Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.
Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan
Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.
Using a genetic algorithm to solve fluid-flow problems
Pryor, R.J. )
1990-06-01
Genetic algorithms are based on the mechanics of the natural selection and natural genetics processes. These algorithms are finding increasing application to a wide variety of engineering optimization and machine learning problems. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a genetic algorithm to solve fluid flow problems. Specifically, the authors use the algorithm to solve the one-dimensional flow equations for a pipe.
Problem Solving Techniques for the Design of Algorithms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kant, Elaine; Newell, Allen
1984-01-01
Presents model of algorithm design (activity in software development) based on analysis of protocols of two subjects designing three convex hull algorithms. Automation methods, methods for studying algorithm design, role of discovery in problem solving, and comparison of different designs of case study according to model are highlighted.…
Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Solving Optimal Power Flow Problem
Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu
2013-01-01
This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790
Artificial bee colony algorithm for solving optimal power flow problem.
Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu; Vasant, Pandian
2013-01-01
This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790
Gradient Symplectic Algorithms for Solving Quantum Dynamical Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Siu A.; Chen, C. R.; Auer, J.; Krotscheck, E.
2002-03-01
Recent advances[1] in factorizing the classical and quantum evolution operator to fourth order with purely positive coefficients have produce a new class of Monte Carlo[2,3] and quantum dynamical algorithms[4,5] that are at least two orders of magnitude better than existing algorithms of comparble order. This talk will focus on solving the Schrodinger equation in real and imaginary time for the extraction of dynamical information and for the determination of eigenvalue-function pairs from large 3-D grids. References: [1]S. A. Chin, ``Symplectic Integrators From Composite Operator Factorizations" Phys. Lett. A226, 344 (1997). [2]H. A. Forbert and S. A. Chin ``Fourth-order algorithms for solving the multivariable Langevin equation and the Kramers equation", Phys. Rev. E63, 016703 (2001). [3]H. A. Forbert and S. A. Chin, ``Fourth-order diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms for solving quantum many-body problems", Phys. Rev. B63, 144518 (2001). [4]S. A. Chin and C. R. Chen, ``Fourth order gradient symplectic integrator methods for solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation", J. Chem. Phys. 114, 7338 (2001). [5]J. Auer, E. Krotscheck, and S. A. Chin, ``A fourth-order real-space algorithm for solving local Schrodinger equations", J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6841 (2001).
Solving a multistage partial inspection problem using genetic algorithms
Heredia-Langner, Alejandro ); Montgomery, D C.; Carlyle, W M.
2002-01-01
Traditionally, the multistage inspection problem has been formulated as consisting of a decision schedule where some manufacturing stages receive full inspection and the rest none. Dynamic programming and heuristic methods (like local search) are the most commonly used solution techniques. A highly constrained multistage inspection problem is presented where all stages must receive partial rectifying inspection and it is solved using a real-valued genetic algorithm. This solution technique can handle multiple objectives and quality constraints effectively.
High-Performance Algorithm for Solving the Diagnosis Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir; Vatan, Farrokh
2009-01-01
for IP to solve the diagnosis problem. In the IP approach, the diagnosis problem can be formulated as a linear integer optimization problem, which can be solved by use of well-developed integer-programming algorithms. This concludes the background information.
A domain decomposition algorithm for solving large elliptic problems
Nolan, M.P.
1991-01-01
AN algorithm which efficiently solves large systems of equations arising from the discretization of a single second-order elliptic partial differential equation is discussed. The global domain is partitioned into not necessarily disjoint subdomains which are traversed using the Schwarz Alternating Procedure. On each subdomain the multigrid method is used to advance the solution. The algorithm has the potential to decrease solution time when data is stored across multiple levels of a memory hierarchy. Results are presented for a virtual memory, vector multiprocessor architecture. A study of choice of inner iteration procedure and subdomain overlap is presented for a model problem, solved with two and four subdomains, sequentially and in parallel. Microtasking multiprocessing results are reported for multigrid on the Alliant FX-8 vector-multiprocessor. A convergence proof for a class of matrix splittings for the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation is given. 70 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Diana S.; Shell, Duane F.; Crawley, Frank E.
1997-01-01
Identifies and describes the differences in the problem-solving methods used by faculty teaching introductory chemistry and students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course. Results indicate that students correctly solve algorithmic-mode problems more frequently. Contains 33 references. (DDR)
General heuristics algorithms for solving capacitated arc routing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul; Masran, Hafiz
2015-05-01
In this paper, we try to determine the near-optimum solution for the capacitated arc routing problem (CARP). In general, NP-hard CARP is a special graph theory specifically arises from street services such as residential waste collection and road maintenance. By purpose, the design of the CARP model and its solution techniques is to find optimum (or near-optimum) routing cost for a fleet of vehicles involved in operation. In other words, finding minimum-cost routing is compulsory in order to reduce overall operation cost that related with vehicles. In this article, we provide a combination of various heuristics algorithm to solve a real case of CARP in waste collection and benchmark instances. These heuristics work as a central engine in finding initial solutions or near-optimum in search space without violating the pre-setting constraints. The results clearly show that these heuristics algorithms could provide good initial solutions in both real-life and benchmark instances.
