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Sample records for algorithm substantial flexibility

  1. Flexible Phrase Based Query Handling Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, W. John; Kim, Won

    2001-01-01

    Flexibility in query handling can be important if one types a search engine query that is misspelled, contains terms not in the database, or requires knowledge of a controlled vocabulary. Presents results of experiments that suggest the optimal form of similarity functions that are applicable to the task of phrase based retrieval to find either…

  2. A Combinatorial Auction Based Algorithm for Flexible Seat Reservation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otomura, Kazutoshi; Tomii, Norio

    We present algorithms for flexible seat distribution problems, which is defined as a problem to give an appropriate travel plan to each passenger after receiving their requests concerning their travel demands. Seat distribution problems occur when a flexible seat reservation system is implemented in which passengers are allowed to reserve seats by submitting their demands instead of specifying trains. To solve the seat distribution problem, we have formalized it as a winner determination problem of the combinatorial auction mechanism. It should be noted that difficulty of the seat distribution problem varies depending on instances of the problem, because the number of demands often varies and users' requests sometimes converge on particular trains. This suggests that in order to get solutions with high quality, algorithms that appropriately control the search space are indispensable. In this paper, we present three kinds of such algorithms for the seat distribution problem together with the results of several experiments.

  3. Flexible surveillance system architecture for prototyping video content analysis algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnhoven, R. G. J.; Jaspers, E. G. T.; de With, P. H. N.

    2006-01-01

    Many proposed video content analysis algorithms for surveillance applications are very computationally intensive, which limits the integration in a total system, running on one processing unit (e.g. PC). To build flexible prototyping systems of low cost, a distributed system with scalable processing power is therefore required. This paper discusses requirements for surveillance systems, considering two example applications. From these requirements, specifications for a prototyping architecture are derived. An implementation of the proposed architecture is presented, enabling mapping of multiple software modules onto a number of processing units (PCs). The architecture enables fast prototyping of new algorithms for complex surveillance applications without considering resource constraints.

  4. Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem by Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Kenichi; Oka, Kensaku

    Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem is expansion of the traditional Job-shop Scheduling Problem that an operation can be processed one or more machines. The purpose of this problem is to look for the smallest makespan. For that purpose, it is necessary to decide optimal assignment of machines to operations and order of operations on machines. In this paper, we focus on maximum of workloads for all machines and propose new suvival selection, creation method of initial solution, mutation, and escape method to Genetic Algorithm for this problem. The efficacy of our method is demonstrated by comparing its numerical experiment results with another methods.

  5. A genetic algorithm based method for docking flexible molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Judson, R.S.; Jaeger, E.P.; Treasurywala, A.M.

    1993-11-01

    The authors describe a computational method for docking flexible molecules into protein binding sites. The method uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to search the combined conformation/orientation space of the molecule to find low energy conformation. Several techniques are described that increase the efficiency of the basic search method. These include the use of several interacting GA subpopulations or niches; the use of a growing algorithm that initially docks only a small part of the molecule; and the use of gradient minimization during the search. To illustrate the method, they dock Cbz-GlyP-Leu-Leu (ZGLL) into thermolysin. This system was chosen because a well refined crystal structure is available and because another docking method had previously been tested on this system. Their method is able to find conformations that lie physically close to and in some cases lower in energy than the crystal conformation in reasonable periods of time on readily available hardware.

  6. A Novel Flexible Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Amoshahy, Mohammad Javad; Shamsi, Mousa; Sedaaghi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an evolutionary computing method based on intelligent collective behavior of some animals. It is easy to implement and there are few parameters to adjust. The performance of PSO algorithm depends greatly on the appropriate parameter selection strategies for fine tuning its parameters. Inertia weight (IW) is one of PSO's parameters used to bring about a balance between the exploration and exploitation characteristics of PSO. This paper proposes a new nonlinear strategy for selecting inertia weight which is named Flexible Exponential Inertia Weight (FEIW) strategy because according to each problem we can construct an increasing or decreasing inertia weight strategy with suitable parameters selection. The efficacy and efficiency of PSO algorithm with FEIW strategy (FEPSO) is validated on a suite of benchmark problems with different dimensions. Also FEIW is compared with best time-varying, adaptive, constant and random inertia weights. Experimental results and statistical analysis prove that FEIW improves the search performance in terms of solution quality as well as convergence rate. PMID:27560945

  7. A Novel Flexible Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Mousa; Sedaaghi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an evolutionary computing method based on intelligent collective behavior of some animals. It is easy to implement and there are few parameters to adjust. The performance of PSO algorithm depends greatly on the appropriate parameter selection strategies for fine tuning its parameters. Inertia weight (IW) is one of PSO’s parameters used to bring about a balance between the exploration and exploitation characteristics of PSO. This paper proposes a new nonlinear strategy for selecting inertia weight which is named Flexible Exponential Inertia Weight (FEIW) strategy because according to each problem we can construct an increasing or decreasing inertia weight strategy with suitable parameters selection. The efficacy and efficiency of PSO algorithm with FEIW strategy (FEPSO) is validated on a suite of benchmark problems with different dimensions. Also FEIW is compared with best time-varying, adaptive, constant and random inertia weights. Experimental results and statistical analysis prove that FEIW improves the search performance in terms of solution quality as well as convergence rate. PMID:27560945

  8. A Novel Flexible Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Amoshahy, Mohammad Javad; Shamsi, Mousa; Sedaaghi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an evolutionary computing method based on intelligent collective behavior of some animals. It is easy to implement and there are few parameters to adjust. The performance of PSO algorithm depends greatly on the appropriate parameter selection strategies for fine tuning its parameters. Inertia weight (IW) is one of PSO's parameters used to bring about a balance between the exploration and exploitation characteristics of PSO. This paper proposes a new nonlinear strategy for selecting inertia weight which is named Flexible Exponential Inertia Weight (FEIW) strategy because according to each problem we can construct an increasing or decreasing inertia weight strategy with suitable parameters selection. The efficacy and efficiency of PSO algorithm with FEIW strategy (FEPSO) is validated on a suite of benchmark problems with different dimensions. Also FEIW is compared with best time-varying, adaptive, constant and random inertia weights. Experimental results and statistical analysis prove that FEIW improves the search performance in terms of solution quality as well as convergence rate.

  9. The Path-of-Probability Algorithm for Steering and Feedback Control of Flexible Needles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wooram; Wang, Yunfeng; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new framework for path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. Based on a stochastic model of needle steering, the probability density function for the needle tip pose is approximated as a Gaussian. The means and covariances are estimated using an error propagation algorithm which has second order accuracy. Then we adapt the path-of-probability (POP) algorithm to path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. We demonstrate how our planning algorithm can be used for feedback control of flexible needles. We also derive a closed-form solution for the port placement problem for finding good insertion locations for flexible needles in the case when there are no obstacles. Furthermore, we propose a new method using reference splines with the POP algorithm to solve the path planning problem for flexible needles in more general cases that include obstacles. PMID:21151708

  10. The new ACLS tachycardia algorithm: flexible guidelines for an old problem.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, J R

    1994-04-01

    Most nurses will find that the tachycardia algorithm gives guidance in treatment but flexibility to allow for patient variables. Although it may at first appear complex, the decision tree carries no surprises. Treatments are similar to those already seen in emergency cardiac care. Remember, the algorithms are offered as a guide, and individual physicians' treatment decisions may vary.

  11. ULTRASONIC IMAGING USING A FLEXIBLE ARRAY: IMPROVEMENTS TO THE MAXIMUM CONTRAST AUTOFOCUS ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, A. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-03-03

    In previous work, we have presented the maximum contrast autofocus algorithm for estimating unknown imaging parameters, e.g., for imaging through complicated surfaces using a flexible ultrasonic array. This paper details recent improvements to the algorithm. The algorithm operates by maximizing the image contrast metric with respect to the imaging parameters. For a flexible array, the relative positions of the array elements are parameterized using a cubic spline function and the spline control points are estimated by iterative maximisation of the image contrast via simulated annealing. The resultant spline gives an estimate of the array geometry and the profile of the surface that it has conformed to, allowing the generation of a well-focused image. A pre-processing step is introduced to obtain an initial estimate of the array geometry, reducing the time taken for the algorithm to convergence. Experimental results are demonstrated using a flexible array prototype.

  12. A Parallel Ghosting Algorithm for The Flexible Distributed Mesh Database

    DOE PAGES

    Mubarak, Misbah; Seol, Seegyoung; Lu, Qiukai; Shephard, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Critical to the scalability of parallel adaptive simulations are parallel control functions including load balancing, reduced inter-process communication and optimal data decomposition. In distributed meshes, many mesh-based applications frequently access neighborhood information for computational purposes which must be transmitted efficiently to avoid parallel performance degradation when the neighbors are on different processors. This article presents a parallel algorithm of creating and deleting data copies, referred to as ghost copies, which localize neighborhood data for computation purposes while minimizing inter-process communication. The key characteristics of the algorithm are: (1) It can create ghost copies of any permissible topological order inmore » a 1D, 2D or 3D mesh based on selected adjacencies. (2) It exploits neighborhood communication patterns during the ghost creation process thus eliminating all-to-all communication. (3) For applications that need neighbors of neighbors, the algorithm can create n number of ghost layers up to a point where the whole partitioned mesh can be ghosted. Strong and weak scaling results are presented for the IBM BG/P and Cray XE6 architectures up to a core count of 32,768 processors. The algorithm also leads to scalable results when used in a parallel super-convergent patch recovery error estimator, an application that frequently accesses neighborhood data to carry out computation.« less

  13. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-04-12

    Many scientific applications need support from a communication infrastructure that provides predictable performance, which requires effective algorithms for bandwidth reservations. Network reservation systems such as ESnet's OSCARS, establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits for a certain bandwidth and length of time. However, users currently cannot inquire about bandwidth availability, nor have alternative suggestions when reservation requests fail. In general, the number of reservation options is exponential with the number of nodes n, and current reservation commitments. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks taking advantage of user-provided parameters of total volume and time constraints, which produces options for earliest completion and shortest duration. The theoretical complexity is only O(n2r2) in the worst-case, where r is the number of reservations in the desired time interval. We have implemented our algorithm and developed efficient methodologies for incorporation into network reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm the theoretical predictions.

  14. A performance comparison of integration algorithms in simulating flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Asymptotic formulas for the characteristic root errors as well as transfer function gain and phase errors are presented for a number of traditional and new integration methods. Normalized stability regions in the lambda h plane are compared for the various methods. In particular, it is shown that a modified form of Euler integration with root matching is an especially efficient method for simulating lightly-damped structural modes. The method has been used successfully for structural bending modes in the real-time simulation of missiles. Performance of this algorithm is compared with other special algorithms, including the state-transition method. A predictor-corrector version of the modified Euler algorithm permits it to be extended to the simulation of nonlinear models of the type likely to be obtained when using the discretized structure approach. Performance of the different integration methods is also compared for integration step sizes larger than those for which the asymptotic formulas are valid. It is concluded that many traditional integration methods, such as RD-4, are not competitive in the simulation of lightly damped structures.

  15. A comparison of force control algorithms for robots in contact with flexible environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilfinger, Lee S.

    1992-01-01

    In order to perform useful tasks, the robot end-effector must come into contact with its environment. For such tasks, force feedback is frequently used to control the interaction forces. Control of these forces is complicated by the fact that the flexibility of the environment affects the stability of the force control algorithm. Because of the wide variety of different materials present in everyday environments, it is necessary to gain an understanding of how environmental flexibility affects the stability of force control algorithms. This report presents the theory and experimental results of two force control algorithms: Position Accommodation Control and Direct Force Servoing. The implementation of each of these algorithms on a two-arm robotic test bed located in the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) is discussed in detail. The behavior of each algorithm when contacting materials of different flexibility is experimentally determined. In addition, several robustness improvements to the Direct Force Servoing algorithm are suggested and experimentally verified. Finally, a qualitative comparison of the force control algorithms is provided, along with a description of a general tuning process for each control method.

  16. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  17. A homotopy algorithm for synthesizing robust controllers for flexible structures via the maximum entropy design equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    One well known deficiency of LQG compensators is that they do not guarantee any measure of robustness. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control design for complex systems such as flexible structures. There has thus been a need to generalize LQG theory to incorporate robustness constraints. Here we describe the maximum entropy approach to robust control design for flexible structures, a generalization of LQG theory, pioneered by Hyland, which has proved useful in practice. The design equations consist of a set of coupled Riccati and Lyapunov equations. A homotopy algorithm that is used to solve these design equations is presented.

  18. Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling with Dual-Resource Constraints to Minimize Tardiness Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paksi, A. B. N.; Ma'ruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    In general, both machines and human resources are needed for processing a job on production floor. However, most classical scheduling problems have ignored the possible constraint caused by availability of workers and have considered only machines as a limited resource. In addition, along with production technology development, routing flexibility appears as a consequence of high product variety and medium demand for each product. Routing flexibility is caused by capability of machines that offers more than one machining process. This paper presents a method to address scheduling problem constrained by both machines and workers, considering routing flexibility. Scheduling in a Dual-Resource Constrained shop is categorized as NP-hard problem that needs long computational time. Meta-heuristic approach, based on Genetic Algorithm, is used due to its practical implementation in industry. Developed Genetic Algorithm uses indirect chromosome representative and procedure to transform chromosome into Gantt chart. Genetic operators, namely selection, elitism, crossover, and mutation are developed to search the best fitness value until steady state condition is achieved. A case study in a manufacturing SME is used to minimize tardiness as objective function. The algorithm has shown 25.6% reduction of tardiness, equal to 43.5 hours.

  19. Trajectory-Oriented Approach to Managing Traffic Complexity: Trajectory Flexibility Metrics and Algorithms and Preliminary Complexity Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idris, Husni; Vivona, Robert A.; Al-Wakil, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    This document describes exploratory research on a distributed, trajectory oriented approach for traffic complexity management. The approach is to manage traffic complexity based on preserving trajectory flexibility and minimizing constraints. In particular, the document presents metrics for trajectory flexibility; a method for estimating these metrics based on discrete time and degree of freedom assumptions; a planning algorithm using these metrics to preserve flexibility; and preliminary experiments testing the impact of preserving trajectory flexibility on traffic complexity. The document also describes an early demonstration capability of the trajectory flexibility preservation function in the NASA Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) platform.

  20. A fast, flexible algorithm for calculating correlations in Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, T; Fore, S; Huser, T

    2005-10-13

    A new algorithm is introduced for computing correlations of photon arrival time data acquired in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The correlation is first rewritten as a counting operation on photon pairs. For each photon, the contribution to the correlation function for each subsequent photon is calculated for arbitrary bin spacings of the correlation time lag. By retaining the bin positions in the photon sequence after each photon, the correlation can be performed efficiently. Example correlations for simulations of FCS experiments are shown, with comparable execution speed to the commonly used multiple-tau correlation technique. Also, wide bin spacings are possible that allow for real-time software calculation of correlations even for high count rates ({approx}350 kHz). The flexibility and broad applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated using results from single molecule photon antibunching experiments.

  1. Time-varying modal parameters identification of a spacecraft with rotating flexible appendage by recursive algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhiyu; Mu, Ruinan; Xun, Guangbin; Wu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The rotation of spacecraft flexible appendage may cause changes in modal parameters. For this time-varying system, the computation cost of the frequently-used singular value decomposition (SVD) identification method is high. Some control problems, such as the self-adaptive control, need the latest modal parameters to update the controller parameters in time. In this paper, the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) recursive algorithm is applied as an alternative method to identify the time-varying modal parameters. This method avoids the SVD by signal subspace projection and improves the computational efficiency. To verify the ability of this recursive algorithm in spacecraft modal parameters identification, a spacecraft model with rapid rotational appendage, Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) satellite, is established, and the time-varying modal parameters of the satellite are identified recursively by designing the input and output signals. The results illustrate that this recursive algorithm can obtain the modal parameters in the high signal noise ratio (SNR) and it has better computational efficiency than the SVD method. Moreover, to improve the identification precision of this recursive algorithm in the low SNR, the wavelet de-noising technology is used to decrease the effect of noises.

  2. A genetic algorithm-based approach to flexible flow-line scheduling with variable lot sizes.

    PubMed

    Lee, I; Sikora, R; Shaw, M J

    1997-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used widely for such combinatorial optimization problems as the traveling salesman problem (TSP), the quadratic assignment problem (QAP), and job shop scheduling. In all of these problems there is usually a well defined representation which GA's use to solve the problem. We present a novel approach for solving two related problems-lot sizing and sequencing-concurrently using GAs. The essence of our approach lies in the concept of using a unified representation for the information about both the lot sizes and the sequence and enabling GAs to evolve the chromosome by replacing primitive genes with good building blocks. In addition, a simulated annealing procedure is incorporated to further improve the performance. We evaluate the performance of applying the above approach to flexible flow line scheduling with variable lot sizes for an actual manufacturing facility, comparing it to such alternative approaches as pair wise exchange improvement, tabu search, and simulated annealing procedures. The results show the efficacy of this approach for flexible flow line scheduling. PMID:18255838

  3. A genetic algorithm-based approach to flexible flow-line scheduling with variable lot sizes.

    PubMed

    Lee, I; Sikora, R; Shaw, M J

    1997-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used widely for such combinatorial optimization problems as the traveling salesman problem (TSP), the quadratic assignment problem (QAP), and job shop scheduling. In all of these problems there is usually a well defined representation which GA's use to solve the problem. We present a novel approach for solving two related problems-lot sizing and sequencing-concurrently using GAs. The essence of our approach lies in the concept of using a unified representation for the information about both the lot sizes and the sequence and enabling GAs to evolve the chromosome by replacing primitive genes with good building blocks. In addition, a simulated annealing procedure is incorporated to further improve the performance. We evaluate the performance of applying the above approach to flexible flow line scheduling with variable lot sizes for an actual manufacturing facility, comparing it to such alternative approaches as pair wise exchange improvement, tabu search, and simulated annealing procedures. The results show the efficacy of this approach for flexible flow line scheduling.

  4. Exploring the Pareto frontier using multisexual evolutionary algorithms: an application to a flexible manufacturing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonissone, Stefano R.; Subbu, Raj

    2002-12-01

    In multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems we need to optimize many possibly conflicting objectives. For instance, in manufacturing planning we might want to minimize the cost and production time while maximizing the product's quality. We propose the use of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to solve these problems. Solutions are represented as individuals in a population and are assigned scores according to a fitness function that determines their relative quality. Strong solutions are selected for reproduction, and pass their genetic material to the next generation. Weak solutions are removed from the population. The fitness function evaluates each solution and returns a related score. In MOO problems, this fitness function is vector-valued, i.e. it returns a value for each objective. Therefore, instead of a global optimum, we try to find the Pareto-optimal or non-dominated frontier. We use multi-sexual EAs with as many genders as optimization criteria. We have created new crossover and gender assignment functions, and experimented with various parameters to determine the best setting (yielding the highest number of non-dominated solutions.) These experiments are conducted using a variety of fitness functions, and the algorithms are later evaluated on a flexible manufacturing problem with total cost and time minimization objectives.

  5. Development and validation of a linear recursive "Order- N" algorithm for the simulation of flexible space manipulator dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Woerkom, P. Th. L. M.; de Boer, A.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic manipulators designed to operate on-board spacecraft and Space Stations are characterized by large spatial dimensions. The structural flexibility inherent in such manipulators introduces a noticeable and undesirable modification of the traditional rigid-body manipulator dynamics. As a result, the dynamics of the complete system comprising a flexible spacecraft or Space Station as a manipulator base, and an attached flexible manipulator, are also modified. Operational requirements related to high manoeuvre accuracy and modest manoeuvre duration, create the need for careful modelling and simulation of the dynamics of such systems. The objective of this paper is to outline the development and validation of an advanced algorithm for the simulation of the dynamics of such flexible spacecraft/space manipulator systems. The requirements imposed during the development of the present prototype dynamics simulator led to the modification and implementation of an existing linear recursive algorithm ("Order- N" algorithm), which requires a computational effort proportional to the number of component bodies in the system. Starting with the Lagrange form of the d'Alembert principle, we first deduce a parametric form which is found to yield—amongst others—the basic forms of the Newton-Euler, the d'Alembert and the Gauss dynamics principles. It is then shown how the application of each of the latter three principles can be made to lead graciously to the desired Order- N algorithm for the flexible multi-body system. The Order- N algorithm thus obtained and validated analytically, forms the basis for the prototype simulator REALDYN, designed to permit numerical simulation of the algorithm on UNIX workstations. Verification, numerical integration and further validation tests have been carried out. Some of the results obtained during the validation exercises could not be explained readily, even in the case of simple multi-body systems. The use of test tools and physical

  6. A hybrid algorithm optimization approach for machine loading problem in flexible manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay M.; Murthy, ANN; Chandrashekara, K.

    2012-05-01

    The production planning problem of flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concerns with decisions that have to be made before an FMS begins to produce parts according to a given production plan during an upcoming planning horizon. The main aspect of production planning deals with machine loading problem in which selection of a subset of jobs to be manufactured and assignment of their operations to the relevant machines are made. Such problems are not only combinatorial optimization problems, but also happen to be non-deterministic polynomial-time-hard, making it difficult to obtain satisfactory solutions using traditional optimization techniques. In this paper, an attempt has been made to address the machine loading problem with objectives of minimization of system unbalance and maximization of throughput simultaneously while satisfying the system constraints related to available machining time and tool slot designing and using a meta-hybrid heuristic technique based on genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The results reported in this paper demonstrate the model efficiency and examine the performance of the system with respect to measures such as throughput and system utilization.

  7. Input-output oriented computation algorithms for the control of large flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minto, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of work in progress aimed at developing computational algorithms addressing two important aspects in the control of large flexible space structures; namely, the selection and placement of sensors and actuators, and the resulting multivariable control law design problem. The issue of sensor/actuator set selection is particularly crucial to obtaining a satisfactory control design, as clearly a poor choice will inherently limit the degree to which good control can be achieved. With regard to control law design, the researchers are driven by concerns stemming from the practical issues associated with eventual implementation of multivariable control laws, such as reliability, limit protection, multimode operation, sampling rate selection, processor throughput, etc. Naturally, the burden imposed by dealing with these aspects of the problem can be reduced by ensuring that the complexity of the compensator is minimized. Our approach to these problems is based on extensions to input/output oriented techniques that have proven useful in the design of multivariable control systems for aircraft engines. In particular, researchers are exploring the use of relative gain analysis and the condition number as a means of quantifying the process of sensor/actuator selection and placement for shape control of a large space platform.

  8. Vibration control of a flexible clamped-clamped plate based on an improved FULMS algorithm and laser displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lingbo; Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Zhang, Xian-min

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel active resonant vibration control experiment of a flexible clamped-clamped plate using an improved filtered-U least mean square (FULMS) algorithm and laser displacement measurement. Different from the widely used PZT sensors or acceleration transducers, the vibration of the flexible clamped-clamped plate is measured by a non-contact laser displacement measurement sensor with higher measurement accuracy and without additional load to the plate. The conventional FULMS algorithm often uses fixed step size and needs reference signal related to the external disturbance signal. However, the fixed step size method cannot obtain a fast convergence speed and it will result in a low residual error. Thus, a variable step size method is investigated. In addition, it is difficult to extract reference signal related to the vibration source directly in the practical application. Therefore, it is practically useful that a reference signal is constructed by both the controller parameters and the vibration residual signal. The experimental results demonstrate that the improved FULMS algorithm has better vibration control effect than the proportional derivative (PD) feedback control algorithm and the fixed step-size control algorithm.

  9. A flexible and robust neural network IASI-NH3 retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitburn, S.; Van Damme, M.; Clarisse, L.; Bauduin, S.; Heald, C. L.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Hurtmans, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a new flexible and robust NH3 retrieval algorithm from measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The method is based on the calculation of a spectral hyperspectral range index (HRI) and subsequent conversion to NH3 columns via a neural network. It is an extension of the method presented in Van Damme et al. (2014a) who used lookup tables (LUT) for the radiance-concentration conversion. The new method inherits the advantages of the LUT-based method while providing several significant improvements. These include the following: (1) Complete temperature and humidity vertical profiles can be accounted for. (2) Third-party NH3 vertical profile information can be used. (3) Reported positive biases of LUT retrieval are reduced, and finally (4) a full measurement uncertainty characterization is provided. A running theme in this study, related to item (2), is the importance of the assumed vertical NH3 profile. We demonstrate the advantages of allowing variable profile shapes in the retrieval. As an example, we analyze how the retrievals change when all NH3 is assumed to be confined to the boundary layer. We analyze different averaging procedures in use for NH3 in the literature, introduced to cope with the variable measurement sensitivity and derive global averaged distributions for the year 2013. A comparison with a GEOS-Chem modeled global distribution is also presented, showing a general good correspondence (within ±3 × 1015 molecules.cm-2) over most of the Northern Hemisphere. However, IASI finds mean columns about 1-1.5 × 1016 molecules.cm-2 (˜50-60%) lower than GEOS-Chem for India and the North China plain.

  10. Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Using Minimise Makespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farashahi, Hamid Ghaani; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Shojaeipour, Shahed; Jaberi, Mohammad

    The aim of this paper is to minimise the makespan. The flexible job-shop scheduling is very common in practice and parallel machine is used in job-shop environment as flexibility. These flexibilities could be used for increasing the throughput rate, avoiding the production stop, removing bottleneck problems and finally achieving competitive advantages in economical environments. In opposition to classic job-shop where there is one machine in each stage, in this problem production system consists of multistage which in each stage there are one or several parallel machines with different speeds. The flexible job-shop scheduling with parallel machines problem consists of two sub-problems for solving: assigning and sequencing sub-problem.

  11. DynaDock: A new molecular dynamics-based algorithm for protein-peptide docking including receptor flexibility.

    PubMed

    Antes, Iris

    2010-04-01

    Molecular docking programs play an important role in drug development and many well-established methods exist. However, there are two situations for which the performance of most approaches is still not satisfactory, namely inclusion of receptor flexibility and docking of large, flexible ligands like peptides. In this publication a new approach is presented for docking peptides into flexible receptors. For this purpose a two step procedure was developed: first, the protein-peptide conformational space is scanned and approximate ligand poses are identified and second, the identified ligand poses are refined by a new molecular dynamics-based method, optimized potential molecular dynamics (OPMD). The OPMD approach uses soft-core potentials for the protein-peptide interactions and applies a new optimization scheme to the soft-core potential. Comparison with refinement results obtained by conventional molecular dynamics and a soft-core scaling approach shows significant improvements in the sampling capability for the OPMD method. Thus, the number of starting poses needed for successful refinement is much lower than for the other methods. The algorithm was evaluated on 15 protein-peptide complexes with 2-16mer peptides. Docking poses with peptide RMSD values <2.10 A from the equilibrated experimental structures were obtained in all cases. For four systems docking into the unbound receptor structures was performed, leading to peptide RMSD values <2.12 A. Using a specifically fitted scoring function in 11 of 15 cases the best scoring poses featured a peptide RMSD < or = 2.10 A.

  12. Algorithms for adaptive control of two-arm flexible manipulators under uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skowronski, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear extension of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique is used to guide a double arm nonlinearizable robot manipulator with flexible links, driven by actuators collocated with joints subject to uncertain payload and inertia. The objective is to track a given simple linear and rigid but compatible dynamical model in real, possible stipulated time and within stipulated degree of accuracy of convergence while avoiding collision of the arms. The objective is attained by a specified signal adaptive feedback controller and by adaptive laws, both given in closed form. A case of 4 DOF manipulator illustrates the technique.

