Algorithmic Mechanism Design of Evolutionary Computation
Pei, Yan
2015-01-01
We consider algorithmic design, enhancement, and improvement of evolutionary computation as a mechanism design problem. All individuals or several groups of individuals can be considered as self-interested agents. The individuals in evolutionary computation can manipulate parameter settings and operations by satisfying their own preferences, which are defined by an evolutionary computation algorithm designer, rather than by following a fixed algorithm rule. Evolutionary computation algorithm designers or self-adaptive methods should construct proper rules and mechanisms for all agents (individuals) to conduct their evolution behaviour correctly in order to definitely achieve the desired and preset objective(s). As a case study, we propose a formal framework on parameter setting, strategy selection, and algorithmic design of evolutionary computation by considering the Nash strategy equilibrium of a mechanism design in the search process. The evaluation results present the efficiency of the framework. This primary principle can be implemented in any evolutionary computation algorithm that needs to consider strategy selection issues in its optimization process. The final objective of our work is to solve evolutionary computation design as an algorithmic mechanism design problem and establish its fundamental aspect by taking this perspective. This paper is the first step towards achieving this objective by implementing a strategy equilibrium solution (such as Nash equilibrium) in evolutionary computation algorithm. PMID:26257777
Application of Modified Flower Pollination Algorithm on Mechanical Engineering Design Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kok Meng, Ong; Pauline, Ong; Chee Kiong, Sia; Wahab, Hanani Abdul; Jafferi, Noormaziah
2017-01-01
The aim of the optimization is to obtain the best solution among other solutions in order to achieve the objective of the problem without evaluation on all possible solutions. In this study, an improved flower pollination algorithm, namely, the Modified Flower Pollination Algorithms (MFPA) is developed. Comprising of the elements of chaos theory, frog leaping local search and adaptive inertia weight, the performance of MFPA is evaluated in optimizing five benchmark mechanical engineering design problems - tubular column design, speed reducer, gear train, tension/compression spring design and pressure vessel. The obtained results are listed and compared with the results of the other state-of-art algorithms. Assessment shows that the MFPA gives promising result in finding the optimal design for all considered mechanical engineering problems.
Genetic algorithm for the design of electro-mechanical sigma delta modulator MEMS sensors.
Wilcock, Reuben; Kraft, Michael
2011-01-01
This paper describes a novel design methodology using non-linear models for complex closed loop electro-mechanical sigma-delta modulators (EMΣΔM) that is based on genetic algorithms and statistical variation analysis. The proposed methodology is capable of quickly and efficiently designing high performance, high order, closed loop, near-optimal systems that are robust to sensor fabrication tolerances and electronic component variation. The use of full non-linear system models allows significant higher order non-ideal effects to be taken into account, improving accuracy and confidence in the results. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, two design examples are presented including a 5th order low-pass EMΣΔM for a MEMS accelerometer, and a 6th order band-pass EMΣΔM for the sense mode of a MEMS gyroscope. Each example was designed using the system in less than one day, with very little manual intervention. The strength of the approach is verified by SNR performances of 109.2 dB and 92.4 dB for the low-pass and band-pass system respectively, coupled with excellent immunities to fabrication tolerances and parameter mismatch.
Amaritsakul, Yongyut; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Jinn
2013-01-01
Short-segment instrumentation for spine fractures is threatened by relatively high failure rates. Failure of the spinal pedicle screws including breakage and loosening may jeopardize the fixation integrity and lead to treatment failure. Two important design objectives, bending strength and pullout strength, may conflict with each other and warrant a multiobjective optimization study. In the present study using the three-dimensional finite element (FE) analytical results based on an L25 orthogonal array, bending and pullout objective functions were developed by an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm, and the trade-off solutions known as Pareto optima were explored by a genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that the knee solutions of the Pareto fronts with both high bending and pullout strength ranged from 92% to 94% of their maxima, respectively. In mechanical validation, the results of mathematical analyses were closely related to those of experimental tests with a correlation coefficient of -0.91 for bending and 0.93 for pullout (P < 0.01 for both). The optimal design had significantly higher fatigue life (P < 0.01) and comparable pullout strength as compared with commercial screws. Multiobjective optimization study of spinal pedicle screws using the hybrid of ANN and GA could achieve an ideal with high bending and pullout performances simultaneously.
Shook, Richard; /Marquette U. /SLAC
2010-08-25
The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by [1]. It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x{sub 0}2{sup n} where n is the step of attenuation desired and x{sub 0} is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Design concepts for a 1000 mw thermal stationary power plant employing the UF6 fueled gas core breeder reactor are examined. Three design combinations-gaseous UF6 core with a solid matrix blanket, gaseous UF6 core with a liquid blanket, and gaseous UF6 core with a circulating blanket were considered. Results show the gaseous UF6 core with a circulating blanket was best suited to the power plant concept.
Molecular beacon sequence design algorithm.
Monroe, W Todd; Haselton, Frederick R
2003-01-01
A method based on Web-based tools is presented to design optimally functioning molecular beacons. Molecular beacons, fluorogenic hybridization probes, are a powerful tool for the rapid and specific detection of a particular nucleic acid sequence. However, their synthesis costs can be considerable. Since molecular beacon performance is based on its sequence, it is imperative to rationally design an optimal sequence before synthesis. The algorithm presented here uses simple Microsoft Excel formulas and macros to rank candidate sequences. This analysis is carried out using mfold structural predictions along with other free Web-based tools. For smaller laboratories where molecular beacons are not the focus of research, the public domain algorithm described here may be usefully employed to aid in molecular beacon design.
Automatic design of decision-tree algorithms with evolutionary algorithms.
Barros, Rodrigo C; Basgalupp, Márcio P; de Carvalho, André C P L F; Freitas, Alex A
2013-01-01
This study reports the empirical analysis of a hyper-heuristic evolutionary algorithm that is capable of automatically designing top-down decision-tree induction algorithms. Top-down decision-tree algorithms are of great importance, considering their ability to provide an intuitive and accurate knowledge representation for classification problems. The automatic design of these algorithms seems timely, given the large literature accumulated over more than 40 years of research in the manual design of decision-tree induction algorithms. The proposed hyper-heuristic evolutionary algorithm, HEAD-DT, is extensively tested using 20 public UCI datasets and 10 microarray gene expression datasets. The algorithms automatically designed by HEAD-DT are compared with traditional decision-tree induction algorithms, such as C4.5 and CART. Experimental results show that HEAD-DT is capable of generating algorithms which are significantly more accurate than C4.5 and CART.
Fashion sketch design by interactive genetic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mok, P. Y.; Wang, X. X.; Xu, J.; Kwok, Y. L.
2012-11-01
Computer aided design is vitally important for the modern industry, particularly for the creative industry. Fashion industry faced intensive challenges to shorten the product development process. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for sketch design based on interactive genetic algorithms. The sketch design system consists of a sketch design model, a database and a multi-stage sketch design engine. First, a sketch design model is developed based on the knowledge of fashion design to describe fashion product characteristics by using parameters. Second, a database is built based on the proposed sketch design model to define general style elements. Third, a multi-stage sketch design engine is used to construct the design. Moreover, an interactive genetic algorithm (IGA) is used to accelerate the sketch design process. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method is effective in helping laypersons achieve satisfied fashion design sketches.
Statistical Methods in Algorithm Design and Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weide, Bruce W.
The use of statistical methods in the design and analysis of discrete algorithms is explored. The introductory chapter contains a literature survey and background material on probability theory. In Chapter 2, probabilistic approximation algorithms are discussed with the goal of exposing and correcting some oversights in previous work. Chapter 3…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beets, Timothy A.; Beno, Joseph H.; Chun, Moo-Young; Lee, Sungho; Park, Chan; Rafal, Marc; Worthington, Michael S.; Yuk, In-Soo
2012-09-01
A near-infrared spectrograph (NIRS) has been designed and proposed for utilization as a first-light instrument on the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMTNIRS includes modular JHK, LM spectrograph units mounted to two sides of a cryogenic optical bench. The optical bench and surrounding, protective radiation (thermal) shield are containerized within a rigid cryostat vessel, which mounts to the GMT instrument platform. A support structure on the secondary side of the optical bench provides multi-dimensional stiffness to the optical bench, to prevent excessive displacements of the optical components during tracking of the telescope. Extensive mechanical simulation and optimization was utilized to arrive at synergistic designs of the optical bench, support structure, cryostat, and thermal isolation system. Additionally, detailed steady-state and transient thermal analyses were conducted to optimize and verify the mechanical designs to maximize thermal efficiency and to size cryogenic coolers and conductors. This paper explains the mechanical and thermal design points stemming from optical component placement and mounting and structural and thermal characteristics needed to achieve instrument science requirements. The thermal and mechanical simulations will be described and the data will be summarized. Sufficient details of the analyses and data will be provided to validate the design decisions.
Mechanical Drawing and Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mikulsky, Marilyn; McEnaney, Walter K.
A syllabus is provided for a comprehensive foundation course in mechanical drawing and design for grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 that is prerequisite to advanced elective courses. Introductory materials include course objectives, an overview of basic concepts, and guidelines for implementation. Brief discussions of and suggestions for the areas of design…
Mechanical Design of Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1962-01-01
In the spring of 1962, engineers from the Engineering Mechanics Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a series of lectures on spacecraft design at the Engineering Design seminars conducted at the California Institute of Technology. Several of these lectures were subsequently given at Stanford University as part of the Space Technology seminar series sponsored by the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Presented here are notes taken from these lectures. The lectures were conceived with the intent of providing the audience with a glimpse of the activities of a few mechanical engineers who are involved in designing, building, and testing spacecraft. Engineering courses generally consist of heavily idealized problems in order to allow the more efficient teaching of mathematical technique. Students, therefore, receive a somewhat limited exposure to actual engineering problems, which are typified by more unknowns than equations. For this reason it was considered valuable to demonstrate some of the problems faced by spacecraft designers, the processes used to arrive at solutions, and the interactions between the engineer and the remainder of the organization in which he is constrained to operate. These lecture notes are not so much a compilation of sophisticated techniques of analysis as they are a collection of examples of spacecraft hardware and associated problems. They will be of interest not so much to the experienced spacecraft designer as to those who wonder what part the mechanical engineer plays in an effort such as the exploration of space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolpert, David H.; Turner, Kagan
2004-01-01
The field of mechanism design is concerned with setting (incentives superimposed on) the utility functions of a group of players so as to induce desirable joint behavior of those players. It arose in the context of traditional equilibrium game theory applied to games involving human players. This has led it to have many implicit restrictions, which strongly limits its scope. In particular, it ignores many issues that are crucial for systems that are large (and therefore far off-equilibrium in general) and/or composed of non-human players (e.g., computer-based agents). This also means it has concentrated on issues that are often irrelevant in those broader domains (e.g., incentive compatibility). This paper illustrates these shortcomings by reviewing some of the recent theoretical work on the design of collectives, a body of work that constitutes a substantial broadening of mechanism design. It then presents computer experiments based on a recently suggested nanotechnology testbed that demonstrates the power of that extended version of mechanism design.
Algorithm for backrub motions in protein design
Georgiev, Ivelin; Keedy, Daniel; Richardson, Jane S.; Richardson, David C.; Donald, Bruce R.
2008-01-01
Motivation: The Backrub is a small but kinematically efficient side-chain-coupled local backbone motion frequently observed in atomic-resolution crystal structures of proteins. A backrub shifts the Cα–Cβ orientation of a given side-chain by rigid-body dipeptide rotation plus smaller individual rotations of the two peptides, with virtually no change in the rest of the protein. Backrubs can therefore provide a biophysically realistic model of local backbone flexibility for structure-based protein design. Previously, however, backrub motions were applied via manual interactive model-building, so their incorporation into a protein design algorithm (a simultaneous search over mutation and backbone/side-chain conformation space) was infeasible. Results: We present a combinatorial search algorithm for protein design that incorporates an automated procedure for local backbone flexibility via backrub motions. We further derive a dead-end elimination (DEE)-based criterion for pruning candidate rotamers that, in contrast to previous DEE algorithms, is provably accurate with backrub motions. Our backrub-based algorithm successfully predicts alternate side-chain conformations from ≤0.9 Å resolution structures, confirming the suitability of the automated backrub procedure. Finally, the application of our algorithm to redesign two different proteins is shown to identify a large number of lower-energy conformations and mutation sequences that would have been ignored by a rigid-backbone model. Availability: Contact authors for source code. Contact: brd+ismb08@cs.duke.edu PMID:18586714
Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms
Hoelzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter
2006-10-15
This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of 'nonstandard' magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods.
Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K; Markandeya, Himanshu S; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P
2010-10-30
Implantable neural prostheses that deliver focal electrical stimulation upon demand are rapidly emerging as an alternate therapy for roughly a third of the epileptic patient population that is medically refractory. Seizure detection algorithms enable feedback mechanisms to provide focally and temporally specific intervention. Real-time feasibility and computational complexity often limit most reported detection algorithms to implementations using computers for bedside monitoring or external devices communicating with the implanted electrodes. A comparison of algorithms based on detection efficacy does not present a complete picture of the feasibility of the algorithm with limited computational power, as is the case with most battery-powered applications. We present a two-dimensional design optimization approach that takes into account both detection efficacy and hardware cost in evaluating algorithms for their feasibility in an implantable application. Detection features are first compared for their ability to detect electrographic seizures from micro-electrode data recorded from kainate-treated rats. Circuit models are then used to estimate the dynamic and leakage power consumption of the compared features. A score is assigned based on detection efficacy and the hardware cost for each of the features, then plotted on a two-dimensional design space. An optimal combination of compared features is used to construct an algorithm that provides maximal detection efficacy per unit hardware cost. The methods presented in this paper would facilitate the development of a common platform to benchmark seizure detection algorithms for comparison and feasibility analysis in the next generation of implantable neuroprosthetic devices to treat epilepsy.
Multidisciplinary design optimization using genetic algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unal, Resit
1994-01-01
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the conceptual design and evaluation of launch vehicles since it can have a significant impact on performance and life cycle cost. The objective is to search the system design space to determine values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic subject to system constraints. Gradient-based optimization routines have been used extensively for aerospace design optimization. However, one limitation of gradient based optimizers is their need for gradient information. Therefore, design problems which include discrete variables can not be studied. Such problems are common in launch vehicle design. For example, the number of engines and material choices must be integer values or assume only a few discrete values. In this study, genetic algorithms are investigated as an approach to MDO problems involving discrete variables and discontinuous domains. Optimization by genetic algorithms (GA) uses a search procedure which is fundamentally different from those gradient based methods. Genetic algorithms seek to find good solutions in an efficient and timely manner rather than finding the best solution. GA are designed to mimic evolutionary selection. A population of candidate designs is evaluated at each iteration, and each individual's probability of reproduction (existence in the next generation) depends on its fitness value (related to the value of the objective function). Progress toward the optimum is achieved by the crossover and mutation operations. GA is attractive since it uses only objective function values in the search process, so gradient calculations are avoided. Hence, GA are able to deal with discrete variables. Studies report success in the use of GA for aircraft design optimization studies, trajectory analysis, space structure design and control systems design. In these studies reliable convergence was achieved, but the number of function evaluations was large compared
Automated Antenna Design with Evolutionary Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hornby, Gregory S.; Globus, Al; Linden, Derek S.; Lohn, Jason D.
2006-01-01
Current methods of designing and optimizing antennas by hand are time and labor intensive, and limit complexity. Evolutionary design techniques can overcome these limitations by searching the design space and automatically finding effective solutions. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms have shown great promise in finding practical solutions in large, poorly understood design spaces. In particular, spacecraft antenna design has proven tractable to evolutionary design techniques. Researchers have been investigating evolutionary antenna design and optimization since the early 1990s, and the field has grown in recent years as computer speed has increased and electromagnetic simulators have improved. Two requirements-compliant antennas, one for ST5 and another for TDRS-C, have been automatically designed by evolutionary algorithms. The ST5 antenna is slated to fly this year, and a TDRS-C phased array element has been fabricated and tested. Such automated evolutionary design is enabled by medium-to-high quality simulators and fast modern computers to evaluate computer-generated designs. Evolutionary algorithms automate cut-and-try engineering, substituting automated search though millions of potential designs for intelligent search by engineers through a much smaller number of designs. For evolutionary design, the engineer chooses the evolutionary technique, parameters and the basic form of the antenna, e.g., single wire for ST5 and crossed-element Yagi for TDRS-C. Evolutionary algorithms then search for optimal configurations in the space defined by the engineer. NASA's Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission will launch three small spacecraft to test innovative concepts and technologies. Advanced evolutionary algorithms were used to automatically design antennas for ST5. The combination of wide beamwidth for a circularly-polarized wave and wide impedance bandwidth made for a challenging antenna design problem. From past experience in designing wire antennas, we chose to
Problem Solving Techniques for the Design of Algorithms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kant, Elaine; Newell, Allen
1984-01-01
Presents model of algorithm design (activity in software development) based on analysis of protocols of two subjects designing three convex hull algorithms. Automation methods, methods for studying algorithm design, role of discovery in problem solving, and comparison of different designs of case study according to model are highlighted.…
Predicting Resistance Mutations Using Protein Design Algorithms
Frey, K.; Georgiev, I; Donald, B; Anderson, A
2010-01-01
Drug resistance resulting from mutations to the target is an unfortunate common phenomenon that limits the lifetime of many of the most successful drugs. In contrast to the investigation of mutations after clinical exposure, it would be powerful to be able to incorporate strategies early in the development process to predict and overcome the effects of possible resistance mutations. Here we present a unique prospective application of an ensemble-based protein design algorithm, K*, to predict potential resistance mutations in dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus using positive design to maintain catalytic function and negative design to interfere with binding of a lead inhibitor. Enzyme inhibition assays show that three of the four highly-ranked predicted mutants are active yet display lower affinity (18-, 9-, and 13-fold) for the inhibitor. A crystal structure of the top-ranked mutant enzyme validates the predicted conformations of the mutated residues and the structural basis of the loss of potency. The use of protein design algorithms to predict resistance mutations could be incorporated in a lead design strategy against any target that is susceptible to mutational resistance.
Primal-dual techniques for online algorithms and mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liaghat, Vahid
An offline algorithm is one that knows the entire input in advance. An online algorithm, however, processes its input in a serial fashion. In contrast to offline algorithms, an online algorithm works in a local fashion and has to make irrevocable decisions without having the entire input. Online algorithms are often not optimal since their irrevocable decisions may turn out to be inefficient after receiving the rest of the input. For a given online problem, the goal is to design algorithms which are competitive against the offline optimal solutions. In a classical offline scenario, it is often common to see a dual analysis of problems that can be formulated as a linear or convex program. Primal-dual and dual-fitting techniques have been successfully applied to many such problems. Unfortunately, the usual tricks come short in an online setting since an online algorithm should make decisions without knowing even the whole program. In this thesis, we study the competitive analysis of fundamental problems in the literature such as different variants of online matching and online Steiner connectivity, via online dual techniques. Although there are many generic tools for solving an optimization problem in the offline paradigm, in comparison, much less is known for tackling online problems. The main focus of this work is to design generic techniques for solving integral linear optimization problems where the solution space is restricted via a set of linear constraints. A general family of these problems are online packing/covering problems. Our work shows that for several seemingly unrelated problems, primal-dual techniques can be successfully applied as a unifying approach for analyzing these problems. We believe this leads to generic algorithmic frameworks for solving online problems. In the first part of the thesis, we show the effectiveness of our techniques in the stochastic settings and their applications in Bayesian mechanism design. In particular, we introduce new
EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm
2012-01-01
Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences) offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS. PMID:22716030
UWB Tracking System Design with TDOA Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Schwing, Alan
2006-01-01
This presentation discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort using a tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A two-stage weighted least square method is chosen to solve the TDOA non-linear equations. Matlab simulations in both two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. The error analysis reveals various ways to improve the tracking resolution. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWBTDOA tracking capability with fine resolution. This research effort is motivated by a prototype development project Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS).
Mechanical design of DNA nanostructures.
Castro, Carlos E; Su, Hai-Jun; Marras, Alexander E; Zhou, Lifeng; Johnson, Joshua
2015-04-14
Structural DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that has demonstrated great potential for applications such as single molecule sensing, drug delivery, and templating molecular components. As the applications of DNA nanotechnology expand, a consideration of their mechanical behavior is becoming essential to understand how these structures will respond to physical interactions. This review considers three major avenues of recent progress in this area: (1) measuring and designing mechanical properties of DNA nanostructures, (2) designing complex nanostructures based on imposed mechanical stresses, and (3) designing and controlling structurally dynamic nanostructures. This work has laid the foundation for mechanically active nanomachines that can generate, transmit, and respond to physical cues in molecular systems.
Optimal brushless DC motor design using genetic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahideh, A.; Korakianitis, T.; Ruiz, P.; Keeble, T.; Rothman, M. T.
2010-11-01
This paper presents a method for the optimal design of a slotless permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor with surface mounted magnets using a genetic algorithm. Characteristics of the motor are expressed as functions of motor geometries. The objective function is a combination of losses, volume and cost to be minimized simultaneously. Electrical and mechanical requirements (i.e. voltage, torque and speed) and other limitations (e.g. upper and lower limits of the motor geometries) are cast into constraints of the optimization problem. One sample case is used to illustrate the design and optimization technique.
Design considerations for mechanical snubbers
Severud, L.K.; Summers, G.D.
1980-03-01
The use of mechanical snubbers to restrain piping during an earthquake event is becoming more common in design of nuclear power plants. The design considerations and qualification procedures for mechanical snubbers used on the Fast Flux Test Facility will be presented. Design precautions and requirements for both normal operation and seismic operation are necessary. Effects of environmental vibration (nonseismic) induced through the piping by pump shaft imbalance and fluid flow oscillations will be addressed. Also, the snubber dynamic characteristics of interest to design and snubber design application considerations will be discussed.
A genetic algorithm for solving supply chain network design model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firoozi, Z.; Ismail, N.; Ariafar, S. H.; Tang, S. H.; Ariffin, M. K. M. A.
2013-09-01
Network design is by nature costly and optimization models play significant role in reducing the unnecessary cost components of a distribution network. This study proposes a genetic algorithm to solve a distribution network design model. The structure of the chromosome in the proposed algorithm is defined in a novel way that in addition to producing feasible solutions, it also reduces the computational complexity of the algorithm. Computational results are presented to show the algorithm performance.
In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.
2007-01-01
The primary objective of this document is to provide a detailed description of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) algorithm, which is part of the Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness In-Trail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) application. To this end, the document presents a high level description of the ITP Algorithm and a prototype implementation of this algorithm in the programming language C.
Mechanical Design Handbook for Elastomers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Darlow, M.; Zorzi, E.
1986-01-01
Mechanical Design Handbook for Elastomers reviews state of art in elastomer-damper technology with particular emphasis on applications of highspeed rotor dampers. Self-contained reference but includes some theoretical discussion to help reader understand how and why dampers used for rotating machines. Handbook presents step-by-step procedure for design of elastomer dampers and detailed examples of actual elastomer damper applications.
HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION AND ALGORITHM TUNING APPLIED TO SORPTIVE BARRIER DESIGN
While heuristic optimization is applied in environmental applications, ad-hoc algorithm configuration is typical. We use a multi-layer sorptive barrier design problem as a benchmark for an algorithm-tuning procedure, as applied to three heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated ...
Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary
2016-01-01
Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.
The statistical mechanics of constructive algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Ansgar H. L.; Saad, David
1998-11-01
The storage capacity of multilayer networks with overlapping receptive fields is studied for constructive algorithms using Boolean perceptrons as their basic building block which have been investigated within a replica framework. The assumption of weak coupling between subsequently constructed perceptrons is verified within a replica symmetric (RS) ansatz and shown to be negligible in most cases in comparison with correction due to replica symmetry breaking (RSB) in individual perceptrons. The capacities of a tiling-like and variants of the upstart algorithm are then calculated within RS and one-step RSB with the quenched average taken over the individual units separately for networks with up to K = 4000 and K = 600 units respectively. Within this treatment, the storage capacity 0305-4470/31/45/002/img6 seems to exhibit a power-law behaviour in 0305-4470/31/45/002/img7 with an exponent n that may depend on the algorithm and the stability. However, due to finite size effects in K reliable estimates of n could not be extracted. Nevertheless, the results strongly indicate that n should be strictly smaller than 1 within one-step RSB, whereas within RS the Mitchison-Durbin bound is violated for finite K and n>1 may hold asymptotically.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, J. P.
1972-01-01
The following problems are considered: (1) methods for development of logic design together with algorithms, so that it is possible to compute a test for any failure in the logic design, if such a test exists, and developing algorithms and heuristics for the purpose of minimizing the computation for tests; and (2) a method of design of logic for ultra LSI (large scale integration). It was discovered that the so-called quantum calculus can be extended to render it possible: (1) to describe the functional behavior of a mechanism component by component, and (2) to compute tests for failures, in the mechanism, using the diagnosis algorithm. The development of an algorithm for the multioutput two-level minimization problem is presented and the program MIN 360 was written for this algorithm. The program has options of mode (exact minimum or various approximations), cost function, cost bound, etc., providing flexibility.
Thalmann Algorithm Decompression Table Generation Software Design Document
2010-09-01
Decompression Table Generation Software Design Document Navy Experimental Diving Unit Author...TITLE (Include Security Classification) (U) THALMANN ALGORITHM DECOMPRESSION TABLE GENERATION SOFTWARE DESIGN DOCUMENT 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...1 2. Decompression Table Generator (TBLP7R
Parallel optimization algorithms and their implementation in VLSI design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, G.; Feeley, J. J.
1991-01-01
Two new parallel optimization algorithms based on the simplex method are described. They may be executed by a SIMD parallel processor architecture and be implemented in VLSI design. Several VLSI design implementations are introduced. An application example is reported to demonstrate that the algorithms are effective.
Optimal Pid Controller Design Using Adaptive Vurpso Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zirkohi, Majid Moradi
2015-04-01
The purpose of this paper is to improve theVelocity Update Relaxation Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (VURPSO). The improved algorithm is called Adaptive VURPSO (AVURPSO) algorithm. Then, an optimal design of a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is obtained using the AVURPSO algorithm. An adaptive momentum factor is used to regulate a trade-off between the global and the local exploration abilities in the proposed algorithm. This operation helps the system to reach the optimal solution quickly and saves the computation time. Comparisons on the optimal PID controller design confirm the superiority of AVURPSO algorithm to the optimization algorithms mentioned in this paper namely the VURPSO algorithm, the Ant Colony algorithm, and the conventional approach. Comparisons on the speed of convergence confirm that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence in a less computation time to yield a global optimum value. The proposed AVURPSO can be used in the diverse areas of optimization problems such as industrial planning, resource allocation, scheduling, decision making, pattern recognition and machine learning. The proposed AVURPSO algorithm is efficiently used to design an optimal PID controller.
Extrapolated gradientlike algorithms for molecular dynamics and celestial mechanics simulations.
Omelyan, I P
2006-09-01
A class of symplectic algorithms is introduced to integrate the equations of motion in many-body systems. The algorithms are derived on the basis of an advanced gradientlike decomposition approach. Its main advantage over the standard gradient scheme is the avoidance of time-consuming evaluations of force gradients by force extrapolation without any loss of precision. As a result, the efficiency of the integration improves significantly. The algorithms obtained are analyzed and optimized using an error-function theory. The best among them are tested in actual molecular dynamics and celestial mechanics simulations for comparison with well-known nongradient and gradient algorithms such as the Störmer-Verlet, Runge-Kutta, Cowell-Numerov, Forest-Ruth, Suzuki-Chin, and others. It is demonstrated that for moderate and high accuracy, the extrapolated algorithms should be considered as the most efficient for the integration of motion in molecular dynamics simulations.
Genetic Algorithms as a Tool for Phased Array Radar Design
2002-06-01
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. GENETIC ALGORITHMS AS A...REPORT DATE June 2002 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Genetic Algorithms as a Tool for Phased Array Radar...creative ways to design multi-function phased array radars. This thesis proposes that Genetic Algorithms, computer programs that mimic natural selection
Graph-drawing algorithms geometries versus molecular mechanics in fullereness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufman, M.; Pisanski, T.; Lukman, D.; Borštnik, B.; Graovac, A.
1996-09-01
The algorithms of Kamada-Kawai (KK) and Fruchterman-Reingold (FR) have been recently generalized (Pisanski et al., Croat. Chem. Acta 68 (1995) 283) in order to draw molecular graphs in three-dimensional space. The quality of KK and FR geometries is studied here by comparing them with the molecular mechanics (MM) and the adjacency matrix eigenvectors (AME) algorithm geometries. In order to compare different layouts of the same molecule, an appropriate method has been developed. Its application to a series of experimentally detected fullerenes indicates that the KK, FR and AME algorithms are able to reproduce plausible molecular geometries.
The GRAVITY spectrometers: mechanical design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Sebastian; Wiest, Michael; Straubmeier, Christian; Yazici, Senol; Araujo-Hauck, Constanza; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Brandner, Wolfgang; Perraut, Karine; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas
2010-07-01
Operating on 6 interferometric baselines, i.e. using all 4 UTs, the 2nd generation VLTI instrument GRAVITY will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10μas accuracy at the infrared K-band. Within the international GRAVITY consortium, the Cologne institute is responsible for the development and construction of the two spectrometers: one for the science object, and one for the fringe tracking object. Optically two individual components, both spectrometers are two separate units with their own housing and interfaces inside the vacuum vessel of GRAVITY. The general design of the spectrometers, however, is similar. The optical layout is separated into beam collimator (with integrated optics and metrology laser injection) and camera system (with detector, dispersive element, & Wollaston filter wheel). Mechanically, this transfers to two regions which are separated by a solid baffle wall incorporating the blocking filter for the metrology Laser wavelength. The optical subunits are mounted in individual rigid tubes which pay respect to the individual shape, size and thermal expansion of the lenses. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the GRAVITY vacuum dewar. The integrated optics beam combiner and the metrology laser injection, which are operated at 200/240K, are mounted thermally isolated to the cold housing of the spectrometers. The optical design has shown that the alignment of the detector is crucial to the performance of the spectrometers. Therefore, in addition to four wheel mechanisms, six cryogenic positioning mechanisms are included in the mechanical design of the detector mount.
Mechanical flexible joint design document
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daily, Vic
1993-01-01
The purpose of this report is to document the status of the Mechanical Flexible Joint (MFJ) Design Subtask with the intent of halting work on the design. Recommendations for future work is included in the case that the task is to be resumed. The MFJ is designed to eliminate two failure points from the current flex joint configuration, the inner 'tripod configuration' and the outer containment jacket. The MFJ will also be designed to flex 13.5 degrees and have three degrees of freedom. By having three degrees of freedom, the MFJ will allow the Low Pressure Fuel Duct to twist and remove the necessity to angulate the full 11 degrees currently required. The current flex joints are very labor intensive and very costly and a simple alternative is being sought. The MFJ is designed with a greater angular displacement, with three degrees of freedom, to reside in the same overall envelope, to meet weight constraints of the current bellows, to be compatible with cryogenic fuel and oxidizers, and also to be man-rated.
Algorithm for Designing Nanoscale Supramolecular Therapeutics with Increased Anticancer Efficacy.
Kulkarni, Ashish; Pandey, Prithvi; Rao, Poornima; Mahmoud, Ayaat; Goldman, Aaron; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Parcha, Shashikanth; Natarajan, Siva Kumar; Chandrasekar, Vineethkrishna; Dinulescu, Daniela; Roy, Sudip; Sengupta, Shiladitya
2016-09-27
In the chemical world, evolution is mirrored in the origin of nanoscale supramolecular structures from molecular subunits. The complexity of function acquired in a supramolecular system over a molecular subunit can be harnessed in the treatment of cancer. However, the design of supramolecular nanostructures is hindered by a limited atomistic level understanding of interactions between building blocks. Here, we report the development of a computational algorithm, which we term Volvox after the first multicellular organism, that sequentially integrates quantum mechanical energy-state- and force-field-based models with large-scale all-atomistic explicit water molecular dynamics simulations to design stable nanoscale lipidic supramolecular structures. In one example, we demonstrate that Volvox enables the design of a nanoscale taxane supramolecular therapeutic. In another example, we demonstrate that Volvox can be extended to optimizing the ratio of excipients to form a stable nanoscale supramolecular therapeutic. The nanoscale taxane supramolecular therapeutic exerts greater antitumor efficacy than a clinically used taxane in vivo. Volvox can emerge as a powerful tool in the design of nanoscale supramolecular therapeutics for effective treatment of cancer.
A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
We describe a parallel genetic algorithm (GA) that automatically generates circuit designs using evolutionary search. A circuit-construction programming language is introduced and we show how evolution can generate practical analog circuit designs. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. We present experimental results as applied to analog filter and amplifier design tasks.
An algorithm for optimal structural design with frequency constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiusalaas, J.; Shaw, R. C. J.
1978-01-01
The paper presents a finite element method for minimum weight design of structures with lower-bound constraints on the natural frequencies, and upper and lower bounds on the design variables. The design algorithm is essentially an iterative solution of the Kuhn-Tucker optimality criterion. The three most important features of the algorithm are: (1) a small number of design iterations are needed to reach optimal or near-optimal design, (2) structural elements with a wide variety of size-stiffness may be used, the only significant restriction being the exclusion of curved beam and shell elements, and (3) the algorithm will work for multiple as well as single frequency constraints. The design procedure is illustrated with three simple problems.
Computational Aspects of Realization & Design Algorithms in Linear Systems Theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsui, Chia-Chi
Realization and design problems are two major problems in linear time-invariant systems control theory and have been solved theoretically. However, little is understood about their numerical properties. Due to the large scale of the problem and the finite precision of computer computation, it is very important and is the purpose of this study to investigate the computational reliability and efficiency of the algorithms for these two problems. In this dissertation, a reliable algorithm to achieve canonical form realization via Hankel matrix is developed. A comparative study of three general realization algorithms, for both numerical reliability and efficiency, shows that the proposed algorithm (via Hankel matrix) is the most preferable one among the three. The design problems, such as the state feedback design for pole placement, the state observer design, and the low order single and multi-functional observer design, have been solved by using canonical form systems matrices. In this dissertation, a set of algorithms for solving these three design problems is developed and analysed. These algorithms are based on Hessenberg form systems matrices which are numerically more reliable to compute than the canonical form systems matrices.
A computerized compensator design algorithm with launch vehicle applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitchell, J. R.; Mcdaniel, W. L., Jr.
1976-01-01
This short paper presents a computerized algorithm for the design of compensators for large launch vehicles. The algorithm is applicable to the design of compensators for linear, time-invariant, control systems with a plant possessing a single control input and multioutputs. The achievement of frequency response specifications is cast into a strict constraint mathematical programming format. An improved solution algorithm for solving this type of problem is given, along with the mathematical necessities for application to systems of the above type. A computer program, compensator improvement program (CIP), has been developed and applied to a pragmatic space-industry-related example.
AutoGrow: A Novel Algorithm for Protein Inhibitor Design
Durrant, Jacob; Amaro, Rommie E.; McCammon, J. Andrew
2009-01-01
Due in part to the increasing availability of crystallographic protein structures as well as rapid improvements in computing power, the past few decades have seen an explosion in the field of computer-based rational drug design. Several algorithms have been developed to identify or generate potential ligands in silico by optimizing the ligand-receptor hydrogen bond, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions. We here present AutoGrow, a novel computer-aided drug design algorithm that combines the strengths of both fragment-based growing and docking algorithms. To validate AutoGrow, we recreate three crystallographically resolved ligands from their constituent fragments. PMID:19207419
Evaluation of Mechanical Losses in Piezoelectric Plates using Genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, F. J.; Gonçalves, M. S.; Massaro, F. R.; Martins, P. S.
Numerical methods are used for the characterization of piezoelectric ceramics. A procedure based on genetic algorithm is applied to find the physical coefficients and mechanical losses. The coefficients are estimated from a minimum scoring of cost function. Electric impedances are calculated from Mason's model including mechanical losses constant and dependent on frequency as a linear function. The results show that the electric impedance percentage error in the investigated interval of frequencies decreases when mechanical losses depending on frequency are inserted in the model. A more accurate characterization of the piezoelectric ceramics mechanical losses should be considered as frequency dependent.
Neural-Network-Biased Genetic Algorithms for Materials Design: Evolutionary Algorithms That Learn.
Patra, Tarak K; Meenakshisundaram, Venkatesh; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Simmons, David S
2017-02-13
Machine learning has the potential to dramatically accelerate high-throughput approaches to materials design, as demonstrated by successes in biomolecular design and hard materials design. However, in the search for new soft materials exhibiting properties and performance beyond those previously achieved, machine learning approaches are frequently limited by two shortcomings. First, because they are intrinsically interpolative, they are better suited to the optimization of properties within the known range of accessible behavior than to the discovery of new materials with extremal behavior. Second, they require large pre-existing data sets, which are frequently unavailable and prohibitively expensive to produce. Here we describe a new strategy, the neural-network-biased genetic algorithm (NBGA), for combining genetic algorithms, machine learning, and high-throughput computation or experiment to discover materials with extremal properties in the absence of pre-existing data. Within this strategy, predictions from a progressively constructed artificial neural network are employed to bias the evolution of a genetic algorithm, with fitness evaluations performed via direct simulation or experiment. In effect, this strategy gives the evolutionary algorithm the ability to "learn" and draw inferences from its experience to accelerate the evolutionary process. We test this algorithm against several standard optimization problems and polymer design problems and demonstrate that it matches and typically exceeds the efficiency and reproducibility of standard approaches including a direct-evaluation genetic algorithm and a neural-network-evaluated genetic algorithm. The success of this algorithm in a range of test problems indicates that the NBGA provides a robust strategy for employing informatics-accelerated high-throughput methods to accelerate materials design in the absence of pre-existing data.
Acoustic design of rotor blades using a genetic algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, V. L.; Han, A. Y.; Crossley, W. A.
1995-01-01
A genetic algorithm coupled with a simplified acoustic analysis was used to generate low-noise rotor blade designs. The model includes thickness, steady loading and blade-vortex interaction noise estimates. The paper presents solutions for several variations in the fitness function, including thickness noise only, loading noise only, and combinations of the noise types. Preliminary results indicate that the analysis provides reasonable assessments of the noise produced, and that genetic algorithm successfully searches for 'good' designs. The results show that, for a given required thrust coefficient, proper blade design can noticeably reduce the noise produced at some expense to the power requirements.
Optimal fractional order PID design via Tabu Search based algorithm.
Ateş, Abdullah; Yeroglu, Celaleddin
2016-01-01
This paper presents an optimization method based on the Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA) to design a Fractional-Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller. All parameter computations of the FOPID employ random initial conditions, using the proposed optimization method. Illustrative examples demonstrate the performance of the proposed FOPID controller design method.
An Analysis of Algorithmic Processes and Instructional Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmid, Richard F.; Gerlach, Vernon S.
1986-01-01
Describes algorithms and shows how they can be applied to the design of instructional systems by relating them to a standard information processing model. Two studies are briefly described which tested serial and parallel processing in learning and offered guidelines for designers. Future research needs are also discussed. (LRW)
Evolutionary algorithms applied to reliable communication network design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesmachnow, Sergio; Cancela, Hector; Alba, Enrique
2007-10-01
Several evolutionary algorithms (EAs) applied to a wide class of communication network design problems modelled under the generalized Steiner problem (GSP) are evaluated. In order to provide a fault-tolerant design, a solution to this problem consists of a preset number of independent paths linking each pair of potentially communicating terminal nodes. This usually requires considering intermediate non-terminal nodes (Steiner nodes), which are used to ensure path redundancy, while trying to minimize the overall cost. The GSP is an NP-hard problem for which few algorithms have been proposed. This article presents a comparative study of pure and hybrid EAs applied to the GSP, codified over MALLBA, a general purpose library for combinatorial optimization. The algorithms were tested on several GSPs, and asset efficient numerical results are reported for both serial and distributed models of the evaluated algorithms.
A strategy for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Pawłowski, Marcin; Lee, Jinhyoung
2014-07-01
We propose a method for quantum algorithm design assisted by machine learning. The method uses a quantum-classical hybrid simulator, where a ‘quantum student’ is being taught by a ‘classical teacher’. In other words, in our method, the learning system is supposed to evolve into a quantum algorithm for a given problem, assisted by a classical main-feedback system. Our method is applicable for designing quantum oracle-based algorithms. We chose, as a case study, an oracle decision problem, called a Deutsch-Jozsa problem. We showed by using Monte Carlo simulations that our simulator can faithfully learn a quantum algorithm for solving the problem for a given oracle. Remarkably, the learning time is proportional to the square root of the total number of parameters, rather than showing the exponential dependence found in the classical machine learning-based method.
Understanding Mechanical Design with Respect to Manufacturability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mondell, Skyler
2010-01-01
At the NASA Prototype Development Laboratory in Kennedy Space Center, Fl, several projects concerning different areas of mechanical design were undertaken in order to better understand the relationship between mechanical design and manufacturabiIity. The assigned projects pertained specifically to the NASA Space Shuttle, Constellation, and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. During the work term, mechanical design practices relating to manufacturing processes were learned and utilized in order to obtain an understanding of mechanical design with respect to manufacturability.
Microgel mechanics in biomaterial design.
Saxena, Shalini; Hansen, Caroline E; Lyon, L Andrew
2014-08-19
The field of polymeric biomaterials has received much attention in recent years due to its potential for enhancing the biocompatibility of systems and devices applied to drug delivery and tissue engineering. Such applications continually push the definition of biocompatibility from relatively straightforward issues such as cytotoxicity to significantly more complex processes such as reducing foreign body responses or even promoting/recapitulating natural body functions. Hydrogels and their colloidal analogues, microgels, have been and continue to be heavily investigated as viable materials for biological applications because they offer numerous, facile avenues in tailoring chemical and physical properties to approach biologically harmonious integration. Mechanical properties in particular are recently coming into focus as an important manner in which biological responses can be altered. In this Account, we trace how mechanical properties of microgels have moved into the spotlight of research efforts with the realization of their potential impact in biologically integrative systems. We discuss early experiments in our lab and in others focused on synthetic modulation of particle structure at a rudimentary level for fundamental drug delivery studies. These experiments elucidated that microgel mechanics are a consequence of polymer network distribution, which can be controlled by chemical composition or particle architecture. The degree of deformability designed into the microgel allows for a defined response to an imposed external force. We have studied deformation in packed colloidal phases and in translocation events through confined pores; in all circumstances, microgels exhibit impressive deformability in response to their environmental constraints. Microgels further translate their mechanical properties when assembled in films to the properties of the bulk material. In particular, microgel films have been a large focus in our lab as building blocks for self
An iterative algorithm combining model reduction and control design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsieh, C.; Kim, J. H.; Zhu, G.; Liu, K.; Skelton, R. E.
1990-01-01
A design strategy which integrates model reduction by modal cost analysis and a multiobjective controller design is proposed. The necessary modeling and control algorithms are easily programmed in Matlab standard software. Hence, this method is very practical for controller design for large space structures. The design algorithm also solves the very important problem of tuning multiple loop controllers (multi-input, multi-output, or MIMO). Instead of the single gain change that is used in standard root locus and gain and phase margin theories, this method tunes multiple loop controllers from low to high gain in a systematic way in the design procedure. This design strategy is applied to NASA's Mini-Mast system.
Design of an acoustic metamaterial lens using genetic algorithms.
Li, Dennis; Zigoneanu, Lucian; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A
2012-10-01
The present work demonstrates a genetic algorithm approach to optimizing the effective material parameters of an acoustic metamaterial. The target device is an acoustic gradient index (GRIN) lens in air, which ideally possesses a maximized index of refraction, minimized frequency dependence of the material properties, and minimized acoustic impedance mismatch. Applying this algorithm results in complex designs with certain common features, and effective material properties that are better than those present in previous designs. After modifying the optimized unit cell designs to make them suitable for fabrication, a two-dimensional lens was built and experimentally tested. Its performance was in good agreement with simulations. Overall, the optimization approach was able to improve the refractive index but at the cost of increased frequency dependence. The optimal solutions found by the algorithm provide a numerical description of how the material parameters compete with one another and thus describes the level of performance achievable in the GRIN lens.
An optimal structural design algorithm using optimality criteria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, J. E.; Rossow, M. P.
1976-01-01
An algorithm for optimal design is given which incorporates several of the desirable features of both mathematical programming and optimality criteria, while avoiding some of the undesirable features. The algorithm proceeds by approaching the optimal solution through the solutions of an associated set of constrained optimal design problems. The solutions of the constrained problems are recognized at each stage through the application of optimality criteria based on energy concepts. Two examples are described in which the optimal member size and layout of a truss is predicted, given the joint locations and loads.
Design and analysis of Galileo sun acquisition algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, H.-S.
1981-01-01
The Galileo sun acquisition algorithm is used to align the spacecraft antenna with the sun in order to determine spacecraft attitude. It is also used to estimate the spin rate when the spacecraft antenna is not sun oriented, and is capable of performing a rhumb line turn maneuver in the case of two gyro failures. The design of the algorithm is presented in detail along with software implementation at the flowchart level. The six major portions of the algorithm are considered: initialization, sensor measurement mapping, path selection logic, sun detection logic, termination logic, and burn command generation. Analysis is performed to determine the major parameters of the algorithm, and results are verified by computer simulations.
Designing Artificial Neural Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms.
Garro, Beatriz A; Vázquez, Roberto A
2015-01-01
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) design is a complex task because its performance depends on the architecture, the selected transfer function, and the learning algorithm used to train the set of synaptic weights. In this paper we present a methodology that automatically designs an ANN using particle swarm optimization algorithms such as Basic Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Second Generation of Particle Swarm Optimization (SGPSO), and a New Model of PSO called NMPSO. The aim of these algorithms is to evolve, at the same time, the three principal components of an ANN: the set of synaptic weights, the connections or architecture, and the transfer functions for each neuron. Eight different fitness functions were proposed to evaluate the fitness of each solution and find the best design. These functions are based on the mean square error (MSE) and the classification error (CER) and implement a strategy to avoid overtraining and to reduce the number of connections in the ANN. In addition, the ANN designed with the proposed methodology is compared with those designed manually using the well-known Back-Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt Learning Algorithms. Finally, the accuracy of the method is tested with different nonlinear pattern classification problems.
Engineering Design Handbook. Breech Mechanism Design
1979-02-01
to contain the high propellant pre -sures the block i3 first unlocked by a limited rotation developed in the weapon chamber. then swung out of the...system oriented engineering data and It is in this area where innovative uses of internal related characteristics of both current and pre - power to...I io 10 rounds provide adequate support for the case and pre - per minute. Mechanization is provided for vent its rearward displacement or rupture. 41
Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs
Chen, Haijian; Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Zhao, Lina
2015-01-01
In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP) algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM) is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of “C programming language” are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate. PMID:26448738
The Conceptual Design Algorithm of Inland LNG Barges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Łozowicka, Dorota; Kaup, Magdalena
2017-03-01
The article concerns the problem of inland waterways transport of LNG. Its aim is to present the algorithm of conceptual design of inland barges for LNG transport, intended for exploitation on European waterways. The article describes the areas where LNG barges exist, depending on the allowable operating parameters on the waterways. It presents existing architectural and construction solutions of barges for inland LNG transport, as well as the necessary equipment, due to the nature of cargo. Then the article presents the procedure of the conceptual design of LNG barges, including navigation restrictions and functional and economic criteria. The conceptual design algorithm of LGN barges, presented in the article, allows to preliminary design calculations, on the basis of which, are obtained the main dimensions and parameters of unit, depending on the transport task and the class of inland waterways, on which the transport will be realized.
Specific PCR product primer design using memetic algorithm.
Yang, Cheng-Hong; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei
2009-01-01
To provide feasible primer sets for performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment, many primer design methods have been proposed. However, the majority of these methods require a relatively long time to obtain an optimal solution since large quantities of template DNA need to be analyzed. Furthermore, the designed primer sets usually do not provide a specific PCR product size. In recent years, evolutionary computation has been applied to PCR primer design and yielded promising results. In this article, a memetic algorithm (MA) is proposed to solve primer design problems associated with providing a specific product size for PCR experiments. The MA is compared with a genetic algorithm (GA) using an accuracy formula to estimate the quality of the primer design and test the running time. Overall, 50 accession nucleotide sequences were sampled for the comparison of the accuracy of the GA and MA for primer design. Five hundred runs of the GA and MA primer design were performed with PCR product lengths of 150-300 bps and 500-800 bps, and two different methods of calculating T(m) for each accession nucleotide sequence were tested. A comparison of the accuracy results for the GA and MA primer design showed that the MA primer design yielded better results than the GA primer design. The results further indicate that the proposed method finds optimal or near-optimal primer sets and effective PCR products in a dry dock experiment. Related materials are available online at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/ma-pd/.
USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSES
Genetic algorithm calculations are applied to the design of chemical processes to achieve improvements in environmental and economic performance. By finding the set of Pareto (i.e., non-dominated) solutions one can see how different objectives, such as environmental and economic ...
Biologically inspired binaural hearing aid algorithms: Design principles and effectiveness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Albert
2002-05-01
Despite rapid advances in the sophistication of hearing aid technology and microelectronics, listening in noise remains problematic for people with hearing impairment. To solve this problem two algorithms were designed for use in binaural hearing aid systems. The signal processing strategies are based on principles in auditory physiology and psychophysics: (a) the location/extraction (L/E) binaural computational scheme determines the directions of source locations and cancels noise by applying a simple subtraction method over every frequency band; and (b) the frequency-domain minimum-variance (FMV) scheme extracts a target sound from a known direction amidst multiple interfering sound sources. Both algorithms were evaluated using standard metrics such as signal-to-noise-ratio gain and articulation index. Results were compared with those from conventional adaptive beam-forming algorithms. In free-field tests with multiple interfering sound sources our algorithms performed better than conventional algorithms. Preliminary intelligibility and speech reception results in multitalker environments showed gains for every listener with normal or impaired hearing when the signals were processed in real time with the FMV binaural hearing aid algorithm. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD Grant No. R21DC04840 and the Beckman Institute.
Thermoluminescence curves simulation using genetic algorithm with factorial design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popko, E. A.; Weinstein, I. A.
2016-05-01
The evolutionary approach is an effective optimization tool for numeric analysis of thermoluminescence (TL) processes to assess the microparameters of kinetic models and to determine its effects on the shape of TL peaks. In this paper, the procedure for tuning of genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. This approach is based on multifactorial experiment and allows choosing intrinsic mechanisms of evolutionary operators which provide the most efficient algorithm performance. The proposed method is tested by considering the “one trap-one recombination center” (OTOR) model as an example and advantages for approximation of experimental TL curves are shown.
Design of transonic airfoils and wings using a hybrid design algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.
1987-01-01
A method has been developed for designing airfoils and wings at transonic speeds. It utilizes a hybrid design algorithm in an iterative predictor/corrector approach, alternating between analysis code and a design module. This method has been successfully applied to a variety of airfoil and wing design problems, including both transport and highly-swept fighter wing configurations. An efficient approach to viscous airfoild design and the effect of including static aeroelastic deflections in the wing design process are also illustrated.
An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.
Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun
2016-01-01
This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.
An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem
Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun
2016-01-01
This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately. PMID:27626803
Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Heaphy, Robert; Gramacy, Robert B.; Taddy, Matt; Chiesa, Michael L.; Thomas, Stephen W.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Gray, Genetha Anne
2006-11-01
This project focused on research and algorithmic development in optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problems driven by earth penetrator (EP) designs. While taking into account uncertainty, we addressed three challenges in current simulation-based engineering design and analysis processes. The first challenge required leveraging small local samples, already constructed by optimization algorithms, to build effective surrogate models. We used Gaussian Process (GP) models to construct these surrogates. We developed two OUU algorithms using 'local' GPs (OUU-LGP) and one OUU algorithm using 'global' GPs (OUU-GGP) that appear competitive or better than current methods. The second challenge was to develop a methodical design process based on multi-resolution, multi-fidelity models. We developed a Multi-Fidelity Bayesian Auto-regressive process (MF-BAP). The third challenge involved the development of tools that are computational feasible and accessible. We created MATLAB{reg_sign} and initial DAKOTA implementations of our algorithms.
