoritism is driven by preferences concerning the welfare of ingroup over outgroup members, vs. beliefs about the behavior of ingroup and outgroup members. In this review we analyze research on ingroup favoritism in economic games, identifying key gaps in the literature and providing suggestions on how future work can incorporate these insights to shed further light on when, why, and how ingroup favoritism occurs. In doing so, we demonstrate how social psychological theory and research can be integrated with findings from behavioral economics, providing new theoretical and methodological directions for future research. PMID:25762906

  20. Alcohol demand and risk preference

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6–8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  1. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  2. Algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Lomax, Harvard

    1987-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable activity in algorithm development for the Navier-Stokes equations. This has resulted in a wide variety of useful new techniques. Some examples for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented, divided into two parts. One is devoted to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the other to the compressible form.

  3. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  4. Subjective preference evaluation of sound fields by performing singers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noson, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    A model of the auditory process is proposed for performing singers, which incorporates the added signal from bone conduction, as well as the psychological distance for subjective preference of the performer from the acoustic sound field of the stage. The explanatory power of previous scientific studies of vocal stage acoustics has been limited by a lack of an underlying theory of performer preference. Ando's theory, using the autocorrelation function (ACF) for parametrizing temporal factors, was applied to interpretation of singer sound field preference determined by the pair comparison method. Melisma style singing (no lyrics) was shown to increase the preferred delay time of reflections from a mean of 14 ms with lyrics to 23 ms without (p<0.05). The extent of the shift in preferred time delay was shown to be directly related to minima of the effective duration of the running ACF, (τe)min, calculated from each singer's voice. Voice matching experiments for singers demonstrated a strong overestimate of the voice outside the head compared with the singer's own voice (22.4 dB overestimate, p<0.01). Individual singer melisma singing delay preferences were compared for ``ah'' versus ``hum'' syllables, and the increased delay preference (41 ms) was shown to be correlated with (τe)min (r2<0.68, p<0.01). When the proposed bone conduction model was applied, using the measured overestimate of sound level of the singer's own voice for each singer (9.9 dB mean overestimate difference between ``ah'' and ``hum,'' p<0.01), the relationship of singer preference to (τe)min was improved (r2=0.97, p<0.01). Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis are available from the author by inquiry at BRC Acoustics, 1741 First Avenue South, Seattle, WA 98134 USA. E-mail address: dnoson@brcacoustics.com

  5. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  6. Algorithmic advances in stochastic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    Practical planning problems with deterministic forecasts of inherently uncertain parameters often yield unsatisfactory solutions. Stochastic programming formulations allow uncertain parameters to be modeled as random variables with known distributions, but the size of the resulting mathematical programs can be formidable. Decomposition-based algorithms take advantage of special structure and provide an attractive approach to such problems. We consider two classes of decomposition-based stochastic programming algorithms. The first type of algorithm addresses problems with a ``manageable`` number of scenarios. The second class incorporates Monte Carlo sampling within a decomposition algorithm. We develop and empirically study an enhanced Benders decomposition algorithm for solving multistage stochastic linear programs within a prespecified tolerance. The enhancements include warm start basis selection, preliminary cut generation, the multicut procedure, and decision tree traversing strategies. Computational results are presented for a collection of ``real-world`` multistage stochastic hydroelectric scheduling problems. Recently, there has been an increased focus on decomposition-based algorithms that use sampling within the optimization framework. These approaches hold much promise for solving stochastic programs with many scenarios. A critical component of such algorithms is a stopping criterion to ensure the quality of the solution. With this as motivation, we develop a stopping rule theory for algorithms in which bounds on the optimal objective function value are estimated by sampling. Rules are provided for selecting sample sizes and terminating the algorithm under which asymptotic validity of confidence interval statements for the quality of the proposed solution can be verified. Issues associated with the application of this theory to two sampling-based algorithms are considered, and preliminary empirical coverage results are presented.

  7. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  8. The Allometry of Prey Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kalinkat, Gregor; Rall, Björn Christian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Brose, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses) across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles) simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses) as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems. PMID:21998724

  9. Ascent guidance algorithm using lidar wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation of a general nonlinear programming guidance algorithm that incorporates wind measurements in the computation of ascent guidance steering commands is discussed. A nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm that is designed to solve a very general problem has the potential to address the diversity demanded by future launch systems. Using B-splines for the command functional form allows the NLP algorithm to adjust the shape of the command profile to achieve optimal performance. The algorithm flexibility is demonstrated by simulation of ascent with dynamic loading constraints through a set of random wind profiles with and without wind sensing capability.

  10. LIBSA – A Method for the Determination of Ligand-Binding Preference to Allosteric Sites on Receptor Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of receptor flexibility into computational drug discovery through the relaxed complex scheme is well suited for screening against a single binding site. In the absence of a known pocket or if there are multiple potential binding sites, it may be necessary to do docking against the entire surface of the target (global docking). However no suitable and easy-to-use tool is currently available to rank global docking results based on the preference of a ligand for a given binding site. We have developed a protocol, termed LIBSA for LIgand Binding Specificity Analysis, that analyzes multiple docked poses against a single or ensemble of receptor conformations and returns a metric for the relative binding to a specific region of interest. By using novel filtering algorithms and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the relative ligand-binding frequency at different pockets can be calculated and compared quantitatively. Ligands can then be triaged by their tendency to bind to a site instead of ranking by affinity alone. The method thus facilitates screening libraries of ligand cores against a large library of receptor conformations without prior knowledge of specific pockets, which is especially useful to search for hits that selectively target a particular site. We demonstrate the utility of LIBSA by showing that it correctly identifies known ligand binding sites and predicts the relative preference of a set of related ligands for different pockets on the same receptor. PMID:24437606

  11. Consistency and consensus models for group decision-making with uncertain 2-tuple linguistic preference relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Chonghui

    2016-08-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the decision environment and the lack of knowledge, decision-makers may use uncertain linguistic preference relations to express their preferences over alternatives and criteria. For group decision-making problems with preference relations, it is important to consider the individual consistency and the group consensus before aggregating the preference information. In this paper, consistency and consensus models for group decision-making with uncertain 2-tuple linguistic preference relations (U2TLPRs) are investigated. First of all, a formula which can construct a consistent U2TLPR from the original preference relation is presented. Based on the consistent preference relation, the individual consistency index for a U2TLPR is defined. An iterative algorithm is then developed to improve the individual consistency of a U2TLPR. To help decision-makers reach consensus in group decision-making under uncertain linguistic environment, the individual consensus and group consensus indices for group decision-making with U2TLPRs are defined. Based on the two indices, an algorithm for consensus reaching in group decision-making with U2TLPRs is also developed. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  12. Student selection and preference types.

    PubMed

    Gaskey, N J

    1982-02-01

    The use of paper and pencil tests for the selection of candidates and to identify individual differences should be approached cautiously because the interpretations of the tests can be very subjective. Although personal preferences do tend to become more stable as we grow older, they may vary from one day to the next. No one is an absolute extrovert or introvert; we all have tendencies toward one or the other depending on the particular situation and the mitigating circumstances. The preference type indicator is not recommended for use in selecting candidates for entrance into a nurse anesthesia program; but, rather, to make members of the department aware of the similarities and differences among people. It is helpful in making individuals aware of the other person's preferences. It is also useful in making them aware of the need to examine their own areas of weakness and to improve them before attempting to change someone else. PMID:7072461

  13. [Ovipositional preference of Grapholitha molesta].

    PubMed

    Gong, Qing-Tao; Li, Su-Hong; Zhang, Kun-Peng; Wu, Hai-Bin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Sun, Rui-Hong

    2014-09-01

    In order to gain better understanding of the oviposition preference of Grapholitha molesta, we studied the ovipositional preference on different host fruit leaves, different parts of peach bran- ches and different varieties of peach in simulated outdoor conditions. The adult ovipositional preference on the host fruit leaves was in descending order, i. e. peach > cherry > apple > plum > pear > crabapple > apricot, and 33.5% of eggs were laid on the peach leaves with the average number of egg on one peach leaf being 8.3. There were differences in egg distribution on both sides of the leaves in different hosts. The number of egg laid on the positive surface was more than on the reverse surface of apple and crabapple leaves, and vice versus for peach, plum, pear and apricot leaves, and 3.3 times more eggs were laid on the reverse surface of peach leaves than on the positive surface. The egg distribution had no significant difference on both sides of cherry leaves. The adult ovipositional preference on peach branches was in descending order of leaf > stipule > petiole > branch. The leaves were the major ovipositonal places with 88.7% of total eggs on. 72.5% of eggs were laid on the 10 leaves near the top unexpanded leaflets, and the maximum number was on the 3rd leaf accounting for 9.3%, while only 1.1% of eggs were laid on the peach leaves after 25th. The ovipositional preference on different peach fruits was in descending order of nectarine > flat peach > prunus persica. The density and characteristics of the hair on host fruits and leaves were the primary factors affecting the ovipositional preference. PMID:25757320

  14. The value of customer preference

    SciTech Connect

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  15. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior☆

    PubMed Central

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition. PMID:23576829

  16. Sorting on STAR. [CDC computer algorithm timing comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Timing comparisons are given for three sorting algorithms written for the CDC STAR computer. One algorithm is Hoare's (1962) Quicksort, which is the fastest or nearly the fastest sorting algorithm for most computers. A second algorithm is a vector version of Quicksort that takes advantage of the STAR's vector operations. The third algorithm is an adaptation of Batcher's (1968) sorting algorithm, which makes especially good use of vector operations but has a complexity of N(log N)-squared as compared with a complexity of N log N for the Quicksort algorithms. In spite of its worse complexity, Batcher's sorting algorithm is competitive with the serial version of Quicksort for vectors up to the largest that can be treated by STAR. Vector Quicksort outperforms the other two algorithms and is generally preferred. These results indicate that unusual instruction sets can introduce biases in program execution time that counter results predicted by worst-case asymptotic complexity analysis.

  17. 4 CFR 2.6 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 2.6 Section 2.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.6 Veterans' preference. (a) GAO will provide preference, for any individual who would be a preference eligible in the executive branch, in...

  18. 5 CFR 337.304 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 337.304 Section 337... Alternative Rating and Selection Procedures § 337.304 Veterans' preference. In this subpart: (a) Veterans' preference must be applied as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 3319(b) and (c)(2); (b) Veterans' preference points...

  19. 5 CFR 337.304 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 337.304 Section 337... Alternative Rating and Selection Procedures § 337.304 Veterans' preference. In this subpart: (a) Veterans' preference must be applied as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 3319(b) and (c)(2); (b) Veterans' preference points...

  20. 4 CFR 2.6 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 2.6 Section 2.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.6 Veterans' preference. (a) GAO will provide preference, for any individual who would be a preference eligible in the executive branch, in...

  1. 4 CFR 2.6 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Veterans' preference. 2.6 Section 2.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.6 Veterans' preference. (a) GAO will provide preference, for any individual who would be a preference eligible in the executive branch, in...

  2. 5 CFR 337.304 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 337.304 Section 337... Alternative Rating and Selection Procedures § 337.304 Veterans' preference. In this subpart: (a) Veterans' preference must be applied as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 3319(b) and (c)(2); (b) Veterans' preference points...

  3. 5 CFR 337.304 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 337.304 Section 337... Alternative Rating and Selection Procedures § 337.304 Veterans' preference. In this subpart: (a) Veterans' preference must be applied as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 3319(b) and (c)(2); (b) Veterans' preference points...

  4. 5 CFR 337.304 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 337.304 Section 337... Alternative Rating and Selection Procedures § 337.304 Veterans' preference. In this subpart: (a) Veterans' preference must be applied as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 3319(b) and (c)(2); (b) Veterans' preference points...

  5. 4 CFR 2.6 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 2.6 Section 2.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.6 Veterans' preference. (a) GAO will provide preference, for any individual who would be a preference eligible in the executive branch, in...

  6. Algorithmic problems of nontransitive (SSB) utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosheleva, O. M.; Kreinovich, V. YA.

    1991-01-01

    The standard utility theory is based on several natural axioms including transitivity of preference; however, real preference is often not transitive. To describe such preferences, Fishburn (1988) introduced a new formalism (SSB-utilities), in which preference is described by a skew-symmetric function F:M x M - R, where M is the set of all alternatives. He also showed that it is in principle possible to reconstruct this function F by asking the person to compare different alternatives and lotteries. In the present paper we propose a new algorithm for reconstructing F that is asymptotically optimal in the sense that the number of binary (yes-no) questions that one has to ask to determine the values of F with given precision is of minimal possible order.

  7. Algorithm Plans Collision-Free Path for Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to enable a computer aboard a robot to autonomously plan the path of the manipulator arm of the robot to avoid collisions between the arm and any obstacle, which could be another part of the robot or an external object in the vicinity of the robot. In simplified terms, the algorithm generates trial path segments and tests each segment for potential collisions in an iterative process that ends when a sequence of collision-free segments reaches from the starting point to the destination. The main advantage of this algorithm, relative to prior such algorithms, is computational efficiency: the algorithm is designed to make minimal demands upon the limited computational resources available aboard a robot. This path-planning algorithm utilizes a modified version of the collision-detection method described in "Improved Collision-Detection Method for Robotic Manipulator" (NPO-30356), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (June 2003), page 72. The method involves utilization of mathematical models of the robot constructed prior to operation and similar models of external objects constructed automatically from sensory data acquired during operation. This method incorporates a previously developed method, known in the art as the method of oriented bounding boxes (OBBs), in which an object is represented approximately, for computational purposes, by a box that encloses its outer boundary. Because many parts of a robotic manipulator are cylindrical, the OBB method has been extended in this method to enable the approximate representation of cylindrical parts by use of octagonal or other multiple-OBB assemblies denoted oriented bounding prisms (OBPs). A multiresolution OBB/OBP representation of the robot and its manipulator arm and a multiresolution OBB representation of external objects (including terrain) are constructed and used in a process in which collisions at successively finer resolutions are detected through computational detection of overlaps

  8. Preference Reversal in Multiattribute Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; Chater, Nick

    2010-01-01

    A central puzzle for theories of choice is that people's preferences between options can be reversed by the presence of decoy options (that are not chosen) or by the presence of other irrelevant options added to the choice set. Three types of reversal effect reported in the decision-making literature, the attraction, compromise, and similarity…

  9. Student Teachers' Classroom Management Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, John W.; Boisvert, Gloria

    1989-01-01

    Investigated student teachers' preferences for several methods of classroom management. Fourth-year education students (N=70) were presented with four typical classroom problem behavior scenarios and were offered a choice of four approaches to manage problem. Results revealed that subjects strongly favored humanistic approaches to classroom…

  10. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  11. Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments. (Contains 8 footnotes.)

  12. Parent Preference Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz-Snowden, Joan; And Others

    A national survey of parents of school aged Asian, Puerto Rican, Mexican American, and Cuban students was conducted to examine what educational preferences language minority parents have regarding the role of English and non-English (home) language in the instructional process. A second purpose of the survey was to determine what factors are…

  13. Ethnicity and Children's TV Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Harvey A.; Liss, Marsha B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of California intermediate-grade children revealed that Anglo and Hispanic children showed a strong preference for action/adventure shows, while Black children chose situation comedies at more than twice the rate of the other ethnic groups. Other differences were observed between ethnic groups and between sexes within ethnic groups. (GT)

  14. Personality Preferences of Outdoor Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashel, Christine; Montgomery, Diane; Lane, Suzie

    A study investigated the personality type preferences of people who voluntarily chose to participate in a structured, field-based, outdoor education program. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was administered to 87 participants prior to beginning a 10-day Wilderness Education Association outdoor leadership trip. Participants were 18-46 years…

  15. Using Models that Incorporate Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the use in policy analysis of models that incorporate uncertainty. He believes that all models should consider incorporating uncertainty, but that at the same time it is important to understand that sampling variability is not usually the dominant driver of uncertainty in policy analyses. He also argues that…

  16. Trial encoding algorithms ensemble.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lipin Bill; Yeh, Ren Jye

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes trial algorithms for some basic components in cryptography and lossless bit compression. The symmetric encryption is accomplished by mixing up randomizations and scrambling with hashing of the key playing an essential role. The digital signature is adapted from the Hill cipher with the verification key matrices incorporating un-invertible parts to hide the signature matrix. The hash is a straight running summation (addition chain) of data bytes plus some randomization. One simplified version can be burst error correcting code. The lossless bit compressor is the Shannon-Fano coding that is less optimal than the later Huffman and Arithmetic coding, but can be conveniently implemented without the use of a tree structure and improvable with bytes concatenation. PMID:27057475

  17. Fluid-structure-coupling algorithm. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed here have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of surfactant incorporating vesicles that incorporate colloidal magnetite.

    PubMed

    de Melo Barbosa, Raquel; Luna Finkler, Christine L; Bentley, Maria Vitória L B; Santana, Maria Helena A

    2013-03-01

    Drug administration through the transdermal route has optimized for the comfort of patients and easy application. However, the main limitation of transdermal drug delivery is the impermeability of the human skin. Recent advances on improvement of drug transport through the skin include elastic liposomes as a penetration enhancer. Entrapment of ferrofluids in the core of liposomes produces magnetoliposomes, which can be driven by a high-gradient magnetic field. The association of both strategies could enhance the penetration of elastic liposomes. This work relies on the preparation and characterization of elastic-magnetic liposomes designed to permeate through the skin. The incorporation of colloidal magnetite and the elastic component, octaethylene glycol laurate (PEG-8-L), in the structure of liposomes were evaluated. The capability of the elastic magnetoliposomes for permeation through nanopores of two stacked polycarbonate membranes was compared to conventional and elastic liposomes. Magnetite incorporation was dependent on vesicle diameter and size distribution as well as PEG-8-L incorporation into liposomes, demonstrating the capability of the fluid bilayer to accommodate the surfactant without disruption. On the contrary, PEG-8-L incorporation into magnetoliposomes promoted a decrease of average diameter and a lower PEG-8-L incorporation percentage as a result of reduction on the fluidity of the bilayer imparted by iron incorporation into the lipid structure. Elastic liposomes demonstrated an enhancement of the deformation capability, as compared with conventional liposomes. Conventional and elastic magnetoliposomes presented a reduced capability for deformation and permeation. PMID:23363304

  19. Study of an intraurban travel demand model incorporating commuter preference variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holligan, P. E.; Coote, M. A.; Rushmer, C. R.; Fanning, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    The model is based on the substantial travel data base for the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area, provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. The model is of the abstract type, and makes use of commuter attitudes towards modes and simple demographic characteristics of zones in a region to predict interzonal travel by mode for the region. A characterization of the STOL/VTOL mode was extrapolated by means of a subjective comparison of its expected characteristics with those of modes characterized by the survey. Predictions of STOL demand were made for the Bay Area and an aircraft network was developed to serve this demand. When this aircraft system is compared to the base case system, the demand for STOL service has increased five fold and the resulting economics show considerable benefit from the increased scale of operations. In the previous study all systems required subsidy in varying amounts. The new system shows a substantial profit at an average fare of $3.55 per trip.

  20. Assortative mating without assortative preference

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Cheng, Siwei; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating—marriage of a man and a woman with similar social characteristics—is a commonly observed phenomenon. In the existing literature in both sociology and economics, this phenomenon has mainly been attributed to individuals’ conscious preferences for assortative mating. In this paper, we show that patterns of assortative mating may arise from another structural source even if individuals do not have assortative preferences or possess complementary attributes: dynamic processes of marriages in a closed system. For a given cohort of youth in a finite population, as the percentage of married persons increases, unmarried persons who newly enter marriage are systematically different from those who married earlier, giving rise to the phenomenon of assortative mating. We use microsimulation methods to illustrate this dynamic process, using first the conventional deterministic Gale–Shapley model, then a probabilistic Gale–Shapley model, and then two versions of the encounter mating model. PMID:25918366

  1. DETECTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI USING MULTI-FILTER IMAGING DATA. II. INCORPORATING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X. Y.; De Robertis, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    This is the second paper of the series Detecting Active Galactic Nuclei Using Multi-filter Imaging Data. In this paper we review shapelets, an image manipulation algorithm, which we employ to adjust the point-spread function (PSF) of galaxy images. This technique is used to ensure the image in each filter has the same and sharpest PSF, which is the preferred condition for detecting AGNs using multi-filter imaging data as we demonstrated in Paper I of this series. We apply shapelets on Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Wide Survey ugriz images. Photometric parameters such as effective radii, integrated fluxes within certain radii, and color gradients are measured on the shapelets-reconstructed images. These parameters are used by artificial neural networks (ANNs) which yield: photometric redshift with an rms of 0.026 and a regression R-value of 0.92; galaxy morphological types with an uncertainty less than 2 T types for z ≤ 0.1; and identification of galaxies as AGNs with 70% confidence, star-forming/starburst (SF/SB) galaxies with 90% confidence, and passive galaxies with 70% confidence for z ≤ 0.1. The incorporation of ANNs provides a more reliable technique for identifying AGN or SF/SB candidates, which could be very useful for large-scale multi-filter optical surveys that also include a modest set of spectroscopic data sufficient to train neural networks.

  2. Review: Thermal preference in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Wang, George; Garrity, Paul A.; Huey, Raymond B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature strongly affects physiology of ectotherms. Small ectotherms, like Drosophila, cannot endogenously regulate body temperature so must rely on behavior to maintain body temperature within a physiologically permissive range. Here we review what is known about Drosophila thermal preference. Work on thermal behavior in this group is particularly exciting because it provides the opportunity to connect genes to neuromolecular mechanisms to behavior to fitness in the wild. PMID:20161211

  3. Where Would Refinancing Preferences Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yajun; Liu, Bo

    We study the relation between the non-tradable shares reform and the refinancing preferences. From the viewpoints of change in market and policy environments led by the reform, we find that right issues dominate before the reform, however, public offerings (including private placement) dominate after reform, which could be attributed to more money encirclement induced by the shift of the public offering mechanism from in discount to in premium after reform and no requirements for large shareholders' participation commitments in public offerings.

  4. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    PubMed

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  5. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    PubMed Central

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  6. TOPSIS-based consensus model for group decision-making with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2014-08-01

    Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises. PMID:24081882

  7. Algorithmic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, W.

    1990-12-13

    In this paper complex adaptive systems are defined by a self- referential loop in which objects encode functions that act back on these objects. A model for this loop is presented. It uses a simple recursive formal language, derived from the lambda-calculus, to provide a semantics that maps character strings into functions that manipulate symbols on strings. The interaction between two functions, or algorithms, is defined naturally within the language through function composition, and results in the production of a new function. An iterated map acting on sets of functions and a corresponding graph representation are defined. Their properties are useful to discuss the behavior of a fixed size ensemble of randomly interacting functions. This function gas'', or Turning gas'', is studied under various conditions, and evolves cooperative interaction patterns of considerable intricacy. These patterns adapt under the influence of perturbations consisting in the addition of new random functions to the system. Different organizations emerge depending on the availability of self-replicators.