  13. Non-recursive augmented Lagrangian algorithms for the forward and inverse dynamics of constrained flexible multibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayo, Eduardo; Ledesma, Ragnar

    1993-01-01

    A technique is presented for solving the inverse dynamics of flexible planar multibody systems. This technique yields the non-causal joint efforts (inverse dynamics) as well as the internal states (inverse kinematics) that produce a prescribed nominal trajectory of the end effector. A non-recursive global Lagrangian approach is used in formulating the equations for motion as well as in solving the inverse dynamics equations. Contrary to the recursive method previously presented, the proposed method solves the inverse problem in a systematic and direct manner for both open-chain as well as closed-chain configurations. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed procedure provides an excellent tracking of the desired end effector trajectory.

  14. MATCAKE: a flexible toolbox for 2D NMR spectra integration by CAKE algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Rocco; Acernese, Fausto; Vilasi, Silvia; Paris, Debora; Motta, Andrea; Barone, Fabrizio

    2011-04-01

    MatCAKE (www.cake.unisa.it) is a toolbox for integrating 2D NMR spectra by the CAKE (Monte CArlo peaK volume Estimation)1 algorithm within the Matlab environment (www.mathworks.com). Quantitative information from multidimensional NMR experiments can be obtained by peak volume integration. The standard procedure (selection of a region around the chosen peak and addition of all values) is often biased by poor peak definition because of peak overlap. CAKE is a simple algorithm designed for volume integration of (partially) overlapping peaks. Assuming the axial symmetry of two-dimensional NMR peaks, as it occurs in NOESY and TOCSY when Lorentz-Gauss transformation of the signals is carried out, CAKE estimates the peak volume by multiplying a volume fraction by a factor R. It represents a proportionality ratio between the total and the fractional volume, which is identified as a slice in an exposed region of the overlapping peaks. The volume fraction is obtained via Monte Carlo Hit-or-Miss technique, which proved to be the most efficient because of the small region and the limited number of points within the selected area. Due to the large number of software packages available for processing nuclear magnetic resonance data, MatCAKE is designed just for implementing the new CAKE algorithm. In MatCAKe, in fact, only already processed bidimensional spectra are imported and, at the moment, the only volume integration (by CAKE and by the most simple standard procedure) are allowed. MatCAKE is a free software at disposal for the scientific community and can be obtained on line at the web address cake.unisa.it.

  15. Algorithms for Efficient Computation of Transfer Functions for Large Order Flexible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    An efficient and robust computational scheme is given for the calculation of the frequency response function of a large order, flexible system implemented with a linear, time invariant control system. Advantage is taken of the highly structured sparsity of the system matrix of the plant based on a model of the structure using normal mode coordinates. The computational time per frequency point of the new computational scheme is a linear function of system size, a significant improvement over traditional, still-matrix techniques whose computational times per frequency point range from quadratic to cubic functions of system size. This permits the practical frequency domain analysis of systems of much larger order than by traditional, full-matrix techniques. Formulations are given for both open- and closed-loop systems. Numerical examples are presented showing the advantages of the present formulation over traditional approaches, both in speed and in accuracy. Using a model with 703 structural modes, the present method was up to two orders of magnitude faster than a traditional method. The present method generally showed good to excellent accuracy throughout the range of test frequencies, while traditional methods gave adequate accuracy for lower frequencies, but generally deteriorated in performance at higher frequencies with worst case errors being many orders of magnitude times the correct values.

  16. A Flexible and Efficient Algorithmic Framework for Constrained Matrix and Tensor Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kejun; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; Liavas, Athanasios P.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a general algorithmic framework for constrained matrix and tensor factorization, which is widely used in signal processing and machine learning. The new framework is a hybrid between alternating optimization (AO) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM): each matrix factor is updated in turn, using ADMM, hence the name AO-ADMM. This combination can naturally accommodate a great variety of constraints on the factor matrices, and almost all possible loss measures for the fitting. Computation caching and warm start strategies are used to ensure that each update is evaluated efficiently, while the outer AO framework exploits recent developments in block coordinate descent (BCD)-type methods which help ensure that every limit point is a stationary point, as well as faster and more robust convergence in practice. Three special cases are studied in detail: non-negative matrix/tensor factorization, constrained matrix/tensor completion, and dictionary learning. Extensive simulations and experiments with real data are used to showcase the effectiveness and broad applicability of the proposed framework.

  17. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  18. A fast algorithm for parabolic PDE-based inverse problems based on Laplace transforms and flexible Krylov solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhos, Tania; Saibaba, Arvind K.; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    2015-10-15

    We consider the problem of estimating parameters in large-scale weakly nonlinear inverse problems for which the underlying governing equations is a linear, time-dependent, parabolic partial differential equation. A major challenge in solving these inverse problems using Newton-type methods is the computational cost associated with solving the forward problem and with repeated construction of the Jacobian, which represents the sensitivity of the measurements to the unknown parameters. Forming the Jacobian can be prohibitively expensive because it requires repeated solutions of the forward and adjoint time-dependent parabolic partial differential equations corresponding to multiple sources and receivers. We propose an efficient method based on a Laplace transform-based exponential time integrator combined with a flexible Krylov subspace approach to solve the resulting shifted systems of equations efficiently. Our proposed solver speeds up the computation of the forward and adjoint problems, thus yielding significant speedup in total inversion time. We consider an application from Transient Hydraulic Tomography (THT), which is an imaging technique to estimate hydraulic parameters related to the subsurface from pressure measurements obtained by a series of pumping tests. The algorithms discussed are applied to a synthetic example taken from THT to demonstrate the resulting computational gains of this proposed method.

  19. Active vibration reduction of a flexible structure bonded with optimised piezoelectric pairs using half and quarter chromosomes in genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daraji, A. H.; Hale, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal placement of sensors and actuators in active vibration control is limited by the number of candidates in the search space. The search space of a small structure discretized to one hundred elements for optimising the location of ten actuators gives 1.73 × 1013 possible solutions, one of which is the global optimum. In this work, a new quarter and half chromosome technique based on symmetry is developed, by which the search space for optimisation of sensor/actuator locations in active vibration control of flexible structures may be greatly reduced. The technique is applied to the optimisation for eight and ten actuators located on a 500×500mm square plate, in which the search space is reduced by up to 99.99%. This technique helps for updating genetic algorithm program by updating natural frequencies and mode shapes in each generation to find the global optimal solution in a greatly reduced number of generations. An isotropic plate with piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs bonded to its surface was investigated using the finite element method and Hamilton's principle based on first order shear deformation theory. The placement and feedback gain of ten and eight sensor/actuator pairs was optimised for a cantilever and clamped-clamped plate to attenuate the first six modes of vibration, using minimization of linear quadratic index as an objective function.

  20. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  1. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  2. Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Performance and the Enhanced Control Algorithm on Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Flexible Research Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Piljae; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-06-01

    A research project “Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems Performance and the Enhanced Control Algorithm on Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Flexible Research Platform” was performed to (1) install and validate the performance of Samsung VRF systems compared with the baseline rooftop unit (RTU) variable-air-volume (VAV) system and (2) evaluate the enhanced control algorithm for the VRF system on the two-story flexible research platform (FRP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Based on the VRF system designed by Samsung and ORNL, the system was installed from February 18 through April 15, 2014. The final commissioning and system optimization were completed on June 2, 2014, and the initial test for system operation was started the following day, June 3, 2014. In addition, the enhanced control algorithm was implemented and updated on June 18. After a series of additional commissioning actions, the energy performance data from the RTU and the VRF system were monitored from July 7, 2014, through February 28, 2015. Data monitoring and analysis were performed for the cooling season and heating season separately, and the calibrated simulation model was developed and used to estimate the energy performance of the RTU and VRF systems. This final report includes discussion of the design and installation of the VRF system, the data monitoring and analysis plan, the cooling season and heating season data analysis, and the building energy modeling study

  3. A flexibility-based method via the iterated improved reduction system and the cuckoo optimization algorithm for damage quantification with limited sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare Hosseinzadeh, Ali; Bagheri, Abdollah; Ghodrati Amiri, Gholamreza; Koo, Ki-Young

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a novel and effective damage diagnosis algorithm is proposed to localize and quantify structural damage using incomplete modal data, considering the existence of some limitations in the number of attached sensors on structures. The damage detection problem is formulated as an optimization problem by computing static displacements in the reduced model of a structure subjected to a unique static load. The static responses are computed through the flexibility matrix of the damaged structure obtained based on the incomplete modal data of the structure. In the algorithm, an iterated improved reduction system method is applied to prepare an accurate reduced model of a structure. The optimization problem is solved via a new evolutionary optimization algorithm called the cuckoo optimization algorithm. The efficiency and robustness of the presented method are demonstrated through three numerical examples. Moreover, the efficiency of the method is verified by an experimental study of a five-story shear building structure on a shaking table considering only two sensors. The obtained damage identification results for the numerical and experimental studies show the suitable and stable performance of the proposed damage identification method for structures with limited sensors.

  4. Flexible Filter Bank Based on an Improved Weighted Overlap-Add Algorithm for Processing Wide Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianhai; Meng, Qiao; Han, J. L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    Wideband signals from a radio telescope have to be channelized for spectral observations or for dedispersion for pulsar observations. A polyphase filter bank is designed based on the improved weighted overlap-add (IWOLA) algorithm to achieve channelization. The IWOLA algorithm involves applying an equivalent Hilbert transform to the normal WOLA filter bank by shifting the center frequency of every sub-band by a half of the frequency bin, so that the IWOLA filter bank provides K independently output complex subbands instead of the usual K + 1 sub-bands, reducing the subsequent processing units by one set. Performance of the proposed IWOLA filter bank is analyzed by means of MATLAB simulations. We show how the IWOLA filter bank can be used for a two-stage, high-resolution spectrometer, with a much reduced consumption of FPGA on-chip block RAM.

  5. Ligand Docking to Intermediate and Close-To-Bound Conformers Generated by an Elastic Network Model Based Algorithm for Highly Flexible Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kurkcuoglu, Zeynep; Doruker, Pemra

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating receptor flexibility in small ligand-protein docking still poses a challenge for proteins undergoing large conformational changes. In the absence of bound structures, sampling conformers that are accessible by apo state may facilitate docking and drug design studies. For this aim, we developed an unbiased conformational search algorithm, by integrating global modes from elastic network model, clustering and energy minimization with implicit solvation. Our dataset consists of five diverse proteins with apo to complex RMSDs 4.7-15 Å. Applying this iterative algorithm on apo structures, conformers close to the bound-state (RMSD 1.4-3.8 Å), as well as the intermediate states were generated. Dockings to a sequence of conformers consisting of a closed structure and its "parents" up to the apo were performed to compare binding poses on different states of the receptor. For two periplasmic binding proteins and biotin carboxylase that exhibit hinge-type closure of two dynamics domains, the best pose was obtained for the conformer closest to the bound structure (ligand RMSDs 1.5-2 Å). In contrast, the best pose for adenylate kinase corresponded to an intermediate state with partially closed LID domain and open NMP domain, in line with recent studies (ligand RMSD 2.9 Å). The docking of a helical peptide to calmodulin was the most challenging case due to the complexity of its 15 Å transition, for which a two-stage procedure was necessary. The technique was first applied on the extended calmodulin to generate intermediate conformers; then peptide docking and a second generation stage on the complex were performed, which in turn yielded a final peptide RMSD of 2.9 Å. Our algorithm is effective in producing conformational states based on the apo state. This study underlines the importance of such intermediate states for ligand docking to proteins undergoing large transitions. PMID:27348230

  6. Ligand Docking to Intermediate and Close-To-Bound Conformers Generated by an Elastic Network Model Based Algorithm for Highly Flexible Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kurkcuoglu, Zeynep; Doruker, Pemra

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating receptor flexibility in small ligand-protein docking still poses a challenge for proteins undergoing large conformational changes. In the absence of bound structures, sampling conformers that are accessible by apo state may facilitate docking and drug design studies. For this aim, we developed an unbiased conformational search algorithm, by integrating global modes from elastic network model, clustering and energy minimization with implicit solvation. Our dataset consists of five diverse proteins with apo to complex RMSDs 4.7–15 Å. Applying this iterative algorithm on apo structures, conformers close to the bound-state (RMSD 1.4–3.8 Å), as well as the intermediate states were generated. Dockings to a sequence of conformers consisting of a closed structure and its “parents” up to the apo were performed to compare binding poses on different states of the receptor. For two periplasmic binding proteins and biotin carboxylase that exhibit hinge-type closure of two dynamics domains, the best pose was obtained for the conformer closest to the bound structure (ligand RMSDs 1.5–2 Å). In contrast, the best pose for adenylate kinase corresponded to an intermediate state with partially closed LID domain and open NMP domain, in line with recent studies (ligand RMSD 2.9 Å). The docking of a helical peptide to calmodulin was the most challenging case due to the complexity of its 15 Å transition, for which a two-stage procedure was necessary. The technique was first applied on the extended calmodulin to generate intermediate conformers; then peptide docking and a second generation stage on the complex were performed, which in turn yielded a final peptide RMSD of 2.9 Å. Our algorithm is effective in producing conformational states based on the apo state. This study underlines the importance of such intermediate states for ligand docking to proteins undergoing large transitions. PMID:27348230

  7. Production of substantially pure fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, H.J.; Gallian, J.J.; Leeper, S.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production of a substantially pure product containing greater than 60% fructose. It comprises: combining a sucrose-containing substrate with effective amounts of a levansucrase enzyme preparation to form levan and glucose; purifying the levan by at least one of the following purification methods: ultrafiltration, diafiltration, hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, liquid--liquid partition, solvent extraction, chromatography, and precipitation; hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose substantially free of glucose and sucrose; and recovering the fructose by at least one of the following recovery methods: hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation, drying, crystallization, and chromatography.

  8. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  9. Measuring Substantial Reductions in Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Charles; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.; So, Suzanna; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) each include a disability criterion requiring substantial reductions in activity in order to meet diagnostic criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in defining and operationalizing the substantial reduction disability criterion within these various illness definitions. The present study sought to relate measures of past and current activities in several domains including the SF-36, an objective measure of activity (e.g. actigraphy), a self-reported quality of life scale, and measures of symptom severity. Results of the study revealed that current work activities had the highest number of significant associations with domains such as the SF-36 subscales, actigraphy, and symptom scores. As an example, higher self-reported levels of current work activity were associated with better health. This suggests that current work related activities may provide a useful domain for helping operationalize the construct of substantial reductions in activity. PMID:25584524

  10. Synthesis of substantially monodispersed colloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Stoeva, Savka (Inventor); Sorensen, Christopher (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming ligated nanoparticles of the formula Y(Z).sub.x where Y is a nanoparticle selected from the group consisting of elemental metals having atomic numbers ranging from 21-34, 39-52, 57-83 and 89-102, all inclusive, the halides, oxides and sulfides of such metals, and the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal halides, and Z represents ligand moieties such as the alkyl thiols. In the method, a first colloidal dispersion is formed made up of nanoparticles solvated in a molar excess of a first solvent (preferably a ketone such as acetone), a second solvent different than the first solvent (preferably an organic aryl solvent such as toluene) and a quantity of ligand moieties; the first solvent is then removed under vacuum and the ligand moieties ligate to the nanoparticles to give a second colloidal dispersion of the ligated nanoparticles solvated in the second solvent. If substantially monodispersed nanoparticles are desired, the second dispersion is subjected to a digestive ripening process. Upon drying, the ligated nanoparticles may form a three-dimensional superlattice structure.

  11. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  12. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  13. Flexible multiply towpreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzzy, John D. (Inventor); Varughese, Babu (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved flexible towpreg and a method of production therefor. The improved flexible towpreg comprises a plurality of towpreg plies which comprise reinforcing filaments and matrix forming material; the reinforcing filaments being substantially wetout by the matrix forming material such that the towpreg plies are substantially void-free composite articles, and the towpreg plies having an average thickness less than about 100 microns. The method of production for the improved flexible towpreg comprises the steps of spreading the reinforcing filaments to expose individually substantially all of the reinforcing filaments; coating the reinforcing filaments with the matrix forming material in a manner causing interfacial adhesion of the matrix forming material to the reinforcing filaments; forming the towpreg plies by heating the matrix forming material contacting the reinforcing filaments until the matrix forming material liquifies and coats the reinforcing filaments; and cooling the towpreg plies in a manner such that substantial cohesion between neighboring towpreg plies is prevented until the matrix forming material solidifies.

  14. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  15. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  16. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  17. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  18. Energy minimization on manifolds for docking flexible molecules

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Hanieh; Zarbafian, Shahrooz; Villar, Elizabeth; Mottarella, Scott; Beglov, Dmitri; Vajda, Sandor; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we extend a recently introduced rigid body minimization algorithm, defined on manifolds, to the problem of minimizing the energy of interacting flexible molecules. The goal is to integrate moving the ligand in six dimensional rotational/translational space with internal rotations around rotatable bonds within the two molecules. We show that adding rotational degrees of freedom to the rigid moves of the ligand results in an overall optimization search space that is a manifold to which our manifold optimization approach can be extended. The effectiveness of the method is shown for three different docking problems of increasing complexity. First we minimize the energy of fragment-size ligands with a single rotatable bond as part of a protein mapping method developed for the identification of binding hot spots. Second, we consider energy minimization for docking a flexible ligand to a rigid protein receptor, an approach frequently used in existing methods. In the third problem we account for flexibility in both the ligand and the receptor. Results show that minimization using the manifold optimization algorithm is substantially more efficient than minimization using a traditional all-atom optimization algorithm while producing solutions of comparable quality. In addition to the specific problems considered, the method is general enough to be used in a large class of applications such as docking multidomain proteins with flexible hinges. The code is available under open source license (at http://cluspro.bu.edu/Code/Code_Rigtree.tar), and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package. PMID:26478722

  19. Ginga: Flexible FITS viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Ginga is a viewer for astronomical data FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) files; the viewer centers around a FITS display widget which supports zooming and panning, color and intensity mapping, a choice of several automatic cut levels algorithms and canvases for plotting scalable geometric forms. In addition to this widget, the FITS viewer provides a flexible plugin framework for extending the viewer with many different features. A fairly complete set of "standard" plugins are provided for expected features of a modern viewer: panning and zooming windows, star catalog access, cuts, star pick/fwhm, thumbnails, and others. This viewer was written by software engineers at Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and is in use at that facility.

  20. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  1. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  2. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34887) regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities...- 107889-12), which was the subject of FR. Doc. 2012-14238, is corrected as follows: On page 34887, column.... Lyons, (202) 622-3860; and David A. Levine, (202) 622-3860, and regarding the submission of...

  3. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following questions must be answered: (i) What harmful effects to the company's or institution's competitive...? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between the disclosure and the harmful effects? (ii) Has the identity of the microorganism been...

  4. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following questions must be answered: (i) What harmful effects to the company's or institution's competitive...? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between the disclosure and the harmful effects? (ii) Has the identity of the microorganism been...

  5. Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.

    2015-04-01

    State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.

  6. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  7. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere.

  8. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  9. Highly porous ceramic oxide aerogels having improved flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor); Guo, Haiquan (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic oxide aerogels having improved flexibility are disclosed. Preferred embodiments exhibit high modulus and other strength properties despite their improved flexibility. The gels may be polymer cross-linked via organic polymer chains to further improve strength properties, without substantially detracting from the improved flexibility. Methods of making such aerogels are also disclosed.

  10. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  11. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-03-28

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

  12. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  13. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  14. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1−x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  15. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  16. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  17. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  18. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  19. Efficient Nonnegative Tucker Decompositions: Algorithms and Uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoxu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Zhao, Qibin; Xie, Shengli

    2015-12-01

    Nonnegative Tucker decomposition (NTD) is a powerful tool for the extraction of nonnegative parts-based and physically meaningful latent components from high-dimensional tensor data while preserving the natural multilinear structure of data. However, as the data tensor often has multiple modes and is large scale, the existing NTD algorithms suffer from a very high computational complexity in terms of both storage and computation time, which has been one major obstacle for practical applications of NTD. To overcome these disadvantages, we show how low (multilinear) rank approximation (LRA) of tensors is able to significantly simplify the computation of the gradients of the cost function, upon which a family of efficient first-order NTD algorithms are developed. Besides dramatically reducing the storage complexity and running time, the new algorithms are quite flexible and robust to noise, because any well-established LRA approaches can be applied. We also show how nonnegativity incorporating sparsity substantially improves the uniqueness property and partially alleviates the curse of dimensionality of the Tucker decompositions. Simulation results on synthetic and real-world data justify the validity and high efficiency of the proposed NTD algorithms.

  20. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  4. Spatial operator algebra for flexible multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.; Rodriguez, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modeling the dynamics of flexible multibody systems such as flexible spacecraft and limber space robotic systems. A large number of degrees of freedom and complex dynamic interactions are typical in these systems. This paper uses spatial operators to develop efficient recursive algorithms for the dynamics of these systems. This approach very efficiently manages complexity by means of a hierarchy of mathematical operations.

  5. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities within the inertia matrix. Then a feedback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  6. Numerical stability analysis of the pseudo-spectral analytical time-domain PIC algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Brendan B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2014-02-01

    The pseudo-spectral analytical time-domain (PSATD) particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm solves the vacuum Maxwell's equations exactly, has no Courant time-step limit (as conventionally defined), and offers substantial flexibility in plasma and particle beam simulations. It is, however, not free of the usual numerical instabilities, including the numerical Cherenkov instability, when applied to relativistic beam simulations. This paper derives and solves the numerical dispersion relation for the PSATD algorithm and compares the results with corresponding behavior of the more conventional pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) and finite difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms. In general, PSATD offers superior stability properties over a reasonable range of time steps. More importantly, one version of the PSATD algorithm, when combined with digital filtering, is almost completely free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for time steps (scaled to the speed of light) comparable to or smaller than the axial cell size.

  7. Adaptive path planning for flexible manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for automating flexible manufacturing in incrementally-changing environments. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  8. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  9. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  10. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  11. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  12. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  13. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  14. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  15. Image enhancement algorithm based on improved lateral inhibition network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Haijiao; Wu, Zhiyong; Wang, Guanjun; Tong, Gang; Yang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    There is often substantial noise and blurred details in the images captured by cameras. To solve this problem, we propose a novel image enhancement algorithm combined with an improved lateral inhibition network. Firstly, we built a mathematical model of a lateral inhibition network in conjunction with biological visual perception; this model helped to realize enhanced contrast and improved edge definition in images. Secondly, we proposed that the adaptive lateral inhibition coefficient adhere to an exponential distribution thus making the model more flexible and more universal. Finally, we added median filtering and a compensation measure factor to build the framework with high pass filtering functionality thus eliminating image noise and improving edge contrast, addressing problems with blurred image edges. Our experimental results show that our algorithm is able to eliminate noise and the blurring phenomena, and enhance the details of visible and infrared images.

  16. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  17. SPS flexible system control assessment analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Active control of the Satellite Power System (SPS0, a large mechanically flexible aerospace structure is addressed. The control algorithm is the principle component in the feedback link from sensors to actuators. An analysis of the interaction of the SPS structure and its active control system is presented.

  18. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  19. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  20. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  1. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  2. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  3. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  4. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  5. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  6. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail. PMID:26264684

  7. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  9. Principles of Flexible Protein-Protein Docking

    PubMed Central

    Andrusier, Nelly; Mashiach, Efrat; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2008-01-01

    Treating flexibility in molecular docking is a major challenge in cell biology research. Here we describe the background and the principles of existing flexible protein-protein docking methods, focusing on the algorithms and their rational. We describe how protein flexibility is treated in different stages of the docking process: in the preprocessing stage, rigid and flexible parts are identified and their possible conformations are modeled. This preprocessing provides information for the subsequent docking and refinement stages. In the docking stage, an ensemble of pre-generated conformations or the identified rigid domains may be docked separately. In the refinement stage, small-scale movements of the backbone and side-chains are modeled and the binding orientation is improved by rigid-body adjustments. For clarity of presentation, we divide the different methods into categories. This should allow the reader to focus on the most suitable method for a particular docking problem. PMID:18655061

  10. PHURBAS: AN ADAPTIVE, LAGRANGIAN, MESHLESS, MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS CODE. I. ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Maron, Jason L.; McNally, Colin P.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: cmcnally@amnh.org

    2012-05-01

    We present an algorithm for simulating the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics and other systems of differential equations on an unstructured set of points represented by sample particles. Local, third-order, least-squares, polynomial interpolations (Moving Least Squares interpolations) are calculated from the field values of neighboring particles to obtain field values and spatial derivatives at the particle position. Field values and particle positions are advanced in time with a second-order predictor-corrector scheme. The particles move with the fluid, so the time step is not limited by the Eulerian Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. Full spatial adaptivity is implemented to ensure the particles fill the computational volume, which gives the algorithm substantial flexibility and power. A target resolution is specified for each point in space, with particles being added and deleted as needed to meet this target. Particle addition and deletion is based on a local void and clump detection algorithm. Dynamic artificial viscosity fields provide stability to the integration. The resulting algorithm provides a robust solution for modeling flows that require Lagrangian or adaptive discretizations to resolve. This paper derives and documents the Phurbas algorithm as implemented in Phurbas version 1.1. A following paper presents the implementation and test problem results.

  11. FPGA implementation of sparse matrix algorithm for information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanic, Slobodan; Jevtic, Ruzica; Nieto-Taladriz, Octavio

    2005-06-01

    Information text data retrieval requires a tremendous amount of processing time because of the size of the data and the complexity of information retrieval algorithms. In this paper the solution to this problem is proposed via hardware supported information retrieval algorithms. Reconfigurable computing may adopt frequent hardware modifications through its tailorable hardware and exploits parallelism for a given application through reconfigurable and flexible hardware units. The degree of the parallelism can be tuned for data. In this work we implemented standard BLAS (basic linear algebra subprogram) sparse matrix algorithm named Compressed Sparse Row (CSR) that is showed to be more efficient in terms of storage space requirement and query-processing timing over the other sparse matrix algorithms for information retrieval application. Although inverted index algorithm is treated as the de facto standard for information retrieval for years, an alternative approach to store the index of text collection in a sparse matrix structure gains more attention. This approach performs query processing using sparse matrix-vector multiplication and due to parallelization achieves a substantial efficiency over the sequential inverted index. The parallel implementations of information retrieval kernel are presented in this work targeting the Virtex II Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) board from Xilinx. A recent development in scientific applications is the use of FPGA to achieve high performance results. Computational results are compared to implementations on other platforms. The design achieves a high level of parallelism for the overall function while retaining highly optimised hardware within processing unit.

  12. Protein flexibility predictions using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, D J; Rader, A J; Kuhn, L A; Thorpe, M F

    2001-08-01

    Techniques from graph theory are applied to analyze the bond networks in proteins and identify the flexible and rigid regions. The bond network consists of distance constraints defined by the covalent and hydrogen bonds and salt bridges in the protein, identified by geometric and energetic criteria. We use an algorithm that counts the degrees of freedom within this constraint network and that identifies all the rigid and flexible substructures in the protein, including overconstrained regions (with more crosslinking bonds than are needed to rigidify the region) and underconstrained or flexible regions, in which dihedral bond rotations can occur. The number of extra constraints or remaining degrees of bond-rotational freedom within a substructure quantifies its relative rigidity/flexibility and provides a flexibility index for each bond in the structure. This novel computational procedure, first used in the analysis of glassy materials, is approximately a million times faster than molecular dynamics simulations and captures the essential conformational flexibility of the protein main and side-chains from analysis of a single, static three-dimensional structure. This approach is demonstrated by comparison with experimental measures of flexibility for three proteins in which hinge and loop motion are essential for biological function: HIV protease, adenylate kinase, and dihydrofolate reductase.