Mechanical Design Report DARPA BOSS Program
2008-03-21
had been learned. Design mechanical components based on optical design Provide feedback to optical designers Provide feedback to optical...Components Lens Evaluation CWRU Incorporate feedback in design Develop new lens structures and fabrication techniques Incorporate feedback in...zoom process. Effective focal length ( EFL ) was used as the independent variable because it is tied directly to the image magnification (zoom), and
Full design of fuzzy controllers using genetic algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Homaifar, Abdollah; Mccormick, ED
1992-01-01
This paper examines the applicability of genetic algorithms (GA) in the complete design of fuzzy logic controllers. While GA has been used before in the development of rule sets or high performance membership functions, the interdependence between these two components dictates that they should be designed together simultaneously. GA is fully capable of creating complete fuzzy controllers given the equations of motion of the system, eliminating the need for human input in the design loop. We show the application of this new method to the development of a cart controller.
Mechanical considerations and design skills.
Alvis, Robert L.
2008-03-01
The purpose of the report is to provide experienced-based insights into design processes that will benefit designers beginning their employment at Sandia National Laboratories or those assuming new design responsibilities. The main purpose of this document is to provide engineers with the practical aspects of system design. The material discussed here may not be new to some readers, but some of it was to me. Transforming an idea to a design to solve a problem is a skill, and skills are similar to history lessons. We gain these skills from experience, and many of us have not been fortunate enough to grow in an environment that provided the skills that we now need. I was fortunate to grow up on a farm where we had to learn how to maintain and operate several different kinds of engines and machines. If you are like me, my formal experience is partially based upon the two universities from which I graduated, where few practical applications of the technologies were taught. What was taught was mainly theoretical, and few instructors had practical experience to offer the students. I understand this, as students have their hands full just to learn the theoretical. The practical part was mainly left up to 'on the job experience'. However, I believe it is better to learn the practical applications early and apply them quickly 'on the job'. System design engineers need to know several technical things, both in and out of their field of expertise. An engineer is not expected to know everything, but he should know when to ask an expert for assistance. This 'expert' can be in any field, whether it is in analyses, drafting, machining, material properties, testing, etc. The best expert is a person who has practical experience in the area of needed information, and consulting with that individual can be the best and quickest way for one to learn. If the information provided here can improve your design skills and save one design from having a problem, save cost of development, or
Mechanical verification of a schematic Byzantine clock synchronization algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shankar, Natarajan
1991-01-01
Schneider generalizes a number of protocols for Byzantine fault tolerant clock synchronization and presents a uniform proof for their correctness. The authors present a machine checked proof of this schematic protocol that revises some of the details in Schneider's original analysis. The verification was carried out with the EHDM system developed at the SRI Computer Science Laboratory. The mechanically checked proofs include the verification that the egocentric mean function used in Lamport and Melliar-Smith's Interactive Convergence Algorithm satisfies the requirements of Schneider's protocol.
Entropy-Based Search Algorithm for Experimental Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malakar, N. K.; Knuth, K. H.
2011-03-01
The scientific method relies on the iterated processes of inference and inquiry. The inference phase consists of selecting the most probable models based on the available data; whereas the inquiry phase consists of using what is known about the models to select the most relevant experiment. Optimizing inquiry involves searching the parameterized space of experiments to select the experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. In the case where it is important to learn about each of the model parameters, the relevance of an experiment is quantified by Shannon entropy of the distribution of experimental outcomes predicted by a probable set of models. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, we must search this high-dimensional entropy space. Brute force search methods will be slow and computationally expensive. We present an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment for efficient experimental design. This algorithm is inspired by Skilling's nested sampling algorithm used in inference and borrows the concept of a rising threshold while a set of experiment samples are maintained. We demonstrate that this algorithm not only selects highly relevant experiments, but also is more efficient than brute force search. Such entropic search techniques promise to greatly benefit autonomous experimental design.
A disturbance based control/structure design algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclaren, Mark D.; Slater, Gary L.
1989-01-01
Some authors take a classical approach to the simultaneous structure/control optimization by attempting to simultaneously minimize the weighted sum of the total mass and a quadratic form, subject to all of the structural and control constraints. Here, the optimization will be based on the dynamic response of a structure to an external unknown stochastic disturbance environment. Such a response to excitation approach is common to both the structural and control design phases, and hence represents a more natural control/structure optimization strategy than relying on artificial and vague control penalties. The design objective is to find the structure and controller of minimum mass such that all the prescribed constraints are satisfied. Two alternative solution algorithms are presented which have been applied to this problem. Each algorithm handles the optimization strategy and the imposition of the nonlinear constraints in a different manner. Two controller methodologies, and their effect on the solution algorithm, will be considered. These are full state feedback and direct output feedback, although the problem formulation is not restricted solely to these forms of controller. In fact, although full state feedback is a popular choice among researchers in this field (for reasons that will become apparent), its practical application is severely limited. The controller/structure interaction is inserted by the imposition of appropriate closed-loop constraints, such as closed-loop output response and control effort constraints. Numerical results will be obtained for a representative flexible structure model to illustrate the effectiveness of the solution algorithms.
Efficient computer algebra algorithms for polynomial matrices in control design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baras, J. S.; Macenany, D. C.; Munach, R.
1989-01-01
The theory of polynomial matrices plays a key role in the design and analysis of multi-input multi-output control and communications systems using frequency domain methods. Examples include coprime factorizations of transfer functions, cannonical realizations from matrix fraction descriptions, and the transfer function design of feedback compensators. Typically, such problems abstract in a natural way to the need to solve systems of Diophantine equations or systems of linear equations over polynomials. These and other problems involving polynomial matrices can in turn be reduced to polynomial matrix triangularization procedures, a result which is not surprising given the importance of matrix triangularization techniques in numerical linear algebra. Matrices with entries from a field and Gaussian elimination play a fundamental role in understanding the triangularization process. In the case of polynomial matrices, matrices with entries from a ring for which Gaussian elimination is not defined and triangularization is accomplished by what is quite properly called Euclidean elimination. Unfortunately, the numerical stability and sensitivity issues which accompany floating point approaches to Euclidean elimination are not very well understood. New algorithms are presented which circumvent entirely such numerical issues through the use of exact, symbolic methods in computer algebra. The use of such error-free algorithms guarantees that the results are accurate to within the precision of the model data--the best that can be hoped for. Care must be taken in the design of such algorithms due to the phenomenon of intermediate expressions swell.
Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm.
Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z G
We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.
Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm
Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z. G.
2016-01-01
We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27499558
Mechanical design of walking machines.
Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo
2007-01-15
The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control.
Robust Optimization Design Algorithm for High-Frequency TWTs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chevalier, Christine T.
2010-01-01
Traveling-wave tubes (TWTs), such as the Ka-band (26-GHz) model recently developed for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, are essential as communication amplifiers in spacecraft for virtually all near- and deep-space missions. This innovation is a computational design algorithm that, for the first time, optimizes the efficiency and output power of a TWT while taking into account the effects of dimensional tolerance variations. Because they are primary power consumers and power generation is very expensive in space, much effort has been exerted over the last 30 years to increase the power efficiency of TWTs. However, at frequencies higher than about 60 GHz, efficiencies of TWTs are still quite low. A major reason is that at higher frequencies, dimensional tolerance variations from conventional micromachining techniques become relatively large with respect to the circuit dimensions. When this is the case, conventional design- optimization procedures, which ignore dimensional variations, provide inaccurate designs for which the actual amplifier performance substantially under-performs that of the design. Thus, this new, robust TWT optimization design algorithm was created to take account of and ameliorate the deleterious effects of dimensional variations and to increase efficiency, power, and yield of high-frequency TWTs. This design algorithm can help extend the use of TWTs into the terahertz frequency regime of 300-3000 GHz. Currently, these frequencies are under-utilized because of the lack of efficient amplifiers, thus this regime is known as the "terahertz gap." The development of an efficient terahertz TWT amplifier could enable breakthrough applications in space science molecular spectroscopy, remote sensing, nondestructive testing, high-resolution "through-the-wall" imaging, biomedical imaging, and detection of explosives and toxic biochemical agents.
Comparison of adaptive algorithms for the control of tonal disturbances in mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilletti, M.; Elliott, S. J.; Cheer, J.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a study on the performance of adaptive control algorithms designed to reduce the vibration of mechanical systems excited by a harmonic disturbance. The mechanical system consists of a mass suspended on a spring and a damper. The system is equipped with a force actuator in parallel with the suspension. The control signal driving the actuator is generated by adjusting the amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal reference signal at the same frequency as the excitation. An adaptive feedforward control algorithm is used to adapt the amplitude and phase of the control signal, to minimise the mean square velocity of the mass. Two adaptation strategies are considered in which the control signal is either updated after each period of the oscillation or at every time sample. The first strategy is traditionally used in vibration control in helicopters for example; the second strategy is normally referred to as the filtered-x least mean square algorithm and is often used to control engine noise in cars. The two adaptation strategies are compared through a parametric study, which investigates the influence of the properties of both the mechanical system and the control system on the convergence speed of the two algorithms.
Thrust vector control algorithm design for the Cassini spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Enright, Paul J.
1993-01-01
This paper describes a preliminary design of the thrust vector control algorithm for the interplanetary spacecraft, Cassini. Topics of discussion include flight software architecture, modeling of sensors, actuators, and vehicle dynamics, and controller design and analysis via classical methods. Special attention is paid to potential interactions with structural flexibilities and propellant dynamics. Controller performance is evaluated in a simulation environment built around a multi-body dynamics model, which contains nonlinear models of the relevant hardware and preliminary versions of supporting attitude determination and control functions.
Diagonal dominance using function minimization algorithms. [multivariable control system design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leininger, G. G.
1977-01-01
A new approach to the design of multivariable control systems using the inverse Nyquist array method is proposed. The technique utilizes a conjugate direction function minimization algorithm to achieve dominance over a specified frequency range by minimizing the ratio of the moduli of the off-diagonal terms to the moduli of the diagonal term of the inverse open loop transfer function matrix. The technique is easily implemented in either a batch or interactive computer mode and will yield diagonalization when previously suggested methods fail. The proposed method has been successfully applied to design a control system for a sixteenth order state model of the F-100 turbofan engine with three inputs.
Thrust vector control algorithm design for the Cassini spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enright, Paul J.
1993-02-01
This paper describes a preliminary design of the thrust vector control algorithm for the interplanetary spacecraft, Cassini. Topics of discussion include flight software architecture, modeling of sensors, actuators, and vehicle dynamics, and controller design and analysis via classical methods. Special attention is paid to potential interactions with structural flexibilities and propellant dynamics. Controller performance is evaluated in a simulation environment built around a multi-body dynamics model, which contains nonlinear models of the relevant hardware and preliminary versions of supporting attitude determination and control functions.
A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambe, Andrew Borean
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation. motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and
A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambe, Andrew Borean
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and
Hernández-Ocaña, Betania; Pozos-Parra, Ma. Del Pilar; Mezura-Montes, Efrén; Portilla-Flores, Edgar Alfredo; Vega-Alvarado, Eduardo; Calva-Yáñez, Maria Bárbara
2016-01-01
This paper presents two-swim operators to be added to the chemotaxis process of the modified bacterial foraging optimization algorithm to solve three instances of the synthesis of four-bar planar mechanisms. One swim favors exploration while the second one promotes fine movements in the neighborhood of each bacterium. The combined effect of the new operators looks to increase the production of better solutions during the search. As a consequence, the ability of the algorithm to escape from local optimum solutions is enhanced. The algorithm is tested through four experiments and its results are compared against two BFOA-based algorithms and also against a differential evolution algorithm designed for mechanical design problems. The overall results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms other BFOA-based approaches and finds highly competitive mechanisms, with a single set of parameter values and with less evaluations in the first synthesis problem, with respect to those mechanisms obtained by the differential evolution algorithm, which needed a parameter fine-tuning process for each optimization problem. PMID:27057156
Hernández-Ocaña, Betania; Pozos-Parra, Ma Del Pilar; Mezura-Montes, Efrén; Portilla-Flores, Edgar Alfredo; Vega-Alvarado, Eduardo; Calva-Yáñez, Maria Bárbara
2016-01-01
This paper presents two-swim operators to be added to the chemotaxis process of the modified bacterial foraging optimization algorithm to solve three instances of the synthesis of four-bar planar mechanisms. One swim favors exploration while the second one promotes fine movements in the neighborhood of each bacterium. The combined effect of the new operators looks to increase the production of better solutions during the search. As a consequence, the ability of the algorithm to escape from local optimum solutions is enhanced. The algorithm is tested through four experiments and its results are compared against two BFOA-based algorithms and also against a differential evolution algorithm designed for mechanical design problems. The overall results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms other BFOA-based approaches and finds highly competitive mechanisms, with a single set of parameter values and with less evaluations in the first synthesis problem, with respect to those mechanisms obtained by the differential evolution algorithm, which needed a parameter fine-tuning process for each optimization problem.
ARGOS laser system mechanical design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.
2014-07-01
ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.
An efficient parallel algorithm for accelerating computational protein design
Zhou, Yichao; Xu, Wei; Donald, Bruce R.; Zeng, Jianyang
2014-01-01
Motivation: Structure-based computational protein design (SCPR) is an important topic in protein engineering. Under the assumption of a rigid backbone and a finite set of discrete conformations of side-chains, various methods have been proposed to address this problem. A popular method is to combine the dead-end elimination (DEE) and A* tree search algorithms, which provably finds the global minimum energy conformation (GMEC) solution. Results: In this article, we improve the efficiency of computing A* heuristic functions for protein design and propose a variant of A* algorithm in which the search process can be performed on a single GPU in a massively parallel fashion. In addition, we make some efforts to address the memory exceeding problem in A* search. As a result, our enhancements can achieve a significant speedup of the A*-based protein design algorithm by four orders of magnitude on large-scale test data through pre-computation and parallelization, while still maintaining an acceptable memory overhead. We also show that our parallel A* search algorithm could be successfully combined with iMinDEE, a state-of-the-art DEE criterion, for rotamer pruning to further improve SCPR with the consideration of continuous side-chain flexibility. Availability: Our software is available and distributed open-source under the GNU Lesser General License Version 2.1 (GNU, February 1999). The source code can be downloaded from http://www.cs.duke.edu/donaldlab/osprey.php or http://iiis.tsinghua.edu.cn/∼compbio/software.html. Contact: zengjy321@tsinghua.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24931991
Chiral metamaterial design using optimized pixelated inclusions with genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akturk, Cemal; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Ozdemir, Ersin; Ozkaner, Vedat; Dincer, Furkan; Bakir, Mehmet; Ozer, Zafer
2015-03-01
Chiral metamaterials have been a research area for many researchers due to their polarization rotation properties on electromagnetic waves. However, most of the proposed chiral metamaterials are designed depending on experience or time-consuming inefficient simulations. A method is investigated for designing a chiral metamaterial with a strong and natural chirality admittance by optimizing a grid of metallic pixels through both sides of a dielectric sheet placed perpendicular to the incident wave by using a genetic algorithm (GA) technique based on finite element method solver. The effective medium parameters are obtained by using constitutive equations and S parameters. The proposed methodology is very efficient for designing a chiral metamaterial with the desired effective medium parameters. By using GA-based topology, it is proven that a chiral metamaterial can be designed and manufactured more easily and with a low cost.
An Adaptive Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Improved Groundwater Remediation Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espinoza, F. P.; Minsker, B. S.; Goldberg, D. E.
2001-12-01
Identifying optimal designs for a groundwater remediation system is computationally intensive, especially for complex, nonlinear problems such as enhanced in situ bioremediation technology. To improve performance, we apply a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which is a two-step solution method: a genetic algorithm (GA) for global search using the entire population and then a local search (LS) to improve search speed for only a few individuals in the population. We implement two types of HGAs: a non-adaptive HGA (NAHGA), whose operations are invariant throughout the run, and a self-adaptive HGA (SAHGA), whose operations adapt to the performance of the algorithm. The best settings of the two HGAs for optimal performance are then investigated for a groundwater remediation problem. The settings include the frequency of LS with respect to the normal GA evaluation, probability of individual selection for LS, evolution criterion for LS (Lamarckian or Baldwinian), and number of local search iterations. A comparison of the algorithms' performance under different settings will be presented.
An adaptive multimeme algorithm for designing HIV multidrug therapies.
Neri, Ferrante; Toivanen, Jari; Cascella, Giuseppe Leonardo; Ong, Yew-Soon
2007-01-01
This paper proposes a period representation for modeling the multidrug HIV therapies and an Adaptive Multimeme Algorithm (AMmA) for designing the optimal therapy. The period representation offers benefits in terms of flexibility and reduction in dimensionality compared to the binary representation. The AMmA is a memetic algorithm which employs a list of three local searchers adaptively activated by an evolutionary framework. These local searchers, having different features according to the exploration logic and the pivot rule, have the role of exploring the decision space from different and complementary perspectives and, thus, assisting the standard evolutionary operators in the optimization process. Furthermore, the AMmA makes use of an adaptation which dynamically sets the algorithmic parameters in order to prevent stagnation and premature convergence. The numerical results demonstrate that the application of the proposed algorithm leads to very efficient medication schedules which quickly stimulate a strong immune response to HIV. The earlier termination of the medication schedule leads to lesser unpleasant side effects for the patient due to strong antiretroviral therapy. A numerical comparison shows that the AMmA is more efficient than three popular metaheuristics. Finally, a statistical test based on the calculation of the tolerance interval confirms the superiority of the AMmA compared to the other methods for the problem under study.
Design of OFDM radar pulses using genetic algorithm based techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lellouch, Gabriel; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Inggs, Michael
2016-08-01
The merit of evolutionary algorithms (EA) to solve convex optimization problems is widely acknowledged. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization based waveform design framework is used to improve the features of radar pulses relying on the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) structure. Our optimization techniques focus on finding optimal phase code sequences for the OFDM signal. Several optimality criteria are used since we consider two different radar processing solutions which call either for single or multiple-objective optimizations. When minimization of the so-called peak-to-mean envelope power ratio (PMEPR) single-objective is tackled, we compare our findings with existing methods and emphasize on the merit of our approach. In the scope of the two-objective optimization, we first address PMEPR and peak-to-sidelobe level ratio (PSLR) and show that our approach based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) provides design solutions with noticeable improvements as opposed to random sets of phase codes. We then look at another case of interest where the objective functions are two measures of the sidelobe level, namely PSLR and the integrated-sidelobe level ratio (ISLR) and propose to modify the NSGA-II to include a constrain on the PMEPR instead. In the last part, we illustrate via a case study how our encoding solution makes it possible to minimize the single objective PMEPR while enabling a target detection enhancement strategy, when the SNR metric would be chosen for the detection framework.
Optimum detailed design of reinforced concrete frames using genetic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govindaraj, V.; Ramasamy, J. V.
2007-06-01
This article presents the application of the genetic algorithm to the optimum detailed design of reinforced concrete frames based on Indian Standard specifications. The objective function is the total cost of the frame which includes the cost of concrete, formwork and reinforcing steel for individual members of the frame. In order for the optimum design to be directly constructible without any further modifications, aspects such as available standard reinforcement bar diameters, spacing requirements of reinforcing bars, modular sizes of members, architectural requirements on member sizes and other practical requirements in addition to relevant codal provisions are incorporated into the optimum design model. The produced optimum design satisfies the strength, serviceability, ductility, durability and other constraints related to good design and detailing practice. The detailing of reinforcements in the beam members is carried out as a sub-level optimization problem. This strategy helps to reduce the size of the optimization problem and saves computational time. The proposed method is demonstrated through several example problems and the optimum results obtained are compared with those in the available literature. It is concluded that the proposed optimum design model can be adopted in design offices as it yields rational, reliable, economical, time-saving and practical designs.
Drought Adaptation Mechanisms Should Guide Experimental Design.
Gilbert, Matthew E; Medina, Viviana
2016-08-01
The mechanism, or hypothesis, of how a plant might be adapted to drought should strongly influence experimental design. For instance, an experiment testing for water conservation should be distinct from a damage-tolerance evaluation. We define here four new, general mechanisms for plant adaptation to drought such that experiments can be more easily designed based upon the definitions. A series of experimental methods are suggested together with appropriate physiological measurements related to the drought adaptation mechanisms. The suggestion is made that the experimental manipulation should match the rate, length, and severity of soil water deficit (SWD) necessary to test the hypothesized type of drought adaptation mechanism.
VitAL: Viterbi Algorithm for de novo Peptide Design
Unal, E. Besray; Gursoy, Attila; Erman, Burak
2010-01-01
Background Drug design against proteins to cure various diseases has been studied for several years. Numerous design techniques were discovered for small organic molecules for specific protein targets. The specificity, toxicity and selectivity of small molecules are hard problems to solve. The use of peptide drugs enables a partial solution to the toxicity problem. There has been a wide interest in peptide design, but the design techniques of a specific and selective peptide inhibitor against a protein target have not yet been established. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel de novo peptide design approach is developed to block activities of disease related protein targets. No prior training, based on known peptides, is necessary. The method sequentially generates the peptide by docking its residues pair by pair along a chosen path on a protein. The binding site on the protein is determined via the coarse grained Gaussian Network Model. A binding path is determined. The best fitting peptide is constructed by generating all possible peptide pairs at each point along the path and determining the binding energies between these pairs and the specific location on the protein using AutoDock. The Markov based partition function for all possible choices of the peptides along the path is generated by a matrix multiplication scheme. The best fitting peptide for the given surface is obtained by a Hidden Markov model using Viterbi decoding. The suitability of the conformations of the peptides that result upon binding on the surface are included in the algorithm by considering the intrinsic Ramachandran potentials. Conclusions/Significance The model is tested on known protein-peptide inhibitor complexes. The present algorithm predicts peptides that have better binding energies than those of the existing ones. Finally, a heptapeptide is designed for a protein that has excellent binding affinity according to AutoDock results. PMID:20532195
Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.
Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C
2015-01-20
Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.
Multidisciplinary Multiobjective Optimal Design for Turbomachinery Using Evolutionary Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
This report summarizes Dr. Lian s efforts toward developing a robust and efficient tool for multidisciplinary and multi-objective optimal design for turbomachinery using evolutionary algorithms. This work consisted of two stages. The first stage (from July 2003 to June 2004) Dr. Lian focused on building essential capabilities required for the project. More specifically, Dr. Lian worked on two subjects: an enhanced genetic algorithm (GA) and an integrated optimization system with a GA and a surrogate model. The second stage (from July 2004 to February 2005) Dr. Lian formulated aerodynamic optimization and structural optimization into a multi-objective optimization problem and performed multidisciplinary and multi-objective optimizations on a transonic compressor blade based on the proposed model. Dr. Lian s numerical results showed that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the blade weight and increase the stage pressure ratio in an efficient manner. In addition, the new design was structurally safer than the original design. Five conference papers and three journal papers were published on this topic by Dr. Lian.
Lee, Donggil; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kim, Seonghun; Yang, Yongsu
2015-04-01
An automatic abalone grading algorithm that estimates abalone weights on the basis of computer vision using 2D images is developed and tested. The algorithm overcomes the problems experienced by conventional abalone grading methods that utilize manual sorting and mechanical automatic grading. To design an optimal algorithm, a regression formula and R(2) value were investigated by performing a regression analysis for each of total length, body width, thickness, view area, and actual volume against abalone weights. The R(2) value between the actual volume and abalone weight was 0.999, showing a relatively high correlation. As a result, to easily estimate the actual volumes of abalones based on computer vision, the volumes were calculated under the assumption that abalone shapes are half-oblate ellipsoids, and a regression formula was derived to estimate the volumes of abalones through linear regression analysis between the calculated and actual volumes. The final automatic abalone grading algorithm is designed using the abalone volume estimation regression formula derived from test results, and the actual volumes and abalone weights regression formula. In the range of abalones weighting from 16.51 to 128.01 g, the results of evaluation of the performance of algorithm via cross-validation indicate root mean square and worst-case prediction errors of are 2.8 and ±8 g, respectively.
Design principles and algorithms for automated air traffic management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erzberger, Heinz
1995-01-01
This paper presents design principles and algorithm for building a real time scheduler. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high altitude airspace far from the airport and low altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time.
Mechanical design of the Mars Pathfinder mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.
1997-01-01
The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.
Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri
2014-01-01
This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.
The Mechanism Design Approach to Student Assignment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pathak, Parag A.
2011-01-01
The mechanism design approach to student assignment involves the theoretical, empirical, and experimental study of systems used to allocate students into schools around the world. Recent practical experience designing systems for student assignment has raised new theoretical questions for the theory of matching and assignment. This article reviews…
Application of Simulated Annealing and Related Algorithms to TWTA Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radke, Eric M.
2004-01-01
Simulated Annealing (SA) is a stochastic optimization algorithm used to search for global minima in complex design surfaces where exhaustive searches are not computationally feasible. The algorithm is derived by simulating the annealing process, whereby a solid is heated to a liquid state and then cooled slowly to reach thermodynamic equilibrium at each temperature. The idea is that atoms in the solid continually bond and re-bond at various quantum energy levels, and with sufficient cooling time they will rearrange at the minimum energy state to form a perfect crystal. The distribution of energy levels is given by the Boltzmann distribution: as temperature drops, the probability of the presence of high-energy bonds decreases. In searching for an optimal design, local minima and discontinuities are often present in a design surface. SA presents a distinct advantage over other optimization algorithms in its ability to escape from these local minima. Just as high-energy atomic configurations are visited in the actual annealing process in order to eventually reach the minimum energy state, in SA highly non-optimal configurations are visited in order to find otherwise inaccessible global minima. The SA algorithm produces a Markov chain of points in the design space at each temperature, with a monotonically decreasing temperature. A random point is started upon, and the objective function is evaluated at that point. A stochastic perturbation is then made to the parameters of the point to arrive at a proposed new point in the design space, at which the objection function is evaluated as well. If the change in objective function values (Delta)E is negative, the proposed new point is accepted. If (Delta)E is positive, the proposed new point is accepted according to the Metropolis criterion: rho((Delta)f) = exp((-Delta)E/T), where T is the temperature for the current Markov chain. The process then repeats for the remainder of the Markov chain, after which the temperature is
Optimal robust motion controller design using multiobjective genetic algorithm.
Sarjaš, Andrej; Svečko, Rajko; Chowdhury, Amor
2014-01-01
This paper describes the use of a multiobjective genetic algorithm for robust motion controller design. Motion controller structure is based on a disturbance observer in an RIC framework. The RIC approach is presented in the form with internal and external feedback loops, in which an internal disturbance rejection controller and an external performance controller must be synthesised. This paper involves novel objectives for robustness and performance assessments for such an approach. Objective functions for the robustness property of RIC are based on simple even polynomials with nonnegativity conditions. Regional pole placement method is presented with the aims of controllers' structures simplification and their additional arbitrary selection. Regional pole placement involves arbitrary selection of central polynomials for both loops, with additional admissible region of the optimized pole location. Polynomial deviation between selected and optimized polynomials is measured with derived performance objective functions. A multiobjective function is composed of different unrelated criteria such as robust stability, controllers' stability, and time-performance indexes of closed loops. The design of controllers and multiobjective optimization procedure involve a set of the objectives, which are optimized simultaneously with a genetic algorithm-differential evolution.
Mechanism design of continuous infrared lens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yan-qin; Zhang, Jing-xu; Lv, Tian-yu; Yang, Fei; Wang, Fu-guo
2013-09-01
With the development of infrared technology and material, infrared zoom system is playing an important role in the field of photoelectric observation, the demand of infrared systems is increasing rapidly. In order to satisfy the requirement of infrared tracking imaging requirements of a car optoelectronic devices, different kinds of mechanical structure has been discussed, finally, according to the character of the optical design result, cam mechanism is adopted in zoom mechanism design, ball screw has been used in focusing mechanism design. As is known to all, cam is the key part in zoom system, the static, dynamic and thermal characteristics of the cam make great effect on the system performance because of the greater impact of the car's shaking and a larger range of temperature changes, as a result, the FEM analysis is necessary. The static performance is all right obtained by the finite element analysis results, the cam's first -order natural frequency is 97.56 Hz by modal analysis, the deformation of cam in the temperature difference of 80 °C is no more than 0. 003 mm by thermal analysis, which means the mechanical performance of the cam is fine. at last, the focusing mechanism has been designed, and analysis of focusing mechanism precision and encoder theoretical resolving power has been done, this mechanism has the advantages of simple transmission chain and low friction, as well as reducing the transmission error, an absolute encoder is chosen to detect the displacement of the focusing mechanism, the focusing precision is 5μm, the encoder theoretical resolving power is 0.015μm. In addition, the measurements on how to suppress stray radiation have been put forward. The experiment afterward showed that the infrared zoom system performs well, which provides lot of experience in infrared zoom system design and adjustment.
Design Optimization of an Axial Fan Blade Through Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Choi, Jae-Ho; Husain, Afzal; Kim, Kwang-Yong
2010-06-01
This paper presents design optimization of an axial fan blade with hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (hybrid MOEA). Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with shear stress transport turbulence model are discretized by the finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids for the flow analyses. The validation of the numerical results was performed with the experimental data for the axial and tangential velocities. Six design variables related to the blade lean angle and blade profile are selected and the Latin hypercube sampling of design of experiments is used to generate design points within the selected design space. Two objective functions namely total efficiency and torque are employed and the multi-objective optimization is carried out to enhance total efficiency and to reduce the torque. The flow analyses are performed numerically at the designed points to obtain values of the objective functions. The Non-dominated Sorting of Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with ɛ -constraint strategy for local search coupled with surrogate model is used for multi-objective optimization. The Pareto-optimal solutions are presented and trade-off analysis is performed between the two competing objectives in view of the design and flow constraints. It is observed that total efficiency is enhanced and torque is decreased as compared to the reference design by the process of multi-objective optimization. The Pareto-optimal solutions are analyzed to understand the mechanism of the improvement in the total efficiency and reduction in torque.
A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Long, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris
2000-01-01
Parallelized versions of genetic algorithms (GAs) are popular primarily for three reasons: the GA is an inherently parallel algorithm, typical GA applications are very compute intensive, and powerful computing platforms, especially Beowulf-style computing clusters, are becoming more affordable and easier to implement. In addition, the low communication bandwidth required allows the use of inexpensive networking hardware such as standard office ethernet. In this paper we describe a parallel GA and its use in automated high-level circuit design. Genetic algorithms are a type of trial-and-error search technique that are guided by principles of Darwinian evolution. Just as the genetic material of two living organisms can intermix to produce offspring that are better adapted to their environment, GAs expose genetic material, frequently strings of 1s and Os, to the forces of artificial evolution: selection, mutation, recombination, etc. GAs start with a pool of randomly-generated candidate solutions which are then tested and scored with respect to their utility. Solutions are then bred by probabilistically selecting high quality parents and recombining their genetic representations to produce offspring solutions. Offspring are typically subjected to a small amount of random mutation. After a pool of offspring is produced, this process iterates until a satisfactory solution is found or an iteration limit is reached. Genetic algorithms have been applied to a wide variety of problems in many fields, including chemistry, biology, and many engineering disciplines. There are many styles of parallelism used in implementing parallel GAs. One such method is called the master-slave or processor farm approach. In this technique, slave nodes are used solely to compute fitness evaluations (the most time consuming part). The master processor collects fitness scores from the nodes and performs the genetic operators (selection, reproduction, variation, etc.). Because of dependency
Resizing procedure for optimum design of structures under combined mechanical and thermal loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adelman, H. M.; Narayanaswami, R.
1976-01-01
An algorithm is reported for resizing structures subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loading. The algorithm is applicable to uniaxial stress elements (rods) and membrane biaxial stress members. Thermal Fully Stressed Design (TFSD) is based on the basic difference between mechanical and thermal stresses in their response to resizing. The TFSD technique is found to converge in fewer iterations than ordinary fully stressed design for problems where thermal stresses are comparable to the mechanical stresses. The improved convergence is demonstrated by example with a study of a simplified wing structure, built-up with rods and membranes and subjected to a combination of mechanical loads and a three dimensional temperature distribution.
Microfluidic serpentine antennas with designed mechanical tunability.
Huang, YongAn; Wang, Yezhou; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Huimin; Dong, Wentao; Yin, Zhouping
2014-11-07
This paper describes the design and characterization of microfluidic serpentine antennas with reversible stretchability and designed mechanical frequency modulation (FM). The microfluidic antennas are designed based on the Poisson's ratio of the elastomer in which the liquid alloy antenna is embedded, to controllably decrease, stabilize or increase its resonance frequency when being stretched. Finite element modelling was used in combination with experimental verification to investigate the effects of substrate dimensions and antenna aspect ratios on the FM sensitivity to uniaxial stretching. It could be designed within the range of -1.2 to 0.6 GHz per 100% stretch. When the aspect ratio of the serpentine antenna is between 1.0 and 1.5, the resonance frequency is stable under stretching, bending, and twisting. The presented microfluidic serpentine antenna design could be utilized in the field of wireless mobile communication for the design of wearable electronics, with a stable resonance frequency under dynamic applied strain up to 50%.
Performance-Based Seismic Design of Steel Frames Utilizing Colliding Bodies Algorithm
Veladi, H.
2014-01-01
A pushover analysis method based on semirigid connection concept is developed and the colliding bodies optimization algorithm is employed to find optimum seismic design of frame structures. Two numerical examples from the literature are studied. The results of the new algorithm are compared to the conventional design methods to show the power or weakness of the algorithm. PMID:25202717
Performance-based seismic design of steel frames utilizing colliding bodies algorithm.
Veladi, H
2014-01-01
A pushover analysis method based on semirigid connection concept is developed and the colliding bodies optimization algorithm is employed to find optimum seismic design of frame structures. Two numerical examples from the literature are studied. The results of the new algorithm are compared to the conventional design methods to show the power or weakness of the algorithm.
The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun
2015-10-01
In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.
Performance Trend of Different Algorithms for Structural Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1996-01-01
Nonlinear programming algorithms play an important role in structural design optimization. Fortunately, several algorithms with computer codes are available. At NASA Lewis Research Center, a project was initiated to assess performance of different optimizers through the development of a computer code CometBoards. This paper summarizes the conclusions of that research. CometBoards was employed to solve sets of small, medium and large structural problems, using different optimizers on a Cray-YMP8E/8128 computer. The reliability and efficiency of the optimizers were determined from the performance of these problems. For small problems, the performance of most of the optimizers could be considered adequate. For large problems however, three optimizers (two sequential quadratic programming routines, DNCONG of IMSL and SQP of IDESIGN, along with the sequential unconstrained minimizations technique SUMT) outperformed others. At optimum, most optimizers captured an identical number of active displacement and frequency constraints but the number of active stress constraints differed among the optimizers. This discrepancy can be attributed to singularity conditions in the optimization and the alleviation of this discrepancy can improve the efficiency of optimizers.
Comparative Evaluation of Different Optimization Algorithms for Structural Design Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1996-01-01
Non-linear programming algorithms play an important role in structural design optimization. Fortunately, several algorithms with computer codes are available. At NASA Lewis Research Centre, a project was initiated to assess the performance of eight different optimizers through the development of a computer code CometBoards. This paper summarizes the conclusions of that research. CometBoards was employed to solve sets of small, medium and large structural problems, using the eight different optimizers on a Cray-YMP8E/8128 computer. The reliability and efficiency of the optimizers were determined from the performance of these problems. For small problems, the performance of most of the optimizers could be considered adequate. For large problems, however, three optimizers (two sequential quadratic programming routines, DNCONG of IMSL and SQP of IDESIGN, along with Sequential Unconstrained Minimizations Technique SUMT) outperformed others. At optimum, most optimizers captured an identical number of active displacement and frequency constraints but the number of active stress constraints differed among the optimizers. This discrepancy can be attributed to singularity conditions in the optimization and the alleviation of this discrepancy can improve the efficiency of optimizers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, R.; Verma, H. K.
2013-12-01
This paper presents a teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm to solve parameter identification problems in the designing of digital infinite impulse response (IIR) filter. TLBO based filter modelling is applied to calculate the parameters of unknown plant in simulations. Unlike other heuristic search algorithms, TLBO algorithm is an algorithm-specific parameter-less algorithm. In this paper big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) optimization and PSO algorithms are also applied to filter design for comparison. Unknown filter parameters are considered as a vector to be optimized by these algorithms. MATLAB programming is used for implementation of proposed algorithms. Experimental results show that the TLBO is more accurate to estimate the filter parameters than the BB-BC optimization algorithm and has faster convergence rate when compared to PSO algorithm. TLBO is used where accuracy is more essential than the convergence speed.
Mars rover mechanisms designed for Rocky 4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivellini, Tommaso P.
1993-01-01
A Mars rover prototype vehicle named Rocky 4 was designed and built at JPL during the fall of 1991 and spring 1992. This vehicle is the fourth in a series of rovers designed to test vehicle mobility and navigation software. Rocky 4 was the first attempt to design a vehicle with 'flight like' mass and functionality. It was consequently necessary to develop highly efficient mechanisms and structures to meet the vehicles very tight mass limit of 3 Kg for the entire mobility system (7 Kg for the full system). This paper will discuss the key mechanisms developed for the rover's innovative drive and suspension system. These are the wheel drive and strut assembly, the rocker-bogie suspension mechanism and the differential pivot. The end-to-end design, analysis, fabrication and testing of these components will also be discussed as will their performance during field testing. The lessons learned from Rocky 4 are already proving invaluable for the design of Rocky 6. Rocky 6 is currently being designed to fly on NASA's MESUR mission to Mars scheduled to launch in 1996.
Controller design based on μ analysis and PSO algorithm.
Lari, Ali; Khosravi, Alireza; Rajabi, Farshad
2014-03-01
In this paper an evolutionary algorithm is employed to address the controller design problem based on μ analysis. Conventional solutions to μ synthesis problem such as D-K iteration method often lead to high order, impractical controllers. In the proposed approach, a constrained optimization problem based on μ analysis is defined and then an evolutionary approach is employed to solve the optimization problem. The goal is to achieve a more practical controller with lower order. A benchmark system named two-tank system is considered to evaluate performance of the proposed approach. Simulation results show that the proposed controller performs more effective than high order H(∞) controller and has close responses to the high order D-K iteration controller as the common solution to μ synthesis problem.
Novel design solutions for fishing reel mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Modler, Karl-Heinz; Neumann, Rudolf; Gruescu, Corina Mihaela; Perju, Dan; Ciupe, Valentin; Maniu, Inocentiu
2015-07-01
Currently, there are various reels on the market regarding the type of mechanism, which achieves the winding and unwinding of the line. The designers have the purpose of obtaining a linear transmission function, by means of a simple and small-sized mechanism. However, the present solutions are not satisfactory because of large deviations from linearity of the transmission function and complexity of mechanical schema. A novel solution for the reel spool mechanism is proposed. Its kinematic schema and synthesis method are described. The kinematic schema of the chosen mechanism is based on a noncircular gear in series with a scotch-yoke mechanism. The yoke is driven by a stud fixed on the driving noncircular gear. The drawbacks of other models regarding the effects occurring at the ends of the spool are eliminated through achieving an appropriate transmission function of the spool. The linear function approximation with curved end-arches appropriately computed to ensure mathematical continuity is very good. The experimental results on the mechanism model validate the theoretical approach. The developed mechanism solution is recorded under a reel spool mechanism patent.
Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials.
Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin
2016-07-28
The structural complexity of metamaterials is limitless, but, in practice, most designs comprise periodic architectures that lead to materials with spatially homogeneous features. More advanced applications in soft robotics, prosthetics and wearable technology involve spatially textured mechanical functionality, which requires aperiodic architectures. However, a naive implementation of such structural complexity invariably leads to geometrical frustration (whereby local constraints cannot be satisfied everywhere), which prevents coherent operation and impedes functionality. Here we introduce a combinatorial strategy for the design of aperiodic, yet frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials that exhibit spatially textured functionalities. We implement this strategy using cubic building blocks-voxels-that deform anisotropically, a local stacking rule that allows cooperative shape changes by guaranteeing that deformed building blocks fit together as in a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle, and three-dimensional printing. These aperiodic metamaterials exhibit long-range holographic order, whereby the two-dimensional pixelated surface texture dictates the three-dimensional interior voxel arrangement. They also act as programmable shape-shifters, morphing into spatially complex, but predictable and designable, shapes when uniaxially compressed. Finally, their mechanical response to compression by a textured surface reveals their ability to perform sensing and pattern analysis. Combinatorial design thus opens up a new avenue towards mechanical metamaterials with unusual order and machine-like functionalities.
Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin
2016-07-01
The structural complexity of metamaterials is limitless, but, in practice, most designs comprise periodic architectures that lead to materials with spatially homogeneous features. More advanced applications in soft robotics, prosthetics and wearable technology involve spatially textured mechanical functionality, which requires aperiodic architectures. However, a naive implementation of such structural complexity invariably leads to geometrical frustration (whereby local constraints cannot be satisfied everywhere), which prevents coherent operation and impedes functionality. Here we introduce a combinatorial strategy for the design of aperiodic, yet frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials that exhibit spatially textured functionalities. We implement this strategy using cubic building blocks—voxels—that deform anisotropically, a local stacking rule that allows cooperative shape changes by guaranteeing that deformed building blocks fit together as in a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle, and three-dimensional printing. These aperiodic metamaterials exhibit long-range holographic order, whereby the two-dimensional pixelated surface texture dictates the three-dimensional interior voxel arrangement. They also act as programmable shape-shifters, morphing into spatially complex, but predictable and designable, shapes when uniaxially compressed. Finally, their mechanical response to compression by a textured surface reveals their ability to perform sensing and pattern analysis. Combinatorial design thus opens up a new avenue towards mechanical metamaterials with unusual order and machine-like functionalities.
Flight telerobot mechanism design: Problems and challenges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahlgren, John B.; Kan, Edwin P.
1989-01-01
Problems and challenges of designing flight telerobot mechanisms are discussed. Specific experiences are drawn from the following system developments: (1) the Force Reflecting Hand Controller, (2) the Smart End Effector, (3) the force-torque sensor, and a generic multi-degrees-of-freedom manipulator.
Design definition of a mechanical capacitor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michaelis, T. D.; Schlieban, E. W.; Scott, R. D.
1977-01-01
A design study and analyses of a 10 kW-hr, 15 kW mechanical capacitor system was studied. It was determined that magnetically supported wheels constructed of advanced composites have the potential for high energy density and high power density. Structural concepts are analyzed that yield the highest energy density of any structural design yet reported. Particular attention was paid to the problem of 'friction' caused by magnetic and I to the second power R losses in the suspension and motor-generator subsystems, and low design friction levels have been achieved. The potentially long shelf life of this system, and the absence of wearing parts, provide superior performance over conventional flywheels supported with mechanical bearings. Costs and economies of energy storage wheels were reviewed briefly.
AHTR Mechanical, Structural, And Neutronic Preconceptual Design
Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Bradley, Eric Craig; Ilas, Dan; Qualls, A L; Zaharia, Nathaniel M
2012-10-01
This report provides an overview of the mechanical, structural, and neutronic aspects of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design concept. The AHTR is a design concept for a large output Fluoride salt cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is being developed to enable evaluation of the technology hurdles remaining to be overcome prior to FHRs becoming a commercial reactor class. This report documents the incremental AHTR design maturation performed over the past year and is focused on advancing the design concept to a level of a functional, self-consistent system. The AHTR employs plate type coated particle fuel assemblies with rapid, off-line refueling. Neutronic analysis of the core has confirmed the viability of a 6-month 2-batch cycle with 9 weight-percent enriched uranium fuel. Refueling is intended to be performed automatically under visual guidance using dedicated robotic manipulators. The present design intent is for used fuel to be stored inside of containment for at least 6 months and then transferred to local dry wells for intermediate term, on-site storage. The mechanical and structural concept development effort has included an emphasis on transportation and constructability to minimize construction costs and schedule. The design intent is that all components be factory fabricated into rail transportable modules that are assembled into subsystems at an on-site workshop prior to being lifted into position using a heavy-lift crane in an open-top style construction. While detailed accident identification and response sequence analysis has yet to be performed, the design concept incorporates multiple levels of radioactive material containment including fully passive responses to all identified design basis or non-very-low frequency beyond design basis accidents. Key building design elements include: 1) below grade siting to minimize vulnerability to aircraft impact, 2) multiple natural circulation decay heat rejection chimneys, 3) seismic
Design of infrasound-detection system via adaptive LMSTDE algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalaf, C. S.; Stoughton, J. W.
1984-01-01
A proposed solution to an aviation safety problem is based on passive detection of turbulent weather phenomena through their infrasonic emission. This thesis describes a system design that is adequate for detection and bearing evaluation of infrasounds. An array of four sensors, with the appropriate hardware, is used for the detection part. Bearing evaluation is based on estimates of time delays between sensor outputs. The generalized cross correlation (GCC), as the conventional time-delay estimation (TDE) method, is first reviewed. An adaptive TDE approach, using the least mean square (LMS) algorithm, is then discussed. A comparison between the two techniques is made and the advantages of the adaptive approach are listed. The behavior of the GCC, as a Roth processor, is examined for the anticipated signals. It is shown that the Roth processor has the desired effect of sharpening the peak of the correlation function. It is also shown that the LMSTDE technique is an equivalent implementation of the Roth processor in the time domain. A LMSTDE lead-lag model, with a variable stability coefficient and a convergence criterion, is designed.
Optimal Robust Motion Controller Design Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm
Svečko, Rajko
2014-01-01
This paper describes the use of a multiobjective genetic algorithm for robust motion controller design. Motion controller structure is based on a disturbance observer in an RIC framework. The RIC approach is presented in the form with internal and external feedback loops, in which an internal disturbance rejection controller and an external performance controller must be synthesised. This paper involves novel objectives for robustness and performance assessments for such an approach. Objective functions for the robustness property of RIC are based on simple even polynomials with nonnegativity conditions. Regional pole placement method is presented with the aims of controllers' structures simplification and their additional arbitrary selection. Regional pole placement involves arbitrary selection of central polynomials for both loops, with additional admissible region of the optimized pole location. Polynomial deviation between selected and optimized polynomials is measured with derived performance objective functions. A multiobjective function is composed of different unrelated criteria such as robust stability, controllers' stability, and time-performance indexes of closed loops. The design of controllers and multiobjective optimization procedure involve a set of the objectives, which are optimized simultaneously with a genetic algorithm—differential evolution. PMID:24987749
Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team
2014-03-01
A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.
An advancing front Delaunay triangulation algorithm designed for robustness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1992-01-01
A new algorithm is described for generating an unstructured mesh about an arbitrary two-dimensional configuration. Mesh points are generated automatically by the algorithm in a manner which ensures a smooth variation of elements, and the resulting triangulation constitutes the Delaunay triangulation of these points. The algorithm combines the mathematical elegance and efficiency of Delaunay triangulation algorithms with the desirable point placement features, boundary integrity, and robustness traditionally associated with advancing-front-type mesh generation strategies. The method offers increased robustness over previous algorithms in that it cannot fail regardless of the initial boundary point distribution and the prescribed cell size distribution throughout the flow-field.
Optimization design of satellite separation systems based on Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xingzhi; Chen, Xiaoqian; Zhao, Yong; Yao, Wen
2014-03-01
The separation systems are crucial for the launch of satellites. With respect to the existing design issues of satellite separation systems, an optimization design approach based on Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm is proposed, and a hierarchical optimization of system mass and separation angular velocity is designed. Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm is studied for the problem and the optimization parameters are discussed. Dynamic analysis of ADAMS used to validate the designs is integrated with iSIGHT. Then the optimization method is employed for a typical problem using the helical compression spring mechanism, and the corresponding objective functions are derived. It turns out that the mass of compression spring catapult is decreased by 30.7% after optimization and the angular velocity can be minimized considering spring stiffness errors. Moreover, ground tests and on-orbit flight indicate that the error of separation speed is controlled within 1% and the angular velocity is reduced by nearly 90%, which proves the design result and the optimization approach.
Mechanical engineering capstone senior design textbook
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrett, Rolin Farrar, Jr.
This textbook is intended to bridge the gap between mechanical engineering equations and mechanical engineering design. To that end, real-world examples are used throughout the book. Also, the material is presented in an order that follows the chronological sequence of coursework that must be performed by a student in the typical capstone senior design course in mechanical engineering. In the process of writing this book, the author surveyed the fifty largest engineering schools (as ranked by the American Society of Engineering Education, or ASEE) to determine what engineering instructors are looking for in a textbook. The survey results revealed a clear need for a textbook written expressly for the capstone senior design course as taught throughout the nation. This book is designed to meet that need. This text was written using an organizational method that the author calls the General Topics Format. The format gives the student reader rapid access to the information contained in the text. All manufacturing methods, and some other material presented in this text, have been presented using the General Topics Format. The text uses examples to explain the importance of understanding the environment in which the product will be used and to discuss product abuse. The safety content contained in this text is unique. The Safety chapter teaches engineering ethics and includes a step-by-step guide to resolving ethical conflicts. The chapter includes explanations of rules, recommendations, standards, consensus standards, key safety concepts, and the legal implications of product failure. Key design principles have been listed and explained. The text provides easy-to-follow design steps, helpful for both the student and new engineer. Prototyping is presented as consisting of three phases: organization, building, and refining. A chapter on common manufacturing methods is included for reference.
Lapidoth, Gideon D.; Baran, Dror; Pszolla, Gabriele M.; Norn, Christoffer; Alon, Assaf; Tyka, Michael D.; Fleishman, Sarel J.
2016-01-01
Computational design of protein function has made substantial progress, generating new enzymes, binders, inhibitors, and nanomaterials not previously seen in nature. However, the ability to design new protein backbones for function – essential to exert control over all polypeptide degrees of freedom – remains a critical challenge. Most previous attempts to design new backbones computed the mainchain from scratch. Here, instead, we describe a combinatorial backbone and sequence optimization algorithm called AbDesign, which leverages the large number of sequences and experimentally determined molecular structures of antibodies to construct new antibody models, dock them against target surfaces and optimize their sequence and backbone conformation for high stability and binding affinity. We used the algorithm to produce antibody designs that target the same molecular surfaces as nine natural, high-affinity antibodies; in six the backbone conformation at the core of the antibody binding surface is similar to the natural antibody targets, and in several cases sequence and sidechain conformations recapitulate those seen in the natural antibodies. In the case of an anti-lysozyme antibody, designed antibody CDRs at the periphery of the interface, such as L1 and H2, show a greater backbone conformation diversity than the CDRs at the core of the interface, and increase the binding surface area compared to the natural antibody, which could enhance affinity and specificity. PMID:25670500
AHTR Mechanical, Structural, and Neutronic Preconceptual Design
Varma, V.K.; Holcomb, D.E.; Peretz, F.J.; Bradley, E.C.; Ilas, D.; Qualls, A.L.; Zaharia, N.M.
2012-09-15
This report provides an overview of the mechanical, structural, and neutronic aspects of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design concept. The AHTR is a design concept for a large output Fluoride salt cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is being developed to enable evaluation of the technology hurdles remaining to be overcome prior to FHRs becoming an option for commercial reactor deployment. This report documents the incremental AHTR design maturation performed over the past year and is focused on advancing the design concept to a level of a functional, self-consistent system. The reactor concept development remains at a preconceptual level of maturity. While the overall appearance of an AHTR design is anticipated to be similar to the current concept, optimized dimensions will differ from those presented here. The AHTR employs plate type coated particle fuel assemblies with rapid, off-line refueling. Neutronic analysis of the core has confirmed the viability of a 6-month two-batch cycle with 9 wt. % enriched uranium fuel. Refueling is intended to be performed automatically under visual guidance using dedicated robotic manipulators. The report includes a preconceptual design of the manipulators, the fuel transfer system, and the used fuel storage system. The present design intent is for used fuel to be stored inside of containment for at least six months and then transferred to local dry wells for intermediate term, on-site storage. The mechanical and structural concept development effort has included an emphasis on transportation and constructability to minimize construction costs and schedule. The design intent is that all components be factory fabricated into rail transportable modules that are assembled into subsystems at an on-site workshop prior to being lifted into position using a heavy-lift crane in an open-top style construction. While detailed accident identification and response sequence analysis has yet to be performed, the design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.; Jawahar, N.; Mukund Nilakantan, J.