  8. Motion Cueing Algorithm Development: Initial Investigation and Redesign of the Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telban, Robert J.; Wu, Weimin; Cardullo, Frank M.; Houck, Jacob A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this project four motion cueing algorithms were initially investigated. The classical algorithm generated results with large distortion and delay and low magnitude. The NASA adaptive algorithm proved to be well tuned with satisfactory performance, while the UTIAS adaptive algorithm produced less desirable results. Modifications were made to the adaptive algorithms to reduce the magnitude of undesirable spikes. The optimal algorithm was found to have the potential for improved performance with further redesign. The center of simulator rotation was redefined. More terms were added to the cost function to enable more tuning flexibility. A new design approach using a Fortran/Matlab/Simulink setup was employed. A new semicircular canals model was incorporated in the algorithm. With these changes results show the optimal algorithm has some advantages over the NASA adaptive algorithm. Two general problems observed in the initial investigation required solutions. A nonlinear gain algorithm was developed that scales the aircraft inputs by a third-order polynomial, maximizing the motion cues while remaining within the operational limits of the motion system. A braking algorithm was developed to bring the simulator to a full stop at its motion limit and later release the brake to follow the cueing algorithm output.

  9. Behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats preferring ethanol or water

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikova, O.G.; Borodkin, Y.S.; Razumovskaya, N.I.; Shabanov, P.D.; Sokolovskaya, N.E.

    1985-05-01

    Considering that learning and memory processes are largely determined by the intensity of RNA synthesis in specific brain structure, the authors study the relationship between learning ability of rats preferring ethanol or water and the level of RNA-synthesizing activity of brain cell nuclei. RNA-synthesizing activity of cell nuclei from cortical gray matter of the animals was determined one month after selection by measuring incorporation of deuterium-uridine triphosphate. The numerical results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test at P 0.05. It is shown that the altered behavior of animals preferring ethanol is evidently based on disturbed interaction between mediator and genetic structures of brain cells.

  10. The colour preference control based on two-colour combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ji Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes a framework of colour preference control to satisfy the consumer's colour related emotion. A colour harmony algorithm based on two-colour combinations is developed for displaying the images with several complementary colour pairs as the relationship of two-colour combination. The colours of pixels belonging to complementary colour areas in HSV colour space are shifted toward the target hue colours and there is no colour change for the other pixels. According to the developed technique, dynamic emotions by the proposed hue conversion can be improved and the controlled output image shows improved colour emotions in the preference of the human viewer. The psychophysical experiments are conducted to investigate the optimal model parameters to produce the most pleasant image to the users in the respect of colour emotions.

  11. Two Solvers for Tractable Temporal Constraints with Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, F.; Khatib,L.; Morris, P.; Morris, R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time on the basis of preferences. Soft temporal constraints problems allow to describe in a natural way scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. We describe two solvers based on two different approaches for solving the same tractable subclass. For each solver we present the theoretical results it stands on, a description of the algorithm and some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. Finally, we compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and representational power.

  12. Algorithms for optimal dyadic decision trees

    SciTech Connect

    Hush, Don; Porter, Reid

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm for constructing optimal dyadic decision trees was recently introduced, analyzed, and shown to be very effective for low dimensional data sets. This paper enhances and extends this algorithm by: introducing an adaptive grid search for the regularization parameter that guarantees optimal solutions for all relevant trees sizes, revising the core tree-building algorithm so that its run time is substantially smaller for most regularization parameter values on the grid, and incorporating new data structures and data pre-processing steps that provide significant run time enhancement in practice.

  13. Dimensions of Preschool Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1979-01-01

    Describes four assessments which preschool children were given to indicate preference for a set of fruits. The research demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining preference data directly from young children. (Author/SA)

  14. Rat preference for food-related odors.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, E; Ono, T; Uwano, T; Takashima, Y; Kawasaki, M

    1991-01-01

    Preferences for food-related odors and the effects of fasting on those preferences were investigated during rat bar pressing for brief odor presentation. A rat was housed in an equilateral octagonal cage and had free access to food and water, except during fasting. Among 8 food-related odor substances (black pepper, cheese, coffee, milk, nut, peppermint, plum and orange), black pepper, milk and coffee were most preferred, and cheese was least preferred, but even the bar pressing rate for cheese was above the operant level. This data indicates that all 8 odors were preferred by rats, although there were different degrees of preference in individual animals. Fasting substantially increased the rate of bar pressing for odors and changed the odors preferences. This result was probably due to increased search for food and water. Since bar pressing was reinforced by nothing other than odor presentation, the results reveal inherent odor preferences of rats. PMID:1959035

  15. Teacher Preferences for Various Positive Reinforcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Rose, Malcolm I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between applied behavioral training and reinforcement preferences of classroom teachers. Data obtained from the Positive Reinforcement Observation Schedule, a paired comparison task, indicated minimal differential reinforcement preferences for classroom teachers with no training, limited training, or extensive…

  16. Algorithmic Mechanism Design of Evolutionary Computation

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We consider algorithmic design, enhancement, and improvement of evolutionary computation as a mechanism design problem. All individuals or several groups of individuals can be considered as self-interested agents. The individuals in evolutionary computation can manipulate parameter settings and operations by satisfying their own preferences, which are defined by an evolutionary computation algorithm designer, rather than by following a fixed algorithm rule. Evolutionary computation algorithm designers or self-adaptive methods should construct proper rules and mechanisms for all agents (individuals) to conduct their evolution behaviour correctly in order to definitely achieve the desired and preset objective(s). As a case study, we propose a formal framework on parameter setting, strategy selection, and algorithmic design of evolutionary computation by considering the Nash strategy equilibrium of a mechanism design in the search process. The evaluation results present the efficiency of the framework. This primary principle can be implemented in any evolutionary computation algorithm that needs to consider strategy selection issues in its optimization process. The final objective of our work is to solve evolutionary computation design as an algorithmic mechanism design problem and establish its fundamental aspect by taking this perspective. This paper is the first step towards achieving this objective by implementing a strategy equilibrium solution (such as Nash equilibrium) in evolutionary computation algorithm. PMID:26257777

  17. Algorithmic Mechanism Design of Evolutionary Computation.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We consider algorithmic design, enhancement, and improvement of evolutionary computation as a mechanism design problem. All individuals or several groups of individuals can be considered as self-interested agents. The individuals in evolutionary computation can manipulate parameter settings and operations by satisfying their own preferences, which are defined by an evolutionary computation algorithm designer, rather than by following a fixed algorithm rule. Evolutionary computation algorithm designers or self-adaptive methods should construct proper rules and mechanisms for all agents (individuals) to conduct their evolution behaviour correctly in order to definitely achieve the desired and preset objective(s). As a case study, we propose a formal framework on parameter setting, strategy selection, and algorithmic design of evolutionary computation by considering the Nash strategy equilibrium of a mechanism design in the search process. The evaluation results present the efficiency of the framework. This primary principle can be implemented in any evolutionary computation algorithm that needs to consider strategy selection issues in its optimization process. The final objective of our work is to solve evolutionary computation design as an algorithmic mechanism design problem and establish its fundamental aspect by taking this perspective. This paper is the first step towards achieving this objective by implementing a strategy equilibrium solution (such as Nash equilibrium) in evolutionary computation algorithm. PMID:26257777

  18. The DEP-6D, a new preference-based measure to assess health states of dependency.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Míguez, E; Abellán-Perpiñán, J M; Alvarez, X C; González, X M; Sampayo, A R

    2016-03-01

    In medical literature there are numerous multidimensional scales to measure health states for dependence in activities of daily living. However, these scales are not preference-based and are not able to yield QALYs. On the contrary, the generic preference-based measures are not sensitive enough to measure changes in dependence states. The objective of this paper is to propose a new dependency health state classification system, called DEP-6D, and to estimate its value set in such a way that it can be used in QALY calculations. DEP-6D states are described as a combination of 6 attributes (eat, incontinence, personal care, mobility, housework and cognition problems), with 3-4 levels each. A sample of 312 Spanish citizens was surveyed in 2011 to estimate the DEP-6D preference-scoring algorithm. Each respondent valued six out of the 24 states using time trade-off questions. After excluding those respondents who made two or more inconsistencies (6% out of the sample), each state was valued between 66 and 77 times. The responses present a high internal and external consistency. A random effect model accounting for main effects was the preferred model to estimate the scoring algorithm. The DEP-6D describes, in general, more severe problems than those usually described by means of generic preference-based measures. The minimum score predicted by the DEP-6D algorithm is -0.84, which is considerably lower than the minimum value predicted by the EQ-5D and SF-6D algorithms. The DEP-6D value set is based on community preferences. Therefore it is consistent with the so-called 'societal perspective'. Moreover, DEP-6D preference weights can be used in QALY calculations and cost-utility analysis. PMID:26921836

  19. Algorithm Optimally Allocates Actuation of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motaghedi, Shi

    2007-01-01

    A report presents an algorithm that solves the following problem: Allocate the force and/or torque to be exerted by each thruster and reaction-wheel assembly on a spacecraft for best performance, defined as minimizing the error between (1) the total force and torque commanded by the spacecraft control system and (2) the total of forces and torques actually exerted by all the thrusters and reaction wheels. The algorithm incorporates the matrix vector relationship between (1) the total applied force and torque and (2) the individual actuator force and torque values. It takes account of such constraints as lower and upper limits on the force or torque that can be applied by a given actuator. The algorithm divides the aforementioned problem into two optimization problems that it solves sequentially. These problems are of a type, known in the art as semi-definite programming problems, that involve linear matrix inequalities. The algorithm incorporates, as sub-algorithms, prior algorithms that solve such optimization problems very efficiently. The algorithm affords the additional advantage that the solution requires the minimum rate of consumption of fuel for the given best performance.

  20. The shy prefer familiar congeners.

    PubMed

    Benhaïm, David; Ferrari, Sébastien; Chatain, Béatrice; Bégout, Marie-Laure

    2016-05-01

    The shy-bold continuum is both a fundamental aspect of human behavior and a relatively stable behavioral trait for many other species. Here we assessed whether shy individuals prefer familiar congeners, taking the European sea bass, a recently domesticated fish showing similar behavioral responses to wild fish, as a model to better understand the inter-individual variability in social behavior previously observed in this species. In the wild, the link between familiarity i.e., the preference of fish for familiar congeners and boldness could be part of the mechanism underlying shoaling formation in fish. Thirty fish were individually tested in a device designed to assess the preference for a familiar vs. an unfamiliar congener on the basis of visual cues only. An open field test (OFT) with shelter was performed on the same fish 32 days later to assess the boldness of each individual. Variables of interest included the proportion of time spent in the shelter, border and center zone of the arena and variables of activity. Variables measured in OFT were collapsed into first principal component scores using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allowed characterizing a shy-bold continuum. Time spent near the familiar congener was negatively correlated with boldness i.e., shy individuals spent most of the time near the familiar congener. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the understanding of the behavior of European sea bass and suggest that the link between familiarity and shyness is a general aspect of both animal and human behavior. PMID:26995491

  1. Intergenerational transfer of time and risk preferences

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Heather; van der Pol, Marjon

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in individual time and risk preferences. Little is known about how these preferences are formed. It is hypothesised that parents may transmit their preferences to their offspring. This paper examines the correlation in offspring and parental time and risk preferences using data from an annual household survey in Australia (the HILDA survey). Both time and risk preferences are examined and we explored whether the correlation in time and risk preferences varies across the distribution of preferences and across the across the four parent–child dyads (mother/daughter, mother/son, father/daughter, father/son). The results show that there is a significant relationship between parents and their young adult offspring risk and time preference measures. The correlation varies across the distribution of time preferences. The correlation was largest for longer planning horizons. Risk averse parents are more likely to have risk averse children. Except for the father/daughter dyad risk seeking parents are more likely to have risk seeking offspring. Some gender differences were found. The association in parental and offspring time preference was larger for mothers than fathers. Daughters are more likely to be influenced by their mother’s risk preferences, however, sons are equally influenced by both parents. The results of this study suggest that the transmission in preferences is more nuanced than previously thought and parental gender may be important. PMID:26412913

  2. 4 CFR 2.6 - Veterans' preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 2.6 Section 2.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.6 Veterans' preference. (a) GAO will... preference decisions will be heard by the GAO Personnel Appeals Board....

  3. Business Education Students' Preferred Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the Canfield Learning Styles Inventory, completed by 212 secondary business students, showed that most preferred direct experience--hands-on learning. Least preferred was reading, including textbook assignments. Nearly half (98) clustered around applied and independent learning preferences. (SK)

  4. Preschoolers Use Speakers' Preferences to Learn Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Fortuna, Alexandra; Troseth, Georgene

    2009-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated preschoolers' ability to use others' preferences to learn names for things. Two studies demonstrated that preschool children make smart use of others' preferences. In the first study, preschool children only used information about others' preferences when they were clearly linked to referential intentions. The…

  5. Generalization of a Modified Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1981-01-01

    Assesses preschool children's preferences for eight snack foods and tests procedures to modify preferences for certain foods by having children sort foods according to self-determined categories. Enhanced preferences for target foods generalized to other foods in the same category only for children using semantic sorting categories. (Author/DB)

  6. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  7. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  8. Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…

  9. Subject Preference Regarding Three Psychotherapy Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Thomas G.

    Research has shown that therapy preference affects both the quality of the initial therapy session and treatment outcome. To determine personality characteristics which would affect subjects' preference of therapeutic orientation and to obtain qualitative information about subjects' therapy preferences, 203 community college students indicated…

  10. Preferred Attachment in Affiliation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas; Götze, Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Vertices of an affiliation network are linked to attributes and two vertices are declared adjacent whenever they share a common attribute. For example, two customers of an internet shop (or video-sharing website) are called adjacent if they have purchased (or downloaded) the same or similar items. Assuming that each newly arrived customer is linked preferentially to already popular items we obtain a preferred attachment affiliation network that evolves in time. We show that the fraction of customers having neighbours scales as for large . Here is the ratio between the two intensities: intensity of the flow of customers and that of the newly arriving items.

  11. Kinematics of preferred and non-preferred handballing in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2015-01-01

    In Australian football (AF), handballing proficiently with both the preferred and non-preferred arm is important at elite levels; yet, little information is available for handballing on the non-preferred arm. This study compared preferred and non-preferred arm handballing techniques. Optotrak Certus (100 Hz) collected three-dimensional data for 19 elite AF players performing handballs with the preferred and non-preferred arms. Position data, range of motion (ROM), and linear and angular velocities were collected and compared between preferred and non-preferred arms using dependent t-tests. The preferred arm exhibited significantly greater forearm and humerus ROM and angular velocity and significantly greater shoulder angular velocity at ball contact compared to the non-preferred arm. In addition, the preferred arm produced a significantly greater range of lateral bend and maximum lower-trunk speed, maximum strike-side hip speed and hand speed at ball contact than the non-preferred arm. The non-preferred arm exhibited a significantly greater shoulder angle and lower- and upper-trunk orientation angle, but significantly lower support-elbow angle, trunk ROM, and trunk rotation velocity compared to the preferred arm. Reduced ROM and angular velocities found in non-preferred arm handballs indicates a reduction in the degrees of freedom and a less developed skill. Findings have implication for development of handballing on the non-preferred arm. PMID:24863906

  12. Technetium incorporation into hematite (alpha-Fe2O3).

    PubMed

    Skomurski, Frances N; Rosso, Kevin M; Krupka, Kenneth M; McGrail, B Pete

    2010-08-01

    Quantum-mechanical methods were used to evaluate mechanisms for possible structural incorporation of Tc species into the model iron oxide, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3). Using periodic supercell models, energies for charge-neutral incorporation of Tc4+ or TcO4- ions were calculated using either a Tc4+/Fe2+ substitution scheme on the metal sublattice, or by insertion of TcO4- as an interstitial species within a hypothetical vacancy cluster. Although pertechnetate incorporation is found to be invariably unfavorable, incorporation of small amounts of Tc4+ (at least 2.6 wt %) is energetically feasible. Energy minimized bond distances around this impurity are provided to aid in future spectroscopic identification of these impurity species. The calculations also show that Fe2+ and Tc4+ prefer to cluster in the hematite lattice, attributed to less net Coulombic repulsion relative to that of Fe3+-Fe3+. These modeling predictions are generally consistent with observed selective association of Tc with iron oxide under reducing conditions, and in residual waste solids from underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site (Washington, U.S.). Here, even though relatively high pH and oxidizing conditions are dominant, Tc incorporation into iron oxides and (oxy)hydroxides is prospectively enabled by prior reduction of TcO4- to Tc4+ via interaction with radiolytic species. PMID:20666557

  13. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  14. Color preference in red-green dichromats.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-07-28

    Around 2% of males have red-green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats' preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats' pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red-green activity in deuteranopes' preference. Dichromats' color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  15. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    PubMed Central

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  16. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  17. Bumblebee preference for symmetrical flowers.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P

    1995-03-14

    Fluctuating asymmetry, which represents small random deviations from otherwise bilateral symmetry, is a measure of the phenotypic quality of individuals indicating the ability of controlled development under given environmental and genetic conditions. I tested whether floral symmetry reliably reflects phenotypic quality measured in terms of pollinator rewards and whether pollinators respond to floral symmetry in a series of observations and experiments on Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae). Lower petal asymmetry was negatively related to mean lower petal length, whereas asymmetry in leaf width was positively related to mean leaf width. Flowers visited by bumblebees were larger and more symmetrical than the nearest neighboring flower. This relationship between pollinator preference for large and symmetrical flowers was demonstrated to be causal in experiments in which the lower petals were manipulated symmetrically or asymmetrically. Nectar production was larger in symmetrical flowers, and this may explain the bumblebee preference for flower symmetry. Floral symmetry therefore reliably reflects nectar production and hence enhances pollen transport. Extensive embryo abortion has been documented in E. angustifolium and other outcrossing plant species. Floral fluctuating asymmetry, which reflects general developmental homeostasis, may explain such developmental selection in these plants. PMID:11607519

  18. Stability of Bareiss algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanczyk, Adam W.; Brent, Richard P.; de Hoog, F. R.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical stability analysis of Bareiss algorithm for solving a symmetric positive definite Toeplitz system of linear equations. We also compare Bareiss algorithm with Levinson algorithm and conclude that the former has superior numerical properties.

  19. Improving Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation by Incorporating Nondominated Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kian Sheng; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Buyamin, Salinda; Ahmad, Anita; Naim, Faradila; Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Mokhtar, Norrima

    2013-01-01

    The Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is widely used to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. This algorithm optimises one objective using a swarm of particles where their movements are guided by the best solution found by another swarm. However, the best solution of a swarm is only updated when a newly generated solution has better fitness than the best solution at the objective function optimised by that swarm, yielding poor solutions for the multiobjective optimisation problems. Thus, an improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is introduced by incorporating the nondominated solutions as the guidance for a swarm rather than using the best solution from another swarm. In this paper, the performance of improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is investigated using performance measures such as the number of nondominated solutions found, the generational distance, the spread, and the hypervolume. The results suggest that the improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm has impressive performance compared with the conventional Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm. PMID:23737718

  20. The shape of female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    The “shape” of a female mating preference is the relationship between a male trait and the probability of acceptance as a mating partner. The shape of preferences is important in many models of sexual selection, mate recognition, communication, and speciation, yet it has rarely been measured precisely. Here I examine preference shape for male calling song in a bushcricket (katydid). Preferences change dramatically between races of a species, from strongly directional to broadly stabilizing (but with a net directional effect). Preference shape generally matches the distribution of the male trait. This is compatible with a coevolutionary model of signal-preference evolution, although it does not rule out an alternative model, sensory exploitation. Preference shapes are shown to be genetic in origin. PMID:8962104

  1. Music-Based iPad App Preferences of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Suzanne L.; Pearsall, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Music-based technology is frequently included in early childhood classrooms as an attempt to incorporate music education in the curriculum. However, there is a lack of research that addresses the educational benefits of music-based tablet applications (apps) for young children. Researchers in this study explored the preferences of 4-year-old…

  2. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  3. Vectorizable multigrid algorithms for transonic-flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, N. D.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis and the incorporation into a multigrid scheme of several vectorizable algorithms are discussed. von Neumann analyses of vertical-line, horizontal-line, and alternating-direction ZEBRA algorithms were performed; and the results were used to predict their multigrid damping rates. The algorithms were then successfully implemented in a transonic conservative full-potential computer program. The convergence acceleration effect of multiple grids is shown, and the convergence rates of the vectorizable algorithms are compared with those of standard successive-line overrelaxation (SLOR) algorithms.

  4. Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2007-07-03

    This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.

  5. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  6. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  7. Altruistic Preferences in Time Tradeoff: Consideration of Effects on Others in Health State Valuations.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; Attema, Arthur E; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    Whether respondents incorporate altruistic preferences in time tradeoff (TTO) exercises remains understudied. We present an extended quality-adjusted life-year model incorporating altruism. We derive that altruism may affect TTO values in 2 directions. First, "longevity altruists" may wish to prolong life for the sake of their loved ones (to avoid being missed). Second, "quality-of-life altruists" may have a preference to avoid bad health states resulting in being a burden to loved ones. The existence and influence of these preferences in a TTO were empirically confirmed in a sample of 1690 respondents from the general public. We classified respondents as "longevity altruists" or "quality-of-life altruists" based on their reasoning behind inclusion of loved ones in their TTO responses. In line with expectations, longevity altruists traded fewer years than quality-of-life altruists. Nonaltruists gave intermediate values. PMID:26552410

  8. SSME structural computer program development: BOPACE theoretical manual, addendum. [algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An algorithm developed and incorporated into BOPACE for improving the convergence and accuracy of the inelastic stress-strain calculations is discussed. The implementation of separation of strains in the residual-force iterative procedure is defined. The elastic-plastic quantities used in the strain-space algorithm are defined and compared with previous quantities.

  9. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Riccardi, Demian M; Guo, Hao-Bo; Gu, Baohua; Parks, Jerry M; Summers, Anne; Miller, S; Liang, Liyuan; Smith, Jeremy C

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  10. An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach to the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): The Alberta HCC algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Burak, Kelly W; Kneteman, Norman M

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of only a few malignancies with an increasing incidence in North America. Because the vast majority of HCCs occur in the setting of a cirrhotic liver, management of this malignancy is best performed in a multidisciplinary group that recognizes the importance of liver function, as well as patient and tumour characteristics. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is preferred for HCC because it incorporates the tumour characteristics (ie, tumour-node-metastasis stage), the patient’s performance status and liver function according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification, and then links the BCLC stage to recommended therapeutic interventions. However, the BCLC algorithm does not recognize the potential role of radiofrequency ablation for very early stage HCC, the expanding role of liver transplantation in the management of HCC, the role of transarterial chemoembolization in single large tumours, the potential role of transarterial radioembolization with 90Yttrium and the limited evidence for using sorafenib in Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B cirrhotic patients. The current review article presents an evidence-based approach to the multidisciplinary management of HCC along with a new algorithm for the management of HCC that incorporates the BCLC staging system and the authors’ local selection criteria for resection, ablative techniques, liver transplantation, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial radioembolization and sorafenib in Alberta. PMID:21157578

  11. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  12. Library of Continuation Algorithms

    2005-03-01

    LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms) is scientific software written in C++ that provides advanced analysis tools for nonlinear systems. In particular, it provides parameter continuation algorithms. bifurcation tracking algorithms, and drivers for linear stability analysis. The algorithms are aimed at large-scale applications that use Newton’s method for their nonlinear solve.