  13. Prevention of disease transmission during flexible laryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Lawrence F

    2007-10-01

    The medical literature was reviewed to evaluate the risk of disease transmission and nosocomial infection associated with flexible laryngoscopes. These instruments have been reported to be contaminated with blood, body fluids, organic debris, and potentially pathogenic microorganisms during routine clinical use. Failure to reprocess properly a flexible laryngoscope may, therefore, result in patient-to-patient disease transmission. Different types of biocidal agents, including 70% isopropyl alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds, and 2% glutaraldehyde have been reported to be used to disinfect flexible laryngoscopes. A logic, or algorithm, was developed to evaluate the adequacy of these and other types of biocidal agents used during instrument reprocessing. This review determined that flexible laryngoscopes are semicritical instruments that require high-level disinfection (or sterilization) to prevent nosocomial infection. Whereas 70% isopropyl alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds, and other products that achieve intermediate-level or low-level disinfection are contraindicated for reprocessing flexible laryngoscopes, 2% glutaraldehyde and other products that achieve high-level disinfection (or sterilization) are recommended for reprocessing these instruments to prevent nosocomial infection. A formal set of step-by-step guidelines for reprocessing flexible laryngoscopes is provided. Use of a disposable sheath to cover and protect the flexible laryngoscope from contamination during clinical use is discussed.

  14. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... statutes, regulations, administrative procedures and practices, organizational structures, internal control... 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A State must come into substantial...

  15. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  16. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  17. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675 Section 404.1675 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding...

  19. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-4 Substantiality test. (a) In general. In...

  20. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  1. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  2. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  3. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  4. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  5. A decoupled recursive approach for constrained flexible multibody system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Hao-Jan; Kim, Sung-Soo; Haug, Edward J.; Bae, Dae-Sung

    1989-01-01

    A variational-vector calculus approach is employed to derive a recursive formulation for dynamic analysis of flexible multibody systems. Kinematic relationships for adjacent flexible bodies are derived in a companion paper, using a state vector notation that represents translational and rotational components simultaneously. Cartesian generalized coordinates are assigned for all body and joint reference frames, to explicitly formulate deformation kinematics under small deformation kinematics and an efficient flexible dynamics recursive algorithm is developed. Dynamic analysis of a closed loop robot is performed to illustrate efficiency of the algorithm.

  6. Recursive dynamics for flexible multibody systems using spatial operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.; Rodriguez, G.

    1990-01-01

    Due to their structural flexibility, spacecraft and space manipulators are multibody systems with complex dynamics and possess a large number of degrees of freedom. Here the spatial operator algebra methodology is used to develop a new dynamics formulation and spatially recursive algorithms for such flexible multibody systems. A key feature of the formulation is that the operator description of the flexible system dynamics is identical in form to the corresponding operator description of the dynamics of rigid multibody systems. A significant advantage of this unifying approach is that it allows ideas and techniques for rigid multibody systems to be easily applied to flexible multibody systems. The algorithms use standard finite-element and assumed modes models for the individual body deformation. A Newton-Euler Operator Factorization of the mass matrix of the multibody system is first developed. It forms the basis for recursive algorithms such as for the inverse dynamics, the computation of the mass matrix, and the composite body forward dynamics for the system. Subsequently, an alternative Innovations Operator Factorization of the mass matrix, each of whose factors is invertible, is developed. It leads to an operator expression for the inverse of the mass matrix, and forms the basis for the recursive articulated body forward dynamics algorithm for the flexible multibody system. For simplicity, most of the development here focuses on serial chain multibody systems. However, extensions of the algorithms to general topology flexible multibody systems are described. While the computational cost of the algorithms depends on factors such as the topology and the amount of flexibility in the multibody system, in general, it appears that in contrast to the rigid multibody case, the articulated body forward dynamics algorithm is the more efficient algorithm for flexible multibody systems containing even a small number of flexible bodies. The variety of algorithms described

  7. Mechanistic design concepts for conventional flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, R. P.; Thompson, M. R.

    1985-02-01

    Mechanical design concepts for convetional flexible pavement (asphalt concrete (AC) surface plus granular base/subbase) for highways are proposed and validated. The procedure is based on ILLI-PAVE, a stress dependent finite element computer program, coupled with appropriate transfer functions. Two design criteria are considered: AC flexural fatigue cracking and subgrade rutting. Algorithms were developed relating pavement response parameters (stresses, strains, deflections) to AC thickness, AC moduli, granular layer thickness, and subgrade moduli. Extensive analyses of the AASHO Road Test flexible pavement data are presented supporting the validity of the proposed concepts.

  8. Recursive flexible multibody system dynamics using spatial operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.; Rodriguez, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper uses spatial operators to develop new spatially recursive dynamics algorithms for flexible multibody systems. The operator description of the dynamics is identical to that for rigid multibody systems. Assumed-mode models are used for the deformation of each individual body. The algorithms are based on two spatial operator factorizations of the system mass matrix. The first (Newton-Euler) factorization of the mass matrix leads to recursive algorithms for the inverse dynamics, mass matrix evaluation, and composite-body forward dynamics for the systems. The second (innovations) factorization of the mass matrix, leads to an operator expression for the mass matrix inverse and to a recursive articulated-body forward dynamics algorithm. The primary focus is on serial chains, but extensions to general topologies are also described. A comparison of computational costs shows that the articulated-body, forward dynamics algorithm is much more efficient than the composite-body algorithm for most flexible multibody systems.

  9. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. TOWARDS AN ECONOMICAL FLEXIBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUDILL, WILLIAM W.; RICHARDSON, L.S.

    AN ARCHITECT AND A SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS COLLABORATED ON THE DESIGN FOR A HIGH SCHOOL, WHICH STRESSED ECONOMY AND FLEXIBILITY. THEY CONSIDERED THREE ASPECTS OF FLEXIBILITY--(1) EXPANDABILITY, (2) CONVERTIBILITY, AND (3) VERSATILITY. EXPANDABILITY IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF SITE SELECTION AND PLANNING. CONVERTIBILITY FEATURES IDENTIFIED INCLUDE…

  11. Flexibility within Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  12. Flexibility, Is That All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Wim M.

    This paper discusses the design of flexible and intelligent library buildings. The first section addresses how flexibility, as one of the requirements of a library building, that has high priority in the planning process. Intelligent libraries are considered in the second section, and functionality is stressed. The third section examines…

  13. Flexible Learning Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    One way for colleges to meet the demand for a wider range of learning opportunities for adults in Great Britain is to provide more flexibility within the further education system. The concept of flexible learning involves the modification of delivery systems, specific providing agencies, target populations, specific determinants such as geographic…

  14. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  15. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  16. Genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  17. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  18. Control of nonlinear flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianjun

    With the advances made in computer technology and efficiency of numerical algorithms over last decade, the MPC strategies have become quite popular among control community. However, application of MPC or GPC to flexible space structure control has not been explored adequately in the literature. The work presented in this thesis primarily focuses on application of GPC to control of nonlinear flexible space structures. This thesis is particularly devoted to the development of various approximate dynamic models, design and assessment of candidate controllers, and extensive numerical simulations for a realistic multibody flexible spacecraft, namely, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)---a Prometheus class of spacecraft proposed by NASA for deep space exploratory missions. A stable GPC algorithm is developed for Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. An end-point weighting (penalty) is used in the GPC cost function to guarantee the nominal stability of the closed-loop system. A method is given to compute the desired end-point state from the desired output trajectory. The methodologies based on Fake Algebraic Riccati Equation (FARE) and constrained nonlinear optimization, are developed for synthesis of state weighting matrix. This makes this formulation more practical. A stable reconfigurable GPC architecture is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated on both aircraft as well as spacecraft model. A representative in-orbit maneuver is used for assessing the performance of various control strategies using various design models. Different approximate dynamic models used for analysis include linear single body flexible structure, nonlinear single body flexible structure, and nonlinear multibody flexible structure. The control laws evaluated include traditional GPC, feedback linearization-based GPC (FLGPC), reconfigurable GPC, and nonlinear dissipative control. These various control schemes are evaluated for robust stability and robust performance in the presence of

  19. Painful Flexible Flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Sheikh Taha, Abdel Majid; Feldman, David S

    2015-12-01

    Flatfoot is commonly encountered by pediatric orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians. A paucity of literature exists on how to define a flatfoot. The absence of the medial arch with a valgus hindfoot is the hallmark of this pathology. Flatfoot can be flexible or rigid. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of the flexible flatfoot. Most flatfeet are flexible and clinically asymptomatic, and warrant little intervention. If feet are symptomatic, treatment is needed. Most patients who require treatment improve with foot orthotics and exercises. Only feet resistant to conservative modalities are deemed surgical candidates. The presence of a tight heel cord is often found in patients who fail conservative management.

  20. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  1. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOEpatents

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  2. Technical Institute Stresses Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At the Waukesha County Technical Institute in Wisconsin students benefit from individualized instruction and open entry/open exit system. The key to this flexibility is a series of audio-visual modules to support lecture presentations and demonstrations. (HD)

  3. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  4. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  5. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  6. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  7. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  8. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  9. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  15. 40 CFR 350.7 - Substantiating claims of trade secrecy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating claims of trade secrecy. 350.7 Section 350.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... by providing a specific answer including, where applicable, specific facts, to each of the...

  16. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  17. 76 FR 38961 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products'' (76 FR 789, January 6, 2011); those comments will... Register of January 6, 2011 (76 FR 737), FDA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish a... Products'' (76 FR 789, January 6, 2011)) will ``impose an incredible and unnecessary administrative...

  18. Substantiated Best Practices in Transition: Fifteen Plus Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landmark, Leena Jo; Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun

    2010-01-01

    Since the transition movement in the 1980s, numerous transition practices have been developed. Kohler (1993) provided a comprehensive review and analysis of transition best practices and divided them into substantiated and implied practices based on the existence of empirical evidence. Since that review was published, the field of transition has…

  19. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  20. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  1. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  2. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  3. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  9. A Flexible, Computationally Efficient Method for Fitting the Proportional Hazards Model to Interval-Censored Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianming; Hudgens, Michael G.; Qureshi, Zaina P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The proportional hazards model (PH) is currently the most popular regression model for analyzing time-to-event data. Despite its popularity, the analysis of interval-censored data under the PH model can be challenging using many available techniques. This paper presents a new method for analyzing interval-censored data under the PH model. The proposed approach uses a monotone spline representation to approximate the unknown nondecreasing cumulative baseline hazard function. Formulating the PH model in this fashion results in a finite number of parameters to estimate while maintaining substantial modeling flexibility. A novel expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is developed for finding the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters. The derivation of the EM algorithm relies on a two-stage data augmentation involving latent Poisson random variables. The resulting algorithm is easy to implement, robust to initialization, enjoys quick convergence, and provides closed-form variance estimates. The performance of the proposed regression methodology is evaluated through a simulation study, and is further illustrated using data from a large population-based randomized trial designed and sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute. PMID:26393917

  10. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite... facility or device and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the... and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the values...

  11. Flexible Residential Smart Grid Simulation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wang

    Different scheduling and coordination algorithms controlling household appliances' operations can potentially lead to energy consumption reduction and/or load balancing in conjunction with different electricity pricing methods used in smart grid programs. In order to easily implement different algorithms and evaluate their efficiency against other ideas, a flexible simulation framework is desirable in both research and business fields. However, such a platform is currently lacking or underdeveloped. In this thesis, we provide a simulation framework to focus on demand side residential energy consumption coordination in response to different pricing methods. This simulation framework, equipped with an appliance consumption library using realistic values, aims to closely represent the average usage of different types of appliances. The simulation results of traditional usage yield close matching values compared to surveyed real life consumption records. Several sample coordination algorithms, pricing schemes, and communication scenarios are also implemented to illustrate the use of the simulation framework.

  12. MRCK_3D contact detonation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rougier, Esteban; Munjiza, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Combined Finite-Discrete Element Methods (FEM-DEM) and Discrete Element Methods (DEM) simulations involving contact of a large number of separate bod ies need an efficient, robust and flexible contact detection algorithm. In this work the MRCK-3D search algorithm is outlined and its main CPU perfonnances are evaluated. One of the most important aspects of this newly developed search algorithm is that it is applicable to systems consisting of many bodies of different shapes and sizes.

  13. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics. PMID:27465775

  14. Optimization of the double dosimetry algorithm for interventional cardiologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, Vadim; Morgun, Artem; Bakhanova, Elena; Voloskiy, Vitalii; Borodynchik, Elena

    2014-11-01

    A double dosimetry method is recommended in interventional cardiology (IC) to assess occupational exposure; yet currently there is no common and universal algorithm for effective dose estimation. In this work, flexible and adaptive algorithm building methodology was developed and some specific algorithm applicable for typical irradiation conditions of IC procedures was obtained. It was shown that the obtained algorithm agrees well with experimental measurements and is less conservative compared to other known algorithms.

  15. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. PMID:25312387

  16. Flexible sucker rod unit

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.F.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes a deep well having: a. an education tube with an inside diameter extending from the surface of the earth to far below the surface, b. a reciprocating pump housing attached to the bottom of the education tube, c. pump jack means at the surface for reciprocating the pump, d. a light sucker rod connected to the pump jack means and extending into the education tube, and e. a series of heavy sinker bars having a large cross sectional area in the education tube connecting the light sucker rod to the pump; f. an improved integral metal flexible rod unit interconnecting the sinker bars comprising in combination with the above: g. a coupling on each end of the integral metal flexible rod unit connecting the flexible rod unit to the contiguous sinker bar, h. a segment which is flexible as compared to the sinker bars connecting one of the couplings to i. an integral metal bearing adjacent to the other of the couplings, the bearing having j. a cylindrical surface with k. a diameter i. only slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the education tube thereby forming a sliding fit therewith, and ii. greater than the diameter of any other portion of the flexible rod unit and the sinker bar, and l. grooves in the cylindrical surface for the passage of fluid between in the education tube around the bearing.

  17. Protein folding in hydrophobic-polar lattice model: a flexible ant-colony optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Li, Yun

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a flexible ant colony (FAC) algorithm for solving protein folding problems based on the hydrophobic-polar square lattice model. Collaborations of novel pheromone and heuristic strategies in the proposed algorithm make it more effective in predicting structures of proteins compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:18537736

  18. Printed Microinductors for Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Whitacre, Jay; Wesseling, Emily

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabricating planar, flexible microinductors that exhibit a relatively high quality factor (Q) between 1 and 10 MHz has been devised. These inductors are targeted for use in flexible, low-profile power-converter circuits. They could also be incorporated into electronic circuits integrated into flexible structures, including flexible antenna and solar-sail structures that are deployable.

  19. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  20. Spatial operator approach to flexible multibody system dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse and forward dynamics problems for flexible multibody systems were solved using the techniques of spatially recursive Kalman filtering and smoothing. These algorithms are easily developed using a set of identities associated with mass matrix factorization and inversion. These identities are easily derived using the spatial operator algebra developed by the author. Current work is aimed at computational experiments with the described algorithms and at modelling for control design of limber manipulator systems. It is also aimed at handling and manipulation of flexible objects.

  1. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  2. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  3. Flexible radiator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The soft tube radiator subsystem is described including applicable system requirements, the design and limitations of the subsystem components, and the panel manufacturing method. The soft tube radiator subsystem is applicable to payloads requiring 1 to 12 kW of heat rejection for orbital lifetimes per mission of 30 days or less. The flexible radiator stowage volume required is about 60% and the system weight is about 40% of an equivalent heat rejection rigid panel. The cost should also be considerably less. The flexible radiator is particularly suited to shuttle orbiter sortie payloads and also whose mission lengths do not exceed the 30 day design life.

  4. Fast and anisotropic flexibility-rigidity index for protein flexibility and fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opron, Kristopher; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Protein structural fluctuation, typically measured by Debye-Waller factors, or B-factors, is a manifestation of protein flexibility, which strongly correlates to protein function. The flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) is a newly proposed method for the construction of atomic rigidity functions required in the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity, which is a new multiscale formalism for describing excessively large biomolecular systems. The FRI method analyzes protein rigidity and flexibility and is capable of predicting protein B-factors without resorting to matrix diagonalization. A fundamental assumption used in the FRI is that protein structures are uniquely determined by various internal and external interactions, while the protein functions, such as stability and flexibility, are solely determined by the structure. As such, one can predict protein flexibility without resorting to the protein interaction Hamiltonian. Consequently, bypassing the matrix diagonalization, the original FRI has a computational complexity of O(N^2). This work introduces a fast FRI (fFRI) algorithm for the flexibility analysis of large macromolecules. The proposed fFRI further reduces the computational complexity to O(N). Additionally, we propose anisotropic FRI (aFRI) algorithms for the analysis of protein collective dynamics. The aFRI algorithms permit adaptive Hessian matrices, from a completely global 3N × 3N matrix to completely local 3 × 3 matrices. These 3 × 3 matrices, despite being calculated locally, also contain non-local correlation information. Eigenvectors obtained from the proposed aFRI algorithms are able to demonstrate collective motions. Moreover, we investigate the performance of FRI by employing four families of radial basis correlation functions. Both parameter optimized and parameter-free FRI methods are explored. Furthermore, we compare the accuracy and efficiency of FRI with some established approaches to flexibility analysis, namely, normal

  5. Fast and anisotropic flexibility-rigidity index for protein flexibility and fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Opron, Kristopher; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-06-21

    Protein structural fluctuation, typically measured by Debye-Waller factors, or B-factors, is a manifestation of protein flexibility, which strongly correlates to protein function. The flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) is a newly proposed method for the construction of atomic rigidity functions required in the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity, which is a new multiscale formalism for describing excessively large biomolecular systems. The FRI method analyzes protein rigidity and flexibility and is capable of predicting protein B-factors without resorting to matrix diagonalization. A fundamental assumption used in the FRI is that protein structures are uniquely determined by various internal and external interactions, while the protein functions, such as stability and flexibility, are solely determined by the structure. As such, one can predict protein flexibility without resorting to the protein interaction Hamiltonian. Consequently, bypassing the matrix diagonalization, the original FRI has a computational complexity of O(N(2)). This work introduces a fast FRI (fFRI) algorithm for the flexibility analysis of large macromolecules. The proposed fFRI further reduces the computational complexity to O(N). Additionally, we propose anisotropic FRI (aFRI) algorithms for the analysis of protein collective dynamics. The aFRI algorithms permit adaptive Hessian matrices, from a completely global 3N × 3N matrix to completely local 3 × 3 matrices. These 3 × 3 matrices, despite being calculated locally, also contain non-local correlation information. Eigenvectors obtained from the proposed aFRI algorithms are able to demonstrate collective motions. Moreover, we investigate the performance of FRI by employing four families of radial basis correlation functions. Both parameter optimized and parameter-free FRI methods are explored. Furthermore, we compare the accuracy and efficiency of FRI with some established approaches to flexibility analysis, namely, normal

  6. Fast and anisotropic flexibility-rigidity index for protein flexibility and fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Opron, Kristopher; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-06-21

    Protein structural fluctuation, typically measured by Debye-Waller factors, or B-factors, is a manifestation of protein flexibility, which strongly correlates to protein function. The flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) is a newly proposed method for the construction of atomic rigidity functions required in the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity, which is a new multiscale formalism for describing excessively large biomolecular systems. The FRI method analyzes protein rigidity and flexibility and is capable of predicting protein B-factors without resorting to matrix diagonalization. A fundamental assumption used in the FRI is that protein structures are uniquely determined by various internal and external interactions, while the protein functions, such as stability and flexibility, are solely determined by the structure. As such, one can predict protein flexibility without resorting to the protein interaction Hamiltonian. Consequently, bypassing the matrix diagonalization, the original FRI has a computational complexity of O(N{sup 2}). This work introduces a fast FRI (fFRI) algorithm for the flexibility analysis of large macromolecules. The proposed fFRI further reduces the computational complexity to O(N). Additionally, we propose anisotropic FRI (aFRI) algorithms for the analysis of protein collective dynamics. The aFRI algorithms permit adaptive Hessian matrices, from a completely global 3N × 3N matrix to completely local 3 × 3 matrices. These 3 × 3 matrices, despite being calculated locally, also contain non-local correlation information. Eigenvectors obtained from the proposed aFRI algorithms are able to demonstrate collective motions. Moreover, we investigate the performance of FRI by employing four families of radial basis correlation functions. Both parameter optimized and parameter-free FRI methods are explored. Furthermore, we compare the accuracy and efficiency of FRI with some established approaches to flexibility analysis, namely

  7. Frequency response modeling and control of flexible structures: Computational methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of vibrations in flexible structures can be conventiently modeled in terms of frequency response models. For structural control such models capture the distributed parameter dynamics of the elastic structural response as an irrational transfer function. For most flexible structures arising in aerospace applications the irrational transfer functions which arise are of a special class of pseudo-meromorphic functions which have only a finite number of right half place poles. Computational algorithms are demonstrated for design of multiloop control laws for such models based on optimal Wiener-Hopf control of the frequency responses. The algorithms employ a sampled-data representation of irrational transfer functions which is particularly attractive for numerical computation. One key algorithm for the solution of the optimal control problem is the spectral factorization of an irrational transfer function. The basis for the spectral factorization algorithm is highlighted together with associated computational issues arising in optimal regulator design. Options for implementation of wide band vibration control for flexible structures based on the sampled-data frequency response models is also highlighted. A simple flexible structure control example is considered to demonstrate the combined frequency response modeling and control algorithms.

  8. Launch flexibility using NLP guidance and remote wind sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the use of lidar wind measurements in the implementation of a guidance strategy for a nonlinear programming (NLP) launch guidance algorithm. The NLP algorithm uses B-spline command function representation for flexibility in the design of the guidance steering commands. Using this algorithm, the guidance system solves a two-point boundary value problem at each guidance update. The specification of different boundary value problems at each guidance update provides flexibility that can be used in the design of the guidance strategy. The algorithm can use lidar wind measurements for on pad guidance retargeting and for load limiting guidance steering commands. Examples presented in the paper use simulated wind updates to correct wind induced final orbit errors and to adjust the guidance steering commands to limit the product of the dynamic pressure and angle-of-attack for launch vehicle load alleviation.

  9. [Substantiation of active surgical tactics for patients with puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Nikonov, A P; Ankirskaia, A S

    1991-01-01

    An active surgical tactics for managing patients (uterine wash and its cavity content vacuum aspiration) was applied in 34 patients with postnatal endometritis. Echography and hysteroscopy demonstrated that in 28 of 34 patients, the endometritis developed in the presence of pathological involvements into the uterine cavity, which made the use of surgical endometrial treatment justifiable. In addition, the surgical treatment substantially decreased the bacterial dissemination of the content in the uterine cavity. The proposed procedure enabled uterine extirpation to be avoided in 5 of 6 patients with partial suture inadequacy. PMID:2042714

  10. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  11. ESEA Flexibility. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In order to move forward with State and local reforms designed to improve academic achievement and increase the quality of instruction for all students in a manner that was not originally contemplated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), a State educational agency (SEA) may request flexibility, on its own behalf and on behalf of its…

  12. Diversity and Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Suggests that such a diversity of approaches leads to a more comprehensive and flexible model of counseling, adaptable to differences in clients, context, and counselor personalities. (TE)

  13. Designing Flexible Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clark R.; Kaff, Marilyn S.; Anderson, Mary Jo; Knackendoffel, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Principals and teachers need a framework that will allow school personnel to reach and teach all students within the general education setting. One such framework is universal design for learning (UDL). UDL is achieved by means of flexible curricular materials and activities that provide alternatives for students with disparities in abilities and…

  14. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  15. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  16. Creating Connections: College Innovations in Flexibility, Access and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Development Agency, London (England).

    This document contains 14 papers explaining how 12 further education colleges in the United Kingdom used fellowship funds to maximize their use of current information and learning technologies and make other substantial innovations to improve their flexibility, accessibility, and rates of participation. The following papers are included: "Leading…

  17. Thin film with oriented cracks on a flexible substrate

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Bao; McGilvray, Andrew; Shi, Bo

    2010-07-27

    A thermoelectric film is disclosed. The thermoelectric film includes a substrate that is substantially electrically non-conductive and flexible and a thermoelectric material that is deposited on at least one surface of the substrate. The thermoelectric film also includes multiple cracks oriented in a predetermined direction.

  18. CZT vs FFT: Flexibility vs Speed

    SciTech Connect

    S. Sirin

    2003-10-01

    Bluestein's Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), commonly called the Chirp-Z Transform (CZT), is a little-known algorithm that offers engineers a high-resolution FFT combined with the ability to specify bandwidth. In the field of digital signal processing, engineers are always challenged to detect tones, frequencies, signatures, or some telltale sign that signifies a condition that must be indicated, ignored, or controlled. One of these challenges is to detect specific frequencies, for instance when looking for tones from telephones or detecting 60-Hz noise on power lines. The Goertzel algorithm described in Embedded Systems Programming, September 2002, offered a powerful tool toward finding specific frequencies faster than the FFT.Another challenge involves analyzing a range of frequencies, such as recording frequency response measurements, matching voice patterns, or displaying spectrum information on the face of an amateur radio. To meet this challenge most engineers use the well-known FFT. The CZT gives the engineer the flexibility to specify bandwidth and outputs real and imaginary frequency components from which the magnitude and phase can be computed. A description of the CZT and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of CZT versus the FFT and Goertzel algorithms will be followed by situations in which the CZT would shine. The reader will find that the CZT is very useful but that flexibility has a price.

  19. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  20. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  1. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  2. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. PMID:27543610

  3. Global mapping of DNA conformational flexibility on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Menconi, Giulia; Bedini, Andrea; Barale, Roberto; Sbrana, Isabella

    2015-04-01

    In this study we provide the first comprehensive map of DNA conformational flexibility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae complete genome. Flexibility plays a key role in DNA supercoiling and DNA/protein binding, regulating DNA transcription, replication or repair. Specific interest in flexibility analysis concerns its relationship with human genome instability. Enrichment in flexible sequences has been detected in unstable regions of human genome defined fragile sites, where genes map and carry frequent deletions and rearrangements in cancer. Flexible sequences have been suggested to be the determinants of fragile gene proneness to breakage; however, their actual role and properties remain elusive. Our in silico analysis carried out genome-wide via the StabFlex algorithm, shows the conserved presence of highly flexible regions in budding yeast genome as well as in genomes of other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. Flexibile peaks in S. cerevisiae identify 175 ORFs mapping on their 3'UTR, a region affecting mRNA translation, localization and stability. (TA)n repeats of different extension shape the central structure of peaks and co-localize with polyadenylation efficiency element (EE) signals. ORFs with flexible peaks share common features. Transcripts are characterized by decreased half-life: this is considered peculiar of genes involved in regulatory systems with high turnover; consistently, their function affects biological processes such as cell cycle regulation or stress response. Our findings support the functional importance of flexibility peaks, suggesting that the flexible sequence may be derived by an expansion of canonical TAYRTA polyadenylation efficiency element. The flexible (TA)n repeat amplification could be the outcome of an evolutionary neofunctionalization leading to a differential 3'-end processing and expression regulation in genes with peculiar function. Our study provides a new support to the functional role of flexibility in genomes and a

  4. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    DOEpatents

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Wines, Robin Renee; Takacs, James Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  5. Flexible rotor dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, F. A.