2014-10-01
This article presents an effective hybrid cuckoo search and genetic algorithm (HCSGA) for solving engineering design optimization problems involving problem-specific constraints and mixed variables such as integer, discrete and continuous variables. The proposed algorithm, HCSGA, is first applied to 13 standard benchmark constrained optimization functions and subsequently used to solve three well-known design problems reported in the literature. The numerical results obtained by HCSGA show competitive performance with respect to recent algorithms for constrained design optimization problems.
Target Impact Detection Algorithm Using Computer-aided Design (CAD) Model Geometry
2014-09-01
UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 558 Technical Report ARMET-TR-13024 TARGET IMPACT DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ...DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ) MODEL GEOMETRY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report documents a method and algorithm to export geometry from a three-dimensional, computer-aided design ( CAD ) model in a format that can be
Mechanical design of SERT 2 thruster system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zavesky, R. J.; Hurst, E. B.
1972-01-01
The mechanical design of the mercury bombardment thruster that was tested on SERT is described. The report shows how the structural, thermal, electrical, material compatibility, and neutral mercury coating considerations affected the design and integration of the subsystems and components. The SERT 2 spacecraft with two thrusters was launched on February 3, 1970. One thruster operated for 3782 hours and the other for 2011 hours. A high voltage short resulting from buildup of loose eroded material was believed to be the cause of failure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tancret, F.
2013-06-01
A new alloy design procedure is proposed, combining in a single computational tool several modelling and predictive techniques that have already been used and assessed in the field of materials science and alloy design: a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the alloy composition for target properties and performance on the basis of the prediction of mechanical properties (estimated by Gaussian process regression of data on existing alloys) and of microstructural constitution, stability and processability (evaluated by computational themodynamics). These tools are integrated in a unique Matlab programme. An example is given in the case of the design of a new nickel-base superalloy for future power plant applications (such as the ultra-supercritical (USC) coal-fired plant, or the high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGCR or HTGR), where the selection criteria include cost, oxidation and creep resistance around 750 °C, long-term stability at service temperature, forgeability, weldability, etc.
Parallel algorithms for placement and routing in VLSI design. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brouwer, Randall Jay
1991-01-01
The computational requirements for high quality synthesis, analysis, and verification of very large scale integration (VLSI) designs have rapidly increased with the fast growing complexity of these designs. Research in the past has focused on the development of heuristic algorithms, special purpose hardware accelerators, or parallel algorithms for the numerous design tasks to decrease the time required for solution. Two new parallel algorithms are proposed for two VLSI synthesis tasks, standard cell placement and global routing. The first algorithm, a parallel algorithm for global routing, uses hierarchical techniques to decompose the routing problem into independent routing subproblems that are solved in parallel. Results are then presented which compare the routing quality to the results of other published global routers and which evaluate the speedups attained. The second algorithm, a parallel algorithm for cell placement and global routing, hierarchically integrates a quadrisection placement algorithm, a bisection placement algorithm, and the previous global routing algorithm. Unique partitioning techniques are used to decompose the various stages of the algorithm into independent tasks which can be evaluated in parallel. Finally, results are presented which evaluate the various algorithm alternatives and compare the algorithm performance to other placement programs. Measurements are presented on the parallel speedups available.
Mechanism Design for Incentivizing Social Media Contributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Vivek K.; Jain, Ramesh; Kankanhalli, Mohan
Despite recent advancements in user-driven social media platforms, tools for studying user behavior patterns and motivations remain primitive. We highlight the voluntary nature of user contributions and that users can choose when (and when not) to contribute to the common media pool. A Game theoretic framework is proposed to study the dynamics of social media networks where contribution costs are individual but gains are common. We model users as rational selfish agents, and consider domain attributes like voluntary participation, virtual reward structure, network effect, and public-sharing to model the dynamics of this interaction. The created model describes the most appropriate contribution strategy from each user's perspective and also highlights issues like 'free-rider' problem and individual rationality leading to irrational (i.e. sub-optimal) group behavior. We also consider the perspective of the system designer who is interested in finding the best incentive mechanisms to influence the selfish end-users so that the overall system utility is maximized. We propose and compare multiple mechanisms (based on optimal bonus payment, social incentive leveraging, and second price auction) to study how a system designer can exploit the selfishness of its users, to design incentive mechanisms which improve the overall task-completion probability and system performance, while possibly still benefiting the individual users.
Lapidoth, Gideon D; Baran, Dror; Pszolla, Gabriele M; Norn, Christoffer; Alon, Assaf; Tyka, Michael D; Fleishman, Sarel J
2015-08-01
Computational design of protein function has made substantial progress, generating new enzymes, binders, inhibitors, and nanomaterials not previously seen in nature. However, the ability to design new protein backbones for function--essential to exert control over all polypeptide degrees of freedom--remains a critical challenge. Most previous attempts to design new backbones computed the mainchain from scratch. Here, instead, we describe a combinatorial backbone and sequence optimization algorithm called AbDesign, which leverages the large number of sequences and experimentally determined molecular structures of antibodies to construct new antibody models, dock them against target surfaces and optimize their sequence and backbone conformation for high stability and binding affinity. We used the algorithm to produce antibody designs that target the same molecular surfaces as nine natural, high-affinity antibodies; in five cases interface sequence identity is above 30%, and in four of those the backbone conformation at the core of the antibody binding surface is within 1 Å root-mean square deviation from the natural antibodies. Designs recapitulate polar interaction networks observed in natural complexes, and amino acid sidechain rigidity at the designed binding surface, which is likely important for affinity and specificity, is high compared to previous design studies. In designed anti-lysozyme antibodies, complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) at the periphery of the interface, such as L1 and H2, show greater backbone conformation diversity than the CDRs at the core of the interface, and increase the binding surface area compared to the natural antibody, potentially enhancing affinity and specificity.
An implementable algorithm for the optimal design centering, tolerancing, and tuning problem
Polak, E.
1982-05-01
An implementable master algorithm for solving optimal design centering, tolerancing, and tuning problems is presented. This master algorithm decomposes the original nondifferentiable optimization problem into a sequence of ordinary nonlinear programming problems. The master algorithm generates sequences with accumulation points that are feasible and satisfy a new optimality condition, which is shown to be stronger than the one previously used for these problems.
Mechanical Design of Carbon Ion Optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haag, Thomas
2005-01-01
Carbon Ion Optics are expected to provide much longer thruster life due to their resistance to sputter erosion. There are a number of different forms of carbon that have been used for fabricating ion thruster optics. The mechanical behavior of carbon is much different than that of most metals, and poses unique design challenges. In order to minimize mission risk, the behavior of carbon must be well understood, and components designed within material limitations. Thermal expansion of the thruster structure must be compatible with thermal expansion of the carbon ion optics. Specially designed interfaces may be needed so that grid gap and aperture alignment are not adversely affected by dissimilar material properties within the thruster. The assembled thruster must be robust and tolerant of launch vibration. The following paper lists some of the characteristics of various carbon materials. Several past ion optics designs are discussed, identifying strengths and weaknesses. Electrostatics and material science are not emphasized so much as the mechanical behavior and integration of grid electrodes into an ion thruster.
Research on Knowledge Based Programming and Algorithm Design.
1981-08-01
34prime finding" (including the Sieve of Eratosthenes and linear time prime finding). This research is described in sections 6,7,8, and 9. 4 ii. Summary of...algorithm and several variants on prime finding including the Sieve of Eratosthenes and a more sophisticated linear-time algorithm. In these additional
Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design
Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F. D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.
2011-01-01
The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.
Analysis and optimal design of an underactuated finger mechanism for LARM hand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Shuangji; Ceccarelli, Marco; Carbone, Giuseppe; Zhan, Qiang; Lu, Zhen
2011-09-01
This paper aims to present general design considerations and optimality criteria for underactuated mechanisms in finger designs. Design issues related to grasping task of robotic fingers are discussed. Performance characteristics are outlined as referring to several aspects of finger mechanisms. Optimality criteria of the finger performances are formulated after careful analysis. A general design algorithm is summarized and formulated as a suitable multi-objective optimization problem. A numerical case of an underactuated robot finger design for Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM) hand is illustrated with the aim to show the practical feasibility of the proposed concepts and computations.
Hybrid Algorithms for Fuzzy Reverse Supply Chain Network Design
Che, Z. H.; Chiang, Tzu-An; Kuo, Y. C.
2014-01-01
In consideration of capacity constraints, fuzzy defect ratio, and fuzzy transport loss ratio, this paper attempted to establish an optimized decision model for production planning and distribution of a multiphase, multiproduct reverse supply chain, which addresses defects returned to original manufacturers, and in addition, develops hybrid algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA), Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GA-SA), and Particle Swarm Optimization-Simulated Annealing (PSO-SA) for solving the optimized model. During a case study of a multi-phase, multi-product reverse supply chain network, this paper explained the suitability of the optimized decision model and the applicability of the algorithms. Finally, the hybrid algorithms showed excellent solving capability when compared with original GA and PSO methods. PMID:24892057
Hybrid algorithms for fuzzy reverse supply chain network design.
Che, Z H; Chiang, Tzu-An; Kuo, Y C; Cui, Zhihua
2014-01-01
In consideration of capacity constraints, fuzzy defect ratio, and fuzzy transport loss ratio, this paper attempted to establish an optimized decision model for production planning and distribution of a multiphase, multiproduct reverse supply chain, which addresses defects returned to original manufacturers, and in addition, develops hybrid algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA), Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GA-SA), and Particle Swarm Optimization-Simulated Annealing (PSO-SA) for solving the optimized model. During a case study of a multi-phase, multi-product reverse supply chain network, this paper explained the suitability of the optimized decision model and the applicability of the algorithms. Finally, the hybrid algorithms showed excellent solving capability when compared with original GA and PSO methods.
Chen, Bor-Sen; Chen, Po-Wei
2010-01-01
In the past decade, the development of synthetic gene networks has attracted much attention from many researchers. In particular, the genetic oscillator known as the repressilator has become a paradigm for how to design a gene network with a desired dynamic behaviour. Even though the repressilator can show oscillatory properties in its protein concentrations, their amplitudes, frequencies and phases are perturbed by the kinetic parametric fluctuations (intrinsic molecular perturbations) and external disturbances (extrinsic molecular noises) of the environment. Therefore, how to design a robust genetic oscillator with desired amplitude, frequency and phase under stochastic intrinsic and extrinsic molecular noises is an important topic for synthetic biology. In this study, based on periodic reference signals with arbitrary amplitudes, frequencies and phases, a robust synthetic gene oscillator is designed by tuning the kinetic parameters of repressilator via a genetic algorithm (GA) so that the protein concentrations can track the desired periodic reference signals under intrinsic and extrinsic molecular noises. GA is a stochastic optimization algorithm which was inspired by the mechanisms of natural selection and evolution genetics. By the proposed GA-based design algorithm, the repressilator can track the desired amplitude, frequency and phase of oscillation under intrinsic and extrinsic noises through the optimization of fitness function. The proposed GA-based design algorithm can mimic the natural selection in evolutionary process to select adequate kinetic parameters for robust genetic oscillators. The design method can be easily extended to any synthetic gene network design with prescribed behaviours. PMID:20535234
The potential of genetic algorithms for conceptual design of rotor systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crossley, William A.; Wells, Valana L.; Laananen, David H.
1993-01-01
The capabilities of genetic algorithms as a non-calculus based, global search method make them potentially useful in the conceptual design of rotor systems. Coupling reasonably simple analysis tools to the genetic algorithm was accomplished, and the resulting program was used to generate designs for rotor systems to match requirements similar to those of both an existing helicopter and a proposed helicopter design. This provides a comparison with the existing design and also provides insight into the potential of genetic algorithms in design of new rotors.
Optimal design of low-density SNP arrays for genomic prediction: algorithm and applications
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Low-density (LD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays provide a cost-effective solution for genomic prediction and selection, but algorithms and computational tools are needed for their optimal design. A multiple-objective, local optimization (MOLO) algorithm was developed for design of optim...
Mechanical Design of the Merlin Payload
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucarelli, Stefano; Weimer, Peter; Wuehrer, Christian; Leone, Arturo; Olympio, Raymond; Cucciarre, Francesca; Natusch, Andreas; Bode, Markus
2014-06-01
Merlin (Methane Remote Sensing LIDAR Mission) is a joint CNES/DLR mission aimed at achieving a better understanding of the global methane cycle and of the processes that control the changes of atmospheric methane by exchange of methane between biosphere and atmosphere.Airbus Defence and Space has been selected by DLR as the prime contractor for the payload, which is based on the use of an IPDA LIDAR instrument.The paper shows the mechanical architecture of the payload, whose core consists of a CFRP optical bank supporting the laser source as well as two telescopes for transmission and reception of the LIDAR signal. It also provides an overview of how the mechanical design copes with the challenges posed by accommodation, thermo-elastic and environmental requirements.
Design Features of Modern Mechanical Ventilators.
MacIntyre, Neil
2016-12-01
A positive-pressure breath ideally should provide a VT that is adequate for gas exchange and appropriate muscle unloading while minimizing any risk for injury or discomfort. The latest generation of ventilators uses sophisticated feedback systems to sculpt positive-pressure breaths according to patient effort and respiratory system mechanics. Currently, however, these new control strategies are not totally closed-loop systems. This is because the automatic input variables remain limited, some clinician settings are still required, and the specific features of the perfect breath design still are not entirely clear. Despite these limitations, there are some rationale for many of these newer feedback features.
FORTE antenna element and release mechanism design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rohweller, David J.; Butler, Thomas A.
1995-01-01
The Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite being built by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has as its most prominent feature a large deployable (11 m by 5 m) log periodic antenna to monitor emissions from electrical storms on the Earth. This paper describes the antenna and the design for the long elements and explains the dynamics of their deployment and the damping system employed. It also describes the unique paraffin-actuated reusable tie-down and release mechanism employed in the system.
A Nonhomogeneous Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Quantum Mechanism for Real Parameter Optimization.
Cheung, Ngaam J; Ding, Xue-Ming; Shen, Hong-Bin
2017-02-01
Cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a nature-inspired search algorithm, in which all the individuals have identical search behaviors. However, this simple homogeneous search behavior is not always optimal to find the potential solution to a special problem, and it may trap the individuals into local regions leading to premature convergence. To overcome the drawback, this paper presents a new variant of CS algorithm with nonhomogeneous search strategies based on quantum mechanism to enhance search ability of the classical CS algorithm. Featured contributions in this paper include: 1) quantum-based strategy is developed for nonhomogeneous update laws and 2) we, for the first time, present a set of theoretical analyses on CS algorithm as well as the proposed algorithm, respectively, and conclude a set of parameter boundaries guaranteeing the convergence of the CS algorithm and the proposed algorithm. On 24 benchmark functions, we compare our method with five existing CS-based methods and other ten state-of-the-art algorithms. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is significantly better than the original CS algorithm and the rest of compared methods according to two nonparametric tests.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, Pat
2004-01-01
The objective of this work was to support the design of improved IUE NEWSIPS high dispersion extraction algorithms. The purpose of this work was to evaluate use of the Linearized Image (LIHI) file versus the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file, evaluate various extraction, and design algorithms for evaluation of IUE High Dispersion spectra. It was concluded the use of the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file was acceptable. Since the Gaussian profile worked well for the core and the Lorentzian profile worked well for the wings, the Voigt profile was chosen for use in the extraction algorithm. It was found that the gamma and sigma parameters varied significantly across the detector, so gamma and sigma masks for the SWP detector were developed. Extraction code was written.
Design of asynchronous phase detection algorithms optimized for wide frequency response.
Crespo, Daniel; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Gomez-Pedrero, Jose Antonio
2006-06-10
In many fringe pattern processing applications the local phase has to be obtained from a sinusoidal irradiance signal with unknown local frequency. This process is called asynchronous phase demodulation. Existing algorithms for asynchronous phase detection, or asynchronous algorithms, have been designed to yield no algebraic error in the recovered value of the phase for any signal frequency. However, each asynchronous algorithm has a characteristic frequency response curve. Existing asynchronous algorithms present a range of frequencies with low response, reaching zero for particular values of the signal frequency. For real noisy signals, low response implies a low signal-to-noise ratio in the recovered phase and therefore unreliable results. We present a new Fourier-based methodology for designing asynchronous algorithms with any user-defined frequency response curve and known limit of algebraic error. We show how asynchronous algorithms designed with this method can have better properties for real conditions of noise and signal frequency variation.
Design methodology for optimal hardware implementation of wavelet transform domain algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson-Bey, Charles; Mickens, Lisa P.
2005-05-01
The work presented in this paper lays the foundation for the development of an end-to-end system design methodology for implementing wavelet domain image/video processing algorithms in hardware using Xilinx field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). With the integration of the Xilinx System Generator toolbox, this methodology will allow algorithm developers to design and implement their code using the familiar MATLAB/Simulink development environment. By using this methodology, algorithm developers will not be required to become proficient in the intricacies of hardware design, thus reducing the design cycle and time-to-market.
The design and implementation of MPI master-slave parallel genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shuping; Cheng, Yanliu
2013-03-01
In this paper, the MPI master-slave parallel genetic algorithm is implemented by analyzing the basic genetic algorithm and parallel MPI program, and building a Linux cluster. This algorithm is used for the test of maximum value problems (Rosen brocks function) .And we acquire the factors influencing the master-slave parallel genetic algorithm by deriving from the analysis of test data. The experimental data shows that the balanced hardware configuration and software design optimization can improve the performance of system in the complexity of the computing environment using the master-slave parallel genetic algorithms.
An improved POCS super-resolution infrared image reconstruction algorithm based on visual mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jinsong; Dai, Shaosheng; Guo, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Dezhou
2016-09-01
The traditional projection onto convex sets (POCS) super-resolution (SR) reconstruction algorithm can only get reconstructed images with poor contrast, low signal-to-noise ratio and blurring edges. In order to solve the above disadvantages, an improved POCS SR infrared image reconstruction algorithm based on visual mechanism is proposed, which introduces data consistency constraint with variable correction thresholds to highlight the target edges and filter out background noises; further, the algorithm introduces contrast constraint considering the resolving ability of human eyes into the traditional algorithm, enhancing the contrast of the image reconstructed adaptively. The experimental results show that the improved POCS algorithm can acquire high quality infrared images whose contrast, average gradient and peak signal to noise ratio are improved many times compared with traditional algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Izumi, K. H.; Thompson, J. L.; Groce, J. L.; Schwab, R. W.
1986-01-01
The design requirements for a 4D path definition algorithm are described. These requirements were developed for the NASA ATOPS as an extension of the Local Flow Management/Profile Descent algorithm. They specify the processing flow, functional and data architectures, and system input requirements, and recommended the addition of a broad path revision (reinitialization) function capability. The document also summarizes algorithm design enhancements and the implementation status of the algorithm on an in-house PDP-11/70 computer. Finally, the requirements for the pilot-computer interfaces, the lateral path processor, and guidance and steering function are described.
Using a Genetic Algorithm to Design Nuclear Electric Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pannell, William P.
2003-01-01
The basic approach to to design nuclear electric spacecraft is to generate a group of candidate designs, see how "fit" the design are, and carry best design forward to the next generation. Some designs eliminated, some randomly modified and carried forward.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zecchin, A. C.; Simpson, A. R.; Maier, H. R.; Marchi, A.; Nixon, J. B.
2012-09-01
Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been applied successfully to many water resource problems, such as system design, management decision formulation, and model calibration. The performance of an EA with respect to a particular problem type is dependent on how effectively its internal operators balance the exploitation/exploration trade-off to iteratively find solutions of an increasing quality. For a given problem, different algorithms are observed to produce a variety of different final performances, but there have been surprisingly few investigations into characterizing how the different internal mechanisms alter the algorithm's searching behavior, in both the objective and decision space, to arrive at this final performance. This paper presents metrics for analyzing the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms, a particular type of EA, for the optimal water distribution system design problem, which is a classical NP-hard problem in civil engineering. Using the proposed metrics, behavior is characterized in terms of three different attributes: (1) the effectiveness of the search in improving its solution quality and entering into optimal or near-optimal regions of the search space, (2) the extent to which the algorithm explores as it converges to solutions, and (3) the searching behavior with respect to the feasible and infeasible regions. A range of case studies is considered, where a number of ant colony optimization variants are applied to a selection of water distribution system optimization problems. The results demonstrate the utility of the proposed metrics to give greater insight into how the internal operators affect each algorithm's searching behavior.
Design specification for the whole-body algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzjerrell, D. G.
1974-01-01
The necessary requirements and guidelines for the construction of a computer program of the whole-body algorithm are presented. The minimum subsystem models required to effectively simulate the total body response to stresses of interest are (1) cardiovascular (exercise/LBNP/tilt); (2) respiratory (Grodin's model); (3) thermoregulatory (Stolwijk's model); and (4) long-term circulatory fluid and electrolyte (Guyton's model). The whole-body algorithm must be capable of simulating response to stresses from CO2 inhalation, hypoxia, thermal environmental exercise (sitting and supine), LBNP, and tilt (changing body angles in gravity).
Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation.
Bückmann, Tiemo; Kadic, Muamer; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin
2015-04-21
Spatial coordinate transformations have helped simplifying mathematical issues and solving complex boundary-value problems in physics for decades already. More recently, material-parameter transformations have also become an intuitive and powerful engineering tool for designing inhomogeneous and anisotropic material distributions that perform wanted functions, e.g., invisibility cloaking. A necessary mathematical prerequisite for this approach to work is that the underlying equations are form invariant with respect to general coordinate transformations. Unfortunately, this condition is not fulfilled in elastic-solid mechanics for materials that can be described by ordinary elasticity tensors. Here, we introduce a different and simpler approach. We directly transform the lattice points of a 2D discrete lattice composed of a single constituent material, while keeping the properties of the elements connecting the lattice points the same. After showing that the approach works in various areas, we focus on elastic-solid mechanics. As a demanding example, we cloak a void in an effective elastic material with respect to static uniaxial compression. Corresponding numerical calculations and experiments on polymer structures made by 3D printing are presented. The cloaking quality is quantified by comparing the average relative SD of the strain vectors outside of the cloaked void with respect to the homogeneous reference lattice. Theory and experiment agree and exhibit very good cloaking performance.
DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE PROCESSES WITH SIMULATION: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM
The WAR Algorithm, a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI) of a chemical process, is presented with modifications that account for the PEI of the energy consumed within that process. From this theory, four PEI indexes are used to evaluate the envir...
LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design
Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio
2010-01-01
The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.
"Basic MR Relaxation Mechanisms & Contrast Agent Design"
De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Martins, André F.; Pinho, Marco; Rofsky, Neil; Sherry, A. Dean
2015-01-01
The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we will detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We will offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand based contrast agents. We will discuss the mechanisms involved in magnetic resonance relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents will be accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in development for future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide. PMID:25975847
ACCESS: thermal mechanical design and performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Mary E.; Morris, Matthew J.; Hansen, Jason; Jensen, Scott; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Pelton, Russell; Mott, D. Brent; Wen, Yiting; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Benford, Dominic J.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul D.; Moos, H. Warren; Riess, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, David J.; Kurucz, Robert; Lampton, Michael; Perlmutter, Saul
2013-09-01
Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. ACCESS, "Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars", is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35-1.7μm bandpass. Achieving a calibration accuracy of 1% not only requires an accurate calibration transfer from the detector standards to the instrument, but it also requires characterization and stability of the detector as well as a thermal background that contributes less than 1% to the flux per resolution element in the near-infrared (1.7μm) spectral region of the ACCESS bandpass. This paper describes the thermal mechanical design for achieving a low thermal background across the ACCESS spectral bandpass.
ACCESS: Thermal Mechanical Design, Performance, and Status
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, M. J.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.
2014-01-01
Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, are now rivaling and exceeding the statistical errors associated with these measurements. ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 - 1.7μm bandpass. Achieving this level of accuracy requires characterization and stability of the instrument and detector including a thermal background that contributes less than 1% to the flux per resolution element in the NIR. We will present the instrument and calibration status with a focus on the thermal mechanical design and associated performance data. The detector control and performance will be presented in a companion poster (Morris, et al). NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.
Efficient multi-value connected component labeling algorithm and its ASIC design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sang, Hongshi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Tianxu
2007-12-01
An efficient connected component labeling algorithm for multi-value image is proposed in this paper. The algorithm is simple and inerratic suitable for hardware design. A one-dimensional array is used to store equivalence pairs. Record organization of equivalence table is advantageously to find the minimum equivalent label, and can shrink time on processing equivalence table. A pipelined architecture of the algorithm is described to enhance system performance.
A novel algorithm of maximin Latin hypercube design using successive local enumeration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Huaguang; Liu, Li; Long, Teng; Peng, Lei
2012-05-01
The design of computer experiments (DoCE) is a key technique in the field of metamodel-based design optimization. Space-filling and projective properties are desired features in DoCE. In this article, a novel algorithm of maximin Latin hypercube design (LHD) using successive local enumeration (SLE) is proposed for generating arbitrary m points in n-dimensional space. Testing results compared with lhsdesign function, binary encoded genetic algorithm (BinGA), permutation encoded genetic algorithm (PermGA) and translational propagation algorithm (TPLHD) indicate that SLE is effective to generate sampling points with good space-filling and projective properties. The accuracies of metamodels built with the sampling points produced by lhsdesign function and SLE are compared to illustrate the preferable performance of SLE. Through the comparative study on efficiency with BinGA, PermGA, and TPLHD, as a novel algorithm of LHD sampling techniques, SLE has good space-filling property and acceptable efficiency.
Design and analysis of closed-loop decoder adaptation algorithms for brain-machine interfaces.
Dangi, Siddharth; Orsborn, Amy L; Moorman, Helene G; Carmena, Jose M
2013-07-01
Closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA) is an emerging paradigm for achieving rapid performance improvements in online brain-machine interface (BMI) operation. Designing an effective CLDA algorithm requires making multiple important decisions, including choosing the timescale of adaptation, selecting which decoder parameters to adapt, crafting the corresponding update rules, and designing CLDA parameters. These design choices, combined with the specific settings of CLDA parameters, will directly affect the algorithm's ability to make decoder parameters converge to values that optimize performance. In this article, we present a general framework for the design and analysis of CLDA algorithms and support our results with experimental data of two monkeys performing a BMI task. First, we analyze and compare existing CLDA algorithms to highlight the importance of four critical design elements: the adaptation timescale, selective parameter adaptation, smooth decoder updates, and intuitive CLDA parameters. Second, we introduce mathematical convergence analysis using measures such as mean-squared error and KL divergence as a useful paradigm for evaluating the convergence properties of a prototype CLDA algorithm before experimental testing. By applying these measures to an existing CLDA algorithm, we demonstrate that our convergence analysis is an effective analytical tool that can ultimately inform and improve the design of CLDA algorithms.
Use of Algorithm of Changes for Optimal Design of Heat Exchanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tam, S. C.; Tam, H. K.; Chio, C. H.; Tam, L. M.
2010-05-01
For economic reasons, the optimal design of heat exchanger is required. Design of heat exchanger is usually based on the iterative process. The design conditions, equipment geometries, the heat transfer and friction factor correlations are totally involved in the process. Using the traditional iterative method, many trials are needed for satisfying the compromise between the heat exchange performance and the cost consideration. The process is cumbersome and the optimal design is often depending on the design engineer's experience. Therefore, in the recent studies, many researchers, reviewed in [1], applied the genetic algorithm (GA) [2] for designing the heat exchanger. The results outperformed the traditional method. In this study, the alternative approach, algorithm of changes, is proposed for optimal design of shell-tube heat exchanger [3]. This new method, algorithm of changes based on I Ching (???), is developed originality by the author. In the algorithms, the hexagram operations in I Ching has been generalized to binary string case and the iterative procedure which imitates the I Ching inference is also defined. On the basis of [3], the shell inside diameter, tube outside diameter, and baffles spacing were treated as the design (or optimized) variables. The cost of the heat exchanger was arranged as the objective function. Through the case study, the results show that the algorithm of changes is comparable to the GA method. Both of method can find the optimal solution in a short time. However, without interchanging information between binary strings, the algorithm of changes has advantage on parallel computation over GA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshar, M. H.
2007-04-01
This paper exploits the unique feature of the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACOA), namely incremental solution building mechanism, to develop partially constraint ACO algorithms for the solution of optimization problems with explicit constraints. The method is based on the provision of a tabu list for each ant at each decision point of the problem so that some constraints of the problem are satisfied. The application of the method to the problem of storm water network design is formulated and presented. The network nodes are considered as the decision points and the nodal elevations of the network are used as the decision variables of the optimization problem. Two partially constrained ACO algorithms are formulated and applied to a benchmark example of storm water network design and the results are compared with those of the original unconstrained algorithm and existing methods. In the first algorithm the positive slope constraints are satisfied explicitly and the rest are satisfied by using the penalty method while in the second one the satisfaction of constraints regarding the maximum ratio of flow depth to the diameter are also achieved explicitly via the tabu list. The method is shown to be very effective and efficient in locating the optimal solutions and in terms of the convergence characteristics of the resulting ACO algorithms. The proposed algorithms are also shown to be relatively insensitive to the initial colony used compared to the original algorithm. Furthermore, the method proves itself capable of finding an optimal or near-optimal solution, independent of the discretisation level and the size of the colony used.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tran, Huu-Khoa; Chiou, Juing -Shian; Peng, Shou-Tao
2016-01-01
In this paper, the feasibility of a Genetic Algorithm Optimization (GAO) education software based Fuzzy Logic Controller (GAO-FLC) for simulating the flight motion control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is designed. The generated flight trajectories integrate the optimized Scaling Factors (SF) fuzzy controller gains by using GAO algorithm. The…
cOSPREY: A Cloud-Based Distributed Algorithm for Large-Scale Computational Protein Design.
Pan, Yuchao; Dong, Yuxi; Zhou, Jingtian; Hallen, Mark; Donald, Bruce R; Zeng, Jianyang; Xu, Wei
2016-09-01
Finding the global minimum energy conformation (GMEC) of a huge combinatorial search space is the key challenge in computational protein design (CPD) problems. Traditional algorithms lack a scalable and efficient distributed design scheme, preventing researchers from taking full advantage of current cloud infrastructures. We design cloud OSPREY (cOSPREY), an extension to a widely used protein design software OSPREY, to allow the original design framework to scale to the commercial cloud infrastructures. We propose several novel designs to integrate both algorithm and system optimizations, such as GMEC-specific pruning, state search partitioning, asynchronous algorithm state sharing, and fault tolerance. We evaluate cOSPREY on three different cloud platforms using different technologies and show that it can solve a number of large-scale protein design problems that have not been possible with previous approaches.
Antenna Design Using the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) Algorithm
2011-05-20
small antennas in a parasitic super directive array configuration. (b) A comparison of the driven super directive gain achievable with these...we discuss antenna design optimization using EGO. The first antenna design is a parasitic super directive array where we compare EGO with a classic...In Section 4 (RESULTS AND DISCUSSION) we present design optimizations for parasitic, super directive arrays; wideband antenna design; and the
A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...
An Object-Oriented Collection of Minimum Degree Algorithms: Design, Implementation, and Experiences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumfert, Gary; Pothen, Alex
1999-01-01
The multiple minimum degree (MMD) algorithm and its variants have enjoyed 20+ years of research and progress in generating fill-reducing orderings for sparse, symmetric positive definite matrices. Although conceptually simple, efficient implementations of these algorithms are deceptively complex and highly specialized. In this case study, we present an object-oriented library that implements several recent minimum degree-like algorithms. We discuss how object-oriented design forces us to decompose these algorithms in a different manner than earlier codes and demonstrate how this impacts the flexibility and efficiency of our C++ implementation. We compare the performance of our code against other implementations in C or Fortran.
Design of monoliths through their mechanical properties.
Podgornik, Aleš; Savnik, Aleš; Jančar, Janez; Krajnc, Nika Lendero
2014-03-14
Chromatographic monoliths have several interesting properties making them attractive supports for analytics but also for purification, especially of large biomolecules and bioassemblies. Although many of monolith features were thoroughly investigated, there is no data available to predict how monolith mechanical properties affect its chromatographic performance. In this work, we investigated the effect of porosity, pore size and chemical modification on methacrylate monolith compression modulus. While a linear correlation between pore size and compression modulus was found, the effect of porosity was highly exponential. Through these correlations it was concluded that chemical modification affects monolith porosity without changing the monolith skeleton integrity. Mathematical model to describe the change of monolith permeability as a function of monolith compression modulus was derived and successfully validated for monoliths of different geometries and pore sizes. It enables the prediction of pressure drop increase due to monolith compressibility for any monolith structural characteristics, such as geometry, porosity, pore size or mobile phase properties like viscosity or flow rate, based solely on the data of compression modulus and structural data of non-compressed monolith. Furthermore, it enables simple determination of monolith pore size at which monolith compressibility is the smallest and the most robust performance is expected. Data of monolith compression modulus in combination with developed mathematical model can therefore be used for the prediction of monolith permeability during its implementation but also to accelerate the design of novel chromatographic monoliths with desired hydrodynamic properties for particular application.
Matott, L Shawn; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Rabideau, Alan J; Fowler, K R
2006-10-15
Although heuristic optimization techniques are increasingly applied in environmental engineering applications, algorithm selection and configuration are often approached in an ad hoc fashion. In this study, the design of a multilayer sorptive barrier system served as a benchmark problem for evaluating several algorithm-tuning procedures, as applied to three global optimization techniques (genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, and particle swarm optimization). Each design problem was configured as a combinatorial optimization in which sorptive materials were selected for inclusion in a landfill liner to minimize the transport of three common organic contaminants. Relative to multilayer sorptive barrier design, study results indicate (i) the binary-coded genetic algorithm is highly efficient and requires minimal tuning, (ii) constraint violations must be carefully integrated to avoid poor algorithm convergence, and (iii) search algorithm performance is strongly influenced by the physical-chemical properties of the organic contaminants of concern. More generally, the results suggest that formal algorithm tuning, which has not been widely applied to environmental engineering optimization, can significantly improve algorithm performance and provide insight into the physical processes that control environmental systems.
Design and FPGA implementation of real-time automatic image enhancement algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, GuoWei; Hou, ZuoXun; Tang, Qi; Pan, Zheng; Li, Xin
2016-11-01
In order to improve image processing quality and boost processing rate, this paper proposes an real-time automatic image enhancement algorithm. It is based on the histogram equalization algorithm and the piecewise linear enhancement algorithm, and it calculate the relationship of the histogram and the piecewise linear function by analyzing the histogram distribution for adaptive image enhancement. Furthermore, the corresponding FPGA processing modules are designed to implement the methods. Especially, the high-performance parallel pipelined technology and inner potential parallel processing ability of the modules are paid more attention to ensure the real-time processing ability of the complete system. The simulations and the experimentations show that the algorithm is based on the design and implementation of FPGA hardware circuit less cost on hardware, high real-time performance, the good processing performance in different sceneries. The algorithm can effectively improve the image quality, and would have wide prospect on imaging processing field.
The Design and Analysis of Efficient Learning Algorithms
1991-01-01
example, a car buzzer buzzes if the key is in the ignition and the door is open, or if the motor is on and the seat belt is unfastened. Let K, D, M... belt is fastened. Then the buzzer buzzes if and only if the Boolean formula (K AND D) OR (M AND NOT(S)) evaluates to true. Here, AND, OR and NOT are...early childhood development. Wilson [87] studies so-called genetic algorithms for learning by "animats" in unfamiliar environments. Kuipers and Byun
Navigation Constellation Design Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm
2015-03-26
used include Walker constellation parameters, orbital elements, and transmit power. The results show that the constellation design tool produces...10 2.1.1 Orbit Types. .................................................................................................. 2-11 2.1.2 Astrodynamics...Constellation Design Problem ........................................................ 1-2 Figure 2-1: Classical Orbital Elements
Advanced algorithms for radiographic material discrimination and inspection system design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Deinert, Mark R.
2016-10-01
X-ray and neutron radiography are powerful tools for non-invasively inspecting the interior of objects. However, current methods are limited in their ability to differentiate materials when multiple materials are present, especially within large and complex objects. Past work has demonstrated that the spectral shift that X-ray beams undergo in traversing an object can be used to detect and quantify nuclear materials. The technique uses a spectrally sensitive detector and an inverse algorithm that varies the composition of the object until the X-ray spectrum predicted by X-ray transport matches the one measured. Here we show that this approach can be adapted to multi-mode radiography, with energy integrating detectors, and that the Cramér-Rao lower bound can be used to choose an optimal set of inspection modes a priori. We consider multi-endpoint X-ray radiography alone, or in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-deuterium (DD) or deuterium-tritium (DT) sources. We show that for an optimal mode choice, the algorithm can improve discrimination between high-Z materials, specifically between tungsten and plutonium, and estimate plutonium mass within a simulated nuclear material storage system to within 1%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Jagu S.; Tiwari, R.
2015-03-01
A Pareto optimal design analysis is carried out on the design of magnetic thrust bearings using multi-objective genetic algorithms. Two configurations of bearings have been considered with the minimization of power loss and weight of the bearing as objectives for performance comparisons. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is utilized to generate Pareto frontiers at different operating loads. As the load increases, the Pareto frontier reduces to a single point at a peak load for both configurations. Pareto optimal design analysis is used to study characteristics of design variables and other parameters. Three distinct operating load zones have been observed.
Designer spin systems via inverse statistical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Marcotte, Étienne; Car, Roberto; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore
2013-10-01
nature of the target radial spin-spin correlation function. In the future, it will be interesting to explore whether such inverse statistical-mechanical techniques could be employed to design materials with desired spin properties.
Improved mine blast algorithm for optimal cost design of water distribution systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadollah, Ali; Guen Yoo, Do; Kim, Joong Hoon
2015-12-01
The design of water distribution systems is a large class of combinatorial, nonlinear optimization problems with complex constraints such as conservation of mass and energy equations. Since feasible solutions are often extremely complex, traditional optimization techniques are insufficient. Recently, metaheuristic algorithms have been applied to this class of problems because they are highly efficient. In this article, a recently developed optimizer called the mine blast algorithm (MBA) is considered. The MBA is improved and coupled with the hydraulic simulator EPANET to find the optimal cost design for water distribution systems. The performance of the improved mine blast algorithm (IMBA) is demonstrated using the well-known Hanoi, New York tunnels and Balerma benchmark networks. Optimization results obtained using IMBA are compared to those using MBA and other optimizers in terms of their minimum construction costs and convergence rates. For the complex Balerma network, IMBA offers the cheapest network design compared to other optimization algorithms.
Optimal design of optical reference signals by use of a genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saez-Landete, José; Salcedo-Sanz, Sancho; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Alonso, José; Bernabeu, Eusebio
2005-10-01
A new technique for the generation of optical reference signals with optimal properties is presented. In grating measurement systems a reference signal is needed to achieve an absolute measurement of the position. The optical signal is the autocorrelation of two codes with binary transmittance. For a long time, the design of this type of code has required great computational effort, which limits the size of the code to ˜30 elements. Recently, the application of the dividing rectangles (DIRECT) algorithm has allowed the automatic design of codes up to 100 elements. Because of the binary nature of the problem and the parallel processing of the genetic algorithms, these algorithms are efficient tools for obtaining codes with particular autocorrelation properties. We design optimum zero reference codes with arbitrary length by means of a genetic algorithm enhanced with a restricted search operator.
A hybrid algorithm for transonic airfoil and wing design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.
1987-01-01
The present method for the design of transonic airfoils and wings employs a predictor/corrector approach in which an analysis code calculates the flowfield for an initial geometry, then modifies it on the basis of the difference between calculated and target pressures. This allows the design method to be straightforwardly coupled with any existing analysis code, as presently undertaken with several two- and three-dimensional potential flow codes. The results obtained indicate that the method is robust and accurate, even in the cases of airfoils with strongly supercritical flow and shocks. The design codes are noted to require computational resources typical of current pure-inverse methods.
New Meta Algorithms for Engineering Design Using Surrogate Functions
2005-04-01
Dennis, Jr., and Parviz Moin, Opti- mal aeroacoustic shape design using the surrogate management frame- work, Optimization and Engineering, 5(2):101...122, 2004. e Alison L. Marsden, Meng Wang, J. E. Dennis, Jr., and Parviz Moin), Suppression of vortex-shedding noise via derivative-free shape opti...solution. Contact: Dr. Dominique Orban (514)340-4711 ext 5967 "* Trailing edge design We have a collaboration with Parviz Moin’s tur- bulent flow group in
Clairvoyant fusion: a new methodology for designing robust detection algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaum, Alan
2016-10-01
Many realistic detection problems cannot be solved with simple statistical tests for known alternative probability models. Uncontrollable environmental conditions, imperfect sensors, and other uncertainties transform simple detection problems with likelihood ratio solutions into composite hypothesis (CH) testing problems. Recently many multi- and hyperspectral sensing CH problems have been addressed with a new approach. Clairvoyant fusion (CF) integrates the optimal detectors ("clairvoyants") associated with every unspecified value of the parameters appearing in a detection model. For problems with discrete parameter values, logical rules emerge for combining the decisions of the associated clairvoyants. For many problems with continuous parameters, analytic methods of CF have been found that produce closed-form solutions-or approximations for intractable problems. Here the principals of CF are reviewed and mathematical insights are described that have proven useful in the derivation of solutions. It is also shown how a second-stage fusion procedure can be used to create theoretically superior detection algorithms for ALL discrete parameter problems.
Cui, Ganglong; Yang, Weitao
2011-05-28
The significance of conical intersections in photophysics, photochemistry, and photodissociation of polyatomic molecules in gas phase has been demonstrated by numerous experimental and theoretical studies. Optimization of conical intersections of small- and medium-size molecules in gas phase has currently become a routine optimization process, as it has been implemented in many electronic structure packages. However, optimization of conical intersections of small- and medium-size molecules in solution or macromolecules remains inefficient, even poorly defined, due to large number of degrees of freedom and costly evaluations of gradient difference and nonadiabatic coupling vectors. In this work, based on the sequential quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and QM/MM-minimum free energy path methods, we have designed two conical intersection optimization methods for small- and medium-size molecules in solution or macromolecules. The first one is sequential QM conical intersection optimization and MM minimization for potential energy surfaces; the second one is sequential QM conical intersection optimization and MM sampling for potential of mean force surfaces, i.e., free energy surfaces. In such methods, the region where electronic structures change remarkably is placed into the QM subsystem, while the rest of the system is placed into the MM subsystem; thus, dimensionalities of gradient difference and nonadiabatic coupling vectors are decreased due to the relatively small QM subsystem. Furthermore, in comparison with the concurrent optimization scheme, sequential QM conical intersection optimization and MM minimization or sampling reduce the number of evaluations of gradient difference and nonadiabatic coupling vectors because these vectors need to be calculated only when the QM subsystem moves, independent of the MM minimization or sampling. Taken together, costly evaluations of gradient difference and nonadiabatic coupling vectors in solution or
Preliminary Design of a Manned Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irwin, Ryan W.; Tinker, Michael L.
2005-01-01
Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate designs must be identified for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combined analysis codes for NEP subsystems with a genetic algorithm. The use of penalty functions with scaling ratios was investigated to increase computational efficiency. Also, the selection of design variables for optimization was considered to reduce computation time without losing beneficial design search space. Finally, trend analysis of a reference mission to the asteroids yielded a group of candidate designs for further analysis.
Preliminary Design of a Manned Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithms
Irwin, Ryan W.; Tinker, Michael L.
2005-02-06
Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate designs must be identified for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combined analysis codes for NEP subsystems with a genetic algorithm. The use of penalty functions with scaling ratios was investigated to increase computational efficiency. Also, the selection of design variables for optimization was considered to reduce computation time without losing beneficial design search space. Finally, trend analysis of a reference mission to the asteroids yielded a group of candidate designs for further analysis.
Dietrich, Arne; Haider, Hilde
2015-08-01
Creative thinking is arguably the pinnacle of cerebral functionality. Like no other mental faculty, it has been omnipotent in transforming human civilizations. Probing the neural basis of this most extraordinary capacity, however, has been doggedly frustrated. Despite a flurry of activity in cognitive neuroscience, recent reviews have shown that there is no coherent picture emerging from the neuroimaging work. Based on this, we take a different route and apply two well established paradigms to the problem. First is the evolutionary framework that, despite being part and parcel of creativity research, has no informed experimental work in cognitive neuroscience. Second is the emerging prediction framework that recognizes predictive representations as an integrating principle of all cognition. We show here how the prediction imperative revealingly synthesizes a host of new insights into the way brains process variation-selection thought trials and present a new neural mechanism for the partial sightedness in human creativity. Our ability to run offline simulations of expected future environments and action outcomes can account for some of the characteristic properties of cultural evolutionary algorithms running in brains, such as degrees of sightedness, the formation of scaffolds to jump over unviable intermediate forms, or how fitness criteria are set for a selection process that is necessarily hypothetical. Prospective processing in the brain also sheds light on how human creating and designing - as opposed to biological creativity - can be accompanied by intentions and foresight. This paper raises questions about the nature of creative thought that, as far as we know, have never been asked before.
Aerodynamics Design and Genetic Algorithms for Optimization of Airship Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nejati, Vahid; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
A special and effective aerodynamics calculation method has been applied for the flow field around a body of revolution to find the drag coefficient for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The body profile is described by a first order continuous axial singularity distribution. The solution of the direct problem then gives the radius and inviscid velocity distribution. Viscous effects are considered by means of an integral boundary layer procedure, and for determination of the transition location the forced transition criterion is applied. By avoiding those profiles, which result in the separation of the boundary layer, the drag can be calculated at the end of the body by using Young's formula. In this study, a powerful optimization procedure known as a Genetic Algorithms (GA) is used for the first time in the shape optimization of airship hulls. GA represents a particular artificial intelligence technique for large spaces, striking a remarkable balance between exploration and exploitation of search space. This method could reach to minimum objective function through a better path, and also could minimize the drag coefficient faster for different Reynolds number regimes. It was found that GA is a powerful method for such multi-dimensional, multi-modal and nonlinear objective function.
Advanced algorithms for radiographic material discrimination and inspection system design
Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Deinert, Mark R.
2016-10-01
X-ray and neutron radiography are powerful tools for non-invasively inspecting the interior of objects. Materials can be discriminated by noting how the radiographic signal changes with variations in the input spectrum or inspection mode. However, current methods are limited in their ability to differentiate when multiple materials are present, especially within large and complex objects. With X-ray radiography, the inability to distinguish materials of a similar atomic number is especially problematic. To overcome these critical limitations, we augmented our existing inverse problem framework with two important expansions: 1) adapting the previous methodology for use with multi-modal radiography and energy-integrating detectors, and 2) applying the Cramer-Rao lower bound to select an optimal set of inspection modes for a given application a priori. Adding these expanded capabilities to our algorithmic framework with adaptive regularization, we observed improved discrimination between high-Z materials, specifically plutonium and tungsten. The combined system can estimate plutonium mass within our simulated system to within 1%. Three types of inspection modes were modeled: multi-endpoint X-ray radiography alone; in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-deuterium (DD); or in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-tritium (DT) sources.
A Computer Environment for Beginners' Learning of Sorting Algorithms: Design and Pilot Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kordaki, M.; Miatidis, M.; Kapsampelis, G.
2008-01-01
This paper presents the design, features and pilot evaluation study of a web-based environment--the SORTING environment--for the learning of sorting algorithms by secondary level education students. The design of this environment is based on modeling methodology, taking into account modern constructivist and social theories of learning while at…
Small, high pressure ratio compressor: Aerodynamic and mechanical design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryce, C. A.; Erwin, J. R.; Perrone, G. L.; Nelson, E. L.; Tu, R. K.; Bosco, A.
1973-01-01
The Small, High-Pressure-Ratio Compressor Program was directed toward the analysis, design, and fabrication of a centrifugal compressor providing a 6:1 pressure ratio and an airflow rate of 2.0 pounds per second. The program consists of preliminary design, detailed areodynamic design, mechanical design, and mechanical acceptance tests. The preliminary design evaluate radial- and backward-curved blades, tandem bladed impellers, impeller-and diffuser-passage boundary-layer control, and vane, pipe, and multiple-stage diffusers. Based on this evaluation, a configuration was selected for detailed aerodynamic and mechanical design. Mechanical acceptance test was performed to demonstrate that mechanical design objectives of the research package were met.
Mechanical Design Support System Based on Thinking Process Development Diagram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mase, Hisao; Kinukawa, Hiroshi; Morii, Hiroshi; Nakao, Masayuki; Hatamura, Yotaro
This paper describes a system that directly supports a design process in a mechanical domain. This system is based on a thinking process development diagram that draws distinctions between requirement, tasks, solutions, and implementation, which enables designers to expand and deepen their thoughts of design. The system provides five main functions that designers require in each phase of the proposed design process: (1) thinking process description support which enables designers to describe their thoughts, (2) creativity support by term association with thesauri, (3) timely display of design knowledge including know-how obtained through earlier failures, general design theories, standard-parts data, and past designs, (4) design problem solving support using 46 kinds of thinking operations, and (5) proper technology transfer support which accumulates not only design conclusions but also the design process. Though this system is applied to mechanical engineering as the first target domain, it can be easily expanded to many other domains such as architecture and electricity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Masuda, Kazuaki
On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.
Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai
2016-01-01
Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design. PMID:27630709
Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai
2016-01-01
Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.
On Polymorphic Circuits and Their Design Using Evolutionary Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo; Keymeulen, Didier; Lohn, Jason; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper introduces the concept of polymorphic electronics (polytronics) - referring to electronics with superimposed built-in functionality. A function change does not require switches/reconfiguration as in traditional approaches. Instead the change comes from modifications in the characteristics of devices involved in the circuit, in response to controls such as temperature, power supply voltage (VDD), control signals, light, etc. The paper illustrates polytronic circuits in which the control is done by temperature, morphing signals, and VDD respectively. Polytronic circuits are obtained by evolutionary design/evolvable hardware techniques. These techniques are ideal for the polytronics design, a new area that lacks design guidelines, know-how,- yet the requirements/objectives are easy to specify and test. The circuits are evolved/synthesized in two different modes. The first mode explores an unstructured space, in which transistors can be interconnected freely in any arrangement (in simulations only). The second mode uses a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA) model, and the circuit topology is sought as a mapping onto a programmable architecture (these experiments are performed both in simulations and on FPTA chips). The experiments demonstrated the synthesis. of polytronic circuits by evolution. The capacity of storing/hiding "extra" functions provides for watermark/invisible functionality, thus polytronics may find uses in intelligence/security applications.
Phase Response Design of Recursive All-Pass Digital Filters Using a Modified PSO Algorithm.
Chang, Wei-Der
2015-01-01
This paper develops a new design scheme for the phase response of an all-pass recursive digital filter. A variant of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm will be utilized for solving this kind of filter design problem. It is here called the modified PSO (MPSO) algorithm in which another adjusting factor is more introduced in the velocity updating formula of the algorithm in order to improve the searching ability. In the proposed method, all of the designed filter coefficients are firstly collected to be a parameter vector and this vector is regarded as a particle of the algorithm. The MPSO with a modified velocity formula will force all particles into moving toward the optimal or near optimal solution by minimizing some defined objective function of the optimization problem. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, two different kinds of linear phase response design examples are illustrated and the general PSO algorithm is compared as well. The obtained results show that the MPSO is superior to the general PSO for the phase response design of digital recursive all-pass filter.
Phase Response Design of Recursive All-Pass Digital Filters Using a Modified PSO Algorithm
Chang, Wei-Der
2015-01-01
This paper develops a new design scheme for the phase response of an all-pass recursive digital filter. A variant of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm will be utilized for solving this kind of filter design problem. It is here called the modified PSO (MPSO) algorithm in which another adjusting factor is more introduced in the velocity updating formula of the algorithm in order to improve the searching ability. In the proposed method, all of the designed filter coefficients are firstly collected to be a parameter vector and this vector is regarded as a particle of the algorithm. The MPSO with a modified velocity formula will force all particles into moving toward the optimal or near optimal solution by minimizing some defined objective function of the optimization problem. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, two different kinds of linear phase response design examples are illustrated and the general PSO algorithm is compared as well. The obtained results show that the MPSO is superior to the general PSO for the phase response design of digital recursive all-pass filter. PMID:26366168
Co-design of software and hardware to implement remote sensing algorithms
Theiler, J. P.; Frigo, J.; Gokhale, M.; Szymanski, J. J.