  13. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, G.A.; Howell, G.W.; Watkins, D.S.

    1997-11-01

    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  14. Octopamine influences honey bee foraging preference.

    PubMed

    Giray, Tugrul; Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Oskay, Devrim

    2007-07-01

    Colony condition and differences in individual preferences influence forage type collected by bees. Physiological bases for the changing preferences of individual foragers are just beginning to be examined. Recently, for honey bees octopamine is shown to influence age at onset of foraging and probability of dance for rewards. However, octopamine has not been causally linked with foraging preference in the field. We tested the hypothesis that changes in octopamine may alter forage type (preference hypothesis). We treated identified foragers orally with octopamine or its immediate precursor, tyramine, or sucrose syrup (control). Octopamine-treated foragers switched type of material collected; control bees did not. Tyramine group results were not different from the control group. In addition, sugar concentrations of nectar collected by foragers after octopamine treatment were lower than before treatment, indicating change in preference. In contrast, before and after nectar concentrations for bees in the control group were similar. These results, taken together, support the preference hypothesis. PMID:17574568

  15. Octopamine influences honey bee foraging preference

    PubMed Central

    Giray, Tugrul; Galindo, Alberto; Oskay, Devrim

    2010-01-01

    Colony condition and differences in individual preferences influence forage type collected by bees. Physiological bases for the changing preferences of individual foragers are just beginning to be examined. Recently, for honey bees octopamine is shown to influence age at onset of foraging and probability of dance for rewards. However, octopamine has not been causally linked with foraging preference in the field. We tested the hypothesis that changes in octopamine may alter forage type (preference hypothesis). We treated identified foragers orally with octopamine or its immediate precursor, tyramine, or sucrose syrup (control). Octopamine treated foragers switched type of material collected, control bees did not. Tyramine group results were not different from the control group. In addition, sugar concentrations of nectar collected by foragers after octopamine treatment were lower than before treatment, indicating change in preference. In contrast, before and after nectar concentrations for bees in the control group were similar. These results, taken together, support the preference hypothesis. PMID:17574568

  16. MHC-assortative facial preferences in humans

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C; Gosling, L. Morris; Jones, Benedict C; Perrett, David I; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Individuals tend to choose mates who are sufficiently genetically dissimilar to avoid inbreeding. As facial attractiveness is a key factor in human mate preference, we investigated whether facial preferences were related to genetic dissimilarity. We asked female volunteers to rate the attractiveness of men from photographs and compared these results with individual genotypes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast to previously reported preferences based on odour, we found a non-significant tendency for women to rate MHC-similar faces as more attractive, suggesting a preference for cues to a self-similar MHC in faces. Further analysis revealed that male faces received higher attractiveness scores when rated by women who were MHC-similar than by MHC-dissimilar women. Although unexpected, this MHC-similar facial preference is consistent with other studies documenting assortative preferences in humans, including for facial phenotype. PMID:17148217

  17. Candidate preferences and expectations of election outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Delavande, Adeline; Manski, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of data from the American Life Panel shows that in the presidential election of 2008 and in multiple statewide elections in 2010, citizens exhibited large differences in their expectations of election outcomes. Expectations were strongly positively associated with candidate preferences, persons tending to believe that their preferred candidate is more likely to win the election. Committed supporters of opposing candidates regularly differed by 20–30% in their assessments of the likelihood that each candidate would win. These findings contribute evidence on the false consensus effect, the empirical regularity that own preferences tend to be positively associated with perceptions of social preferences. We used unique measures of preferences and perceptions that enabled respondents to express uncertainty flexibly. We studied a setting that would a priori seem inhospitable to false consensus—one where persons have little private information on social preferences but substantial common knowledge provided by media reports of election polls. PMID:22355121

  18. Outcomes associated with matching patients' treatment preferences to physicians' recommendations: study methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients often express strong preferences for the forms of treatment available for their disease. Incorporating these preferences into the process of treatment decision-making might improve patients' adherence to treatment, contributing to better outcomes. We describe the methodology used in a study aiming to assess treatment outcomes when patients' preferences for treatment are closely matched to recommended treatments. Method Participants included patients with moderate and severe psoriasis attending outpatient dermatology clinics at the University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany. A self-administered online survey used conjoint analysis to measure participants' preferences for psoriasis treatment options at the initial study visit. Physicians' treatment recommendations were abstracted from each participant's medical records. The Preference Matching Index (PMI), a measure of concordance between the participant's preferences for treatment and the physician's recommended treatment, was determined for each participant at t1 (initial study visit). A clinical outcome measure, the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, and two participant-derived outcomes assessing treatment satisfaction and health related quality of life were employed at t1, t2 (twelve weeks post-t1) and t3 (twelve weeks post-t2). Change in outcomes was assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The association between participants' PMI scores at t1 and outcomes at t2 and t3 was evaluated using multivariate regressions analysis. Discussion We describe methods for capturing concordance between patients' treatment preferences and recommended treatment and for assessing its association with specific treatment outcomes. The methods are intended to promote the incorporation of patients' preferences in treatment decision-making, enhance treatment satisfaction, and improve treatment effectiveness through greater adherence. PMID:22214259

  19. Strategic mating with common preferences.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

    2005-12-21

    We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

  20. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  1. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  2. Preference Input Forms as a Method of Obtaining Feedback from Citizen Advisory Committees in the Public Participation Program of a Water Resources Planning Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Josephine Marquis

    Reported is a study of a preference input form as a means of obtaining input for incorporating advisory committee preferences into the planning process for water resource management. Two input forms were used at eastern and western Study Area Committee (SAC) meetings, for study area 8 of the Comprehensive Water Quality Management Plan (COWAMP) in…

  3. Environmental noise reduction configuration: Effects on preferences, satisfaction, and speech understanding.

    PubMed

    Zakis, Justin A; Hau, Jutta; Blamey, Peter J

    2009-12-01

    The effects of four configurations of an environmental noise reduction (ENR) algorithm on preferences, speech understanding, and satisfaction were investigated. The gain reduction at 0 dB modulation depth was either 10 dB in all channels (ENR StrongFlat) or shaped from 2-10 dB across channels according to a speech importance function (ENR MildSII). This gain reduction was either invariant (ENR Constant) or varied with (ENR Variable) the noise level. Ten hearing-impaired participants blindly compared pairs of configurations in real-world situations and recorded their preferences. Sentence reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in quiet and noise, and satisfaction was rated with speech in noise. Half of the participants preferred ENR MildSII and half preferred ENR StrongFlat. All preferred ENR Variable to ENR Constant. Overall, the preferred ENR configuration was preferred to ENR off in 90% of responses. No statistically significant effect on SRTs was found, but a clinically significant effect of up to 2 dB could not be ruled out from the available data. ENR significantly improved satisfaction for listening comfort, ease of speech understanding, and sound quality. PMID:20017682

  4. Viewer preferences for adaptive playout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Sachin

    2013-03-01

    Adaptive media playout techniques are used to avoid buffer underflow in a dynamic streaming environment where the available bandwidth may be fluctuating. In this paper we report human perceptions from audio quality studies that we performed on speech and music samples for adaptive audio playout. Test methods based on ITU-R BS. 1534-1 recommendation were used. Studies were conducted for both slow playout and fast playout. Two scales - a coarse scale and a finer scale was used for the slow and fast audio playout factors. Results from our study can be used to determine acceptable slow and fast playout factors for speech and music content. An adaptive media playout algorithm could use knowledge of these upper and lower bounds on playback speeds to decide its adaptive playback schedule.

  5. A Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm Approach to an Adaptive Information Retrieval Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Bautista, Maria J.; Vila, Maria-Amparo; Larsen, Henrik Legind

    1999-01-01

    Presents an approach to a Genetic Information Retrieval Agent Filter (GIRAF) that filters and ranks documents retrieved from the Internet according to users' preferences by using a Genetic Algorithm and fuzzy set theory to handle the imprecision of users' preferences and users' evaluation of the retrieved documents. (Author/LRW)

  6. Uranium incorporation into amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Massey, Michael S; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Nelson, Joey M; Fendorf, Scott; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of uranium are commonly observed in naturally occurring amorphous silica (including opal) deposits, suggesting that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may represent a natural attenuation mechanism and promising strategy for U remediation. However, the stability of uranium in opaline silicates, determined in part by the binding mechanism for U, is an important factor in its long-term fate. U may bind directly to the opaline silicate matrix, or to materials such as iron (hydr)oxides that are subsequently occluded within the opal. Here, we examine the coordination environment of U within opaline silica to elucidate incorporation mechanisms. Precipitates (with and without ferrihydrite inclusions) were synthesized from U-bearing sodium metasilicate solutions, buffered at pH ∼ 5.6. Natural and synthetic solids were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and a suite of other techniques. In synthetic amorphous silica, U was coordinated by silicate in a double corner-sharing coordination geometry (Si at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å) and a small amount of uranyl and silicate in a bidentate, mononuclear (edge-sharing) coordination (Si at ∼ 3.1-3.2 Å, U at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å). In iron-bearing synthetic solids, U was adsorbed to iron (hydr)oxide, but the coordination environment also contained silicate in both edge-sharing and corner-sharing coordination. Uranium local coordination in synthetic solids is similar to that of natural U-bearing opals that retain U for millions of years. The stability and extent of U incorporation into opaline and amorphous silica represents a long-term repository for U that may provide an alternative strategy for remediation of U contamination. PMID:24984107

  7. Incorporating Spirituality in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2016-06-01

    Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians. PMID:26832335

  8. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  9. Incorporating World Knowledge to Document Clustering via Heterogeneous Information Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenguang; Song, Yangqiu; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Roth, Dan; Zhang, Ming; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    One of the key obstacles in making learning protocols realistic in applications is the need to supervise them, a costly process that often requires hiring domain experts. We consider the framework to use the world knowledge as indirect supervision. World knowledge is general-purpose knowledge, which is not designed for any specific domain. Then the key challenges are how to adapt the world knowledge to domains and how to represent it for learning. In this paper, we provide an example of using world knowledge for domain dependent document clustering. We provide three ways to specify the world knowledge to domains by resolving the ambiguity of the entities and their types, and represent the data with world knowledge as a heterogeneous information network. Then we propose a clustering algorithm that can cluster multiple types and incorporate the sub-type information as constraints. In the experiments, we use two existing knowledge bases as our sources of world knowledge. One is Freebase, which is collaboratively collected knowledge about entities and their organizations. The other is YAGO2, a knowledge base automatically extracted from Wikipedia and maps knowledge to the linguistic knowledge base, Word-Net. Experimental results on two text benchmark datasets (20newsgroups and RCV1) show that incorporating world knowledge as indirect supervision can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as well as clustering algorithms enhanced with world knowledge features. PMID:26705504

  10. Incorporation of Hysteresis Effects into Magnetc Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Melikhov, Y.; Jiles, D. C.; Garton, M.; Lopez, R.; Brasche, L.

    2004-02-01

    Hysteresis effects have usually been ignored in magnetic modeling due to the multi-valued property causing difficulty in its incorporation into numerical calculations such as those based on finite elements. A linear approximation of magnetic permeability or a nonlinear B-H curve formed by connecting the tips of the hysteresis loops has been widely used in magnetic modeling for these types of calculations. We have employed the Jiles-Atherton (J-A) hysteresis model for development of a finite element method algorithm incorporating hysteresis effects. J-A model is suited for numerical analysis such as finite element modeling because of the small number of degrees of freedom and its simple form of equation. A finite element method algorithm for hysteretic materials has been developed for estimation of the volume and the distribution of retained magnetic particles around a defect site. The volume of retained magnetic particles was found to depend not only on the existing current source strength but also on the remaining magnetization of a hysteretic material. Detailed algorithm and simulation results are presented.

  11. An Online Scheduling Algorithm with Advance Reservation for Large-Scale Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Kosar, Tevfik

    2010-05-20

    Scientific applications and experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to remote collaborating sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. In order to support increasingly data-intensive science, next generation research networks have been deployed to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions. In this paper, we present a practical model for online data scheduling in which data movement operations are scheduled in advance for end-to-end high performance transfers. In our model, data scheduler interacts with reservation managers and data transfer nodes in order to reserve available bandwidth to guarantee completion of jobs that are accepted and confirmed to satisfy preferred time constraint given by the user. Our methodology improves current systems by allowing researchers and higher level meta-schedulers to use data placement as a service where theycan plan ahead and reserve the scheduler time in advance for their data movement operations. We have implemented our algorithm and examined possible techniques for incorporation into current reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm that the proposed algorithm is efficient and scalable.

  12. Understanding drug preferences, different perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Peter G M; Arnardottir, Arna H; Straus, Sabine M J; de Graeff, Pieter A; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Quik, Elise H; Krabbe, Paul F M; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the values regulators attach to different drug effects of oral antidiabetic drugs with those of doctors and patients. Methods We administered a ‘discrete choice’ survey to regulators, doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands. Eighteen choice sets comparing two hypothetical oral antidiabetic drugs were constructed with varying drug effects on glycated haemoglobin, cardiovascular risk, bodyweight, duration of gastrointestinal complaints, frequency of hypoglycaemia and risk of bladder cancer. Responders were asked each time which drug they preferred. Results Fifty-two regulators, 175 doctors and 226 patients returned the survey. Multinomial conditional logit analyses showed that cardiovascular risk reduction was valued by regulators positively (odds ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.11–3.53), whereas drug choices were negatively affected by persistent gastrointestinal problems (odds ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.41) and cardiovascular risk increase (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.27–0.87). Doctors and patients valued these effects in a similar manner to regulators. The values that doctors attached to large changes in glycated haemoglobin and that both doctors and patients attached to hypoglycaemia and weight gain also reached statistical significance. No group's drug choice was affected by a small absolute change in risk of bladder cancer when presented in the context of other drug effects. When comparing the groups, the value attached by regulators to less frequent hypoglycaemic episodes was significantly smaller than by patients (P = 0.044). Conclusions Regulators may value major benefits and risks of drugs for an individual diabetes patient mostly in the same way as doctors and patients, but differences may exist regarding the value of minor or short-term drug effects. PMID:25469876

  13. Women's Comedy Preferences during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcroft, Jeanne M.; Zillman, Dolf

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that premenstrual and menstrual women preferred comedy over alternative choices more strongly than did women midway through the cycle. Suggests that this preference reflects a desire to overcome the hormonally mediated noxious mood states that are characteristically associated with the premenstrual and menstrual phases of the cycle. (JD)

  14. Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…

  15. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  16. Experiential Determinants of Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    This discussion focuses on elements of children's immediate experience that influence their food preferences. Some evidence suggests that there may be sensitive periods early in life that are critical for the formation of food preferences and aversions. Additionally, the familiarity and the sweetness of foods appear to be important determinants of…

  17. 13 CFR 120.411 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preferences. 120.411 Section 120.411 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Participation Criteria § 120.411 Preferences. An agreement to participate under the Act may not establish any...

  18. Music Listening Preferences of Macau Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Wanfong Viny

    2009-01-01

    This is a pioneer study of Macau's music education focusing on music listening preference. Adopting models from Western cultures, the study, launched in 2006, aimed to explore the factors of age and gender in regard to music preference. The subjects ranged from fourth-graders to university students (N=2495) (15 missing). Participants rated their…

  19. Picture Preferences of Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myatt, Barbara; Carter, Juliet Mason

    1979-01-01

    Defines six types of illustrations and reports on a study of student preference for those picture styles. The subjects (380 students in grades K, 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, and 11) generally preferred photographs, with realistic drawings ranked second. But there were significant differences between sexes and age groups. (Author/JEG)

  20. 75 FR 29324 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Department of the Navy Preferred Supplier Program (PSP) AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice... drafting a policy that will establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP). Under the PSP, contractors that..., DON will initiate the pilot phase of the PSP. DATES: DON invites interested parties from both...

  1. 76 FR 53631 - BioPreferred Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ..., subpart V (48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983), this program is excluded from the scope of the Executive Order..., and 3202 RIN 0503-AA41 BioPreferred Program AGENCY: Office of Procurement and Property Management... final action to relocate the BioPreferred Program, established under the authority of section 9002...

  2. Undergraduate Psychology Courses Preferred by Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Reisinger, Debra L.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Information about the undergraduate psychology courses preferred by graduate programs is useful for a number of purposes, including (a) advising psychology majors who are interested in graduate school, (b) undergraduate curriculum planning, and (c) examining whether graduate programs' preferences reflect national guidelines for the undergraduate…

  3. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  4. Gender, Psychological Type and Conflict Style Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Paula S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveys experienced managers regarding gender, psychological type, and conflict style preference. Finds that males are "thinkers," and females are "feelers." Cautions that while results indicated psychological type may be a better indicator of conflict style preference than is gender, neither factor accounted for a substantial amount of variance.…

  5. Qualitative Investigation of Young Children's Music Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examined young children's music preferences through group conversations with children, interviews with parents, and non-participant observation of classroom settings in daycare and elementary classrooms. Data were analyzed inductively to generate themes, and revealed that (1) children expressed distinct preferences for an…

  6. Students' Preferred Learning Styles in Graphic Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…

  7. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  8. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  9. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  10. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  11. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  12. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  13. 28 CFR 33.102 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preferences. 33.102 Section 33.102 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Bulletproof Vest Partnership Grant Program Applying for the Program § 33.102 Preferences. BJA may give preferential consideration, at its discretion, to...

  14. Dating Preferences in Sex Stereotypic Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christine A.

    Although research suggest a general preference by men for attractive partners, attractiveness may be more important for some men than for others. This study was conducted to investigate the role of men's sex stereotypic attitudes on their dating preferences. It was hypothesized that the level of sex stereotyping would correlate with the level…

  15. The Student Grouping Preferences of Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciscell, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Surveys 218 education majors concerning their preferences for specific classroom grouping configurations. Finds that students (1) prefer small classes and homogeneous grouping arrangements; (2) are most concerned about class size; and (3) express limited confidence in the areas of computer use and school policy formation, and in their ability to…

  16. Cognitive preferences and creativity: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamir, Pinchas; Penick, John E.; Lunetta, Vincent N.

    Cognitive preference, a cognitive style acquired through life and learning experiences and representing a distinct orientation to the processing of information, is related to creativity in this study. Significant correlations were observed between cognitive preference and verbal creativity but not with figural creativity as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking.

  17. 36 CFR 17.7 - Preference rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference rights. 17.7... CONVEYANCE OF FREEHOLD AND LEASEHOLD INTERESTS ON LANDS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 17.7 Preference rights... right to acquire the interest for an amount equal to the highest bid if within 30 days they notify...

  18. 20 CFR 617.24 - Preferred training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred training. 617.24 Section 617.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Reemployment Services § 617.24 Preferred training....

  19. Contexts, Gaming Pleasures, and Gendered Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Diane

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author explores computer gaming preferences of girls through observations of a games club at an all-girl state school in the United Kingdom. The author argues that gaming tastes are alterable and site specific. Gaming preferences certainly relate to the attributes of particular games, but they will also depend on the player's…

  20. Patient preferences and cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Elnitsky, Christine A; Stone, Patricia

    2005-05-01

    This column discusses patient preference measures and their application in cost utility analysis. A variety of methods of eliciting patient preferences by use of generic utility measures are described. Practical issues in the use of utility measures are discussed. PMID:15991103

  1. A Method to Assess Work Task Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobigo, Virginie; Morin, Diane; Lachapelle, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Persons with intellectual disability may encounter difficulties in making choices and expressing preferences because of restricted communication skills or a tendency to acquiesce. In addition, many studies provide evidence that these persons have less opportunity to make choices and express their preferences. The aim of this study was to conduct a…

  2. Students' Preferences in Undergraduate Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Existing research into students' preferences for assessment methods has been developed from a restricted sample: in particular, the voice of students in the 'hard-pure sciences' has rarely been heard. We conducted a mixed method study to explore mathematics students' preferences of assessment methods. In contrast to the message from the general…

  3. The Story Preferences of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Marcia

    Preschool children's story preferences were studied to determine if differences existed in preschoolers' preferences for reality, fantasy, people, and animals. Sex of character versus sex of subject was also investigated. Subjects were 84 children from preschools in Lincoln, Nebraska (39 boys and 45 girls). Through use of a nonverbal testing…

  4. Do Reading Habits Influence Aesthetic Preferences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Allaith, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    We tested the idea that the directionality of a person's primary writing system has influences outside the domain of reading and writing, specifically influences on aesthetic preferences. The results of several previous studies suggest that people whose primary writing system goes from left to right prefer pictures of moving and static…

  5. Preservice Music Teachers' Employment Preferences: Consideration Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nicole R.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate preservice music teachers' (N = 187) perceptions of employment preferences when considering future teaching positions. Adaptive Conjoint Analysis, a business market-based research tool, was used to determine preferences for personal factors (e.g., salary, commute), school environmental factors (e.g.,…

  6. Determining User Preferences for Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the various techniques and methods employed to measure user preferences with respect to the provision of particular library services. The ranking of user preferences, direct judgment methods of measurement, tradeoff analysis, and conjoint analysis are among the topics discussed. A reference list is included. (JL)

  7. Does Science Also Prefer a Ternary Pattern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogliani, L.; Klein, D. J.; Balaban, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Through the importance of the number three in our culture and the strange preference for a ternary pattern of our nature one can perceive how and why number theory degraded to numerology. The strong preference of our minds for simple patterns can be read as the key to understanding not only the development of numerology, but also why scientists…

  8. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  9. Automated characterization of perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs: Validation and calibration to observer preference

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, Ehsan; Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Page McAdams, H.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The authors previously proposed an image-based technique [Y. Lin et al. Med. Phys. 39, 7019–7031 (2012)] to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this study, an observer study was designed and conducted to validate the output of the program against rankings by expert radiologists and to establish the ranges of the output values that reflect the acceptable image appearance so the program output can be used for image quality optimization and tracking. Methods: Using an IRB-approved protocol, 2500 clinical chest radiographs (PA/AP) were collected from our clinical operation. The images were processed through our perceptual quality assessment program to measure their appearance in terms of ten metrics of perceptual image quality: lung gray level, lung detail, lung noise, rib–lung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm–lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. From the results, for each targeted appearance attribute/metric, 18 images were selected such that the images presented a relatively constant appearance with respect to all metrics except the targeted one. The images were then incorporated into a graphical user interface, which displayed them into three panels of six in a random order. Using a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions, each of five participating attending chest radiologists was tasked to spatially order the images based only on the targeted appearance attribute regardless of the other qualities. Once ordered, the observer also indicated the range of image appearances that he/she considered clinically acceptable. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer and algorithmic rankings and interobserver variability. An observer-averaged acceptable image appearance was also statistically derived for each quality attribute based on the collected individual acceptable ranges

  10. Algorithm validation using multicolor phantoms.

    PubMed

    Samarov, Daniel V; Clarke, Matthew L; Lee, Ji Youn; Allen, David W; Litorja, Maritoni; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2012-06-01

    We present a framework for hyperspectral image (HSI) analysis validation, specifically abundance fraction estimation based on HSI measurements of water soluble dye mixtures printed on microarray chips. In our work we focus on the performance of two algorithms, the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the Spatial LASSO (SPLASSO). The LASSO is a well known statistical method for simultaneously performing model estimation and variable selection. In the context of estimating abundance fractions in a HSI scene, the "sparse" representations provided by the LASSO are appropriate as not every pixel will be expected to contain every endmember. The SPLASSO is a novel approach we introduce here for HSI analysis which takes the framework of the LASSO algorithm a step further and incorporates the rich spatial information which is available in HSI to further improve the estimates of abundance. In our work here we introduce the dye mixture platform as a new benchmark data set for hyperspectral biomedical image processing and show our algorithm's improvement over the standard LASSO. PMID:22741077

  11. Passive MMW algorithm performance characterization using MACET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bradford D.; Watson, John S.; Amphay, Sengvieng A.