    1973-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed to analyze the general nonaxisymmetric and nonsynchronous transient and steady-state rotor dynamic performance of a bending- and shear-wise flexible rotor-bearing system under various operating conditions. The effects of rotor material mechanical hysteresis, rotor torsion flexibility, transverse effects of rotor axial and torsional loading and the anisotropic, in-phase and out-of-phase bearing stiffness and damping force and moment coefficients were included in the program to broaden its capability. An optimum solution method was found and incorporated in the computer program. Computer simulation of experimental data was made and qualitative agreements observed. The mathematical formulations, computer program verification, test data simulation, and user instruction was presented and discussed.

  6. Flexible Flapping Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Catherine; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Wesfreid, José. Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    Hydrodynamic tunnel experiments with flexible flapping foils of 4:1 span-to-chord aspect ratio are used in the present work to study the effect of foil compliance in the dynamical features of a propulsive wake. The average thrust force produced by the foil is estimated from 2D PIV measurements and the regime transitions in the wake are characterized according to a flapping frequency-amplitude phase diagram as in Godoy-Diana et al. (Phys. Rev. E 77, 016308, 2008). We show that the thrust production regime occurs on a broader region of the parameter space for flexible foils, with propulsive forces up to 3 times greater than for the rigid case. We examine in detail the vortex generation at the trailing edge of the foils, and propose a mechanism to explain how foil deformation leads to an optimization of propulsion.

  7. Derivative Free Gradient Projection Algorithms for Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.

    2004-01-01

    A simple modification substantially simplifies the use of the gradient projection (GP) rotation algorithms of Jennrich (2001, 2002). These algorithms require subroutines to compute the value and gradient of any specific rotation criterion of interest. The gradient can be difficult to derive and program. It is shown that using numerical gradients…

  8. Assumed modes method and flexible multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadikonda, S. S. K.; Mordfin, T. G.; Hu, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of assumed modes in flexible multibody dynamics algorithms requires the evaluation of several domain dependent integrals that are affected by the type of modes used. The implications of these integrals - often called zeroth, first and second order terms - are investigated in this paper, for arbitrarily shaped bodies. Guidelines are developed for the use of appropriate boundary conditions while generating the component modal models. The issue of whether and which higher order terms must be retained is also addressed. Analytical results, and numerical results using the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System as the multibody system, are presented to qualitatively and quantitatively address these issues.

  9. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  10. Ascent guidance algorithm using lidar wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The formulation of a general nonlinear programming guidance algorithm that incorporates wind measurements in the computation of ascent guidance steering commands is discussed. A nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm that is designed to solve a very general problem has the potential to address the diversity demanded by future launch systems. Using B-splines for the command functional form allows the NLP algorithm to adjust the shape of the command profile to achieve optimal performance. The algorithm flexibility is demonstrated by simulation of ascent with dynamic loading constraints through a set of random wind profiles with and without wind sensing capability.

  11. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  12. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  13. Actuator Grouping Optimization on Flexible Space Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Wang, K. W.; Fang, Houfei; Quijano, Ubaldo

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid advances in deployable membrane and mesh antenna technologies, the feasibility of developing large, lightweight reflectors has greatly improved. In order to achieve the required surface accuracy, precision surface control is needed on these lightweight reflectors. For this study, an analytical model is shown which combines a flexible Kapton reflector with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) actuators for surface control. Surface errors are introduced that are similar to real world scenarios, and a least squares control algorithm is developed for surface control. Experimental results on a 2.4 meter reflector show that while the analytical reflector model is generally correct, due to idiosyncrasies in the reflector it cannot be used for online control. A new method called the En Mass Elimination algorithm is used to determine the optimal grouping of actuators when the number of actuators in the system exceeds the number of power supplies available.

  14. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    SciTech Connect

    Bharacharya, R.; Parilla, P.A.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1995-12-19

    A process is disclosed for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material. 3 figs.

  15. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    SciTech Connect

    Bharacharya, Raghuthan; Parilla, Philip A.; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material.

  16. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  17. Vectorized algorithms for spiking neural network simulation.

    PubMed

    Brette, Romain; Goodman, Dan F M

    2011-06-01

    High-level languages (Matlab, Python) are popular in neuroscience because they are flexible and accelerate development. However, for simulating spiking neural networks, the cost of interpretation is a bottleneck. We describe a set of algorithms to simulate large spiking neural networks efficiently with high-level languages using vector-based operations. These algorithms constitute the core of Brian, a spiking neural network simulator written in the Python language. Vectorized simulation makes it possible to combine the flexibility of high-level languages with the computational efficiency usually associated with compiled languages. PMID:21395437

  18. Control of resonance phenomenon in flexible structures via active support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakolpour Saleh, A. R.; Mailah, M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper introduces the concept of active support to cope with the resonance phenomenon in the flexible structures. A valid computational platform for the flexible structure was first presented via a finite difference (FD) approach. Then, the active support mechanism was applied to the simulation algorithm through which the performance of the proposed methodology in suppressing the resonance phenomenon was evaluated. The flexible structure was thus excited with the external disturbance and the system response with and without the effect of the active support was investigated through a simulation study. The simulation outcomes clearly demonstrated effective resonance suppression in the flexible structure. Finally, an experimental rig was developed to investigate the validity of the proposed technique. The experimental results revealed an acceptable agreement with the simulation outcomes through which the validity of the proposed control method was affirmed.

  19. Portable Health Algorithms Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Wong, Edmond; Fulton, Christopher E.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Maul, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses the Portable Health Algorithms Test (PHALT) System, which has been designed as a means for evolving the maturity and credibility of algorithms developed to assess the health of aerospace systems. Comprising an integrated hardware-software environment, the PHALT system allows systems health management algorithms to be developed in a graphical programming environment, to be tested and refined using system simulation or test data playback, and to be evaluated in a real-time hardware-in-the-loop mode with a live test article. The integrated hardware and software development environment provides a seamless transition from algorithm development to real-time implementation. The portability of the hardware makes it quick and easy to transport between test facilities. This hard ware/software architecture is flexible enough to support a variety of diagnostic applications and test hardware, and the GUI-based rapid prototyping capability is sufficient to support development execution, and testing of custom diagnostic algorithms. The PHALT operating system supports execution of diagnostic algorithms under real-time constraints. PHALT can perform real-time capture and playback of test rig data with the ability to augment/ modify the data stream (e.g. inject simulated faults). It performs algorithm testing using a variety of data input sources, including real-time data acquisition, test data playback, and system simulations, and also provides system feedback to evaluate closed-loop diagnostic response and mitigation control.

  20. The flexible nature of unconscious cognition.

    PubMed

    Wokke, Martijn E; van Gaal, Simon; Scholte, H Steven; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Lamme, Victor A F

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive signature of unconscious processes is hotly debated recently. Generally, consciousness is thought to mediate flexible, adaptive and goal-directed behavior, but in the last decade unconscious processing has rapidly gained ground on traditional conscious territory. In this study we demonstrate that the scope and impact of unconscious information on behavior and brain activity can be modulated dynamically on a trial-by-trial basis. Participants performed a Go/No-Go experiment in which an unconscious (masked) stimulus preceding a conscious target could be associated with either a Go or No-Go response. Importantly, the mapping of stimuli onto these actions varied on a trial-by-trial basis, preventing the formation of stable associations and hence the possibility that unconscious stimuli automatically activate these control actions. By eliminating stimulus-response associations established through practice we demonstrate that unconscious information can be processed in a flexible and adaptive manner. In this experiment we show that the same unconscious stimulus can have a substantially different effect on behavior and (prefrontal) brain activity depending on the rapidly changing task context in which it is presented. This work suggests that unconscious information processing shares many sophisticated characteristics (including flexibility and context-specificity) with its conscious counterpart. PMID:21980530

  1. The design of probiotic studies to substantiate health claims.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Glenn R; Brummer, Robert J; Isolauri, Erika; Lochs, Herbert; Morelli, Lorenzo; Ockhuizen, Theo; Rowland, Ian R; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Stanton, Catherine; Verbeke, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    The EC Regulation No. 1924/2006 on Nutrition and Health claims made on foods has generated considerable debate and concern among scientists and industry. At the time of writing, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has not approved any probiotic claims despite numerous human trials and meta-analyses showing evidence of beneficial effects. On 29th and 30th September 2010, ten independent, academic scientists with a documented record in probiotic research, met to discuss designs for future probiotic studies to demonstrate health benefits for gut and immune function. The expert panel recommended the following: (i) always formulate a precise and concrete hypothesis, and appropriate goals and parameters before starting a trial; (ii) ensure trials have sufficient sample size, such that they are adequately powered to reach statistically significant conclusions, either supporting or rejecting the a priori hypothesis, taking into account adjustment for multiple testing (this might necessitate more than one recruitment site); (iii) ensure trials are of appropriate duration; (iv) focus on a single, primary objective and only evaluate multiple parameters when they are hypothesis-driven. The panel agreed that there was an urgent need to better define which biomarkers are considered valuable for substantiation of a health claim. As a first step, the panel welcomed the publication on the day of the meeting of EFSA's draft guidance document on immune and gut health, although it came too late for study designs and dossiers to be adjusted accordingly. New validated biomarkers need to be identified in order to properly determine the range of physiological functions influenced by probiotics. In addition, validated biomarkers reflecting risk factors for disease, are required for article 14 claims (EC Regulation No. 1924/2006). Finally, the panel concluded that consensus among scientists is needed to decide appropriate clinical endpoints for trials. PMID:22067941

  2. Flexible DM-NRG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeza, Örs; Moca, Pascu; Tóth, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz; Zaránd, Gergely

    2011-07-01

    This code combines the spectral sum-conserving methods of Weichselbaum and von Delft and of Peters, Pruschke and Anders (both relying upon the complete basis set construction of Anders and Schiller) with the use of non-Abelian symmetries in a flexible manner: Essentially any non-Abelian symmetry can be taught to the code, and any number of such symmetries can be used throughout the computation for any density of states, and to compute any local operators' correlation function's real and imaginary parts or any thermodynamical expectation value. The code works both at zero and finite temperatures.

  3. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  4. Flexible composite radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  5. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  6. Automatic and Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Zimerman, Shira

    2008-01-01

    Arguing from the nature of goal pursuit and from the economy of mental resources this paper suggests that automatic goal pursuit, much like its controlled counterpart, may be flexible. Two studies that employ goal priming procedures examine this hypothesis using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Study 1) and a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task (Study 2). Implications of the results for our understanding of the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processes in general, and for our conception of automatic goal pursuit in particular, are discussed. PMID:19325712

  7. Rotating flexible drag mill

    DOEpatents

    Pepper, W.B.

    1984-05-09

    A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.

  8. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  9. The Interaction of Sound and Shock Waves with Flexible Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, James Fuller

    Several topics are studied which illustrate the role of flexibility in determining the acoustical properties of flexible porous materials. A power balance relation is obtained for the flexible porous material which explicitly identifies two loss mechanisms for sound absorption: the losses due to the irreversible deformation of the structure, and those attributed to the viscous drag between the fluid and the structure. The finite flexible porous layer backed by a rigid wall is then considered. Irreversible deformation of the structure is shown to be the dominant loss mechanism for closed layers. Three departures from the basic model-- a porous layer with anisotropic flow resistance and structure factor, periodic structures consisting of porous layers separated by air gaps, and the porous medium in bulk with mean fluid flow--are considered. The reflection of shock waves is also studied, and a quasi-linear theory is developed which reproduces the principal features of experimental results obtained previously by Ingard. The theory assumes that the propagating pulses in the air and structure are linear and the gross, zeroth order motion of the porous layer is modeled by including its energy and momentum in the conservation equations; these equations compare the system just before and just after the reflection of the incident shock from the front surface of the layer. The substantial motion of the layer and its dragging against a constraining boundary (in this case the walls of the shock tube) are found to introduce a dependence of the front reflection coefficient and maximal layer deformation on the peak pressure of the incident shock. Lastly, we address the question of measurement of the complex compressibility K, a key parameter used to describe the dynamics of a given flexible porous material. The standard long-wavelength assumption used to determine K from experimental measurements of the frequency dependent velocity transfer function across a sample is shown to

  10. Algorithm For Solution Of Subset-Regression Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhaegen, Michel

    1991-01-01

    Reliable and flexible algorithm for solution of subset-regression problem performs QR decomposition with new column-pivoting strategy, enables selection of subset directly from originally defined regression parameters. This feature, in combination with number of extensions, makes algorithm very flexible for use in analysis of subset-regression problems in which parameters have physical meanings. Also extended to enable joint processing of columns contaminated by noise with those free of noise, without using scaling techniques.

  11. Optimal Superpositioning of Flexible Molecule Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Gapsys, Vytautas; de Groot, Bert L.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the internal dynamics of a biological molecule requires the successful removal of overall translation and rotation. Particularly for flexible or intrinsically disordered peptides, this is a challenging task due to the absence of a well-defined reference structure that could be used for superpositioning. In this work, we started the analysis with a widely known formulation of an objective for the problem of superimposing a set of multiple molecules as variance minimization over an ensemble. A negative effect of this superpositioning method is the introduction of ambiguous rotations, where different rotation matrices may be applied to structurally similar molecules. We developed two algorithms to resolve the suboptimal rotations. The first approach minimizes the variance together with the distance of a structure to a preceding molecule in the ensemble. The second algorithm seeks for minimal variance together with the distance to the nearest neighbors of each structure. The newly developed methods were applied to molecular-dynamics trajectories and normal-mode ensembles of the Aβ peptide, RS peptide, and lysozyme. These new (to our knowledge) superpositioning methods combine the benefits of variance and distance between nearest-neighbor(s) minimization, providing a solution for the analysis of intrinsic motions of flexible molecules and resolving ambiguous rotations. PMID:23332072

  12. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  13. An algorithm to provide real time neutral beam substitution in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.C.; Greene, K.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; McHarg, B.B. Jr.; Penaflor, B.G.

    1999-06-01

    A key component of the DIII-D tokamak fusion experiment is a flexible and easy to expand digital control system which actively controls a large number of parameters in real-time. These include plasma shape, position, density, and total stored energy. This system, known as the PCS (plasma control system), also has the ability to directly control auxiliary plasma heating systems, such as the 20 MW of neutral beams routinely used on DIII-D. This paper describes the implementation of a real-time algorithm allowing substitution of power from one neutral beam for another, given a fault in the originally scheduled beam. Previously, in the event of a fault in one of the neutral beams, the actual power profile for the shot might be deficient, resulting in a less useful or wasted shot. Using this new real-time algorithm, a stand by neutral beam may substitute within milliseconds for one which has faulted. Since single shots can have substantial value, this is an important advance to DIII-D`s capabilities and utilization. Detailed results are presented, along with a description not only of the algorithm but of the simulation setup required to prove the algorithm without the costs normally associated with using physics operations time.

  14. Role of dynamics in enzyme catalysis: substantial versus semantic controversies.

    PubMed

    Kohen, Amnon

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The role of the enzyme's dynamic motions in catalysis is at the center of heated contemporary debates among both theoreticians and experimentalists. Resolving these apparent disputes is of both intellectual and practical importance: incorporation of enzyme dynamics could be critical for any calculation of enzymatic function and may have profound implications for structure-based drug design and the design of biomimetic catalysts. Analysis of the literature suggests that while part of the dispute may reflect substantial differences between theoretical approaches, much of the debate is semantic. For example, the term "protein dynamics" is often used by some researchers when addressing motions that are in thermal equilibrium with their environment, while other researchers only use this term for nonequilibrium events. The last cases are those in which thermal energy is "stored" in a specific protein mode and "used" for catalysis before it can dissipate to its environment (i.e., "nonstatistical dynamics"). This terminology issue aside, a debate has arisen among theoreticians around the roles of nonstatistical vs statistical dynamics in catalysis. However, the author knows of no experimental findings available today that examined this question in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Another source of perhaps nonsubstantial argument might stem from the varying time scales of enzymatic motions, which range from seconds to femtoseconds. Motions at different time scales play different roles in the many events along the catalytic cascade (reactant binding, reprotonation of reactants, structural rearrangement toward the transition state, product release, etc.). In several cases, when various experimental tools have been used to probe catalytic events at differing time scales, illusory contradictions seem to have emerged. In this Account, recent attempts to sort the merits of those questions are discussed along with possible future directions. A possible summary of current

  15. Flexible multiply towpreg and method of production therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzzy, John D. (Inventor); Varughese, Babu (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved flexible towpreg and a method of production therefor. The improved flexible towpreg comprises a plurality of towpreg plies which comprise reinforcing filaments and matrix forming material; the reinforcing filaments being substantially wetout by the matrix forming material such that the towpreg plies are substantially void-free composite articles, and the towpreg plies having an average thickness less than about 100 microns. The method of production for the improved flexible towpreg comprises the steps of spreading the reinforcing filaments to expose individually substantially all of the reinforcing filaments; coating the reinforcing filaments with the matrix forming material in a manner causing interfacial adhesion of the matrix forming material to the reinforcing filaments; forming the towpreg plies by heating the matrix forming material contacting the reinforcing filaments until the matrix forming material liquefies and coats the reinforcing filaments; and cooling the towpreg plies in a manner such that substantial cohesion between neighboring towpreg plies is prevented until the matrix forming material solidifies.

  16. Transient dynamics of a flexible rotor with squeeze film dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buono, D. F.; Schlitzer, L. D.; Hall, R. G., III; Hibner, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    A series of simulated blade loss tests are reported on a test rotor designed to operate above its second bending critical speed. A series of analyses were performed which predicted the transient behavior of the test rig for each of the blade loss tests. The scope of the program included the investigation of transient rotor dynamics of a flexible rotor system, similar to modern flexible jet engine rotors, both with and without squeeze film dampers. The results substantiate the effectiveness of squeeze film dampers and document the ability of available analytical methods to predict their effectiveness and behavior.

  17. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  18. Visualizing output for a data learning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Daniel; Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor

    2016-05-01

    This paper details the process we went through to visualize the output for our data learning algorithm. We have been developing a hierarchical self-structuring learning algorithm based around the general principles of the LaRue model. One example of a proposed application of this algorithm would be traffic analysis, chosen because it is conceptually easy to follow and there is a significant amount of already existing data and related research material with which to work with. While we choose the tracking of vehicles for our initial approach, it is by no means the only target of our algorithm. Flexibility is the end goal, however, we still need somewhere to start. To that end, this paper details our creation of the visualization GUI for our algorithm, the features we included and the initial results we obtained from our algorithm running a few of the traffic based scenarios we designed.

  19. Investigation of Boundary Conditions for Flexible Multibody Spacecraft Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLean, John R.; Huynh, An; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    2007-01-01

    In support of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, a set of generic multibody dynamics algorithms integrated within the Trick simulation environment have addressed the variety of on-orbit manipulator simulation requirements for engineering analysis, procedures development and crew familiarization/training at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Enhancements to these dynamics algorithms are now being driven by a new set of Constellation program requirements for flexible multibody spacecraft simulation. One particular issue that has been discussed within the NASA community is the assumption of cantilever-type flexible body boundary conditions. This assumption has been commonly utilized within manipulator multibody dynamics formulations as it simplifies the computation of relative motion for articulated flexible topologies. Moreover, its use for modeling of space-based manipulators such as the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) and Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) has been extensively validated against flight data. For more general flexible spacecraft applications, however, the assumption of cantilever-type boundary conditions may not be sufficient. This paper describes the boundary condition assumptions that were used in the original formulation, demonstrates that this formulation can be augmented to accommodate systems in which the assumption of cantilever boundary conditions no longer applies, and verifies the approach through comparison with an independent model previously validated against experimental hardware test data from a spacecraft flexible dynamics emulator.

  20. Generalized flexibility-rigidity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity index and flexibility index. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity index, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility index based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.

  1. Flexible transformation plasmonics using graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei Bing; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hong Ju; Ni, Zhen Hua; Dong, Zheng Gao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-05-01

    The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics. PMID:23669904

  2. Flexible transformation plasmonics using graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei Bing; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hong Ju; Ni, Zhen Hua; Dong, Zheng Gao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-05-01

    The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics.

  3. FlexSnap: Flexible Non-sequential Protein Structure Alignment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteins have evolved subject to energetic selection pressure for stability and flexibility. Structural similarity between proteins that have gone through conformational changes can be captured effectively if flexibility is considered. Topologically unrelated proteins that preserve secondary structure packing interactions can be detected if both flexibility and Sequential permutations are considered. We propose the FlexSnap algorithm for flexible non-topological protein structural alignment. Results The effectiveness of FlexSnap is demonstrated by measuring the agreement of its alignments with manually curated non-sequential structural alignments. FlexSnap showed competitive results against state-of-the-art algorithms, like DALI, SARF2, MultiProt, FlexProt, and FATCAT. Moreover on the DynDom dataset, FlexSnap reported longer alignments with smaller rmsd. Conclusions We have introduced FlexSnap, a greedy chaining algorithm that reports both sequential and non-sequential alignments and allows twists (hinges). We assessed the quality of the FlexSnap alignments by measuring its agreements with manually curated non-sequential alignments. On the FlexProt dataset, FlexSnap was competitive to state-of-the-art flexible alignment methods. Moreover, we demonstrated the benefits of introducing hinges by showing significant improvements in the alignments reported by FlexSnap for the structure pairs for which rigid alignment methods reported alignments with either low coverage or large rmsd. Availability An implementation of the FlexSnap algorithm will be made available online at http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~zaki/software/flexsnap. PMID:20047669

  4. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. PMID:27038223

  5. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  6. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  7. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.

  8. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  9. Damped flexible seal

    DOEpatents

    DuBois, Neil J.; Amaral, Antonio M.

    1992-10-27

    A damped flexible seal assembly for a torpedo isolates the tailcone thereof rom vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly. A pair of outside flanges, each of which include an inwardly facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, provide a watertight seal against the outer non-rotating surface of the drive shaft assembly. An inside flange includes an outwardly-facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, and provides a watertight seal against the inner surface of the tail cone. Two cast-in-place elastomeric seals provide a watertight seal between the flanges and further provide a damping barrier between the outside flanges and the inside flanges for damping vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly before the energy can reach the tailcone through the seal assembly.

  10. Can Flexible Non-Linear Modeling Tell Us Anything New about Educational Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores whether flexible nonlinear models (including neural networks and genetic algorithms) can reveal otherwise unexpected patterns of relationship in typical school-productivity data. Applying three types of algorithms alongside regression modeling to school-level data in 183 elementary schools proves the hypothesis and reveals new directions…

  11. Spatial operator approach to flexible manipulator inverse and forward dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1990-01-01

    This study extends to flexible multibody manipulators the recent results of the author on the use of spatially recursive filtering and smoothing techniques for robot arm dynamics. The configuration analyzed is that of a mechanical system of flexible bodies joined together by articulated joints. The inverse and forward dynamics problems are solved using the techniques of spatially recursive Kalman filtering and smoothing. The algorithms are easily developed using a set of identities associated with mass matrix factorization and inversion. The identities are easily derived using a spatial operator algebra developed by the author.

  12. Active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Cheng-Neng; Jayasuriya, Suhada; Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic compensator for active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures is designed on the principle of the H(infinity)-optimization of the sensitivity transfer function matrix. A general state space solution is formulated to the multiinput multioutput H(infinity)-optimal control problem, allowing the use of the H(infinity)-optimal synthesis algorithm for the state-space models of space structures that result from model order reduction. Disturbances encountered in flexible space structures, such as shuttle docking, are investigated using the high-mode and the reduced-order models of a cantilevered two-bay truss, demonstrating the applicability of the H(infinity)-optimal approach.

  13. Algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Lomax, Harvard

    1987-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable activity in algorithm development for the Navier-Stokes equations. This has resulted in a wide variety of useful new techniques. Some examples for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented, divided into two parts. One is devoted to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the other to the compressible form.

  14. Flexible ligand docking using conformational ensembles.

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, D. M.; Shoichet, B. K.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular docking algorithms suggest possible structures for molecular complexes. They are used to model biological function and to discover potential ligands. A present challenge for docking algorithms is the treatment of molecular flexibility. Here, the rigid body program, DOCK, is modified to allow it to rapidly fit multiple conformations of ligands. Conformations of a given molecule are pre-calculated in the same frame of reference, so that each conformer shares a common rigid fragment with all other conformations. The ligand conformers are then docked together, as an ensemble, into a receptor binding site. This takes advantage of the redundancy present in differing conformers of the same molecule. The algorithm was tested using three organic ligand protein systems and two protein-protein systems. Both the bound and unbound conformations of the receptors were used. The ligand ensemble method found conformations that resembled those determined in X-ray crystal structures (RMS values typically less than 1.5 A). To test the method's usefulness for inhibitor discovery, multi-compound and multi-conformer databases were screened for compounds known to bind to dihydrofolate reductase and compounds known to bind to thymidylate synthase. In both cases, known inhibitors and substrates were identified in conformations resembling those observed experimentally. The ligand ensemble method was 100-fold faster than docking a single conformation at a time and was able to screen a database of over 34 million conformations from 117,000 molecules in one to four CPU days on a workstation. PMID:9568900

  15. Mechanically flexible organic electroluminescent device with directional light emission

    DOEpatents

    Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Schaepkens, Marc

    2005-05-10

    A mechanically flexible and environmentally stable organic electroluminescent ("EL") device with directional light emission comprises an organic EL member disposed on a flexible substrate, a surface of which is coated with a multilayer barrier coating which includes at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent organic polymer and at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent inorganic material. The device includes a reflective metal layer disposed on the organic EL member opposite to the substrate. The reflective metal layer provides an increased external quantum efficiency of the device. The reflective metal layer and the multilayer barrier coating form a seal around the organic EL member to reduce the degradation of the device due to environmental elements.

  16. Online Planning Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2010-01-01

    AVA v2 software selects goals for execution from a set of goals that oversubscribe shared resources. The term goal refers to a science or engineering request to execute a possibly complex command sequence, such as image targets or ground-station downlinks. Developed as an extension to the Virtual Machine Language (VML) execution system, the software enables onboard and remote goal triggering through the use of an embedded, dynamic goal set that can oversubscribe resources. From the set of conflicting goals, a subset must be chosen that maximizes a given quality metric, which in this case is strict priority selection. A goal can never be pre-empted by a lower priority goal, and high-level goals can be added, removed, or updated at any time, and the "best" goals will be selected for execution. The software addresses the issue of re-planning that must be performed in a short time frame by the embedded system where computational resources are constrained. In particular, the algorithm addresses problems with well-defined goal requests without temporal flexibility that oversubscribes available resources. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. Thereby enabling shorter response times and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  17. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  18. Teacher Flexibility in Mathematical Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Roza; Dinur, Sariga

    2007-01-01

    The significance of discussion in mathematics classes has been prominently debated in the research literature. Different studies have stressed the importance of teacher flexibility in orchestrating the discussion. We introduce an operational definition of teacher flexibility. In a case study with one secondary-school mathematics teacher, we…

  19. Compact Active Vibration Control System for a Flexible Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A diamond-shaped actuator for a flexible panel has an inter-digitated electrode (IDE) and a piezoelectric wafer portion positioned therebetween. The IDE and/or the wafer portion are diamond-shaped. Point sensors are positioned with respect to the actuator and measure vibration. The actuator generates and transmits a cancelling force to the panel in response to an output signal from a controller, which is calculated using a signal describing the vibration. A method for controlling vibration in a flexible panel includes connecting a diamond-shaped actuator to the flexible panel, and then connecting a point sensor to each actuator. Vibration is measured via the point sensor. The controller calculates a proportional output voltage signal from the measured vibration, and transmits the output signal to the actuator to substantially cancel the vibration in proximity to each actuator.

  20. [The flexibility of family medicine].