2001-01-01
Both for offline searches through large data archives and for onboard computation at the sensor head, there is a growing need for ever-more rapid processing of remote sensing data. For many algorithms of use in remote sensing, the bulk of the processing takes place in an 'inner loop' with a large number of simple operations. For these algorithms, dramatic speedups can often be obtained with specialized hardware. The difficulty and expense of digital design continues to limit applicability of this approach, but the development of new design tools is making this approach more feasible, and some notable successes have been reported. On the other hand, it is often the case that processing can also be accelerated by adopting a more sophisticated algorithm design. Unfortunately, a more sophisticated algorithm is much harder to implement in hardware, so these approaches are often at odds with each other. With careful planning, however, it is sometimes possible to combine software and hardware design in such a way that each complements the other, and the final implementation achieves speedup that would not have been possible with a hardware-only or a software-only solution. We will in particular discuss the co-design of software and hardware to achieve substantial speedup of algorithms for multispectral image segmentation and for endmember identification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Southall, Hugh L.; O'Donnell, Teresa H.; Derov, John S.
2010-04-01
EGO is an evolutionary, data-adaptive algorithm which can be useful for optimization problems with expensive cost functions. Many antenna design problems qualify since complex computational electromagnetics (CEM) simulations can take significant resources. This makes evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms (GA) or particle swarm optimization (PSO) problematic since iterations of large populations are required. In this paper we discuss multiparameter optimization of a wideband, single-element antenna over a metamaterial ground plane and the interfacing of EGO (optimization) with a full-wave CEM simulation (cost function evaluation).
On the impact of communication complexity in the design of parallel numerical algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gannon, D.; Vanrosendale, J.
1984-01-01
This paper describes two models of the cost of data movement in parallel numerical algorithms. One model is a generalization of an approach due to Hockney, and is suitable for shared memory multiprocessors where each processor has vector capabilities. The other model is applicable to highly parallel nonshared memory MIMD systems. In the second model, algorithm performance is characterized in terms of the communication network design. Techniques used in VLSI complexity theory are also brought in, and algorithm independent upper bounds on system performance are derived for several problems that are important to scientific computation.
Mechanical Design of the DAMPE BGO Calorimeter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yiming; Wu, Jian; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chen, Dengyi; Chang, Jin
The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, DAMPE, is a new designed satellite developed for the CASs new Innovation 2020 program. As the main component of DAMPE, the new designed BGO calorimeter consists of 308 BGO Crystals coupled with photomultiplier tube.The reliability and safety of the BGO Calorimeter structure play a very important role in the operation of whole detector. During the rocket launch, the calorimeter structure should be stable against vibration and environmental factors to ensure detector works in good conditions. In this article, we make the BGO calorimeter structure design, and then prove that it will work in the environments of rocket launch and flight.
Li, Zong-Tao; Wu, Tie-Jun; Lin, Can-Long; Ma, Long-Hua
2011-01-01
A new generalized optimum strapdown algorithm with coning and sculling compensation is presented, in which the position, velocity and attitude updating operations are carried out based on the single-speed structure in which all computations are executed at a single updating rate that is sufficiently high to accurately account for high frequency angular rate and acceleration rectification effects. Different from existing algorithms, the updating rates of the coning and sculling compensations are unrelated with the number of the gyro incremental angle samples and the number of the accelerometer incremental velocity samples. When the output sampling rate of inertial sensors remains constant, this algorithm allows increasing the updating rate of the coning and sculling compensation, yet with more numbers of gyro incremental angle and accelerometer incremental velocity in order to improve the accuracy of system. Then, in order to implement the new strapdown algorithm in a single FPGA chip, the parallelization of the algorithm is designed and its computational complexity is analyzed. The performance of the proposed parallel strapdown algorithm is tested on the Xilinx ISE 12.3 software platform and the FPGA device XC6VLX550T hardware platform on the basis of some fighter data. It is shown that this parallel strapdown algorithm on the FPGA platform can greatly decrease the execution time of algorithm to meet the real-time and high precision requirements of system on the high dynamic environment, relative to the existing implemented on the DSP platform.
The Design of Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT) Algorithms for Structured Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zalesak, Steven T.
A given flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm consists of three components: (1) a high order algorithm to which it reduces in smooth parts of the flow; (2) a low order algorithm to which it reduces in parts of the flow devoid of smoothness; and (3) a flux limiter which calculates the weights assigned to the high and low order fluxes in various regions of the flow field. One way of optimizing an FCT algorithm is to optimize each of these three components individually. We present some of the ideas that have been developed over the past 30 years toward this end. These include the use of very high order spatial operators in the design of the high order fluxes, non-clipping flux limiters, the appropriate choice of constraint variables in the critical flux-limiting step, and the implementation of a "failsafe" flux-limiting strategy. This chapter confines itself to the design of FCT algorithms for structured grids, using a finite volume formalism, for this is the area with which the present author is most familiar. The reader will find excellent material on the design of FCT algorithms for unstructured grids, using both finite volume and finite element formalisms, in the chapters by Professors Löhner, Baum, Kuzmin, Turek, and Möller in the present volume.
New bionic navigation algorithm based on the visual navigation mechanism of bees
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yufeng; Liu, Yi; Liu, Jianguo
2015-04-01
Through some research on visual navigation mechanisms of flying insects especially honeybees, a novel navigation algorithm integrating entropy flow with Kalman filter has been introduced in this paper. Concepts of entropy image and entropy flow are also introduced, which can characterize topographic features and measure changes of the image respectively. To characterize texture feature and spatial distribution of an image, a new concept of contrast entropy image has been presented in this paper. Applying the contrast entropy image to the navigation algorithm to test its' performance of navigation and comparing with simulation results of intensity entropy image, a conclusion that contrast entropy image performs better and more robust in navigation has been made.
MSFC Three Point Docking Mechanism design review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaefer, Otto; Ambrosio, Anthony
1992-01-01
In the next few decades, we will be launching expensive satellites and space platforms that will require recovery for economic reasons, because of initial malfunction, servicing, repairs, or out of a concern for post lifetime debris removal. The planned availability of a Three Point Docking Mechanism (TPDM) is a positive step towards an operational satellite retrieval infrastructure. This study effort supports NASA/MSFC engineering work in developing an automated docking capability. The work was performed by the Grumman Space & Electronics Group as a concept evaluation/test for the Tumbling Satellite Retrieval Kit. Simulation of a TPDM capture was performed in Grumman's Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) using mockups of both parts (the mechanism and payload). Similar TPDM simulation activities and more extensive hardware testing was performed at NASA/MSFC in the Flight Robotics Laboratory and Space Station/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed (6-DOF Facility).
MSFC Three Point Docking Mechanism design review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, Otto; Ambrosio, Anthony
1992-12-01
In the next few decades, we will be launching expensive satellites and space platforms that will require recovery for economic reasons, because of initial malfunction, servicing, repairs, or out of a concern for post lifetime debris removal. The planned availability of a Three Point Docking Mechanism (TPDM) is a positive step towards an operational satellite retrieval infrastructure. This study effort supports NASA/MSFC engineering work in developing an automated docking capability. The work was performed by the Grumman Space & Electronics Group as a concept evaluation/test for the Tumbling Satellite Retrieval Kit. Simulation of a TPDM capture was performed in Grumman's Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) using mockups of both parts (the mechanism and payload). Similar TPDM simulation activities and more extensive hardware testing was performed at NASA/MSFC in the Flight Robotics Laboratory and Space Station/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed (6-DOF Facility).
Analysis and design of algorithm-based fault-tolerant systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nair, V. S. Sukumaran
1990-01-01
An important consideration in the design of high performance multiprocessor systems is to ensure the correctness of the results computed in the presence of transient and intermittent failures. Concurrent error detection and correction have been applied to such systems in order to achieve reliability. Algorithm Based Fault Tolerance (ABFT) was suggested as a cost-effective concurrent error detection scheme. The research was motivated by the complexity involved in the analysis and design of ABFT systems. To that end, a matrix-based model was developed and, based on that, algorithms for both the design and analysis of ABFT systems are formulated. These algorithms are less complex than the existing ones. In order to reduce the complexity further, a hierarchical approach is developed for the analysis of large systems.
Accelerating Families of Fuzzy K-Means Algorithms for Vector Quantization Codebook Design
Mata, Edson; Bandeira, Silvio; de Mattos Neto, Paulo; Lopes, Waslon; Madeiro, Francisco
2016-01-01
The performance of signal processing systems based on vector quantization depends on codebook design. In the image compression scenario, the quality of the reconstructed images depends on the codebooks used. In this paper, alternatives are proposed for accelerating families of fuzzy K-means algorithms for codebook design. The acceleration is obtained by reducing the number of iterations of the algorithms and applying efficient nearest neighbor search techniques. Simulation results concerning image vector quantization have shown that the acceleration obtained so far does not decrease the quality of the reconstructed images. Codebook design time savings up to about 40% are obtained by the accelerated versions with respect to the original versions of the algorithms. PMID:27886061
Design and experimental evaluation of flexible manipulator control algorithms
Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L.; Lew, J.Y.; Evans, M.S.
1995-04-01
Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this task. Because of high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using an inner pressure feedback loop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as feedforward controllers to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. Among them, a new approach, referred to as a ``feedforward simulation filter`` that uses embedded simulation, has been presented.
Evolutionary algorithm for the neutrino factory front end design
Poklonskiy, Alexey A.; Neuffer, David; /Fermilab
2009-01-01
The Neutrino Factory is an important tool in the long-term neutrino physics program. Substantial effort is put internationally into designing this facility in order to achieve desired performance within the allotted budget. This accelerator is a secondary beam machine: neutrinos are produced by means of the decay of muons. Muons, in turn, are produced by the decay of pions, produced by hitting the target by a beam of accelerated protons suitable for acceleration. Due to the physics of this process, extra conditioning of the pion beam coming from the target is needed in order to effectively perform subsequent acceleration. The subsystem of the Neutrino Factory that performs this conditioning is called Front End, its main performance characteristic is the number of the produced muons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tinker, Michael L.; Steincamp, James W.; Stewart, Eric T.; Patton, Bruce W.; Pannell, William P.; Newby, Ronald L.; Coffman, Mark E.; Qualls, A. L.; Bancroft, S.; Molvik, Greg
2003-01-01
The Nuclear Electric Vehicle Optimization Toolset (NEVOT) optimizes the design of all major Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) vehicle subsystems for a defined mission within constraints and optimization parameters chosen by a user. The tool uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) search technique to combine subsystem designs and evaluate the fitness of the integrated design to fulfill a mission. The fitness of an individual is used within the GA to determine its probability of survival through successive generations in which the designs with low fitness are eliminated and replaced with combinations or mutations of designs with higher fitness. The program can find optimal solutions for different sets of fitness metrics without modification and can create and evaluate vehicle designs that might never be conceived of through traditional design techniques. It is anticipated that the flexible optimization methodology will expand present knowledge of the design trade-offs inherent in designing nuclear powered space vehicles and lead to improved NEP designs.
EMILiO: a fast algorithm for genome-scale strain design.
Yang, Laurence; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan
2011-05-01
Systems-level design of cell metabolism is becoming increasingly important for renewable production of fuels, chemicals, and drugs. Computational models are improving in the accuracy and scope of predictions, but are also growing in complexity. Consequently, efficient and scalable algorithms are increasingly important for strain design. Previous algorithms helped to consolidate the utility of computational modeling in this field. To meet intensifying demands for high-performance strains, both the number and variety of genetic manipulations involved in strain construction are increasing. Existing algorithms have experienced combinatorial increases in computational complexity when applied toward the design of such complex strains. Here, we present EMILiO, a new algorithm that increases the scope of strain design to include reactions with individually optimized fluxes. Unlike existing approaches that would experience an explosion in complexity to solve this problem, we efficiently generated numerous alternate strain designs producing succinate, l-glutamate and l-serine. This was enabled by successive linear programming, a technique new to the area of computational strain design.
Infrastructure Retrofit Design via Composite Mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, Christos, C.; Gotsis,Pascal K.
1998-01-01
Select applications are described to illustrate the concept for retrofitting reinforced concrete infrastructure with fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The concept is first illustrated by using an axially loaded reinforced concrete column. A reinforced concrete arch and a dome are then used to illustrate the versatility of the concept. Advanced methods such as finite element structural analysis and progressive structural fracture are then used to evaluate the retrofitting laminate adequacy. Results obtains show that retrofits can be designed to double and even triple the as-designed load of the select reinforced concrete infrastructures.
Geometric design of mechanical linkages for contact specifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robson, Nina Patarinsky
2008-10-01
This dissertation focuses on the kinematic synthesis of mechanical linkages in order to guide an end-effortor so that it maintains contact with specified objects in its workspace. Assuming the serial chain does not have full mobility in its workspace, the contact geometry is used to determine the dimensions of the serial chain. The approach to this problem, is to use the relative curvature of the contact of the end-effector with one or more objects to define velocity and acceleration specifications for its movement. This provides kinematic constraints that are used to synthesize the dimensions of the serial chain. The mathematical formulation of the geometric design problem, leads to systems of multivariable polynomial equations, which are solved exactly using sparse matrix resultants and polynomial homotopy methods. The results from this research yield planar RR and 4R linkages that match a specified contact geometry, spatial TS, parallel RRS and perpendicular RRS linkages that have a required acceleration specification. A new strategy for a robot recovery from actuator failures is demonstrated for the Mars Exploratory Rover Arm. In extending this work to spatial serial chains, a new method based on sparse matrix resultants was developed, which solves exact synthesis problems with acceleration constraints. Further the research builds on the theoretical concepts of contact relationships for spatial movement. The connection between kinematic synthesis and contact problems and its extension to spatial synthesis are developed in this dissertation for the first time and are new contributions. The results, which rely upon the use of surface curvature effects to reduce the number of fixtures needed to immobilize an object, find applications in robot grasping and part-fixturing. The recovery strategy, presented in this research is also a new concept. The recognition that it is possible to reconfigure a crippled robotic system to achieve mission critical tasks can guide
Rolamite - A new mechanical design concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilkes, D. F.
1967-01-01
Rolamite, a mechanical suspension system, provides substantial reductions in friction in the realm of extremely low bearing pressures. In addition, rolamite devices are easily microminiaturized, are extremely tolerant of production variations and are inherently capable of virtually all functions to construct most electromechanical devices.
Dynamic composition of medical support services in the ICU: Platform and algorithm design details.
Hristoskova, Anna; Moeyersoon, Dieter; Van Hoecke, Sofie; Verstichel, Stijn; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip
2010-12-01
The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is an extremely data-intensive environment where each patient needs to be monitored 24/7. Bedside monitors continuously register vital patient values (such as serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure) which are recorded frequently in the hospital database (e.g. every 2 min in the ICU of the Ghent University Hospital), laboratories generate hundreds of results of blood and urine samples, and nurses measure blood pressure and temperature up to 4 times an hour. The processing of such large amount of data requires an automated system to support the physicians' daily work. The Intensive Care Service Platform (ICSP) offers the needed support through the development of medical support services for processing and monitoring patients' data. With an increased deployment of these medical support services, reusing existing services as building blocks to create new services offers flexibility to the developer and accelerates the design process. This paper presents a new addition to the ICSP, the Dynamic Composer for Web services. Based on a semantic description of the medical support services, this Composer enables a service to be executed by creating a composition of medical services that provide the needed calculations. The composition is achieved using various algorithms satisfying certain quality of service (QoS) constraints and requirements. In addition to the automatic composition the paper also proposes a recovery mechanism in case of unavailable services. When executing the composition of medical services, unavailable services are dynamically replaced by equivalent services or a new composition achieving the same result. The presented platform and QoS algorithms are put through extensive performance and scalability tests for typical ICU scenarios, in which basic medical services are composed to a complex patient monitoring service.
The Mechanization of Design and Manufacturing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gunn, Thomas G.
1982-01-01
Describes changes in the design of products and in planning, managing, and coordinating their manufacture. Focuses on discrete-products manufacturing industries, encompassing the fabrication and assembly of automobiles, aircraft, computers and microelectric components of computers, furniture, appliances, foods, clothing, building materials, and…
Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development Using a Genetic Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley
2009-01-01
Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the preliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challenges in large-scale, real-world application. This report describes current approaches, recent results, and challenges for multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization as demonstrated by experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.!
Uncertainty-based Optimization Algorithms in Designing Fractionated Spacecraft
Ning, Xin; Yuan, Jianping; Yue, Xiaokui
2016-01-01
A fractionated spacecraft is an innovative application of a distributive space system. To fully understand the impact of various uncertainties on its development, launch and in-orbit operation, we use the stochastic missioncycle cost to comprehensively evaluate the survivability, flexibility, reliability and economy of the ways of dividing the various modules of the different configurations of fractionated spacecraft. We systematically describe its concept and then analyze its evaluation and optimal design method that exists during recent years and propose the stochastic missioncycle cost for comprehensive evaluation. We also establish the models of the costs such as module development, launch and deployment and the impacts of their uncertainties respectively. Finally, we carry out the Monte Carlo simulation of the complete missioncycle costs of various configurations of the fractionated spacecraft under various uncertainties and give and compare the probability density distribution and statistical characteristics of its stochastic missioncycle cost, using the two strategies of timing module replacement and non-timing module replacement. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the comprehensive evaluation method and show that our evaluation method can comprehensively evaluate the adaptability of the fractionated spacecraft under different technical and mission conditions. PMID:26964755
Directional design of optical lens based on metallic nano-slits by Yang-Gu algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Qiaofen; Zhang, Yan
2010-11-01
Directional design of optical lenses based on metallic nano-slits that can focus light in different style by Yang-Gu (YG) algorithm. Both of the relative phase and amplitude of emitting light scattered by surface plasmon in a single subwavelength slit and modulated by the width of the slit or the thickness of the lens of the lens have been considered in the design processing. A form of the YG algorithm which considers both the phase and amplitude changing is derived. Two kinds of nanolenses are designed by this numerical method, one with one focal spot, and another with two focal spots in one focal plane. According to the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method numerical calculation, it is found that the functions of the designed lenses agree well with preassigned goal. This method may be useful to design subwavelength optical devices that can be integrated into other optical and optoelectronic elements.
Mechanism Design Principle for Optical-Precision, Deployable Instruments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lake, Mark S.; Hachkowski, M. Roman
2000-01-01
The present paper is intended to be a guide for the design of 'microdynamically quiet' deployment mechanisms for optical-precision structures, such as deployable telescope mirrors and optical benches. Many of the guidelines included herein come directly from the field of optomechanical engineering, and are neither newly developed guidelines nor are they uniquely applicable to high-precision deployment mechanisms. However, the application of these guidelines to the design of deployment mechanisms is a rather new practice, so efforts are made herein to illustrate the process through the discussion of specific examples. The present paper summarizes a more extensive set of design guidelines for optical-precision mechanisms that are under development.
MECHANICAL DESIGN OF NSLS MINI - GAP UNDULATOR (MGU)
LYNCH,D.; RAKOWSKY,G.
2002-09-05
The mechanical design considerations are discussed with respect to the currently installed X-13 and future X-29 MGU. Comparisons to the previous 2 generations of variable small-gap undulator evolution in the NSLS X-ray ring are made and design improvements noted. The design requirements and mechanical difficulties for holding, positioning and driving the magnetic arrays are explored. Structural, thermal and electrical considerations which influenced the design are then analyzed. The mechanical performance of the MGU currently installed at X-13 is examined and future installations and enhancements are presented.
Designing berthing mechanisms for international compatibility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winch, John; Gonzalez-Vallejo, Juan J.
1991-01-01
The paper examines the technological issues regarding common berthing interfaces for the Space Station Freedom and pressurized modules from U.S., European, and Japanese space programs. The development of the common berthing mechanism (CBM) is based on common requirements concerning specifications, launch environments, and the unique requirements of ESA's Man-Tended Free Flyer. The berthing mechanism is composed of an active and a passive half, a remote manipulator system, 4 capture-latch assemblies, 16 structural bolts, and a pressure gage to verify equalization. Extensive graphic and verbal descriptions of each element are presented emphasizing the capture-latch motion and powered-bolt operation. The support systems to complete the interface are listed, and the manufacturing requirements for consistent fabrication are discussed to ensure effective international development.
The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic
Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Díaz, Vicente Hernández
2015-01-01
Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters’ dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer parameter a dynamic weight according the value of the dispersion. For getting a balanced solution, the parameter whose dispersion is large will have small weight, and vice versa. In order to compare it with the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, BCFL is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the new routing algorithm can handle the multiple constraints without increasing the complexity of the algorithm and can achieve the most balanced performance on selecting the next hop relay node. Moreover, the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic routing algorithm can adapt to the dynamic changing of the network conditions and topology effectively. PMID:26266412
The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic.
Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente
2015-08-10
Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters' dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer parameter a dynamic weight according the value of the dispersion. For getting a balanced solution, the parameter whose dispersion is large will have small weight, and vice versa. In order to compare it with the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, BCFL is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the new routing algorithm can handle the multiple constraints without increasing the complexity of the algorithm and can achieve the most balanced performance on selecting the next hop relay node. Moreover, the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic routing algorithm can adapt to the dynamic changing of the network conditions and topology effectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foudray, Angela Marie Klohs
Detecting, quantifying and visualizing biochemical mechanism in a living system without perturbing function is the goal of the instrument and algorithms designed in this thesis. Biochemical mechanisms of cells have long been known to be dependent on the signals they receive from their environment. Studying biological processes of cells in-vitro can vastly distort their function, since you are removing them from their natural chemical signaling environment. Mice have become the biological system of choice for various areas of biomedical research due to their genetic and physiological similarities with humans, the relatively low cost of their care, and their quick breeding cycle. Drug development and efficacy assessment along with disease detection, management, and mechanism research all have benefited from the use of small animal models of human disease. A high resolution, high sensitivity, three-dimensional (3D) positioning positron emission tomography (PET) detector system was designed through device characterization and Monte Carlo simulation. Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) were characterized in various packaging configurations; coupled to various configurations of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals. Forty novelly packaged final design devices were constructed and characterized, each providing characteristics superior to commercially available scintillation detectors used in small animal imaging systems: ˜1mm crystal identification, 14-15% of 511 keV energy resolution, and averaging 1.9 to 5.6 ns coincidence time resolution. A closed-cornered box-shaped detector configuration was found to provide optimal photon sensitivity (˜10.5% in the central plane) using dual LSO-PSAPD scintillation detector modules and Monte Carlo simulation. Standard figures of merit were used to determine optimal system acquisition parameters. A realistic model for constituent devices was developed for understanding the signals reported by the
Training the neural networks by electromagnetism-like mechanism based algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalab, Hamid A.; Shaker, Khalid
2014-12-01
Recently, medical data mining has become one of the most popular topics in the data mining community. This is due to the societal importance of the field and also the particular computational challenges posed in this domain of data mining. Early researches concentrated on sequential heuristics and later moved to meta-heuristic approaches due to the ability of these approaches to generate better solutions. The aim of this paper is to introduce the basic principles of a new meta-heuristic algorithm called Electromagnetism-like Mechanism (EMag) for neural network training. EMag simulates the electromagnetism theory of physics by considering each data sample to be an electrical charge. For neural network, EMag simulates the attraction-repulsion mechanism of each weight connection as charge partials to move towards the optimum without being trapped into local minimum. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in 12 of benchmark classification problems, and the computational results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the standard back propagation algorithm.
Validation of space/ground antenna control algorithms using a computer-aided design tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gantenbein, Rex E.
1995-01-01
The validation of the algorithms for controlling the space-to-ground antenna subsystem for Space Station Alpha is an important step in assuring reliable communications. These algorithms have been developed and tested using a simulation environment based on a computer-aided design tool that can provide a time-based execution framework with variable environmental parameters. Our work this summer has involved the exploration of this environment and the documentation of the procedures used to validate these algorithms. We have installed a variety of tools in a laboratory of the Tracking and Communications division for reproducing the simulation experiments carried out on these algorithms to verify that they do meet their requirements for controlling the antenna systems. In this report, we describe the processes used in these simulations and our work in validating the tests used.
The design and results of an algorithm for intelligent ground vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duncan, Matthew; Milam, Justin; Tote, Caleb; Riggins, Robert N.
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the design, design method, test platform, and test results of an algorithm used in autonomous navigation for intelligent vehicles. The Bluefield State College (BSC) team created this algorithm for its 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) robot called Anassa V. The BSC robotics team is comprised of undergraduate computer science, engineering technology, marketing students, and one robotics faculty advisor. The team has participated in IGVC since the year 2000. A major part of the design process that the BSC team uses each year for IGVC is a fully documented "Post-IGVC Analysis." Over the nine years since 2000, the lessons the students learned from these analyses have resulted in an ever-improving, highly successful autonomous algorithm. The algorithm employed in Anassa V is a culmination of past successes and new ideas, resulting in Anassa V earning several excellent IGVC 2009 performance awards, including third place overall. The paper will discuss all aspects of the design of this autonomous robotic system, beginning with the design process and ending with test results for both simulation and real environments.
An Adaptive Defect Weighted Sampling Algorithm to Design Pseudoknotted RNA Secondary Structures
Zandi, Kasra; Butler, Gregory; Kharma, Nawwaf
2016-01-01
Computational design of RNA sequences that fold into targeted secondary structures has many applications in biomedicine, nanotechnology and synthetic biology. An RNA molecule is made of different types of secondary structure elements and an important RNA element named pseudoknot plays a key role in stabilizing the functional form of the molecule. However, due to the computational complexities associated with characterizing pseudoknotted RNA structures, most of the existing RNA sequence designer algorithms generally ignore this important structural element and therefore limit their applications. In this paper we present a new algorithm to design RNA sequences for pseudoknotted secondary structures. We use NUPACK as the folding algorithm to compute the equilibrium characteristics of the pseudoknotted RNAs, and describe a new adaptive defect weighted sampling algorithm named Enzymer to design low ensemble defect RNA sequences for targeted secondary structures including pseudoknots. We used a biological data set of 201 pseudoknotted structures from the Pseudobase library to benchmark the performance of our algorithm. We compared the quality characteristics of the RNA sequences we designed by Enzymer with the results obtained from the state of the art MODENA and antaRNA. Our results show our method succeeds more frequently than MODENA and antaRNA do, and generates sequences that have lower ensemble defect, lower probability defect and higher thermostability. Finally by using Enzymer and by constraining the design to a naturally occurring and highly conserved Hammerhead motif, we designed 8 sequences for a pseudoknotted cis-acting Hammerhead ribozyme. Enzymer is available for download at https://bitbucket.org/casraz/enzymer. PMID:27499762
Genetic algorithms in conceptual design of a light-weight, low-noise, tilt-rotor aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, Valana L.
1996-01-01
This report outlines research accomplishments in the area of using genetic algorithms (GA) for the design and optimization of rotorcraft. It discusses the genetic algorithm as a search and optimization tool, outlines a procedure for using the GA in the conceptual design of helicopters, and applies the GA method to the acoustic design of rotors.
Data Sharing of Mechanical Design Formulas Using Semantic Web Technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jun; Watanuki, Keiichi
Speed and efficiency are necessary in the field of mechanical design. CAD/CAM/CAE technologies have advanced and attention has also been paid to increasing the efficiency of data sharing and agent processes in the web environment. In this paper, Semantic Web technology is used to enable the sharing of metadata. The metadata consists of design documents and design formulas, with additional semantic information inserted. Mathematical information is expressed by adding metadata into conventional mechanical design formulas using a Resource Description Framework (RDF). The design formulas are later written in MathML (Mathematical Markup Language) for the sake of data sharing. In this way, data sharing and advanced searching is made easy, because the relevant information is made machine readable in the web environment. The calculation of design formulas is made possible using a mathematical processing system, thus increasing the efficiency of mechanical design.
Design and mechanical properties of insect cuticle.
Vincent, Julian F V; Wegst, Ulrike G K
2004-07-01
Since nearly all adult insects fly, the cuticle has to provide a very efficient and lightweight skeleton. Information is available about the mechanical properties of cuticle-Young's modulus of resilin is about 1 MPa, of soft cuticles about 1 kPa to 50 MPa, of sclerotised cuticles 1-20 GPa; Vicker's Hardness of sclerotised cuticle ranges between 25 and 80 kgf mm(-2); density is 1-1.3 kg m(-3)-and one of its components, chitin nanofibres, the Young's modulus of which is more than 150 GPa. Experiments based on fracture mechanics have not been performed although the layered structure probably provides some toughening. The structural performance of wings and legs has been measured, but our understanding of the importance of buckling is lacking: it can stiffen the structure (by elastic postbuckling in wings, for example) or be a failure mode. We know nothing of fatigue properties (yet, for instance, the insect wing must undergo millions of cycles, flexing or buckling on each cycle). The remarkable mechanical performance and efficiency of cuticle can be analysed and compared with those of other materials using material property charts and material indices. Presented in this paper are four: Young's modulus-density (stiffness per unit weight), specific Young's modulus-specific strength (elastic hinges, elastic energy storage per unit weight), toughness-Young's modulus (fracture resistance under various loading conditions), and hardness (wear resistance). In conjunction with a structural analysis of cuticle these charts help to understand the relevance of microstructure (fibre orientation effects in tendons, joints and sense organs, for example) and shape (including surface structure) of this fibrous composite for a given function. With modern techniques for analysis of structure and material, and emphasis on nanocomposites and self-assembly, insect cuticle should be the archetype for composites at all levels of scale.
Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.
1999-01-01
The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.
Preliminary Opto-Mechanical Design for the X2000 Transceiver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemmati, H.; Page, N. A.
2000-01-01
Preliminary optical design and mechanical conceptual design for a 30 cm aperture transceiver are described. A common aperture is used for both transmit and receive. Special attention was given to off-axis and scattered light rejection and isolation of the receive channel from the transmit channel. Requirements, details of the design and preliminary performance analysis of the transceiver are provided.
Mechanical design of submarine power cables for floating platforms
Bisplinghoff, R. L.; Libby, D. O.; Costantino, R. W.
1980-01-01
The process of mechanical design of submarine power cables employed by the Simplex Wire and Cable Company is described. The process commences with design criteria and proceeds through preliminary design, load and stress analyses and culminates in extreme value reliability and lifetime predictions. The analytical methods employed are emphasized and some representative numerical results are presented.
[In Silico Drug Design Using an Evolutionary Algorithm and Compound Database].
Kawai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshimasa
2016-01-01
Computational drug design plays an important role in the discovery of new drugs. Recently, we proposed an algorithm for designing new drug-like molecules utilizing the structure of a known active molecule. To design molecules, three types of fragments (ring, linker, and side-chain fragments) were defined as building blocks, and a fragment library was prepared from molecules listed in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-SARfari database. An evolutionary algorithm which executes evolutionary operations, such as crossover, mutation, and selection, was implemented to evolve the molecules. As a case study, some GPCRs were selected for computational experiments in which we tried to design ligands from simple seed fragments using the Tanimoto coefficient as a fitness function. The results showed that the algorithm could be used successfully to design new molecules with structural similarity, scaffold variety, and chemical validity. In addition, a docking study revealed that these designed molecules also exhibited shape complementarity with the binding site of the target protein. Therefore, this is expected to become a powerful tool for designing new drug-like molecules in drug discovery projects.
Improved Cost-Base Design of Water Distribution Networks using Genetic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradzadeh Azar, Foad; Abghari, Hirad; Taghi Alami, Mohammad; Weijs, Steven
2010-05-01
Population growth and progressive extension of urbanization in different places of Iran cause an increasing demand for primary needs. The water, this vital liquid is the most important natural need for human life. Providing this natural need is requires the design and construction of water distribution networks, that incur enormous costs on the country's budget. Any reduction in these costs enable more people from society to access extreme profit least cost. Therefore, investment of Municipal councils need to maximize benefits or minimize expenditures. To achieve this purpose, the engineering design depends on the cost optimization techniques. This paper, presents optimization models based on genetic algorithm(GA) to find out the minimum design cost Mahabad City's (North West, Iran) water distribution network. By designing two models and comparing the resulting costs, the abilities of GA were determined. the GA based model could find optimum pipe diameters to reduce the design costs of network. Results show that the water distribution network design using Genetic Algorithm could lead to reduction of at least 7% in project costs in comparison to the classic model. Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimum Design of Water Distribution Network, Mahabad City, Iran.
Cement design based on cement mechanical response
Thiercelin, M.J.; Dargaud, B.; Baret, J.F.; Rodriquez, W.J.
1998-12-01
The disappearance of cement bond log response as a result of variations of downhole conditions has been observed in numerous wells. This observation has led to concern about the loss of proper zonal isolation. Stresses induced in the cement, through deformation of the cemented casing resulting from the variation of downhole conditions, are the cause of this damage. The authors present an analysis of the mechanical response of set cement in a cased wellbore to quantify this damage and determine the key controlling parameters. The results show that the thermo-elastic properties of the casing, cement, and formation play a significant role. The type of failure, either cement debonding or cement cracking, is a function of the nature of the downhole condition variations. This analysis allows one to propose appropriate cement mechanical properties to avoid cement failure and debonding. The authors show that the use of high compressive strength cement is not always the best solution and, in some cases, flexible cements are preferred.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandl, Christoph E.
1981-08-01
This paper presents a state of the art survey of network models and algorithms that can be used as planning tools in irrigation and wastewater systems. It is shown that the problem of designing or extending such systems basically leads to the same type of mathematical optimization model. The difficulty in solving this model lies mainly in the properties of the objective function. Trying to minimize construction and/or operating costs of a system typically results in a concave cost (objective) function due to economies of scale. A number of ways to attack such models are discussed and compared, including linear programing, integer programing, and specially designed exact and heuristic algorithms. The usefulness of each approach is evaluated in terms of the validity of the model, the computational complexity of the algorithm, the properties of the solution, the availability of software, and the capability for sensitivity analysis.
Design and Optimization of Low-thrust Orbit Transfers Using Q-law and Evolutionary Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Fink, Wolfgang; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Terrile, Richard
2005-01-01
Future space missions will depend more on low-thrust propulsion (such as ion engines) thanks to its high specific impulse. Yet, the design of low-thrust trajectories is complex and challenging. Third-body perturbations often dominate the thrust, and a significant change to the orbit requires a long duration of thrust. In order to guide the early design phases, we have developed an efficient and efficacious method to obtain approximate propellant and flight-time requirements (i.e., the Pareto front) for orbit transfers. A search for the Pareto-optimal trajectories is done in two levels: optimal thrust angles and locations are determined by Q-law, while the Q-law is optimized with two evolutionary algorithms: a genetic algorithm and a simulated-annealing-related algorithm. The examples considered are several types of orbit transfers around the Earth and the asteroid Vesta.
Mechanical Designs for Inorganic Stretchable Circuits in Soft Electronics
Wang, Shuodao; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.
2016-01-01
Mechanical concepts and designs in inorganic circuits for different levels of stretchability are reviewed in this paper, through discussions of the underlying mechanics and material theories, fabrication procedures for the constituent microscale/nanoscale devices, and experimental characterization. All of the designs reported here adopt heterogeneous structures of rigid and brittle inorganic materials on soft and elastic elastomeric substrates, with mechanical design layouts that isolate large deformations to the elastomer, thereby avoiding potentially destructive plastic strains in the brittle materials. The overall stiffnesses of the electronics, their stretchability, and curvilinear shapes can be designed to match the mechanical properties of biological tissues. The result is a class of soft stretchable electronic systems that are compatible with traditional high-performance inorganic semiconductor technologies. These systems afford promising options for applications in portable biomedical and health-monitoring devices. Mechanics theories and modeling play a key role in understanding the underlining physics and optimization of these systems. PMID:27668126
Kim, Hwi; Yang, Byungchoon; Lee, Byoungho
2004-12-01
There is a trade-off between uniformity and diffraction efficiency in the design of diffractive optical elements. It is caused by the inherent ill-posedness of the design problem itself. For the optimal design, the optimum trade-off needs to be obtained. The trade-off between uniformity and diffraction efficiency in the design of diffractive optical elements is theoretically investigated based on the Tikhonov regularization theory. A novel scheme of an iterative Fourier transform algorithm with regularization to obtain the optimum trade-off is proposed.
Design of binary diffractive microlenses with subwavelength structures using the genetic algorithm.
Shirakawa, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Kenichi L; Suzuki, Shuichi; Yamada, Yasufumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki
2010-04-12
We present a method to design binary diffractive microlenses with subwavelength structures, based on the finite-difference time-domain method and the genetic algorithm, also accounting for limitations on feature size and aspect ratio imposed by fabrication. The focusing efficiency of the microlens designed by this method is close to that of the convex lens and much higher than that of the binary Fresnel lens designed by a previous method. Although the optimized structure appears to be a binary Fresnel lens qualitatively, it is hard to quantitatively derive directly from the convex Fresnel lens. The design of a microlens with reduced chromatic aberration is also presented.
Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development using a Genetic Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley
2008-01-01
Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space A dministration Dryden Flight Research Center to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools such as NASTRAN, ZAERO a nd CFD codes to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the pr eliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypers onic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challe nges in large-scale, real-world application. This paper describes cur rent approaches, recent results, and challenges for MDAO as demonstr ated by our experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.
Application of an evolutionary algorithm in the optimal design of micro-sensor.
Lu, Qibing; Wang, Pan; Guo, Sihai; Sheng, Buyun; Liu, Xingxing; Fan, Zhun
2015-01-01
This paper introduces an automatic bond graph design method based on genetic programming for the evolutionary design of micro-resonator. First, the system-level behavioral model is discussed, which based on genetic programming and bond graph. Then, the geometry parameters of components are automatically optimized, by using the genetic algorithm with constraints. To illustrate this approach, a typical device micro-resonator is designed as an example in biomedicine. This paper provides a new idea for the automatic optimization design of biomedical sensors by evolutionary calculation.
The Impact of Critical Thinking and Logico-Mathematical Intelligence on Algorithmic Design Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Korkmaz, Ozgen
2012-01-01
The present study aims to reveal the impact of students' critical thinking and logico-mathematical intelligence levels of students on their algorithm design skills. This research was a descriptive study and carried out by survey methods. The sample consisted of 45 first-year educational faculty undergraduate students. The data was collected by…
Mechanical Design of the LSST Camera
Nordby, Martin; Bowden, Gordon; Foss, Mike; Guiffre, Gary; Ku, John; Schindler, Rafe; /SLAC
2008-06-13
The LSST camera is a tightly packaged, hermetically-sealed system that is cantilevered into the main beam of the LSST telescope. It is comprised of three refractive lenses, on-board storage for five large filters, a high-precision shutter, and a cryostat that houses the 3.2 giga-pixel CCD focal plane along with its support electronics. The physically large optics and focal plane demand large structural elements to support them, but the overall size of the camera and its components must be minimized to reduce impact on the image stability. Also, focal plane and optics motions must be minimized to reduce systematic errors in image reconstruction. Design and analysis for the camera body and cryostat will be detailed.
A hybrid of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization for recurrent network design.
Juang, Chia-Feng
2004-04-01
An evolutionary recurrent network which automates the design of recurrent neural/fuzzy networks using a new evolutionary learning algorithm is proposed in this paper. This new evolutionary learning algorithm is based on a hybrid of genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), and is thus called HGAPSO. In HGAPSO, individuals in a new generation are created, not only by crossover and mutation operation as in GA, but also by PSO. The concept of elite strategy is adopted in HGAPSO, where the upper-half of the best-performing individuals in a population are regarded as elites. However, instead of being reproduced directly to the next generation, these elites are first enhanced. The group constituted by the elites is regarded as a swarm, and each elite corresponds to a particle within it. In this regard, the elites are enhanced by PSO, an operation which mimics the maturing phenomenon in nature. These enhanced elites constitute half of the population in the new generation, whereas the other half is generated by performing crossover and mutation operation on these enhanced elites. HGAPSO is applied to recurrent neural/fuzzy network design as follows. For recurrent neural network, a fully connected recurrent neural network is designed and applied to a temporal sequence production problem. For recurrent fuzzy network design, a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang-type recurrent fuzzy network is designed and applied to dynamic plant control. The performance of HGAPSO is compared to both GA and PSO in these recurrent networks design problems, demonstrating its superiority.
Mechanical design of the solar telescope GREGOR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkmer, R.; Eisenträger, P.; Emde, P.; Fischer, A.; von der Lühe, O.; Nicklas, H.; Soltau, D.; Schmidt, W.; Weis, U.
2012-11-01
The mechanical structure of the GREGOR telescope was installed at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, in 2004. New concepts for mounting and cooling of the 1.5-meter primary mirror were introduced. GREGOR is an open telescope, therefore the dome is completely open during observations to allow for air flushing through the open, but stiff telescope structure. Backside cooling system of the primary mirror keeps the mirror surface close to ambient temperature to prevent mirror seeing. The large collecting area of the primary mirror results in high energy density at the field stop at the prime focus of the primary which needs to be removed. The optical elements are supported by precision alignment systems and should provide a stable solar image at the optical lab. The coudé train can be evacuated and serves as a natural barrier between the outer environmental conditions and the air-conditioned optical laboratory with its sensitive scientific instrumentation. The telescope was successfully commissioned and will start its nominal operation during 2013.
Novel meta-surface design synthesis via nature-inspired optimization algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayraktar, Zikri
Heuristic numerical optimization algorithms have been gaining interest over the years as the computational power of the digital computers increases at an unprecedented level every year. While mature techniques such as the Genetic Algorithm increase their application areas, researchers also try to come up with new algorithms by simply observing the highly tuned processes provided by the nature. In this dissertation, the well-known Genetic Algorithm (GA) will be utilized to tackle various novel electromagnetic optimization problems, along with parallel implementation of the Clonal Selection Algorithm (CLONALG) and newly introduced the Wind Driven Optimization (WDO) technique. The utility of the CLONALG parallelization and the efficiency of the WDO will be illustrated by applying them to multi-dimensional and multi-modal electromagnetics problems such as antenna design and metamaterial surface synthesis. One of the metamaterial application areas is the design synthesis of 90 degrees rotationally symmetric ultra-small unit cell artificial magnetic conducting (AMC) surfaces. AMCs are composite metallo-dielectric structures designed to behave as perfect magnetic conductors (PMC) over a certain frequency range, those exhibit a reflection coefficient magnitude of unity with an phase angle of zero degrees at the center of the band. The proposed designs consist of ultra small sized frequency selective surface (FSS) unit cells that are tightly packed and highly intertwined, yet achieve remarkable AMC band performance and field of view when compared to current state-of-the-art AMCs. In addition, planar double-sided AMC (DSAMC) structures are introduced and optimized as AMC ground planes for low profile antennas in composite platforms and separator slabs for vertical antenna applications. The proposed designs do not possess complete metallic ground planes, which makes them ideal for composite and multi-antenna systems. The versatility of the DSAMC slabs is also illustrated
Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britt, Jamie
2001-01-01
This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability, and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.
Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britt, Jamie; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.
2014-01-01
Background To improve the tedious task of reconstructing gene networks through testing experimentally the possible interactions between genes, it becomes a trend to adopt the automated reverse engineering procedure instead. Some evolutionary algorithms have been suggested for deriving network parameters. However, to infer large networks by the evolutionary algorithm, it is necessary to address two important issues: premature convergence and high computational cost. To tackle the former problem and to enhance the performance of traditional evolutionary algorithms, it is advisable to use parallel model evolutionary algorithms. To overcome the latter and to speed up the computation, it is advocated to adopt the mechanism of cloud computing as a promising solution: most popular is the method of MapReduce programming model, a fault-tolerant framework to implement parallel algorithms for inferring large gene networks. Results This work presents a practical framework to infer large gene networks, by developing and parallelizing a hybrid GA-PSO optimization method. Our parallel method is extended to work with the Hadoop MapReduce programming model and is executed in different cloud computing environments. To evaluate the proposed approach, we use a well-known open-source software GeneNetWeaver to create several yeast S. cerevisiae sub-networks and use them to produce gene profiles. Experiments have been conducted and the results have been analyzed. They show that our parallel approach can be successfully used to infer networks with desired behaviors and the computation time can be largely reduced. Conclusions Parallel population-based algorithms can effectively determine network parameters and they perform better than the widely-used sequential algorithms in gene network inference. These parallel algorithms can be distributed to the cloud computing environment to speed up the computation. By coupling the parallel model population-based optimization method and the parallel
Integrating a Genetic Algorithm Into a Knowledge-Based System for Ordering Complex Design Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, James L.; McCulley, Collin M.; Bloebaum, Christina L.
1996-01-01
The design cycle associated with large engineering systems requires an initial decomposition of the complex system into design processes which are coupled through the transference of output data. Some of these design processes may be grouped into iterative subcycles. In analyzing or optimizing such a coupled system, it is essential to be able to determine the best ordering of the processes within these subcycles to reduce design cycle time and cost. Many decomposition approaches assume the capability is available to determine what design processes and couplings exist and what order of execution will be imposed during the design cycle. Unfortunately, this is often a complex problem and beyond the capabilities of a human design manager. A new feature, a genetic algorithm, has been added to DeMAID (Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) to allow the design manager to rapidly examine many different combinations of ordering processes in an iterative subcycle and to optimize the ordering based on cost, time, and iteration requirements. Two sample test cases are presented to show the effects of optimizing the ordering with a genetic algorithm.
Design and Implementation of the Automated Rendezvous Targeting Algorithms for Orion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DSouza, Christopher; Weeks, Michael
2010-01-01
The Orion vehicle will be designed to perform several rendezvous missions: rendezvous with the ISS in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), rendezvous with the EDS/Altair in LEO, a contingency rendezvous with the ascent stage of the Altair in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) and a contingency rendezvous in LLO with the ascent and descent stage in the case of an aborted lunar landing. Therefore, it is not difficult to realize that each of these scenarios imposes different operational, timing, and performance constraints on the GNC system. To this end, a suite of on-board guidance and targeting algorithms have been designed to meet the requirement to perform the rendezvous independent of communications with the ground. This capability is particularly relevant for the lunar missions, some of which may occur on the far side of the moon. This paper will describe these algorithms which are designed to be structured and arranged in such a way so as to be flexible and able to safely perform a wide variety of rendezvous trajectories. The goal of the algorithms is not to merely fly one specific type of canned rendezvous profile. Conversely, it was designed from the start to be general enough such that any type of trajectory profile can be flown.(i.e. a coelliptic profile, a stable orbit rendezvous profile, and a expedited LLO rendezvous profile, etc) all using the same rendezvous suite of algorithms. Each of these profiles makes use of maneuver types which have been designed with dual goals of robustness and performance. They are designed to converge quickly under dispersed conditions and they are designed to perform many of the functions performed on the ground today. The targeting algorithms consist of a phasing maneuver (NC), an altitude adjust maneuver (NH), and plane change maneuver (NPC), a coelliptic maneuver (NSR), a Lambert targeted maneuver, and several multiple-burn targeted maneuvers which combine one of more of these algorithms. The derivation and implementation of each of these
DeMAID/GA USER'S GUIDE Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition with a Genetic Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, James L.
1996-01-01
Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool that is available to aid in this decision making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial release of DEMAID in 1989, numerous enhancements have been added to aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement is a genetic algorithm (GA) and the enhanced version is called DeMAID/GA. The GA orders the sequence of design processes to minimize the cost and time to converge to a solution. These enhancements as well as the existing features of the original version of DEMAID are described. Two sample problems are used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle. This report serves as a user's guide for DeMAID/GA.
Design of 3D-Printed Titanium Compliant Mechanisms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Howell, Larry L.
2014-01-01
This paper describes 3D-printed titanium compliant mechanisms for aerospace applications. It is meant as a primer to help engineers design compliant, multi-axis, printed parts that exhibit high performance. Topics covered include brief introductions to both compliant mechanism design and 3D printing in titanium, material and geometry considerations for 3D printing, modeling techniques, and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful part geometries. Key findings include recommended flexure geometries, minimum thicknesses, and general design guidelines for compliant printed parts that may not be obvious to the first time designer.
Homotopy Algorithm for Fixed Order Mixed H2/H(infinity) Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whorton, Mark; Buschek, Harald; Calise, Anthony J.
1996-01-01
Recent developments in the field of robust multivariable control have merged the theories of H-infinity and H-2 control. This mixed H-2/H-infinity compensator formulation allows design for nominal performance by H-2 norm minimization while guaranteeing robust stability to unstructured uncertainties by constraining the H-infinity norm. A key difficulty associated with mixed H-2/H-infinity compensation is compensator synthesis. A homotopy algorithm is presented for synthesis of fixed order mixed H-2/H-infinity compensators. Numerical results are presented for a four disk flexible structure to evaluate the efficiency of the algorithm.
A firefly algorithm for solving competitive location-design problem: a case study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Ashtiani, Milad Gorji; Ramezanian, Reza; Makui, Ahmad
2016-07-01
This paper aims at determining the optimal number of new facilities besides specifying both the optimal location and design level of them under the budget constraint in a competitive environment by a novel hybrid continuous and discrete firefly algorithm. A real-world application of locating new chain stores in the city of Tehran, Iran, is used and the results are analyzed. In addition, several examples have been solved to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm. The results demonstrate that the performed method provides good-quality results for the test problems.
Sizing of complex structure by the integration of several different optimal design algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobieszczanski, J.
1974-01-01
Practical design of large-scale structures can be accomplished with the aid of the digital computer by bringing together in one computer program algorithms of nonlinear mathematical programing and optimality criteria with weight-strength and other so-called engineering methods. Applications of this approach to aviation structures are discussed with a detailed description of how the total problem of structural sizing can be broken down into subproblems for best utilization of each algorithm and for efficient organization of the program into iterative loops. Typical results are examined for a number of examples.
Evolving spiking neural networks: a novel growth algorithm exhibits unintelligent design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaffer, J. David
2015-06-01
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) have drawn considerable excitement because of their computational properties, believed to be superior to conventional von Neumann machines, and sharing properties with living brains. Yet progress building these systems has been limited because we lack a design methodology. We present a gene-driven network growth algorithm that enables a genetic algorithm (evolutionary computation) to generate and test SNNs. The genome for this algorithm grows O(n) where n is the number of neurons; n is also evolved. The genome not only specifies the network topology, but all its parameters as well. Experiments show the algorithm producing SNNs that effectively produce a robust spike bursting behavior given tonic inputs, an application suitable for central pattern generators. Even though evolution did not include perturbations of the input spike trains, the evolved networks showed remarkable robustness to such perturbations. In addition, the output spike patterns retain evidence of the specific perturbation of the inputs, a feature that could be exploited by network additions that could use this information for refined decision making if required. On a second task, a sequence detector, a discriminating design was found that might be considered an example of "unintelligent design"; extra non-functional neurons were included that, while inefficient, did not hamper its proper functioning.
Design of multiple sequence alignment algorithms on parallel, distributed memory supercomputers.
Church, Philip C; Goscinski, Andrzej; Holt, Kathryn; Inouye, Michael; Ghoting, Amol; Makarychev, Konstantin; Reumann, Matthias
2011-01-01
The challenge of comparing two or more genomes that have undergone recombination and substantial amounts of segmental loss and gain has recently been addressed for small numbers of genomes. However, datasets of hundreds of genomes are now common and their sizes will only increase in the future. Multiple sequence alignment of hundreds of genomes remains an intractable problem due to quadratic increases in compute time and memory footprint. To date, most alignment algorithms are designed for commodity clusters without parallelism. Hence, we propose the design of a multiple sequence alignment algorithm on massively parallel, distributed memory supercomputers to enable research into comparative genomics on large data sets. Following the methodology of the sequential progressiveMauve algorithm, we design data structures including sequences and sorted k-mer lists on the IBM Blue Gene/P supercomputer (BG/P). Preliminary results show that we can reduce the memory footprint so that we can potentially align over 250 bacterial genomes on a single BG/P compute node. We verify our results on a dataset of E.coli, Shigella and S.pneumoniae genomes. Our implementation returns results matching those of the original algorithm but in 1/2 the time and with 1/4 the memory footprint for scaffold building. In this study, we have laid the basis for multiple sequence alignment of large-scale datasets on a massively parallel, distributed memory supercomputer, thus enabling comparison of hundreds instead of a few genome sequences within reasonable time.