    1997-06-01

    As passive millimeter wave sensor technology matures, algorithms which are tailored to exploit the benefits of this technology are being developed. The expedient development of such algorithms requires an understanding of not only the gross phenomenology, but also specific quirks and limitations inherent in sensors and the data gathering methodology specific to this regime. This level of understanding is approached as the technology matures and increasing amounts of data become available for analysis. The Armament Directorate of Wright Laboratory, WL/MN, has spearheaded the advancement of passive millimeter-wave technology in algorithm development tools and modeling capability as well as sensor development. A passive MMW channel is available within WL/MNs popular multi-channel modeling program Irma, and a sample passive MMW algorithm is incorporated into the Modular Algorithm Concept Evaluation Tool, an algorithm development and evaluation system. The Millimeter Wave Analysis of Passive Signatures system provides excellent data collection capability in the 35, 60, and 95 GHz MMW bands. This paper exploits these assets for the study of the PMMW signature of a High Mobility Multi- Purpose Wheeled Vehicle in the three bands mentioned, and the effect of camouflage upon this signature and autonomous target recognition algorithm performance.

  12. Predicting human preferences using the block structure of complex social networks.

    PubMed

    Guimerà, Roger; Llorente, Alejandro; Moro, Esteban; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    With ever-increasing available data, predicting individuals' preferences and helping them locate the most relevant information has become a pressing need. Understanding and predicting preferences is also important from a fundamental point of view, as part of what has been called a "new" computational social science. Here, we propose a novel approach based on stochastic block models, which have been developed by sociologists as plausible models of complex networks of social interactions. Our model is in the spirit of predicting individuals' preferences based on the preferences of others but, rather than fitting a particular model, we rely on a Bayesian approach that samples over the ensemble of all possible models. We show that our approach is considerably more accurate than leading recommender algorithms, with major relative improvements between 38% and 99% over industry-level algorithms. Besides, our approach sheds light on decision-making processes by identifying groups of individuals that have consistently similar preferences, and enabling the analysis of the characteristics of those groups. PMID:22984533

  13. Predicting Human Preferences Using the Block Structure of Complex Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guimerà, Roger; Llorente, Alejandro; Moro, Esteban; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    With ever-increasing available data, predicting individuals' preferences and helping them locate the most relevant information has become a pressing need. Understanding and predicting preferences is also important from a fundamental point of view, as part of what has been called a “new” computational social science. Here, we propose a novel approach based on stochastic block models, which have been developed by sociologists as plausible models of complex networks of social interactions. Our model is in the spirit of predicting individuals' preferences based on the preferences of others but, rather than fitting a particular model, we rely on a Bayesian approach that samples over the ensemble of all possible models. We show that our approach is considerably more accurate than leading recommender algorithms, with major relative improvements between 38% and 99% over industry-level algorithms. Besides, our approach sheds light on decision-making processes by identifying groups of individuals that have consistently similar preferences, and enabling the analysis of the characteristics of those groups. PMID:22984533

  14. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports. PMID:18982941

  15. Colors and emotions: preferences and combinations.

    PubMed

    Terwogt, M M; Hoeksma, J B

    1995-01-01

    Within three age groups (7-year-old children, 11-year-old children, and adults), preferences for colors and emotions were established by means of two distinct paired-comparison tasks. In a subsequent task, participants were asked to link colors to emotions by selecting an appropriate color. It was hypothesized that the number of times that each color was tied to a specific emotion would be predictable from the separate preferences for colors and emotions. Within age groups, participants had consistent preferences for colors and emotions, but preferences differed from one age group to another. Especially in the youngest group, the pattern of combinations between colors and emotions appeared to be meaningfully related to the preference order for colors and emotions. PMID:7714504

  16. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    PubMed

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. PMID:26068718

  17. VARIATION OF STRIKE INCENTIVES WITH DAMAGE PREFERENCES

    SciTech Connect

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    For START III level forces, strike allocations and magnitudes vary little with L, but first strike costs vary directly with L, which means that for K reflecting a preference for the survival of high value targets over their destruction and a preference for high value over military targets, the costs of action are far greater than those of inaction for a wide range of values of damage preference L. Thus, if both sides have much greater preferences for the survival of their high value targets than for military targets or destruction, they do not see a net incentive to strike, and crises are terminated by inaction. Recent decades suggest strong preferences for the survival of high value and that this has contributed to the lack of direct conflict during that period.

  18. Algorithm For Control Of Large Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Alternative position-error feedback modes provided. Modern control theory basis for computer algorithm used to control two-axis positioning of large antenna. Algorithm - incorporated into software of real-time control computer - enables rapid intertarget positioning as well as precise tracking (using one of two optional position-feedback modes) without need of human operator intervention. Control system for one axis of two-axis azimuth/elevation control system embodied mostly in software based on advanced control theory. System has linear properties of classical linear feedback controller. Performance described by bandwidth and linear error coefficients.

  19. Applying a Genetic Algorithm to Reconfigurable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, B. Earl; Weir, John; Trevino, Luis; Patrick, Clint; Steincamp, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of applying genetic algorithms to solve optimization problems that are implemented entirely in reconfgurable hardware. The paper highlights the pe$ormance/design space trade-offs that must be understood to effectively implement a standard genetic algorithm within a modem Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA, reconfgurable hardware environment and presents a case-study where this stochastic search technique is applied to standard test-case problems taken from the technical literature. In this research, the targeted FPGA-based platform and high-level design environment was the Starbridge Hypercomputing platform, which incorporates multiple Xilinx Virtex II FPGAs, and the Viva TM graphical hardware description language.

  20. Reasoning about systolic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Purushothaman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Systolic algorithms are a class of parallel algorithms, with small grain concurrency, well suited for implementation in VLSI. They are intended to be implemented as high-performance, computation-bound back-end processors and are characterized by a tesselating interconnection of identical processing elements. This dissertation investigates the problem of providing correctness of systolic algorithms. The following are reported in this dissertation: (1) a methodology for verifying correctness of systolic algorithms based on solving the representation of an algorithm as recurrence equations. The methodology is demonstrated by proving the correctness of a systolic architecture for optimal parenthesization. (2) The implementation of mechanical proofs of correctness of two systolic algorithms, a convolution algorithm and an optimal parenthesization algorithm, using the Boyer-Moore theorem prover. (3) An induction principle for proving correctness of systolic arrays which are modular. Two attendant inference rules, weak equivalence and shift transformation, which capture equivalent behavior of systolic arrays, are also presented.

  1. Algorithm-development activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.

    1994-01-01

    The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.

  2. Cordic based algorithms for software defined radio (SDR) baseband processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyne, B.; Götze, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents two Cordic based algorithms which may be used for digital baseband processing in OFDM and/or CDMA based communication systems. The first one is a linear least squares based multiuser detector for CDMA incorporating descrambling and despreading. The second algorithm is a pure Cordic based FFT implementation. Both algorithms can be implemented using solely Cordic based architectures (e.g. coprocessors or ASIPs). The algorithms exactly fit the needs of a multistandard terminal as they both are freely parameterizable. This regards to the accuracy of the results as well as to the parameters of the performed function (e.g. size of the FFT).

  3. Current state of the art brachytherapy treatment planning dosimetry algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Pantelis, E; Karaiskos, P

    2014-01-01

    Following literature contributions delineating the deficiencies introduced by the approximations of conventional brachytherapy dosimetry, different model-based dosimetry algorithms have been incorporated into commercial systems for 192Ir brachytherapy treatment planning. The calculation settings of these algorithms are pre-configured according to criteria established by their developers for optimizing computation speed vs accuracy. Their clinical use is hence straightforward. A basic understanding of these algorithms and their limitations is essential, however, for commissioning; detecting differences from conventional algorithms; explaining their origin; assessing their impact; and maintaining global uniformity of clinical practice. PMID:25027247

  4. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  5. Uranyl incorporation in natural calcite.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S. D.; Newville, M. G.; Cheng, L.; Kemner, K. M.; Sutton, S. R.; Fenter, P.; Sturchio, N. C.; Spotl, C.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Illiois at Chicago; Univ. of Innsbruck

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of trace amounts of uranyl in natural calcite has posed a long-standing problem in crystal chemistry because of speculation that the size and shape of the uranyl ion may preclude its incorporation in a stable lattice position in calcite. This also defines an important environmental problem because of its bearing on the transport and sequestration of uranyl released from nuclear facilities and uranium mining operations. Calcite is a nearly ubiquitous mineral in soils and groundwater aquifers. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence microprobe studies of uranium in relatively U-rich {approx}13700-year-old calcite from a speleothem in northernmost Italy indicate substitution of uranyl for a calcium and two adjacent carbonate ions in calcite. These new data imply that uranyl has a stable lattice position in natural calcite, indicating that it may be reliably sequestered in calcite over long time scales.

  6. Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): I. Initial preference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Lee, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Wild and game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) raised in pure strain and mixed groups were tested for initial mate preference in a choice test. Female mallards showed no significant preference but males of either strain raised with females of their own strain significantly preferred female models of their own strain during the test. Males raised with females of the other strain merely showed attenuation of their preference for female models of their own strain and did not show preference for female models of the other strain. Game-farm mallards approached models significantly sooner than wild mallards and there was a significant sex X mate interaction.

  7. Pay scheme preferences and health policy objectives.

    PubMed

    Abelsen, Birgit

    2011-04-01

    This paper studies the preferences among healthcare workers towards pay schemes involving different levels of risk. It identifies which pay scheme individuals would prefer for themselves, and which they think is best in furthering health policy objectives. The paper adds, methodologically, a way of defining pay schemes that include different levels of risk. A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1111 dentists. Respondents provided information about their current and preferred pay schemes, and indicated which pay scheme, in their opinion, would best further overall health policy objectives. A total of 504 dentists (45%) returned the questionnaire, and there was no indication of systematic non-response bias. All public dentists had a current pay scheme based on a fixed salary and the majority of individuals preferred a pay scheme with more income risk. Their preferred pay schemes coincided with the ones believed to further stabilise healthcare personnel. The predominant current pay scheme among private dentists was based solely on individual output, and the majority of respondents preferred this pay scheme. In addition, their preferred pay schemes coincided with the ones believed to further efficiency objectives. Both public and private dentists believed that pay schemes, furthering efficiency objectives, had to include more performance-related pay than the ones believed to further stability and quality objectives. PMID:20565995

  8. Game Theory, Conditional Preferences, and Social Influence

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Wynn C.; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences. PMID:23451078

  9. Public preferences for government spending in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ramji, Sabrina; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This study considers three questions: 1. What are the Canadian public's prioritization preferences for new government spending on a range of public health-related goods outside the scope of the country's national system of health insurance? 2. How homogenous or heterogeneous is the Canadian public in terms of these preferences? 3. What factors are predictive of the Canadian public's preferences for new government spending? Data were collected in 2008 from a national random sample of Canadian adults through a telephone interview survey (n=1,005). Respondents were asked to rank five spending priorities in terms of their preference for new government spending. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. As a first priority, Canadian adults prefer spending on child care (26.2%), followed by pharmacare (23.1%), dental care (20.8%), home care (17.2%), and vision care (12.7%). Sociodemographic characteristics predict spending preferences, based on the social position and needs of respondents. Policy leaders need to give fair consideration to public preferences in priority setting approaches in order to ensure that public health-related goods are distributed in a manner that best suits population needs. PMID:23110682

  10. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  11. Geomagnetic field models incorporating physical constraints on the secular variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constable, Catherine; Parker, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    This proposal has been concerned with methods for constructing geomagnetic field models that incorporate physical constraints on the secular variation. The principle goal that has been accomplished is the development of flexible algorithms designed to test whether the frozen flux approximation is adequate to describe the available geomagnetic data and their secular variation throughout this century. These have been applied to geomagnetic data from both the early and middle part of this century and convincingly demonstrate that there is no need to invoke violations of the frozen flux hypothesis in order to satisfy the available geomagnetic data.

  12. Incorporating transient storage in conjunctive stream-aquifer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Chang; Medina, Miguel A.

    2003-09-01

    There has been growing interest in incorporating the transient storage effect into modeling solute transport in streams. In particular, for a smaller mountain stream where flow is fast and the flow field is irregular (a favorable environment to induce dead zones along the stream), long tails are normally observed in the stream tracer data, and adding transient storage terms in the advection-dispersion transport equation can result in more accurate simulation. While previous studies on transient storage modeling account for temporary, localized exchange between the stream and the shallow groundwater in the hyporheic zone, larger-scale exchange with the groundwater in the underlying aquifer has rarely been included or properly coupled to surface water modeling. In this paper, we complement previous modeling efforts by incorporating the transient storage concept in a conjunctive stream-aquifer model. Three well-documented and widely used USGS models have been coupled to form the core of this conjunctive model: MODFLOW handles the groundwater flow in the aquifer; DAFLOW accurately computes unsteady streamflow by means of the diffusive wave routing technique, as well as stream-aquifer exchange simulated as streambed leakage; and MOC3D computes solute transport in the groundwater zone. In addition, an explicit finite difference package was developed to incorporate the one-dimensional transient storage equations for solute transport in streams. The quadratic upstream interpolation (QUICK) algorithm is employed to improve the accuracy of spatial differencing. An adaptive stepsize control algorithm for the Runge-Kutta method is incorporated to increase overall model efficiency. Results show that the conjunctive stream-aquifer model with transient storage can handle well the bank storage effect under a flooding event. When it is applied over a stream network, the results also show that the stream-aquifer interaction acts as a strong source or sink along the stream and is too

  13. Segmenting patients and physicians using preferences from discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Deal, Ken

    2014-01-01

    People often form groups or segments that have similar interests and needs and seek similar benefits from health providers. Health organizations need to understand whether the same health treatments, prevention programs, services, and products should be applied to everyone in the relevant population or whether different treatments need to be provided to each of several segments that are relatively homogeneous internally but heterogeneous among segments. Our objective was to explain the purposes, benefits, and methods of segmentation for health organizations, and to illustrate the process of segmenting health populations based on preference coefficients from a discrete choice conjoint experiment (DCE) using an example study of prevention of cyberbullying among university students. We followed a two-level procedure for investigating segmentation incorporating several methods for forming segments in Level 1 using DCE preference coefficients and testing their quality, reproducibility, and usability by health decision makers. Covariates (demographic, behavioral, lifestyle, and health state variables) were included in Level 2 to further evaluate quality and to support the scoring of large databases and developing typing tools for assigning those in the relevant population, but not in the sample, to the segments. Several segmentation solution candidates were found during the Level 1 analysis, and the relationship of the preference coefficients to the segments was investigated using predictive methods. Those segmentations were tested for their quality and reproducibility and three were found to be very close in quality. While one seemed better than others in the Level 1 analysis, another was very similar in quality and proved ultimately better in predicting segment membership using covariates in Level 2. The two segments in the final solution were profiled for attributes that would support the development and acceptance of cyberbullying prevention programs among university

  14. The Goals and Effects of Music Listening and Their Relationship to the Strength of Music Preference.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the strength of music preference are among the most intricate psychological phenomena. While one person gets by very well without music, another person needs to listen to music every day and spends a lot of temporal and financial resources on listening to music, attending concerts, or buying concert tickets. Where do these differences come from? The hypothesis presented in this article is that the strength of music preference is mainly informed by the functions that music fulfills in people's lives (e.g., to regulate emotions, moods, or physiological arousal; to promote self-awareness; to foster social relatedness). Data were collected with a diary study, in which 121 respondents documented the goals they tried to attain and the effects that actually occurred for up to 5 music-listening episodes per day for 10 successive days. As expected, listeners reporting more intense experience of the functional use of music in the past (1) had a stronger intention to listen to music to attain specific goals in specific situations and (2) showed a larger overall strength of music preference. It is concluded that the functional effectiveness of music listening should be incorporated in existing models and frameworks of music preference to produce better predictions of interindividual differences in the strength of music preference. The predictability of musical style/genre preferences is also discussed with regard to the present results. PMID:26985998

  15. The Goals and Effects of Music Listening and Their Relationship to the Strength of Music Preference

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the strength of music preference are among the most intricate psychological phenomena. While one person gets by very well without music, another person needs to listen to music every day and spends a lot of temporal and financial resources on listening to music, attending concerts, or buying concert tickets. Where do these differences come from? The hypothesis presented in this article is that the strength of music preference is mainly informed by the functions that music fulfills in people’s lives (e.g., to regulate emotions, moods, or physiological arousal; to promote self-awareness; to foster social relatedness). Data were collected with a diary study, in which 121 respondents documented the goals they tried to attain and the effects that actually occurred for up to 5 music-listening episodes per day for 10 successive days. As expected, listeners reporting more intense experience of the functional use of music in the past (1) had a stronger intention to listen to music to attain specific goals in specific situations and (2) showed a larger overall strength of music preference. It is concluded that the functional effectiveness of music listening should be incorporated in existing models and frameworks of music preference to produce better predictions of interindividual differences in the strength of music preference. The predictability of musical style/genre preferences is also discussed with regard to the present results. PMID:26985998

  16. Improving forest cover classification accuracy from Landsat by incorporating topographic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Logan, T. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper shows that accuracies of computer classification of species-specific forest cover types from Landsat imagery can be improved by 27% or more through the incorporation of topographic information from digital terrain tapes registered to multidate Landsat imagery. The topographic information improves classification accuracies because many common forest tree species have preferred elevation ranges and slope aspects. These preferences allow the separation of forest cover types which have similar spectral signatures but different species compositions. It is noted that the development of a classification system which uses prior probabilities and sets of prior probabilities conditioned by one or two external variables represents a significant increase in classification power.

  17. Multicenter evaluation of signal enhancement algorithms for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Luts, Heleen; Eneman, Koen; Wouters, Jan; Schulte, Michael; Vormann, Matthias; Buechler, Michael; Dillier, Norbert; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A; Froehlich, Matthias; Puder, Henning; Grimm, Giso; Hohmann, Volker; Leijon, Arne; Lombard, Anthony; Mauler, Dirk; Spriet, Ann

    2010-03-01

    In the framework of the European HearCom project, promising signal enhancement algorithms were developed and evaluated for future use in hearing instruments. To assess the algorithms' performance, five of the algorithms were selected and implemented on a common real-time hardware/software platform. Four test centers in Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland perceptually evaluated the algorithms. Listening tests were performed with large numbers of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects. Three perceptual measures were used: speech reception threshold (SRT), listening effort scaling, and preference rating. Tests were carried out in two types of rooms. Speech was presented in multitalker babble arriving from one or three loudspeakers. In a pseudo-diffuse noise scenario, only one algorithm, the spatially preprocessed speech-distortion-weighted multi-channel Wiener filtering, provided a SRT improvement relative to the unprocessed condition. Despite the general lack of improvement in SRT, some algorithms were preferred over the unprocessed condition at all tested signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). These effects were found across different subject groups and test sites. The listening effort scores were less consistent over test sites. For the algorithms that did not affect speech intelligibility, a reduction in listening effort was observed at 0 dB SNR. PMID:20329849

  18. Field crickets change mating preferences using remembered social information

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Nathan W.; Zuk, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Plasticity in female mate choice can fundamentally alter selection on male ornaments, but surprisingly few studies have examined the role of social learning in shaping female mating decisions in invertebrates. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to show that females retain information about the attractiveness of available males based on previous social experience, compare that information with incoming signals and then dramatically reverse their preferences to produce final, predictable, mating decisions. Male ornament evolution in the wild may depend much more on the social environment and behavioural flexibility through learning than was previously thought for non-social invertebrates. The predictive power of these results points to a pressing need for theoretical models of sexual selection that incorporate effects of social experience. PMID:19411269

  19. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  20. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  1. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  2. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  3. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following...

  4. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  5. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  6. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  7. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  8. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  9. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  10. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following...

  11. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  12. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  13. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  14. Characterization, physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of La-incorporated apatites.

    PubMed

    Guo, D G; Wang, A H; Han, Y; Xu, K W

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities of La-containing apatites were intensively investigated together with their characterizations in terms of composition, structure, valent state and morphology using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the La(3+) ion can be incorporated into the crystal lattice of hydroxyapatite resulting in the production of La-incorporated apatites (La(x)Ca(10-x)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2+x-2y)O(y square y-x) (x> or =0.5, y<1+x/2) or La(x)Ca(10-x)(PO(4))(6)O(y square y-x) (0.5incorporated oxyapatite with the formula La(2)Ca(8)(PO(4))(6)O(2) (La(2)-OAP, x=2, y=2). It is also found that the La content plays important roles in both the physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities of the La-incorporated apatites. In contrast to La-free apatite, La-incorporated apatites possess a series of attractive properties, including higher thermal stability, higher flexural strength, lower dissolution rate, larger alkaline phosphatase activity, preferable osteoblast morphology and comparable cytotoxicity. In particular, the sintered La-incorporated apatite block achieves a maximal flexure strength of 66.69+/-0.98 MPa at 5% La content (confidence coefficient 0.95), increased 320% in comparison with the La-free apatite. The present study suggests that the La-incorporated apatite possesses application potential in developing a new type of bioactive coating material for metal implants and also as a promising La carrier for further exploring the beneficial functions of La in the human body. PMID:19477306

  15. Decision System Integrating Preferences to Support Sleep Staging.

    PubMed

    Ugon, Adrien; Sedki, Karima; Kotti, Amina; Seroussi, Brigitte; Philippe, Carole; Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel; Garda, Patrick; Bouaud, Jacques; Pinna, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Scoring sleep stages can be considered as a classification problem. Once the whole recording segmented into 30-seconds epochs, features, extracted from raw signals, are typically injected into machine learning algorithms in order to build a model able to assign a sleep stage, trying to mimic what experts have done on the training set. Such approaches ignore the advances in sleep medicine, in which guidelines have been published by the AASM, providing definitions and rules that should be followed to score sleep stages. In addition, these approaches are not able to solve conflict situations, in which criteria of different sleep stages are met. This work proposes a novel approach based on AASM guidelines. Rules are formalized integrating, for some of them, preferences allowing to support decision in conflict situations. Applied to a doubtful epoch, our approach has taken the appropriate decision. PMID:27577436

  16. 24 CFR 891.230 - Selection preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... selection preferences in 24 CFR part 5, subpart D apply. ... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Section 202...