    PubMed

    Minguet, C; Aubrege, A; Aubart, M; Cornuz, J; di Patrizio, P; Du Boullay, D; Farghadani, H; Flammang, M; Haas, N; Kacenelenbogen, N; Kopp, M; Leners, J C; Levêque, M; Mbengue, M; Paur, H; Paur, I; Raphaël, F; Rausch, S; Shetgen, M; Stein R; Tabouring, P; Thomas, J M; Vignon, G

    2015-01-01

    We are a European academic group of family doctors and we propose a definition of flexibility in family medicine. A review of the literature shows that flexibility and complexity are emerging concepts in the field of family practice. The outcomes of a workshop at the WONCA-Europe congress in 2014 are discussed. The flexibility is a capability of the general practitioner to deal with complex clinical situations in a biomedical and societal changing world. Flexibility is framed by ethics. It could improve the quality of care, be useful against burnout and used in medical research. In conclusion, family medicine should adopt a specific definition of the flexibility describing its specificity, a useful and teachable capacity. PMID:26946851

  1. SOCMA study urges flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1993-02-10

    In implementing the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act, regulators and legislators should hold off on cookie-cutter, numerical goal-based requirements to allow for site and process specific programs, says a study sponsored by the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturers Association (SOCMA; Washington). Companies should have that flexibility to target their resources toward those activities that reduce pollution cost effectively, says SOCMA environmental quality committee chairman Art Gillen, who is also BASF director of environmental regulatory affairs. The study - conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (Denver) - examines four batch and custom chemical manufacturing films. As in the Clean Air Act, the batch processing of SOCMA-member plants should be considered in new regulations, Gillen says. For example, the study found that most wastes are from shutdowns and cleanouts, and there are frequent charges in waste streams and raw materials. Those characteristics do not lend themselves to annual reduction goals. Also, specific goals could have a wide range of costs: measures to reduce stack air emissions run from $18/lb to $1,106/lb. SOCMA says it will present the study to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  2. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  3. Conformational Flexibility in the Transmembrane Protein TSPO.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Łukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) is an integral membrane protein that interacts with a wide variety of endogenous ligands, such as cholesterol and porphyrins, and is also the target for several small molecules with substantial in vivo efficacy. When complexed with the TSPO-specific radioligand (R)-PK11195, TSPO folds into a rigid five-helix bundle. However, little is known about the structure and dynamics of TSPO in the absence of high-affinity ligands. By means of NMR spectroscopy, we show that TSPO exchanges between multiple conformations in the absence of (R)-PK11195. Extensive motions on time scales from pico- to microseconds occur all along the primary sequence of the protein, leading to a loss of stable tertiary interactions and local unfolding of the helical structure in the vicinity of the ligand-binding site. The flexible nature of TSPO highlights the importance of conformational plasticity in integral membrane proteins.

  4. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Jose E; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this "metabolic inflexibility" is mostly the consequence of impaired cellular glucose uptake. Indeed, after controlling for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate (amount of glucose available for oxidation), metabolic flexibility is not altered in obesity regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes. To understand how intramyocellular lipids accumulate and cause insulin resistance, the assessment of metabolic flexibility to high-fat diets is more relevant than metabolic flexibility during a hyperinsulinemic clamp. An impaired capacity to upregulate muscle lipid oxidation in the face of high lipid supply may lead to increased muscle fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the response to high-fat diets. In this review, we discuss the role of glucose disposal rate, adipose tissue lipid storage, and mitochondrial function on metabolic flexibility. Additionally, we emphasize the bias of using the change in respiratory quotient to calculate metabolic flexibility and propose novel approaches to assess metabolic flexibility. On the basis of current evidence, one cannot conclude that impaired metabolic flexibility is responsible for the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. We propose to study metabolic flexibility in response to high-fat diets in individuals having contrasting degree of insulin sensitivity and/or mitochondrial characteristics. PMID:18765680

  5. Motion Cueing Algorithm Development: Initial Investigation and Redesign of the Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telban, Robert J.; Wu, Weimin; Cardullo, Frank M.; Houck, Jacob A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this project four motion cueing algorithms were initially investigated. The classical algorithm generated results with large distortion and delay and low magnitude. The NASA adaptive algorithm proved to be well tuned with satisfactory performance, while the UTIAS adaptive algorithm produced less desirable results. Modifications were made to the adaptive algorithms to reduce the magnitude of undesirable spikes. The optimal algorithm was found to have the potential for improved performance with further redesign. The center of simulator rotation was redefined. More terms were added to the cost function to enable more tuning flexibility. A new design approach using a Fortran/Matlab/Simulink setup was employed. A new semicircular canals model was incorporated in the algorithm. With these changes results show the optimal algorithm has some advantages over the NASA adaptive algorithm. Two general problems observed in the initial investigation required solutions. A nonlinear gain algorithm was developed that scales the aircraft inputs by a third-order polynomial, maximizing the motion cues while remaining within the operational limits of the motion system. A braking algorithm was developed to bring the simulator to a full stop at its motion limit and later release the brake to follow the cueing algorithm output.

  6. Adaptive-Control Experiments On A Large Flexible Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ih, Che-Hang C.; Bayard, David S.; Wang, Shyh J.; Eldred, Daniel B.

    1990-01-01

    Antennalike flexible structure built for research in advanced technology including suppression of vibrations and control of initial deflections. Structure instrumented with sensors and actuators connected to digital electronic control system, programmed with control algorithms to be tested. Particular attention in this research focused on direct model-reference adaptive-control algorithm based on command generator tracker theory. Built to exhibit multiple vibrational modes, low modal frequencies, and low structural damping. Made three-dimensional so complicated interactions among components of structure and control system investigated.

  7. Flexible Refinement of Protein-Ligand Docking on Manifolds.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Hanieh; Villar, Elizabeth; Mottarella, Scott; Beglov, Dmitri; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Vajda, Sandor; Kozakov, Dima; Vakili, Pirooz

    2013-01-01

    Our work is motivated by energy minimization of biological macromolecules, an essential step in computational docking. By allowing some ligand flexibility, we generalize a recently introduced novel representation of rigid body minimization as an optimization on the [Formula: see text] manifold, rather than on the commonly used Special Euclidean group SE(3). We show that the resulting flexible docking can also be formulated as an optimization on a Lie group that is the direct product of simpler Lie groups for which geodesics and exponential maps can be easily obtained. Our computational results for a local optimization algorithm developed based on this formulation show that it is about an order of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art local minimization algorithms for computational protein-small molecule docking. PMID:24830567

  8. The dynamics and control of large flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Kumar, V. K.; Krishna, R.; Reddy, A. S. S. R.; Diarra, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Large, flexible orbiting systems proposed for possible use in communications, electronic orbital based mail systems, and solar energy collection are discussed. The size and low weight to area ratio of such systems indicate that system flexibility is now the main consideration in the dynamics and control problem. For such large, flexible systems, both orientation and surface shape control will often be required. A conceptual development plan of a system software capability for use in analysis of the dynamics and control of large space structures technology (LSST) systems is discussed. This concept can be subdivided into four different stages: (1) system dynamics; (2) structural dynamics; (3) application of control algorithms; and (4) simulation of environmental disturbances. Modeling the system dynamics of such systems in orbit is the most fundamental component. Solar radiation pressure effects and orbital and gravity gradient effects are discussed.

  9. Unit Commitment Considering Generation Flexibility and Environmental Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; Zhu, Yunhua; Lu, Ning; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-07-31

    This paper proposes a new framework for power system unit commitment process, which incorporates the generation flexibility requirements and environmental constraints into the existing unit commitment algorithm. The generation flexibility requirements are to address the uncertainties with large amount of intermittent resources as well as with load and traditional generators, which causes real-time balancing requirements to be variable and less predictable. The proposed flexibility requirements include capacity, ramp and ramp duration for both upward and downward balancing reserves. The environmental constraints include emission allowance for fossil fuel-based generators and ecological regulations for hydro power plants. Calculation of emission rates is formulated. Unit commitment under this new framework will be critical to the economic and reliable operation of the power grid and the minimization of its negative environmental impacts, especially when high penetration levels of intermittent resources are being approached, as required by the renewable portfolio standards in many states.

  10. The Th17 family: flexibility follows function

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rajatava; Hatton, Robin D.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Discovery of the T-helper 17 (Th17) subset heralded a major shift in T-cell biology and immune regulation. In addition to defining a new arm of the adaptive immune response, studies of the Th17 pathway have led to a greater appreciation of the developmental flexibility, or plasticity, that is a feature of T-cell developmental programs. Since the initial finding that differentiation of Th17 cells is promoted by transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), it became clear that Th17 cell development overlapped that of induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells. Subsequent findings established that Th17 cells are also unusually flexible in their late developmental programming, demonstrating substantial overlap with conventional Th1 cells through mechanisms that are just beginning to be understood but would appear to have important implications for immunoregulation at homeostasis and in immune-mediated diseases. Herein we examine the developmental and functional features of Th17 cells in relation to iTreg cells, Th1 cells, and Th22 cells, as a basis for understanding the contributions of this pathway to host defense, immune homeostasis, and immune-mediated disease. PMID:23405897

  11. Transonic Wing Shape Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for aerodynamic shape optimization based on a genetic algorithm approach is demonstrated. The algorithm is coupled with a transonic full potential flow solver and is used to optimize the flow about transonic wings including multi-objective solutions that lead to the generation of pareto fronts. The results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement, flexible in application and extremely reliable.

  12. Swarming: flexible roaming plans.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Jonathan D; Harshey, Rasika M

    2013-03-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on "hard" agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a "softer" agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior. PMID:23264580

  13. Swarming: flexible roaming plans.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Jonathan D; Harshey, Rasika M

    2013-03-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on "hard" agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a "softer" agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior.

  14. Swarming: Flexible Roaming Plans

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on “hard” agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a “softer” agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior. PMID:23264580

  15. SIP: a modern flexible data pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmby, Pauline; Wang, Zhong; Marengo, Massimo; Ashby, Matthew L.

    2004-09-01

    IRAC, the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope, generated well over 150,000 images during the in-orbit checkout and science verification phase of the mission. All of these were processed with SIP, the SAO IRAC Pipeline. SIP was created by and for the members of the IRAC instrument team at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, to allow short-timescale data processing and rapid-turnaround software testing and algorithm modification. SIP makes use of perl scripting and data mirroring to transfer and manage data, a mySQL database to select calibration data, and Python/numarray to process the image data; it is designed to run with no user interaction. SIP is fast, flexible, and robust. We present some 'lessons learned' from the construction and maintenance of SIP, and discuss prospects for future improvement.

  16. Random motion analysis of flexible satellite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. C.; Das, A.

    1978-01-01

    A singular perturbation formulation is used to study the responses of a flexible satellite when random measurement errors can occur. The random variables, at different instants of time, are assumed to be uncorrelated. Procedures for obtaining maxima and minima are described, and a variation of the linear method is developed for the formal solution of the two-point boundary-value problems represented by the variational equations. Random and deterministic solutions for the structural position coordinates are studied, and an analytic algorithm for treating the force equation of motion is developed. Since the random system indicated by the variational equation will always be asymptotically unstable, any analysis of stability must be based on the deterministic system.

  17. Surgical treatment of the adult acquired flexible flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Van Gestel, Lise; Van Bouwel, Saskia; Somville, Johan

    2015-06-01

    In this review article, the authors give an overview of the currently available soft tissue and bony procedures in the treatment of the adult acquired flexible flatfoot. Instead of starting from the classification for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, described by Johnson and Storm, the authors address the flatfoot from a more anatomical point of view. Based on this, they will try to define a treatment algorithm.

  18. Surgical treatment of the adult acquired flexible flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Van Gestel, Lise; Van Bouwel, Saskia; Somville, Johan

    2015-06-01

    In this review article, the authors give an overview of the currently available soft tissue and bony procedures in the treatment of the adult acquired flexible flatfoot. Instead of starting from the classification for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, described by Johnson and Storm, the authors address the flatfoot from a more anatomical point of view. Based on this, they will try to define a treatment algorithm. PMID:26280953

  19. How does symmetry impact the flexibility of proteins?

    PubMed

    Schulze, Bernd; Sljoka, Adnan; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-02-13

    It is well known that (i) the flexibility and rigidity of proteins are central to their function, (ii) a number of oligomers with several copies of individual protein chains assemble with symmetry in the native state and (iii) added symmetry sometimes leads to added flexibility in structures. We observe that the most common symmetry classes of protein oligomers are also the symmetry classes that lead to increased flexibility in certain three-dimensional structures-and investigate the possible significance of this coincidence. This builds on the well-developed theory of generic rigidity of body-bar frameworks, which permits an analysis of the rigidity and flexibility of molecular structures such as proteins via fast combinatorial algorithms. In particular, we outline some very simple counting rules and possible algorithmic extensions that allow us to predict continuous symmetry-preserving motions in body-bar frameworks that possess non-trivial point-group symmetry. For simplicity, we focus on dimers, which typically assemble with twofold rotational axes, and often have allosteric function that requires motions to link distant sites on the two protein chains.

  20. Automatic body flexibility classification using laser doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, I.-Chan; Li, Yung-Hui; Bau, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Body flexibility is an important indicator that can measure whether an individual is healthy or not. Traditionally, we need to prepare a protractor and the subject need to perform a pre-defined set of actions. The measurement takes place at the same time when the subject performs required action, which is clumsy and inconvenient. In this paper, we propose a statistical learning model using the technique of random forest. The proposed system can classify body flexibility based on LDF signals analyzed in the frequency domain. The reasons of using random forest are because of their efficiency (fast in classification), interpretable structures and their ability to filter out irrelevant features. In addition, using random forest can prevent the problem of over-fitting, and the output model will become more robust to noises. In our experiment, we use chirp Z-transform (CZT), to transform a LDF signal into its energy values in five frequency bands. Combining the power of the random forest algorithm and frequency band analysis methods, a maximum recognition rate of 66% is achieved. Compared to traditional flexibility measuring process, the proposed system shortens the long and tedious stages of measurement to a simple, fast and pre-defined activity set. The major contributions of our work include (1) a novel body flexibility classification scheme using non-invasive biomedical sensor; (2) a set of designed protocol which is easy to conduct and practice; (3) a high precision classification scheme which combines the power of spectrum analysis and machine learning algorithms.

  1. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes. PMID:26675174

  2. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  3. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes.

  4. Rolling-cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, D.R.

    1982-09-27

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  5. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:27568535

  6. A flexible Open Data Assimilation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Ridler, Marc E.; Altaf, Umer; Madsen, Henrik; Heemink, Arnold; Dijkzeul, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time hydrological forecasts are essential for protection against water-related hazards, operation of infrastructure, and water resources management. Recent advances in radar rainfall estimation and forecasting, numerical weather predictions, satellite and in-situ monitoring, and faster computing facilities are opening up new opportunities in real-time hydrological forecasting. More effective use of the different information sources via data assimilation will provide the basis for producing more accurate and more reliable forecasts. In this regard, development and implementation of robust and computationally efficient data assimilation algorithms that are feasible for real-time applications remains one of the key challenges. The implementation of data assimilation techniques is traditionally in a model specific form. The disadvantage of this approach is the need to have in-depth knowledge of the numerical core computations and it does not allow to freely experiment with data assimilation algorithms and measurement sources without the need of additional programming. We present a more flexible approach to setup a forecasting system. The OpenDA data assimilation framework contains many state of the art data assimilation algorithms to easily set up a forecasting system. The setup of the framework allows users to select and experiment with various algorithms. OpenDA defines an interface between model and data assimilation algorithms. This interface only needs to be implemented once for a particular model. The OpenDA model interface is already implemented for various models. Besides these models it is very easy to couple models that are already implementing the Open Model Interface (OpenMI) to OpenDA using the generic OpenMI-OpenDA coupler. Using a synthetic test case we demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach using OpenMI and OpenDA. We use the MIKE SHE distributed and integrated hydrological modeling system to demonstrate how

  7. Flexible human collective wisdom.

    PubMed

    Juni, Mordechai Z; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2015-12-01

    Group decisions typically outperform individual decisions. But how do groups combine their individual decisions to reach their collective decisions? Previous studies conceptualize collective decision making using static combination rules, be it a majority-voting rule or a weighted-averaging rule. Unknown is whether groups adapt their combination rules to changing information environments. We implemented a novel paradigm for which information obeyed a mixture of distributions, such that the optimal Bayesian rule is nonlinear and often follows minority opinions, while the majority rule leads to suboptimal but above chance performance. Using perceptual (Experiment 1) and cognitive (Experiment 2) signal-detection tasks, we switched the information environment halfway through the experiments to a mixture of distributions without informing participants. Groups gradually abandoned the majority rule to follow any minority opinion advocating signal presence with high confidence. Furthermore, groups with greater ability to abandon the majority rule achieved higher collective-decision accuracies. It is important to note that this abandonment was not triggered by performance loss for the majority rule relative to the first half of the experiment. Our results propose a new theory of human collective decision making: Humans make inferences about how information is distributed across individuals and time, and dynamically alter their joint decision algorithms to enhance the benefits of collective wisdom.

  8. Flexible embedding of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Gracia, Juan; Buckee, Caroline; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    We introduce a model for embedding one network into another, focusing on the case where network A is much bigger than network B. Nodes from network A are assigned to the nodes in network B using an algorithm where we control the extent of localization of node placement in network B using a single parameter. Starting from an unassigned node in network A, called the source node, we first map this node to a randomly chosen node in network B, called the target node. We then assign the neighbors of the source node to the neighborhood of the target node using a random walk based approach. To assign each neighbor of the source node to one of the nodes in network B, we perform a random walk starting from the target node with stopping probability α. We repeat this process until all nodes in network A have been mapped to the nodes of network B. The simplicity of the model allows us to calculate key quantities of interest in closed form. By varying the parameter α, we are able to produce embeddings from very local (α = 1) to very global (α --> 0). We show how our calculations fit the simulated results, and we apply the model to study how social networks are embedded in geography and how the neurons of C. Elegans are embedded in the surrounding volume.

  9. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas.

  10. Photocatalytic reactor with flexible supports

    DOEpatents

    Jacoby, William A.; Blake, Daniel M.

    1995-01-01

    Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g., UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream.

  11. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas. PMID:27276698

  12. Photocatalytic reactor with flexible supports

    DOEpatents

    Jacoby, W.A.; Blake, D.M.

    1995-09-12

    Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g., UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream. 3 figs.

  13. Ultra-Thin, Flexible Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Brian; McPherson, Ryan; Zhang, Tan; Hou, Zhenwei; Dean, Robert; Johnson, R. Wayne; DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Thinned die can be used to realize ultra-thin flexible electronics for applications such as conformal and wearable electronics. Three techniques have been developed to achieve this goal using thinned die: die flip chip bonded onto flexible substrates, die laminated onto LCP films, and die embedded in polyimide. A key to achieving each of these techniques is the thinning of die to a thickness of 50 microns or thinner. Conventional CMP processing can be used to thin to 50 microns. At 50 microns, the active die become flexible and must be handled by temporarily bonding them to a holder die, for further processing. Once bonded face down to the holder die, the active die can be further thinned by DRIE etching the exposed backside. The thinned die can then been packaged in or on the flexible substrate.

  14. Flexible solar-array mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    One of the key elements of the flexible rolled-up solar array system is a mechanism to deploy, retract, and store the flexible solar-cell arrays. The selection of components, the design of the mechanism assembly, and the tests that were performed are discussed. During 6 months in orbit, all mission objectives were satisfied, and inflight performance has shown good correlation with preflight analyses and tests.

  15. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  16. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  17. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  18. Surflex: fully automatic flexible molecular docking using a molecular similarity-based search engine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ajay N

    2003-02-13

    Surflex is a fully automatic flexible molecular docking algorithm that combines the scoring function from the Hammerhead docking system with a search engine that relies on a surface-based molecular similarity method as a means to rapidly generate suitable putative poses for molecular fragments. Results are presented evaluating reliability and accuracy of dockings compared with crystallographic experimental results on 81 protein/ligand pairs of substantial structural diversity. In over 80% of the complexes, Surflex's highest scoring docked pose was within 2.5 A root-mean-square deviation (rmsd), with over 90% of the complexes having one of the top ranked poses within 2.5 A rmsd. Results are also presented assessing Surflex's utility as a screening tool on two protein targets (thymidine kinase and estrogen receptor) using data sets on which competing methods were run. Performance of Surflex was significantly better, with true positive rates of greater than 80% at false positive rates of less than 1%. Docking time was roughly linear in number of rotatable bonds, beginning with a few seconds for rigid molecules and adding approximately 10 s per rotatable bond.

  19. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may be... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is...

  20. 24 CFR 115.201 - The two phases of substantial equivalency certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The two phases of substantial... ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.201 The two phases of.... The Department has developed a two-phase process of substantial equivalency certification....

  1. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  2. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  3. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E (section 671...

  4. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  5. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  6. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  7. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  8. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  9. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  10. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  11. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions...

  12. Flexible language constructs for large parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, Matthew; Schnabel, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the research described is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (MIMD) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data), SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression of the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. An overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner is given. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. An overview of the language and discussion of some of the critical implementation details is given.

  13. Flexible Language Constructs for Large Parallel Programs

    DOE PAGES

    Rosing, Matt; Schnabel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the research described in this article is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (multiple instruction multiple data [MIMD]) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include single instruction multiple data (SIMD), single program multiple data (SPMD), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression ofmore » the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. In this article, we give an overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. In this article, we give an overview of the language and discuss some of the critical implementation details.« less

  14. Flow Interaction With Highly Flexible Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh

    essential to high propulsion performance. We also note that this structural design is a recurring motif in nature. To understand flow-induced vibrations of deformable bluff objects, we study dynamics of a pressurized elastic ring within a uniform flow by using an immersed-boundary algorithm. The vibration of the flexible ring is decomposed into a pitching and flexible bending modes. Across the resonance region, nonlinear behavior of the ring is studied and the hydrodynamic loads are recorded. It is observed that within the resonance region, the lift force demonstrates a beating phenomenon reminiscent of findings from reduced models and low-degree-of-freedom systems.

  15. Co-Inheritance Analysis within the Domains of Life Substantially Improves Network Inference by Phylogenetic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Junha; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic profiling, a network inference method based on gene inheritance profiles, has been widely used to construct functional gene networks in microbes. However, its utility for network inference in higher eukaryotes has been limited. An improved algorithm with an in-depth understanding of pathway evolution may overcome this limitation. In this study, we investigated the effects of taxonomic structures on co-inheritance analysis using 2,144 reference species in four query species: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Homo sapiens. We observed three clusters of reference species based on a principal component analysis of the phylogenetic profiles, which correspond to the three domains of life—Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota—suggesting that pathways inherit primarily within specific domains or lower-ranked taxonomic groups during speciation. Hence, the co-inheritance pattern within a taxonomic group may be eroded by confounding inheritance patterns from irrelevant taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that co-inheritance analysis within domains substantially improved network inference not only in microbe species but also in the higher eukaryotes, including humans. Although we observed two sub-domain clusters of reference species within Eukaryota, co-inheritance analysis within these sub-domain taxonomic groups only marginally improved network inference. Therefore, we conclude that co-inheritance analysis within domains is the optimal approach to network inference with the given reference species. The construction of a series of human gene networks with increasing sample sizes of the reference species for each domain revealed that the size of the high-accuracy networks increased as additional reference species genomes were included, suggesting that within-domain co-inheritance analysis will continue to expand human gene networks as genomes of additional species are sequenced. Taken together, we propose that co

  16. Algorithms for optimal dyadic decision trees

    SciTech Connect

    Hush, Don; Porter, Reid

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm for constructing optimal dyadic decision trees was recently introduced, analyzed, and shown to be very effective for low dimensional data sets. This paper enhances and extends this algorithm by: introducing an adaptive grid search for the regularization parameter that guarantees optimal solutions for all relevant trees sizes, revising the core tree-building algorithm so that its run time is substantially smaller for most regularization parameter values on the grid, and incorporating new data structures and data pre-processing steps that provide significant run time enhancement in practice.

  17. Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hen, Itay

    2013-01-01

    The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.

  18. A flexible decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulong

    2016-04-01

    Although decision-aided (DA) maximum likelihood (ML) phase estimation (PE) algorithm has been investigated intensively, block length effect impacts system performance and leads to the increasing of hardware complexity. In this paper, a flexible DA-ML algorithm is proposed in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. We present a general cross phase modulation (XPM) model based on Volterra series transfer function (VSTF) method to describe XPM effects induced by OOK channels at the end of dispersion management (DM) fiber links. Based on our model, the weighted factors obtained from maximum likelihood method are introduced to eliminate the block length effect. We derive the analytical expression of phase error variance for the performance prediction of coherent receiver with the flexible DA-ML algorithm. Bit error ratio (BER) performance is evaluated and compared through both theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The results show that our flexible DA-ML algorithm has significant improvement in performance compared with the conventional DA-ML algorithm as block length is a fixed value. Compared with the conventional DA-ML with optimum block length, our flexible DA-ML can obtain better system performance. It means our flexible DA-ML algorithm is more effective for mitigating phase noise than conventional DA-ML algorithm.

  19. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  20. Mode estimation and adaptive feedforward control for stabilization of a flexible gun tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandegrift, Mark W.; DiRenzo, Michael T.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper we describe an approach for designing a pointing and stabilization system for an unbalanced, flexible gun. Our approach is based upon classical control techniques as well as system identification and adaptive feedforward techniques. Adaptive algorithms identify the flexible modes of the system and estimate the dynamics unbalance. This information is used to update the control law in order to improve the stabilization accuracy of the system.

  1. Transform methods for precision continuum and control models of flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupi, Victor D.; Turner, James D.; Chun, Hon M.

    1991-01-01

    An open loop optimal control algorithm is developed for general flexible structures, based on Laplace transform methods. A distributed parameter model of the structure is first presented, followed by a derivation of the optimal control algorithm. The control inputs are expressed in terms of their Fourier series expansions, so that a numerical solution can be easily obtained. The algorithm deals directly with the transcendental transfer functions from control inputs to outputs of interest, and structural deformation penalties, as well as penalties on control effort, are included in the formulation. The algorithm is applied to several structures of increasing complexity to show its generality.

  2. Force control for robotic manipulators with structurally flexible links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latornell, Douglas John

    1992-01-01

    This thesis reports on the development of strategies for the control of contact forces exerted by a structurally flexible robotic manipulator on surfaces in its working environment. The controller is based on a multivariable, explicitly adaptive, long range predictive control algorithm. A static equilibrium bias term which is particularly applicable to the contact force control problem has been incorporated into the control algorithm cost function. A general formulation for the discrete time domain characteristic polynomial of the closed loop system has been derived and shown useful in tuning the controller. Kinematic and dynamic models of a robotic manipulator with structurally flexible links interacting with its working environment are derived. These models include inertia and damping effects in the contact dynamics in addition to the contact stiffness employed in most previous work. Linear analyses of the dynamic models for a variety of manipulator configurations reveal that the controlled variable, the contact force, is dominated by different open loop modes of the system depending on the effective stiffness of the contacting surfaces. This result has important implications for the selection of the controller parameters. The performance of the controller has been evaluated using computer simulation. A special purpose simulation program, TWOFLEX, which includes the dynamics models of the manipulator and the environment as well as the control algorithm was developed during the research. The configurations investigated using the simulation include a single flexible manipulator link, two link manipulators with both rigid and flexible links, and a two link prototype model of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) manipulator for the proposed Space Station Freedom. The results show that the controller can be tuned to provide fast contact force step responses with minimal overshoot and zero steady-state error. The problem of maintaining control through the discontinuous

  3. QPSO-based adaptive DNA computing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Karakose, Mehmet; Cigdem, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) computing that is a new computation model based on DNA molecules for information storage has been increasingly used for optimization and data analysis in recent years. However, DNA computing algorithm has some limitations in terms of convergence speed, adaptability, and effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach for improvement of DNA computing is proposed. This new approach aims to perform DNA computing algorithm with adaptive parameters towards the desired goal using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). Some contributions provided by the proposed QPSO based on adaptive DNA computing algorithm are as follows: (1) parameters of population size, crossover rate, maximum number of operations, enzyme and virus mutation rate, and fitness function of DNA computing algorithm are simultaneously tuned for adaptive process, (2) adaptive algorithm is performed using QPSO algorithm for goal-driven progress, faster operation, and flexibility in data, and (3) numerical realization of DNA computing algorithm with proposed approach is implemented in system identification. Two experiments with different systems were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with comparative results. Experimental results obtained with Matlab and FPGA demonstrate ability to provide effective optimization, considerable convergence speed, and high accuracy according to DNA computing algorithm.