Designing Adiabatic Radio Frequency Pulses Using the Shinnar–Le Roux Algorithm
Balchandani, Priti; Pauly, John; Spielman, Daniel
2010-01-01
Adiabatic pulses are a special class of radio frequency (RF) pulses that may be used to achieve uniform flip angles in the presence of a nonuniform B1 field. In this work, we present a new, systematic method for designing high-bandwidth (BW), low-peak-amplitude adiabatic RF pulses that utilizes the Shinnar–Le Roux (SLR) algorithm for pulse design. Currently, the SLR algorithm is extensively employed to design nonadiabatic pulses for use in magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. We have adapted the SLR algorithm to create RF pulses that also satisfy the adiabatic condition. By overlaying sufficient quadratic phase across the spectral profile before the inverse SLR transform, we generate RF pulses that exhibit the required spectral characteristics and adiabatic behavior. Application of quadratic phase also distributes the RF energy more uniformly, making it possible to obtain the same spectral BW with lower RF peak amplitude. The method enables the pulse designer to specify spectral profile parameters and the degree of quadratic phase before pulse generation. Simulations and phantom experiments demonstrate that RF pulses designed using this new method behave adiabatically. PMID:20806378
Adjoint-Based Algorithms for Adaptation and Design Optimizations on Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.
2006-01-01
Schemes based on discrete adjoint algorithms present several exciting opportunities for significantly advancing the current state of the art in computational fluid dynamics. Such methods provide an extremely efficient means for obtaining discretely consistent sensitivity information for hundreds of design variables, opening the door to rigorous, automated design optimization of complex aerospace configuration using the Navier-Stokes equation. Moreover, the discrete adjoint formulation provides a mathematically rigorous foundation for mesh adaptation and systematic reduction of spatial discretization error. Error estimates are also an inherent by-product of an adjoint-based approach, valuable information that is virtually non-existent in today's large-scale CFD simulations. An overview of the adjoint-based algorithm work at NASA Langley Research Center is presented, with examples demonstrating the potential impact on complex computational problems related to design optimization as well as mesh adaptation.
A general design algorithm for low optical loss adiabatic connections in waveguides.
Chen, Tong; Lee, Hansuek; Li, Jiang; Vahala, Kerry J
2012-09-24
Single-mode waveguide designs frequently support higher order transverse modes, usually as a consequence of process limitations such as lithography. In these systems, it is important to minimize coupling to higher-order modes so that the system nonetheless behaves single mode. We propose a variational approach to design adiabatic waveguide connections with minimal intermodal coupling. An application of this algorithm in designing the "S-bend" of a whispering-gallery spiral waveguide is demonstrated with approximately 0.05 dB insertion loss. Compared to other approaches, our algorithm requires less fabrication resolution and is able to minimize the transition loss over a broadband spectrum. The method can be applied to a wide range of turns and connections and has the advantage of handling connections with arbitrary boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le-Duc, Thang; Ho-Huu, Vinh; Nguyen-Thoi, Trung; Nguyen-Quoc, Hung
2016-12-01
In recent years, various types of magnetorheological brakes (MRBs) have been proposed and optimized by different optimization algorithms that are integrated in commercial software such as ANSYS and Comsol Multiphysics. However, many of these optimization algorithms often possess some noteworthy shortcomings such as the trap of solutions at local extremes, or the limited number of design variables or the difficulty of dealing with discrete design variables. Thus, to overcome these limitations and develop an efficient computation tool for optimal design of the MRBs, an optimization procedure that combines differential evolution (DE), a gradient-free global optimization method with finite element analysis (FEA) is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach is then applied to the optimal design of MRBs with different configurations including conventional MRBs and MRBs with coils placed on the side housings. Moreover, to approach a real-life design, some necessary design variables of MRBs are considered as discrete variables in the optimization process. The obtained optimal design results are compared with those of available optimal designs in the literature. The results reveal that the proposed method outperforms some traditional approaches.
The multi-disciplinary design study: A life cycle cost algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harding, R. R.; Pichi, F. J.
1988-01-01
The approach and results of a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Subsystem (SDPS) including gimbal pointing and power output performance are documented. The Multi-Discipline Design Tool (MDDT) computer program developed during the 1986 study has been modified to include the design, performance, and cost algorithms for the SDPS as described. As with the Space Station structural and control subsystems, the LCC of the SDPS can be computed within the MDDT program as a function of the engineering design variables. Two simple examples of MDDT's capability to evaluate cost sensitivity and design based on LCC are included. MDDT was designed to accept NASA's IMAT computer program data as input so that IMAT's detailed structural and controls design capability can be assessed with expected system LCC as computed by MDDT. No changes to IMAT were required. Detailed knowledge of IMAT is not required to perform the LCC analyses as the interface with IMAT is noninteractive.
A new iterative Fourier transform algorithm for optimal design in holographic optical tweezers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Memmolo, P.; Miccio, L.; Merola, F.; Ferraro, P.; Netti, P. A.
2012-06-01
We propose a new Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm (IFTA) capable to suppress ghost traps and noise in Holographic Optical Tweezers (HOT), maintaining a high diffraction efficiency in a computational time comparable with the others iterative algorithms. The process consists in the planning of the suitable ideal target of optical tweezers as input of classical IFTA and we show we are able to design up to 4 real traps, in the field of view imaged by the microscope objective, using an IFTA built on fictitious phasors, located in strategic positions in the Fourier plane. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated both for numerical and optical reconstructions and compared with the other techniques known in literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, A.; Zolotarev, V.; Bychkov, S.
2016-11-01
This paper examines the results of experimental studies of a previously submitted combined algorithm designed to increase the reliability of information systems. The data that illustrates the organization and conduct of the studies is provided. Within the framework of a comparison of As a part of the study conducted, the comparison of the experimental data of simulation modeling and the data of the functioning of the real information system was made. The hypothesis of the homogeneity of the logical structure of the information systems was formulated, thus enabling to reconfigure the algorithm presented, - more specifically, to transform it into the model for the analysis and prediction of arbitrary information systems. The results presented can be used for further research in this direction. The data of the opportunity to predict the functioning of the information systems can be used for strategic and economic planning. The algorithm can be used as a means for providing information security.
A quantum mechanics-based algorithm for vessel segmentation in retinal images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youssry, Akram; El-Rafei, Ahmed; Elramly, Salwa
2016-06-01
Blood vessel segmentation is an important step in retinal image analysis. It is one of the steps required for computer-aided detection of ophthalmic diseases. In this paper, a novel quantum mechanics-based algorithm for retinal vessel segmentation is presented. The algorithm consists of three major steps. The first step is the preprocessing of the images to prepare the images for further processing. The second step is feature extraction where a set of four features is generated at each image pixel. These features are then combined using a nonlinear transformation for dimensionality reduction. The final step is applying a recently proposed quantum mechanics-based framework for image processing. In this step, pixels are mapped to quantum systems that are allowed to evolve from an initial state to a final state governed by Schrödinger's equation. The evolution is controlled by the Hamiltonian operator which is a function of the extracted features at each pixel. A measurement step is consequently performed to determine whether the pixel belongs to vessel or non-vessel classes. Many functional forms of the Hamiltonian are proposed, and the best performing form was selected. The algorithm is tested on the publicly available DRIVE database. The average results for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are 80.29, 97.34, and 95.83 %, respectively. These results are compared to some recently published techniques showing the superior performance of the proposed method. Finally, the implementation of the algorithm on a quantum computer and the challenges facing this implementation are introduced.
Design and Validation of the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKagan, S. B.; Perkins, K. K.; Wieman, C. E.
2010-01-01
The Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS) is a 12-question survey of students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. It is intended to be used to measure the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods in modern physics courses. In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the survey, a process that included…
Artificial Cochlea Design Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems
2011-07-21
of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in the design of an artificial cochlea is investigated in depth. Interdigitated finger (comb), cantilever... INTERDIGITATED FINGER (COMB) RESONATOR DESIGN .............................................. 3-9 3.2.1 Calculating Comb Resonance...frequency. 1.4.1.4 MEMS Description Cantilever, bridge, interdigitated finger (comb), and mirror type resonators are considered for the MEMS devices
Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.
1976-01-01
NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.
Design and verification of mechanisms for a large foldable antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luhmann, Hans Jurgen; Etzler, Carl Christian; Wagner, Rudolf
1989-01-01
The characteristics of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna aboard the ESA Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) are presented. The antenna is folded into a dense package for launch and is deployed in orbit. The design requirements and constraints, their impact on the design, and the resulting features of the mechanisms are discussed.
Experimental designs for small randomised clinical trials: an algorithm for choice
2013-01-01
Background Small clinical trials are necessary when there are difficulties in recruiting enough patients for conventional frequentist statistical analyses to provide an appropriate answer. These trials are often necessary for the study of rare diseases as well as specific study populations e.g. children. It has been estimated that there are between 6,000 and 8,000 rare diseases that cover a broad range of diseases and patients. In the European Union these diseases affect up to 30 million people, with about 50% of those affected being children. Therapies for treating these rare diseases need their efficacy and safety evaluated but due to the small number of potential trial participants, a standard randomised controlled trial is often not feasible. There are a number of alternative trial designs to the usual parallel group design, each of which offers specific advantages, but they also have specific limitations. Thus the choice of the most appropriate design is not simple. Methods PubMed was searched to identify publications about the characteristics of different trial designs that can be used in randomised, comparative small clinical trials. In addition, the contents tables from 11 journals were hand-searched. An algorithm was developed using decision nodes based on the characteristics of the identified trial designs. Results We identified 75 publications that reported the characteristics of 12 randomised, comparative trial designs that can be used in for the evaluation of therapies in orphan diseases. The main characteristics and the advantages and limitations of these designs were summarised and used to develop an algorithm that may be used to help select an appropriate design for a given clinical situation. We used examples from publications of given disease-treatment-outcome situations, in which the investigators had used a particular trial design, to illustrate the use of the algorithm for the identification of possible alternative designs. Conclusions The
Aspherical lens design using hybrid neural-genetic algorithm of contact lenses.
Yen, Chih-Ta; Ye, Jhe-Wen
2015-10-01
The design of complex contact lenses involves numerous uncertain variables. How to help an optical designer to first design the optimal contact lens to reduce discomfort when wearing a pair of glasses is an essential design concern. This study examined the impact of aberrations on contact lenses to optimize a contact lens design for myopic and astigmatic eyes. In general, two aspherical surfaces can be assembled in an optical system to reduce the overall volume size. However, this design reduces the spherical aberration (SA) values at wide contact radii. The proposed optimization algorithm with optical design can be corrected to improve the SA value and, thus, reduce coma aberration (TCO) values and enhance the modulation transfer function (MTF). This means integrating a modified genetic algorithm (GA) with a neural network (NN) to optimize multiple-quality characteristics, namely the SA, TCO, and MTF, of contact lenses. When the proposed optional weight NN-GA is implemented, the weight values of the fitness function can be varied to adjust system performance. The method simplifies the selection of parameters in the optimization of optical systems. Compared with the traditional CODE V built-in optimal scheme, the proposed scheme is more flexible and intuitive to improve SA, TCO, and MTF values by 50.03%, 45.78%, and 24.7%, respectively.
Zhu, Wu; Fang, Jian-an; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Wenbing; Du, Wei
2012-01-01
Design of a digital infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filter is the process of synthesizing and implementing a recursive filter network so that a set of prescribed excitations results a set of desired responses. However, the error surface of IIR filters is usually non-linear and multi-modal. In order to find the global minimum indeed, an improved differential evolution (DE) is proposed for digital IIR filter design in this paper. The suggested algorithm is a kind of DE variants with a controllable probabilistic (CPDE) population size. It considers the convergence speed and the computational cost simultaneously by nonperiodic partial increasing or declining individuals according to fitness diversities. In addition, we discuss as well some important aspects for IIR filter design, such as the cost function value, the influence of (noise) perturbations, the convergence rate and successful percentage, the parameter measurement, etc. As to the simulation result, it shows that the presented algorithm is viable and comparable. Compared with six existing State-of-the-Art algorithms-based digital IIR filter design methods obtained by numerical experiments, CPDE is relatively more promising and competitive. PMID:22808191
Saha, S K; Dutta, R; Choudhury, R; Kar, R; Mandal, D; Ghoshal, S P
2013-01-01
In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems.
Orion Guidance and Control Ascent Abort Algorithm Design and Performance Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proud, Ryan W.; Bendle, John R.; Tedesco, Mark B.; Hart, Jeremy J.
2009-01-01
During the ascent flight phase of NASA s Constellation Program, the Ares launch vehicle propels the Orion crew vehicle to an agreed to insertion target. If a failure occurs at any point in time during ascent then a system must be in place to abort the mission and return the crew to a safe landing with a high probability of success. To achieve continuous abort coverage one of two sets of effectors is used. Either the Launch Abort System (LAS), consisting of the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) and the Abort Motor (AM), or the Service Module (SM), consisting of SM Orion Main Engine (OME), Auxiliary (Aux) Jets, and Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, is used. The LAS effectors are used for aborts from liftoff through the first 30 seconds of second stage flight. The SM effectors are used from that point through Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). There are two distinct sets of Guidance and Control (G&C) algorithms that are designed to maximize the performance of these abort effectors. This paper will outline the necessary inputs to the G&C subsystem, the preliminary design of the G&C algorithms, the ability of the algorithms to predict what abort modes are achievable, and the resulting success of the abort system. Abort success will be measured against the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) abort performance metrics and overall performance will be reported. Finally, potential improvements to the G&C design will be discussed.
Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: different approaches to diffractive optical element design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skeren, Marek; Richter, Ivan; Fiala, Pavel
2002-10-01
This contribution focuses on the study and comparison of different design approaches for designing phase-only diffractive optical elements (PDOEs) for different possible applications in laser beam shaping. Especially, new results and approaches, concerning the iterative Fourier transform algorithm, are analyzed, implemented, and compared. Namely, various approaches within the iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) are analyzed for the case of phase-only diffractive optical elements with quantizied phase levels (either binary or multilevel structures). First, the general scheme of the IFTA iterative approach with partial quantization is briefly presented and discussed. Then, the special assortment of the general IFTA scheme is given with respect to quantization constraint strategies. Based on such a special classification, the three practically interesting approaches are chosen, further-analyzed, and compared to eachother. The performance of these algorithms is compared in detail in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio characteristic developments with respect to the numberof iterations, for various input diffusive-type objects chose. Also, the performance is documented on the complex spectra developments for typical computer reconstruction results. The advantages and drawbacks of all approaches are discussed, and a brief guide on the choice of a particular approach for typical design tasks is given. Finally, the two ways of amplitude elimination within the design procedure are considered, namely the direct elimination and partial elimination of the amplitude of the complex hologram function.
Validation and application of modeling algorithms for the design of molecularly imprinted polymers.
Liu, Bing; Ou, Lulu; Zhang, Fuyuan; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Hongying; Zhu, Mengyu; Wang, Shuo
2014-12-01
In the study, four different semiempirical algorithms, modified neglect of diatomic overlap, a reparameterization of Austin Model 1, complete neglect of differential overlap and typed neglect of differential overlap, have been applied for the energy optimization of template, monomer, and template-monomer complexes of imprinted polymers. For phosmet-, estrone-, and metolcarb-imprinted polymers, the binding energies of template-monomer complexes were calculated and the docking configures were assessed in different molar ratio of template/monomer. It was found that two algorithms were not suitable for calculating the binding energy in template-monomers complex system. For the other algorithms, the obtained optimum molar ratio of template and monomers were consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, two algorithms have been selected and applied for the preparation of enrofloxacin-imprinted polymers. Meanwhile using a different molar ratio of template and monomer, we prepared imprinted polymers and nonimprinted polymers, and evaluated the adsorption to template. It was verified that the experimental results were in good agreement with the modeling results. As a result, the semiempirical algorithm had certain feasibility in designing the preparation of imprinted polymers.
Optimal fractional delay-IIR filter design using cuckoo search algorithm.
Kumar, Manjeet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar
2015-11-01
This paper applied a novel global meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) to determine optimal coefficients of a fractional delay-infinite impulse response (FD-IIR) filter and trying to meet the ideal frequency response characteristics. Since fractional delay-IIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem, it cannot be computed efficiently using conventional gradient based optimization techniques. A weighted least square (WLS) based fitness function is used to improve the performance to a great extent. FD-IIR filters of different orders have been designed using the CSA. The simulation results of the proposed CSA based approach have been compared to those of well accepted evolutionary algorithms like Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The performance of the CSA based FD-IIR filter is superior to those obtained by GA and PSO. The simulation and statistical results affirm that the proposed approach using CSA outperforms GA and PSO, not only in the convergence rate but also in optimal performance of the designed FD-IIR filter (i.e., smaller magnitude error, smaller phase error, higher percentage improvement in magnitude and phase error, fast convergence rate). The absolute magnitude and phase error obtained for the designed 5th order FD-IIR filter are as low as 0.0037 and 0.0046, respectively. The percentage improvement in magnitude error for CSA based 5th order FD-IIR design with respect to GA and PSO are 80.93% and 74.83% respectively, and phase error are 76.04% and 71.25%, respectively.
Thermal design of spiral heat exchangers and heat pipes through global best algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turgut, Oğuz Emrah; Çoban, Mustafa Turhan
2017-03-01
This study deals with global best algorithm based thermal design of spiral heat exchangers and heat pipes. Spiral heat exchangers are devices which are highly efficient in extremely dirty and fouling process duties. Spirals inherent in design maintain high heat transfer coefficients while avoiding hazardous effects of fouling and uneven fluid distribution in the channels. Heat pipes have wide usage in industry. Thanks to the two phase cycle which takes part in operation, they can transfer high amount of heat with a negligible temperature gradient. In this work, a new stochastic based optimization method global best algorithm is applied for multi objective optimization of spiral heat exchangers as well as single objective optimization for heat pipes. Global best algorithm is easy-to-implement, free of derivatives and it can be reliably applied to any optimization problem. Case studies taken from the literature approaches are solved by the proposed algorithm and results obtained from the literature approaches are compared with thosed acquired by GBA. Comparisons reveal that GBA attains better results than literature studies in terms of solution accuracy and efficiency.
Genetic algorithms for the design of looped irrigation water distribution networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reca, Juan; MartíNez, Juan
2006-05-01
A new computer model called Genetic Algorithm Pipe Network Optimization Model (GENOME) has been developed with the aim of optimizing the design of new looped irrigation water distribution networks. The model is based on a genetic algorithm method, although relevant modifications and improvements have been implemented to adapt the model to this specific problem. It makes use of the robust network solver EPANET. The model has been tested and validated by applying it to the least cost optimization of several benchmark networks reported in the literature. The results obtained with GENOME have been compared with those found in previous works, obtaining the same results as the best published in the literature to date. Once the model was validated, the optimization of a real complex irrigation network has been carried out to evaluate the potential of the genetic algorithm for the optimal design of large-scale networks. Although satisfactory results have been obtained, some adjustments would be desirable to improve the performance of genetic algorithms when the complexity of the network requires it.
Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Briggs, Clark
2010-01-01
Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Huang
2015-12-01
Remote sensing satellites play an increasingly prominent role in environmental monitoring and disaster rescue. Taking advantage of almost the same sunshine condition to same place and global coverage, most of these satellites are operated on the sun-synchronous orbit. However, it brings some problems inevitably, the most significant one is that the temporal resolution of sun-synchronous orbit satellite can't satisfy the demand of specific region monitoring mission. To overcome the disadvantages, two methods are exploited: the first one is to build satellite constellation which contains multiple sunsynchronous satellites, just like the CHARTER mechanism has done; the second is to design non-predetermined orbit based on the concrete mission demand. An effective method for remote sensing satellite orbit design based on multiobjective evolution algorithm is presented in this paper. Orbit design problem is converted into a multi-objective optimization problem, and a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm is utilized to solve this problem. Firstly, the demand of the mission is transformed into multiple objective functions, and the six orbit elements of the satellite are taken as genes in design space, then a simulate evolution process is performed. An optimal resolution can be obtained after specified generation via evolution operation (selection, crossover, and mutation). To examine validity of the proposed method, a case study is introduced: Orbit design of an optical satellite for regional disaster monitoring, the mission demand include both minimizing the average revisit time internal of two objectives. The simulation result shows that the solution for this mission obtained by our method meet the demand the users' demand. We can draw a conclusion that the method presented in this paper is efficient for remote sensing orbit design.
Bieniawski, Z.T.
1996-04-01
A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.
Montgomery, Christopher J.; Yang, Chongguan; Parkinson, Alan R.; Chen, J.-Y.
2006-01-01
A genetic optimization algorithm has been applied to the selection of quasi-steady-state (QSS) species in reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms. The algorithm seeks to minimize the error between reduced and detailed chemistry for simple reactor calculations approximating conditions of interest for a computational fluid dynamics simulation. The genetic algorithm does not guarantee that the global optimum will be found, but much greater accuracy can be obtained than by choosing QSS species through a simple kinetic criterion or by human trial and error. The algorithm is demonstrated for methane-air combustion over a range of temperatures and stoichiometries and for homogeneous charge compression ignition engine combustion. The results are in excellent agreement with those predicted by the baseline mechanism. A factor of two reduction in the number of species was obtained for a skeletal mechanism that had already been greatly reduced from the parent detailed mechanism.
2007-08-01
Advanced non- linear control algorithms applied to design highly maneuverable Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) Vladimir Djapic, Jay A. Farrell...hierarchical such that an ”inner loop” non- linear controller (outputs the appropriate thrust values) is the same for all mission scenarios while a...library of ”outer-loop” non- linear controllers are available to implement specific maneuvering scenarios. On top of the outer-loop is the mission planner
Schalkoff, R.J.; Shaaban, K.M.; Carver, A.E.
1996-12-31
The ARIES {number_sign}1 (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform autonomous visual inspection leading to a classification as `acceptable` or `suspect`. Specific topics described include vision system design methodology, algorithmic structure,hardware processing structure, and image acquisition hardware. Most of these capabilities were demonstrated at the ARIES Phase II Demo held on Nov. 30, 1995. Finally, Phase III efforts are briefly addressed.
Sampling-based algorithms for analysis and design of hybrid and embedded systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, Amit
linear hybrid systems and the applicability of the approach is shown using several examples. The proposed framework and the algorithms can be used for analysis and design of hybrid and embedded systems, including but not limited to, aerospace and robotic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciandra, Vincent
performance of the algorithm generated sectors to the current sectors for a variety of configurations and scenarios, and comparing these results to those of the current sectors. The effect of dynamic airspace configurations will then be tested by observing the effects of update rate on the algorithm generated sector results. Finally, the algorithm will be used with simulated data, whose evaluation would show the ability of the sector design algorithm to meet the objectives of the NextGen system. Upon validation, the algorithm may be successfully incorporated into a larger Terminal Flow Algorithm, developed by our partners at Mosaic ATM, as the final step in the TDAC process.
Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yuping; Feng, Junhong
2013-01-01
In association rule mining, evaluating an association rule needs to repeatedly scan database to compare the whole database with the antecedent, consequent of a rule and the whole rule. In order to decrease the number of comparisons and time consuming, we present an attribute index strategy. It only needs to scan database once to create the attribute index of each attribute. Then all metrics values to evaluate an association rule do not need to scan database any further, but acquire data only by means of the attribute indices. The paper visualizes association rule mining as a multiobjective problem rather than a single objective one. In order to make the acquired solutions scatter uniformly toward the Pareto frontier in the objective space, elitism policy and uniform design are introduced. The paper presents the algorithm of attribute index and uniform design based multiobjective association rule mining with evolutionary algorithm, abbreviated as IUARMMEA. It does not require the user-specified minimum support and minimum confidence anymore, but uses a simple attribute index. It uses a well-designed real encoding so as to extend its application scope. Experiments performed on several databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, and it can significantly reduce the number of comparisons and time consumption.
Efficient design of nanoplasmonic waveguide devices using the space mapping algorithm.
Dastmalchi, Pouya; Veronis, Georgios
2013-12-30
We show that the space mapping algorithm, originally developed for microwave circuit optimization, can enable the efficient design of nanoplasmonic waveguide devices which satisfy a set of desired specifications. Space mapping utilizes a physics-based coarse model to approximate a fine model accurately describing a device. Here the fine model is a full-wave finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) simulation of the device, while the coarse model is based on transmission line theory. We demonstrate that simply optimizing the transmission line model of the device is not enough to obtain a device which satisfies all the required design specifications. On the other hand, when the iterative space mapping algorithm is used, it converges fast to a design which meets all the specifications. In addition, full-wave FDFD simulations of only a few candidate structures are required before the iterative process is terminated. Use of the space mapping algorithm therefore results in large reductions in the required computation time when compared to any direct optimization method of the fine FDFD model.
SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.
Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.
2007-12-01
This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.
Design tool for multiprocessor scheduling and evaluation of iterative dataflow algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Robert L., III
1995-01-01
A graph-theoretic design process and software tool is defined for selecting a multiprocessing scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described with a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on a set of identical processors. Typical applications include signal processing and control law problems. Graph-search algorithms and analysis techniques are introduced and shown to effectively determine performance bounds, scheduling constraints, and resource requirements. The software tool applies the design process to a given problem and includes performance optimization through the inclusion of additional precedence constraints among the schedulable tasks.
Designing an Algorithm to Preserve Privacy for Medical Record Linkage With Error-Prone Data
Pal, Doyel; Chen, Tingting; Khethavath, Praveen
2014-01-01
Background Linking medical records across different medical service providers is important to the enhancement of health care quality and public health surveillance. In records linkage, protecting the patients’ privacy is a primary requirement. In real-world health care databases, records may well contain errors due to various reasons such as typos. Linking the error-prone data and preserving data privacy at the same time are very difficult. Existing privacy preserving solutions for this problem are only restricted to textual data. Objective To enable different medical service providers to link their error-prone data in a private way, our aim was to provide a holistic solution by designing and developing a medical record linkage system for medical service providers. Methods To initiate a record linkage, one provider selects one of its collaborators in the Connection Management Module, chooses some attributes of the database to be matched, and establishes the connection with the collaborator after the negotiation. In the Data Matching Module, for error-free data, our solution offered two different choices for cryptographic schemes. For error-prone numerical data, we proposed a newly designed privacy preserving linking algorithm named the Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm, that allows the error-prone data to be correctly matched if the distance between the two records is below a threshold. Results We designed and developed a comprehensive and user-friendly software system that provides privacy preserving record linkage functions for medical service providers, which meets the regulation of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. It does not require a third party and it is secure in that neither entity can learn the records in the other’s database. Moreover, our novel Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm implemented in this software can work well with error-prone numerical data. We theoretically proved the correctness and security of our Error
Transportation Network with Fluctuating Input/Output Designed by the Bio-Inspired Physarum Algorithm
Watanabe, Shin; Takamatsu, Atsuko
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter. PMID:24586616
Watanabe, Shin; Takamatsu, Atsuko
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter.
Embedded EMD algorithm within an FPGA-based design to classify nonlinear SDOF systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Jonathan D.; Pei, Jin-Song; Wright, Joseph P.; Tull, Monte P.
2010-04-01
Compared with traditional microprocessor-based systems, rapidly advancing field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology offers a more powerful, efficient and flexible hardware platform. An FPGA and microprocessor (i.e., hardware and software) co-design is developed to classify three types of nonlinearities (including linear, hardening and softening) of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to free vibration. This significantly advances the team's previous work on using FPGAs for wireless structural health monitoring. The classification is achieved by embedding two important algorithms - empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and backbone curve analysis. Design considerations to embed EMD in FPGA and microprocessor are discussed. In particular, the implementation of cubic spline fitting and the challenges encountered using both hardware and software environments are discussed. The backbone curve technique is fully implemented within the FPGA hardware and used to extract instantaneous characteristics from the uniformly distributed data sets produced by the EMD algorithm as presented in a previous SPIE conference by the team. An off-the-shelf high-level abstraction tool along with the MATLAB/Simulink environment is utilized to manage the overall FPGA and microprocessor co-design. Given the limited computational resources of an embedded system, we strive for a balance between the maximization of computational efficiency and minimization of resource utilization. The value of this study lies well beyond merely programming existing algorithms in hardware and software. Among others, extensive and intensive judgment is exercised involving experiences and insights with these algorithms, which renders processed instantaneous characteristics of the signals that are well-suited for wireless transmission.
An algorithm to design finite field multipliers using a self-dual normal basis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, C. C.
1987-01-01
Finite field multiplication is central in the implementation of some error-correcting coders. Massey and Omura have presented a revolutionary design for multiplication in a finite field. In their design, a normal base is utilized to represent the elements of the field. The concept of using a self-dual normal basis to design the Massey-Omura finite field multiplier is presented. Presented first is an algorithm to locate a self-dual normal basis for GF(2 sup m) for odd m. Then a method to construct the product function for designing the Massey-Omura multiplier is developed. It is shown that the construction of the product function base on a self-dual basis is simpler than that based on an arbitrary normal base.
Genetic algorithm based design optimization of a permanent magnet brushless dc motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhyay, P. R.; Rajagopal, K. R.
2005-05-01
Genetic algorithm (GA) based design optimization of a permanent magnet brushless dc motor is presented in this paper. A 70 W, 350 rpm, ceiling fan motor with radial-filed configuration is designed by considering the efficiency as the objective function. Temperature-rise and motor weight are the constraints and the slot electric loading, magnet-fraction, slot-fraction, airgap, and airgap flux density are the design variables. The efficiency and the phase-inductance of the motor designed using the developed CAD program are improved by using the GA based optimization technique; from 84.75% and 5.55 mH to 86.06% and 2.4 mH, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghavan, Ajay; Saha, Bhaskar
2013-03-01
Photo enforcement devices for traffic rules such as red lights, toll, stops, and speed limits are increasingly being deployed in cities and counties around the world to ensure smooth traffic flow and public safety. These are typically unattended fielded systems, and so it is important to periodically check them for potential image/video quality problems that might interfere with their intended functionality. There is interest in automating such checks to reduce the operational overhead and human error involved in manually checking large camera device fleets. Examples of problems affecting such camera devices include exposure issues, focus drifts, obstructions, misalignment, download errors, and motion blur. Furthermore, in some cases, in addition to the sub-algorithms for individual problems, one also has to carefully design the overall algorithm and logic to check for and accurately classifying these individual problems. Some of these issues can occur in tandem or have the potential to be confused for each other by automated algorithms. Examples include camera misalignment that can cause some scene elements to go out of focus for wide-area scenes or download errors that can be misinterpreted as an obstruction. Therefore, the sequence in which the sub-algorithms are utilized is also important. This paper presents an overview of these problems along with no-reference and reduced reference image and video quality solutions to detect and classify such faults.
Design and simulation of imaging algorithm for Fresnel telescopy imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Xiao-yu; Liu, Li-ren; Yan, Ai-min; Sun, Jian-feng; Dai, En-wen; Li, Bing
2011-06-01
Fresnel telescopy (short for Fresnel telescopy full-aperture synthesized imaging ladar) is a new high resolution active laser imaging technique. This technique is a variant of Fourier telescopy and optical scanning holography, which uses Fresnel zone plates to scan target. Compare with synthetic aperture imaging ladar(SAIL), Fresnel telescopy avoids problem of time synchronization and space synchronization, which decreasing technical difficulty. In one-dimensional (1D) scanning operational mode for moving target, after time-to-space transformation, spatial distribution of sampling data is non-uniform because of the relative motion between target and scanning beam. However, as we use fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the following imaging algorithm of matched filtering, distribution of data should be regular and uniform. We use resampling interpolation to transform the data into two-dimensional (2D) uniform distribution, and accuracy of resampling interpolation process mainly affects the reconstruction results. Imaging algorithms with different resampling interpolation algorithms have been analysis and computer simulation are also given. We get good reconstruction results of the target, which proves that the designed imaging algorithm for Fresnel telescopy imaging system is effective. This work is found to have substantial practical value and offers significant benefit for high resolution imaging system of Fresnel telescopy laser imaging ladar.
Regularizing common spatial patterns to improve BCI designs: unified theory and new algorithms.
Lotte, Fabien; Guan, Cuntai
2011-02-01
One of the most popular feature extraction algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI) is common spatial patterns (CSPs). Despite its known efficiency and widespread use, CSP is also known to be very sensitive to noise and prone to overfitting. To address this issue, it has been recently proposed to regularize CSP. In this paper, we present a simple and unifying theoretical framework to design such a regularized CSP (RCSP). We then present a review of existing RCSP algorithms and describe how to cast them in this framework. We also propose four new RCSP algorithms. Finally, we compare the performances of 11 different RCSP (including the four new ones and the original CSP), on electroencephalography data from 17 subjects, from BCI competition datasets. Results showed that the best RCSP methods can outperform CSP by nearly 10% in median classification accuracy and lead to more neurophysiologically relevant spatial filters. They also enable us to perform efficient subject-to-subject transfer. Overall, the best RCSP algorithms were CSP with Tikhonov regularization and weighted Tikhonov regularization, both proposed in this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit
2010-01-01
The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.
The design and hardware implementation of a low-power real-time seizure detection algorithm.
Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K; Ward, Matthew P; Worth, Robert M; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P
2009-10-01
Epilepsy affects more than 1% of the world's population. Responsive neurostimulation is emerging as an alternative therapy for the 30% of the epileptic patient population that does not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Efficient seizure detection algorithms will enable closed-loop epilepsy prostheses by stimulating the epileptogenic focus within an early onset window. Critically, this is expected to reduce neuronal desensitization over time and lead to longer-term device efficacy. This work presents a novel event-based seizure detection algorithm along with a low-power digital circuit implementation. Hippocampal depth-electrode recordings from six kainate-treated rats are used to validate the algorithm and hardware performance in this preliminary study. The design process illustrates crucial trade-offs in translating mathematical models into hardware implementations and validates statistical optimizations made with empirical data analyses on results obtained using a real-time functioning hardware prototype. Using quantitatively predicted thresholds from the depth-electrode recordings, the auto-updating algorithm performs with an average sensitivity and selectivity of 95.3 +/- 0.02% and 88.9 +/- 0.01% (mean +/- SE(alpha = 0.05)), respectively, on untrained data with a detection delay of 8.5 s [5.97, 11.04] from electrographic onset. The hardware implementation is shown feasible using CMOS circuits consuming under 350 nW of power from a 250 mV supply voltage from simulations on the MIT 180 nm SOI process.
2014-01-01
Due to fierce market competition, how to improve product quality and reduce development cost determines the core competitiveness of enterprises. However, design iteration generally causes increases of product cost and delays of development time as well, so how to identify and model couplings among tasks in product design and development has become an important issue for enterprises to settle. In this paper, the shortcomings existing in WTM model are discussed and tearing approach as well as inner iteration method is used to complement the classic WTM model. In addition, the ABC algorithm is also introduced to find out the optimal decoupling schemes. In this paper, firstly, tearing approach and inner iteration method are analyzed for solving coupled sets. Secondly, a hybrid iteration model combining these two technologies is set up. Thirdly, a high-performance swarm intelligence algorithm, artificial bee colony, is adopted to realize problem-solving. Finally, an engineering design of a chemical processing system is given in order to verify its reasonability and effectiveness. PMID:25431584
Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin
2014-01-01
Due to fierce market competition, how to improve product quality and reduce development cost determines the core competitiveness of enterprises. However, design iteration generally causes increases of product cost and delays of development time as well, so how to identify and model couplings among tasks in product design and development has become an important issue for enterprises to settle. In this paper, the shortcomings existing in WTM model are discussed and tearing approach as well as inner iteration method is used to complement the classic WTM model. In addition, the ABC algorithm is also introduced to find out the optimal decoupling schemes. In this paper, firstly, tearing approach and inner iteration method are analyzed for solving coupled sets. Secondly, a hybrid iteration model combining these two technologies is set up. Thirdly, a high-performance swarm intelligence algorithm, artificial bee colony, is adopted to realize problem-solving. Finally, an engineering design of a chemical processing system is given in order to verify its reasonability and effectiveness.
Mechanics of intraply hybrid composites - Properties, analysis and design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.
1979-01-01
A mechanics theory is developed for predicting the physical thermal, hygral and mechanical properties (including various strengths) of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites (UIHC) based on unidirectional properties of the constituent composites. Procedures are described which can use this theory in conjunction with composite mechanics computer codes and general purpose structural analysis finite element programs for the analysis/design of structural components made from intraply hybrid angleplied laminates (IHAL). Comparisons with limited data show that this theory predicts mechanical properties of UIHC and flexural stiffnesses of IHAL which are in good agreement with experimental data. The theory developed herein makes it possible to design and optimize structural components from IHAL based on a large class of available constituent fibers.
Design and Characterization of a Novel Knee Articulation Mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olinski, M.; Gronowicz, A.; Handke, A.; Ceccarelli, M.
2016-08-01
The paper is focused on designing a novel controllable and adjustable mechanism for reproducing human knee joint's complex motion by taking into account the flexion/extension movement in the sagittal plane, in combination with roll and slide. Main requirements for a knee rehabilitation supporting device are specified by researching the knee's anatomy and already existing mechanisms. A three degree of freedom (3 DOF) system (four-bar like linkage with controlled variable lengths of rockers) is synthesised to perform the reference path of instantaneous centre of rotation (ICR). Finally, a preliminary design of the adaptive mechanism is elaborated and a numerical model is built in Adams. Numerical results are derived from simulations that are presented to evaluate the accuracy of the reproduced movement and the mechanism's capabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cozzani, A.; Sarti, B.; Casarosa, G.; Ratti, F.; Appolloni, M.
2003-09-01
One of the experiments on board of the Material Exposure and Degradation Experiment on Eutef (MEDET) consists of a Spectrometer. The aim of the experiment is to study the degradation of the properties of optical materials exposed to near earth orbit space environment. The samples of optical materials under investigation are placed on a rotating wheel. A drive mechanism is used to rotate the wheel and position each sample in front of the optical diffuser and the spectrometer sensor. The first step of the design was the choice of the components and the choice of the materials for the mechanical parts. Then, the detailed mechanical design of the assembly has been carried out. The mechanism has been designed in order to be integrated inside MEDET. This has posed constraints in terms of geometry and power budget for the components. A structural analysis of the drive mechanism assembly has been carried out to ensure the integrity of the mechanism during launch. The sample wheel is driven by a stepper motor that has been controlled by a closed-loop algorithm. The choice of the type of control has been driven by in orbit reliability considerations. A breadboard of the mechanism has been assembled in ESTEC laboratory to perform a drive control test. Challenges of the design have been the very limited time available for the overall concept and validation and the limited resources for the project that has been classified as a low cost experiment. The work has been carried out in the ESTEC laboratories with a close collaboration between mechanical and electrical engineers of the testing and material department.
Thermo-mechanical design aspects of mercury bombardment ion thrusters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnelker, D. E.; Kami, S.
1972-01-01
The mechanical design criteria are presented as background considerations for solving problems associated with the thermomechanical design of mercury ion bombardment thrusters. Various analytical procedures are used to aid in the development of thruster subassemblies and components in the fields of heat transfer, vibration, and stress analysis. Examples of these techniques which provide computer solutions to predict and control stress levels encountered during launch and operation of thruster systems are discussed. Computer models of specific examples are presented.
A new stochastic algorithm for proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack design optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Uttara
2012-10-01
This paper develops a new stochastic heuristic for proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack design optimization. The problem involves finding the optimal size and configuration of stand-alone, fuel-cell-based power supply systems: the stack is to be configured so that it delivers the maximum power output at the load's operating voltage. The problem apparently looks straightforward but is analytically intractable and computationally hard. No exact solution can be found, nor is it easy to find the exact number of local optima; we, therefore, are forced to settle with approximate or near-optimal solutions. This real-world problem, first reported in Journal of Power Sources 131, poses both engineering challenges and computational challenges and is representative of many of today's open problems in fuel cell design involving a mix of discrete and continuous parameters. The new algorithm is compared against genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, and (1+1)-EA. Statistical tests of significance show that the results produced by our method are better than the best-known solutions for this problem published in the literature. A finite Markov chain analysis of the new algorithm establishes an upper bound on the expected time to find the optimum solution.
A high precision position sensor design and its signal processing algorithm for a maglev train.
Xue, Song; Long, Zhiqiang; He, Ning; Chang, Wensen
2012-01-01
High precision positioning technology for a kind of high speed maglev train with an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system is studied. At first, the basic structure and functions of the position sensor are introduced and some key techniques to enhance the positioning precision are designed. Then, in order to further improve the positioning signal quality and the fault-tolerant ability of the sensor, a new kind of discrete-time tracking differentiator (TD) is proposed based on nonlinear optimal control theory. This new TD has good filtering and differentiating performances and a small calculation load. It is suitable for real-time signal processing. The stability, convergence property and frequency characteristics of the TD are studied and analyzed thoroughly. The delay constant of the TD is figured out and an effective time delay compensation algorithm is proposed. Based on the TD technology, a filtering process is introduced in to improve the positioning signal waveform when the sensor is under bad working conditions, and a two-sensor switching algorithm is designed to eliminate the positioning errors caused by the joint gaps of the long stator. The effectiveness and stability of the sensor and its signal processing algorithms are proved by the experiments on a test train during a long-term test run.
A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks.
Camacho-Vallejo, José-Fernando; Mar-Ortiz, Julio; López-Ramos, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ricardo Pedraza
2015-01-01
Local access networks (LAN) are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower's problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach.
A High Precision Position Sensor Design and Its Signal Processing Algorithm for a Maglev Train
Xue, Song; Long, Zhiqiang; He, Ning; Chang, Wensen
2012-01-01
High precision positioning technology for a kind of high speed maglev train with an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system is studied. At first, the basic structure and functions of the position sensor are introduced and some key techniques to enhance the positioning precision are designed. Then, in order to further improve the positioning signal quality and the fault-tolerant ability of the sensor, a new kind of discrete-time tracking differentiator (TD) is proposed based on nonlinear optimal control theory. This new TD has good filtering and differentiating performances and a small calculation load. It is suitable for real-time signal processing. The stability, convergence property and frequency characteristics of the TD are studied and analyzed thoroughly. The delay constant of the TD is figured out and an effective time delay compensation algorithm is proposed. Based on the TD technology, a filtering process is introduced in to improve the positioning signal waveform when the sensor is under bad working conditions, and a two-sensor switching algorithm is designed to eliminate the positioning errors caused by the joint gaps of the long stator. The effectiveness and stability of the sensor and its signal processing algorithms are proved by the experiments on a test train during a long-term test run. PMID:22778582
A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks
Camacho-Vallejo, José-Fernando; Mar-Ortiz, Julio; López-Ramos, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ricardo Pedraza
2015-01-01
Local access networks (LAN) are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower’s problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach. PMID:26102502
A proteomics search algorithm specifically designed for high-resolution tandem mass spectra.
Wenger, Craig D; Coon, Joshua J
2013-03-01
The acquisition of high-resolution tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) is becoming more prevalent in proteomics, but most researchers employ peptide identification algorithms that were designed prior to this development. Here, we demonstrate new software, Morpheus, designed specifically for high-mass accuracy data, based on a simple score that is little more than the number of matching products. For a diverse collection of data sets from a variety of organisms (E. coli, yeast, human) acquired on a variety of instruments (quadrupole-time-of-flight, ion trap-orbitrap, and quadrupole-orbitrap) in different laboratories, Morpheus gives more spectrum, peptide, and protein identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR) than Mascot, Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA), and Sequest. Additionally, Morpheus is 1.5 to 4.6 times faster, depending on the data set, than the next fastest algorithm, OMSSA. Morpheus was developed in C# .NET and is available free and open source under a permissive license.
A guided search genetic algorithm using mined rules for optimal affective product design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, Chris K. Y.; Kwong, C. K.; Chan, Kit Yan; Jiang, H.
2014-08-01
Affective design is an important aspect of new product development, especially for consumer products, to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. It can help companies to develop new products that can better satisfy the emotional needs of customers. However, product designers usually encounter difficulties in determining the optimal settings of the design attributes for affective design. In this article, a novel guided search genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to determine the optimal design attribute settings for affective design. The optimization model formulated based on the proposed approach applied constraints and guided search operators, which were formulated based on mined rules, to guide the GA search and to achieve desirable solutions. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the proposed approach and validate its effectiveness. Validation tests were conducted, and the results show that the guided search GA approach outperforms the GA approach without the guided search strategy in terms of GA convergence and computational time. In addition, the guided search optimization model is capable of improving GA to generate good solutions for affective design.
Mechanism Design for the Online Allocation of Items without Monetary Payments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalilzadeh, Behnam; Planken, Léon; de Weerdt, Mathijs
We consider online mechanism design without money, where agents are allowed to trade items with other agents, in an attempt to improve their own allocation. In an off-line context, this problem is known as the House Allocation Problem (HAP). We extend HAP to an online problem and call it the Online House Allocation Problem (OHAP) . In OHAP, agents can choose when to arrive and depart over time and are allowed to be indifferent between items. Subsequently, we present our Agent Shifting Algorithm (ASA) for OHAP . A mechanism that uses ASA as its allocation rule is shown to be strategy-proof, individually rational and Pareto optimal. Moreover, we argue that any mechanism that obtains an outcome in OHAP that cannot be obtained by using ASA fails to be strategy-proof or is not Pareto optimal.
Making software get along: integrating optical and mechanical design programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shackelford, Christie J.; Chinnock, Randal B.
2001-03-01
As modern optomechanical engineers, we have the good fortune of having very sophisticated software programs available to us. The current optical design, mechanical design, industrial design, and CAM programs are very powerful tools with some very desirable features. However, no one program can do everything necessary to complete an entire optomechanical system design. Each program has a unique set of features and benefits, and typically two or mo re will be used during the product development process. At a minimum, an optical design program and a mechanical CAD package will be employed. As we strive for efficient, cost-effective, and rapid progress in our development projects, we must use these programs to their full advantage, while keeping redundant tasks to a minimum. Together, these programs offer the promise of a `seamless' flow of data from concept all the way to the download of part designs directly to the machine shop for fabrication. In reality, transferring data from one software package to the next is often frustrating. Overcoming these problems takes some know-how, a bit of creativity, and a lot of persistence. This paper describes a complex optomechanical development effort in which a variety of software tools were used from the concept stage to prototyping. It will describe what software was used for each major design task, how we learned to use them together to best advantage, and how we overcame the frustrations of software that didn't get along.
Morita, Kenji; Jitsev, Jenia; Morrison, Abigail
2016-09-15
Value-based action selection has been suggested to be realized in the corticostriatal local circuits through competition among neural populations. In this article, we review theoretical and experimental studies that have constructed and verified this notion, and provide new perspectives on how the local-circuit selection mechanisms implement reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms and computations beyond them. The striatal neurons are mostly inhibitory, and lateral inhibition among them has been classically proposed to realize "Winner-Take-All (WTA)" selection of the maximum-valued action (i.e., 'max' operation). Although this view has been challenged by the revealed weakness, sparseness, and asymmetry of lateral inhibition, which suggest more complex dynamics, WTA-like competition could still occur on short time scales. Unlike the striatal circuit, the cortical circuit contains recurrent excitation, which may enable retention or temporal integration of information and probabilistic "soft-max" selection. The striatal "max" circuit and the cortical "soft-max" circuit might co-implement an RL algorithm called Q-learning; the cortical circuit might also similarly serve for other algorithms such as SARSA. In these implementations, the cortical circuit presumably sustains activity representing the executed action, which negatively impacts dopamine neurons so that they can calculate reward-prediction-error. Regarding the suggested more complex dynamics of striatal, as well as cortical, circuits on long time scales, which could be viewed as a sequence of short WTA fragments, computational roles remain open: such a sequence might represent (1) sequential state-action-state transitions, constituting replay or simulation of the internal model, (2) a single state/action by the whole trajectory, or (3) probabilistic sampling of state/action.
Metamorphic manipulating mechanism design for MCCB using index reduced iteration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Zhen; Lin, Xiaoxia
2013-03-01
The present research on moulded case circuit breaker(MCCB) focuses on the enhancement of current-limiting interrupting performance during short circuit, overload, under voltage and phase failure, involving electrics, magnetic, mechanics, thermal, material, friction, arc extinguishing, impact vibration, skin effect, etc. The rigid-flexible coupling of the parts and components of the metamorphic manipulating mechanism in multi-fields leads to the non-rigid, high frequency, high damping, singularity of the Euler-Lagrange equations which represents the multi-body dynamics. The small step iteration which is used for obtaining the instantaneous and short time critical interrupting performance of metamorphic mechanism appears inaccuracy. It is difficult to realize top-down design by existing CAD systems. Therefore, a metamorphic manipulating mechanism design method for MCCB using index reduced iteration(IRI) is put forward. The metamorphic manipulating mechanism of MCCB is decomposed into three mechanisms: main switch connector mechanism, electromagnet-drawbar-jump buckle mechanism, and bimetallic strip-drawbar mechanism, which is respectively described by electro-dynamic force, electromagnet force, and bimetallic strip force. The dummy part(virtual rigid) without moment of inertia and mass is employed as intermediate to join the flexible body and rigid body. The model of rigid-flexible coupling metamorphic mechanism multi-body dynamics is built. The differential algebraic equations(DAEs) of the multibody dynamics model are converted to pure ordinary differential equations(ODEs) by coordinate partition. Order reduced integration with multi-step and variable step-size is preceded based on IRI. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved in each integration step by Newton-Rapson iteration. There is no ill-condition and singularity of Jacobian matrix when step size reduces to zero. The independent prototype design system using ACIS R13, HOOPS V11.0 and Visual C++.NET 2003
Using a Simple Contest to Illustrate Mechanism Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blackwell, Calvin
2011-01-01
This article describes a simple classroom activity that illustrates how economic theory can be used for mechanism design. The rules for a set of contests are presented; the results typically obtained from these contests illustrate how the prize structure can be manipulated in order to produce a particular outcome. Specifically, this activity is…
Computer-based mechanical design of overhead lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusinaru, D.; Bratu, C.; Dinu, R. C.; Manescu, L. G.
2016-02-01
Beside the performance, the safety level according to the actual standards is a compulsory condition for distribution grids’ operation. Some of the measures leading to improvement of the overhead lines reliability ask for installations’ modernization. The constraints imposed to the new lines components refer to the technical aspects as thermal stress or voltage drop, and look for economic efficiency, too. The mechanical sizing of the overhead lines is after all an optimization problem. More precisely, the task in designing of the overhead line profile is to size poles, cross-arms and stays and locate poles along a line route so that the total costs of the line's structure to be minimized and the technical and safety constraints to be fulfilled.The authors present in this paper an application for the Computer-Based Mechanical Design of the Overhead Lines and the features of the corresponding Visual Basic program, adjusted to the distribution lines. The constraints of the optimization problem are adjusted to the existing weather and loading conditions of Romania. The outputs of the software application for mechanical design of overhead lines are: the list of components chosen for the line: poles, cross-arms, stays; the list of conductor tension and forces for each pole, cross-arm and stay for different weather conditions; the line profile drawings.The main features of the mechanical overhead lines design software are interactivity, local optimization function and high-level user-interface
GADISI - Genetic Algorithms Applied to the Automatic Design of Integrated Spiral Inductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Pedro; Fino, M. Helena; Coito, Fernando; Ventim-Neves, Mário
This work introduces a tool for the optimization of CMOS integrated spiral inductors. The main objective of this tool is to offer designers a first approach for the determination of the inductor layout parameters. The core of the tool is a Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization procedure where technology constraints on the inductor layout parameters are considered. Further constraints regarding inductor design heuristics are also accounted for. Since the layout parameters are inherently discrete due to technology and topology constraints, discrete variable optimization techniques are used. The Matlab GA toolbox is used and the modifications on the GA functions, yielding technology feasible solutions is presented. For the sake of efficiency and simplicity the pi-model is used for characterizing the inductor. The validity of the design results obtained with the tool, is checked against circuit simulation with ASITIC.