  17. FGF21 Regulates Sweet and Alcohol Preference.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Saswata; Owen, Bryn M; Song, Parkyong; Hernandez, Genaro; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Yingjiang; Scott, William T; Paratala, Bhavna; Turner, Tod; Smith, Andrew; Bernardo, Barbara; Müller, Christian P; Tang, Hao; Mangelsdorf, David J; Goodwin, Bryan; Kliewer, Steven A

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone induced by various metabolic stresses, including ketogenic and high-carbohydrate diets, that regulates energy homeostasis. In humans, SNPs in and around the FGF21 gene have been associated with macronutrient preference, including carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake. Here we show that FGF21 administration markedly reduces sweet and alcohol preference in mice and sweet preference in cynomolgus monkeys. In mice, these effects require the FGF21 co-receptor β-Klotho in the central nervous system and correlate with reductions in dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. Since analogs of FGF21 are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, our findings raise the possibility that FGF21 administration could affect nutrient preference and other reward behaviors in humans. PMID:26724861

  18. Revisiting the innate preference for consonance.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Judy; Trehub, Sandra E

    2014-02-01

    The origin of the Western preference for consonance remains unresolved, with some suggesting that the preference is innate. In Experiments 1 and 2 of the present study, 6-month-old infants heard six different consonant/dissonant pairs of stimuli, including those tested in previous research. In contrast to the findings of others, infants in the present study failed to listen longer to consonant stimuli. After 3 minutes of exposure to consonant or dissonant stimuli in Experiment 3, 6-month-old infants listened longer to the familiar stimulus, whether consonant or dissonant. Our findings are inconsistent with innate preferences for consonant stimuli. Instead, the effect of short-term exposure is consistent with the view that familiarity underlies the origin of the Western preference for consonant intervals. PMID:23815480

  19. DEVELOPING A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE PURCHASING

    EPA Science Inventory

    LCA-based guidance was developed by EPA under the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision Making (FRED) effort to demonstrate how to conduct a relative comparison between product types to determine environmental preferability. It identifies data collection needs and iss...

  20. Specialty Preferences of Physicians and Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Harrison G.

    1975-01-01

    Family and internal medicine were rated high by the groups studied. Neurological and colon-rectal surgery were rated low. Males gave higher ratings to surgical specialities, whereas females express stronger preferences for obstetrics and gynecology. (Author/KE)

  1. GSFC preferred parts lists PPL-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldini, B. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A listing of preferred parts, part upgrading procedures, part derating guidelines, and part screening procedures to be used in the selection, procurement, and application of parts for Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space systems and ground support equipment is contained.

  2. Pilot preference and procedures at uncontrolled airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The report presents the results of a pilot questionnaire utilized at the 1974 Reading, Pennsylvania Air Show to obtain data on pilot procedures and preference in the terminal airspace of uncontrolled airports.

  3. Airline Transport Pilot Preferences for Predictive Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1996-01-01

    This experiment assessed certain issues about the usefulness of predictive information: (1) the relative time criticality of failures, (2) the subjective utility of predictive information for different parameters or sensors, and (3) the preferred form and prediction time for displaying predictive information. To address these issues, three separate tasks were administered to 22 airline pilots. As shown by the data, these pilots preferred predictive information on parameters they considered vital to the safety of the flight. These parameters were related to the checklists performed first for alert messages. These pilots also preferred to know whether a parameter was changing abnormally and the time to a certain value being reached. Furthermore, they considered this information most useful during the cruise, the climb, and the descent phases of flight. Lastly, these pilots preferred the information to predict as far ahead as possible.

  4. Identifying predictors of survey mode preference.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Jolene D; Olson, Kristen; Millar, Morgan M

    2014-11-01

    To increase the likelihood of response, many survey organizations attempt to provide sample members with a mode they are thought to prefer. Mode assignment is typically based on conventional wisdom or results from mode choice studies that presented only limited options. In this paper we draw heavily on research and theory from the mode effects and the survey participation literatures to develop a framework for understanding what characteristics should predict mode preferences. We then test these characteristics using data from two different surveys. We find that measures of familiarity with and access to a mode are the strongest predictors of mode preference and measures of safety concerns, physical abilities, and normative concerns are unexpectedly weak predictors. Our findings suggest that variables that may exist on sample frames can be used to inform the assignment of "preferred" modes to sample members. PMID:25131280

  5. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  6. Junk Food Ads Sway Kids' Preferences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids' Preferences Children under 8 most vulnerable to marketing's effects, study says To use the sharing features ... studies. The researchers found that ads and other marketing for products high in sugar or salt have ...

  7. Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences across species.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. PMID:26179195

  8. Ensemble learning incorporating uncertain registration.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ivor J A; Woolrich, Mark W; Andersson, Jesper L R; Groves, Adrian R; Schnabel, Julia A

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for improving the accuracy of statistical prediction methods in spatially normalized analysis. This is achieved by incorporating registration uncertainty into an ensemble learning scheme. A probabilistic registration method is used to estimate a distribution of probable mappings between subject and atlas space. This allows the estimation of the distribution of spatially normalized feature data, e.g., grey matter probability maps. From this distribution, samples are drawn for use as training examples. This allows the creation of multiple predictors, which are subsequently combined using an ensemble learning approach. Furthermore, extra testing samples can be generated to measure the uncertainty of prediction. This is applied to separating subjects with Alzheimer's disease from normal controls using a linear support vector machine on a region of interest in magnetic resonance images of the brain. We show that our proposed method leads to an improvement in discrimination using voxel-based morphometry and deformation tensor-based morphometry over bootstrap aggregating, a common ensemble learning framework. The proposed approach also generates more reasonable soft-classification predictions than bootstrap aggregating. We expect that this approach could be applied to other statistical prediction tasks where registration is important. PMID:23288332

  9. Flex joint incorporating enclosed conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tomek, M.L.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes a downhole elongate oil tool adapted to flex as required in placing the elongate tool in a crooked well borehole wherein electrical signals are transmitted along conductors along the elongate tool. The elongate tool incorporating a flex tool consists of: (a) a generally spherical knuckle; (b) a surrounding socket engaging the knuckle with a limited rotational range relative to a defined axis through the knuckle and socket; (c) a passage through the knuckle opening at an outlet into the socket; (d) a serially communicated passage through the socket aligned with the knuckle; (e) means cooperative with the knuckle and the socket; (1) permitting flexure in a conic angle relative to an axis through the knuckle and socket; and (2) preventing relative axial rotation between the knuckle and the socket; and (f) means for filling the passages with a pressure isolated oil bath for contacting structural components in the passages, and further wherein the oil bath is pressure isolated by a piston responsive to external fluid pressure in the well borehole to sustain a pressure on the oil bath equal to and in excess of prevailing external pressure.

  10. Adaptive clustering algorithm for community detection in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhenqing; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2008-10-01

    Community structure is common in various real-world networks; methods or algorithms for detecting such communities in complex networks have attracted great attention in recent years. We introduced a different adaptive clustering algorithm capable of extracting modules from complex networks with considerable accuracy and robustness. In this approach, each node in a network acts as an autonomous agent demonstrating flocking behavior where vertices always travel toward their preferable neighboring groups. An optimal modular structure can emerge from a collection of these active nodes during a self-organization process where vertices constantly regroup. In addition, we show that our algorithm appears advantageous over other competing methods (e.g., the Newman-fast algorithm) through intensive evaluation. The applications in three real-world networks demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm to find communities that are parallel with the appropriate organization in reality. PMID:18999501

  11. Optimizing conservation practices in watersheds: Do community preferences matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piemonti, Adriana D.; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Jane Luzar, E.

    2013-10-01

    This paper focuses on investigating (a) how landowner tenure and attitudes of farming communities affect the preference of individual conservation practices in agricultural watersheds, (b) how spatial distribution of landowner tenure affects the spatial optimization of conservation practices on a watershed scale, and (c) how the different attitudes and preferences of stakeholders can modify the effectiveness of alternatives obtained via classic optimization approaches that do not include the influence of existing social attitudes in a watershed during the search process. Results show that for Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana, USA, the most optimal alternatives (i.e., highest benefits for minimum economic costs) are for a scenario when the watershed consists of landowners who operate as farmers on their own land. When a different land-tenure scenario was used for the watershed (e.g., share renters and cash renters), the optimized alternatives had similar nitrate reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but at higher economic costs. Our experiments also demonstrated that social attitudes can lead to alteration of optimized alternatives found via typical optimization approaches. For example, when certain practices were rejected by landowner operators whose attitudes toward practices were driven by economic profits, removal of these practices from the optimized alternatives led to a setback of nitrates reduction by 2-50%, peak flow reductions by 11-98 %, and sediments reduction by 20-77%. In conclusion, this study reveals the potential loss in optimality of optimized alternatives possible, when socioeconomic data on farmer preferences and land tenure are not incorporated within watershed optimization investigations.

  12. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  13. Cultural differences in preferences for shapes.

    PubMed

    Sierzant, K

    1982-12-01

    It was predicted that since there is less sexual restraint in Jamaica the sex difference in shape preference should be larger for native adult Jamaicans than Caymanian adults. Pairs of drawings of a "female" and a "male" object, depicted according to the theory of sexual symbolism, were shown to 200 subjects, who indicated which of each pair they preferred. The larger sex difference found among Jamaicans was interpreted in terms of primary sexual stimulus generalization. PMID:6186983

  14. Colour preferences of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Chi, Liang; Tian, Huiqin; Meng, Lingjie; Zheng, Jimeng; Gao, Xiaolong; Liu, Ying

    2016-03-15

    The background colour of aquaculture tanks is normally chosen based on practical experience and/or observations of fish behaviour and the growth rates achieved. However, some farmed species, including turbot, are sentient and can show a preference for a particular environment. In the current study, a self-referent colour preference device was developed and the self-referent colour preference of farmed fish investigated. In experiment 1, the background colour preference of juvenile turbot cultured under a grey background for >3months post-incubation was evaluated. Based on these results, in experiment 2, juvenile turbot were adapted to blue, pink, white, or black backgrounds for 50days and their preferences established. Meanwhile, the growth rates, feed intake, and metabolic rates (including oxygen consumption rate, and ammonia excretion rate) of the turbot were evaluated. The results showed that turbot farmed under a grey background, or after long-term white, blue, pink and black colour adaptation, always displayed a preference for a white background and a dislike for black, red, or brown backgrounds, although their body colour was greyish. Long-term adaptation influenced the frequency of juveniles selecting white, black, pink or blue backgrounds. They showed the highest growth rate, feed intake, and metabolic rates under blue and white backgrounds, and the lowest under a black background in accordance with their preferences shown in experiment 1. Although it is unclear how turbot determine their self-referent colour preferences over such a short period of time, these results indicate that dark colours are unsuitable for the aquaculture of turbot culture in terms of the welfare of the fish. PMID:26792527

  15. Problem and Preferred Management Practices Identification Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, Douglas G.

    2003-03-10

    The goals for this workshop were: to introduce key players in the Appalachian basin oil industry to DOE's new Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) program; to explain the various elements of our two-year project in detail; to transfer technology through a series of short, invited talks; to identify technical problems and best management practices; and to recruit members for our Preferred Management Practices (PMP) Council.

  16. Time discounting and time preference in animals: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2016-02-01

    Animals are an important model for studies of impulsivity and self-control. Many studies have made use of the intertemporal choice task, which pits small rewards available sooner against larger rewards available later (typically several seconds), repeated over many trials. Preference for the sooner reward is often taken to indicate impulsivity and/or a failure of self-control. This review shows that very little evidence supports this assumption; on the contrary, ostensible discounting behavior may reflect a boundedly rational but not necessarily impulsive reward-maximizing strategy. Specifically, animals may discount weakly, or even adopt a long-term rate-maximizing strategy, but fail to fully incorporate postreward delays into their choices. This failure may reflect learning biases. Consequently, tasks that measure animal discounting may greatly overestimate the true discounting and may be confounded by processes unrelated to time preferences. If so, animals may be much more patient than is widely believed; human and animal intertemporal choices may reflect unrelated mental operations; and the shared hyperbolic shape of the human and animal discount curves, which is used to justify cross-species comparisons, may be coincidental. The discussion concludes with a consideration of alternative ways to measure self-control in animals. PMID:26063653

  17. Inertial Upper Stage navigation algorithms evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joldersma, T.; Winkel, D. J.; Goodstein, R.; Simmons, E. J., Jr.

    The Inertial Upper Stage is a Space Shuttle-deployed vehicle taking payloads from low earth orbit to geosynchronous and other orbits, and incorporates a redundant inertial measurement unit containing five gyros and five accelerometers in a strapped down, skewed orientation. The gyro and accelerometer outputs are provided to redundant, on board digital computers to conduct sensor motion compensation, failure detection and isolation, and navigation in an earth-centered inertial coordinate system. Two representations of the flight software algorithms are under evaluation in preparation for the first payload-carrying flight: a FORTRAN nonreal time version for a scientific computer, and a JOVIAL version compiled for the flight computer. Results to date on nominal and off-nominal simulation runs are meeting navigation algorithm error allocations and generating correct responses to sensor error simulations for the redundancy algorithms.

  18. An Automatic Editing Algorithm for GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1990-03-01

    An algorithm has been developed to edit automatically Global Positioning System data such that outlier deletion, cycle slip identification and correction are independent of clock instability, selective availability, receiver-satellite kinematics, and tropospheric conditions. This algorithm, called TurboEdit, operates on undifferenced, dual frequency carrier phase data, and requires (1) the use of P code pseudorange data and (2) a smoothly varying ionospheric electron content. The latter requirement can be relaxed if the analysis software incorporates ambiguity resolution techniques to estimate unresolved cycle slip parameters. TurboEdit was tested on the large data set from the CASA Uno experiment, which contained over 2500 cycle slips. Analyst intervention was required on 1% of the station-satellite passes, almost all of these problems being due to difficulties in extrapolating variations in the ionospheric delay. The algorithm is presently being adapted for real time data editing in the Rogue receiver for continuous monitoring applications.

  19. Universal charge algorithm for telecommunication batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tsenter, B.; Schwartzmiller, F.

    1997-12-01

    Three chemistries are used extensively in today`s portable telecommunication devices: nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries (also referred to as nickel-based batteries) are well known while lithium-ion batteries are less known. An universal charging algorithm should satisfactorily charge all chemistries while providing recognition among them. Total Battery Management, Inc. (TBM) has developed individual charging algorithms for nickel-based and lithium-ion batteries and a procedure for recognition, if necessary, to incorporate in an universal algorithm. TBM`s charging philosophy is the first to understand the battery from the chemical point of view and then provide an electronic solution.

  20. Genetic Algorithm Approaches for Actuator Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.

    2000-01-01

    This research investigated genetic algorithm approaches for smart actuator placement to provide aircraft maneuverability without requiring hinged flaps or other control surfaces. The effort supported goals of the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization focus efforts in NASA's Aircraft au program. This work helped to properly identify various aspects of the genetic algorithm operators and parameters that allow for placement of discrete control actuators/effectors. An improved problem definition, including better definition of the objective function and constraints, resulted from this research effort. The work conducted for this research used a geometrically simple wing model; however, an increasing number of potential actuator placement locations were incorporated to illustrate the ability of the GA to determine promising actuator placement arrangements. This effort's major result is a useful genetic algorithm-based approach to assist in the discrete actuator/effector placement problem.

  1. Do parents prefer sons in North Korea?

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1999-09-01

    Son preference in South Korea is stronger than anywhere else in the world, yet little is known about such preference in North Korea. Simple indicators of son preference in North Korea are constructed from its 1993 population census and a 1998 survey of child nutrition (conducted in the wake of the recent famine). These indicators include sex ratio at birth, sex ratios of infant and child mortality, and sex ratios of child malnutrition. North Koreans do not evince prenatal discrimination against daughters, a finding that may indicate a lack of prenatal sex-testing technologies. Neither is evidence found of excess female mortality or malnutrition in the postnatal period, during which discrimination requires no special technology. The discrepancy in son preference across the Korean peninsula seems due largely to the socialist agenda pursued in the north following political partition after World War II. An important aspect of that agenda challenged the ancient Confucian ideology presumed to underlie son preference. Apparently, this challenge was more successful in North Korea than in other Asian societies instituting similar political changes, because son preference was not eliminated in China or in Vietnam. PMID:10546312

  2. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    PubMed Central

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent-chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through changes in the duration of the initial links. Consistent with previous findings, preference for a richer terminal link was less extreme with longer initial links across three experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1, relative resistance to change and preference were related inversely when responding was disrupted with response-independent food presentations during initial links, replicating a previous finding with rats. However, more food was presented with longer initial links, confounding the disrupter and initial-link duration. In Experiment 2, presession feeding was used instead and eliminated the negative relation between relative resistance to change and preference, but relative resistance to change was not sensitive to relative terminal-link reinforcement rates. In Experiment 3, with more extreme relative terminal-link reinforcement rates, increasing initial-link duration similarly decreased preference and relative resistance to change for the richer terminal link. Thus, when conditions of disruption are equal and assessed under the appropriate reinforcement conditions, changes in temporal context impact relative resistance to change and preference similarly. PMID:21909164

  3. Herbivore preference drives plant community composition.

    PubMed

    Kempel, Anne; Razanajatovo, Mialy; Stein, Claudia; Unsicker, Sybille B; Auge, Harald; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Fischer, Markus; Prati, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Herbivores are important drivers of plant species coexistence and community assembly. However, detailed mechanistic information on how herbivores affect dominance hierarchies between plant species is scarce. Here, we used data of a multi-site herbivore exclusion experiment in grasslands to assess changes in the cover of 28 plant species in response to aboveground pesticide. application. Moreover, we assessed species-specific values of plant defense of these 28 species measured as the performance of a generalist caterpillar, and the preference of the caterpillar and a slug species in no-choice and choice feeding experiments, respectively. We show that more preferred species in the feeding experiments were those that increased in cover after herbivore exclusion in the field, whereas less preferred ones decreased. Herbivore performance and several measured leaf traits were not related to the change in plant cover in the field in response to herbivore removal. Additionally, the generalist slug and the generalist caterpillar preferred and disliked the same plant species, indicating that they perceive the balance between defense and nutritional value similarly. We conclude that the growth-defense trade-off in grassland species acts via the preference of herbivores and that among-species variation in plant growth and preference to herbivores drives plant community composition. PMID:27070012

  4. Social transmission of face preferences among humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Feinberg, David R

    2007-03-22

    Previous studies demonstrating mate choice copying effects among females in non-human species have led many researchers to propose that social transmission of mate preferences may influence sexual selection for male traits. Although it has been suggested that social transmission may also influence mate preferences in humans, there is little empirical support for such effects. Here, we show that observing other women with smiling (i.e. positive) expressions looking at male faces increased women's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women with neutral (i.e. relatively negative) expressions looking at male faces. By contrast, the reverse was true for male participants (i.e. observing women with neutral expressions looking at male faces increased male participant's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women smiling at male faces). This latter finding suggests that within-sex competition promotes negative attitudes among men towards other men who are the target of positive social interest from women. Our findings demonstrate that social transmission of face preferences influences judgments of men's attractiveness, potentially demonstrating a mechanism for social transmission of mate preferences. PMID:17251104

  5. Flavor Preferences Conditioned by Dietary Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of the molecular basis of umami taste and its appetitive qualities has been greatly aided by studies in laboratory rodents. This review describes methods for testing responses to the prototypical umami substance monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rodents. Two techniques, forced exposure to MSG and 2-bottle choice tests with ascending concentrations, were used to evaluate the responses to the taste of umami itself, and 2 other methods used oral or postoral MSG to modify the responses to other flavors. Intake and preference for MSG are enhanced in mice by experience with MSG and with other nutrients with positive postoral effects. In addition, flavor preferences are enhanced in mice and rats by gastric or intestinal MSG infusions via an associative learning process. Even mice with an impaired or absent ability to taste MSG can learn to prefer a flavor added to an MSG solution, supporting the notion that glutamate acts postorally. The more complex flavor of dashi seasoning, which includes umami substances (inosinate, glutamate), is attractive to rodents, but dashi does not condition flavor preferences. Details of the postoral glutamate detection process and the nature of the signal involved in learned preferences are still uncertain but probably involve gastric or intestinal sensors or both and vagal transmission. Some findings suggest that postoral glutamate effects may enhance food preferences in humans, but this requires further study. PMID:27422522

  6. Constraint-based Temporal Reasoning with Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca; Sperduti, Alessandro; Venable, K. Brent

    2005-01-01

    Often we need to work in scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. Soft temporal constraints allow one to describe in a natural way problems arising in such scenarios. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. In this paper we identify one of such subclasses giving tractability results. Moreover, we describe two solvers for this class of soft temporal problems, and we show some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. We also compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and robustness. Sometimes, however, temporal local preferences are difficult to set, and it may be easier instead to associate preferences to some complete solutions of the problem. To model everything in a uniform way via local preferences only, and also to take advantage of the existing constraint solvers which exploit only local preferences, we show that machine learning techniques can be useful in this respect. In particular, we present a learning module based on a gradient descent technique which induces local temporal preferences from global ones. We also show the behavior of the learning module on randomly-generated examples.

  7. Patient preferences in severe COPD and asthma: a comprehensive literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bereza, Basil G; Troelsgaard Nielsen, Anders; Valgardsson, Sverrir; Hemels, Michiel EH; Einarson, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Background Management of chronic incurable diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma is difficult. Incorporation of patient preferences is widely encouraged. Purpose To summarize original research articles determining patient preference in moderate-to-severe disease. Methods Acceptable articles consisted of original research determining preferences for any aspect of care in patients with COPD/asthma. The target population included those with severe disease; however, articles were accepted if they separated outcomes by severity or if the majority had at least moderate-to-severe disease. We also accepted simulation research based on scenarios describing situations involving moderate-to-severe disease that elicited preferences. Two reviewers searched Medline and Embase for articles published from the date of inception of the databases until the end of November 2014, with differences resolved through consensus discussion. Data were tabulated and analyzed descriptively. Results About 478 articles identified, 448 were rejected and 30 analyzed. There were 25 on COPD and five on asthma. Themes identified as most important in COPD were symptom relief (dyspnea/breathlessness), a positive patient–physician relationship, quality-of-life impairments, and information availability. Patients strongly preferred sponsors’ inhalers. At end-of-life, 69% preferred receiving CPR, 70% wanted noninvasive, and 58% invasive mechanical intervention. While patients with asthma preferred treatments that increased symptom-free days, they were willing to trade days without symptoms for a reduction in adverse events and greater convenience. Asthma patients were willing to pay for waking up once and not needing their inhaler over waking up once overnight and needing their inhaler. Conclusion Few studies have examined patient preference in these diseases. More research is needed to fill in knowledge gaps. PMID:25914530

  8. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-04-15

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  9. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  10. The evaluation of the OSGLR algorithm for restructurable controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnice, W. F.; Wagner, E.; Hall, S. R.; Motyka, P.