  4. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization using an Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoist, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    A method for aerodynamic shape optimization based on an evolutionary algorithm approach is presented and demonstrated. Results are presented for a number of model problems to access the effect of algorithm parameters on convergence efficiency and reliability. A transonic viscous airfoil optimization problem-both single and two-objective variations is used as the basis for a preliminary comparison with an adjoint-gradient optimizer. The evolutionary algorithm is coupled with a transonic full potential flow solver and is used to optimize the inviscid flow about transonic wings including multi-objective and multi-discipline solutions that lead to the generation of pareto fronts. The results indicate that the evolutionary algorithm approach is easy to implement, flexible in application and extremely reliable.

  5. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization using an Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for aerodynamic shape optimization based on an evolutionary algorithm approach is presented and demonstrated. Results are presented for a number of model problems to access the effect of algorithm parameters on convergence efficiency and reliability. A transonic viscous airfoil optimization problem, both single and two-objective variations, is used as the basis for a preliminary comparison with an adjoint-gradient optimizer. The evolutionary algorithm is coupled with a transonic full potential flow solver and is used to optimize the inviscid flow about transonic wings including multi-objective and multi-discipline solutions that lead to the generation of pareto fronts. The results indicate that the evolutionary algorithm approach is easy to implement, flexible in application and extremely reliable.

  6. Algorithmic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, W.

    1990-12-13

    In this paper complex adaptive systems are defined by a self- referential loop in which objects encode functions that act back on these objects. A model for this loop is presented. It uses a simple recursive formal language, derived from the lambda-calculus, to provide a semantics that maps character strings into functions that manipulate symbols on strings. The interaction between two functions, or algorithms, is defined naturally within the language through function composition, and results in the production of a new function. An iterated map acting on sets of functions and a corresponding graph representation are defined. Their properties are useful to discuss the behavior of a fixed size ensemble of randomly interacting functions. This function gas'', or Turning gas'', is studied under various conditions, and evolves cooperative interaction patterns of considerable intricacy. These patterns adapt under the influence of perturbations consisting in the addition of new random functions to the system. Different organizations emerge depending on the availability of self-replicators.

  7. Analyses to improve operational flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Trikouros, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Operational flexibility is greatly enhanced if the technical bases for plant limits and design margins are fully understood, and the analyses necessary to evaluate the effect of plant modifications or changes in operating modes on these parameters can be performed as required. If a condition should arise that might jeopardize a plant limit or reduce operational flexibility, it would be necessary to understand the basis for the limit or the specific condition limiting operational flexibility and be capable of performing a reanalysis to either demonstrate that the limit will not be violated or to change the limit. This paper provides examples of GPU Nuclear efforts in this regard. Examples of Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island operating experiences are discussed.

  8. Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Moore, Adam; Malinowski, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the link between meditation, self-reported mindfulness and cognitive flexibility as well as other attentional functions. It compared a group of meditators experienced in mindfulness meditation with a meditation-naïve control group on measures of Stroop interference and the "d2-concentration and endurance test". Overall the results suggest that attentional performance and cognitive flexibility are positively related to meditation practice and levels of mindfulness. Meditators performed significantly better than non-meditators on all measures of attention. Furthermore, self-reported mindfulness was higher in meditators than non-meditators and correlations with all attention measures were of moderate to high strength. This pattern of results suggests that mindfulness is intimately linked to improvements of attentional functions and cognitive flexibility. The relevance of these findings for mental balance and well-being are discussed.

  9. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  10. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  11. Computing Bounds on Resource Levels for Flexible Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscvettola, Nicola; Rijsman, David

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm efficiently computes the tightest exact bound on the levels of resources induced by a flexible activity plan (see figure). Tightness of bounds is extremely important for computations involved in planning because tight bounds can save potentially exponential amounts of search (through early backtracking and detection of solutions), relative to looser bounds. The bound computed by the new algorithm, denoted the resource-level envelope, constitutes the measure of maximum and minimum consumption of resources at any time for all fixed-time schedules in the flexible plan. At each time, the envelope guarantees that there are two fixed-time instantiations one that produces the minimum level and one that produces the maximum level. Therefore, the resource-level envelope is the tightest possible resource-level bound for a flexible plan because any tighter bound would exclude the contribution of at least one fixed-time schedule. If the resource- level envelope can be computed efficiently, one could substitute looser bounds that are currently used in the inner cores of constraint-posting scheduling algorithms, with the potential for great improvements in performance. What is needed to reduce the cost of computation is an algorithm, the measure of complexity of which is no greater than a low-degree polynomial in N (where N is the number of activities). The new algorithm satisfies this need. In this algorithm, the computation of resource-level envelopes is based on a novel combination of (1) the theory of shortest paths in the temporal-constraint network for the flexible plan and (2) the theory of maximum flows for a flow network derived from the temporal and resource constraints. The measure of asymptotic complexity of the algorithm is O(N O(maxflow(N)), where O(x) denotes an amount of computing time or a number of arithmetic operations proportional to a number of the order of x and O(maxflow(N)) is the measure of complexity (and thus of cost) of a maximumflow

  12. Computational Controls Workstation: Algorithms and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopal, R.; Kumar, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Computational Controls Workstation provides an integrated environment for the modeling, simulation, and analysis of Space Station dynamics and control. Using highly efficient computational algorithms combined with a fast parallel processing architecture, the workstation makes real-time simulation of flexible body models of the Space Station possible. A consistent, user-friendly interface and state-of-the-art post-processing options are combined with powerful analysis tools and model databases to provide users with a complete environment for Space Station dynamics and control analysis. The software tools available include a solid modeler, graphical data entry tool, O(n) algorithm-based multi-flexible body simulation, and 2D/3D post-processors. This paper describes the architecture of the workstation while a companion paper describes performance and user perspectives.

  13. Studies Of Residual Flexibility And Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    Collection of reports presents theoretical and experimental studies in which concept of residual flexibility applied to modal vibration testing and verification of mathematical models of vibrations of flexible structure constrained by another structure. "Residual flexibility" denotes that part of interface flexibility due to mode shapes out of frequency range of test. Studies directed toward assessing residual-flexibility approach as substitute for fixed-base vibrational testing of payloads installed in spacecraft.

  14. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  15. FRP and pipe flexibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenman, J.D.

    1999-11-01

    Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) is an excellent material of construction for piping carrying corrosive media. Since FRP is an anisotropic material additional design detail is required to assure safe and reliable service. For this reason the resin selection, material specification, construction and detailed engineering are critical to the success of the project. This paper moves through this engineering process, including resin systems, fitting construction and pipe flexibility analysis. A comparison of fitting construction methods and discussion of stress/flexibility analysis design approaches will also be provided.

  16. Three penalized EM-type algorithms for PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yueyang; Zhang, Tie

    2012-06-01

    Based on Bayes theory, Green introduced the maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm to obtain a smoothing reconstruction for positron emission tomography. This algorithm is flexible and convenient for most of the penalties, but it is hard to guarantee convergence. For a common goal, Fessler penalized a weighted least squares (WLS) estimator by a quadratic penalty and then solved it with the successive over-relaxation (SOR) algorithm, however, the algorithm was time-consuming and difficultly parallelized. Anderson proposed another WLS estimator for faster convergence, on which there were few regularization methods studied. For three regularized estimators above, we develop three new expectation maximization (EM) type algorithms to solve them. Unlike MAP and SOR, the proposed algorithms yield update rules by minimizing the auxiliary functions constructed on the previous iterations, which ensure the cost functions monotonically decreasing. Experimental results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  17. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

  18. Modelling the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System: Another flexible model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhorst, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    High fidelity elastic system modeling algorithms are discussed. The particular system studied is the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) undergoing full articulated motion. The model incorporates flexibility via a methodology the author has been developing. The technique is based in variational principles, so rigorous boundary condition generation and weak formulations for the associated partial differential equations are realized, yet the analyst need not integrate by parts. The methodology is formulated using vector-dyad notation with minimal use of tensor notation, therefore the technique is believed to be affable to practicing engineers. The objectives of this work are as follows: (1) determine the efficacy of the modeling method; and (2) determine if the method affords an analyst advantages in the overall modeling and simulation task. Generated out of necessity were Mathematica algorithms that quasi-automate the modeling procedure and simulation development. The project was divided into sections as follows: (1) model development of a simplified manipulator; (2) model development of the full-freedom RMS including a flexible movable base on a six degree of freedom orbiter (a rigid-body is attached to the manipulator end-effector); (3) simulation development for item 2; and (4) comparison to the currently used model of the flexible RMS in the Structures and Mechanics Division of NASA JSC. At the time of the writing of this report, items 3 and 4 above were not complete.

  19. Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection.

    PubMed

    Regeling, Bianca; Thies, Boris; Gerstner, Andreas O H; Westermann, Stephan; Müller, Nina A; Bendix, Jörg; Laffers, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is increasingly gaining acceptance in the medical field. Up until now, HSI has been used in conjunction with rigid endoscopy to detect cancer in vivo. The logical next step is to pair HSI with flexible endoscopy, since it improves access to hard-to-reach areas. While the flexible endoscope's fiber optic cables provide the advantage of flexibility, they also introduce an interfering honeycomb-like pattern onto images. Due to the substantial impact this pattern has on locating cancerous tissue, it must be removed before the HS data can be further processed. Thereby, the loss of information is to minimize avoiding the suppression of small-area variations of pixel values. We have developed a system that uses flexible endoscopy to record HS cubes of the larynx and designed a special filtering technique to remove the honeycomb-like pattern with minimal loss of information. We have confirmed its feasibility by comparing it to conventional filtering techniques using an objective metric and by applying unsupervised and supervised classifications to raw and pre-processed HS cubes. Compared to conventional techniques, our method successfully removes the honeycomb-like pattern and considerably improves classification performance, while preserving image details. PMID:27529255

  20. Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Regeling, Bianca; Thies, Boris; Gerstner, Andreas O. H.; Westermann, Stephan; Müller, Nina A.; Bendix, Jörg; Laffers, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is increasingly gaining acceptance in the medical field. Up until now, HSI has been used in conjunction with rigid endoscopy to detect cancer in vivo. The logical next step is to pair HSI with flexible endoscopy, since it improves access to hard-to-reach areas. While the flexible endoscope’s fiber optic cables provide the advantage of flexibility, they also introduce an interfering honeycomb-like pattern onto images. Due to the substantial impact this pattern has on locating cancerous tissue, it must be removed before the HS data can be further processed. Thereby, the loss of information is to minimize avoiding the suppression of small-area variations of pixel values. We have developed a system that uses flexible endoscopy to record HS cubes of the larynx and designed a special filtering technique to remove the honeycomb-like pattern with minimal loss of information. We have confirmed its feasibility by comparing it to conventional filtering techniques using an objective metric and by applying unsupervised and supervised classifications to raw and pre-processed HS cubes. Compared to conventional techniques, our method successfully removes the honeycomb-like pattern and considerably improves classification performance, while preserving image details. PMID:27529255

  1. Tracking Changing Environments: Innovators Are Fast, but Not Flexible Learners

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Andrea S.; Guez, David; Lermite, Françoise; Patience, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural innovations are increasingly thought to provide a rich source of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary change. Innovation propensity shows substantial variation across avian taxa and provides an adaptive mechanism by which behaviour is flexibly adjusted to changing environmental conditions. Here, we tested for the first time the prediction that inter-individual variation in innovation propensity is equally a measure of behavioural flexibility. We used Indian mynas, Sturnus tristis, a highly successful worldwide invader. Results revealed that mynas that solved an extractive foraging task more quickly learnt to discriminate between a cue that predicted food, and one that did not more quickly. However, fast innovators were slower to change their behaviour when the significance of the food cues changed. This unexpected finding appears at odds with the well-established view that avian taxa with larger brains relative to their body size, and therefore greater neural processing power, are both faster, and more flexible learners. We speculate that the existence of this relationship across taxa can be reconciled with its absence within species by assuming that fast, innovative learners and non innovative, slow, flexible learners constitute two separate individual strategies, which are both underpinned by enhanced neural processing power. This idea is consistent with the recent proposal that individuals may differ consistently in ‘cognitive style’, differentially trading off speed against accuracy in cognitive tasks. PMID:24391981

  2. Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology for Flexible Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, P. G.; Joshi, S. M.; Price, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the design of flexible spacecraft, wherein the structural design and the control system design are performed simultaneously. The integrated design problem is posed as an optimization problem in which both the structural parameters and the control system parameters constitute the design variables, which are used to optimize a common objective function, thereby resulting in an optimal overall design. The approach is demonstrated by application to the integrated design of a geostationary platform, and to a ground-based flexible structure experiment. The numerical results obtained indicate that the integrated design approach generally yields spacecraft designs that are substantially superior to the conventional approach, wherein the structural design and control design are performed sequentially.

  3. Flexible Diaphragm Withstands Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, G.

    1986-01-01

    Diaphragm seal retains flexibility throughout temperature range of -200 to +600 degree F (-129 to +316 degree C). Diaphragm durable, simple, versatile, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Suitable for refrigeration seals, autoclaves, storage lockers, and other sealing applications subjected to extreme temperature differentials.

  4. Flexible Learning: A Luddite View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the flexible learning concept through the eyes of the 19th-century industrial activists known as the Luddites. During a period of economic uncertainty, the Luddite perspective provides a sensitive justification for a change-free educational environment, and for a backlash in favour of "inflexible learning" (IL). The…

  5. Exploring Quadrilaterals through Flexible Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Kerri; Reynolds, Anne; Schwartz, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    The quadrilaterals problem is a particularly rich task, applicable to in-service teachers as well as to the students they teach. The ways in which students engage in this task, the strategies they use, and the mathematics that results align well with this "MT" Focus Issue on flexible mathematical thinking. The authors offer their observations of…

  6. Promoting Flexibility in Male Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Charles D., Comp.; Linn, Eleanor, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    In this publication issues are discussed which pertain to male roles and fatherhood. "From the Desk of the Director" (Charles D. Moody, Sr.) discusses the need for increased role flexibility for men in general and black men in particular. The lead article, "Equity: A Question in Balance" (D. Groves Dugger), delves into the causes and consequences…

  7. Flexibility in Language and Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Many words can be used flexibly: a book can be physically heavy, but also have provocative content, a "chicken" might live in a coop, but could also be tasty to eat. What do the uses of "polysemous" words such as these reveal about the structure of language and thought? Paper 1 examined 4-year-old children's representations of polysemous words…

  8. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  9. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  10. Flexible Metal-Fabric Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia; Nguyen, Hai D.; Ruemmele, Warren; Andish, Kambiz K.; McCalley, Sean

    2005-01-01

    Flexible metal-fabric radiators have been considered as alternative means of dissipating excess heat from spacecraft and space suits. The radiators also may be useful in such special terrestrial applications as rejecting heat from space-suit-like protective suits worn in hot work environments. In addition to flexibility and consequent ease of deployment and installation on objects of varying sizes and shapes, the main advantages of these radiators over conventional rigid radiators are that they weigh less and occupy less volume for a given amount of cooling capacity. A radiator of this type includes conventional stainless-steel tubes carrying a coolant fluid. The main radiating component consists of a fabric of interwoven aluminum-foil strips bonded to the tubes by use of a proprietary process. The strip/tube bonds are strong and highly thermally conductive. Coolant is fed to and from the tubes via flexible stainless-steel manifolds designed to accommodate flexing of, and minimize bending forces on, the fabric. The manifolds are sized to minimize pressure drops and distribute the flow of coolant evenly to all the tubes. The tubes and manifolds are configured in two independent flow loops for operational flexibility and protective redundancy.

  11. Flexible separator for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Device is fabricated from low-cost readily-available commercial-materials by automated methods utilizing conventional paper coating processes. Flexibility of unit prevents cracking and disintegration caused by electrode warpage and dendrite growth, major causes of early battery failure with present separators.

  12. Flexible radiator system: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. R.; Cox, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A full scale prototype flexible radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, has approximately 173 sq ft of radiating area and is designed to reject 1.33 kW of heat to a 0 F sink with a 100 F fluid inlet. The panel is constructed from a flexible Teflon/silver mesh fin surrounding 1/8 inch Teflon tubes. The prototype panel is stowed on a 10 inch diameter by 4 foot wide drum. (It rolls up to a diameter of 17 inches when fully stowed). Deployment of the soft tube prototype is via two four inch diameter Kevlar/Mylar inflation tubes with flat springs incorporated in each tube. Nitrogen is normally used for the deployment with approximately 1 psi required. The springs retract the panels when the inflation tubes are deflated. Another method of deployment available for the soft tube flexible is a motor driven deployable boom. This eliminates the need for expendables when the panel area is varied during the mission for heat load control. The soft tube panel is designed for a 90% probability of no punctured tube in a 30 day mission. The acceptable working fluids for this soft tube flexible are Coolanol 15, Coolanol 20 and Glycol/water (a eutectic mixture).

  13. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  14. Flexible hose for liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, H.B.

    1984-05-01

    Flexible hose for liquefied gases, comprising a tubular body of biaxially oriented polypropylene film (2) arranged between an inner helically wound wire (3) and an outer helically wound wire (4), said wires being wound at the same pitch but having the windings displaced by half a pitch width from each other.

  15. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  16. Flexible Systems Invade the Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are systems that can be programed to alter their procedures to suit varying production requirements. Use of and trends related to these systems in the United States and foreign countries are discussed. A detailed diagram of a hypothetical FMS is provided. (JN)

  17. PNF and Other Flexibility Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…

  18. Flexible Space Takes Center Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1997-01-01

    Design flexibility allows a new auditorium at an Illinois high school to be three theaters in one. While the large auditorium supports 1,200 seats, two rotating platforms can divide the large space into a 240-seat small theater and a 240-seat recital hall, leaving a 720-seat auditorium in the center. (MLF)

  19. Adaptive Control For Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Ih, Che-Hang Charles; Wang, Shyh Jong

    1988-01-01

    Paper discusses ways to cope with measurement noise in adaptive control system for large, flexible structure in outer space. System generates control signals for torque and thrust actuators to turn all or parts of structure to desired orientations while suppressing torsional and other vibrations. Main result of paper is general theory for introduction of filters to suppress measurement noise while preserving stability.

  20. States Seek Flexibility on Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele; Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With the debut of common assessments less than two years away, states and districts are worried about the accountability systems that hinge on those tests. A growing chorus of policy groups is urging more flexibility in how states evaluate teachers, label schools, and enforce other high-stakes consequences during what's likely to be a messy…

  1. Direct model reference adaptive control of a flexible robotic manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meldrum, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quick, precise control of a flexible manipulator in a space environment is essential for future Space Station repair and satellite servicing. Numerous control algorithms have proven successful in controlling rigid manipulators wih colocated sensors and actuators; however, few have been tested on a flexible manipulator with noncolocated sensors and actuators. In this thesis, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme based on command generator tracker theory is designed for a flexible manipulator. Quicker, more precise tracking results are expected over nonadaptive control laws for this MRAC approach. Equations of motion in modal coordinates are derived for a single-link, flexible manipulator with an actuator at the pinned-end and a sensor at the free end. An MRAC is designed with the objective of controlling the torquing actuator so that the tip position follows a trajectory that is prescribed by the reference model. An appealing feature of this direct MRAC law is that it allows the reference model to have fewer states than the plant itself. Direct adaptive control also adjusts the controller parameters directly with knowledge of only the plant output and input signals.

  2. Robust on-off pulse control of flexible space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi

    1993-01-01

    The on-off reaction jet control system is often used for attitude and orbital maneuvering of various spacecraft. Future space vehicles such as the orbital transfer vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, and space station will extensively use reaction jets for orbital maneuvering and attitude stabilization. The proposed robust fuel- and time-optimal control algorithm is used for a three-mass spacing model of flexible spacecraft. A fuel-efficient on-off control logic is developed for robust rest-to-rest maneuver of a flexible vehicle with minimum excitation of structural modes. The first part of this report is concerned with the problem of selecting a proper pair of jets for practical trade-offs among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, structural mode excitation, and performance robustness. A time-optimal control problem subject to parameter robustness constraints is formulated and solved. The second part of this report deals with obtaining parameter insensitive fuel- and time- optimal control inputs by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that sensitivity to modeling errors can be significantly reduced by the proposed, robustified open-loop control approach. The final part of this report deals with sliding mode control design for uncertain flexible structures. The benchmark problem of a flexible structure is used as an example for the feedback sliding mode controller design with bounded control inputs and robustness to parameter variations is investigated.

  3. Dynamics and linear quadratic optimal control of flexible multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chin-Wei

    1994-12-01

    An efficient algorithm for the modeling, dynamic analysis, and optimal control of flexible multibody systems (FMBS) is presented. The cantilevered Bernoulli-Euler beam model and the assumed mode method are used to represent flexibility of elastic bodies in 3D vibration problems. Centrifugal stiffening effects are introduced to correctly represent the dynamic response. The governing equations of motion are based on Kane's equations, adopting a recursive formulation and strategic positioning of the generalized coordinates. The linear quadratic optimization scheme is employed to formulate the vibration control problem. The solutions to the Riccati equation and the use of Kalman gain as optimal control feedbacks to the control of flexibility are also introduced. Based on the optimal control theory and the property of the built-in redundancy for flexible multibody systems, the performance index measure in the optimization control of such systems can be classified into two manifolds: (1) using the extra degrees of freedom resulting from redundancy as control inputs and choosing an integral-type performance index which results in a global optimization scheme and (2) using the joint forces and torques as control inputs and allowing the system output state to keep close track to a reference state while the performance index is kept minimum. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the methodologies developed.

  4. Development and Evaluation of an Order-N Formulation for Multi-Flexible Body Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Tushar K.; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents development of a generic recursive Order-N algorithm for systems with rigid and flexible bodies, in tree or closed-loop topology, with N being the number of bodies of the system. Simulation results are presented for several test cases to verify and evaluate the performance of the code compared to an existing efficient dense mass matrix-based code. The comparison brought out situations where Order-N or mass matrix-based algorithms could be useful.

  5. Approach to recognition of flexible form for credit card expiration date recognition as example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshkus, Alexander; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Ingacheva, Anastasia; Skoryukina, Natalya

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider a task of finding information fields within document with flexible form for credit card expiration date field as example. We discuss main difficulties and suggest possible solutions. In our case this task is to be solved on mobile devices therefore computational complexity has to be as low as possible. In this paper we provide results of the analysis of suggested algorithm. Error distribution of the recognition system shows that suggested algorithm solves the task with required accuracy.

  6. Domain decomposition approach to flexible multibody dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, JunYoung; Chun, TaeYoung; Shin, SangJoon; Bauchau, Olivier A.

    2014-01-01

    Finite element based formulations for flexible multibody systems are becoming increasingly popular and as the complexity of the configurations to be treated increases, so does the computational cost. It seems natural to investigate the applicability of parallel processing to this type of problems; domain decomposition techniques have been used extensively for this purpose. In this approach, the computational domain is divided into non-overlapping sub-domains, and the continuity of the displacement field across sub-domain boundaries is enforced via the Lagrange multiplier technique. In the finite element literature, this approach is presented as a mathematical algorithm that enables parallel processing. In this paper, the divided system is viewed as a flexible multibody system, and the sub-domains are connected by kinematic constraints. Consequently, all the techniques applicable to the enforcement of constraints in multibody systems become applicable to the present problem. In particular, it is shown that a combination of the localized Lagrange multiplier technique with the augmented Lagrange formulation leads to interesting solution strategies. The proposed algorithm is compared with the well-known FETI approach with regards to convergence and efficiency characteristics. The present algorithm is relatively simple and leads to improved convergence and efficiency characteristics. Finally, implementation on a parallel computer was conducted for the proposed approach.

  7. Docking validation resources: protein family and ligand flexibility experiments.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudipto; Balius, Trent E; Rizzo, Robert C

    2010-11-22

    A database consisting of 780 ligand-receptor complexes, termed SB2010, has been derived from the Protein Databank to evaluate the accuracy of docking protocols for regenerating bound ligand conformations. The goal is to provide easily accessible community resources for development of improved procedures to aid virtual screening for ligands with a wide range of flexibilities. Three core experiments using the program DOCK, which employ rigid (RGD), fixed anchor (FAD), and flexible (FLX) protocols, were used to gauge performance by several different metrics: (1) global results, (2) ligand flexibility, (3) protein family, and (4) cross-docking. Global spectrum plots of successes and failures vs rmsd reveal well-defined inflection regions, which suggest the commonly used 2 Å criteria is a reasonable choice for defining success. Across all 780 systems, success tracks with the relative difficulty of the calculations: RGD (82.3%) > FAD (78.1%) > FLX (63.8%). In general, failures due to scoring strongly outweigh those due to sampling. Subsets of SB2010 grouped by ligand flexibility (7-or-less, 8-to-15, and 15-plus rotatable bonds) reveal that success degrades linearly for FAD and FLX protocols, in contrast to RGD, which remains constant. Despite the challenges associated with FLX anchor orientation and on-the-fly flexible growth, success rates for the 7-or-less (74.5%) and, in particular, the 8-to-15 (55.2%) subset are encouraging. Poorer results for the very flexible 15-plus set (39.3%) indicate substantial room for improvement. Family-based success appears largely independent of ligand flexibility, suggesting a strong dependence on the binding site environment. For example, zinc-containing proteins are generally problematic, despite moderately flexible ligands. Finally, representative cross-docking examples, for carbonic anhydrase, thermolysin, and neuraminidase families, show the utility of family-based analysis for rapid identification of particularly good or bad

  8. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. The flexible beams are modeled using a fully nonlinear theory which accounts for both finite rotations and large deformations. The present formulation incorporates physical measures of conjugate Cauchy stress and covariant strain increments. As a consequence, the beam model can easily be interfaced with real-time strain measurements and feedback control systems. A distinct feature of the present work is the computational preservation of total energy for undamped systems; this is obtained via an objective strain increment/stress update procedure combined with an energy-conserving time integration algorithm which contains an accurate update of angular orientations. The procedure is demonstrated via several example problems.

  9. Dedalus: Flexible framework for spectrally solving differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Keaton; Brown, Ben; Lecoanet, Daniel; Oishi, Jeff; Vasil, Geoff

    2016-03-01

    Dedalus solves differential equations using spectral methods. It is designed to solve initial-value, boundary-value, and eigenvalue problems involving nearly arbitrary equations sets and implements a highly flexible spectral framework that can simulate many domains and custom equations. Its primary features include symbolic equation entry, spectral domain discretization, multidimensional parallelization, implicit-explicit timestepping, and flexible analysis with HDF5. The code is written primarily in Python and features an easy-to-use interface, including text-based equation entry. The numerical algorithm produces highly sparse systems for a wide variety of equations on spectrally-discretized domains; these systems are efficiently solved by Dedalus using compiled libraries and multidimensional parallelization through MPI.