Duarte, Belmiro P M; Wong, Weng Kee; Atkinson, Anthony C
2015-03-01
T-optimum designs for model discrimination are notoriously difficult to find because of the computational difficulty involved in solving an optimization problem that involves two layers of optimization. Only a handful of analytical T-optimal designs are available for the simplest problems; the rest in the literature are found using specialized numerical procedures for a specific problem. We propose a potentially more systematic and general way for finding T-optimal designs using a Semi-Infinite Programming (SIP) approach. The strategy requires that we first reformulate the original minimax or maximin optimization problem into an equivalent semi-infinite program and solve it using an exchange-based method where lower and upper bounds produced by solving the outer and the inner programs, are iterated to convergence. A global Nonlinear Programming (NLP) solver is used to handle the subproblems, thus finding the optimal design and the least favorable parametric configuration that minimizes the residual sum of squares from the alternative or test models. We also use a nonlinear program to check the global optimality of the SIP-generated design and automate the construction of globally optimal designs. The algorithm is successfully used to produce results that coincide with several T-optimal designs reported in the literature for various types of model discrimination problems with normally distributed errors. However, our method is more general, merely requiring that the parameters of the model be estimated by a numerical optimization.
Eliminating chromatic aberration in Gauss-type lens design using a novel genetic algorithm.
Fang, Yi-Chin; Tsai, Chen-Mu; Macdonald, John; Pai, Yang-Chieh
2007-05-01
Two different types of Gauss lens design, which effectively eliminate primary chromatic aberration, are presented using an efficient genetic algorithm (GA). The current GA has to deal with too many targets in optical global optimization so that the performance is not much improved. Generally speaking, achromatic aberrations have a great relationship with variable glass sets for all elements. For optics whose design is roughly convergent, glass sets for optics will play a significant role in axial and lateral color aberration. Therefore better results might be derived from the optimal process of eliminating achromatic aberration, which could be carried out by finding feasible glass sets in advance. As an alternative, we propose a new optimization process by using a GA and involving theories of geometrical optics in order to select the best optical glass combination. Two Gauss-type lens designs are employed in this research. First, a telephoto lens design is sensitive to axial aberration because of its long focal length, and second, a wide-angle Gauss design is complicated by lateral color aberration at the extreme corners because Gauss design is well known not to deal well with wide-angle problems. Without numbers of higher chief rays passing the element, it is difficult to correct lateral color aberration altogether for the Gauss design. The results and conclusions show that the attempts to eliminate primary chromatic aberrations were successful.
Optimal Design of Low-Density SNP Arrays for Genomic Prediction: Algorithm and Applications.
Wu, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Jiaqi; Feng, Guofei; Wiggans, George R; Taylor, Jeremy F; He, Jun; Qian, Changsong; Qiu, Jiansheng; Simpson, Barry; Walker, Jeremy; Bauck, Stewart
2016-01-01
Low-density (LD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays provide a cost-effective solution for genomic prediction and selection, but algorithms and computational tools are needed for the optimal design of LD SNP chips. A multiple-objective, local optimization (MOLO) algorithm was developed for design of optimal LD SNP chips that can be imputed accurately to medium-density (MD) or high-density (HD) SNP genotypes for genomic prediction. The objective function facilitates maximization of non-gap map length and system information for the SNP chip, and the latter is computed either as locus-averaged (LASE) or haplotype-averaged Shannon entropy (HASE) and adjusted for uniformity of the SNP distribution. HASE performed better than LASE with ≤1,000 SNPs, but required considerably more computing time. Nevertheless, the differences diminished when >5,000 SNPs were selected. Optimization was accomplished conditionally on the presence of SNPs that were obligated to each chromosome. The frame location of SNPs on a chip can be either uniform (evenly spaced) or non-uniform. For the latter design, a tunable empirical Beta distribution was used to guide location distribution of frame SNPs such that both ends of each chromosome were enriched with SNPs. The SNP distribution on each chromosome was finalized through the objective function that was locally and empirically maximized. This MOLO algorithm was capable of selecting a set of approximately evenly-spaced and highly-informative SNPs, which in turn led to increased imputation accuracy compared with selection solely of evenly-spaced SNPs. Imputation accuracy increased with LD chip size, and imputation error rate was extremely low for chips with ≥3,000 SNPs. Assuming that genotyping or imputation error occurs at random, imputation error rate can be viewed as the upper limit for genomic prediction error. Our results show that about 25% of imputation error rate was propagated to genomic prediction in an Angus population. The
Optimal Design of Low-Density SNP Arrays for Genomic Prediction: Algorithm and Applications
Wu, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Jiaqi; Feng, Guofei; Wiggans, George R.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; He, Jun; Qian, Changsong; Qiu, Jiansheng; Simpson, Barry; Walker, Jeremy; Bauck, Stewart
2016-01-01
Low-density (LD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays provide a cost-effective solution for genomic prediction and selection, but algorithms and computational tools are needed for the optimal design of LD SNP chips. A multiple-objective, local optimization (MOLO) algorithm was developed for design of optimal LD SNP chips that can be imputed accurately to medium-density (MD) or high-density (HD) SNP genotypes for genomic prediction. The objective function facilitates maximization of non-gap map length and system information for the SNP chip, and the latter is computed either as locus-averaged (LASE) or haplotype-averaged Shannon entropy (HASE) and adjusted for uniformity of the SNP distribution. HASE performed better than LASE with ≤1,000 SNPs, but required considerably more computing time. Nevertheless, the differences diminished when >5,000 SNPs were selected. Optimization was accomplished conditionally on the presence of SNPs that were obligated to each chromosome. The frame location of SNPs on a chip can be either uniform (evenly spaced) or non-uniform. For the latter design, a tunable empirical Beta distribution was used to guide location distribution of frame SNPs such that both ends of each chromosome were enriched with SNPs. The SNP distribution on each chromosome was finalized through the objective function that was locally and empirically maximized. This MOLO algorithm was capable of selecting a set of approximately evenly-spaced and highly-informative SNPs, which in turn led to increased imputation accuracy compared with selection solely of evenly-spaced SNPs. Imputation accuracy increased with LD chip size, and imputation error rate was extremely low for chips with ≥3,000 SNPs. Assuming that genotyping or imputation error occurs at random, imputation error rate can be viewed as the upper limit for genomic prediction error. Our results show that about 25% of imputation error rate was propagated to genomic prediction in an Angus population. The
A diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm based on Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics.
Hageman, Nathan S; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L; Shattuck, David W
2009-03-01
We introduce a fluid mechanics based tractography method for estimating the most likely connection paths between points in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volumes. We customize the Navier-Stokes equations to include information from the diffusion tensor and simulate an artificial fluid flow through the DTI image volume. We then estimate the most likely connection paths between points in the DTI volume using a metric derived from the fluid velocity vector field. We validate our algorithm using digital DTI phantoms based on a helical shape. Our method segmented the structure of the phantom with less distortion than was produced using implementations of heat-based partial differential equation (PDE) and streamline based methods. In addition, our method was able to successfully segment divergent and crossing fiber geometries, closely following the ideal path through a digital helical phantom in the presence of multiple crossing tracts. To assess the performance of our algorithm on anatomical data, we applied our method to DTI volumes from normal human subjects. Our method produced paths that were consistent with both known anatomy and directionally encoded color images of the DTI dataset.
Polak, Adam G
2011-02-01
Many patients undergo long-term artificial ventilation and their respiratory system mechanics should be monitored to detect changes in the patient's state and to optimize ventilator settings. In this work the most popular algorithms for tracking variations of respiratory resistance (R(rs)) and elastance (E(rs)) over a ventilatory cycle were analysed in terms of systematic and random errors. Additionally, a new approach was proposed and compared to the previous ones. It takes into account an exact description of flow integration by volume-dependent lung compliance. The results of analyses showed advantages of this new approach and enabled to form several suggestions. Algorithms including R(rs) and E(rs) dependencies on airflow and lung volume can be effectively applied only at low levels of noise present in measurement data, otherwise the use of the simplest model with constant parameters is preferable. Additionally, one should avoid including the resistance dependence on airflow alone, since this considerably destroys the retrieved trace of R(rs). Finally, the estimated cyclic trajectories of R(rs) and E(rs) are more sensitive to noise present in pressure than in the flow signal, and the elastance traces are estimated more accurately than the resistance ones.
A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography Algorithm Based on Navier-Stokes Fluid Mechanics
Hageman, Nathan S.; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.
2009-01-01
We introduce a fluid mechanics based tractography method for estimating the most likely connection paths between points in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volumes. We customize the Navier-Stokes equations to include information from the diffusion tensor and simulate an artificial fluid flow through the DTI image volume. We then estimate the most likely connection paths between points in the DTI volume using a metric derived from the fluid velocity vector field. We validate our algorithm using digital DTI phantoms based on a helical shape. Our method segmented the structure of the phantom with less distortion than was produced using implementations of heat-based partial differential equation (PDE) and streamline based methods. In addition, our method was able to successfully segment divergent and crossing fiber geometries, closely following the ideal path through a digital helical phantom in the presence of multiple crossing tracts. To assess the performance of our algorithm on anatomical data, we applied our method to DTI volumes from normal human subjects. Our method produced paths that were consistent with both known anatomy and directionally encoded color (DEC) images of the DTI dataset. PMID:19244007
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Songhua; Jiang, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wenping; Huang, Chuanzhen
2017-03-01
Design changes are unavoidable during mechanical product development; whereas the avalanche propagation of design change imposes severely negative impacts on the design cycle. To improve the validity of the change propagation prediction, a mathematical programming model is presented to predict the change propagation impact quantitatively. As the foundation of change propagation prediction, a design change analysis model(DCAM) is built in the form of design property network. In DCAM, the connections of the design properties are identified as the design specification, which conform to the small-world network theory. To quantify the change propagation impact, change propagation intensity(CPI) is defined as a quantitative and much more objective assessment metric. According to the characteristics of DCAM, CPI is defined and indicated by four assessment factors: propagation likelihood, node degree, long-chain linkage, and design margin. Furthermore, the optimal change propagation path is searched with the evolutionary ant colony optimization(ACO) algorithm, which corresponds to the minimized maximum of accumulated CPI. In practice, the change impact of a gear box is successfully analyzed. The proposed change propagation prediction method is verified to be efficient and effective, which could provide different results according to various the initial changes.
Mechanical design of a shape memory alloy actuated prosthetic hand.
De Laurentis, Kathryn J; Mavroidis, Constantinos
2002-01-01
This paper presents the mechanical design for a new five fingered, twenty degree-of-freedom dexterous hand patterned after human anatomy and actuated by Shape Memory Alloy artificial muscles. Two experimental prototypes of a finger, one fabricated by traditional means and another fabricated by rapid prototyping techniques, are described and used to evaluate the design. An important aspect of the Rapid Prototype technique used here is that this multi-articulated hand will be fabricated in one step, without requiring assembly, while maintaining its desired mobility. The use of Shape Memory Alloy actuators combined with the rapid fabrication of the non-assembly type hand, reduce considerably its weight and fabrication time. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the mechanical design of a dexterous hand that combines Rapid Prototype techniques and smart actuators. The type of robotic hand described in this paper can be utilized for applications requiring low weight, compactness, and dexterity such as prosthetic devices, space and planetary exploration.
Quantum mechanical NMR simulation algorithm for protein-size spin systems.
Edwards, Luke J; Savostyanov, D V; Welderufael, Z T; Lee, Donghan; Kuprov, Ilya
2014-06-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one of the few remaining areas of physical chemistry for which polynomially scaling quantum mechanical simulation methods have not so far been available. In this communication we adapt the restricted state space approximation to protein NMR spectroscopy and illustrate its performance by simulating common 2D and 3D liquid state NMR experiments (including accurate description of relaxation processes using Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory) on isotopically enriched human ubiquitin - a protein containing over a thousand nuclear spins forming an irregular polycyclic three-dimensional coupling lattice. The algorithm uses careful tailoring of the density operator space to only include nuclear spin states that are populated to a significant extent. The reduced state space is generated by analysing spin connectivity and decoherence properties: rapidly relaxing states as well as correlations between topologically remote spins are dropped from the basis set.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gowen, A. A.; O'Donnell, C. P.
2009-05-01
White mushrooms were subjected to mechanical injury by controlled shaking in a plastic box at 400 rpm for different times (0, 60, 120, 300 and 600 s). Immediately after shaking, hyperspectral images were obtained using two pushbroom line-scanning hyperspectral imaging instruments, one operating in the wavelength range of 400 - 1000 nm with spectroscopic resolution of 5 nm, the other operating in the wavelength range of 950 - 1700 nm with spectroscopic resolution of 7 nm. Different spectral and spatial pretreatments were investigated to reduce the effect of sample curvature on hyperspectral data. Algorithms based on Chemometric techniques (Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) and image processing methods (masking, thresholding, morphological operations) were developed for pixel classification in hyperspectral images. In addition, correlation analysis, spectral angle mapping and scaled difference of sample spectra were investigated and compared with the chemometric approaches.
Ling, Hang-Yin; Choi, Pong-Chi; Zheng, Yong-ping; Lau, Kin-Tak
2007-08-01
This paper demonstrates the use of ultrasound indentation technique for estimating the mechanical properties of foot plantar tissues in virtue of the reconstruction of the force response using genetic algorithm (GA) from an indentation test based on a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model. The indentation test on the plantar tissues covering the right first metatarsal head of a normal subject was carried out to verify the feasibility of the GA for the extraction of the tissue properties. The QLV properties of the plantar tissues were determined by the GA with a fixed Poisson's ratio. Such results were then compared with those obtained using a classical optimization method. Moreover, the GA was further employed to simultaneously determine the QLV properties as well as the Poisson's ratio of the plantar tissues. The correlations between the QLV properties and the Poisson's ratio are discussed.
Statistical-Mechanical Analysis of LMS Algorithm for Time-Varying Unknown System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishibushi, Norihiro; Kajikawa, Yoshinobu; Miyoshi, Seiji
2017-02-01
We analyze the behaviors of the least-mean-square algorithm for a time-varying unknown system using a statistical-mechanical method. Cross-correlations between the elements of a primary path and those of an adaptive filter and autocorrelations of the elements of the adaptive filter are treated as macroscopic variables. We obtain simultaneous differential equations that describe the dynamical behaviors of the macroscopic variables under conditions in which the tapped delay line is sufficiently long. We analytically show the existence of an optimal step size. This result is supporting evidence of Widrow et al.'s pioneering work that clarified the trade-off between the noise misadjustment and the lag misadjustment. Furthermore, we obtain the exact solution of the optimal step size in the case of a white reference signal. The derived theory includes the behaviors for a time-constant unknown system as a special case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degtyarev, Alexander; Khramushin, Vasily
2016-02-01
The paper deals with the computer implementation of direct computational experiments in fluid mechanics, constructed on the basis of the approach developed by the authors. The proposed approach allows the use of explicit numerical scheme, which is an important condition for increasing the effciency of the algorithms developed by numerical procedures with natural parallelism. The paper examines the main objects and operations that let you manage computational experiments and monitor the status of the computation process. Special attention is given to a) realization of tensor representations of numerical schemes for direct simulation; b) realization of representation of large particles of a continuous medium motion in two coordinate systems (global and mobile); c) computing operations in the projections of coordinate systems, direct and inverse transformation in these systems. Particular attention is paid to the use of hardware and software of modern computer systems.
Adaptive filter design based on the LMS algorithm for delay elimination in TCR/FC compensators.
Hooshmand, Rahmat Allah; Torabian Esfahani, Mahdi
2011-04-01
Thyristor controlled reactor with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensators have the capability of compensating reactive power and improving power quality phenomena. Delay in the response of such compensators degrades their performance. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive filters (AF) is proposed in order to eliminate delay and increase the response of the TCR compensator. The algorithm designed for the adaptive filters is performed based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. In this design, instead of fixed capacitors, band-pass LC filters are used. To evaluate the filter, a TCR/FC compensator was used for nonlinear and time varying loads of electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These loads caused occurrence of power quality phenomena in the supplying system, such as voltage fluctuation and flicker, odd and even harmonics and unbalancing in voltage and current. The above design was implemented in a realistic system model of a steel complex. The simulation results show that applying the proposed control in the TCR/FC compensator efficiently eliminated delay in the response and improved the performance of the compensator in the power system.
Simulation of Propellant Loading System Senior Design Implement in Computer Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak
2010-01-01
Propellant loading from the Storage Tank to the External Tank is one of the very important and time consuming pre-launch ground operations for the launch vehicle. The propellant loading system is a complex integrated system involving many physical components such as the storage tank filled with cryogenic fluid at a very low temperature, the long pipe line connecting the storage tank with the external tank, the external tank along with the flare stack, and vent systems for releasing the excess fuel. Some of the very important parameters useful for design purpose are the prediction of pre-chill time, loading time, amount of fuel lost, the maximum pressure rise etc. The physics involved for mathematical modeling is quite complex due to the fact the process is unsteady, there is phase change as some of the fuel changes from liquid to gas state, then conjugate heat transfer in the pipe walls as well as between solid-to-fluid region. The simulation is very tedious and time consuming too. So overall, this is a complex system and the objective of the work is student's involvement and work in the parametric study and optimization of numerical modeling towards the design of such system. The students have to first become familiar and understand the physical process, the related mathematics and the numerical algorithm. The work involves exploring (i) improved algorithm to make the transient simulation computationally effective (reduced CPU time) and (ii) Parametric study to evaluate design parameters by changing the operational conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Sanjaykumar J.; Kheraj, Vipul
2015-07-01
This paper describes a systematic investigation on the use of the genetic algorithm (GA) to accomplish ultra-low reflective multilayer coating designs for optoelectronic device applications. The algorithm is implemented using LabVIEW as a programming tool. The effects of the genetic operators, such as the type of crossover and mutation, as well as algorithm parameters, such as population size and range of search space, on the convergence of design-solution were studied. Finally, the optimal design is obtained in terms of the thickness of each layer for the multilayer AR coating using optimized genetic operators and algorithm parameters. The program is successfully tested to design AR coating in NIR wavelength range to achieve average reflectivity (R) below 10-3 over the spectral bandwidth of 200 nm with different combinations of coating materials in the stack. The random-point crossover operator is found to exhibit a better convergence rate of the solution than single-point and double-point crossover. Periodically re-initializing the thickness value of a randomly selected layer from the stack effectively prevents the solution from becoming trapped in local minima and improves the convergence probability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Sheng; Su, Xiuping; Wu, Ziran; Xu, Chengwen
The paper illustrates the procedure of reliability optimization modeling for contact springs of AC contactors under nonlinear multi-constraint conditions. The adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) is utilized to perform reliability optimization on the contact spring parameters of a type of AC contactor. A method that changes crossover and mutation rates at different times in the AGA can effectively avoid premature convergence, and experimental tests are performed after optimization. The experimental result shows that the mass of each optimized spring is reduced by 16.2%, while the reliability increases to 99.9% from 94.5%. The experimental result verifies the correctness and feasibility of this reliability optimization designing method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Sibin; Ai, Jianliang; Luo, Changhang; Wang, Peng
2006-11-01
Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) is a technique for control law design, which is based on the feedback linearization and achieving desired dynamic response characteristics. NDI requires an ideal and precise model, however, there must be some errors due to the modeling error or actuator faults, therefore the control law designed by NDI has less robustness. Combining with structured singular value μ synthesis method, the system's robustness can be improved notably. The designed controller, which uses the structured singular value μ synthesis method, has high dimensions, and the dimensions must be reduced when we calculate it. This paper presents a new method for the design of robust flight control, which uses structured singular value μ synthesis based on genetic algorithm. The designed controller, which uses this method, can reduce the dimensions obviously compared with the normal method of structured singular value synthesis, so it is easier for application. The presented method is applied to robustness controller design of some super maneuverable fighter. The simulation results show that the dynamic inversion control law achieves a high level of performance in post-stall maneuver condition, and the whole control system has perfect robustness and anti-disturbance ability.
The design of ROM-type holographic memory with iterative Fourier transform algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akamatsu, Hideki; Yamada, Kai; Unno, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Shuhei; Taniguchi, Jun; Yamamoto, Manabu
2013-03-01
The research and development of the holographic data storage (HDS) is advanced, as one of the high-speed, mass storage systems of the next generation. Recently, along the development of the write-once system that uses photopolymer media, large capacity ROM type HDS which can replace conventional optical discs becomes important. In this study, we develop the ROM type HDS using a diffractive optical element (DOE), and verify the effectiveness of our approach. In order to design DOE, iterative Fourier transform algorithm was adopted, and DOE is fabricated with electron beam (EB) cutting and nanoimprint lithography. We optimize the phase distribution of the hologram by iterative Fourier transform algorithm known as Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm with the angular spectrum method. In the fabrication process, the phase distribution of the hologram is implicated as the concavity and convexity structure by the EB cutting and transcribed with nanoimprint lithography. At this time, the mold is formed as multiple-stage concavity and convexity. The purpose of multiple-stage concavity and convexity is to obtain high diffraction efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Fabricated trial model DOE is evaluated by the experiment.
Object-Oriented/Data-Oriented Design of a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liechty, Derek S.
2014-01-01
Over the past decade, there has been much progress towards improved phenomenological modeling and algorithmic updates for the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which provides a probabilistic physical simulation of gas Rows. These improvements have largely been based on the work of the originator of the DSMC method, Graeme Bird. Of primary importance are improved chemistry, internal energy, and physics modeling and a reduction in time to solution. These allow for an expanded range of possible solutions In altitude and velocity space. NASA's current production code, the DSMC Analysis Code (DAC), is well-established and based on Bird's 1994 algorithms written in Fortran 77 and has proven difficult to upgrade. A new DSMC code is being developed in the C++ programming language using object-oriented and data-oriented design paradigms to facilitate the inclusion of the recent improvements and future development activities. The development efforts on the new code, the Multiphysics Algorithm with Particles (MAP), are described, and performance comparisons are made with DAC.
Design of Predistorter with Efficient Updating Algorithm of Power Amplifier with Memory Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oishi, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Shigekazu; Fukuda, Eisuke; Takano, Takeshi; Takago, Daisuke; Daido, Yoshimasa; Araki, Kiyomichi
This paper describes a method to design a predistorter (PD) for a GaN-FET power amplifier (PA) by using nonlinear parameters extracted from measured IMD which has asymmetrical peaks peculiar to a memory effect with a second-order lag. While, computationally efficient equations have been reported by C. Rey et al. for the memory effect with a first-order lag. Their equations are extended to be applicable to the memory effect with the second-order lag. The extension provides a recursive algorithm for cancellation signals of the PD each of which updating is made by using signals in only two sampling points. The algorithm is equivalent to a memory depth of two in computational efficiency. The required times for multiplications and additions are counted for the updating of all the cancellation signals and it is confirmed that the algorithm reduces computational intensity lower than half of a memory polynomial in recent papers. A computer simulation has clarified that the PD improves the adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACLR) of OFDM signals with several hundred subcarriers corresponding to 4G mobile radio communications. It has been confirmed that a fifth-order PD is effective up to a higher power level close to 1dB compression. The improvement of error vector magnitude (EVM) by the PD is also simulated for OFDM signals of which the subcarrier channels are modulated by 16 QAM.
Fiber-optic probe design and optical property recovery algorithm for optical biopsy of brain tissue.
Cappon, Derek J; Farrell, Thomas J; Fang, Qiyin; Hayward, Joseph E
2013-10-01
Optical biopsy techniques offer a minimally invasive, real-time alternative to traditional biopsy and pathology during tumor resection surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a commonly used technique in optical biopsy. Optical property recovery from spatially resolved DRS data allows quantification of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to evaluate a unique fiber-optic probe design for a DRS instrument to be used specifically for optical biopsy of the brain. The probe diameter was kept to a minimum to allow usage in small surgical cavities at least 1 cm in diameter. Simulations showed that the close proximity of fibers to the edge of the probe resulted in boundary effects due to reflection of photons from the surrounding air-tissue interface. A new algorithm for rapid optical property recovery was developed that accounts for this reflection and therefore overcomes these effects. The parameters of the algorithm were adjusted for use over the wide range of optical properties encountered in brain tissue, and its precision was evaluated by subjecting it to random noise. This algorithm can be adapted to work with any probe geometry to allow optical property recovery in small surgical cavities.
GMI Spin Mechanism Assembly Design, Development, and Test Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woolaway, Scott; Kubitschek, Michael; Berdanier, Barry; Newell, David; Dayton, Chris; Pellicciotti, Joseph W.
2012-01-01
The GMI Spin Mechanism Assembly (SMA) is a precision bearing and power transfer drive assembly mechanism that supports and spins the Global Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument at a constant rate of 32 rpm continuously for the 3 year plus mission life. The GMI instrument will fly on the core Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft and will be used to make calibrated radiometric measurements at multiple microwave frequencies and polarizations. The GPM mission is an international effort managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to improve climate, weather, and hydro-meteorological predictions through more accurate and frequent precipitation measurements [1]. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) was selected by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to design, build, and test the GMI instrument. The SMA design has to meet a challenging set of requirements and is based on BATC space mechanisms heritage and lessons learned design changes made to the WindSat BAPTA mechanism that is currently operating on orbit and has recently surpassed 8 years of Flight operation.
Some mechanical design aspects of the European Robotic Arm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambooy, Peter J.; Mandersloot, Wart M.; Bentall, Richard H.
1995-01-01
The European Robotic Arm (ERA) is a contribution to the Russian Segment of the International Space Station Alpha. It will start operating on the Russian Segment during the assembly phase. ERA is designed and produced by a large industrial consortium spread over Europe with Fokker Space & Systems as prime contractor. In this paper, we will describe some of the overall design aspects and focus on the development of several mechanisms within ERA. The operation of ERA during the approach of its end effector towards the grapple interface and the grapple operation is discussed, with a focus on mechanisms. This includes the geometry of the end effector leading edge, which is carefully designed to provide the correct and complete tactile information to a torque-force sensor (TFS). The data from this TFS are used to steer the arm such that forces and moments are kept below 20 N and 20 N.m respectively during the grappling operation. Two hardware models of the end effector are built. The problems encountered are described as well as their solutions. The joints in the wrists and the elbow initially used a harmonic drive lubricated by MoS2. During development testing, this combination showed an insufficient lifetime in air to survive the acceptance test program. The switch-over to a system comprising planetary gearboxes with grease lubrication is described. From these development efforts, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are given for the design of complex space mechanisms.
Designing an extracellular matrix protein with enhanced mechanical stability
Ng, Sean P.; Billings, Kate S.; Ohashi, Tomoo; Allen, Mark D.; Best, Robert B.; Randles, Lucy G.; Erickson, Harold P.; Clarke, Jane
2007-01-01
The extracellular matrix proteins tenascin and fibronectin experience significant mechanical forces in vivo. Both contain a number of tandem repeating homologous fibronectin type III (fnIII) domains, and atomic force microscopy experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical strength of these domains can vary significantly. Previous work has shown that mutations in the core of an fnIII domain from human tenascin (TNfn3) reduce the unfolding force of that domain significantly: The composition of the core is apparently crucial to the mechanical stability of these proteins. Based on these results, we have used rational redesign to increase the mechanical stability of the 10th fnIII domain of human fibronectin, FNfn10, which is directly involved in integrin binding. The hydrophobic core of FNfn10 was replaced with that of the homologous, mechanically stronger TNfn3 domain. Despite the extensive substitution, FNoTNc retains both the three-dimensional structure and the cell adhesion activity of FNfn10. Atomic force microscopy experiments reveal that the unfolding forces of the engineered protein FNoTNc increase by ≈20% to match those of TNfn3. Thus, we have specifically designed a protein with increased mechanical stability. Our results demonstrate that core engineering can be used to change the mechanical strength of proteins while retaining functional surface interactions. PMID:17535921
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L.; Wang, T. G.; Wu, J. H.; Cheng, G. P.
2016-09-01
A novel multi-objective optimization algorithm incorporating evolution strategies and vector mechanisms, referred as VD-MOEA, is proposed and applied in aerodynamic- structural integrated design of wind turbine blade. In the algorithm, a set of uniformly distributed vectors is constructed to guide population in moving forward to the Pareto front rapidly and maintain population diversity with high efficiency. For example, two- and three- objective designs of 1.5MW wind turbine blade are subsequently carried out for the optimization objectives of maximum annual energy production, minimum blade mass, and minimum extreme root thrust. The results show that the Pareto optimal solutions can be obtained in one single simulation run and uniformly distributed in the objective space, maximally maintaining the population diversity. In comparison to conventional evolution algorithms, VD-MOEA displays dramatic improvement of algorithm performance in both convergence and diversity preservation for handling complex problems of multi-variables, multi-objectives and multi-constraints. This provides a reliable high-performance optimization approach for the aerodynamic-structural integrated design of wind turbine blade.
Internal Control Rod Drive Mechanisms, Design Options for IRIS
Conway, Lawrence E.; Petrovic, Bojan
2004-07-01
IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a medium-power (335 MWe) PWR with an integral, primary circuit configuration, where all the reactor coolant system components are contained within the reactor vessel. This integral configuration is a key reason for the success of IRIS' 'safety-by-design' approach, whereby accident initiators are eliminated or the accident consequences and/or frequency are reduced. The most obvious example of the IRIS safety by design approach is the elimination of large LOCA's, since the integral reactor coolant system has no large loop piping. Another serious accident scenario that is being addressed in IRIS is the postulated ejection of a reactor control cluster assembly (RCCA). This accident initiator can be eliminated by locating the RCCA drive mechanisms (CRDMs) inside the reactor vessel. This eliminates the mechanical drive rod penetration between the RCCA and the external CRDM, eliminating the potential for differential pressure across the pressure boundary, and thus eliminating 'by design' the possibility for rod ejection accident. Moreover, the elimination of the 'large' drive-rod penetrations and the external CRDM pressure housings decreases the likelihood of boric acid leakage and subsequent corrosion of the reactor pressure boundary (like the Davis-Besse incident). This paper will discuss the IRIS top level design requirements and objectives for internal CRDMs, and provide examples candidate designs and their specific performance characteristics. (authors)
An efficient self-organizing map designed by genetic algorithms for the traveling salesman problem.
Jin, Hui-Dong; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Wong, Man-Leung; Xu, Z B
2003-01-01
As a typical combinatorial optimization problem, the traveling salesman problem (TSP) has attracted extensive research interest. In this paper, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM) with a novel learning rule. It is called the integrated SOM (ISOM) since its learning rule integrates the three learning mechanisms in the SOM literature. Within a single learning step, the excited neuron is first dragged toward the input city, then pushed to the convex hull of the TSP, and finally drawn toward the middle point of its two neighboring neurons. A genetic algorithm is successfully specified to determine the elaborate coordination among the three learning mechanisms as well as the suitable parameter setting. The evolved ISOM (eISOM) is examined on three sets of TSP to demonstrate its power and efficiency. The computation complexity of the eISOM is quadratic, which is comparable to other SOM-like neural networks. Moreover, the eISOM can generate more accurate solutions than several typical approaches for TSP including the SOM developed by Budinich, the expanding SOM, the convex elastic net, and the FLEXMAP algorithm. Though its solution accuracy is not yet comparable to some sophisticated heuristics, the eISOM is one of the most accurate neural networks for the TSP.
The Mechanical Design Optimization of a High Field HTS Solenoid
Lalitha, SL; Gupta, RC
2015-06-01
This paper describes the conceptual design optimization of a large aperture, high field (24 T at 4 K) solenoid for a 1.7 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage device. The magnet is designed to be built entirely of second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor tape with excellent electrical and mechanical properties at the cryogenic temperatures. The critical parameters that govern the magnet performance are examined in detail through a multiphysics approach using ANSYS software. The analysis results formed the basis for the performance specification as well as the construction of the magnet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johar, F. M.; Azmin, F. A.; Shibghatullah, A. S.; Suaidi, M. K.; Ahmad, B. H.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Salleh, S. N.; Shukor, M. Md
2014-04-01
Attenuation of GSM, GPS and personal communication signal leads to poor communication inside the building using regular shapes of energy saving glass coating. Thus, the transmission is very low. A brand new type of band pass frequency selective surface (FSS) for energy saving glass application is presented in this paper for one unit cell. Numerical Periodic Method of Moment approach according to a previous study has been applied to determine the new optimum design of one unit cell energy saving glass coating structure. Optimization technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain an improved in return loss and transmission signal. The unit cell of FSS is designed and simulated using the CST Microwave Studio software at based on industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM). A unique and irregular shape of an energy saving glass coating structure is obtained with lower return loss and improved transmission coefficient.
Design principles of regulatory networks: searching for the molecular algorithms of the cell.
Lim, Wendell A; Lee, Connie M; Tang, Chao
2013-01-24
A challenge in biology is to understand how complex molecular networks in the cell execute sophisticated regulatory functions. Here we explore the idea that there are common and general principles that link network structures to biological functions, principles that constrain the design solutions that evolution can converge upon for accomplishing a given cellular task. We describe approaches for classifying networks based on abstract architectures and functions, rather than on the specific molecular components of the networks. For any common regulatory task, can we define the space of all possible molecular solutions? Such inverse approaches might ultimately allow the assembly of a design table of core molecular algorithms that could serve as a guide for building synthetic networks and modulating disease networks.
Application of genetic algorithms to the optimization design of electron optical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Changxin; Wu, M. Q.; Shan, Liying; Lin, G.
2001-12-01
The application of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to the optimization design method, such as Simplex method and Powell method etc, can determine the final optimum structure and electric parameters of an electron optical system from given electron optical properties, but it may be landed in the localization of optimum search process. The GAs is a novel direct search optimization method based on principles of natural selection and survival of the fittest from natural evolution. Through the reproduction, crossover, and mutation iterative process, GAs can search the global optimum result. We applied the GAs to optimize an electron emission system and an extended field lens (EFL) respectively. The optimal structure and corresponding electrical parameters with a criterion of minimum objective function value, crossover radius for electron emission system and spherical aberration coefficient for EFL, have been searched and presented in this paper. The GAs, as a direct search method and an adaptive search technique, has significant advantage in the optimization design of electron optical systems.
Design Principles of Regulatory Networks: Searching for the Molecular Algorithms of the Cell
Lim, Wendell A.; Lee, Connie M.; Tang, Chao
2013-01-01
A challenge in biology is to understand how complex molecular networks in the cell execute sophisticated regulatory functions. Here we explore the idea that there are common and general principles that link network structures to biological functions, principles that constrain the design solutions that evolution can converge upon for accomplishing a given cellular task. We describe approaches for classifying networks based on abstract architectures and functions, rather than on the specific molecular components of the networks. For any common regulatory task, can we define the space of all possible molecular solutions? Such inverse approaches might ultimately allow the assembly of a design table of core molecular algorithms that could serve as a guide for building synthetic networks and modulating disease networks. PMID:23352241
An infrared achromatic quarter-wave plate designed based on simulated annealing algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Yajun; Zhang, Yinxin; Huang, Zhanhua; Yang, Huaidong
2017-03-01
Quarter-wave plates are primarily used to change the polarization state of light. Their retardation usually varies depending on the wavelength of the incident light. In this paper, the design and characteristics of an achromatic quarter-wave plate, which is formed by a cascaded system of birefringent plates, are studied. For the analysis of the combination, we use Jones matrix method to derivate the general expressions of the equivalent retardation and the equivalent azimuth. The infrared achromatic quarter-wave plate is designed based on the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. The maximum retardation variation and the maximum azimuth variation of this achromatic waveplate are only about 1.8 ° and 0.5 ° , respectively, over the entire wavelength range of 1250-1650 nm. This waveplate can change the linear polarized light into circular polarized light with a less than 3.2% degree of linear polarization (DOLP) over that wide wavelength range.
Thermal Control System Design for 50kg-Class Micro-Satellite by Using Genetic Algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuda, Kenta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Chiba, Masakatsu; Okubo, Hiroshi; Azuma, Hisao; Sugiyama, Yoshihiko; Akita, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yousuke; Imamura, Hiroaki
A method is presented for designing the thermal control system for 50kg-class micro-satellite using a genetic algorithm. Replacing the thermal control system into a heat transfer model, i.e. a thermal network model, the problem is treated as an optimization problem to find suitable combinations of adapted thermal control elements under admissible function keeping the controlled temperature within a selected band width. Admissible function used herein consists of two parameters; the one is a slope of temperature variation and the second is an amplitude of temperature variation during on orbital motion of satellite. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, the method is applied to two examples for the thermal control system design of a 50kg-class micro-satellite, tentatively called “SOHLA-1”, under development.
Development of a New De Novo Design Algorithm for Exploring Chemical Space.
Mishima, Kazuaki; Kaneko, Hiromasa; Funatsu, Kimito
2014-12-01
In the first stage of development of new drugs, various lead compounds with high activity are required. To design such compounds, we focus on chemical space defined by structural descriptors. New compounds close to areas where highly active compounds exist will show the same degree of activity. We have developed a new de novo design system to search a target area in chemical space. First, highly active compounds are manually selected as initial seeds. Then, the seeds are entered into our system, and structures slightly different from the seeds are generated and pooled. Next, seeds are selected from the new structure pool based on the distance from target coordinates on the map. To test the algorithm, we used two datasets of ligand binding affinity and showed that the proposed generator could produce diverse virtual compounds that had high activity in docking simulations.
Mechanics of swimming of multi-body bacterial swarmers using non-labeled cell tracking algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phuyal, Kiran; Kim, Min Jun
2013-01-01
To better understand the survival strategy of bacterial swarmers and the mechanical advantages offered by the linear chain (head-tail) attachment of the multiple bacterial bodies in an individual swarmer cell at low Reynolds number, a non-labeled cell tracking algorithm was used to quantify the mechanics of multi-body flagellated bacteria, Serratia marcescens, swimming in a motility buffer that originally exhibited the swarming motility. Swarming is a type of bacterial motility that is characterized by the collective coordinated motion of differentiated swarmer cells on a two-dimensional surface such as agar. In this study, the bacterial swarmers with multiple cell bodies (2, 3, and 4) were extracted from the swarm plate, and then tracked individually after resuspending in the motility medium. Their motion was investigated and compared with individual undifferentiated swimming bacterial cells. The swarmers when released into the motility buffer swam actively without tumbles. Their speeds, orientations, and the diffusive properties were studied by tracking the individual cell trajectories over a short distance in two-dimensional field when the cells are swimming at a constant depth in a bulk aqueous environment. At short time scales, the ballistic trajectory was dominant for both multi-body swarmers and undifferentiated cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Lossberg, Bryan R.
1994-08-01
A mechanical design has been developed for the Telescope Optical Assembly (TOA) of the Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD). The TOA is the portion of the OCD instrument that integrates all the optical elements of the system with the exception of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (LXA) which is fiber coupled to the TOA. The TOA structure is composed primarily of aluminum components with some use of steel and invar. The assembly is contained within a 16 cm MUL 20 cm X 33 cm envelope and has an estimated mass of 5.5 kg. The mechanical design was developed using Computervision's CADDS 5 computer aided design software. Code V optical design data was used as a primary input and was efficiently and accurately transferred form the optical designer to the mechanical designer through the use of IGES files. In addition to enabling rapid transfer of the initial optical design as well as subsequent optical design refinements, the IGES transfer process was also used to expedite preliminary thermal and dynamic analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarjaš, Andrej; Chowdhury, Amor; Svečko, Rajko
2016-09-01
This paper presents the synthesis of an optimal robust controller design using the polynomial pole placement technique and multi-criteria optimisation procedure via an evolutionary computation algorithm - differential evolution. The main idea of the design is to provide a reliable fixed-order robust controller structure and an efficient closed-loop performance with a preselected nominally characteristic polynomial. The multi-criteria objective functions have quasi-convex properties that significantly improve convergence and the regularity of the optimal/sub-optimal solution. The fundamental aim of the proposed design is to optimise those quasi-convex functions with fixed closed-loop characteristic polynomials, the properties of which are unrelated and hard to present within formal algebraic frameworks. The objective functions are derived from different closed-loop criteria, such as robustness with metric ?∞, time performance indexes, controller structures, stability properties, etc. Finally, the design results from the example verify the efficiency of the controller design and also indicate broader possibilities for different optimisation criteria and control structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landoni, M.; Riva, M.; Pepe, F.; Aliverti, M.; Cabral, A.; Calderone, G.; Cirami, R.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Genoni, M.; Mégevand, D.; Moschetti, M.; Oggioni, L.; Pariani, G.
2016-08-01
In this paper we will review the ESPRESSO guiding algorithm for the Front End subsystem. ESPRESSO, the Echelle Spectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations, will be installed on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The Front End Unit (FEU) is the ESPRESSO subsystem which collects the light coming from the Coudè Trains of all the Four Telescope Units (UTs), provides Field and Pupil stabilization better than 0.05'' via piezoelectric tip tilt devices and inject the beams into the Spectrograph fibers. The field and pupil stabilization is obtained through a re-imaging system that collects the halo of the light out of the Injection Fiber and the image of the telescope pupil. In particular, we will focus on the software design of the system starting from class diagram to actual implementation. A review of the theoretical mathematical background required to understand the final design is also reported. We will show the performance of the algorithm on the actual Front End by adoption of telescope simulator exploring various scientific requirements.
The use of machine learning algorithms to design a generalized simplified denitrification model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oehler, F.; Rutherford, J. C.; Coco, G.
2010-04-01
We designed generalized simplified models using machine learning algorithms (ML) to assess denitrification at the catchment scale. In particular, we designed an artificial neural network (ANN) to simulate total nitrogen emissions from the denitrification process. Boosted regression trees (BRT, another ML) was also used to analyse the relationships and the relative influences of different input variables towards total denitrification. To calibrate the ANN and BRT models, we used a large database obtained by collating datasets from the literature. We developed a simple methodology to give confidence intervals for the calibration and validation process. Both ML algorithms clearly outperformed a commonly used simplified model of nitrogen emissions, NEMIS. NEMIS is based on denitrification potential, temperature, soil water content and nitrate concentration. The ML models used soil organic matter % in place of a denitrification potential and pH as a fifth input variable. The BRT analysis reaffirms the importance of temperature, soil water content and nitrate concentration. Generality of the ANN model may also be improved if pH is used to differentiate between soil types. Further improvements in model performance can be achieved by lessening dataset effects.
The use of machine learning algorithms to design a generalized simplified denitrification model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oehler, F.; Rutherford, J. C.; Coco, G.
2010-10-01
We propose to use machine learning (ML) algorithms to design a simplified denitrification model. Boosted regression trees (BRT) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to analyse the relationships and the relative influences of different input variables towards total denitrification, and an ANN was designed as a simplified model to simulate total nitrogen emissions from the denitrification process. To calibrate the BRT and ANN models and test this method, we used a database obtained collating datasets from the literature. We used bootstrapping to compute confidence intervals for the calibration and validation process. Both ML algorithms clearly outperformed a commonly used simplified model of nitrogen emissions, NEMIS, which is based on denitrification potential, temperature, soil water content and nitrate concentration. The ML models used soil organic matter % in place of a denitrification potential and pH as a fifth input variable. The BRT analysis reaffirms the importance of temperature, soil water content and nitrate concentration. Generalization, although limited to the data space of the database used to build the ML models, could be improved if pH is used to differentiate between soil types. Further improvements in model performance and generalization could be achieved by adding more data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spinhirne, James D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.
2007-01-01
The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in early 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument design includes high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of atmospheric clouds and aerosol. The backscatter lidar operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. For the atmospheric cloud and aerosol measurements, the 532 nm channel was designed for ultra high efficiency with solid state photon counting detectors and etalon filtering. Data processing algorithms were developed to calibrate and normalize the signals and produce global scale data products of the height distribution of cloud and aerosol layers and their optical depths and particulate scattering cross sections up to the limit of optical attenuation. The paper will concentrate on the effectiveness and limitations of the lidar channel design and data product algorithms. Both atmospheric receiver channels meet and exceed their design goals. Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode modules are used for the 532 nm signal. The operational experience is that some signal artifacts and non-linearity require correction in data processing. As with all photon counting detectors, a pulse-pile-up calibration is an important aspect of the measurement. Additional signal corrections were found to be necessary relating to correction of a saturation signal-run-on effect and also for daytime data, a small range dependent variation in the responsivity. It was possible to correct for these signal errors in data processing and achieve the requirement to accurately profile aerosol and cloud cross section down to 10-7 llm-sr. The analysis procedure employs a precise calibration against molecular scattering in the mid-stratosphere. The 1064 nm channel detection employs a high-speed analog APD for surface and atmospheric measurements where the detection sensitivity is limited by detector noise and is over an order of magnitude less than at 532 nm. A unique feature of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jun; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi
2001-10-01
A numerical procedure for hydrodynamic redesign of the conventional vaned diffuser into the low solidity vaned diffuser by means of a real-coded genetic algorithm with Boltzmann, Tournament and Roulette Wheel selection is presented. In the first part, an investigation on the relative efficiency of the different real-coded genetic algorithm is carried out on a typical mathematical test function. The real-coded genetic algorithm with Boltzmann selection shows the best optimization performance compared to the Tournament and Roulette Wheel selection. In the second part, an approach to redesign the vaned diffuser profile is introduced. Goal of the optimum design is to search the highest static pressure recovery coefficient and low solidity vaned diffuser. The result of the low solidity vaned diffuser optimum design confirms that the efficiency and optimization performance of the real-coded Boltzmann selection genetic algorithm outperforms the other selection methods. A comparison between the designed low solidity vaned diffuser and original vaned diffuser shows that the diffuser pump with the redesigned low solidity vaned diffuser has the higher static pressure recovery and improved total hydrodynamic performance. In addition, the smaller outlet diameter of designed vaned diffuser tends to a more compact size of diffuser pump compared to the original diffuser pump. The obtained results also demonstrate the real-coded Boltzmann selection genetic algorithm is a promising optimization algorithm for centrifugal pumps design.
Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror
Daly, Edward F.; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC
2011-09-14
This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.
Design principles of a rotating medium speed mechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hostenkamp, R. G.; Achtermann, E.; Bentall, R. H.
1976-01-01
Design principles of a medium speed mechanism (MSM) are presented, including discussion on the relative merits of beryllium and aluminium as structural materials. Rotating at a speed of 60 rpm, the application envisaged for the MSM was as a despin bearing for the despun platform or despun antenna of a spin stabilized satellite. The MSM was built and tested to qualification level and is currently undergoing real time life testing.
Mechanical design of the CDF SVX II silicon vertex detector
Skarha, J.E.
1994-08-01
A next generation silicon vertex detector is planned at CDF for the 1998 Tevatron collider run with the Main Injector. The SVX II silicon vertex detector will allow high luminosity data-taking, enable online triggering of secondary vertex production, and greatly increase the acceptance for heavy flavor physics at CDF. The design specifications, geometric layout, and early mechanical prototyping work for this detector are discussed.
A possibilistic approach to rotorcraft design through a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Han Gil
Most of the engineering design processes in use today in the field may be considered as a series of successive decision making steps. The decision maker uses information at hand, determines the direction of the procedure, and generates information for the next step and/or other decision makers. However, the information is often incomplete, especially in the early stages of the design process of a complex system. As the complexity of the system increases, uncertainties eventually become unmanageable using traditional tools. In such a case, the tools and analysis values need to be "softened" to account for the designer's intuition. One of the methods that deals with issues of intuition and incompleteness is possibility theory. Through the use of possibility theory coupled with fuzzy inference, the uncertainties estimated by the intuition of the designer are quantified for design problems. By involving quantified uncertainties in the tools, the solutions can represent a possible set, instead of a crisp spot, for predefined levels of certainty. From a different point of view, it is a well known fact that engineering design is a multi-objective problem or a set of such problems. The decision maker aims to find satisfactory solutions, sometimes compromising the objectives that conflict with each other. Once the candidates of possible solutions are generated, a satisfactory solution can be found by various decision-making techniques. A number of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) have been developed, and can be found in the literature, which are capable of generating alternative solutions and evaluating multiple sets of solutions in one single execution of an algorithm. One of the MOEA techniques that has been proven to be very successful for this class of problems is the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) which falls under the dominance-based category of methods. The Pareto dominance that is used in SPEA, however, is not enough to account for the
POMM: design of rotating mechanism and hexapod structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Côté, Patrice; Leclerc, Mélanie; Demers, Mathieu; Bastien, Pierre; Hernandez, Olivier
2014-08-01
The new high precision polarimeter for the "Observatoire du Mont Mégantic" (POMM) is an instrument designed to observe exoplanets and other targets in the visible and near infrared wavebands. The requirements to achieve these observation goals are posing unusual challenges to structural and mechanical designers. In this paper, the detailed design, analysis and laboratory results of the key mechanical structure and sub-systems are presented. First, to study extremely low polarization, the birefringence effect due to stresses in the optical elements must be kept to the lowest possible values. The double-wedge Wollaston custom prism assembly that splits the incoming optical beam is made of bonded α-BBO to N-BK-7 glass lenses. Because of the large mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion and temperatures as low as -40°C that can be encountered at Mont-Mégantic observatory, a finite element analysis (FEA) model is developed to find the best adhesive system to minimize stresses. Another critical aspect discussed in details is the implementation of the cascaded rotating elements and the twin rotating stages. Special attention is given to the drive mechanism and encoding technology. The objective was to reach high absolute positional accuracy in rotation without any mechanical backlash. As for many other instruments, mass, size and dimensional stability are important critera for the supporting structure. For a cantilevered device, such as POMM, a static hexapod is an attractive solution because of the high stiffness to weight ratio. However, the mechanical analysis revealed that the specific geometry of the dual channel optical layout also added an off-axis counterbalancing problem. To reach an X-Y displacement error on the detector smaller than 35μm for 0-45° zenith angle, further structural optimization was done using FEA. An imaging camera was placed at the detector plane during assembly to measure the actual optical beam shift under varying gravitational
Design and performance of a cryogenic iris aperture mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jonge, C.; Laauwen, W. M.; de Vries, E. A.; Smit, H. P.; Detrain, A.; Eggens, M. J.; Ferrari, L.; Dieleman, P.
2014-07-01
A cryogenic iris mechanism is under development as part of the ground calibration source for the SAFARI instrument. The iris mechanism is a variable aperture used as an optical shutter to fine-tune and modulate the absolute power output of the calibration source. It has 4 stainless steel blades that create a near-circular aperture in every position. The operating temperature is 4.5 Kelvin to provide a negligible background to the SAFARI detectors, and `hot spots' above 9K should be prevented. Cryogenic testing proved that the iris works at 4K. It can be used in a broad range of cryogenic optical instruments where optical throughput needs to be controlled. Challenges in the design include the low cooling power available (5mW) and low friction at cryogenic temperatures. The actuator is an `arc-type' rotary voice-coil motor. The use of flexural pivots creates a mono-stable mechanism with a resonance frequency at 26Hz. Accurate and fast position control with disturbance rejection is managed by a PID servo loop using a hall-sensor as input. At 4 Kelvin, the frequency is limited to 4Hz to avoid excess dissipation and heating. In this paper, the design and performance of the iris are discussed. The design was optimized using a thermal, magnetic and mechanical model made with COMSOL Finite Element Analysis software. The dynamical and state-space modeling of the mechanism and the concept of the electrical control are presented. The performance of the iris show good agreement to the analytical and COMSOL modeling.
Design and Development of NEA Scout Solar Sail Deployer Mechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobey, Alexander R.; Lockett, Tiffany Russell
2016-01-01
The 6U (approx.10 cm x 20 cm x 30 cm) cubesat Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout1, projected for launch in September 2018 aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System, will utilize a solar sail as its main method of propulsion throughout its approx.3-year mission to a Near Earth Asteroid. Due to the extreme volume constraints levied onto the mission, an acutely compact solar sail deployment mechanism has been designed to meet the volume and mass constraints, as well as provide enough propulsive solar sail area and quality in order to achieve mission success. The design of such a compact system required the development of approximately half a dozen prototypes in order to identify unforeseen problems, advance solutions, and build confidence in the final design product. This paper focuses on the obstacles of developing a solar sail deployment mechanism for such an application and the lessons learned from a thorough development process. The lessons presented will have significant applications beyond the NEA Scout mission, such as the development of other deployable boom mechanisms and uses for gossamer-thin films in space.