    1986-01-01

    The detection and isolation of commercial aircraft control surface and actuator failures using the orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio (OSGLR) test was evaluated. The OSGLR algorithm was chosen as the most promising algorithm based on a preliminary evaluation of three failure detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms (the detection filter, the generalized likelihood ratio test, and the OSGLR test) and a survey of the literature. One difficulty of analytic FDI techniques and the OSGLR algorithm in particular is their sensitivity to modeling errors. Therefore, methods of improving the robustness of the algorithm were examined with the incorporation of age-weighting into the algorithm being the most effective approach, significantly reducing the sensitivity of the algorithm to modeling errors. The steady-state implementation of the algorithm based on a single cruise linear model was evaluated using a nonlinear simulation of a C-130 aircraft. A number of off-nominal no-failure flight conditions including maneuvers, nonzero flap deflections, different turbulence levels and steady winds were tested. Based on the no-failure decision functions produced by off-nominal flight conditions, the failure detection performance at the nominal flight condition was determined. The extension of the algorithm to a wider flight envelope by scheduling the linear models used by the algorithm on dynamic pressure and flap deflection was also considered. Since simply scheduling the linear models over the entire flight envelope is unlikely to be adequate, scheduling of the steady-state implentation of the algorithm was briefly investigated.

  11. Protein Synthesis with Ribosomes Selected for the Incorporation of β-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier study, β3-puromycin was used for the selection of modified ribosomes, which were utilized for the incorporation of five different β-amino acids into Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The selected ribosomes were able to incorporate structurally disparate β-amino acids into DHFR, in spite of the use of a single puromycin for the selection of the individual clones. In this study, we examine the extent to which the structure of the β3-puromycin employed for ribosome selection influences the regio- and stereochemical preferences of the modified ribosomes during protein synthesis; the mechanistic probe was a single suppressor tRNACUA activated with each of four methyl-β-alanine isomers (1–4). The modified ribosomes were found to incorporate each of the four isomeric methyl-β-alanines into DHFR but exhibited a preference for incorporation of 3(S)-methyl-β-alanine (β-mAla; 4), i.e., the isomer having the same regio- and stereochemistry as the O-methylated β-tyrosine moiety of β3-puromycin. Also conducted were a selection of clones that are responsive to β2-puromycin and a demonstration of reversal of the regio- and stereochemical preferences of these clones during protein synthesis. These results were incorporated into a structural model of the modified regions of 23S rRNA, which included in silico prediction of a H-bonding network. Finally, it was demonstrated that incorporation of 3(S)-methyl-β-alanine (β-mAla; 4) into a short α-helical region of the nucleic acid binding domain of hnRNP LL significantly stabilized the helix without affecting its DNA binding properties. PMID:25982410

  12. A critical test of the assumption that men prefer conformist women and women prefer nonconformist men.

    PubMed

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Wellauer, Richard; McIntyre, Jason C; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-06-01

    Five studies tested the common assumption that women prefer nonconformist men as romantic partners, whereas men prefer conformist women. Studies 1 and 2 showed that both men and women preferred nonconformist romantic partners, but women overestimated the extent to which men prefer conformist partners. In Study 3, participants ostensibly in a small-group interaction showed preferences for nonconformist opposite-sex targets, a pattern that was particularly evident when men evaluated women. Dating success was greater the more nonconformist the sample was (Study 4), and perceptions of nonconformity in an ex-partner were associated with greater love and attraction toward that partner (Study 5). On the minority of occasions in which effects were moderated by gender, it was in the reverse direction to the traditional wisdom: Conformity was more associated with dating success among men. The studies contradict the notion that men disproportionately prefer conformist women. PMID:25805768

  13. The Effect of Repetition on Tempo Preferences of Elementary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovitz, Elisa M.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of children's preferences between slow and fast tempo classical music excerpts. Finds that students preferred music with a slow tempo. Concludes that repetition had a positive effect on children's preferences. (CFR)

  14. Writing on the board as students' preferred teaching modality in a physiology course.

    PubMed

    Armour, Chris; Schneid, Stephen D; Brandl, Katharina

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of PowerPoint presentation software has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of lectures. PowerPoint has now almost entirely replaced chalkboard or whiteboard teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels. This study investigated whether undergraduate biology students preferred to have lectures delivered by PowerPoint or written on the board as well as the reasons behind their preference. Two upper-division physiology courses were surveyed over a period of 7 yr. A total of 1,905 students (86.7%) indicated they preferred lectures delivered by "writing on the board" compared to 291 students (13.3%) who preferred PowerPoint. Common themes drawn from explanations reported by students in favor of writing on the board included: 1) more appropriate pace, 2) facilitation of note taking, and 3) greater alertness and attention. Common themes in favor of PowerPoint included 1) increased convenience, 2) focus on listening, and 3) more accurate and readable notes. Based on the students' very strong preference for writing on the board and the themes supporting that preference, we recommend that instructors incorporate elements of the writing on the board delivery style into whatever teaching modality is used. If instructors plan to use PowerPoint, the presentation should be paced, constructed, and delivered to provide the benefits of lectures written on the board. The advantages of writing on the board can be also incorporated into instruction intended to occur outside the classroom, such as animated narrated videos as part of the flipped classroom approach. PMID:27105742

  15. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2015-01-01

    Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR) to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining. PMID:25874581

  16. Incorporating Linguistic Knowledge for Learning Distributed Word Representations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2015-01-01

    Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR) to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining. PMID:25874581

  17. Packing Boxes into Multiple Containers Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghani, Deepak; Guha, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    Container loading problems have been studied extensively in the literature and various analytical, heuristic and metaheuristic methods have been proposed. This paper presents two different variants of a genetic algorithm framework for the three-dimensional container loading problem for optimally loading boxes into multiple containers with constraints. The algorithms are designed so that it is easy to incorporate various constraints found in real life problems. The algorithms are tested on data of standard test cases from literature and are found to compare well with the benchmark algorithms in terms of utilization of containers. This, along with the ability to easily incorporate a wide range of practical constraints, makes them attractive for implementation in real life scenarios.

  18. Increasing axial resolution of 3D data sets using deconvolution algorithms.

    PubMed

    Topor, P; Zimanyi, M; Mateasik, A

    2011-09-01

    Deconvolution algorithms are tools for the restoration of data degraded by blur and noise. An incorporation of regularization functions into the iterative form of reconstruction algorithms can improve the restoration performance and characteristics (e.g. noise and artefact handling). In this study, algorithms based on Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm are tested. The ability of these algorithms to improve axial resolution of three-dimensional data sets is evaluated on model synthetic data. Finally, unregularized Richardson-Lucy algorithm is selected for the evaluation and reconstruction of three-dimensional chromosomal data sets of Drosophila melanogaster. Problems concerning the reconstruction process are discussed and further improvements are proposed. PMID:21599665

  19. Reasoning about systolic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Purushothaman, S.; Subrahmanyam, P.A.

    1988-12-01

    The authors present a methodology for verifying correctness of systolic algorithms. The methodology is based on solving a set of Uniform Recurrence Equations obtained from a description of systolic algorithms as a set of recursive equations. They present an approach to mechanically verify correctness of systolic algorithms, using the Boyer-Moore theorem proven. A mechanical correctness proof of an example from the literature is also presented.

  20. Self-Love or Other-Love? Explicit Other-Preference but Implicit Self-Preference

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Jochen E.; Göritz, Anja S.; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Sedikides, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    Do humans prefer the self even over their favorite other person? This question has pervaded philosophy and social-behavioral sciences. Psychology’s distinction between explicit and implicit preferences calls for a two-tiered solution. Our evolutionarily-based Dissociative Self-Preference Model offers two hypotheses. Other-preferences prevail at an explicit level, because they convey caring for others, which strengthens interpersonal bonds–a major evolutionary advantage. Self-preferences, however, prevail at an implicit level, because they facilitate self-serving automatic behavior, which favors the self in life-or-die situations–also a major evolutionary advantage. We examined the data of 1,519 participants, who completed an explicit measure and one of five implicit measures of preferences for self versus favorite other. The results were consistent with the Dissociative Self-Preference Model. Explicitly, participants preferred their favorite other over the self. Implicitly, however, they preferred the self over their favorite other (be it their child, romantic partner, or best friend). Results are discussed in relation to evolutionary theorizing on self-deception. PMID:22848605

  1. Network-based recommendation algorithms: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Zeng, An; Gillard, Sébastien; Medo, Matúš

    2016-06-01

    Recommender systems are a vital tool that helps us to overcome the information overload problem. They are being used by most e-commerce web sites and attract the interest of a broad scientific community. A recommender system uses data on users' past preferences to choose new items that might be appreciated by a given individual user. While many approaches to recommendation exist, the approach based on a network representation of the input data has gained considerable attention in the past. We review here a broad range of network-based recommendation algorithms and for the first time compare their performance on three distinct real datasets. We present recommendation topics that go beyond the mere question of which algorithm to use-such as the possible influence of recommendation on the evolution of systems that use it-and finally discuss open research directions and challenges.

  2. Resource format preferences across the medical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This research study sought to determine the formats (print or electronic) of articles and book chapters most-preferred by first-year medical students, third-year medical students entering clinical clerkships, and incoming residents and to determine if these preferences change during the course of the medical curriculum. These trends will enable academic health sciences libraries to make appropriate collection development decisions to best cater to their user populations. Methods First-year medical students, third-year medical students, and incoming medical residents were asked to complete a paper survey from September 2014 to June 2015. The survey consisted of five multiple-choice questions, with two questions given space for optional short answers. Quantitative and qualitative responses were collected and calculated using Microsoft Excel. Results First-year students, third-year students, and incoming residents all preferred to read journal articles and book chapters in print, except in cases where the article or book chapter is under ten pages in length. Although print is preferred, demand for electronic articles and book chapters increases as students progress from undergraduate medical education into residency. The only category where a majority of incoming residents chose an electronic resource was which format they would give to a colleague, if the article or book chapter was critical to the care of an individual patient. Conclusions The preference for print resources is strong across the medical curriculum, although residents show an increased preference for electronic materials when compared to first- and third-year students. Academic health sciences libraries should take these preferences into account when making decisions regarding collection development. PMID:27366119

  3. Competing Sudakov veto algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiss, Ronald; Verheyen, Rob

    2016-07-01

    We present a formalism to analyze the distribution produced by a Monte Carlo algorithm. We perform these analyses on several versions of the Sudakov veto algorithm, adding a cutoff, a second variable and competition between emission channels. The formal analysis allows us to prove that multiple, seemingly different competition algorithms, including those that are currently implemented in most parton showers, lead to the same result. Finally, we test their performance in a semi-realistic setting and show that there are significantly faster alternatives to the commonly used algorithms.

  4. Incorporate Seismic Activity Prior Information to Earthquake Early Warning through Bayesian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Heaton, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the current Earthquake Early Warning technologies focus on time analysis of wave amplitudes. There are two major drawbacks of these waveform-based techniques: tradeoffs between magnitude and distance estimation for the onsite algorithms, and time latency in alerts for the network algorithms. We are proposing an alternative EEW algorithm that combines the efficiency of onsite algorithms and accuracy of network algorithms, which provides the fastest alert at the moment of station trigger. It is achieved by using observed seismicity from the network as prior information to predict short-term seismic hazards, and then use trigger information from the onsite station as likelihood information to estimate earthquake probability and hypocenter location. This algorithm has numbers of advantages. First, due to the independent data source of this algorithm, results can be directly multiplied to the results of other algorithms such as GPS and waveform data under Bayesian framework to achieve posterior probability function. Second, it is especially beneficial for regions with sparsely distributed station density where it takes longer time for the seismic signals to arrive at the near stations. Lastly, it can significantly speed up warning process during aftershock sequence, swarm earthquake sequence, and mainshocks that had foreshocks. The concept can be further extended to network-based algorithms to incorporate arrived waveform data at more stations.

  5. Analysis of mode switching algorithms in dual chamber pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Israel, Carsten W

    2002-03-01

    Dual chamber systems are currently implanted in an increasing number of patients with a pacing indication and paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATAs). To avoid tracking of high atrial rates during ATA while providing AV synchronous pacing during sinus rhythm and AV block, automatic mode switching (MS) to a nontracking mode has been developed. Several concepts of MS algorithms have been introduced differing in sensitivity and specificity of ATA detection, delay between ATA onset and MS, pacing mode during MS, rapidity of MS termination upon detection of sinus rhythm, and special algorithms pertinent to MS. This review classifies and analyzes algorithms that are integrated into MS concepts and outlines considerations on optimal MS performance. Based on simulations and clinical studies, fast MS concepts avoiding high paced ventricular rates seem preferable but require special functions to avoid loss of AV synchrony by inappropriate MS. Similarly, fast return to tracking mode after ATA cessation seems preferable but requires algorithms to prevent mode oscillations. Sudden ventricular rate changes have to be avoided by rate smoothing functions, and an appropriate ventricular rate during nontracking mode has to be provided by rate responsive pacing. Programming of the device includes individual optimization of atrial sensitivity, atrial blanking times, and tachycardia detection rates. In addition, a high signal-to-noise ratio by careful atrial lead implantation, narrowly spaced bipolar atrial leads and a good sensing amplifier, together with special algorithms for atrial sensing adjustment improve the performance of MS algorithms. PMID:11990674

  6. Generation of referring expressions: assessing the Incremental Algorithm.

    PubMed

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-07-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of ''one-shot'' referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We test this hypothesis by eliciting referring expressions from human subjects and computing the similarity between the expressions elicited and the ones generated by algorithms. It turns out that the success of the IA depends substantially on the ''preference order'' (PO) employed by the IA, particularly in complex domains. While some POs cause the IA to produce referring expressions that are very similar to expressions produced by human subjects, others cause the IA to perform worse than its main competitors; moreover, it turns out to be difficult to predict the success of a PO on the basis of existing psycholinguistic findings or frequencies in corpora. We also examine the computational complexity of the algorithms in question and argue that there are no compelling reasons for preferring the IA over some of its main competitors on these grounds. We conclude that future research on the generation of referring expressions should explore alternatives to the IA, focusing on algorithms, inspired by the Greedy Algorithm, which do not work with a fixed PO. PMID:22040610

  7. Delivering preference for place of death in a specialist palliative care setting

    PubMed Central

    Oxenham, David; Finucane, Anne; Arnold, Elizabeth; Russell, Papiya

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, one of the key themes of public policy in palliative care has been achievement of choice in place of death. In Marie Curie Hospice Edinburgh a baseline audit conducted in 2006 showed that only a small proportion (18%) of patients referred to hospice services died at home. The audit also revealed that only 31% of those who expressed a preference to die at home were able to do so, whereas 91% of those who chose a setting other than home achieved their preference. Overall achievement of preferred place of death was 56%. However a significant number of patients (29%) did not have a recorded preference. A programme of quality improvement has continued over the last 7 years to improve identification, communication and achievement of preferred place of death for all patients. The mechanisms to change practice have been: changes to documentation; changes to clinical systems to support use of documentation; support for clinical staff to recognise the value of discussing preferences; and support for clinical staff to develop new skills. In addition the programme has been incorporated into local clinical strategy and this has enabled gaps in service to be addressed with a new service to support early discharge of those patients who wish to die at home. A recent audit showed that all patients had a recorded preference or a documented reason why their preference was unclarified. One third of patients died at home – nearly double the proportion that died at home in the baseline audit. Seventy one per cent of patients who wished to die at home actually died at home – a substantial increase from 31% at baseline. Achievement of preferred place of death for patients wishing to die in the hospice remained high at 88%. The focus on assessment of preference for place of death has led to substantial improvements in the identification and achievement of preference for patients dying under the care of the hospice. Furthermore, it has been associated with an

  8. Fatigue analysis of WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) components using a rainflow counting algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Schluter, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    A rainflow counting algorithm'' has been incorporated into the LIFE2 fatigue/fracture analysis code for wind turbines. The count algorithm, with its associated pre- and post-count algorithms, permits the code to incorporate time-series data into its analysis scheme. After a description of the algorithms used here, their use is illustrated by the examination of stress-time histories from the Sandia 34-m Test Bed vertical axis wind turbine. The results of the rainflow analysis are compared and contrasted to previously reported predictions for the service lifetime of the fatigue critical component for this turbine. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Patient education preferences in ophthalmic care

    PubMed Central

    Rosdahl, Jullia A; Swamy, Lakshmi; Stinnett, Sandra; Muir, Kelly W

    2014-01-01

    Background The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Methods Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. Results To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). Conclusion Most ophthalmology patients preferred personalized education: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups. PMID:24812493

  10. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Dufour, Florence; Kell, Laurence; Merino, Gorka; Ibaibarriaga, Leire; Chust, Guillem; Irigoien, Xabier; Santiago, Josu; Murua, Hilario; Fraile, Igaratza; Chifflet, Marina; Goikoetxea, Nerea; Sagarminaga, Yolanda; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Herrera, Miguel; Marc Fromentin, Jean; Bonhomeau, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided.

  11. Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

    2009-08-01

    Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are “blind” to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of “hummingbird syndrome” flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

  12. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2001-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  13. Preferred hearing aid gain in everyday environments.

    PubMed

    Cox, R M; Alexander, G C

    1991-04-01

    Thirty-three hearing-impaired individuals were each fitted with three hearing aids. The instruments conformed to three frequency-gain prescriptions, differing by a total of 8 dB/octave, with the middle prescription derived using the MSU version 3.0 procedure. The subjects were divided into three matched groups of eleven. Each group used the fitted hearing aids in one of three everyday listening environments representing quiet, reverberant, and noisy situations, respectively. In each listening environment, preferred hearing aid gain for conversationally produced speech was measured in each hearing aid condition for each subject. Preferred gain in daily listening situations was compared to prescribed gain. Results indicated that: (1) preferred gain averaged across all three environments was about equal to prescribed gain, (2) mean preferred gain in each separate environment was substantially different from the prescribed level, (3) volume control adjustments of about +/- 8 dB relative to the prescribed level would be necessary to accommodate the preferred gain settings of the typical hearing aid wearer in daily life. Guidelines are presented for establishing recommended volume control settings for hearing aid users who may be unable to set the volume control independently. PMID:2065837

  14. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory

    PubMed Central

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I.; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g., for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the attraction factors entering the expression of quantum probabilities. Only the existence of attraction factors can explain why, considering two lotteries with close utility factors, a decision maker prefers one of them when choosing, but evaluates higher the other one when pricing. We derive a general quantitative criterion for the preference reversal to occur that relates the utilities of the two lotteries to the attraction factors under choosing vs. pricing and test successfully its application on experiments by Tversky et al. We also show that the planning paradox can be treated as a kind of preference reversal. PMID:26500592

  15. Hand preferences in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    O'malley, Robert C; McGrew, W C

    2006-07-01

    The strength of the evidence for population-level handedness in the great apes is a topic of considerable debate, yet there have been few studies of handedness in orangutans. We conducted a study of manual lateralization in a captive group of eight orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) ranking the degrees of manual preference according to a defined framework. We analyzed five behavioral patterns: eat (one- and two-handed), make/modify tool, oral tool-use, and manual tool-use. Although some individuals showed significant manual preferences for one or more tasks, at the group-level both one-handed and two-handed eating, oral tool-use, and make/modify tool were ranked at level 1 (unlateralized). Manual tool-use was ranked at level 2, with four subjects demonstrating significant hand preferences, but no group-level bias to the right or left. Four subjects also showed hand specialization to the right or left across several tasks. These results are consistent with most previous studies of manual preference in orangutans. The emergence of manual lateralization in orangutans may relate to more complex manipulative tasks. We hypothesize that more challenging manual tasks elicit stronger hand preferences. PMID:16604276

  16. Life-Sustaining-Treatment Preferences: Matches and Mismatches Between Patients’ Preferences and Clinicians’ Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Lois; Au, David H.; Curtis, J. Randall; Engelberg, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Better clinician understanding of patients’ end-of-life-treatment preferences has the potential for reducing unwanted treatment, decreasing health care costs, and improving end-of-life care. Objectives To investigate patient preferences for life-sustaining therapies, clinicians’ accuracy in understanding those preferences, and predictors of patient preference and clinician error. Methods Observational study of 196 male veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who participated in a randomized trial. Measures included patients’ preferences for mechanical ventilation (MV) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if needed in their current state of health, and outpatient clinicians’ beliefs about those preferences. Results Analyses were based on 54% of participants in the trial who had complete patient/clinician data on treatment preferences. Patients were more receptive to CPR than MV (76% vs. 61%; P<0.001). Preferences for both treatments were significantly associated with the importance patients assigned to avoiding life-sustaining therapies during the final week of life (MV: b=−0.11, P<0.001; CPR: b=−0.09, P=0.001). When responses were dichotomized (would/wouldn’t want treatment), physicians’ perceptions matched patient preferences in 75% of CPR cases and 61% of MV cases. Physician errors increased as patients preferred less aggressive treatment (MV: b=−0.28, P<0.001; CPR: b=−0.32, P<0.001). Conclusion Clinicians erred more often about patients’ wishes when patients did not want treatment than when they wanted it. Treatment decisions based on clinicians’ perceptions could result in costly and unwanted treatments. End-of-life care could benefit from increased clinician-patient discussion about end-of-life care, particularly if discussions included patient education about risks of treatment and allowed clinicians to form and maintain accurate impressions of patients’ preferences. PMID:23017611

  17. Algorithm That Synthesizes Other Algorithms for Hashing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm that includes a collection of several subalgorithms has been devised as a means of synthesizing still other algorithms (which could include computer code) that utilize hashing to determine whether an element (typically, a number or other datum) is a member of a set (typically, a list of numbers). Each subalgorithm synthesizes an algorithm (e.g., a block of code) that maps a static set of key hashes to a somewhat linear monotonically increasing sequence of integers. The goal in formulating this mapping is to cause the length of the sequence thus generated to be as close as practicable to the original length of the set and thus to minimize gaps between the elements. The advantage of the approach embodied in this algorithm is that it completely avoids the traditional approach of hash-key look-ups that involve either secondary hash generation and look-up or further searching of a hash table for a desired key in the event of collisions. This algorithm guarantees that it will never be necessary to perform a search or to generate a secondary key in order to determine whether an element is a member of a set. This algorithm further guarantees that any algorithm that it synthesizes can be executed in constant time. To enforce these guarantees, the subalgorithms are formulated to employ a set of techniques, each of which works very effectively covering a certain class of hash-key values. These subalgorithms are of two types, summarized as follows: Given a list of numbers, try to find one or more solutions in which, if each number is shifted to the right by a constant number of bits and then masked with a rotating mask that isolates a set of bits, a unique number is thereby generated. In a variant of the foregoing procedure, omit the masking. Try various combinations of shifting, masking, and/or offsets until the solutions are found. From the set of solutions, select the one that provides the greatest compression for the representation and is executable in the

  18. In vitro incorporation of LNA nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Veedu, Rakesh N; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An LNA modified nucleoside triphosphate 1 was synthesized in order to investigate its potential to act as substrate for DNA strand synthesis by polymerases. Primer extension assays for the incorporation experiments revealed that Phusion High Fidelity DNA polymerase is an efficient enzyme for incorporation of the LNA nucleotide and for extending strand to full length. It was also observed that pfu DNA polymerase could incorporate the LNA nucleotide but it failed to extend the strand to a full length product. PMID:18058567

  19. Parallel scheduling algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Dekel, E.; Sahni, S.

    1983-01-01

    Parallel algorithms are given for scheduling problems such as scheduling to minimize the number of tardy jobs, job sequencing with deadlines, scheduling to minimize earliness and tardiness penalties, channel assignment, and minimizing the mean finish time. The shared memory model of parallel computers is used to obtain fast algorithms. 26 references.