  10. Analytical dynamic solution of a flexible cable-suspended manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamdad, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    Cable-suspended manipulators are used in large scale applications with, heavy in weight and long in span cables. It seems impractical to maintain cable assumptions of smaller robots for large scale manipulators. The interactions among the cables, platforms and actuators can fully evaluate the coupled dynamic analysis. The structural flexibility of the cables becomes more pronounced in large manipulators. In this paper, an analytic solution is provided to solve cable vibration. Also, a closed form solution can be adopted to improve the dynamic response to flexibility. The output is provided by the optimal torque generation subject to the actuator limitations in a mechatronic sense. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through simulations.

  11. 78 FR 20855 - State Implementation Plans: Response to Petition for Rulemaking; Findings of Substantial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12460) must be received on or before May 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments...; Findings of Substantial Inadequacy; and SIP Calls To Amend Provisions Applying to Excess Emissions During...; Findings of Substantial Inadequacy; and SIP Calls to Amend Provisions Applying to Excess Emissions...

  12. 12 CFR 366.5 - What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... deposit insurance fund? 366.5 Section 366.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... § 366.5 What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund? You cause a substantial loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund (or any predecessor deposit insurance fund) under § 366.3(d) when...

  13. 12 CFR 366.5 - What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deposit insurance fund? 366.5 Section 366.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... § 366.5 What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund? You cause a substantial loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund (or any predecessor deposit insurance fund) under § 366.3(d) when...

  14. 24 CFR 247.10 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired. 247.10 Section 247.10 Housing and Urban... SUBSIDIZED AND HUD-OWNED PROJECTS HUD-Owned Projects § 247.10 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation... of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. Nothing in this subpart should be construed to affect...

  15. 26 CFR 1.7874-3T - Substantial business activities (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rules in § 1.7874-2T(g), as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 12, 2012, or the rules set... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantial business activities (temporary). 1... Substantial business activities (temporary). (a) Scope. This section provides rules regarding whether...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary... liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary). (a) through (b)(7) For further guidance, see § 1.6043-3(a) through (b)(7)....

  17. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary). (a) through (b)(7) For further guidance, see § 1.6043-3(a) through (b)(7). (b)(8)...

  18. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  19. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  20. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  1. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  2. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  3. 26 CFR 1.6662-5T - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary). 1.6662-5T Section 1.6662-5T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-5T Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under...

  4. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  5. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  6. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-4 Substantial understatement of income tax. (a) In general. If any portion...

  7. 26 CFR 1.162-17 - Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting and substantiation of certain business... Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-17 Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees... reporting of information on income tax returns by taxpayers who pay or incur ordinary and necessary...

  8. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  9. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1080 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure. 416.1080 Section 416.1080 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Hearings and Appeals § 416.1080 Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure....

  16. 20 CFR 416.1080 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure. 416.1080 Section 416.1080 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Hearings and Appeals § 416.1080 Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure....

  17. Annealed Importance Sampling Reversible Jump MCMC algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Andrieu, Christophe

    2013-03-20

    It will soon be 20 years since reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJ-MCMC) algorithms have been proposed. They have significantly extended the scope of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods, offering the promise to be able to routinely tackle transdimensional sampling problems, as encountered in Bayesian model selection problems for example, in a principled and flexible fashion. Their practical efficient implementation, however, still remains a challenge. A particular difficulty encountered in practice is in the choice of the dimension matching variables (both their nature and their distribution) and the reversible transformations which allow one to define the one-to-one mappings underpinning the design of these algorithms. Indeed, even seemingly sensible choices can lead to algorithms with very poor performance. The focus of this paper is the development and performance evaluation of a method, annealed importance sampling RJ-MCMC (aisRJ), which addresses this problem by mitigating the sensitivity of RJ-MCMC algorithms to the aforementioned poor design. As we shall see the algorithm can be understood as being an “exact approximation” of an idealized MCMC algorithm that would sample from the model probabilities directly in a model selection set-up. Such an idealized algorithm may have good theoretical convergence properties, but typically cannot be implemented, and our algorithms can approximate the performance of such idealized algorithms to an arbitrary degree while not introducing any bias for any degree of approximation. Our approach combines the dimension matching ideas of RJ-MCMC with annealed importance sampling and its Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm with numerical simulations which indicate that, although the approach may at first appear computationally involved, it is in fact competitive.

  18. Rotary press utilizing a flexible die wall.

    PubMed

    Amidon, G E; Smith, D P; Hiestand, E N

    1981-06-01

    A die with a flexible wall was constructed and evaluated on a specially modified instrumented rotary tablet press. The design permits an inward deflection of the die wall by a side punch, which rolls past a side compression roll during compression-decompression. The side compression roll is instrumented to monitor the applied side compression roll forces. On decompression, return of the die wall to its original position permits release of residual die wall pressure. The decreased residual die wall pressure can decrease fracture and capping of tablets for problem formulations. The performance was tested on three experimental formulations. For these formulations, tablets made in a conventional die exhibited severe capping problems. However, most tablets compressed in the special die were superior. With proper adjustment of punch and die wall compression forces, excellent tablets could be manufactured. The merits of the special die and modified tablet machine are substantiated, although this initial design did not provide adequate die wall pressure for all formulations. Further engineering efforts could result in practical production equipment.

  19. On the use of multi-algorithm, genetically adaptive multi-objective method for multi-site calibration of the SWAT model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Van Liew, M.

    2010-04-15

    With the availability of spatially distributed data, distributed hydrologic models are increasingly used for simulation of spatially varied hydrologic processes to understand and manage natural and human activities that affect watershed systems. Multi-objective optimization methods have been applied to calibrate distributed hydrologic models using observed data from multiple sites. As the time consumed by running these complex models is increasing substantially, selecting efficient and effective multi-objective optimization algorithms is becoming a nontrivial issue. In this study, we evaluated a multi-algorithm, genetically adaptive multi-objective method (AMALGAM) for multi-site calibration of a distributed hydrologic model—Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), and compared its performance with two widely used evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) algorithms (i.e. Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2) and Non-dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II)). In order to provide insights into each method’s overall performance, these three methods were tested in four watersheds with various characteristics. The test results indicate that the AMALGAM can consistently provide competitive or superior results compared with the other two methods. The multi-method search framework of AMALGAM, which can flexibly and adaptively utilize multiple optimization algorithms, makes it a promising tool for multi-site calibration of the distributed SWAT. For practical use of AMALGAM, it is suggested to implement this method in multiple trials with relatively small number of model runs rather than run it once with long iterations. In addition, incorporating different multiobjective optimization algorithms and multi-mode search operators into AMALGAM deserves further research.

  20. Flexible Gating of Contextual Influences in Natural Vision

    PubMed Central

    Coen-Cagli, R.; Kohn, A.; Schwartz, O.

    2015-01-01

    Identical sensory inputs can be perceived as strikingly different when embedded in distinct contexts. Neural responses to simple stimuli are also modulated by context, but the contribution of this modulation to the processing of natural sensory input is unclear. We measured surround suppression, a quintessential contextual influence, in macaque primary visual cortex with natural images. We found suppression strength varied substantially for different images. This variability was not well explained by existing descriptions of surround suppression, but it was predicted by Bayesian inference about statistical dependencies in images. In this framework, surround suppression was flexible: it was recruited when the image was inferred to contain redundancies, and substantially reduced in strength otherwise. Our results thus reveal a surprising gating of a basic, widespread cortical computation, by inference about the statistics of natural input. PMID:26436902

  1. Flexible gating of contextual influences in natural vision.

    PubMed

    Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Kohn, Adam; Schwartz, Odelia

    2015-11-01

    Identical sensory inputs can be perceived as markedly different when embedded in distinct contexts. Neural responses to simple stimuli are also modulated by context, but the contribution of this modulation to the processing of natural sensory input is unclear. We measured surround suppression, a quintessential contextual influence, in macaque primary visual cortex with natural images. We found that suppression strength varied substantially for different images. This variability was not well explained by existing descriptions of surround suppression, but it was predicted by Bayesian inference about statistical dependencies in images. In this framework, surround suppression was flexible: it was recruited when the image was inferred to contain redundancies and substantially reduced in strength otherwise. Thus, our results reveal a gating of a basic, widespread cortical computation by inference about the statistics of natural input. PMID:26436902

  2. Control of flexible robots with prismatic joints and hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    The design and control of long-reach, flexible manipulators has been an active research topic for over 20 years. Most of the research to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long-reach systems. One example is the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) designed and built by Spar Aerospace for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This arm operates in larger, underground waste storage tanks located at ORNL. The size and nature of the tanks require that the robot have a reach of approximately 15 ft and a payload capacity of 250 lb. In order to achieve these criteria, each joint is hydraulically actuated. Furthermore, the robot has a prismatic degree-of-freedom to ease deployment. When fully extended, the robot`s first natural frequency is 1.76 Hz. Many of the projected tasks, coupled with the robot`s flexibility, present an interesting problem. How will many of the existing flexure control algorithms perform on a hydraulic, long-reach manipulator with prismatic links? To minimize cost and risk of testing these algorithms on the MLDUA, the authors have designed a new test bed that contains many of the same elements. This manuscript described a new hydraulically actuated, long-reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at ORNL. Focus is directed toward both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.

  3. Framework and algorithms for illustrative visualizations of time-varying flows on unstructured meshes

    DOE PAGES

    Rattner, Alexander S.; Guillen, Donna Post; Joshi, Alark; Garimella, Srinivas

    2016-03-17

    Photo- and physically realistic techniques are often insufficient for visualization of fluid flow simulations, especially for 3D and time-varying studies. Substantial research effort has been dedicated to the development of non-photorealistic and illustration-inspired visualization techniques for compact and intuitive presentation of such complex datasets. However, a great deal of work has been reproduced in this field, as many research groups have developed specialized visualization software. Additionally, interoperability between illustrative visualization software is limited due to diverse processing and rendering architectures employed in different studies. In this investigation, a framework for illustrative visualization is proposed, and implemented in MarmotViz, a ParaViewmore » plug-in, enabling its use on a variety of computing platforms with various data file formats and mesh geometries. Region-of-interest identification and feature-tracking algorithms incorporated into this tool are described. Implementations of multiple illustrative effect algorithms are also presented to demonstrate the use and flexibility of this framework. Here, by providing an integrated framework for illustrative visualization of CFD data, MarmotViz can serve as a valuable asset for the interpretation of simulations of ever-growing scale.« less

  4. Statistical Methods for Tissue Array Images – Algorithmic Scoring and Co-training

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Donghui; Wang, Pei; Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Linden, Michael; Randolph, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in tissue microarray technology have allowed immunohistochemistry to become a powerful medium-to-high throughput analysis tool, particularly for the validation of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, as study size grows, the manual evaluation of these assays becomes a prohibitive limitation; it vastly reduces throughput and greatly increases variability and expense. We propose an algorithm—Tissue Array Co-Occurrence Matrix Analysis (TACOMA)—for quantifying cellular phenotypes based on textural regularity summarized by local inter-pixel relationships. The algorithm can be easily trained for any staining pattern, is absent of sensitive tuning parameters and has the ability to report salient pixels in an image that contribute to its score. Pathologists’ input via informative training patches is an important aspect of the algorithm that allows the training for any specific marker or cell type. With co-training, the error rate of TACOMA can be reduced substantially for a very small training sample (e.g., with size 30). We give theoretical insights into the success of co-training via thinning of the feature set in a high dimensional setting when there is “sufficient” redundancy among the features. TACOMA is flexible, transparent and provides a scoring process that can be evaluated with clarity and confidence. In a study based on an estrogen receptor (ER) marker, we show that TACOMA is comparable to, or outperforms, pathologists’ performance in terms of accuracy and repeatability. PMID:22984376

  5. Generalized Framework and Algorithms for Illustrative Visualization of Time-Varying Data on Unstructured Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander S. Rattner; Donna Post Guillen; Alark Joshi

    2012-12-01

    Photo- and physically-realistic techniques are often insufficient for visualization of simulation results, especially for 3D and time-varying datasets. Substantial research efforts have been dedicated to the development of non-photorealistic and illustration-inspired visualization techniques for compact and intuitive presentation of such complex datasets. While these efforts have yielded valuable visualization results, a great deal of work has been reproduced in studies as individual research groups often develop purpose-built platforms. Additionally, interoperability between illustrative visualization software is limited due to specialized processing and rendering architectures employed in different studies. In this investigation, a generalized framework for illustrative visualization is proposed, and implemented in marmotViz, a ParaView plugin, enabling its use on variety of computing platforms with various data file formats and mesh geometries. Detailed descriptions of the region-of-interest identification and feature-tracking algorithms incorporated into this tool are provided. Additionally, implementations of multiple illustrative effect algorithms are presented to demonstrate the use and flexibility of this framework. By providing a framework and useful underlying functionality, the marmotViz tool can act as a springboard for future research in the field of illustrative visualization.

  6. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz.

  7. Multilayer coatings on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.A.; Bennett, W.D.; Stewart, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Thin-film optical and non-optical multilayer coatings are deposited onto flexible substrates using a vacuum web coater developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The coater`s primary application is rapid prototyping of multilayer (1) polymer coatings, (2) polymer/metal coatings, (3) ceramic/metal coatings, and (4) hybrid polymer, ceramic, and metal coatings. The coater is fully automated and incorporates polymer evaporation and extrusion heads, high-rate magnetron sputtering cathodes, and e-beam evaporation sources. Polymer electrolytes are deposited by extrusion techniques. Flexible plastic, metal, and ceramic substrates can be coated using roll-to-roll or closed-loop configurations. Examples of multilayer optical coatings demonstrated to date are solar reflectors, heat mirrors, Fabry-Perot filters, and alpha particle sensors. Nonoptical coatings include multilayer magnetic metal/ceramic and lamellar composites.

  8. The evolution of flexible parenting.

    PubMed

    Royle, Nick J; Russell, Andrew F; Wilson, Alastair J

    2014-08-15

    Parenting behaviors, such as the provisioning of food by parents to offspring, are known to be highly responsive to changes in environment. However, we currently know little about how such flexibility affects the ways in which parenting is adapted and evolves in response to environmental variation. This is because few studies quantify how individuals vary in their response to changing environments, especially social environments created by other individuals with which parents interact. Social environmental factors differ from nonsocial factors, such as food availability, because parents and offspring both contribute and respond to the social environment they experience. This interdependence leads to the coevolution of flexible behaviors involved in parenting, which could, paradoxically, constrain the ability of individuals to rapidly adapt to changes in their nonsocial environment.

  9. Flexible chains of ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Townsend, James; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Galabura, Yuriy; Luzinov, Igor

    2014-07-22

    We report the fabrication of flexible chains of ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles that possess the ability to adapt other than the typically observed rigid (nearly) straight configurations in the absence of an external magnetic field. The dynamic mobility of the ferromagnetic chains originates from a layer of densely grafted polyethylene glycol macromolecules enveloping each nanoparticle in the chain. While ferromagnetic chains of unmodified Ni nanoparticles behave as stiff nickel nanorods, the chains made of the grafted nanoparticles demonstrate extreme flexibility. Upon changing the direction of the field, and inevitably going through a zero-field point, the shorter chains undergo chain-globule-chain transformation. The longer chains can bend to a high degree, attaining "snake-like" configurations.

  10. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  11. Automated design of flexible linkers.

    PubMed

    Manion, Charles; Arlitt, Ryan; Campbell, Matthew I; Tumer, Irem; Stone, Rob; Greaney, P Alex

    2016-03-14

    This paper presents a method for the systematic and automated design of flexible organic linkers for construction of metal organic-frameworks (MOFs) in which flexibility, compliance, or other mechanically exotic properties originate at the linker level rather than from the framework kinematics. Our method couples a graph grammar method for systematically generating linker like molecules with molecular dynamics modeling of linkers' mechanical response. Using this approach we have generated a candidate pool of >59,000 hypothetical linkers. We screen linker candidates according to their mechanical behaviors under large deformation, and extract fragments common to the most performant candidate materials. To demonstrate the general approach to MOF design we apply our system to designing linkers for pressure switching MOFs-MOFs that undergo reversible structural collapse after a stress threshold is exceeded. PMID:26687337

  12. Lightweight flexible rooftop PV module

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M.; Ovshinsky, H.C.; Whelan, K.

    1994-12-31

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) and United Solar Systems Corp. (United Solar) are developing lightweight, flexible photovoltaic modules that can replace conventional roofing materials and be economically and aesthetically integrated into residential and commercial buildings. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency multi-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible, stainless steel substrates. Two types of products 1 ft by 10 ft overlapping PV shingles and 1.3 ft by 20 ft PV roof panels are being developed by United Solar and ECD, respectively. United Solar`s shingle type design uses a roof mounting procedures similar to those used with conventional asphalt shingles, while ECD`s PV panel uses mounting procedures conforming to metal roof systems. Thus, they can be installed on roof sheathings, replacing ordinary shingles or metal roofing panels, on a standard wood roof construction.

  13. Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Sibinski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Malgorzata; Sloma, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes. PMID:22163634

  14. The dynamics and control of large flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Krishna, R.; Kumar, V. K.; Reddy, A. S. S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamics and attitude and shape control of very large, inherently flexible spacecraft systems were investigated. Increasingly more complex examples were examined, beginning with a uniform free-free beam, next a free-free uniform plate/platform and finally by considering a thin shallow spherical shell structure in orbit. The effects devices were modeled. For given sets of assumed actuator locations, the controllability of these systems was first established. Control laws for each of the actuators were developed based on decoupling techniques (including distributed modal control) pole placement algorithms and a application of the linear regulator problem for optical control theory.

  15. Improved Evolutionary Hybrids for Flexible Ligand Docking in Autodock

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, R.K.; Hart, W.E.; Morris, G.M.; Rosin, C.

    1999-01-27

    In this paper we evaluate the design of the hybrid evolutionary algorithms (EAs) that are currently used to perform flexible ligand binding in the Autodock docking software. Hybrid EAs incorporate specialized operators that exploit domain-specific features to accelerate an EA's search. We consider hybrid EAs that use an integrated local search operator to reline individuals within each iteration of the search. We evaluate several factors that impact the efficacy of a hybrid EA, and we propose new hybrid EAs that provide more robust convergence to low-energy docking configurations than the methods currently available in Autodock.

  16. Control of spinning flexible spacecraft by modal synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meirovitch, L.; Vanlandingham, H. F.; Oez, H.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the active control of a spinning flexible spacecraft. Such a system exhibits gyroscopic effects. The design of the controller is based on modal decomposition of the gyroscopic system. This modal decoupling procedure leads to a control mechanism implemented in modular form, which represents a distinct computational advantage over the control of the coupled system. Design procedures are demonstrated for two types of control algorithms, linear and nonlinear. The first represents classical linear feedback approach, and the second represents an application of on-off control, both types made feasible by the modal decomposition scheme.

  17. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  18. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  19. Flexible Borescope For Inspecting Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinozaki, Keith; Armstrong, Mike P.; Urquidi, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Borescope and associated equipment developed specifically for use in optical inspection of inside of flexible joints in rocket-engine fuel duct. Apparatus includes assembly, characterized as "mouse/canoe," at sensing end of 10-ft borescope cable. Borescope tip rides in mouse/canoe. The mouse/canoe made laterally compressible, to facilitate movement past constrictions and provides fixed distance from inspection point permitting accurate description in duct inspected.

  20. Putting the Flex in Flexible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dynacs Engineering Company, Inc. has commercialized a software product originally developed for the International Space Station. The image processing and 3-D graphics tool was first designed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1985. The software was so successful it became an industry standard for simulation of flexible spacecraft. Dynacs was funded to further enhance the software and decided to acquire the copyright in 1994.

  1. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  2. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately. PMID:25550100

  3. Library of Continuation Algorithms

    2005-03-01

    LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms) is scientific software written in C++ that provides advanced analysis tools for nonlinear systems. In particular, it provides parameter continuation algorithms. bifurcation tracking algorithms, and drivers for linear stability analysis. The algorithms are aimed at large-scale applications that use Newton’s method for their nonlinear solve.

  4. Minimum Bending-Moment Control for Slew Maneuver of Flexible Space Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirohisa; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Hironori A.

    This study is devoted to investigate slew maneuver of a flexible space structure. The flexible space structure treated in the present study is a rigid body equipped with a flexible aluminum bean, and the control scheme is defined as a method to minimize the bending-moment at the root of the flexible appendage during slew maneuver. The hierarchical gradient algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal control profile. Original of the algorithm can only treat inequality constraints on the state variables, and not on the maximum value of control input. It is necessary in the present problem formulation to take into consideration constraints on the control input since maximum value of control input is naturally limited. This paper proposes a method to improve the hierarchical algorithm so that constraints on the control input can be treated. The method is analyzed numerically to verify the present modified algorithm, and to show that constraints both on the control input and bending-moment are satisfied. The resulting control profile is implemented in an experiment to verify its feasibility. Results of experiments show that bending-moment is effectively reduced in the case that constraint on the maximum value of bending moment is considered.

  5. Flexible propulsors in ground effect.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Daniel B; Lauder, George V; Smits, Alexander J

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental evidence for the hydrodynamic benefits of swimming 'in ground effect', that is, near a solid boundary. This situation is common to fish that swim near the substrate, especially those that are dorsoventrally compressed, such as batoids and flatfishes. To investigate flexible propulsors in ground effect, we conduct force measurements and particle image velocimetry on flexible rectangular panels actuated at their leading edge near the wall of a water channel. For a given actuation mode, the panels swim faster near the channel wall while maintaining the same propulsive economy. In conditions producing net thrust, panels produce more thrust near the ground. When operating in resonance, swimming near the ground can also increase propulsive efficiency. Finally, the ground can act to suppress three-dimensional modes, thereby increasing thrust and propulsive efficiency. The planform considered here is non-biological, but the hydrodynamic benefits are likely to apply to more complex geometries, especially those where broad flexible propulsors are involved such as fish bodies and fins. Such fish could produce more thrust by swimming near the ground, and in some cases do so more efficiently. PMID:24667542

  6. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations. PMID:27649157

  7. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  8. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  9. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids.

    PubMed

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations. PMID:27649157

  10. Flexible propulsors in ground effect.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Daniel B; Lauder, George V; Smits, Alexander J

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental evidence for the hydrodynamic benefits of swimming 'in ground effect', that is, near a solid boundary. This situation is common to fish that swim near the substrate, especially those that are dorsoventrally compressed, such as batoids and flatfishes. To investigate flexible propulsors in ground effect, we conduct force measurements and particle image velocimetry on flexible rectangular panels actuated at their leading edge near the wall of a water channel. For a given actuation mode, the panels swim faster near the channel wall while maintaining the same propulsive economy. In conditions producing net thrust, panels produce more thrust near the ground. When operating in resonance, swimming near the ground can also increase propulsive efficiency. Finally, the ground can act to suppress three-dimensional modes, thereby increasing thrust and propulsive efficiency. The planform considered here is non-biological, but the hydrodynamic benefits are likely to apply to more complex geometries, especially those where broad flexible propulsors are involved such as fish bodies and fins. Such fish could produce more thrust by swimming near the ground, and in some cases do so more efficiently.

  11. Flexible-Wing-Based Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter G.; Jenkins, David A.; Ettinger, Scott; Lian, Yong-Sheng; Shyy, Wei; Waszak, Martin R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the development and evaluation of an original flexible-wing-based Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technology that reduces adverse effects of gusty wind conditions and unsteady aerodynamics, exhibits desirable flight stability, and enhances structural durability. The flexible wing concept has been demonstrated on aircraft with wingspans ranging from 18 inches to 5 inches. Salient features of the flexible-wing-based MAV, including the vehicle concept, flexible wing design, novel fabrication methods, aerodynamic assessment, and flight data analysis are presented.

  12. Interactive Fringe processing algorithm for interferogram analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthiban, V.; Sirohi, Rajpal S.

    A highly flexible algorithm for interferogram processing which enables the operator to interact with the computer at every stage, is presented. This algorithm developed on a PDP 11/23 microcomputer, uses Fortran callable subroutines based on Intellect 100 image processing hardware and a CUB R-G-B monitor. It also uses a single frame buffer of 512 x 512 x 8 pixels. This software employs a pseudo-colour mapping technique which helps the operator to select the optimum threshold values. Manual editing of the processed fringe pattern is also possible to enable removal of unwanted kinks and to connect any discontinuities. A fringe scanning subroutine is used to number the fringes and to store the peak coordinates in a data file for fringe analysis. The algorithm is employed for the analysis of an interferogram obtained from an inverting interferometer and the results are presented.

  13. On a programming language for graph algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinboldt, W. C.; Basili, V. R.; Mesztenyi, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    An algorithmic language, GRAAL, is presented for describing and implementing graph algorithms of the type primarily arising in applications. The language is based on a set algebraic model of graph theory which defines the graph structure in terms of morphisms between certain set algebraic structures over the node set and arc set. GRAAL is modular in the sense that the user specifies which of these mappings are available with any graph. This allows flexibility in the selection of the storage representation for different graph structures. In line with its set theoretic foundation, the language introduces sets as a basic data type and provides for the efficient execution of all set and graph operators. At present, GRAAL is defined as an extension of ALGOL 60 (revised) and its formal description is given as a supplement to the syntactic and semantic definition of ALGOL. Several typical graph algorithms are written in GRAAL to illustrate various features of the language and to show its applicability.

  14. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  15. Algorithmic synthesis using Python compiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Linczuk, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a python to VHDL compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and translate it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the programmed circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. This can be achieved by using many computational resources at the same time. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Using higher level of abstraction and High-Level Synthesis compiler implementation time can be reduced. The compiler has been implemented using the Python language. This article describes design, implementation and results of created tools.

  16. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  17. 40 CFR 158.30 - Flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flexibility. 158.30 Section 158.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.30 Flexibility. (a) FIFRA provides EPA flexibility to...

  18. 49 CFR 192.159 - Flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flexibility. 192.159 Section 192.159... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.159 Flexibility. Each pipeline must be designed with enough flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction...

  19. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  20. 49 CFR 192.159 - Flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flexibility. 192.159 Section 192.159... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.159 Flexibility. Each pipeline must be designed with enough flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction...

  1. 49 CFR 192.159 - Flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flexibility. 192.159 Section 192.159... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.159 Flexibility. Each pipeline must be designed with enough flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction...

  2. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  3. 49 CFR 192.159 - Flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flexibility. 192.159 Section 192.159... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.159 Flexibility. Each pipeline must be designed with enough flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction...

  4. 5 CFR 330.212 - Agency flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency flexibilities. 330.212 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.212 Agency flexibilities. An agency may provide the following flexibilities within its written RPL policies established under...

  5. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  6. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  7. 5 CFR 330.212 - Agency flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency flexibilities. 330.212 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.212 Agency flexibilities. An agency may provide the following flexibilities within its written RPL policies established under...

  8. 5 CFR 330.212 - Agency flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency flexibilities. 330.212 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.212 Agency flexibilities. An agency may provide the following flexibilities within its written RPL policies established under...

  9. 49 CFR 192.159 - Flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flexibility. 192.159 Section 192.159... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.159 Flexibility. Each pipeline must be designed with enough flexibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction...

  10. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this...

  11. Flexible Work Options within the Organisational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli

    2006-01-01

    The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options Questionnaire"…

  12. California's New School Funding Flexibility. Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The three appendices herein accompany the main report, "California's New School Funding Flexibility." Included are: (1) California's Previous Flexibility Policies; (2) Data and Methods; and (3) Categorical Funding and Student Disadvantage. (Contains 3 tables and 12 footnotes.) [For "California's New School Funding Flexibility," see ED519503.