Design and Development of NEA Scout Solar Sail Deployer Mechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobey, Alexander R.; Lockett, Tiffany Russell
2016-01-01
The 6U (approximately 10cm x 20cm x 30cm) cubesat Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout1, projected for launch in September 2018 aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System (SLS), will utilize a solar sail as its main method of propulsion throughout its approximately 3 year mission to a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). Due to the extreme volume constraints levied onto the mission, an acutely compact solar sail deployment mechanism has been designed to meet the volume and mass constraints, as well as provide enough propulsive solar sail area and quality in order to achieve mission success. The design of such a compact system required the development of approximately half a dozen prototypes in order to identify unforeseen problems, advance solutions, and build confidence in the final design product. This paper focuses on the obstacles of developing a solar sail deployment mechanism for such an application and the lessons learned from a thorough development process. The lessons presented will have significant applications beyond the NEA Scout mission, such as the development of other deployable boom mechanisms and uses for gossamer-thin films in space.
Designing Self-Healing Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Exceptional Mechanical Durability.
Golovin, Kevin; Boban, Mathew; Mabry, Joseph M; Tuteja, Anish
2017-03-29
The past decade saw a drastic increase in the understanding and applications of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs). Water beads up and effortlessly rolls off a SHS due to its combination of low surface energy and texture. Whether being used for drag reduction, stain repellency, self-cleaning, fog harvesting, or heat transfer applications (to name a few), the durability of a SHS is critically important. Although a handful of purportedly durable SHSs have been reported, there are still no criteria available for systematically designing a durable SHS. In the first part of this work, we discuss two new design parameters that can be used to develop mechanically durable SHSs via the spray coating of different binders and fillers. These parameters aid in the rational selection of material components and allow one to predict the capillary resistance to wetting of any SHS from a simple topographical analysis. We show that not all combinations of sprayable components generate SHSs, and mechanically durable components do not necessarily generate mechanically durable SHSs. Moreover, even the most durable SHSs can eventually become damaged. In the second part, utilizing our new parameters, we design and fabricate physically and chemically self-healing SHSs. The most promising surface is fabricated from a fluorinated polyurethane elastomer (FPU) and the extremely hydrophobic small molecule 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS). A sprayed FPU/F-POSS surface can recover its superhydrophobicity even after being abraded, scratched, burned, plasma-cleaned, flattened, sonicated, and chemically attacked.
Convergent evolution in mechanical design of lamnid sharks and tunas.
Donley, Jeanine M; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Konstantinidis, Peter; Gemballa, Sven; Shadwick, Robert E
2004-05-06
The evolution of 'thunniform' body shapes in several different groups of vertebrates, including whales, ichthyosaurs and several species of large pelagic fishes supports the view that physical and hydromechanical demands provided important selection pressures to optimize body design for locomotion during vertebrate evolution. Recognition of morphological similarities between lamnid sharks (the most well known being the great white and the mako) and tunas has led to a general expectation that they also have converged in their functional design; however, no quantitative data exist on the mechanical performance of the locomotor system in lamnid sharks. Here we examine the swimming kinematics, in vivo muscle dynamics and functional morphology of the force-transmission system in a lamnid shark, and show that the evolutionary convergence in body shape and mechanical design between the distantly related lamnids and tunas is much more than skin deep; it extends to the depths of the myotendinous architecture and the mechanical basis for propulsive movements. We demonstrate that not only have lamnids and tunas converged to a much greater extent than previously known, but they have also developed morphological and functional adaptations in their locomotor systems that are unlike virtually all other fishes.
Mechanical design of an intracranial stent for treating cerebral aneurysms.
Shobayashi, Yasuhiro; Tanoue, Tetsuya; Tateshima, Satoshi; Tanishita, Kazuo
2010-11-01
Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms using stents has advanced markedly in recent years. Mechanically, a cerebrovascular stent must be very flexible longitudinally and have low radial stiffness. However, no study has examined the stress distribution and deformation of cerebrovascular stents using the finite element method (FEM) and experiments. Stents can have open- and closed-cell structures, and open-cell stents are used clinically in the cerebrovasculature because of their high flexibility. However, the open-cell structure confers a risk of in-stent stenosis due to protrusion of stent struts into the normal parent artery. Therefore, a flexible stent with a closed-cell structure is required. To design a clinically useful, highly flexible, closed-cell stent, one must examine the mechanical properties of the closed-cell structure. In this study, we investigated the relationship between mesh patterns and the mechanical properties of closed-cell stents. Several mesh patterns were designed and their characteristics were studied using numerical simulation. The results showed that the bending stiffness of a closed-cell stent depends on the geometric configuration of the stent cell. It decreases when the stent cell is stretched in the circumferential direction. Mechanical flexibility equal to an open-cell structure was obtained in a closed-cell structure by varying the geometric configuration of the stent cell.
Design and Development of NEA Scout Solar Sail Deployer Mechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobey, Alexander R.; Lockett, Tiffany Russell
2016-01-01
The 6U (approximately10cm x 20cm x 30cm) cubesat Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout, projected for launch in September 2018 aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System (SLS), will utilize a solar sail as its main method of propulsion throughout its approximately 3 year mission to a near earth asteroid. Due to the extreme volume constraints levied onto the mission, an acutely compact solar sail deployment mechanism has been designed to meet the volume and mass constraints, as well as provide enough propulsive solar sail area and quality in order to achieve mission success. The design of such a compact system required the development of approximately half a dozen prototypes in order to identify unforeseen problems and advance solutions. Though finite element analysis was performed during this process in an attempt to quantify forces present within the mechanism during deployment, both the boom and the sail materials do not lend themselves to achieving high-confidence results. This paper focuses on the obstacles of developing a solar sail deployment mechanism for such an application and the lessons learned from a thorough development process. The lessons presented here will have significant applications beyond the NEA Scout mission, such as the development of other deployable boom mechanisms and uses for gossamer-thin films in space.
Optimization design of wind turbine drive train based on Matlab genetic algorithm toolbox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, R. N.; Liu, X.; Liu, S. J.
2013-12-01
In order to ensure the high efficiency of the whole flexible drive train of the front-end speed adjusting wind turbine, the working principle of the main part of the drive train is analyzed. As critical parameters, rotating speed ratios of three planetary gear trains are selected as the research subject. The mathematical model of the torque converter speed ratio is established based on these three critical variable quantity, and the effect of key parameters on the efficiency of hydraulic mechanical transmission is analyzed. Based on the torque balance and the energy balance, refer to hydraulic mechanical transmission characteristics, the transmission efficiency expression of the whole drive train is established. The fitness function and constraint functions are established respectively based on the drive train transmission efficiency and the torque converter rotating speed ratio range. And the optimization calculation is carried out by using MATLAB genetic algorithm toolbox. The optimization method and results provide an optimization program for exact match of wind turbine rotor, gearbox, hydraulic mechanical transmission, hydraulic torque converter and synchronous generator, ensure that the drive train work with a high efficiency, and give a reference for the selection of the torque converter and hydraulic mechanical transmission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, Rajiv; Waghole, Vikas
2015-07-01
Bearing standards impose restrictions on the internal geometry of spherical roller bearings. Geometrical and strength constraints conditions have been formulated for the optimization of bearing design. The long fatigue life is one of the most important criteria in the optimum design of bearing. The life is directly proportional to the dynamic capacity; hence, the objective function has been chosen as the maximization of dynamic capacity. The effect of speed and static loads acting on the bearing are also taken into account. Design variables for the bearing include five geometrical parameters: the roller diameter, the roller length, the bearing pitch diameter, the number of rollers, and the contact angle. There are a few design constraint parameters which are also included in the optimization, the bounds of which are obtained by initial runs of the optimization. The optimization program is made to run for different values of these design constraint parameters and a range of the parameters is obtained for which the objective function has a higher value. The artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA) has been used to solve the constrained optimized problem and the optimum design is compared with the one obtained from the grid search method (GSM), both operating independently. Both the ABCA and the GSM have been finally combined together to reach the global optimum point. A constraint violation study has also been carried out to give priority to the constraint having greater possibility of violations. Optimized bearing designs show a better performance parameter with those specified in bearing catalogs. The sensitivity analysis of bearing parameters has also been carried out to see the effect of manufacturing tolerance on the objective function.
Mechanical design problems associated with turbopump fluid film bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evces, Charles R.
1990-01-01
Most high speed cryogenic turbopumps for liquid propulsion rocket engines currently use ball or roller contact bearings for rotor support. The operating speeds, loads, clearances, and environments of these pumps combine to make bearing wear a limiting factor on turbopump life. An example is the high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Although the HPOTP design life is 27,000 seconds at 30,000 rpms, or approximately 50 missions, bearings must currently be replaced after 2 missions. One solution to the bearing wear problem in the HPOTP, as well as in future turbopump designs, is the utilization of fluid film bearings in lieu of continuous contact bearings. Hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, and damping seal bearings are all replacement candidates for contact bearings in rocket engine high speed turbomachinery. These three types of fluid film bearings have different operating characteristics, but they share a common set of mechanical design opportunities and difficulties. Results of research to define some of the mechanical design issues are given. Problems considered include transient strat/stop rub, non-operational rotor support, bearing wear inspection and measurement, and bearing fluid supply route. Emphasis is given to the HPOTP preburner pump (PBP) bearing, but the results are pertinent to high-speed cryogenic turbomachinery in general.
Functional Design in Rehabilitation: Modular Mechanisms for Ankle Complex
2016-01-01
This paper is aimed at presenting an innovative ankle rehabilitation device based on a parallel mechanism. A functional analysis and design are described to obtain a device able to guarantee ankle movement while patient's body remains stationary. Human ankle is a challenging context where a series of joints are highly integrated. The proposed rehabilitation device permits a patient with walking defects to improve his or her gait. The research focuses on plantar-flexion-dorsiflexion movement. The robust design starts from an accurate modelling of ankle movements during walking, assessing motion data from healthy individuals and patients. The kinematics analysis and functional evaluations lead the study and development of the articulated system. In particular, results of simulations support the effectiveness of the current design. A 3D prototype is presented highlighting that the ankle motion is successfully demonstrated. PMID:27524881
Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.
1992-01-01
Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Wu, Guangqiang
2013-03-01
Typical multidisciplinary design optimization(MDO) has gradually been proposed to balance performances of lightweight, noise, vibration and harshness(NVH) and safety for instrument panel(IP) structure in the automotive development. Nevertheless, plastic constitutive relation of Polypropylene(PP) under different strain rates, has not been taken into consideration in current reliability-based and collaborative IP MDO design. In this paper, based on tensile test under different strain rates, the constitutive relation of Polypropylene material is studied. Impact simulation tests for head and knee bolster are carried out to meet the regulation of FMVSS 201 and FMVSS 208, respectively. NVH analysis is performed to obtain mainly the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes, while the crashworthiness analysis is employed to examine the crash behavior of IP structure. With the consideration of lightweight, NVH, head and knee bolster impact performance, design of experiment(DOE), response surface model(RSM), and collaborative optimization(CO) are applied to realize the determined and reliability-based optimizations, respectively. Furthermore, based on multi-objective genetic algorithm(MOGA), the optimal Pareto sets are completed to solve the multi-objective optimization(MOO) problem. The proposed research ensures the smoothness of Pareto set, enhances the ability of engineers to make a comprehensive decision about multi-objectives and choose the optimal design, and improves the quality and efficiency of MDO.
Optimum design of bolted composite lap joints under mechanical and thermal loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kradinov, Vladimir Yurievich
A new approach is developed for the analysis and design of mechanically fastened composite lap joints under mechanical and thermal loading. Based on the combined complex potential and variational formulation, the solution method satisfies the equilibrium equations exactly while the boundary conditions are satisfied by minimizing the total potential. This approach is capable of modeling finite laminate planform dimensions, uniform and variable laminate thickness, laminate lay-up, interaction among bolts, bolt torque, bolt flexibility, bolt size, bolt-hole clearance and interference, insert dimensions and insert material properties. Comparing to the finite element analysis, the robustness of the method does not decrease when modeling the interaction of many bolts; also, the method is more suitable for parametric study and design optimization. The Genetic Algorithm (GA), a powerful optimization technique for multiple extrema functions in multiple dimensions search spaces, is applied in conjunction with the complex potential and variational formulation to achieve optimum designs of bolted composite lap joints. The objective of the optimization is to acquire such a design that ensures the highest strength of the joint. The fitness function for the GA optimization is based on the average stress failure criterion predicting net-section, shear-out, and bearing failure modes in bolted lap joints. The criterion accounts for the stress distribution in the thickness direction at the bolt location by applying an approach utilizing a beam on an elastic foundation formulation.
Final mechanical and opto-mechanical design of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoro, Fernando G.; Olivares, Andres M.; Salcido, Chris D.; Jimenez, Stephen R.; Jurgenson, Colby A.; Sun, Xiaowei; Haniff, Christopher A.; Buscher, David F.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Selina, Robert J.; McCracken, Tyler M.; Young, John S.; Fisher, Martin; Klinglesmith, Dan; Torres, Nicolas C.; Dahl, Chuck; Shtromberg, Alisa V.; Wilson, Donald M. A.
2012-07-01
Most subsystems of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) have progressed towards final mechanical design, construction and testing since the last SPIE meeting in San Diego - CA. The first 1.4-meter telescope has successfully passed factory acceptance test, and construction of telescopes #2 and #3 has started. The beam relay system has been prototyped on site, and full construction is awaiting funding. A complete 100-meter length delay line system, which includes its laser metrology unit, has been installed and tested on site, and the first delay line trolley has successfully passed factory acceptance testing. A fully operational fringe tracker is integrated with a prototyped version of the automated alignment system for a closed looping fringe tracking experiment. In this paper, we present details of the final mechanical and opto-mechanical design for these MROI subsystems and report their status on fabrication, assembly, integration and testing.
Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable
Understanding of Mechanisms for Design of Advanced Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickett, Warren
2007-03-01
A recent DOE panel considered the future of research in superconducting materials and made a number of recommendations for priority research directions (http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/SCrpt.pdf), two of which will be discussed. These items, under the rubric of Enabling Superconductivity, emphasize that Finding the Mechanisms is essential for furthering the field, and that once understood, the prospect of Superconductors by Design becomes a viable line of research. Establishing the mechanism in the high temperature superconducting cuprates continues to attract substantial efforts, with no consensus near. In several superconductors, including some discovered in the past decade or so, having Tc around or above 20 K [(Ba,K)BiO3; LixHfNCl; PuCoGa5] the mechanism is in question. On the more positive side, there are several cases established in the past six years, beginning with MgB2 and extending to elemental metals under pressure (Li, Y, Ca), where the familiar electron-phonon mechanism has provided unexpectedly high Tc and thereby stimulated enthusiasm and optimism into this area of superconductivity research. The clear understanding of this mechanism (at least in many respects) provides a path for improvements in superconducting materials.
Probabilistic Design Methodology and its Application to the Design of an Umbilical Retract Mechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Onyebueke, Landon; Ameye, Olusesan
2002-01-01
A lot has been learned from past experience with structural and machine element failures. The understanding of failure modes and the application of an appropriate design analysis method can lead to improved structural and machine element safety as well as serviceability. To apply Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM), all uncertainties are modeled as random variables with selected distribution types, means, and standard deviations. It is quite difficult to achieve a robust design without considering the randomness of the design parameters which is the case in the use of the Deterministic Design Approach. The US Navy has a fleet of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. An umbilical plug joins the missile to the submarine in order to provide electrical and cooling water connections. As the missile leaves the submarine, an umbilical retract mechanism retracts the umbilical plug clear of the advancing missile after disengagement during launch and retrains the plug in the retracted position. The design of the current retract mechanism in use was based on the deterministic approach which puts emphasis on factor of safety. A new umbilical retract mechanism that is simpler in design, lighter in weight, more reliable, easier to adjust, and more cost effective has become desirable since this will increase the performance and efficiency of the system. This paper reports on a recent project performed at Tennessee State University for the US Navy that involved the application of PDM to the design of an umbilical retract mechanism. This paper demonstrates how the use of PDM lead to the minimization of weight and cost, and the maximization of reliability and performance.
Probabilistic Design Methodology and its Application to the Design of an Umbilical Retract Mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onyebueke, Landon; Ameye, Olusesan
2002-10-01
A lot has been learned from past experience with structural and machine element failures. The understanding of failure modes and the application of an appropriate design analysis method can lead to improved structural and machine element safety as well as serviceability. To apply Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM), all uncertainties are modeled as random variables with selected distribution types, means, and standard deviations. It is quite difficult to achieve a robust design without considering the randomness of the design parameters which is the case in the use of the Deterministic Design Approach. The US Navy has a fleet of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. An umbilical plug joins the missile to the submarine in order to provide electrical and cooling water connections. As the missile leaves the submarine, an umbilical retract mechanism retracts the umbilical plug clear of the advancing missile after disengagement during launch and retrains the plug in the retracted position. The design of the current retract mechanism in use was based on the deterministic approach which puts emphasis on factor of safety. A new umbilical retract mechanism that is simpler in design, lighter in weight, more reliable, easier to adjust, and more cost effective has become desirable since this will increase the performance and efficiency of the system. This paper reports on a recent project performed at Tennessee State University for the US Navy that involved the application of PDM to the design of an umbilical retract mechanism. This paper demonstrates how the use of PDM lead to the minimization of weight and cost, and the maximization of reliability and performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.
2014-01-01
In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.
Xie, Lin; Cui, Xiaowei; Zhao, Sihao; Lu, Mingquan
2017-01-01
It is well known that multipath effect remains a dominant error source that affects the positioning accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Significant efforts have been made by researchers and receiver manufacturers to mitigate multipath error in the past decades. Recently, a multipath mitigation technique using dual-polarization antennas has become a research hotspot for it provides another degree of freedom to distinguish the line-of-sight (LOS) signal from the LOS and multipath composite signal without extensively increasing the complexity of the receiver. Numbers of multipath mitigation techniques using dual-polarization antennas have been proposed and all of them report performance improvement over the single-polarization methods. However, due to the unpredictability of multipath, multipath mitigation techniques based on dual-polarization are not always effective while few studies discuss the condition under which the multipath mitigation using a dual-polarization antenna can outperform that using a single-polarization antenna, which is a fundamental question for dual-polarization multipath mitigation (DPMM) and the design of multipath mitigation algorithms. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of the signal received by a dual-polarization antenna and use the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to assess the theoretical performance of DPMM in different received signal cases. Based on the assessment we answer this fundamental question and find the dual-polarization antenna’s capability in mitigating short delay multipath—the most challenging one among all types of multipath for the majority of the multipath mitigation techniques. Considering these effective conditions, we propose a dual-polarization sequential iterative maximum likelihood estimation (DP-SIMLE) algorithm for DPMM. The simulation results verify our theory and show superior performance of the proposed DP-SIMLE algorithm over the traditional one using only an
Xie, Lin; Cui, Xiaowei; Zhao, Sihao; Lu, Mingquan
2017-02-13
It is well known that multipath effect remains a dominant error source that affects the positioning accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Significant efforts have been made by researchers and receiver manufacturers to mitigate multipath error in the past decades. Recently, a multipath mitigation technique using dual-polarization antennas has become a research hotspot for it provides another degree of freedom to distinguish the line-of-sight (LOS) signal from the LOS and multipath composite signal without extensively increasing the complexity of the receiver. Numbers of multipath mitigation techniques using dual-polarization antennas have been proposed and all of them report performance improvement over the single-polarization methods. However, due to the unpredictability of multipath, multipath mitigation techniques based on dual-polarization are not always effective while few studies discuss the condition under which the multipath mitigation using a dual-polarization antenna can outperform that using a single-polarization antenna, which is a fundamental question for dual-polarization multipath mitigation (DPMM) and the design of multipath mitigation algorithms. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of the signal received by a dual-polarization antenna and use the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to assess the theoretical performance of DPMM in different received signal cases. Based on the assessment we answer this fundamental question and find the dual-polarization antenna's capability in mitigating short delay multipath-the most challenging one among all types of multipath for the majority of the multipath mitigation techniques. Considering these effective conditions, we propose a dual-polarization sequential iterative maximum likelihood estimation (DP-SIMLE) algorithm for DPMM. The simulation results verify our theory and show superior performance of the proposed DP-SIMLE algorithm over the traditional one using only an RHCP
Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yang
2015-01-01
A novel 3-PUU parallel robot was put forward, on which kinematic analysis was conducted to obtain its inverse kinematics solution, and on this basis, the limitations of the sliding pair and the Hooke joint on the workspace were analyzed. Moreover, the workspace was solved through the three dimensional limit search method, and then optimization analysis was performed on the workspace of this parallel robot, which laid the foundations for the configuration design and further analysis of the parallel mechanism, with the result indicated that this type of robot was equipped with promising application prospect. In addition that, the workspace after optimization can meet more requirements of patients. PMID:26628930
Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yang
2015-01-01
A novel 3-PUU parallel robot was put forward, on which kinematic analysis was conducted to obtain its inverse kinematics solution, and on this basis, the limitations of the sliding pair and the Hooke joint on the workspace were analyzed. Moreover, the workspace was solved through the three dimensional limit search method, and then optimization analysis was performed on the workspace of this parallel robot, which laid the foundations for the configuration design and further analysis of the parallel mechanism, with the result indicated that this type of robot was equipped with promising application prospect. In addition that, the workspace after optimization can meet more requirements of patients.
METIS opto-mechanical design and packaging study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroes, Gabby; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Roelfsema, Ronald; Navarro, Ramón; Venema, Lars; Lenzen, Rainer; Rohloff, Ralf R.; Durand, Gilles; Pantin, Eric; Ronayette, Samuel; Todd, Stephen; Bennett, Richard; Glasse, Alistair; Blommaert, Joris; Brandl, Bernhard; Teuwen, Maurice; Janssen, Huub; Huisman, Robert
2010-07-01
METIS: "Mid-infrared ELT Imager and Spectrograph" is the mid-infrared (3 - 14 microns) instrument for imaging and spectroscopy for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). To ensure high detection sensitivity the internal radiation of the instrument needs to be eliminated (sufficiently reduced) and thus needs to be operated at cryogenic temperatures. The instrument is divided in a cold and warm system. The cold system, the actual heart of the system, is subdivided into five main opto-mechanical modules located within a common cryostat (part of the warm system). The warm system provides the crucial environment for the cold system, including the instrument control and maintenance equipment. The end 2009 finished Phase-A study carried out within the framework of the ESO sponsored E-ELT instrumentation studies has been performed by an international consortium with institutes from Netherlands (PI: Bernhard Brandl - NOVA), Germany, France, United Kingdom and Belgium. During this conference various aspects of the METIS instrument (design) are presented in several papers, including the instrument concept and science case, and the system engineering and optical design. This paper describes the design constraints and key issues regarding the packaging of this complex cryogenic instrument. The design solutions to create a light, small and fully accessible instrument are discussed together with the specific subdivision of the cold and warm system to ensure concurrent development at various different institutes around Europe. In addition the paper addresses the design and development studies for the special, challenging units such as the large optical image de-rotator, the (2D) chopper mechanism and the special cryogenic drives.
Mechanical design optimization of bioabsorbable fixation devices for bone fractures.
Lovald, Scott T; Khraishi, Tariq; Wagner, Jon; Baack, Bret
2009-03-01
Bioabsorbable bone plates can eliminate the necessity for a permanent implant when used to fixate fractures of the human mandible. They are currently not in widespread use because of the low strength of the materials and the requisite large volume of the resulting bone plate. The aim of the current study was to discover a minimally invasive bioabsorbable bone plate design that can provide the same mechanical stability as a standard titanium bone plate. A finite element model of a mandible with a fracture in the body region is subjected to bite loads that are common to patients postsurgery. The model is used first to determine benchmark stress and strain values for a titanium plate. These values are then set as the limits within which the bioabsorbable bone plate must comply. The model is then modified to consider a bone plate made of the polymer poly-L/DL-lactide 70/30. An optimization routine is run to determine the smallest volume of bioabsorbable bone plate that can perform and a titanium bone plate when fixating fractures of this considered type. Two design parameters are varied for the bone plate design during the optimization analysis. The analysis determined that a strut style poly-L-lactide-co-DL-lactide plate of 690 mm2 can provide as much mechanical stability as a similar titanium design structure of 172 mm2. The model has determined a bioabsorbable bone plate design that is as strong as a titanium plate when fixating fractures of the load-bearing mandible. This is an intriguing outcome, considering that the polymer material has only 6% of the stiffness of titanium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jinfei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi
2014-05-01
The rapid expansion of enterprises makes product collaborative design (PCD) a critical issue under the distributed heterogeneous environment, but as the collaborative task of large-scale network becomes more complicated, neither unified task decomposition and allocation methodology nor Agent-based network management platform can satisfy the increasing demands. In this paper, to meet requirements of PCD for distributed product development, a collaborative design mechanism based on the thought of modularity and the Agent technology is presented. First, the top-down 4-tier process model based on task-oriented modular and Agent is constructed for PCD after analyzing the mapping relationships between requirements and functions in the collaborative design. Second, on basis of sub-task decomposition for PCD based on a mixed method, the mathematic model of task-oriented modular based on multi-objective optimization is established to maximize the module cohesion degree and minimize the module coupling degree, while considering the module executable degree as a restriction. The mathematic model is optimized and simulated by the modified PSO, and the decomposed modules are obtained. Finally, the Agent structure model for collaborative design is put forward, and the optimism matching Agents are selected by using similarity algorithm to implement different task-modules by the integrated reasoning and decision-making mechanism with the behavioral model of collaborative design Agents. With the results of experimental studies for automobile collaborative design, the feasibility and efficiency of this methodology of task-oriented modular and Agent-based collaborative design in the distributed heterogeneous environment are verified. On this basis, an integrative automobile collaborative R&D platform is developed. This research provides an effective platform for automobile manufacturing enterprises to achieve PCD, and helps to promote product numeralization collaborative R&D and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baadache, Khireddine; Bougriou, Chérif
2015-10-01
This paper presents the use of Genetic Algorithm in the sizing of the shell and double concentric tube heat exchanger where the objective function is the total cost which is the sum of the capital cost of the device and the operating cost. The use of the techno-economic methods based on the optimisation methods of heat exchangers sizing allow to have a device that satisfies the technical specification with the lowest possible levels of operating and investment costs. The logarithmic mean temperature difference method was used for the calculation of the heat exchange area. This new heat exchanger is more profitable and more economic than the old heat exchanger, the total cost decreased of about 13.16 % what represents 7,250.8 euro of the lump sum. The design modifications and the use of the Genetic Algorithm for the sizing also allow to improve the compactness of the heat exchanger, the study showed that the latter can increase the heat transfer surface area per unit volume until 340 m2/m3.
Design of Clinical Support Systems Using Integrated Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yung-Fu; Huang, Yung-Fa; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Hsu, Yuan-Nian; Lin, Hsuan-Hung
Clinical decision support system (CDSS) provides knowledge and specific information for clinicians to enhance diagnostic efficiency and improving healthcare quality. An appropriate CDSS can highly elevate patient safety, improve healthcare quality, and increase cost-effectiveness. Support vector machine (SVM) is believed to be superior to traditional statistical and neural network classifiers. However, it is critical to determine suitable combination of SVM parameters regarding classification performance. Genetic algorithm (GA) can find optimal solution within an acceptable time, and is faster than greedy algorithm with exhaustive searching strategy. By taking the advantage of GA in quickly selecting the salient features and adjusting SVM parameters, a method using integrated GA and SVM (IGS), which is different from the traditional method with GA used for feature selection and SVM for classification, was used to design CDSSs for prediction of successful ventilation weaning, diagnosis of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea, and discrimination of different cell types form Pap smear. The results show that IGS is better than methods using SVM alone or linear discriminator.
Design of measuring system for wire diameter based on sub-pixel edge detection algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yudong; Zhou, Wang
2016-09-01
Light projection method is often used in measuring system for wire diameter, which is relatively simpler structure and lower cost, and the measuring accuracy is limited by the pixel size of CCD. Using a CCD with small pixel size can improve the measuring accuracy, but will increase the cost and difficulty of making. In this paper, through the comparative analysis of a variety of sub-pixel edge detection algorithms, polynomial fitting method is applied for data processing in measuring system for wire diameter, to improve the measuring accuracy and enhance the ability of anti-noise. In the design of system structure, light projection method with orthogonal structure is used for the detection optical part, which can effectively reduce the error caused by line jitter in the measuring process. For the electrical part, ARM Cortex-M4 microprocessor is used as the core of the circuit module, which can not only drive double channel linear CCD but also complete the sampling, processing and storage of the CCD video signal. In addition, ARM microprocessor can complete the high speed operation of the whole measuring system for wire diameter in the case of no additional chip. The experimental results show that sub-pixel edge detection algorithm based on polynomial fitting can make up for the lack of single pixel size and improve the precision of measuring system for wire diameter significantly, without increasing hardware complexity of the entire system.
A new blind fault component separation algorithm for a single-channel mechanical signal mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong; Tse, Peter W.
2012-10-01
A vibration signal collected from a complex machine consists of multiple vibration components, which are system responses excited by several sources. This paper reports a new blind component separation (BCS) method for extracting different mechanical fault features. By applying the proposed method, a single-channel mixed signal can be decomposed into two parts: the periodic and transient subsets. The periodic subset is related to the imbalance, misalignment and eccentricity of a machine. The transient subset refers to abnormal impulsive phenomena, such as those caused by localized bearing faults. The proposed method includes two individual strategies to deal with these different characteristics. The first extracts the sub-Gaussian periodic signal by minimizing the kurtosis of the equalized signals. The second detects the super-Gaussian transient signal by minimizing the smoothness index of the equalized signals. Here, the equalized signals are derived by an eigenvector algorithm that is a successful solution to the blind equalization problem. To reduce the computing time needed to select the equalizer length, a simple optimization method is introduced to minimize the kurtosis and smoothness index, respectively. Finally, simulated multiple-fault signals and a real multiple-fault signal collected from an industrial machine are used to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is able to effectively decompose the multiple-fault vibration mixture into periodic components and random non-stationary transient components. In addition, the equalizer length can be intelligently determined using the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, Arif
As the demand for clean and renewable energy sources continues to grow, much attention has been given to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to their efficiency and low operating temperature. However, the components of SOFCs must still be improved before commercialization can be reached. Of particular interest is the solid electrolyte, which conducts oxygen ions from the cathode to the anode. Samarium-doped ceria (SDC) is the electrolyte of choice in most SOFCs today, due mostly to its high ionic conductivity at low temperatures. However, the underlying principles that contribute to high ionic conductivity in doped ceria remain unknown, and so it is difficult to improve upon the design of SOFCs. This thesis focuses on identifying the atomistic interactions in SDC which contribute to its favourable performance in the fuel cell. Unfortunately, information as basic as the structure of SDC has not yet been found due to the difficulty in experimentally characterizing and computationally modelling the system. For instance, to evaluate 10.3% SDC, which is close to the 11.1% concentration used in fuel cells, one must investigate 194 trillion configurations, due to the numerous ways of arranging the Sm ions and oxygen vacancies in the simulation cell. As an exhaustive search method is clearly unfeasible, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA) to search the vast potential energy surface for the low-energy configurations, which will be most prevalent in the real material. With the GA, we investigate the structure of SDC for the first time at the DFT+U level of theory. Importantly, we find key differences in our results from prior calculations of this system which used less accurate methods, which demonstrate the importance of accurately modelling the system. Overall, our simulation results of the structure of SDC agree with experimental measurements. We identify the structural significance of defects in the doped ceria lattice which contribute to oxygen ion conductivity. Thus
Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Dunn, Michael J; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F; Briggs, Dirk R; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J
2015-01-01
A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge's accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems.
Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Dunn, Michael J.; Robst, Jeremy; Preston, Mark; Bremner, Steve F.; Briggs, Dirk R.; Brown, Ruth; Adlard, Stacey; Peat, Helen J.
2015-01-01
A fully automated weighbridge using a new algorithm and mechanics integrated with a Radio Frequency Identification System is described. It is currently in use collecting data on Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) at Bird Island, South Georgia. The technology allows researchers to collect very large, highly accurate datasets of both penguin weight and direction of their travel into or out of a breeding colony, providing important contributory information to help understand penguin breeding success, reproductive output and availability of prey. Reliable discrimination between single and multiple penguin crossings is demonstrated. Passive radio frequency tags implanted into penguins allow researchers to match weight and trip direction to individual birds. Low unit and operation costs, low maintenance needs, simple operator requirements and accurate time stamping of every record are all important features of this type of weighbridge, as is its proven ability to operate 24 hours a day throughout a breeding season, regardless of temperature or weather conditions. Users are able to define required levels of accuracy by adjusting filters and raw data are automatically recorded and stored allowing for a range of processing options. This paper presents the underlying principles, design specification and system description, provides evidence of the weighbridge’s accurate performance and demonstrates how its design is a significant improvement on existing systems. PMID:25894763
Olson, C C; Nichols, J M; Michalowicz, J V; Bucholtz, F
2011-06-01
This work describes an approach for efficiently shaping the response characteristics of a fixed dynamical system by forcing with a designed input. We obtain improved inputs by using an evolutionary algorithm to search a space of possible waveforms generated by a set of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Good solutions are those that result in a desired system response subject to some input efficiency constraint, such as signal power. In particular, we seek to find inputs that best disrupt a phase-locked loop (PLL). Three sets of nonlinear ODEs are investigated and found to have different disruption capabilities against a model PLL. These differences are explored and implications for their use as input signal models are discussed. The PLL was chosen here as an archetypal example but the approach has broad applicability to any input∕output system for which a desired input cannot be obtained analytically.
Design of Pipeline Multiplier Based on Modified Booth's Algorithm and Wallace Tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Aihong; Li, Ling; Sun, Mengzhe
A design of 32*32 bit pipelined multiplier is presented in this paper. The proposed multiplier is based on the modified booth algorithm and Wallace tree structure. In order to improve the throughput rate of the multiplier, pipeline architecture is introduced to the Wallace tree. Carry Select Adder is deployed to reduce the propagation delay of carry signal for the final level 64-bit adder. The multiplier is fully implemented with Verilog HDL and synthesized successfully with Quartus II. The experiment result shows that the resource consumption and power consumption is reduced to 2560LE and 120mW, the operating frequency is improved from 136.21MHz to 165.07MHz.
FPGA-based real-time phase measuring profilometry algorithm design and implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Guomin; Tang, Hongwei; Zhong, Kai; Li, Zhongwei; Shi, Yusheng
2016-11-01
Phase measuring profilometry (PMP) has been widely used in many fields, like Computer Aided Verification (CAV), Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) et al. High frame-rate (HFR) real-time vision-based feedback control will be a common demands in near future. However, the instruction time delay in the computer caused by numerous repetitive operations greatly limit the efficiency of data processing. FPGA has the advantages of pipeline architecture and parallel execution, and it fit for handling PMP algorithm. In this paper, we design a fully pipelined hardware architecture for PMP. The functions of hardware architecture includes rectification, phase calculation, phase shifting, and stereo matching. The experiment verified the performance of this method, and the factors that may influence the computation accuracy was analyzed.
Designing Daily Patrol Routes for Policing Based on ANT Colony Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, H.; Cheng, T.; Wise, S.
2015-07-01
In this paper, we address the problem of planning police patrol routes to regularly cover street segments of high crime density (hotspots) with limited police forces. A good patrolling strategy is required to minimise the average time lag between two consecutive visits to hotspots, as well as coordinating multiple patrollers and imparting unpredictability in patrol routes. Previous studies have designed different police patrol strategies for routing police patrol, but these strategies have difficulty in generalising to real patrolling and meeting various requirements. In this research we develop a new police patrolling strategy based on Bayesian method and ant colony algorithm. In this strategy, virtual marker (pheromone) is laid to mark the visiting history of each crime hotspot, and patrollers continuously decide which hotspot to patrol next based on pheromone level and other variables. Simulation results using real data testifies the effective, scalable, unpredictable and extensible nature of this strategy.
Optimum design of vortex generator elements using Kriging surrogate modelling and genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neelakantan, Rithwik; Balu, Raman; Saji, Abhinav
Vortex Generators (VG's) are small angled plates located in a span wise fashion aft of the leading edge of an aircraft wing. They control airflow over the upper surface of the wing by creating vortices which energise the boundary layer. The parameters considered for the optimisation study of the VG's are its height, orientation angle and location along the chord in a low subsonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil. The objective function to be maximised is the L/D ratio of the airfoil. The design data are generated using the commercially available ANSYS FLUENT software and are modelled using a Kriging based interpolator. This surrogate model is used along with a Generic Algorithm software to arrive at the optimum shape of the VG's. The results of this study will be confirmed with actual wind tunnel tests on scaled models.
Design of two-dimensional photonic crystals with large absolute band gaps using a genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Linfang; Ye, Zhuo; He, Sailing
2003-07-01
A two-stage genetic algorithm (GA) with a floating mutation probability is developed to design a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal of a square lattice with the maximal absolute band gap. The unit cell is divided equally into many square pixels, and each filling pattern of pixels with two dielectric materials corresponds to a chromosome consisting of binary digits 0 and 1. As a numerical example, the two-stage GA gives a 2D GaAs structure with a relative width of the absolute band gap of about 19%. After further optimization, a new 2D GaAs photonic crystal is found with an absolute band gap much larger than those reported before.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guglieri, Giorgio; Maroglio, Franco; Pellegrino, Pasquale; Torre, Liliana
2014-01-01
This paper presents the design of the GNC system of a ground test-bed for spacecraft rendezvous and docking experiments. The test-bed is developed within the STEPS project (Systems and Technologies for Space Exploration). The facility consists of a flat floor and two scaled vehicles, one active chaser and one “semi-active” target. Rendezvous and docking maneuvers are performed floating on the plane with pierced plates as lifting systems. The system is designed to work both with inertial and non-inertial reference frame, receiving signals from navigation sensors as: accelerometers, gyroscopes, laser meter, radio finder and video camera, and combining them with a digital filter. A Proportional-Integrative-Derivative control law and Pulse Width Modulators are used to command the cold gas thrusters of the chaser, and to follow an assigned trajectory with its specified velocity profile. The design and development of the guidance, navigation and control system and its architecture-including the software algorithms-are detailed in the paper, presenting a performance analysis based on a simulated environment. A complete description of the integrated subsystems is also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatsukawa, Tomoaki; Nonomura, Taku; Oyama, Akira; Fujii, Kozo
In this study, aerodynamic design exploration for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is conducted using genetic algorithm with Navier-Stokes solver to understand the aerodynamic characteristics for various body configurations and find design information such as tradeoff information among objectives. The multi-objective aerodynamic design optimization for minimizing zero-lift drag at supersonic condition, maximizing maximum lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) at subsonic condition, maximizing maximum L/D at supersonic condition, and maximizing volume of shape is conducted for bi-conical shape RLV based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The total number of evaluation in multi-objective optimization is 400, and it is necessary for evaluating one body configuration to conduct 8 CFD runs. In total, 3200 CFD runs are conducted. The analysis of Pareto-optimal solutions shows that there are various trade-off relations among objectives clearly, and the analysis of flow fields shows that the shape for the minimum drag configuration is almost the same as that of the shape for the maximum L/D configuration at supersonic condition. The shape for the maximum L/D at subsonic condition obtains additional lift at the kink compared with the minimum drag configuration. It leads to enhancement of L/D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siade, A. J.; Cheng, W.; Yeh, W. W.
2010-12-01
This study optimizes observation well locations and sampling frequencies for the purpose of estimating unknown groundwater extraction in an aquifer system. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to reduce the groundwater flow model, thus reducing the computation burden and data storage space associated with solving this problem for heavily discretized models. This reduced model can store a significant amount of system information in a much smaller reduced state vector. Along with the sensitivity equation method, the proposed approach can efficiently compute the Jacobian matrix that forms the information matrix associated with the experimental design. The criterion adopted for experimental design is the maximization of the trace of the weighted information matrix. Under certain conditions, this is equivalent to the classical A-optimality criterion established in experimental design. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the observation well locations and sampling frequencies for maximizing the collected information from the hydraulic head sampling at the observation wells. We applied the proposed approach to a hypothetical 30,000-node groundwater aquifer system. We studied the relationship among the number of observation wells, observation well locations, sampling frequencies, and the collected information for estimating unknown groundwater extraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keane, A. J.
1995-08-01
In the majority of aerospace structures, vibration transmission problems are dealt with by the application of heavy, viscoelastic damping materials. More recently, interest has focussed on using active vibration control methods to reduce noise transmission. This paper examines a third, and potentially much cheaper method: that of redesigning the load bearing structure so that it has intrinsic, passive noise filtration characteristics. It shows that very significant, broadband noise isolation characteristics (of around 60 dB over a 100 Hz band) can be achieved without compromising other aspects of the design. Here, the genetic algorithm (GA), which is one of a number of recently developed evolutionary computing methods, is employed to produce the desired designs. The problem is set up as one in multi-dimensional optimization where the geometric parameters of the design are the free variables and the band averaged noise transmission the objective function. The problem is then constrained by the need to maintain structural integrity. Set out in this way, even a simple structural problem has many tens of variables; a real structure would have many hundreds. Consequently, the optimization domain is very time consuming for traditional methods to deal with. This is where modern evolutionary techniques become so useful: their convergence rates are typically less rapidly worsened by increases in the number of variables than those of more traditional methods. Even so, they must be used with some care to gain the best results.
Design of coded aperture arrays by means of a global optimization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Haitao; Liu, Liren; Yang, Qingguo
2006-08-01
Coded aperture imaging (CAI) has evolved as a standard technique for imaging high energy photon sources and has found numerous applications. Coded aperture arrays (CAAs) are the most important devices in the applications of CAI. In recent years, many approaches were presented to design optimum or near-optimum CAAs. Uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) are the most successful CAAs for their cyclic autocorrelation consisting of a sequence of delta functions on a flat sidelobe which can easily be subtracted when the object has been reconstructed. Unfortunately, the existing methods can only be used to design URAs with limited number of array sizes and fixed autocorrelative sidelobe-to-peak ratio. In this paper, we presented a method to design more flexible URAs by means of a global optimization algorithm named DIRECT. By our approaches, we obtain various types of URAs including the filled URAs which can be constructed by existing methods and the sparse URAs which never be constructed and mentioned by existing papers as far as we know.
Rudra, Shubhobrata; Barai, Ranjit Kumar; Maitra, Madhubanti
2014-03-01
This paper presents the formulation of a novel block-backstepping based control algorithm to address the stabilization problem for a generalized nonlinear underactuated mechanical system. For the convenience of compact design, first, the state model of the underactuated system has been converted into the block-strict feedback form. Next, we have incorporated backstepping control action to derive the expression of the control input for the generic nonlinear underactuated system. The proposed block backstepping technique has further been enriched by incorporating an integral action additionally for enhancing the steady state performance of the overall system. Asymptotic stability of the overall system has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. Subsequently, the stability of the zero dynamics has also been analyzed to ensure the global asymptotic stability of the entire nonlinear system at its desired equilibrium point. The proposed control algorithm has been applied for the stabilization of a benchmarked underactuated mechanical system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control law in real-time environment.
Mouton, S.; Ledoux, Y.; Teissandier, D.; Sebastian, P.
2010-06-15
A key challenge for the future is to reduce drastically the human impact on the environment. In the aeronautic field, this challenge aims at optimizing the design of the aircraft to decrease the global mass. This reduction leads to the optimization of every part constitutive of the plane. This operation is even more delicate when the used material is composite material. In this case, it is necessary to find a compromise between the strength, the mass and the manufacturing cost of the component. Due to these different kinds of design constraints it is necessary to assist engineer with decision support system to determine feasible solutions. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the coupling of the different key characteristics of the design process and on the consideration of the failure risk of the component. The originality of this work is that the manufacturing deviations due to the RTM process are integrated in the simulation of the assembly process. Two kinds of deviations are identified: volume impregnation (injection phase of RTM process) and geometrical deviations (curing and cooling phases). The quantification of these deviations and the related failure risk calculation is based on finite element simulations (Pam RTM registered and Samcef registered softwares). The use of genetic algorithm allows to estimate the impact of the design choices and their consequences on the failure risk of the component. The main focus of the paper is the optimization of tool design. In the framework of decision support systems, the failure risk calculation is used for making the comparison of possible industrialization alternatives. It is proposed to apply this method on a particular part of the airplane structure: a spar unit made of carbon fiber/epoxy composite.
David J. Muth Jr.
2006-09-01
This paper examines the use of graph based evolutionary algorithms (GBEAs) to find multiple acceptable solutions for heat transfer in engineering systems during the optimization process. GBEAs are a type of evolutionary algorithm (EA) in which a topology, or geography, is imposed on an evolving population of solutions. The rates at which solutions can spread within the population are controlled by the choice of topology. As in nature geography can be used to develop and sustain diversity within the solution population. Altering the choice of graph can create a more or less diverse population of potential solutions. The choice of graph can also affect the convergence rate for the EA and the number of mating events required for convergence. The engineering system examined in this paper is a biomass fueled cookstove used in developing nations for household cooking. In this cookstove wood is combusted in a small combustion chamber and the resulting hot gases are utilized to heat the stove’s cooking surface. The spatial temperature profile of the cooking surface is determined by a series of baffles that direct the flow of hot gases. The optimization goal is to find baffle configurations that provide an even temperature distribution on the cooking surface. Often in engineering, the goal of optimization is not to find the single optimum solution but rather to identify a number of good solutions that can be used as a starting point for detailed engineering design. Because of this a key aspect of evolutionary optimization is the diversity of the solutions found. The key conclusion in this paper is that GBEA’s can be used to create multiple good solutions needed to support engineering design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montoya Villena, Rafael
According to its title, the general objective of the Thesis consists in developing a clear, simple and systematic methodology for programming type PLC devices. With this aim in mind, we will use the following elements: Codification of all variables types. This section is very important since it allows us working with little information. The necessary rules are given to codify all type of phrases produced in industrial processes. An algorithm that describes process evolution and that has been called process D.F. This is one of the most important contributions, since it will allow us, together with information codification, representing the process evolution in a graphic way and with any design theory used. Theory selection. Evidently, the use of some kind of design method is necessary to obtain logic equations. For this particular case, we will use binodal theory, an ideal theory for wired technologies, since it can obtain highly reduced schemas for relatively simple automatisms, which means a minimum number of components used. User program outline algorithm (D.F.P.). This is another necessary contribution and perhaps the most important one, since logic equations resulting from binodal theory are compatible with process evolution if wired technology is used, whether it is electric, electronic, pneumatic, etc. On the other hand, PLC devices performance characteristics force the program instructions order to validate or not the automatism, as we have proven in different articles and lectures at congresses both national and international. Therefore, we will codify any information concerning the automating process, graphically represent its temporal evolution and, applying binodal theory and D.F.P (previously adapted), succeed in making logic equations compatible with the process to be automated and the device in which they will be implemented (PLC in our case)
Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design
Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M.
1996-04-01
The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site.
Design and control of a high precision drive mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Bo; He, Yongqiang; Wang, Haowei; Zhang, Shuyang; Zhang, Donghua; Wei, Xiaorong; Jiang, Zhihong
2017-01-01
This paper summarizes the development of a high precision drive mechanism (HPDM) for space application, such as the directional antenna, the laser communication device, the mobile camera and other pointing mechanisms. In view of the great practical significance of high precision drive system, control technology for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo system is also studied and a PMSM servo controller is designed in this paper. And the software alignment was applied to the controller to eliminate the steady error of the optical encoder, which helps to realize the 1 arcsec (1σ) control precision. To assess its capabilities, the qualification environment testing including the thermal vacuum cycling testing, and the sinusoidal and random vibration were carried out. The testing results show that the performance of the HPDM is almost the same between the former and the end of each testing.
CARMENES. II: optical and opto-mechanical design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seifert, W.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Xu, W.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Becerril, S.; Feiz, C.; Ramón, A.; Dreizler, S.; Rohde, P.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.
2012-09-01
CARMENES is a fiber-fed high-resolution échelle spectrograph for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope. The instrument is built by a German-Spanish consortium under the lead of the Landessternwarte Heidelberg. The search for planets around M dwarfs with a radial velocity accuracy of 1 m/s is the main focus of the planned science. Two channels, one for the visible, another for the near-infrared, will allow observations in the complete wavelength range from 550 to 1700 nm. To ensure the stability, the instrument is working in vacuum in a thermally controlled environment. The optical design of both channels of the instrument and the front-end, as well as the opto-mechanical design, are described.
Safer Design - Composable EHRs and Mechanisms for Safety.
Senathirajah, Yalini
2015-01-01
As the deployment of health information technology progresses, issues of usability and safety, including the possibility of technology-induced errors have come to the fore. Increased complexity of care delivery models and emergent conditions such as the Ebola scare in the US point to the difficulty of design that allows for human cognitive limits while meeting complex needs. We previously described a modular composable approach to health information systems, which gives the end-user some control of design and allows for creation of systems meeting myriad and varied needs. Here we discuss how the different drag/drop interaction paradigm has implications for health IT safety via several mechanisms. These include display fragmentation and the need to changeably prioritize information elements, interruptions, fit to tasks and contexts, and rapid changeability allowing low-cost readjustments when lack of fit is found.
Design of a biaxial mechanical loading bioreactor for tissue engineering.
Bilgen, Bahar; Chu, Danielle; Stefani, Robert; Aaron, Roy K
2013-04-25
We designed a loading device that is capable of applying uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a tissue engineered biocomposites fabricated for transplantation. While the device primarily functions as a bioreactor that mimics the native mechanical strains, it is also outfitted with a load cell for providing force feedback or mechanical testing of the constructs. The device subjects engineered cartilage constructs to biaxial mechanical loading with great precision of loading dose (amplitude and frequency) and is compact enough to fit inside a standard tissue culture incubator. It loads samples directly in a tissue culture plate, and multiple plate sizes are compatible with the system. The device has been designed using components manufactured for precision-guided laser applications. Bi-axial loading is accomplished by two orthogonal stages. The stages have a 50 mm travel range and are driven independently by stepper motor actuators, controlled by a closed-loop stepper motor driver that features micro-stepping capabilities, enabling step sizes of less than 50 nm. A polysulfone loading platen is coupled to the bi-axial moving platform. Movements of the stages are controlled by Thor-labs Advanced Positioning Technology (APT) software. The stepper motor driver is used with the software to adjust load parameters of frequency and amplitude of both shear and compression independently and simultaneously. Positional feedback is provided by linear optical encoders that have a bidirectional repeatability of 0.1 μm and a resolution of 20 nm, translating to a positional accuracy of less than 3 μm over the full 50 mm of travel. These encoders provide the necessary position feedback to the drive electronics to ensure true nanopositioning capabilities. In order to provide the force feedback to detect contact and evaluate loading responses, a precision miniature load cell is positioned between the loading platen and the moving platform. The load cell has high accuracies of 0
Design of a Biaxial Mechanical Loading Bioreactor for Tissue Engineering
Bilgen, Bahar; Chu, Danielle; Stefani, Robert; Aaron, Roy K.
2013-01-01
We designed a loading device that is capable of applying uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a tissue engineered biocomposites fabricated for transplantation. While the device primarily functions as a bioreactor that mimics the native mechanical strains, it is also outfitted with a load cell for providing force feedback or mechanical testing of the constructs. The device subjects engineered cartilage constructs to biaxial mechanical loading with great precision of loading dose (amplitude and frequency) and is compact enough to fit inside a standard tissue culture incubator. It loads samples directly in a tissue culture plate, and multiple plate sizes are compatible with the system. The device has been designed using components manufactured for precision-guided laser applications. Bi-axial loading is accomplished by two orthogonal stages. The stages have a 50 mm travel range and are driven independently by stepper motor actuators, controlled by a closed-loop stepper motor driver that features micro-stepping capabilities, enabling step sizes of less than 50 nm. A polysulfone loading platen is coupled to the bi-axial moving platform. Movements of the stages are controlled by Thor-labs Advanced Positioning Technology (APT) software. The stepper motor driver is used with the software to adjust load parameters of frequency and amplitude of both shear and compression independently and simultaneously. Positional feedback is provided by linear optical encoders that have a bidirectional repeatability of 0.1 μm and a resolution of 20 nm, translating to a positional accuracy of less than 3 μm over the full 50 mm of travel. These encoders provide the necessary position feedback to the drive electronics to ensure true nanopositioning capabilities. In order to provide the force feedback to detect contact and evaluate loading responses, a precision miniature load cell is positioned between the loading platen and the moving platform. The load cell has high accuracies of 0
Mechanical Design of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor
R. Ellis, R. Kaita, H. Kugel, G. Paluzzi, M. Viola and R. Nygren
2009-02-19
The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) on NSTX will be the first test of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium divertor in a high-power magnetic confinement device. It will replace part of the lower outboard divertor between a specified inside and outside radius, and ultimately provide a lithium surface exposed to the plasma with enough depth to absorb a significant particle flux. There are numerous technical challenges involved in the design. The lithium layer must be as thin as possible, and maintained at a temperature between 200 and 400 degrees Celsius to minimize lithium evaporation. This requirement leads to the use of a thick copper substrate, with a thin stainless steel layer bonded to the plasma-facing surface. A porous molybdenum layer is then plasma-sprayed onto the stainless steel, to provide a coating that facilitates full wetting of the surface by the liquid lithium. Other challenges include the design of a robust, vacuumcompatible heating and cooling system for the LLD. Replacement graphite tiles that provided the proper interface between the existing outer divertor and the LLD also had to be designed, as well as accommodation for special LLD diagnostics. This paper describes the mechanical design of the LLD, and presents analyses showing the performance limits of the LLD.