  20. Developmental Algorithms Have Meaning!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John

    1997-01-01

    Adapts Stanic and McKillip's ideas for the use of developmental algorithms to propose that the present emphasis on symbolic manipulation should be tempered with an emphasis on the conceptual understanding of the mathematics underlying the algorithm. Uses examples from the areas of numeric computation, algebraic manipulation, and equation solving…

  1. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples. PMID:26277060

  2. Codon preferences in free-living microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, S G; Kurland, C G

    1990-01-01

    A popular interpretation of the major codon preference is that it reflects the operation of a regulatory device that controls the expression of individual proteins. In this popular model, rapidly translated codons are thought to promote the accumulation of the highly expressed proteins and slowly translated codons are thought to retard the expression of poorly expressed proteins. However, this widely accepted model is not supported by kinetic theory or by experimental results. A less fashionable model in which the major codon preference has nothing to do with the expression level of the individual proteins is forwarded. In this model, the major codon preference is viewed as a global strategy to support the efficient function of the translation system and thereby to maximize the growth rates of cells under favorable conditions. PMID:2194095

  3. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  4. Perinatal depression treatment preferences among Latina mothers.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Wisner, Katherine L; Burns, Rachel M; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego

    2014-02-01

    The study described here was designed to determine treatment preferences among Latinas to identify treatment options that meet their needs and increase their engagement. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 prenatal and postpartum Latinas at risk for depression. The group interviews were conducted in Spanish and English using a standardized interview protocol. Focus group transcripts were analyzed to identify themes regarding perinatal depression coping strategies, preferred approaches to treating perinatal depression, and recommendations for engaging perinatal Latinas in treatment. The results suggest that Latinas' treatment preferences consist of a pathway (i.e., hierarchical) approach that begins with the use of one's own resources, followed by the use of formal support systems (e.g., home-visiting nurse), and supplemented with the use of behavioral therapy. Antidepressant use was judged to be acceptable only in severe cases or after delivery. The data indicate that to increase health-seeking behaviors among perinatal Latinas, practitioners should first build trust. PMID:24469693

  5. Student learning preferences reflect curricular change.

    PubMed

    Kell, Clare; Van Deursen, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This study measured the learning preference profile development and readiness for self-directed learning over time of two undergraduate student cohorts experiencing different curricular presentations of essentially the same syllabus. The results from three measurement points are reported following each cohort through their first half of the BSc (Honours) Physiotherapy Course, Cardiff. At intake both cohorts preferred a concrete, fact-based learning environment, which was teacher structured. Over time, the cohorts responded significantly differently to their curricula in respect of the student-structured learning preference (LP) variable (p < 0.05), and displayed trends (p < 0.1) towards response difference for the concrete, interpersonal and individual LP variables. Cohort differences are discussed in terms of the planned curriculum changes made during the intervening revalidation exercise. It is suggested that curricula mould students' learning profile development. The impact of this statement on future curriculum development is discussed and educational research-in-action promoted. PMID:12098455

  6. Pension Participation: Do Parents Transmit Time Preference?

    PubMed Central

    Chiteji, Ngina; Stafford, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of economic and health behaviors are influenced by individuals’ attitudes toward the future – including investments in human capital, health capital and financial capital. Intergenerational correlations in such behaviors suggest an important role the family may play in transmitting time preferences to children. This article presents a model of parental investment in future-oriented capital, where parents shape their children’s time preference rates. The research identifies a dual role for a parent’s time preference rate in the process of shaping the offspring’s attitude toward the future, and discusses paths through which parents may socialize children to be patient. The model’s implications are studied by investigating the parent-child correlation in pension participation using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics PMID:23807825

  7. Consumer preferences in social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Kerssens, Jan J; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2005-03-01

    Allowing consumers greater choice of health plans is believed to be the key to high quality and low costs in social health insurance. This study investigates consumer preferences (361 persons, response rate 43%) for hypothetical health plans which differed in 12 characteristics (premium, deductibles, no-claim discount, extension of insurance and financial services, red tape involved, medical help-desk, choice of family physicians and hospitals, dental benefits, physical therapy benefits, benefits for prescription drugs and homeopathy). In 90% the health plan with the most attractive characteristics was preferred, indicating a predominantly rational kind of choice. The most decisive characteristics for preference were: complete dental benefits, followed by zero deductibles, and free choice of hospitals. PMID:15452743

  8. Social Class Differences Produce Social Group Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Suzanne R.; Shutts, Kristin; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Some social groups are higher in socioeconomic status than others and the former tend to be favored over the latter. The present research investigated whether observing group differences in wealth alone can directly cause children to prefer wealthier groups. In Experiment 1, 4–5-year-old children developed a preference for a wealthy novel group over a less wealthy group. In Experiment 2, children did not develop preferences when groups differed by another kind of positive/negative attribute (i.e., living in brightly-colored houses vs. drab houses), suggesting that wealth is a particularly meaningful group distinction. Lastly, in Experiment 3, the effect of favoring novel wealthy groups was moderated by group membership: Children assigned to a wealthy group showed ingroup favoritism, but those assigned to the less wealthy group did not. These experiments shed light on why children tend to be biased in favor of social groups that are higher in socioeconomic status. PMID:24702971

  9. Preferred longitudes in solar and stellar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.

    An analysis of the distribution of starspots on the surfaces of very active stars, such as RS CVn- FK Com-type stars as well as young solar analogs, reveals preferred longitudes of spot formation and their quasi-periodic oscillations, i.e. flip-flop cycles. A non-linear migration of the preferred longitudes suggests the presence of the differential rotation and variations of mean spot latitudes. It enables recovering stellar butterfly diagrams. Such phenomena are found to persist in the sunspot activity as well. A comparison of the observed properties of preferred longitudes on the Sun with those detected on more active stars leads to the conclusion that we can learn fine details of the stellar dynamo by studying the Sun, while its global parameters on the evolutionary time scale are provided by a sample of active stars.

  10. Relativistic Bohmian Mechanics Without a Preferred Foliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    In non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics the universe is represented by a probability space whose sample space is composed of the Bohmian trajectories. In relativistic Bohmian mechanics an entire class of empirically equivalent probability spaces can be defined, one for every foliation of spacetime. In the literature the hypothesis has been advanced that a single preferred foliation is allowed, and that this foliation derives from the universal wave function by means of a covariant law. In the present paper the opposite hypothesis is advanced, i.e., no law exists for the foliations and therefore all the foliations are allowed. The resulting model of the universe is basically the "union" of all the probability spaces associated with the foliations. This hypothesis is mainly motivated by the fact that any law defining a preferred foliation is empirically irrelevant. It is also argued that the absence of a preferred foliation may reduce the well known conflict between Bohmian mechanics and relativity.

  11. Learning other agents` preferences in multiagent negotiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.H.; Kieronska, D.; Venkatesh, S.

    1996-12-31

    In multiagent systems, an agent does not usually have complete information about the preferences and decision making processes of other agents. This might prevent the agents from making coordinated choices, purely due to their ignorance of what others want. This paper describes the integration of a learning module into a communication-intensive negotiating agent architecture. The learning module gives the agents the ability to learn about other agents` preferences via past interactions. Over time, the agents can incrementally update their models of other agents` preferences and use them to make better coordinated decisions. Combining both communication and learning, as two complement knowledge acquisition methods, helps to reduce the amount of communication needed on average, and is justified in situations where communication is computationally costly or simply not desirable (e.g. to preserve the individual privacy).

  12. Incorporating scale into digital terrain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragut, L. D.; Eisank, C.; Strasser, T.

    2009-04-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and their derived terrain attributes are commonly used in soil-landscape modeling. Process-based terrain attributes meaningful to the soil properties of interest are sought to be produced through digital terrain analysis. Typically, the standard 3 X 3 window-based algorithms are used for this purpose, thus tying the scale of resulting layers to the spatial resolution of the available DEM. But this is likely to induce mismatches between scale domains of terrain information and soil properties of interest, which further propagate biases in soil-landscape modeling. We have started developing a procedure to incorporate scale into digital terrain analysis for terrain-based environmental modeling (Drăguţ et al., in press). The workflow was exemplified on crop yield data. Terrain information was generalized into successive scale levels with focal statistics on increasing neighborhood size. The degree of association between each terrain derivative and crop yield values was established iteratively for all scale levels through correlation analysis. The first peak of correlation indicated the scale level to be further retained. While in a standard 3 X 3 window-based analysis mean curvature was one of the poorest correlated terrain attribute, after generalization it turned into the best correlated variable. To illustrate the importance of scale, we compared the regression results of unfiltered and filtered mean curvature vs. crop yield. The comparison shows an improvement of R squared from a value of 0.01 when the curvature was not filtered, to 0.16 when the curvature was filtered within 55 X 55 m neighborhood size. This indicates the optimum size of curvature information (scale) that influences soil fertility. We further used these results in an object-based image analysis environment to create terrain objects containing aggregated values of both terrain derivatives and crop yield. Hence, we introduce terrain segmentation as an alternative

  13. Learning preferences of first year nursing and midwifery students: utilising VARK.

    PubMed

    James, Santhamma; D'Amore, Angelo; Thomas, Theda

    2011-05-01

    The diversity of first year students is increasing with new schemes promoting access to higher education courses. It is important to assess the learning styles of students in order to cater for their differing learning needs. The aim of this study was to profile first year nursing/midwifery students at two campuses of Australian Catholic University, to investigate their learning preferences and the effect demographic background has on these preferences. We designed a survey to collect demographic data and incorporated the VARK (visual, aural, read-write and kinaesthetic) questionnaire to investigate the students' preferred learning modes. The kinaesthetic score of our students was the highest (7.34 ± 2.67), significantly differing from the other three modes (p<0.001). Demographic factors such as gender and age group did not influence mean scores of each sensory modality. The predominant preference was quadmodal utilising all four learning styles. The distribution of students preferring to learn by unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal styles varied between demographic groupings. The rural students had significantly higher visual and kinaesthetic scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Students attending the rural campus had higher visual and read-write scores. Visual and aural scores were significantly lower for students from non-English speaking backgrounds. These findings have significant teaching and research implications. PMID:20826044

  14. The impact of active/cooperative instruction on beginning nursing student learning strategy preference.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jecklin, Kari

    2007-07-01

    Rapid changes in the nursing field and high demand for practicing nurses put pressure on nursing faculty to educate increasing numbers of nursing students, often without corresponding increases in resources. Although the use of active and cooperative instruction methods in the classroom has been associated with improved student learning, these practices require increased effort on the part of both faculty and students. In addition, little is known about whether these methods influence student nurses' use of these more elaborative processing strategies in their independent study. The purpose of this quasi-experimental investigation was to identify the impact of incorporating active and cooperative classroom instructional activities on student preference for teaching methods and use of learning strategies in independent study. A convenience sample of beginning baccalaureate nursing students at a large Mid-Atlantic University was randomly assigned by the registrar to two class sections. Students in one section received primarily active/cooperative instruction, while the other received primarily traditional lecture-based instruction. Results indicated that student nurses exposed to active/cooperative instructional methods had an increased preference for these methods after a semester of instruction, while those exposed to traditional instruction had a higher preference for traditional methods. In addition, students participating in active class instruction reported increased preference for more elaborative independent study strategies, although overall preference for both groups indicated a reliance on surface study strategies of memorization and recall. Implications for use of instruction and student testing methodologies are presented. PMID:17030077

  15. A Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Multimodal Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. PMID:25147850

  16. A cuckoo search algorithm for multimodal optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Reyna-Orta, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. PMID:25147850

  17. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates. PMID:20219732

  18. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-07-22

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates. PMID:20219732

  19. Does Charter Status Determine Preferences? Comparing the Hiring Preferences of Charter and Traditional Public School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Engel, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides the first comparison of principals' preferences for teacher characteristics across traditional public and charter schools. Understanding how charter principals' preferences differ from those of public school principals contributes to scholarship on both teacher labor markets and charter schools. One of the first studies of…

  20. Eye Movements and Reading Comprehension While Listening to Preferred and Non-Preferred Study Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Mossberg, Frans; Lindgren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 24 university students read four different texts in four conditions: (1) while listening to music they preferred to listen to while studying; (2) while listening to music they did not prefer to listen to while studying; (3) while listening to a recording of noise from a cafe; and finally (4) in silence. After each text they…

  1. On boundary misorientation distribution functions and how to incorporate them into three-dimensional models of microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Miodownik, M.; Holm, E.A. ); Godfrey, A.W.; Hughes, D.A. )

    1999-07-09

    The fundamental difficulties of incorporating experimentally obtained boundary misorientation distributions (BMDs) into three-dimensional microstructural models are discussed. An algorithm is described which overcomes these difficulties. The boundary misorientations are treated as a statistical ensemble which is evolved toward the desired BMD using a Monte Carlo method. The application of this algorithm to a number of complex arbitrary BMDs shows that the approach is effective for both conserved and non-conserved textures. The algorithm is successfully used to create the BMDs observed in deformation microstructures containing both incidental dislocation boundaries (IDBs) and geometrically necessary boundaries (GNBs). The application of an algorithm to grain boundary engineering is discussed.

  2. Young Children's Development of Fairness Preference.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-01-01

    Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position. PMID:27625616

  3. Eliciting consumer preferences for health plans.

    PubMed Central

    Booske, B C; Sainfort, F; Hundt, A S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine (1) what people say is important to them in choosing a health plan; (2) the effect, if any, that giving health plan information has on what people say is important to them; and (3) the effect of preference elicitation methods on what people say is important. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTINGS: A random sample of 201 Wisconsin state employees who participated in a health plan choice experiment during the 1995 open enrollment period. STUDY DESIGN: We designed a computer system to guide subjects through the review of information about health plan options. The system began by eliciting the stated preferences of the subjects before they viewed the information, at time 0. Subjects were given an opportunity to revise their preference structures first after viewing summary information about four health plans (time 1) and then after viewing more extensive, detailed information about the same options (time 2). At time 2, these individuals were also asked to rate the relative importance of a predefined list of health plan features presented to them. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data were collected on the number of attributes listed at each point in time and the importance weightings assigned to each attribute. In addition, each item on the attribute list was content analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The provision of information changes the preference structures of individuals. Costs (price) and coverage dominated the attributes cited both before and after looking at health plan information. When presented with information on costs, quality, and how plans work, many of these relatively well educated consumers revised their preference structures; yet coverage and costs remained the primary cited attributes. CONCLUSIONS: Although efforts to provide health plan information should continue, decisions on the information to provide and on making it available are not enough. Individuals need help in understanding, processing, and using the information to construct

  4. Technologies for user-preferred routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, B. D.; Sridhar, Banavar

    1996-05-01

    The 1995 report of the RTCA Board of Directors' Select Committee on Free Flight states that 'insufficient capacity, limited access, and excessive operating restrictions have escalated operating costs, increase delays, and decreased efficiency for all users' of the national airspace system. The Air Transport Association estimates the annual loss to be 3.5 billion dollars. The goal of the user preferred routing research is to develop integrated airborne and ground technologies that enable the highest possible level of unconstrained, user-preferred routing in enroute airspace.

  5. The Local Geometry of Multiattribute Tradeoff Preferences

    PubMed Central

    McGeachie, Michael; Doyle, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Existing representations for multiattribute ceteris paribus preference statements have provided useful treatments and clear semantics for qualitative comparisons, but have not provided similarly clear representations or semantics for comparisons involving quantitative tradeoffs. We use directional derivatives and other concepts from elementary differential geometry to interpret conditional multiattribute ceteris paribus preference comparisons that state bounds on quantitative tradeoff ratios. This semantics extends the familiar economic notion of marginal rate of substitution to multiple continuous or discrete attributes. The same geometric concepts also provide means for interpreting statements about the relative importance of different attributes. PMID:21528018

  6. Consumer preference models: fuzzy theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turksen, I. B.; Wilson, I. A.

    1993-12-01

    Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing and market segmentation. The purpose of this article is to develop and test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation) and how much to make (market share prediction).

  7. Preferred frequencies for three unconsolidated earth materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilcrist, Laura E.; Baker, Gregory S.; Sen, Surajit

    2007-12-01

    Exploring near-surface mechanical wave propagation through cohesive and noncohesive soils is important for detecting buried objects (i.e., landmines and unexploded ordnance). Here, we determine that certain preferred frequencies travel through specific soils more efficiently. A controlled-frequency acoustic seismic source was developed to modulate the applied frequency and amplitude. Surface response due to continuous waves traveling through soils was recorded both instantaneously and after a finite load time. Preferred frequencies for sand, clay loam, and silt loam were measured to be 300-330, 100-140, and 140-260Hz, respectively. Observed frequency shifts were dependent upon applied amplitude and load time.

  8. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  9. The Local Geometry of Multiattribute Tradeoff Preferences.

    PubMed

    McGeachie, Michael; Doyle, Jon

    2011-05-01

    Existing representations for multiattribute ceteris paribus preference statements have provided useful treatments and clear semantics for qualitative comparisons, but have not provided similarly clear representations or semantics for comparisons involving quantitative tradeoffs. We use directional derivatives and other concepts from elementary differential geometry to interpret conditional multiattribute ceteris paribus preference comparisons that state bounds on quantitative tradeoff ratios. This semantics extends the familiar economic notion of marginal rate of substitution to multiple continuous or discrete attributes. The same geometric concepts also provide means for interpreting statements about the relative importance of different attributes. PMID:21528018

  10. In situ substrate preferences of abundant bacterioplankton populations in a prealpine freshwater lake

    PubMed Central

    Salcher, Michaela M; Posch, Thomas; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The substrate partitioning of sympatric populations of freshwater bacterioplankton was studied via microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fourteen radiolabeled tracers were used to assess microbial acquisition spectra of low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic compounds. The most abundant group, ac1 Actinobacteria, were highly active in leucine, thymidine and glucose assimilation, whereas Alphaproteobacteria from the LD12 lineage (the freshwater sister clade of SAR11) only weakly incorporated these tracers, but exhibited a distinct preference for glutamine and glutamate. Different Bacteroidetes showed contrasting uptake patterns: Flavobacteriales did not incorporate significant amounts of any LMW compound, and Cyclobacteriaceae were clearly specialized on leucine, glucose and arginine. Betaproteobacteria represented the most active and versatile bacterioplankton fraction and >90% of them could be assigned to eight species- to genus-like populations with contrasting substrate specialization. Limnohabitans sp. were the most abundant and active Betaproteobacteria, incorporating almost all tracers. While three closely related betaproteobacterial populations substantially differed in their uptake spectra, two more distantly related lineages had very similar preferences, and one population did not incorporate any tracer. The dominant phototrophic microorganism, the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens, assimilated several substrates, whereas other (pico)cyanobacteria had no heterotrophic activity. The variable extent of specialization by the studied bacterial taxa on subsets of LMW compounds contrasts theoretical considerations about non-selective microbial substrate assimilation at oligotrophic conditions. This physiological niche separation might be one explanation for the coexistence of freshwater bacterioplankton species in a seemingly uniform environment. PMID:23235289

  11. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  12. A fast directional algorithm for high-frequency electromagnetic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Paul; Ying Lexing

    2011-06-20

    This paper is concerned with the fast solution of high-frequency electromagnetic scattering problems using the boundary integral formulation. We extend the O(N log N) directional multilevel algorithm previously proposed for the acoustic scattering case to the vector electromagnetic case. We also detail how to incorporate the curl operator of the magnetic field integral equation into the algorithm. When combined with a standard iterative method, this results in an almost linear complexity solver for the combined field integral equations. In addition, the butterfly algorithm is utilized to compute the far field pattern and radar cross section with O(N log N) complexity.

  13. A Review of Surrogate Assisted Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Manríquez, Alan; Toscano, Gregorio; Barron-Zambrano, Jose Hugo; Tello-Leal, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms have incorporated surrogate models in order to reduce the number of required evaluations to approximate the Pareto front of computationally expensive multiobjective optimization problems. Currently, few works have reviewed the state of the art in this topic. However, the existing reviews have focused on classifying the evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms with respect to the type of underlying surrogate model. In this paper, we center our focus on classifying multiobjective evolutionary algorithms with respect to their integration with surrogate models. This interaction has led us to classify similar approaches and identify advantages and disadvantages of each class. PMID:27382366

  14. Implementation of the IDEA algorithm for image encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Philip P.; Chau, Paul M.

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, we present an implementation of the IDEA algorithm for image encryption. The image encryption is incorporated into the compression algorithm for transmission over a data network. In the proposed method, Embedded Wavelet Zero-tree Coding is used for image compression. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme enhances data security and reduces the network bandwidth required for video transmissions. A software implementation and system architecture for hardware implementation of the IDEA image encryption algorithm based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology are presented in this paper.

  15. Model-assisted ionospheric tomography: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Raymund, T.D.; Bresler, Y.; Anderson, D.N.; Daniell, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Ionospheric tomography uses total electron content (TEC) records collected by longitudinally aligned stations, which receive a beacon satellite orbiting overhead. The electron density distribution is reconstructed for the region bounded by the satellite orbit and the line of ground receivers. A new reconstruction algorithm is describes which satisfies the TEC records, makes use of an ionospheric model, and allows the incorporation of complementary measurements. The new algorithm also accepts relative (rather than absolute) TEC as input data. A comparison of the new algorithm and one used recently shows significant improvement over early techniques, particularly when a scaled ionogram is included in the data.

  16. USE OF POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS AND RESERVE SELECTION ALGORITHMS IN REGIONAL CONSERVATION PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current reserve selection algorithms have difficulty evaluating connectivity and other factors
    necessary to conserve wide-ranging species in developing landscapes. Conversely, population viability analyses may incorporate detailed demographic data but often lack sufficient spa...

  17. Sex Guilt and Preferences for Illegal Drugs Among Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerer, James C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between sex guilt and drug preferences. Seventy polydrug users completed a drug preference inventory and the Mosher Forced-Choice Sex Guilt Subscale. Results indicated that individuals who prefer sedatives are higher in sex guilt than either individuals who prefer stimulants or individuals with no definite…

  18. On the Relation between Reinforcer Efficacy and Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, May S. H.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.

    2010-01-01

    Most research on stimulus preference and reinforcer assessment involves a preference assessment that is followed by a reinforcer assessment. Typically, the most and least preferred stimuli are tested as reinforcers. In the current study, we first quantified the reinforcing efficacies of six food items and then assessed relative preference for each…

  19. 43 CFR 4110.3 - Changes in grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes in grazing preference. 4110.3... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.3 Changes in grazing preference. (a) The authorized officer will periodically review the grazing preference specified in a grazing permit or lease and make changes in...