  13. Flexibility in Higher Education: An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Marie; McGarr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Irish public policy strongly promotes greater flexibility in higher education. This review paper examines Irish policy conceptualisations of flexible learning. The review finds that the promotion of flexible learning is positioned within strongly economistic discourses of lifelong learning, and primarily in human capital terms of meeting the…

  14. Optimal Full Information Synthesis for Flexible Structures Implemented on Cray Supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Balas, Gary J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers an algorithm for synthesis of optimal controllers for full information feedback. The synthesis procedure reduces to a single linear matrix inequality which may be solved via established convex optimization algorithms. The computational cost of the optimization is investigated. It is demonstrated the problem dimension and corresponding matrices can become large for practical engineering problems. This algorithm represents a process that is impractical for standard workstations for large order systems. A flexible structure is presented as a design example. Control synthesis requires several days on a workstation but may be solved in a reasonable amount of time using a Cray supercomputer.

  15. Measurement of Residual Flexibility for Substructures Having Prominent Flexible Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    Verification of a dynamic model of a constrained structure requires a modal survey test of the physical structure and subsequent modification of the model to obtain the best agreement possible with test data. Constrained-boundary or fixed-base testing has historically been the most common approach for verifying constrained mathematical models, since the boundary conditions of the test article are designed to match the actual constraints in service. However, there are difficulties involved with fixed-base testing, in some cases making the approach impractical. It is not possible to conduct a truly fixed-base test due to coupling between the test article and the fixture. In addition, it is often difficult to accurately simulate the actual boundary constraints, and the cost of designing and constructing the fixture may be prohibitive. For use when fixed-base testing proves impractical or undesirable, alternate free-boundary test methods have been investigated, including the residual flexibility technique. The residual flexibility approach has been treated analytically in considerable detail and has had limited frequency response measurements for the method. This concern is well-justified for a number of reasons. First, residual flexibilities are very small numbers, typically on the order of 1.0E-6 in/lb for translational diagonal terms, and orders of magnitude smaller for off-diagonal values. This poses difficulty in obtaining accurate and noise-free measurements, especially for points removed from the excitation source. A second difficulty encountered in residual measurements lies in obtaining a clean residual function in the process of subtracting synthesized modal data from a measured response function. Inaccuracies occur since modes are not subtracted exactly, but only to the accuracy of the curve fits for each mode; these errors are compounded with increasing distance from the excitation point. In this paper, the residual flexibility method is applied to a simple

  16. Neural algorithms on VLSI concurrent architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Caviglia, D.D.; Bisio, G.M.; Parodi, G.

    1988-09-01

    The research concerns the study of neural algorithms for developing CAD tools with A.I. features in VLSI design activities. In this paper the focus is on optimization problems such as partitioning, placement and routing. These problems require massive computational power to be solved (NP-complete problems) and the standard approach is usually based on euristic techniques. Neural algorithms can be represented by a circuital model. This kind of representation can be easily mapped in a real circuit, which, however, features limited flexibility with respect to the variety of problems. In this sense the simulation of the neural circuit, by mapping it on a digital VLSI concurrent architecture seems to be preferrable; in addition this solution offers a wider choice with regard to algorithms characteristics (e.g. transfer curve of neural elements, reconfigurability of interconnections, etc.). The implementation with programmable components, such as transputers, allows an indirect mapping of the algorithm (one transputer for N neurons) accordingly to the dimension and the characteristics of the problem. In this way the neural algorithm described by the circuit is reduced to the algorithm that simulates the network behavior. The convergence properties of that formulation are studied with respect to the characteristics of the neural element transfer curve.

  17. Streamlining algorithms for complete adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. C., Jr. (Editor); Chevallier, J. P.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Hornung, Hans G.; Mignosi, Andre; Sears, William R.; Smith, J.; Wedemeyer, Erich H.

    1990-01-01

    For purposes of the adaptive-wall algorithms to be described, the modern era is considered to have begun with the simultaneous, independent recognition of the concept of matching an experimental inner flow across an interface to a computed outer flow by Chevallier, Ferri, Goodyer, Lissaman, Rubbert, and Sears. Fundamental investigations of the adaptive-wall matching concept by means of numerical simulations and theoretical considerations are described. An overview of the development and operation of 2D adaptive-wall facilities from about 1970 until the present is given, followed by similar material for 3D adaptive-wall facilities from approximately 1978 until the present. A general formulation of adaptation strategy is presented, with a theoretical basis for adaptation followed by 2D flexible, impermeable-wall applications; 2D ventilated-wall applications; 3D flexible, impermeable-wall applications; and 3D ventilated-wall applications. Representative experimental and 3D results are given, with 2D, followed by a discussion of limitations and open questions.

  18. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    DOEpatents

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  19. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public... needed. The Government benefits if defaulted timber sale contracts, mill closures, and bankruptcies can be avoided by granting extensions. Having numerous, economically viable, timber sale...

  20. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  1. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  2. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  3. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  4. Survey of intra- and inter-mission flexibility in space exploration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2010-07-01

    An increasingly common objective in the design of new space systems is the property of flexibility, or the capability to easily modify a system after it has been fielded in response to a changing environment or changing requirements. The body of research on this topic has been growing, but substantial work remains in developing metrics for characterizing system flexibility and trading it against other metrics of interest. This paper samples from the history of space exploration to glean heuristic insight into characteristics of flexibility in space exploration systems and their potential application to future systems. Divided into categories of intra- and inter-mission modification, examples include the Hubble Space Telescope, Mir space station, International Space Station, Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the robotic Venera program. In several cases, metrics are identified which show clear performance gains due to changes after a system is fielded, and in all cases, environment or requirement changes that prompted system change are identified. Also discussed are examples in which flexibility proved critical to mission success. Modular design and separation of functionality are recognized as likely flexibility-enabling characteristics. Finally, examples of non-configurational flexibility (e.g., software and trajectory flexibility) in space exploration applications are identified and discussed.

  5. Examining the evidence: reporter identity, allegation type, and sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of maltreatment substantiation.

    PubMed

    King, Bryn; Lawson, Jennifer; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily

    2013-11-01

    Using linked administrative data from child protection and birth records in California, this study examined whether the mandated status and type of reporter are independent predictors of substantiation among infants and young children across maltreatment types and after adjusting for characteristics of the child and family. Of the 59,413 children born in 2002 who were reported and investigated for maltreatment before the age of 5 years, 26% were substantiated. Reports originating from mandated sources were 2.5 times as likely (95% confidence interval, CI [2.40, 2.60]) to be substantiated as those from nonmandated reporters. Findings demonstrated that children whose allegations were reported by law enforcement, medical professionals, and workers in public agencies were consistently substantiated at higher rates than allegations from other mandated reporters. Results also indicated that the relationship between reporter type and the likelihood of substantiation varied by maltreatment type. Children reported by law enforcement for physical abuse were 6.3 times as likely (95% CI [4.86, 8.04]) to be substantiated as those reported by nonmandated sources. PMID:24121416

  6. Bending Flexibility of Actin Filaments during Motor-Induced Sliding

    PubMed Central

    Vikhorev, Petr G.; Vikhoreva, Natalia N.; Månsson, Alf

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction and other forms of cell motility occur as a result of cyclic interactions between myosin molecules and actin filaments. Force generation is generally attributed to ATP-driven structural changes in myosin, whereas a passive role is ascribed to actin. However, some results challenge this view, predicting structural changes in actin during motor activity, e.g., when the actin filaments slide on a myosin-coated surface in vitro. Here, we analyzed statistical properties of the sliding filament paths, allowing us to detect changes of this type. It is interesting to note that evidence for substantial structural changes that led to increased bending flexibility of the filaments was found in phalloidin-stabilized, but not in phalloidin-free, actin filaments. The results are in accordance with the idea that a high-flexibility structural state of actin is a prerequisite for force production, but not the idea that a low-to-high flexibility transition of the actin filament should be an important component of the force-generating step per se. Finally, our data challenge the general view that phalloidin-stabilized filaments behave as native actin filaments in their interaction with myosin. This has important implications, since phalloidin stabilization is a routine procedure in most studies of actomyosin function. PMID:18835897

  7. Automated Low-Cost Photogrammetry for Flexible Structure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. H.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.

    2012-07-01

    Structural monitoring requires instruments which can provide high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements at good temporal resolution and rapid processing speeds. Long-term campaigns and flexible structures are regarded as two of the most challenging subjects in monitoring engineering structures. Long-term monitoring in civil engineering is generally considered to be labourintensive and financially expensive and it can take significant effort to arrange the necessary human resources, transportation and equipment maintenance. When dealing with flexible structure monitoring, it is of paramount importance that any monitoring equipment used is able to carry out rapid sampling. Low cost, automated, photogrammetric techniques therefore have the potential to become routinely viable for monitoring non-rigid structures. This research aims to provide a photogrammetric solution for long-term flexible structural monitoring purposes. The automated approach was achieved using low-cost imaging devices (mobile phones) to replace traditional image acquisition stations and substantially reduce the equipment costs. A self-programmed software package was developed to deal with the hardware-software integration and system operation. In order to evaluate the performance of this low-cost monitoring system, a shaking table experiment was undertaken. Different network configurations and target sizes were used to determine the best configuration. A large quantity of image data was captured by four DSLR cameras and four mobile phone cameras respectively. These image data were processed using photogrammetric techniques to calculate the final results for the system evaluation.

  8. Behavior of unbonded flexible risers subject to axial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shao-fei; Tang, Wen-yong; Guo, Jin-ting

    2014-04-01

    Owing to nonlinear contact problems with slip and friction, a lot of limiting assumptions are made when developing analytical models to simulate the behavior of an unbonded flexible riser. Meanwhile, in order to avoid convergence problems and excessive calculating time associated with running the detailed finite element (FE) model of an unbonded flexible riser, interlocked carcass and zeta layers with complicated cross section shapes are replaced by simple geometrical shapes (e.g. hollow cylindrical shell) with equivalent orthotropic materials. But the simplified model does not imply the stresses equivalence of these two layers. To solve these problems, based on ABAQUS/Explicit, a numerical method that is suitable for the detailed FE model is proposed. In consideration of interaction among all component layers, the axial stiffness of an eight-layer unbonded flexible riser subjected to axial tension is predicted. Compared with analytical and experimental results, it is shown that the proposed numerical method not only has high accuracy but also can substantially reduce the calculating time. In addition, the impact of the lay angle of helical tendons on axial stiffness is discussed.

  9. Flexible Job Shop Scheduling with Multi-level Job Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yang-Ja; Kim, Ki-Dong; Jang, Seong-Yong; Park, Jinwoo

    This paper deals with a scheduling problem in a flexible job shop with multi-level job structures where end products are assembled from sub-assemblies or manufactured components. For such shops MRP (Material Requirement Planning) logic is frequently used to synchronize and pace the production activities for the required parts. However, in MRP, the planning of operational-level activities is left to short term scheduling. So, we need a good scheduling algorithm to generate feasible schedules taking into account shop floor characteristics and multi-level job structures used in MRP. In this paper, we present a GA (Genetic Algorithm) solution for this complex scheduling problem based on a new gene to reflect the machine assignment, operation sequences and the levels of the operations relative to final assembly operation. The relative operation level is the control parameter that paces the completion timing of the components belonging to the same branch in the multi-level job hierarchy. We compare the genetic algorithm with several dispatching rules in terms of total tardiness and the genetic algorithm shows outstanding performance for about forty modified standard job-shop problem instances.

  10. Exploiting Flexibly Assignable Work to Improve Load Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2002-12-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution of the data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. But there are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of several processors without altering the total volume of communication. In this paper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignment of tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms of network flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Our parametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on a candidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve the assignment problem with log W{sub T} and |P| probe calls, where W{sub T} and |P|, respectively, denote the total workload and number of processors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem, and show that any algorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to find an optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consider a continuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearly constrained optimization problem, i.e., min ||Ax||{sub {infinity}}, s.t. Bx = d. To avoid solving an intractable {infinity}-norm optimization problem, we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimize the {infinity}-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studied linearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of the problem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.

  11. Cognitive Flexibility in Primary Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian; Seer, Caroline; Dengler, Reinhard; Dressler, Dirk; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Although primary dystonia is typically characterized as a movement disorder, it is also associated with cognitive alterations in the domain of executive functioning which may arise from changes in cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, patients with dystonia show deficits in neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility. However, it is unclear whether cognitive inflexibility is caused by the pathomechanisms underlying primary dystonia or by confounding factors such as depression or symptom-related distraction.Methods The present study aimed to eliminate these confounds by examining cognitive flexibility in dystonia patients and in patients with similar motor symptoms but without a comparable central pathophysiology. Eighteen patients with primary blepharospasm, a common form of dystonia affecting the muscles around the eyes, and 19 patients with hemifacial spasm, a facial nerve disorder causing similar eyelid spasms, completed a computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (cWCST). The two groups were further compared on tests of global cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, health status, and impulsiveness. Results Blepharospasm patients committed significantly more errors on the cWCST than patients with hemifacial spasm. Group differences were most pronounced with regard to integration errors, a measure of rule-inference processes on the cWCST. Integration errors were also associated with impulsiveness in patients with blepharospasm. Conclusions Primary blepharospasm is related to deficits in cognitive flexibility, even when blepharospasm patients are compared with patients who suffer from motor symptoms of non-dystonic origin. Our results support the possibility that cognitive inflexibility results from the specific pathophysiological processes underlying primary dystonia. (JINS, 2016, 22, 662-670). PMID:27333537

  12. Graphene Based Flexible Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Congwen

    Graphene is a novel carbon material with great promise for a range of applications due to its electronic and mechanical properties. Its two-dimensional nature translates to a high sensitivity to surface chemical interactions thereby making it an ideal platform for sensors. Graphene's electronic properties are not degraded due to mechanical flexing or strain (Kim, K. S., et al. nature 07719, 2009) offering another advantage for flexible sensors integrated into numerous systems including fabrics, etc. We have demonstrated a graphene NO2 sensor on a solid substrate (100nm SiO2/heavily doped silicon). Three different methods were used to synthesize graphene and the sensor fabrication process was optimized accordingly. Water is used as a controllable p-type dopant in graphene to study the relationship between doping and graphene's response to NO2 . Experimental results show that interface water between graphene and the supporting SiO2 substrate induces higher p-doping in graphene, leading to a higher sensitivity to NO2, consistent with theoretical predications (Zhang, Y. et al., Nanotechnology 20(2009) 185504). We have also demonstrated a flexible and stretchable graphene-based sensor. Few layer graphene, grown on a Ni substrate, is etched and transferred to a highly stretchable polymer substrate (VHB from 3M) with preloaded stress, followed by metal contact formation to construct a flexible, stretchable sensor. With up to 500% deformation caused by compressive stress, graphene still shows stable electrical response to NO2. Our results suggest that higher compressive stress results in smaller sheet resistance and higher sensitivity to NO2. A possible molecular detection sensor utilizing Surface Enhanced Raman Spectrum (SERS) based on a graphene/gallium nanoparticles platform is also studied. By correlating the enhancement of the graphene Raman modes with metal coverage, we propose that the Ga transfers electrons to the graphene creating local regions of enhanced

  13. Apparatus for integrating a rigid structure into a flexible wall of an inflatable structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Patterson, Ross M. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    For an inflatable structure having a flexible outer shell or wall structure having a flexible restraint layer comprising interwoven, load-bearing straps, apparatus for integrating one or more substantially rigid members into the flexible shell. For each rigid member, a corresponding opening is formed through the flexible shell for receiving the rigid member. A plurality of connection devices are mounted on the rigid member for receiving respective ones of the load-bearing straps. In one embodiment, the connection devices comprise inner connecting mechanisms and outer connecting mechanisms, the inner and outer connecting mechanisms being mounted on the substantially rigid structure and spaced along a peripheral edge portion of the structure in an interleafed array in which respective outer connecting mechanisms are interposed between adjacent pairs of inner connecting mechanisms, the outer connecting mechanisms projecting outwardly from the peripheral edge portion of the substantially rigid structure beyond the adjacent inner connecting mechanisms to form a staggered array of connecting mechanisms extending along the panel structure edge portion. In one embodiment, the inner and outer connecting mechanisms form part of an integrated, structure rotatably mounted on the rigid member peripheral edge portion.

  14. Biaxially corrugated flexible sheet material

    DOEpatents

    Schmertz, John C.

    1991-04-16

    A flexible biaxially corrugated sheet material is formed from a plurality of identical trapezium segments which are arranged in a plurality of long strips a single segment wide. Adjacent strips are mirror images of each other and connected along adjoining sides with the angles of the four corners of adjacent segments being alternately less than 360.degree. and greater than 360.degree. along the length of a strip such that the sheet material has an undulating configuration, and is inherently curved and cannot lie in a flat plane.

  15. Smart machines with flexible rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of smart machinery is of current interest. Several technologies are relevant in this quest including magnetic bearings, shape memory alloys (SMA) and piezo-electric activation. Recently, a smart bearing pedestal was proposed based on SMAs and elastomeric O-rings. However, such a device is clearly relevant only for the control of rigid rotors, for flexible rotors there is a need for some modification on the rotor itself. In this paper, rotor actuation by piezo-electric patches on the rotor is studied. A methodology is presented for the calculation of rotor behaviour and appropriate control strategies are discussed.

  16. Smart machines with flexible rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, A. W.

    2009-08-01

    The concept of smart machinery is of significant current interest. Several technologies are relevant in this quest including magnetic bearings, shape memory alloys (SMA) and piezo-electric activation. Recently a smart bearing pedestal was proposed based on SMAs and elastomeric O-rings. However, such a device is clearly relevant only for the control of rigid rotors, for flexible rotors there is a need for some modification on the rotor itself. In this paper, rotor actuation by piezo-electric patches on the rotor is studied. A methodology is presented for the calculation of rotor behaviour and an appropriate control strategy is developed.

  17. Fully Integral, Flexible Composite Driveshaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrie, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    An all-composite driveshaft incorporating integral flexible diaphragms was developed for prime contractor testing. This new approach makes obsolete the split lines required to attach metallic flex elements and either metallic or composite spacing tubes in current solutions. Subcritical driveshaft weights can be achieved that are half that of incumbent technology for typical rotary wing shaft lengths. Spacing tubes compose an integral part of the initial tooling but remain part of the finished shaft and control natural frequencies and torsional stability. A concurrently engineered manufacturing process and design for performance competes with incumbent solutions at significantly lower weight and with the probability of improved damage tolerance and fatigue life.

  18. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  19. Computer aided flexible envelope designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

  20. The flexibility of optical metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; Pereira, Jonas P.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.

    2016-08-01

    We firstly revisit the importance, naturalness and limitations of the so-called optical metrics for describing the propagation of light rays in the limit of geometric optics. We then exemplify their flexibility and nontriviality in some nonlinear material media and in the context of nonlinear theories of the electromagnetism, both in the presence of curved backgrounds, where optical metrics could be flat and inaccessible regions for the propagation of photons could be conceived, respectively. Finally, we underline and discuss the relevance and potential applications of our analyses in a broad sense, ranging from material media to compact astrophysical systems.

  1. Flexible Multiplexed Surface Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Johnson, Preston B.; Ash, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Unitary array of sensors measures temperatures at points distributed over designated area on surface. Useful in measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models and thermally controlled objects. Made of combination of integrated-circuit microchips and film circuitry. Temperature-sensing chips scanned at speeds approaching 10 kHz. Operating range minus 40 degrees C to 120 degrees C. Flexibility of array conforms to curved surfaces. Multiplexer eliminates numerous monitoring cables. Control of acquisition and recording of data effected by connecting array to microcomputers via suitable interface circuitry.

  2. The SAPHIRE server: a new algorithm and implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W.; Leone, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    SAPHIRE is an experimental information retrieval system implemented to test new approaches to automated indexing and retrieval of medical documents. Due to limitations in its original concept-matching algorithm, a modified algorithm has been implemented which allows greater flexibility in partial matching and different word order within concepts. With the concomitant growth in client-server applications and the Internet in general, the new algorithm has been implemented as a server that can be accessed via other applications on the Internet. PMID:8563413

  3. Novel reconstruction algorithm for multiphasic cardiac imaging using multislice helical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesmeli, Erdogan; Edic, Peter M.; Iatrou, Maria; Pfoh, Armin H.

    2001-06-01

    Cardiac imaging is still a challenge to CT reconstruction algorithms due to the dynamic nature of the heart. We have developed a new reconstruction technique, called the Flexible Algorithm, which achieves high temporal resolution while it is robust to heart-rate variations. The Flexible Algorithm, first, retrospectively tags helical CT views with corresponding cardiac phases obtained from associated EKG. Next, it determines a set of views for each slice, a stack of which covers the entire heart. Subsequently, the algorithm selects an optimum subset of views to achieve the highest temporal resolution for the desired cardiac phase. Finally, it spatiotemporally filters the views in the selected subsets to reconstruct slices. We tested the performance of our algorithm using both a dynamic analytical phantom and clinical data. Preliminary results indicate that the Flexible Algorithm obtains improved spatiotemporal resolution for a large range of heart rates and variations than standard algorithms do. By providing improved image quality at any desired cardiac phase, and robustness to heart rate variations, the Flexible Algorithm enables cardiac applications in CT, including those that benefit from multiphase information.

  4. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  5. Control of complex components with Smart Flexible Phased Arrays.

    PubMed

    Casula, O; Poidevin, C; Cattiaux, G; Dumas, Ph

    2006-12-22

    The inspection is mainly performed in contact with ultrasonic wedge transducers; However, the shape cannot fit the changing geometries of components (butt weld, nozzle, elbow). The variable thickness of the coupling layer, between the wedge and the local surface, leads to beam distortions and losses of sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that these two phenomena contribute to reduce the inspection performances leading to shadow area, split beam.... Flexible phased arrays have been developed to fit the complex profile and improve such controls. The radiating surface is composed with independent piezoelectric elements mechanically assembled and a profilometer, embedded in the transducer, measures the local distortion. The computed shape is used by an algorithm to compute in real-time the adapted delay laws compensating the distortions of 2D or 3D profiles. Those delay laws are transferred to the real-time UT acquisition system, which applies them to the piezoelectric elements. This self-adaptive process preserves, during the scanning, the features of the focused beam (orientation and focal depth) in the specimen. To validate the concept of the Smart Flexible Phased Array Transducer, prototypes have been integrated to detect flaws machined in mock-ups with realistic irregular 2D and 3D shapes. Inspections have been carried out on samples showing the enhancement performances of the "Smart Flexible Phased Array" and validating the mechanical and acoustical behaviors of these probes.

  6. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  7. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  8. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  9. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  10. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  11. Flexible optical-infrared metafilter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Jean-Baptiste; Brissonneau, Vincent; Le Rouzo, Judikaël.; Ferchichi, Abdelkerim; Gourgon, Cécile; Dubarry, Christophe; Berginc, Gérard; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2014-02-01

    By combining the antireflective properties from gradual changes in the effective refractive index and cavity coupling from cone gratings, and the efficient optical behavior of a tungsten film, we have conceived a flexible filter showing very broad antireflective (AR) properties from the visible to short wavelength infrared region (SWIR: 0.7-1.5 μm) and simultaneously a mirror-like behavior in the mid-infrared wavelength region (MWIR: 3-5 μm) and long-infrared wavelength region (LWIR: 8 to 15 μm). Nanoimprint technology has permitted us to replicate inverted cone patterns on a large scale on a flexible polymer, afterwards coated with a thin tungsten film. This optical metafilter is of great interest in the stealth domain where optical signature reduction from the optical to SWIR region is an important matter. As it also acts as selective thermal emitter offering a good solar-absorption/ infrared-emissivity ratio, interests are found as well for solar heating applications.

  12. Robonaut's Flexible Information Technology Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, Scott; Bluethmann, William; Alder, Ken; Ambrose, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Robonaut, NASA's humanoid robot, is designed to work as both an astronaut assistant and, in certain situations, an astronaut surrogate. This highly dexterous robot performs complex tasks under telepresence control that could previously only be carried out directly by humans. Currently with 47 degrees of freedom (DOF), Robonaut is a state-of-the-art human size telemanipulator system. while many of Robonaut's embedded components have been custom designed to meet packaging or environmental requirements, the primary computing systems used in Robonaut are currently commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products which have some correlation to flight qualified computer systems. This loose coupling of information technology (IT) resources allows Robonaut to exploit cost effective solutions while floating the technology base to take advantage of the rapid pace of IT advances. These IT systems utilize a software development environment, which is both compatible with COTS hardware as well as flight proven computing systems, preserving the majority of software development for a flight system. The ability to use highly integrated and flexible COTS software development tools improves productivity while minimizing redesign for a space flight system. Further, the flexibility of Robonaut's software and communication architecture has allowed it to become a widely used distributed development testbed for integrating new capabilities and furthering experimental research.

  13. Investigations on Flexible Multiferroic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subhasis; Biswas, Bulbul; Majumder, S. B.

    2008-10-01

    Multiferroic ceramics are one of the most attractive materials for the next generation computer memories, smart sensors, and high frequency microelectronic devices. As compared to single phase multiferroic, piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composite materials exhibit larger magnetoelectric coefficients and therefore better suited for practical applications. In the present paper, we have provided a brief introduction on the multiferroic electro-ceramics followed by the outline of recent research trends on these materials. The potentials of flexible polymer-magnetostrictive composite materials, synthesized by economic chemical based processing routes, has been outlined. To make flexible multiferroic composites, cobalt iron oxide (CoFe2O4) (CFO) spinel powders were synthesized by a polymer assisted decomposition route. The cation mixing in as prepared as well as calcined CFO powders were investigated by XRD Rietveld refinement. Guided by the structural refinement results the processing conditions of the powder synthesis were optimized to yield spinal CFO powder with improved magnetic properties. These powders were dispersed into ferroelectric polyvinyledene (PVDF) matrix and the polymer-spinal composite was cast using different weight fractions of the spinel component. The composites were characterized in terms of its structure and microstructure. Preliminary dielectric and magnetic properties of these CFO-polymer composites is reported.

  14. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Emre O.; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-10-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics.

  15. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Polat, Emre O; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-01-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics. PMID:25270391

  16. Reasoning about systolic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Purushothaman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Systolic algorithms are a class of parallel algorithms, with small grain concurrency, well suited for implementation in VLSI. They are intended to be implemented as high-performance, computation-bound back-end processors and are characterized by a tesselating interconnection of identical processing elements. This dissertation investigates the problem of providing correctness of systolic algorithms. The following are reported in this dissertation: (1) a methodology for verifying correctness of systolic algorithms based on solving the representation of an algorithm as recurrence equations. The methodology is demonstrated by proving the correctness of a systolic architecture for optimal parenthesization. (2) The implementation of mechanical proofs of correctness of two systolic algorithms, a convolution algorithm and an optimal parenthesization algorithm, using the Boyer-Moore theorem prover. (3) An induction principle for proving correctness of systolic arrays which are modular. Two attendant inference rules, weak equivalence and shift transformation, which capture equivalent behavior of systolic arrays, are also presented.

  17. Algorithm-development activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.

    1994-01-01

    The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.

  18. Flexible network wireless transceiver and flexible network telemetry transceiver

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-05

    A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.

  19. INSENS classification algorithm report

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Frerking, C.J.; Myers, D.W.

    1993-07-28

    This report describes a new algorithm developed for the Imigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in support of the INSENS project for classifying vehicles and pedestrians using seismic data. This algorithm is less sensitive to nuisance alarms due to environmental events than the previous algorithm. Furthermore, the algorithm is simple enough that it can be implemented in the 8-bit microprocessor used in the INSENS system.

  20. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.