Designing of mechanically fastened joints in composite structures
Haruna, Kazushi; Hamada, Hiroyuki
1996-11-01
In this study, mechanical behavior and designing method for multiple-joints were examined. Three joint forms, which were single-hole joints, two-holes in parallel and two-holes in series, were chosen. As a result, the behavior of the multiple-joints was different with that of single-holed joints. Especially, joints that exhibited bearing failure in single-hole joints appeared net-tension failure in two-holes in series. So it is cleared that designing using the data of single-hole is very dangerous since bearing failure appears safety fracture propagation and high strength but net-tension failure appears risky fracture propagation and low strength. So it is necessary to examine the design method that considers the stress distribution of multiple-joints. The proposed strength prediction method using a numerical analysis was applied to multiple-joints. It is cleared that the real jointed structures can be designed by the proposed method since good agreement was obtained between experimental and predicted joint strength.
Design and implementation of a mechanically heterogeneous robot group
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sukhatme, Gaurav S.; Montgomery, James F.; Mataric, Maja J.
1999-08-01
This paper describes the design and construction of a cooperative, heterogeneous robot group comprised of one semi-autonomous aerial robot and two autonomous ground robots. The robots are designed to perform automated surveillance and reconnaissance of an urban outdoor area using onboard sensing. The ground vehicles have GPS, sonar for obstacle detection and avoidance, and a simple color- based vision system. Navigation is performed using an optimal mixture of odometry and GPS. The helicopter is equipped with a GPS/INS system, a camera, and a framegrabber. Each robot has an embedded 486 PC/104 processor running the QNX real-time operating system. Individual robot controllers are behavior-based and decentralized. We describe a control strategy and architecture that coordinates the robots with minimal top- down planning. The overall system is controlled at high level by a single human operator using a specially designed control unit. The operator is able to task the group with a mission using a minimal amount of training. The group can re-task itself based on sensor inputs and can also be re- tasked by the operator. We describe a particular reconnaissance mission that the robots have been tested with, and lessons learned during the design and implementation. Our initial results with these experiments are encouraging given the challenging mechanics of the aerial robot. We conclude the paper with a discussion of ongoing and future work.
Castellano, T.; De Palma, L.; Laneve, D.; Strippoli, V.; Cuccovilllo, A.; Prudenzano, F.; Dimiccoli, V.; Losito, O.; Prisco, R.
2015-07-01
A homemade computer code for designing a Side- Coupled Linear Accelerator (SCL) is written. It integrates a simplified model of SCL tanks with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The computer code main aim is to obtain useful guidelines for the design of Linear Accelerator (LINAC) resonant cavities. The design procedure, assisted via the aforesaid approach seems very promising, allowing future improvements towards the optimization of actual accelerating geometries. (authors)
Design of motion compensation mechanism of satellite remote sensing camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Song; Yan, Yong; Xu, Kai; Jin, Guang
2011-08-01
With the development of aerospace remote sensing technology, the ground resolution of remote sensing camera enhances continuously. Since there is relative motion between camera and ground target when taking pictures, the target image recorded in recording media is moved and blurred. In order to enhance the imaging quality and resolution of the camera, the image motion had to be compensated. In order to abate the effect of image motion to image quality of space camera and improve the resolution of the camera, the compensation method of image motion to space camera is researched. First, the reason of producing drift angle and adjustment principle are analyzed in this paper. This paper introduce the composition and transmission principle of image motion compensation mechanism. Second, the system adopts 80C31 as controller of drift angle, and adopts stepping motor for actuators, and adopts absolute photoelectric encoder as the drift Angle measuring element. Then the control mathematical model of the image motion compensation mechanism are deduced, and it achieve the closed-loop control of the drift angle position. At the last, this paper analyses the transmission precision of the mechanism. Through the experiment, we measured the actual precision of the image motion compensation mechanism, and compared with the theoretical analysis.There are two major contributions in this paper. First, the traditional image motion compensation mechanism is big volume and quality heavy. This has not fit for the development trend of space camera miniaturization and lightweight. But if reduce the volume and quality of mechanism, it will bring adverse effects for the precision and stiffness of mechanism. For this problem, This paper designed a image motion compensation that have some advantages such as small size, light weight at the same time, high precision, stiffness and so on. This image motion compensation can be applicable to the small optics cameras with high resolution. Second
Bornholdt, S.; Graudenz, D.
1993-07-01
A learning algorithm based on genetic algorithms for asymmetric neural networks with an arbitrary structure is presented. It is suited for the learning of temporal patterns and leads to stable neural networks with feedback.
Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*
Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.
2014-01-01
We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710
Statistical mechanics of simple models of protein folding and design.
Pande, V S; Grosberg, A Y; Tanaka, T
1997-01-01
It is now believed that the primary equilibrium aspects of simple models of protein folding are understood theoretically. However, current theories often resort to rather heavy mathematics to overcome some technical difficulties inherent in the problem or start from a phenomenological model. To this end, we take a new approach in this pedagogical review of the statistical mechanics of protein folding. The benefit of our approach is a drastic mathematical simplification of the theory, without resort to any new approximations or phenomenological prescriptions. Indeed, the results we obtain agree precisely with previous calculations. Because of this simplification, we are able to present here a thorough and self contained treatment of the problem. Topics discussed include the statistical mechanics of the random energy model (REM), tests of the validity of REM as a model for heteropolymer freezing, freezing transition of random sequences, phase diagram of designed ("minimally frustrated") sequences, and the degree to which errors in the interactions employed in simulations of either folding and design can still lead to correct folding behavior. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 PMID:9414231
Integrated design of castings: effect of porosity on mechanical performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardin, R. A.; Beckermann, C.
2012-07-01
Porosity can significantly reduce the strength and durability of castings in service. An integrated design approach has been developed where casting simulation is combined with mechanical performance simulations. Predictions of the porosity distribution from the casting process simulation are transferred to and used in stress and fatigue life simulations. Thus, the effect of casting quality on service performance can be evaluated. Results of a study are presented where the measured porosity distribution in cast steel specimens is transferred to an elasto-plastic finite-element stress analysis model. Methods are developed to locally reduce the mechanical properties according to the porosity present, without having to resolve individual pores. Plastic deformation is modeled using porous metal plasticity theory. The predictions are compared to tensile measurements performed on the specimens. The complex deformations and the reductions in the ductility of the specimens due to porosity are predicted well. The predicted stresses are transferred to a fatigue analysis code that takes the porosity distribution into account as well. The measured and predicted fatigue lives are also in good agreement. Finally, the results of a case study are presented that illustrate the utility of the present integrated approach in optimizing the design of a steel casting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yutong; Wang, Yuxin; Duffy, Alex H. B.
2014-11-01
Computer-based conceptual design for routine design has made great strides, yet non-routine design has not been given due attention, and it is still poorly automated. Considering that the function-behavior-structure(FBS) model is widely used for modeling the conceptual design process, a computer-based creativity enhanced conceptual design model(CECD) for non-routine design of mechanical systems is presented. In the model, the leaf functions in the FBS model are decomposed into and represented with fine-grain basic operation actions(BOA), and the corresponding BOA set in the function domain is then constructed. Choosing building blocks from the database, and expressing their multiple functions with BOAs, the BOA set in the structure domain is formed. Through rule-based dynamic partition of the BOA set in the function domain, many variants of regenerated functional schemes are generated. For enhancing the capability to introduce new design variables into the conceptual design process, and dig out more innovative physical structure schemes, the indirect function-structure matching strategy based on reconstructing the combined structure schemes is adopted. By adjusting the tightness of the partition rules and the granularity of the divided BOA subsets, and making full use of the main function and secondary functions of each basic structure in the process of reconstructing of the physical structures, new design variables and variants are introduced into the physical structure scheme reconstructing process, and a great number of simpler physical structure schemes to accomplish the overall function organically are figured out. The creativity enhanced conceptual design model presented has a dominant capability in introducing new deign variables in function domain and digging out simpler physical structures to accomplish the overall function, therefore it can be utilized to solve non-routine conceptual design problem.
Huang, Xiaoqiang; Han, Kehang; Zhu, Yushan
2013-01-01
A systematic optimization model for binding sequence selection in computational enzyme design was developed based on the transition state theory of enzyme catalysis and graph-theoretical modeling. The saddle point on the free energy surface of the reaction system was represented by catalytic geometrical constraints, and the binding energy between the active site and transition state was minimized to reduce the activation energy barrier. The resulting hyperscale combinatorial optimization problem was tackled using a novel heuristic global optimization algorithm, which was inspired and tested by the protein core sequence selection problem. The sequence recapitulation tests on native active sites for two enzyme catalyzed hydrolytic reactions were applied to evaluate the predictive power of the design methodology. The results of the calculation show that most of the native binding sites can be successfully identified if the catalytic geometrical constraints and the structural motifs of the substrate are taken into account. Reliably predicting active site sequences may have significant implications for the creation of novel enzymes that are capable of catalyzing targeted chemical reactions. PMID:23649589
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, J. S.; Tiwari, R.
2012-01-01
Design optimization of axial hybrid magnetic thrust bearings (with bias magnets) was carried out using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) and compared with the case of electromagnetic bearings (without bias magnets). Mathematical models of objective functions and associated constraints are presented and discussed. The different aspects of implemented MOEA are discussed. It is observed that the size of the bearing with bias magnets is considerably reduced as compared to the case of those without bias magnets, with the objective function as the minimization of weight for the same operating conditions. Similarly, current densities aret reduced drastically with biased magnets when the objective function is chosen as the minimization of the power loss. For illustration of various performances of the bearing, a typical design has been chosen from the final optimized population by an "a posteriori" approach. Sensitivities for both the objective functions with respect to the outer radius, the inner radius, and the height of coil are observed to be approximately in the ratio 2.5:1.6:1. Analysis of final optimized population has been carried out and is compared with the case without bias magnets and some salient points are observed in the case of using bias magnets.
The GLAS Science Algorithm Software (GSAS) Detailed Design Document Version 6. Volume 16
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jeffrey E.
2013-01-01
The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document describes the detailed design of GLAS Science Algorithm Software (GSAS). The GSAS is used to create the ICESat GLAS standard data products. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. The document contains descriptions, flow charts, data flow diagrams, and structure charts for each major component of the GSAS. The purpose of this document is to present the detailed design of the GSAS. It is intended as a reference source to assist the maintenance programmer in making changes that fix or enhance the documented software.
Huang, Xiaoqiang; Han, Kehang; Zhu, Yushan
2013-07-01
A systematic optimization model for binding sequence selection in computational enzyme design was developed based on the transition state theory of enzyme catalysis and graph-theoretical modeling. The saddle point on the free energy surface of the reaction system was represented by catalytic geometrical constraints, and the binding energy between the active site and transition state was minimized to reduce the activation energy barrier. The resulting hyperscale combinatorial optimization problem was tackled using a novel heuristic global optimization algorithm, which was inspired and tested by the protein core sequence selection problem. The sequence recapitulation tests on native active sites for two enzyme catalyzed hydrolytic reactions were applied to evaluate the predictive power of the design methodology. The results of the calculation show that most of the native binding sites can be successfully identified if the catalytic geometrical constraints and the structural motifs of the substrate are taken into account. Reliably predicting active site sequences may have significant implications for the creation of novel enzymes that are capable of catalyzing targeted chemical reactions.
The Design of Mechanically Compatible Fasteners for Human Mandible Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Jack C.; Ecker, John A.; Biermann, Paul J.
1993-01-01
Mechanically compatible fasteners for use with thin or weakened bone sections in the human mandible are being developed to help reduce large strain discontinuities across the bone/implant interface. Materials being considered for these fasteners are a polyetherertherketone (PEEK) resin with continuous quartz or carbon fiber for the screw. The screws were designed to have a shear strength equivalent to that of compact/trabecular bone and to be used with a conventional nut, nut plate, or an expandable shank/blind nut made of a ceramic filled polymer. Physical and finite element models of the mandible were developed in order to help select the best material fastener design. The models replicate the softer inner core of trabecular bone and the hard outer shell of compact bone. The inner core of the physical model consisted of an expanding foam and the hard outer shell consisted of ceramic particles in an epoxy matrix. This model has some of the cutting and drilling attributes of bone and may be appropriate as an educational tool for surgeons and medical students. The finite element model was exercised to establish boundary conditions consistent with the stress profiles associated with mandible bite forces and muscle loads. Work is continuing to compare stress/strain profiles of a reconstructed mandible with the results from the finite element model. When optimized, these design and fastening techniques may be applicable, not only to other skeletal structures, but to any composite structure.
Optimal structural design via optimality criteria as a nonsmooth mechanics problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzaferopoulos, M. Ap.; Stravroulakis, G. E.
1995-06-01
In the theory of plastic structural design via optimality criteria (due to W. Prager), the optimal design problem is transformed to a nonlinear elastic structural analysis problem with appropriate stress-strain laws, which generally include complete vertical branches. In this context, the concept of structural universe (in the sense of G. Rozvany) permits the treatment of complicated optimal layout problems. Recent progress in the field of nonsmooth mechanics makes the solution of structural analysis problems with this kind of 'complete' law possible. Elements from the two fields are combined in this paper for the solution of optimal design and layout problems for structures. The optimal layout of plane trusses with various specific cost functions is studied here as a representative problem. The use of convex, continuous and piecewise linear specific cost functions for the structural members leads to problems of linear variational inequalities or equivalently piecewise linear, convex but nonsmooth optimization problems, which are solved by means of an iterative algorithm based on sequential linear programming techniques. Numerical examples illustrate the theory and its applicability to practical engineering structures. Following a parametric investigation of an optimal bridge design, certain aspects of the optimal truss layout problem are discussed, which can be extended to other types of structural systems as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, P. M.; Kollat, J. B.
2005-12-01
This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a modified version of Deb's Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which the authors have named the Epsilon-Dominance Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (Epsilon-NSGAII), at solving a four objective long-term groundwater monitoring (LTM) design test case. The Epsilon-NSGAII incorporates prior theoretical competent evolutionary algorithm (EA) design concepts and epsilon-dominance archiving to improve the original NSGAII's efficiency, reliability, and ease-of-use. This algorithm eliminates much of the traditional trial-and-error parameterization associated with evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) through epsilon-dominance archiving, dynamic population sizing, and automatic termination. The effectiveness and reliability of the new algorithm is compared to the original NSGAII as well as two other benchmark multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs), the Epsilon-Dominance Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (Epsilon-MOEA) and the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2). These MOEAs have been selected because they have been demonstrated to be highly effective at solving numerous multi-objective problems. The results presented in this study indicate superior performance of the Epsilon-NSGAII in terms of the hypervolume indicator, unary Epsilon-indicator, and first-order empirical attainment function metrics. In addition, the runtime metric results indicate that the diversity and convergence dynamics of the Epsilon-NSGAII are competitive to superior relative to the SPEA2, with both algorithms greatly outperforming the NSGAII and Epsilon-MOEA in terms of these metrics. The improvements in performance of the Epsilon-NSGAII over its parent algorithm the NSGAII demonstrate that the application of Epsilon-dominance archiving, dynamic population sizing with archive injection, and automatic termination greatly improve algorithm efficiency and reliability. In addition, the usability of
Jou, Jonathan D; Jain, Swati; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Donald, Bruce R
2016-06-01
Sparse energy functions that ignore long range interactions between residue pairs are frequently used by protein design algorithms to reduce computational cost. Current dynamic programming algorithms that fully exploit the optimal substructure produced by these energy functions only compute the GMEC. This disproportionately favors the sequence of a single, static conformation and overlooks better binding sequences with multiple low-energy conformations. Provable, ensemble-based algorithms such as A* avoid this problem, but A* cannot guarantee better performance than exhaustive enumeration. We propose a novel, provable, dynamic programming algorithm called Branch-Width Minimization* (BWM*) to enumerate a gap-free ensemble of conformations in order of increasing energy. Given a branch-decomposition of branch-width w for an n-residue protein design with at most q discrete side-chain conformations per residue, BWM* returns the sparse GMEC in O([Formula: see text]) time and enumerates each additional conformation in merely O([Formula: see text]) time. We define a new measure, Total Effective Search Space (TESS), which can be computed efficiently a priori before BWM* or A* is run. We ran BWM* on 67 protein design problems and found that TESS discriminated between BWM*-efficient and A*-efficient cases with 100% accuracy. As predicted by TESS and validated experimentally, BWM* outperforms A* in 73% of the cases and computes the full ensemble or a close approximation faster than A*, enumerating each additional conformation in milliseconds. Unlike A*, the performance of BWM* can be predicted in polynomial time before running the algorithm, which gives protein designers the power to choose the most efficient algorithm for their particular design problem.
Zhu, Di; Schubert, Martin F.; Cho, Jaehee; Schubert, E. Fred; Crawford, Mary H.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Shim, Hyunwook; Sone, Cheolsoo
2012-01-01
Light-emitting diodes are becoming the next-generation light source because of their prominent benefits in energy efficiency, versatility, and benign environmental impact. However, because of the unique polarization effects in III–V nitrides and the high complexity of light-emitting diodes, further breakthroughs towards truly optimized devices are required. Here we introduce the concept of artificial evolution into the device optimization process. Reproduction and selection are accomplished by means of an advanced genetic algorithm and device simulator, respectively. We demonstrate that this approach can lead to new device structures that go beyond conventional approaches. The innovative designs originating from the genetic algorithm and the demonstration of the predicted results by implementing structures suggested by the algorithm establish a new avenue for complex semiconductor device design and optimization.
Mechanical design of SIFS SOAR integral field unit spectrograph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macanhan, Vanessa B. P.; Santoro, Fernando G.; Gneiding, Clemens D.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Lourenço, Fernando; Barbuy, Beatriz; Lépine, Jacques R. D.; Figueiredo, Militäo V.; Silva, Paulo F.; Castilho, Bruno; Ribeiro, Flavio F.; de Arruda, Marcio V.; Gutierrez, Arturo M.; Zambretti, Luiz R.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Di Pintor Da Luz, Henrique; da Silva, José M.
2010-07-01
The SOAR Integral Field Unit Spectrograph (SIFS) is fed by an integral field unit composed of a bi-dimensional arrangement of 1300 optical fibers. It has been developed in Brazil by a team of scientists and engineers led by the National Laboratory of Astrophysics (MCT/LNA) and the Department of Astronomy of the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences of the University of São Paulo (IAG/USP). It comprises three major subsystems; a fore-optics installed on the Nasmyth port of the telescope or the SOAR Adaptive Optics Module, a 14-m optical fiber IFU, and a bench-mounted spectrograph installed on the telescope fork. SIFS is successfully assembled and tested on the SOAR Telescope in Chile and has now moved to the commissioning phase. This paper reports on technical characteristics of the mechanical design and the assembly, integration and technical activities.
Mechanism of resonant perfect optical absorber, design rules, and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Wenqiang; Xu, Hongxing
2016-11-01
The mechanism of resonant perfect optical absorber (POA) is revealed by coupled mode method. The POA structures here is an air/grating/film/air four region asymmetric structures. Different with common POA structures that require metal film at the bottom to block the transmission of light, the film in our structures serves as a total internal reflection layer which blocks the transmission of light. To demonstrate that, mode dispersion analyses are provided for each mode by the phase plots of the scattering coefficients on each interface. The sufficient and necessary conditions of perfect optical absorption are derived from the phase matching conditions. Three analytical formulae are given for prompt and accurate design rules when the incident wavelength is slightly larger than the periodicity. Several fabrication schemes are discussed. The features of ultrathin structures, widely tunable POA wavelength, and high Q factor make our structures promising for applications in coherent thermal emission, filtering, sensing and modulation.
Chen, Wen-Gong; Uang, Chii-Maw; Jou, Chen-Hai
2007-08-06
A two-layered Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm (HGA) was proposed in a previous paper to solve the design problem of a large scale Fresnel lens used in a multiple-source lighting system. The research objective of this paper is to extend the previous work by utilizing a three-layered HGA. The goal of the suggested approach is to decrease the reliance on deciding the number of groove segments for the designed Fresnel lenses, as well as to increase the variety of groove angles in a segment to improve the performance of the designed Fresnel lens. The proposed algorithm will be applied on a simulated reading light system, and the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach not only makes the design of a large scale Fresnel lens more feasible but also works better than the previous one in both illuminance and uniformity for a simulated reading light system.
The fern cavitation catapult: mechanism and design principles.
Llorens, C; Argentina, M; Rojas, N; Westbrook, J; Dumais, J; Noblin, X
2016-01-01
Leptosporangiate ferns have evolved an ingenious cavitation catapult to disperse their spores. The mechanism relies almost entirely on the annulus, a row of 12-25 cells, which successively: (i) stores energy by evaporation of the cells' content, (ii) triggers the catapult by internal cavitation, and (iii) controls the time scales of energy release to ensure efficient spore ejection. The confluence of these three biomechanical functions within the confines of a single structure suggests a level of sophistication that goes beyond most man-made devices where specific structures or parts rarely serve more than one function. Here, we study in detail the three phases of spore ejection in the sporangia of the fern Polypodium aureum. For each of these phases, we have written the governing equations and measured the key parameters. For the opening of the sporangium, we show that the structural design of the annulus is particularly well suited to inducing bending deformations in response to osmotic volume changes. Moreover, the measured parameters for the osmoelastic design lead to a near-optimal speed of spore ejection (approx. 10 m s(-1)). Our analysis of the trigger mechanism by cavitation points to a critical cavitation pressure of approximately -100 ± 14 bar, a value that matches the most negative pressures recorded in the xylem of plants. Finally, using high-speed imaging, we elucidated the physics leading to the sharp separation of time scales (30 versus 5000 µs) in the closing dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of the precise tuning of the parameters without which the function of the leptosporangium as a catapult would be severely compromised.
The fern cavitation catapult: mechanism and design principles
Llorens, C.; Argentina, M.; Rojas, N.; Westbrook, J.; Dumais, J.; Noblin, X.
2016-01-01
Leptosporangiate ferns have evolved an ingenious cavitation catapult to disperse their spores. The mechanism relies almost entirely on the annulus, a row of 12–25 cells, which successively: (i) stores energy by evaporation of the cells’ content, (ii) triggers the catapult by internal cavitation, and (iii) controls the time scales of energy release to ensure efficient spore ejection. The confluence of these three biomechanical functions within the confines of a single structure suggests a level of sophistication that goes beyond most man-made devices where specific structures or parts rarely serve more than one function. Here, we study in detail the three phases of spore ejection in the sporangia of the fern Polypodium aureum. For each of these phases, we have written the governing equations and measured the key parameters. For the opening of the sporangium, we show that the structural design of the annulus is particularly well suited to inducing bending deformations in response to osmotic volume changes. Moreover, the measured parameters for the osmoelastic design lead to a near-optimal speed of spore ejection (approx. 10 m s–1). Our analysis of the trigger mechanism by cavitation points to a critical cavitation pressure of approximately −100 ± 14 bar, a value that matches the most negative pressures recorded in the xylem of plants. Finally, using high-speed imaging, we elucidated the physics leading to the sharp separation of time scales (30 versus 5000 µs) in the closing dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of the precise tuning of the parameters without which the function of the leptosporangium as a catapult would be severely compromised. PMID:26763327
An integrated mechanical design concept for the final focusingregion for the HIF point design
Brown, T.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Barnard, J.J.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Chun,J.; Schmidt, J.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Abbott, R.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Pemberton, S.J.; Rose, D.V.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.
2002-11-21
A design study was undertaken to develop a ''first cut'' integrated mechanical design concept of the final focusing region for a conceptual IFE power plant that considers the major issues which must be addressed in an integrated driver and chamber system. The conceptual design in this study requires a total of 120 beamlines located in two conical arrays attached on the sides of the target chamber 180 degrees apart. Each beamline consists of four large-aperture superconducting quadrupole magnets and a dipole magnet. The major interface issues include radiation shielding and thermal insulation of the superconducting magnets; reaction of electromagnetic loads between the quadrupoles; alignment of the magnets; isolation of the vacuum regions in the target chamber from the beamline, and assembly and maintenance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrell, R. A.; Odoherty, R. J.; Ramsey, H. R.; Reynolds, C. C.; Willoughby, J. K.; Working, R. D.
1975-01-01
Data and analyses related to a variety of algorithms for solving typical large-scale scheduling and resource allocation problems are presented. The capabilities and deficiencies of various alternative problem solving strategies are discussed from the viewpoint of computer system design.
Mechanical and thermal design of the Cascade reactor
Pitts, J.H.
1983-01-01
We present an improved Cascade fusion reaction chamber that is optimized with respect to chamber radius, wall thickness, and pebble blanket outlet temperature. We show results of a parameter study where we varied chamber radius from 3 to 6 m, wall thickness from 15 to 80 mm, and blanket outlet temperature from 900 to 1400 K. Based on these studies, we achieved an optimized chamber with 50% the volume of the original design and 60% of its blanket. Chamber radius is only 4.4 m and its half length is only 5.9 m, decreased from the original 5-m radius and 8-m half-length. In our optimization method, we calculate both thermal and mechanical stresses resulting from x-ray, fusion-pellet-debris, and neutron-generated momentum, pressure from ablated material, centrifugal action, vacuum inside the chamber, and gravity. We add the mechanical stresses to thermal stresses and keep the total less than the yield stress. Further, we require that fluctuations in these stresses be less than that which would produce creep-fatigue failure within the chamber 30-year lifetime.
Designing allostery-inspired response in mechanical networks.
Rocks, Jason W; Pashine, Nidhi; Bischofberger, Irmgard; Goodrich, Carl P; Liu, Andrea J; Nagel, Sidney R
2017-03-07
Recent advances in designing metamaterials have demonstrated that global mechanical properties of disordered spring networks can be tuned by selectively modifying only a small subset of bonds. Here, using a computationally efficient approach, we extend this idea to tune more general properties of networks. With nearly complete success, we are able to produce a strain between any two target nodes in a network in response to an applied source strain on any other pair of nodes by removing only ∼1% of the bonds. We are also able to control multiple pairs of target nodes, each with a different individual response, from a single source, and to tune multiple independent source/target responses simultaneously into a network. We have fabricated physical networks in macroscopic 2D and 3D systems that exhibit these responses. This work is inspired by the long-range coupled conformational changes that constitute allosteric function in proteins. The fact that allostery is a common means for regulation in biological molecules suggests that it is a relatively easy property to develop through evolution. In analogy, our results show that long-range coupled mechanical responses are similarly easy to achieve in disordered networks.
Designing allostery-inspired response in mechanical networks
Rocks, Jason W.; Pashine, Nidhi; Bischofberger, Irmgard; Goodrich, Carl P.; Liu, Andrea J.; Nagel, Sidney R.
2017-01-01
Recent advances in designing metamaterials have demonstrated that global mechanical properties of disordered spring networks can be tuned by selectively modifying only a small subset of bonds. Here, using a computationally efficient approach, we extend this idea to tune more general properties of networks. With nearly complete success, we are able to produce a strain between any two target nodes in a network in response to an applied source strain on any other pair of nodes by removing only ∼1% of the bonds. We are also able to control multiple pairs of target nodes, each with a different individual response, from a single source, and to tune multiple independent source/target responses simultaneously into a network. We have fabricated physical networks in macroscopic 2D and 3D systems that exhibit these responses. This work is inspired by the long-range coupled conformational changes that constitute allosteric function in proteins. The fact that allostery is a common means for regulation in biological molecules suggests that it is a relatively easy property to develop through evolution. In analogy, our results show that long-range coupled mechanical responses are similarly easy to achieve in disordered networks. PMID:28223534
Design and Mechanism of Tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA Aminotransferase Inactivators
Le, Hoang V.; Hawker, Dustin D.; Wu, Rui; Doud, Emma; Widom, Julia; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Liu, Dali; Kelleher, Neil L.; Silverman, Richard B.
2015-01-01
Low levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of two major neurotransmitters that regulate brain neuronal activity, are associated with many neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and cocaine addiction. One of the main methods to raise the GABA level in human brain is to use small molecules that cross the blood-brain barrier and inhibit the activity of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme that degrades GABA. We have designed a series of conformationally-restricted, tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA analogs with a properly-positioned leaving group that could facilitate a ring-opening mechanism, leading to inactivation of GABA-AT. One compound in the series is eight times more efficient an inactivator of GABA-AT than vigabatrin, the only FDA-approved inactivator of GABA-AT. Our mechanistic studies show that the compound inactivates GABA-AT by a new mechanism. The metabolite resulting from inactivation does not covalently bind to amino acid residues of GABA-AT but stays in the active site via H-bond interactions with Arg-192, a π-π interaction with Phe-189, and a weak nonbonded S···O=C interaction with Glu-270, thereby inactivating the enzyme. PMID:25781189
HIV-1 neutralization: mechanisms and relevance to vaccine design.
Zwick, Michael B; Burton, Dennis R
2007-11-01
Antibody (Ab) mediated neutralization is a crucial means of host resistance to many pathogens and will most likely be required in the development of a vaccine to protect against HIV-1. Here we examine mechanistic aspects of HIV-1 neutralization with attention to recent studies on the stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters involved. Neutralization of HIV-1, as with any microbe, minimally requires an initial molecular encounter with Ab. Ab occupancy of functional heterotrimers of the envelope glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41 (Env), indeed appears to be the dominant mechanism of neutralization for HIV-1. However, the Ab-binding site, the parameters mentioned above, as well as the stages and duration of vulnerability to Ab recognition, prior to and leading up to viral entry, each have a distinct impact on the mechanism of neutralization for any given Ab specificity. With HIV-1, the problems of mutational variation and neutralization resistance, coupled with the lability and conformational heterogeneity in Env, have stimulated the search for rational approaches to Env immunogen design that are unprecedented in vaccinology.
Designing the Structure of Carbon Fibers for Optimal Mechanical Properties
Ozcan, Soydan; Vautard, Frederic; Naskar, Amit K
2014-01-01
Carbon fiber manufacturing follows generic processing steps: formation of thermoplastic fibers, stabilization, and carbonization. The final structures and end properties of the carbon fiber can differ significantly depending on the precursor chemistry and the associated processing sciences. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and mesophase pitch are the predominant precursors used in the production of carbon fibers. PAN-based carbon fibers consist of nanocrystalline graphitic domains typically 1.5 5 nm in size surrounded by amorphous carbon; in contrast, pitch-based carbon fibers are 10 50 nm crystallites with the graphitic (002) planes mostly aligned parallel to the fiber axis. It has been seen that the skin core structure of PAN-based carbon fibers plays a significant role in their mechanical properties. Designing a more homogenous carbon fiber microstructure by controlling the starting polymer and process parameters results in a different set of tensile strengths and elastic moduli. In this study the microstructural defect distribution (0.1 200 nm), measured by small-angle X-ray scattering, was shown to be directly related to the tensile strength of the carbon fibers. Here the formation of carbon structures from various polymer precursors is reviewed. Such a comprehensive understanding offers the opportunity to design carbon fiber microstructures with improved properties and to ultimately create new types of carbon fibers from alternative precursors at reduced cost.
Design of synchromesh mechanism to optimization manual transmission's electric vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zainuri, Fuad; Sumarsono, Danardono A.; Adhitya, Muhammad; Siregar, Rolan
2017-03-01
Significant research has been attempted on a vehicle that lead to the development of transmission that can reduce energy consumption and improve vehicle efficiency. Consumers also expect safety, convenience, and competitive prices. Automatic transmission (AT), continuously variable transmission (CVT), and dual clutch transmission (DCT) is the latest transmission developed for road vehicle. From literature reviews that have been done that this transmission is less effective on electric cars which use batteries as a power source compared to type manual transmission, this is due to the large power losses when making gear changes. Zeroshift system is the transmission can do shift gears with no time (zero time). It was developed for the automatic manual transmission, and this transmission has been used on racing vehicles to eliminate deceleration when gear shift. Zeroshift transmission still use the clutch to change gear in which electromechanical be used to replace the clutch pedal. Therefore, the transmission is too complex for the transmission of electric vehicles, but its mechanism is considered very suitable to increase the transmission efficiency. From this idea, a new innovation design transmission will be created to electric car. The combination synchromesh with zeroshift mechanism for the manual transmission is a transmission that is ideal for improving the transmission efficiency. Installation synchromesh on zeroshift mechanism is expected to replace the function of the clutch MT, and assisted with the motor torque setting when to change gear. Additionally to consider is the weight of the transmission, ease of manufacturing, ease of installation with an electric motor, as well as ease of use by drivers is a matter that must be done to obtain a new transmission system that is suitable for electric cars.
Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Quaade, Ulrich J; Vegge, Tejs
2014-09-28
Metal halide ammines have great potential as a future, high-density energy carrier in vehicles. So far known materials, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, are not suitable for automotive, fuel cell applications, because the release of ammonia is a multi-step reaction, requiring too much heat to be supplied, making the total efficiency lower. Here, we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to predict new mixed metal halide ammines with improved storage capacities and the ability to release the stored ammonia in one step, at temperatures suitable for system integration with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). We use genetic algorithms (GAs) to search for materials containing up to three different metals (alkaline-earth, 3d and 4d) and two different halides (Cl, Br and I) - almost 27,000 combinations, and have identified novel mixtures, with significantly improved storage capacities. The size of the search space and the chosen fitness function make it possible to verify that the found candidates are the best possible candidates in the search space, proving that the GA implementation is ideal for this kind of computational materials design, requiring calculations on less than two percent of the candidates to identify the global optimum.
Comparison of simulated quenching algorithms for design of diffractive optical elements.
Liu, J S; Caley, A J; Waddie, A J; Taghizadeh, M R
2008-02-20
We compare the performance of very fast simulated quenching; generalized simulated quenching, which unifies classical Boltzmann simulated quenching and Cauchy fast simulated quenching; and variable step size simulated quenching. The comparison is carried out by applying these algorithms to the design of diffractive optical elements for beam shaping of monochromatic, spatially incoherent light to a tightly focused image spot, whose central lobe should be smaller than the geometrical-optics limit. For generalized simulated quenching we choose values of visiting and acceptance shape parameters recommended by other investigators and use both a one-dimensional and a multidimensional Tsallis random number generator. We find that, under our test conditions, variable step size simulated quenching, which generates each parameter's new states based on the acceptance ratio instead of a certain theoretical probability distribution, produces the best results. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally a tightly focused image spot, with a central lobe 0.22-0.68 times the geometrical-optics limit and a relative sidelobe intensity 55%-60% that of the central maximum intensity.
Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects
Mandal, Saptarshi
2016-01-01
Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1) participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2) visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1) developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs) in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2) introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT) that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3) finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC) operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs) interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance. PMID:27725830
Towards the optimal design of an uncemented acetabular component using genetic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Rajesh; Pratihar, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay
2015-12-01
Aseptic loosening of the acetabular component (hemispherical socket of the pelvic bone) has been mainly attributed to bone resorption and excessive generation of wear particle debris. The aim of this study was to determine optimal design parameters for the acetabular component that would minimize bone resorption and volumetric wear. Three-dimensional finite element models of intact and implanted pelvises were developed using data from computed tomography scans. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated and solved using a genetic algorithm. A combination of suitable implant material and corresponding set of optimal thicknesses of the component was obtained from the Pareto-optimal front of solutions. The ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component generated considerably greater volumetric wear but lower bone density loss compared to carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) and ceramic. CFR-PEEK was located in the range between ceramic and UHMWPE. Although ceramic appeared to be a viable alternative to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, CFR-PEEK seems to be the most promising alternative material.
Design of an iterative auto-tuning algorithm for a fuzzy PID controller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saeed, Bakhtiar I.; Mehrdadi, B.
2012-05-01
Since the first application of fuzzy logic in the field of control engineering, it has been extensively employed in controlling a wide range of applications. The human knowledge on controlling complex and non-linear processes can be incorporated into a controller in the form of linguistic terms. However, with the lack of analytical design study it is becoming more difficult to auto-tune controller parameters. Fuzzy logic controller has several parameters that can be adjusted, such as: membership functions, rule-base and scaling gains. Furthermore, it is not always easy to find the relation between the type of membership functions or rule-base and the controller performance. This study proposes a new systematic auto-tuning algorithm to fine tune fuzzy logic controller gains. A fuzzy PID controller is proposed and applied to several second order systems. The relationship between the closed-loop response and the controller parameters is analysed to devise an auto-tuning method. The results show that the proposed method is highly effective and produces zero overshoot with enhanced transient response. In addition, the robustness of the controller is investigated in the case of parameter changes and the results show a satisfactory performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.
2013-12-01
Population growth and climate change, combined with difficulties in building new infrastructure, motivate portfolio-based solutions to ensuring sufficient water supply. Powerful simulation models with graphical user interfaces (GUI) are often used to evaluate infrastructure portfolios; these GUI based models require manual modification of the system parameters, such as reservoir operation rules, water transfer schemes, or system capacities. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) based optimization can be employed to balance multiple objectives and automatically suggest designs for infrastructure systems, but MOEA based decision support typically uses a fixed problem formulation (i.e., a single set of objectives, decisions, and constraints). This presentation suggests a dynamic framework for linking GUI-based infrastructure models with MOEA search. The framework begins with an initial formulation which is solved using a MOEA. Then, stakeholders can interact with candidate solutions, viewing their properties in the GUI model. This is followed by changes in the formulation which represent users' evolving understanding of exigent system properties. Our case study is built using RiverWare, an object-oriented, data-centered model that facilitates the representation of a diverse array of water resources systems. Results suggest that assumptions within the initial MOEA search are violated after investigating tradeoffs and reveal how formulations should be modified to better capture stakeholders' preferences.
[siRNAs with high specificity to the target: a systematic design by CRM algorithm].
Alsheddi, T; Vasin, L; Meduri, R; Randhawa, M; Glazko, G; Baranova, A
2008-01-01
'Off-target' silencing effect hinders the development of siRNA-based therapeutic and research applications. Common solution to this problem is an employment of the BLAST that may miss significant alignments or an exhaustive Smith-Waterman algorithm that is very time-consuming. We have developed a Comprehensive Redundancy Minimizer (CRM) approach for mapping all unique sequences ("targets") 9-to-15 nt in size within large sets of sequences (e.g. transcriptomes). CRM outputs a list of potential siRNA candidates for every transcript of the particular species. These candidates could be further analyzed by traditional "set-of-rules" types of siRNA designing tools. For human, 91% of transcripts are covered by candidate siRNAs with kernel targets of N = 15. We tested our approach on the collection of previously described experimentally assessed siRNAs and found that the correlation between efficacy and presence in CRM-approved set is significant (r = 0.215, p-value = 0.0001). An interactive database that contains a precompiled set of all human siRNA candidates with minimized redundancy is available at http://129.174.194.243. Application of the CRM-based filtering minimizes potential "off-target" silencing effects and could improve routine siRNA applications.
Lehtonen, Heidi-Maria; Pekonen, Jussi; Välimäki, Vesa
2012-10-01
This paper investigates the audibility threshold of aliasing in computer-generated sawtooth signals. Listening tests were conducted to find out how much the aliased frequency components below and above the fundamental must be attenuated for them to be inaudible. The tested tones comprised the fundamental frequencies 415, 932, 1480, 2093, 3136, and 3951 Hz, presented at 60-dB SPL and 44.1-kHz sampling rate. The results indicate that above the fundamental the aliased components must be attenuated 0, 19, 26, 27, 32, and 41 dB for the corresponding fundamental frequencies, and below the fundamental the attenuation of 0, 3, 6, 11, 12, and 11 dB, respectively, is sufficient. The results imply that the frequency-masking phenomenon affects the perception of aliasing and that the masking effect is more prominent above the fundamental than below it. The A-weighted noise-to-mask ratio is proposed as a suitable quality measure for sawtooth signals containing aliasing. It was shown that the bandlimited impulse train, the differentiated parabolic waveform, and the fourth-order polynomial bandlimited step function synthesis algorithms are perceptually alias-free up to 1, 2, and 4 kHz, respectively. General design rules for antialiasing sawtooth oscillators are derived based on the results and on knowledge of level-dependence of masking.
Anderson, Eric J; Knothe Tate, Melissa L
2007-10-01
New approaches to tissue engineering aim to exploit endogenous strategies such as those occurring in prenatal development and recapitulated during postnatal healing. Defining tissue template specifications to mimic the environment of the condensed mesenchyme during development allows for exploitation of tissue scaffolds as delivery devices for extrinsic cues, including biochemical and mechanical signals, to drive the fate of mesenchymal stem cells seeded within. Although a variety of biochemical signals that modulate stem cell fate have been identified, the mechanical signals conducive to guiding pluripotent cells toward specific lineages are less well characterized. Furthermore, not only is spatial and temporal control of mechanical stimuli to cells challenging, but also tissue template geometries vary with time due to tissue ingrowth and/or scaffold degradation. Hence, a case study was carried out to analyze flow regimes in a testbed scaffold as a first step toward optimizing scaffold architecture. A pressure gradient was applied to produce local (nm-micron) flow fields conducive to migration, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of cells seeded within, as well as global flow parameters (micron-mm), including flow velocity and permeability, to enhance directed cell infiltration and augment mass transport. Iterative occlusion of flow channel dimensions was carried out to predict virtually the effect of temporal geometric variation (e.g., due to tissue development and growth) on delivery of local and global mechanical signals. Thereafter, insights from the case study were generalized to present an optimization scheme for future development of scaffolds to be implemented in vitro or in vivo. Although it is likely that manufacture and testing will be required to finalize design specifications, it is expected that the use of the rational design optimization will reduce the number of iterations required to determine final prototype geometries and flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Zhong-Liang; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Guang-Zhao
2016-04-01
The hybrid CMOS molecular (CMOL) circuit, which combines complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) components with nanoscale wires and switches, can exhibit significantly improved performance. In CMOL circuits, the nanodevices, which are called cells, should be placed appropriately and are connected by nanowires. The cells should be connected such that they follow the shortest path. This paper presents an efficient method of cell allocation in CMOL circuits with the hybrid CMOS/nanodevice structure; the method is based on a cultural algorithm with chaotic behavior. The optimal model of cell allocation is derived, and the coding of an individual representing a cell allocation is described. Then the cultural algorithm with chaotic behavior is designed to solve the optimal model. The cultural algorithm consists of a population space, a belief space, and a protocol that describes how knowledge is exchanged between the population and belief spaces. In this paper, the evolutionary processes of the population space employ a genetic algorithm in which three populations undergo parallel evolution. The evolutionary processes of the belief space use a chaotic ant colony algorithm. Extensive experiments on cell allocation in benchmark circuits showed that a low area usage can be obtained using the proposed method, and the computation time can be reduced greatly compared to that of a conventional genetic algorithm.
First-principles modeling of catalysts: novel algorithms and reaction mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, Bryan Goldsmith
A molecular level understanding of a reaction mechanism and the computation of rates requires knowledge of the stable structures and the corresponding transition states that connect them. Temperature, pressure, and environment effects must be included to bridge the 'materials gap' so one can reasonably compare ab initio (first-principles, i.e., having no empirical parameters) predictions with experimental measurements. In this thesis, a few critical problems pertaining to ab initio modeling of catalytic systems are addressed; namely, 1) the issue of building representative models of isolated metal atoms grafted on amorphous supports, 2) modeling inorganic catalytic reactions in non-ideal solutions where the solvent participates in the reaction mechanism, and 3) bridging the materials gap using ab initio thermodynamics to predict the stability of supported nanoparticles under experimental reaction conditions. In Chapter I, a background on first-principles modeling of heterogeneous and homogenous catalysts is provided. Subsequently, to address the problem of modeling catalysis by isolated metal atoms on amorphous supports, we present in Chapter II a sequential-quadratic programming algorithm that systematically predicts the structure and reactivity of isolated active sites on insulating amorphous supports. Modeling solution phase reactions is also a considerable challenge for first-principles modeling, yet when done correctly it can yield critical kinetic and mechanistic insight that can guide experimental investigations. In Chapter III, we examine the formation of peroxorhenium complexes by activation of H2O2, which is key in selective oxidation reactions catalyzed by CH3ReO3 (methyltrioxorhenium, MTO). New experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted to better understand the activation of H2O2 by MTO and to provide a strong experimental foundation for benchmarking computational studies involving MTO and its derivatives. It was found
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatfield, David C.; Reeves, Melissa S.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Duneczky, Csilla; Schwenke, David W.
1992-01-01
Complex dense matrices corresponding to the D + H2 and O + HD reactions were solved using a complex generalized minimal residual (GMRes) algorithm described by Saad and Schultz (1986) and Saad (1990). To provide a test case with a different structure, the H + H2 system was also considered. It is shown that the computational effort for solutions with the GMRes algorithm depends on the dimension of the linear system, the total energy of the scattering problem, and the accuracy criterion. In several cases with dimensions in the range 1110-5632, the GMRes algorithm outperformed the LAPACK direct solver, with speedups for the linear equation solution as large as a factor of 23.
Hamilton, Lei; McConley, Marc; Angermueller, Kai; Goldberg, David; Corba, Massimiliano; Kim, Louis; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Sang Chin; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N
2015-08-01
A fully autonomous intracranial device is built to continually record neural activities in different parts of the brain, process these sampled signals, decode features that correlate to behaviors and neuropsychiatric states, and use these features to deliver brain stimulation in a closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we describe the sampling and stimulation aspects of such a device. We first describe the signal processing algorithms of two unsupervised spike sorting methods. Next, we describe the LFP time-frequency analysis and feature derivation from the two spike sorting methods. Spike sorting includes a novel approach to constructing a dictionary learning algorithm in a Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. We present a joint prediction scheme to determine the class of neural spikes in the dictionary learning framework; and, the second approach is a modified OSort algorithm which is implemented in a distributed system optimized for power efficiency. Furthermore, sorted spikes and time-frequency analysis of LFP signals can be used to generate derived features (including cross-frequency coupling, spike-field coupling). We then show how these derived features can be used in the design and development of novel decode and closed-loop control algorithms that are optimized to apply deep brain stimulation based on a patient's neuropsychiatric state. For the control algorithm, we define the state vector as representative of a patient's impulsivity, avoidance, inhibition, etc. Controller parameters are optimized to apply stimulation based on the state vector's current state as well as its historical values. The overall algorithm and software design for our implantable neural recording and stimulation system uses an innovative, adaptable, and reprogrammable architecture that enables advancement of the state-of-the-art in closed-loop neural control while also meeting the challenges of system power constraints and concurrent development with ongoing scientific research designed
QXP: powerful, rapid computer algorithms for structure-based drug design.
McMartin, C; Bohacek, R S
1997-07-01
New methods for docking, template fitting and building pseudo-receptors are described. Full conformational searches are carried out for flexible cyclic and acyclic molecules. QXP (quick explore) search algorithms are derived from the method of Monte Carlo perturbation with energy minimization in Cartesian space. An additional fast search step is introduced between the initial perturbation and energy minimization. The fast search produces approximate low-energy structures, which are likely to minimize to a low energy. For template fitting, QXP uses a superposition force field which automatically assigns short-range attractive forces to similar atoms in different molecules. The docking algorithms were evaluated using X-ray data for 12 protein-ligand complexes. The ligands had up to 24 rotatable bonds and ranged from highly polar to mostly nonpolar. Docking searches of the randomly disordered ligands gave rms differences between the lowest energy docked structure and the energy-minimized X-ray structure, of less than 0.76 A for 10 of the ligands. For all the ligands, the rms difference between the energy-minimized X-ray structure and the closest docked structure was less than 0.4 A, when parts of one of the molecules which are in the solvent were excluded from the rms calculation. Template fitting was tested using four ACE inhibitors. Three ACE templates have been previously published. A single run using QXP generated a series of templates which contained examples of each of the three. A pseudo-receptor, complementary to an ACE template, was built out of small molecules, such as pyrrole, cyclopentanone and propane. When individually energy minimized in the pseudo-receptor, each of the four ACE inhibitors moved with an rms of less than 0.25 A. After random perturbation, the inhibitors were docked into the pseudo-receptor. Each lowest energy docked structure matched the energy-minimized geometry with an rms of less than 0.08 A. Thus, the pseudo-receptor shows steric and
Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Ball spline pitch change mechanism design report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
Detailed design parameters are presented for a variable-pitch change mechanism. The mechanism is a mechanical system containing a ball screw/spline driving two counteracting master bevel gears meshing pinion gears attached to each of 18 fan blades.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hundhausen, Christopher D.; Brown, Jonathan L.
2008-01-01
Within the context of an introductory CS1 unit on algorithmic problem-solving, we are exploring the pedagogical value of a novel active learning activity--the "studio experience"--that actively engages learners with algorithm visualization technology. In a studio experience, student pairs are tasked with (a) developing a solution to an algorithm…
Minato, A; Sugimoto, N
1998-01-20
A four-element retroreflector was designed for satellite laser ranging and Earth-satellite-Earth laser long-path absorption measurement of the atmosphere. The retroreflector consists of four symmetrically located corner retroreflectors. Each retroreflector element has curved mirrors and tuned dihedral angles to correct velocity aberrations. A genetic algorithm was employed to optimize dihedral angles of each element and the directions of the four elements. The optimized four-element retroreflector has high reflectance with a reasonably broad angular coverage. It is also shown that the genetic algorithm is effective for optimizing optics with many parameters.
Hsu, Han-Jen; Wang, Jhing-Fa; Liao, Shang-Chia
2007-06-01
This work aims to develop a novel function of the digital camera, i.e., region-filling after object removal from a digital photograph. This problem is defined as how to "guess" the Lacuna region after removal of an object by replicating a part from the remainder of the whole image with visually plausible quality. We propose a hybrid region-filling algorithm composed of a texture synthesis technique and an efficient interpolation method with a refinement approach: 1) the "subpatch texture synthesis technique" can synthesize the Lacuna region with significant accuracy; 2) the "weighted interpolation method" is applied to reduce computaion time; and 3) the "artifact detection mechanism" integrates the Kirsch edge detector and color ratio gradients to detect the artifact blocks in the filled region after the first pass of filling the Lacuna region when the result may not be satisfactory. This can lead to resynthesizing the artifact blocks without user intervention and can be compliant to the unsuccessful results of other algorithms. In the procedure of region-filling, color texture distribution analysis is used to choose whether the subpatch texture synthesis technique or the weighted interpolation method should be applied. In the subpatch texture synthesis technique, the actual pixel values of the Lacuna region are synthesized by adaptively sampling from the source region. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm can achieve a better performance than previous methods. Particularly, the regular computation of our proposed algorithm is more suitable for implementation of the hardware in a digital camera.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whiffen, Gregory J.
2006-01-01
Mystic software is designed to compute, analyze, and visualize optimal high-fidelity, low-thrust trajectories, The software can be used to analyze inter-planetary, planetocentric, and combination trajectories, Mystic also provides utilities to assist in the operation and navigation of low-thrust spacecraft. Mystic will be used to design and navigate the NASA's Dawn Discovery mission to orbit the two largest asteroids, The underlying optimization algorithm used in the Mystic software is called Static/Dynamic Optimal Control (SDC). SDC is a nonlinear optimal control method designed to optimize both 'static variables' (parameters) and dynamic variables (functions of time) simultaneously. SDC is a general nonlinear optimal control algorithm based on Bellman's principal.
Computer programs: Mechanical and structural design criteria: A compilation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
Computerized design criteria for turbomachinery and the constraints imposed by very high rotational fields are presented along with a variety of computerized design criteria of interest to structural designers.