  20. 43 CFR 4110.3 - Changes in grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes in grazing preference. 4110.3... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.3 Changes in grazing preference. (a) The authorized officer will periodically review the grazing preference specified in a grazing permit or lease and make changes in...

  1. Preference for Attractive Faces in Human Infants Extends beyond Conspecifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. We examined whether this preference is human-specific. Three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (Experiments 1 and 3). The preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not…

  2. An Analysis of Preference Relative to Teacher Implementation of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LeAnne D.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Symons, Frank J.; Moore, Tara C.; Maggin, Daniel M.; Sutherland, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preference trial as a preliminary test of preference effects on teacher behavior relative to implementation (adoption, adherence, quality). Teachers were randomly assigned to "preference" or "no-preference" groups and then trained to implement the intervention. Direct observation…

  3. Mn and Zn incorporation into calcite as a function of chloride aqueous concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temmam, M.; Paquette, J.; Vali, H.

    2000-07-01

    During spiral growth of the calcite rhombohedron {10 overline14}, divalent metals substituting for Ca 2+ are differentially incorporated due to steric differences inherent to the asymmetric kink sites exposed at nonequivalent growth steps. Hence, ions "larger" than Ca 2+ (e.g., Sr 2+ and Ba 2+) exhibit an incorporation trend opposite to that of "smaller" ions (e.g., Mn 2+ and Co 2+). However, Zn 2+ exhibits the same incorporation trend as large ions in coprecipitation experiments conducted from strong NH 4Cl electrolytes. In this study we compared the incorporation trends of Zn and Mn from solutions with various chloride content to test the possibility that the adsorption of "large" ZnCl n2-n aqueous complexes influences the site preference of Zn. The incorporation trends of Mn and Zn were opposite at the symmetrically nonequivalent growth steps. From a 0.4 M NH 4Cl solution, where Zn aqueous speciation was thermodynamically dominated by the "free" aquo ion, Zn maintained its site preference for the geometrically less constrained surface sites. Thus, Zn exhibits a particular interaction with surface sites and its incorporation trend is not controlled by the prevalence of ZnCl n2-n complexes. Other factors like the electronic configuration must be considered. The surface microtopography of calcite was found to be sensitive to changes in the aqueous concentrations of NH 4Cl and Zn. Decreases in NH 4Cl concentration resulted in an increase of the density of growth hillocks. The strong adsorbing behaviour of Zn increased the surface roughness, decreased the rate of growth, perturbed the spiral growth mechanism, and triggered the nucleation of discrete surface precipitates (˜0.2 μm) along macrosteps. An increase of Cl incorporation, despite the decrease of its aqueous concentration by dilutions of the parent solution, suggests that surface roughness at the calcite-solution interface is another factor involved in the nonequilibrium process of impurity element

  4. Constraints on Noun Incorporation in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khym, Hangyoo

    1997-01-01

    A study of the noun incorporation phenomenon in Korean suggests that noun incorporation occurs at D-structure and obeys the Head Movement Constraint syntactically, and the Theme-Only Constraint semantically. First, the structure of "sunrise"-type words is identified, showing that before derivation through nominalization of the affix "-i,"…

  5. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy § 572.30 Incorporated materials. (a)...

  6. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  7. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at the Department of Transportation, Docket... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials...

  8. 10 CFR 218.31 - Incorporated procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporated procedures. 218.31 Section 218.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Procedures § 218.31 Incorporated procedures. The following subparts of part 205 of this chapter are, as appropriate, hereby made applicable...

  9. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at the Department of Transportation, Docket... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials...

  10. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  11. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  12. 77 FR 16761 - Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    .... We published an announcement of the petition and a request for comments on February 27, 2012. 77 FR...; ] OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER 1 CFR Part 51 Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Office of the Federal... regulations governing the approval of agency requests to incorporate material by reference into the Code...

  13. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  14. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) SAE J1733 of 1994-12, “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing.” (b) The Director of the Federal Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... Impact Crash Test Dummy, July 1, 2008,” incorporated by reference in § 572.191; (4) SAE...

  15. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) SAE J1733 of 1994-12, “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing.” (b) The Director of the Federal Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... Impact Crash Test Dummy, July 1, 2008,” incorporated by reference in § 572.191; (4) SAE...

  16. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  17. How Clinicians Discuss Critically Ill Patients’ Preferences and Values with Surrogates: An Empirical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scheunemann, Leslie P.; Cunningham, Thomas V.; Arnold, Robert M.; Buddadhumaruk, Praewpannarai; White, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although shared decision-making requires clinicians to discuss the patient’s values and preferences, little is known about the extent to which this occurs with surrogates in intensive care units. We sought to assess whether and how clinicians talk with surrogates about incapacitated patients’ preferences and values. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Setting Five ICUs of two hospitals. Subjects Fifty-four physicians and 159 surrogates for 71 patients. Interventions We audio-recorded 71 conferences in which clinicians and surrogates discussed life sustaining treatment decisions for an incapacitated patient near the end of life. Two coders independently coded each instance in which clinicians or surrogates discussed the patient’s previously expressed treatment preferences or values. They subcoded for values that are commonly important to patients near the end of life. They also coded treatment recommendations by clinicians that incorporated the patient’s preferences or values. Measurements and Main Results In 30% of conferences, there was no discussion about the patient’s previously expressed preferences or values. In 37%, clinicians and surrogates discussed both the patient’s treatment preferences and values. In the remaining 33%, clinicians and surrogates discussed either the patient’s treatment preferences or values, but not both. In >88% of conferences, there was no conversation about the patient’s values regarding autonomy and independence, emotional well-being and relationships, physical function, cognitive function, or spirituality. On average, 3.8% (SD 4.3, range 0 – 16%) of words spoken pertained to patient preferences or values. Conclusions In roughly a third of ICU family conferences for patients at high risk of death, neither clinicians nor surrogates discussed patients’ preferences or values about end-of-life decision-making. In <12% of conferences did participants address values of high importance to most patients

  18. Counseling Style Preference of International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Tow Yee; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used single-subject research design to examine counseling style preference of six international clients and one white U.S. client within and across four counseling sessions. Clients listened to audiotape counseling session containing problem-solving approach and client-centered approach and rated both. Clients also rated these styles in actual…

  19. Students Preference on Perceptual Learning Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obralic, Nudžejma; Akbarov, Azamat

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a spectrum of problems and challenges students face while learning second language. Many educators and researchers have claimed that learning styles are insignificant component in the learning process. However, the study points out the significance of learning the students' learning style preference. The purpose of the study is…

  20. Laterality and Directional Preferences in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Lesley E.

    1982-01-01

    Directional preference for horizontal hand movements was investigated in 49 right- and 49 left-handed four-year-olds using three drawing tests. Directionality for more complex perceptual-motor tasks has a different basis than directionality for simple tasks; such directionality is established at a later age but only for the right hand. (Author/CM)

  1. Odor preferences shape discrimination learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joshua; Linster, Christiane; Devore, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Forced-choice discrimination is a standard behavioral paradigm used to test animals’ abilities in learning and memory. In this type of task, a reward association is made between a sensory stimulus and a food or water reward and the frequency of correct choice for the stimulus associated with the reward is measured. We here show that when olfactory sensory stimuli are used, spontaneous preferences for odors can influence speed of acquisition in a forced-choice discrimination task. We first show that among a battery of 53 odorants, some odorants elicit longer bouts of spontaneous investigation than others. We confirm that these odor preferences are robust and reliable by measuring relative spontaneous investigation times for pairs of simultaneously presented odorants. Finally, we show that performance on a forced-choice olfactory discrimination depends on relative spontaneous preferences between the rewarded and unrewarded odorants. Namely, rats acquire novel forced-choice odor discrimination problems significantly faster if the preferred odorant, as assessed by relative spontaneous investigation time, is associated with the reward. These results indicate that even subtle differences in the tendency for an animal to approach and investigate one odorant over another can lead to substantial biases in basic learning and memory tasks. PMID:23895061

  2. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT General Contract Requirements § 273.45...

  3. Adolescents' Preferences for Source of Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to examine what adolescents' identify as their preferred sources of sexual education (e.g., peers, family, school, media, professionals, etc.) about various topics, and whether patterns varied for each gender, race, grade, and economic group. Participants were 672 adolescents of both genders, three…

  4. The Psychological Work Preferences of Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, G. Ronald; Burnett, Meredith; Leartsurawat, Watcharaphong

    2010-01-01

    This study examines work preferences of 984 students across 6 disciplines within a business school--accounting, finance, information technology/decision science, management and international business, marketing, and hospitality management. Differences are found on 11 of the 17 measures. As predicted, we found that (a) accounting, finance, and…

  5. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  6. Postscript: Contrasting Predictions for Preference Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Marius; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Chater, Nick

    2010-01-01

    In this post scrit, the authors discuss an article by Hotaling, Busemeyer, and Li which provided a valuable reply to the challenges the current authors raised for the decision field theory (DFT) account of preference reversal in multiattribute choice. They agree with Hotaling, Busemeyer, and Li's observation that with the addition of an internal…

  7. TASTE PREFERENCES: BIOBEHAVIORAL AND NUTRIENT CORRELATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about determinants of taste preferences. We examined correlates of taste ratings for 112 foods (32 fruits/vegetables, F/V; 65 mixed dishes/snacks, M/S; and 15 desserts, D) in 18 healthy, nonsmoking, educated, middle-income adults aged 18-49 y (BMI 26.5 +/- 4.3 kg/m2). Hedonic ratin...

  8. 36 CFR 13.315 - Preferred operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... visitor services pursuant to 36 CFR part 51 and/or other National Park Service procedures. All offerors... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.315 Preferred operators. (a) In selecting persons to provide visitor services for a park area, the Director will, if the number of...

  9. 36 CFR 13.315 - Preferred operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... visitor services pursuant to 36 CFR part 51 and/or other National Park Service procedures. All offerors... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.315 Preferred operators. (a) In selecting persons to provide visitor services for a park area, the Director will, if the number of...

  10. Imaging the Ways to a Preferred Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Terri; Frommelt, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Presents a series of exercises that can be used with any age level to stimulate visioning skills (e.g., dreaming, creating, intuiting, and imaging). The exercises focus on building imagination skills, guided imaging, envisioning the future that students would prefer, and creating a futures wheel. (DMM)

  11. 75 FR 28788 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Acquisition and Logistics Management (DASN (A&LM)), is soliciting comments that the Department of the Navy (DON) may use in drafting a policy that will establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP). Under the PSP, contractors that have demonstrated exemplary performance, at the corporate level; in the areas of cost, schedule, performance, quality, and......

  12. Communication Technologies Preferred by School Based Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the communication technologies preferred by school based administrators. This study surveyed and interviewed 96 school based administrators in a mid-sized suburban school system. The data show that individual emails, email lists, and cell phone technologies had the highest percentage effectiveness ratings…

  13. 47 CFR 1.1622 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1622 Preferences. (a) Any applicant... applicant shall list any owner who owns all or part of a medium of mass communications or who is a member of... medium of mass communications or name of the minority group, respectively. Such an applicant shall...

  14. Cattle site preference in northeastern Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-roaming beef cattle naturally gravitate to locations on the landscape that provide them food, water, shelter, and security. In mountainous environments, animals are also sensitive to land physiography, generally preferring level terrain near established trails and travel routes. Our study was...

  15. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT General Contract Requirements § 273.45...

  16. Homework Motivation and Preferences of Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iflazoglu, Ayten; Hong, Eunsook

    2012-01-01

    Turkish students' motivation sources, organisational approaches, physical needs and environmental and interpersonal preferences during the homework process were examined in 1776 students in Grades 5-8 from 10 randomly selected schools in two districts of a major urban city in Turkey. These constructs were examined to determine grade, gender,…

  17. Students' Knowledge of Aging and Career Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lun, Man Wai

    2012-01-01

    The increased number of older adults attributes to a rising need for future professionals to work in gerontology. Understanding the influence of students' career choices is important. A qualitative study was conducted after students' taking a gerontology course to explore students' knowledge and career preference in gerontology. The results were…

  18. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  19. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W; Hensch, Takao K

    2012-10-16

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a "critical period" for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR(-/-)) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular "brakes" on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  20. Florida Residents' Preferred Approach to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Although there is widespread support for sexuality education, whether to use an abstinence-only or comprehensive approach is hotly debated. This study assessed Florida residents preferred approach to school-based sexuality education. The 641 respondents were selected by random digit dialing, using methods to ensure ethnic and geographic…

  1. 47 CFR 1.1622 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1622 Preferences. (a) Any applicant desiring a perference in... owner who owns all or part of a medium of mass communications or who is a member of a minority group, together with a precise identification of the ownership interest held in such medium of mass...

  2. The receptor preference of influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Bo; Marriott, Anthony C.; Dimmock, Nigel J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Meng et al. (2010) The receptor preference of influenza viruses. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(3), 147–153. Objectives  The cell surface receptor used by an influenza virus to infect that cell is an N‐acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) residue terminally linked by an alpha2,3 or alpha2,6 bond to a carbohydrate moiety of a glycoprotein or glycolipid. Our aim was to determine a quick and technically simple method to determine cell receptor usage by whole influenza A virus particles. Methods  We employed surface plasmon resonance to detect the binding of viruses to fetuin, a naturally occurring glycoprotein that has both alpha2,3‐ and alpha2,6‐linked NANA, and free 3′‐sialyllactose or 6′‐sialyllactose to compete virus binding. All virus stocks were produced in embryonated chicken’s eggs. Results  The influenza viruses tested bound preferentially to NANAalpha2,3Gal or to NANAalpha2,6Gal, or showed no preference. Two PR8 viruses had different binding preferences. Binding preferences of viruses correlated well with their known biological properties. Conclusions  Our data suggest that it is not easy to predict receptor usage by influenza viruses. However, direct experimental determination as described here can inform experiments concerned with viral pathogenesis, biology and structure. In principle, the methodology can be used for any virus that binds to a terminal NANA residue. PMID:20409211

  3. Preference for bedding material in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, M; Reebs, S G

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether Syrian (golden) hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, prefer certain bedding materials and whether bedding material can affect paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity. In a first experiment, 26 male hamsters had access to two connected cages, each cage containing a different bedding material (either pine shavings, aspen shavings, corn cob or wood pellets). In a second experiment, 14 male hamsters had access to four connected cages that contained the different bedding materials and also a piece of paper towel to serve as nest material. In a third experiment, 30 male hamsters were each placed in a single cage, 10 of them with pine shavings, 10 with aspen shavings and 10 with corn cob, and they were monitored for 50 days. Significant preferences in the first experiment were: pine shavings over aspen shavings, corn cob over wood pellets, pine shavings over corn cob and aspen shavings over wood pellets (aspen shavings versus corn cob was not tested). However, there was no significant preference expressed in the second experiment, suggesting that the general preference for shavings in the first experiment was based on bedding material suitability as a nesting material. No significant effect of bedding material on paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity was detected. None of the four bedding materials tested in this study can be judged to be inappropriate in the short term if nesting material is added to the cage and if the litter is changed regularly. PMID:17018212

  4. 47 CFR 1.1622 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1622 Preferences. (a) Any applicant... applicant shall list any owner who owns all or part of a medium of mass communications or who is a member of... medium of mass communications or name of the minority group, respectively. Such an applicant shall...

  5. 47 CFR 1.1622 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1622 Preferences. (a) Any applicant desiring a perference in... owner who owns all or part of a medium of mass communications or who is a member of a minority group, together with a precise identification of the ownership interest held in such medium of mass...

  6. 47 CFR 1.1622 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1622 Preferences. (a) Any applicant... applicant shall list any owner who owns all or part of a medium of mass communications or who is a member of... medium of mass communications or name of the minority group, respectively. Such an applicant shall...

  7. Pedagogical Techniques: Student Performance and Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, S. Douglas; Lobingier, Patricia G.

    2001-01-01

    Students in financial accounting were exposed to three teaching methods for one-third semester each (chalkboard, overhead projector, presentation software). No overall student learning differences were found, but students performed better on quizzes and exams when their preferred method was used. (SK)

  8. Familiarity and preference for pitch probability profiles.

    PubMed

    Cui, Anja-Xiaoxing; Collett, Meghan J; Troje, Niko F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2015-05-01

    We investigated familiarity and preference judgments of participants toward a novel musical system. We exposed participants to tone sequences generated from a novel pitch probability profile. Afterward, we either asked participants to identify more familiar or we asked participants to identify preferred tone sequences in a two-alternative forced-choice task. The task paired a tone sequence generated from the pitch probability profile they had been exposed to and a tone sequence generated from another pitch probability profile at three levels of distinctiveness. We found that participants identified tone sequences as more familiar if they were generated from the same pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to. However, participants did not prefer these tone sequences. We interpret this relationship between familiarity and preference to be consistent with an inverted U-shaped relationship between knowledge and affect. The fact that participants identified tone sequences as even more familiar if they were generated from the more distinctive (caricatured) version of the pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to suggests that the statistical learning of the pitch probability profile is involved in gaining of musical knowledge. PMID:25838257

  9. Using Performance Data to Identify Preferred Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; Landrum, Mary Beth; Meara, Ellen; Huskamp, Haiden A; Conti, Rena M; Keating, Nancy L

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the implications of current approaches used by health plans and purchasers to identify preferred hospitals for tiered networks using cost and quality information. Data Sources/Study Setting 2002 secondary data from WebMD Quality Services on hospital quality and costs in five markets (Boston, Miami, Phoenix, Seattle, and Syracuse). Study Design We compared four alternative tiering strategies that combine information on quality and cost to designate “preferred” (defined as ranking in the top quartile) hospitals. Within each market we identified the sets of hospitals designated preferred according to each strategy and examined the overlap in these sets across strategies. Principal Findings Compared with identifying preferred hospitals based on quality scores only, we found little overlap with the sets of hospitals that would be preferred based on cost scores only, cost scores after applying minimal quality standards, and an equally weighted quality and cost measure. The last two approaches, commonly used and intuitively appealing strategies to identify high-value hospitals, led to substantially different results. Conclusions The lack of agreement among alternative strategies to combine cost and quality data for ranking hospitals suggests the need for clear prioritization by payers and the application of more rigorous methods to identify high-value hospitals. PMID:17995555

  10. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W.; Hensch, Takao K.

    2012-01-01

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a “critical period” for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR−/−) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular “brakes” on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  11. Creativity, Birth Order, and Preference for Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, Russell; Schussel, Nancy Robinson

    1970-01-01

    Four hundred fifty college students were given three measures of creativity: (a) complexity-simplicity preference, (b) Personal Opinion Survey, and (c) an unusual uses test. The intercorrelation of the creativity measures ranged .45-.83 (p's is less than .001), and a striking birth-order effect was found: later-born males were significantly less…

  12. Residential Preferences and Population Dispersal Migration Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Gordon F.

    In order to test the hypothesis that size of place of residence and urban proximity preferences constitute factors in population dispersal migration behavior, a random sample of 777 Pennsylvania households plus a sample screened for moving probability (N=319) were surveyed via personal interviews in 1974. A follow-up survey on actual migration…

  13. Student Housing: Trends, Preferences and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Claire Reeves; Flanigan, Mary A.; Copeland, P. Kenneth, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    To attract and retain students, universities are confronted with increased demand to provide housing options that meet the new expectations of the millennial generation. Recent trends and housing preferences are examined. The results of surveys detailing some of these new demands and how universities are attempting to address these demands are…

  14. Living Arrangement Preferences among Elderly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Francois

    1987-01-01

    Compared older adults living alone or with only a spouse to those living with children, relatives, or friends. Found that those living alone or with a spouse were more likely to prefer to move into alternate setting (senior housing or nursing home). Findings revealed limited evidence to support view that residency with others is substitute for…

  15. Best lighting for naturalness and preference.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Osamu; Nascimento, Sérgio M C

    2013-01-01

    Spectral optimization for naturalness and preference was carried out empirically in a set of psychophysical experiments in which observers adjusted the spectral composition of the illumination to render commercial food counters containing a variety of fruits and vegetables as well as meat and fish. The scenes were simulated with high chromatic precision on a calibrated computer monitor from data obtained by hyperspectral imaging. The illuminants were daylight-like and their metamers, representing a set of nearly arbitrary spectra. For daylights, the most natural colors were produced with illuminants with an average correlated color temperature (CCT) of 6040 K and the most preferred colors with an average CCT of 4410 K. For metamers, the CCT for the two conditions were a little higher than for daylights, and the corresponding spectra were considerably different from daylight with characteristic peaks at both ends of the visible band and at about 490 nm and 560 nm. When compared directly with daylights, these metamers were preferred for most of the scenes. It was hypothesized that observers' choices may be determined by the chromatic volume and the symmetry of the color distributions: The best illuminants for preference produced larger gamuts, and the best illuminants for naturalness produced gamuts with aspect ratios closer to unity, i.e., more symmetrically distributed. PMID:23750017

  16. Pharmacy Practitioner Preferences for Certificate Program Structuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Kenneth M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 335 registered Ohio pharmacists concerning specialized continuing education investigated practitioner interest in 28 specific course topics, perceived importance of certain program attributes (e.g., academic credit, instructional format, experiential components), and preferences for seasons, days, and hours of course offering.…

  17. Reasons Underlying Treatment Preference: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Bryan N.; Pruitt, Larry; Fukuda, Seiya; Zoellner, Lori A.; Feeny, Norah C.

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about what factors influence women's treatment preferences after a sexual assault. To learn more about these factors, data were collected from 273 women who read a standard "if this happened to you, what would you do" scenario describing a sexual assault and subsequent trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. After reading…

  18. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  19. Preferred color correction for digital LCD TVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Instead of colorimetirc color reproduction, preferred color correction is applied for digital TVs to improve subjective image quality. First step of the preferred color correction is to survey the preferred color coordinates of memory colors. This can be achieved by the off-line human visual tests. Next step is to extract pixels of memory colors representing skin, grass and sky. For the detected pixels, colors are shifted towards the desired coordinates identified in advance. This correction process may result in undesirable contours on the boundaries between the corrected and un-corrected areas. For digital TV applications, the process of extraction and correction should be applied in every frame of the moving images. This paper presents a preferred color correction method in LCH color space. Values of chroma and hue are corrected independently. Undesirable contours on the boundaries of correction are minimized. The proposed method change the coordinates of memory color pixels towards the target color coordinates. Amount of correction is determined based on the averaged coordinate of the extracted pixels. The proposed method maintains the relative color difference within memory color areas. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using the paired comparison. Results of experiments indicate that the proposed method can reproduce perceptually pleasing images to viewers.

  20. Student Preferences toward Microcomputer User Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil I.; Reaves, Rita R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduates that was conducted to determine students' preferences toward Graphical User Interface versus Command Line Interface during computer-assisted instruction. Previous experience, comfort level, performance scores, and student attitudes are examined and compared, and the computer use survey is appended. (Contains 13…