An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong
2014-03-01
Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.
Solving Integer Programming Problems by Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akay, Bahriye; Karaboga, Dervis
This paper presents a study that applies the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm to integer programming problems and compares its performance with those of Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm variants and Branch and Bound technique presented to the literature. In order to cope with integer programming problems, in neighbour solution production unit, solutions are truncated to the nearest integer values. The experimental results show that Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can handle integer programming problems efficiently and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can be considered to be very robust by the statistics calculated such as mean, median, standard deviation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Leeuw, L.
Sixty-four fifth and sixth-grade pupils were taught number series extrapolation by either an algorithm, fully prescribed problem-solving method or a heuristic, less prescribed method. The trained problems were within categories of two degrees of complexity. There were 16 subjects in each cell of the 2 by 2 design used. Aptitude Treatment…
Solving the time dependent vehicle routing problem by metaheuristic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johar, Farhana; Potts, Chris; Bennell, Julia
2015-02-01
The problem we consider in this study is Time Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem (TDVRP) which has been categorized as non-classical VRP. It is motivated by the fact that multinational companies are currently not only manufacturing the demanded products but also distributing them to the customer location. This implies an efficient synchronization of production and distribution activities. Hence, this study will look into the routing of vehicles which departs from the depot at varies time due to the variation in manufacturing process. We consider a single production line where demanded products are being process one at a time once orders have been received from the customers. It is assumed that order released from the production line will be loaded into scheduled vehicle which ready to be delivered. However, the delivery could only be done once all orders scheduled in the vehicle have been released from the production line. Therefore, there could be lateness on the delivery process from awaiting all customers' order of the route to be released. Our objective is to determine a schedule for vehicle routing that minimizes the solution cost including the travelling and tardiness cost. A mathematical formulation is developed to represent the problem and will be solved by two metaheuristics; Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) and Tabu Search (TS). These algorithms will be coded in C ++ programming and run using 56's Solomon instances with some modification. The outcome of this experiment can be interpreted as the quality criteria of the different approximation methods. The comparison done shown that VNS gave the better results while consuming reasonable computational efforts.
Duan, Qian-Qian; Yang, Gen-Ke; Pan, Chang-Chun
2014-01-01
A hybrid optimization algorithm combining finite state method (FSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to solve the crude oil scheduling problem. The FSM and GA are combined to take the advantage of each method and compensate deficiencies of individual methods. In the proposed algorithm, the finite state method makes up for the weakness of GA which is poor at local searching ability. The heuristic returned by the FSM can guide the GA algorithm towards good solutions. The idea behind this is that we can generate promising substructure or partial solution by using FSM. Furthermore, the FSM can guarantee that the entire solution space is uniformly covered. Therefore, the combination of the two algorithms has better global performance than the existing GA or FSM which is operated individually. Finally, a real-life crude oil scheduling problem from the literature is used for conducting simulation. The experimental results validate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-art GA method. PMID:24772031
Modified cooperative immune algorithm for solving classification problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wójcik, Waldemar; Lytvynenko, Volodymyr; Smailova, Saule
2013-01-01
The way of the decision of a problem of classification by means of immune algorithm which is based on a principle of cooperation of antibodies of a population is offered. The formal description of structure of an antibody and ways of their association within the limits of a population in the computer network functioning as a unit is given. The way of an estimation of antibodies as elements of a network is considered. The basic phases of work of algorithm, such as are considered: growth of a network, a mutation of cells, compression of a network.
A hybrid cuckoo search algorithm with Nelder Mead method for solving global optimization problems.
Ali, Ahmed F; Tawhid, Mohamed A
2016-01-01
Cuckoo search algorithm is a promising metaheuristic population based method. It has been applied to solve many real life problems. In this paper, we propose a new cuckoo search algorithm by combining the cuckoo search algorithm with the Nelder-Mead method in order to solve the integer and minimax optimization problems. We call the proposed algorithm by hybrid cuckoo search and Nelder-Mead method (HCSNM). HCSNM starts the search by applying the standard cuckoo search for number of iterations then the best obtained solution is passing to the Nelder-Mead algorithm as an intensification process in order to accelerate the search and overcome the slow convergence of the standard cuckoo search algorithm. The proposed algorithm is balancing between the global exploration of the Cuckoo search algorithm and the deep exploitation of the Nelder-Mead method. We test HCSNM algorithm on seven integer programming problems and ten minimax problems and compare against eight algorithms for solving integer programming problems and seven algorithms for solving minimax problems. The experiments results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm and its ability to solve integer and minimax optimization problems in reasonable time. PMID:27217988
An efficient algorithm for solving the gravity problem of finding a density in a horizontal layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akimova, Elena N.; Martyshko, Peter S.; Misilov, Vladimir E.; Kosivets, Rostislav A.
2016-06-01
An efficient algorithm for solving the inverse gravity problem of finding a variable density in a horizontal layer using gravitational data is constructed. After the discretization and approximation, the problem reduces to solving a system of linear algebraic equations. The idea of this algorithm is based on exploiting the block-Toeplitz structure of coefficients matrix. Utilizing this algorithm drastically reduces the memory usage, as well as the computation time. The algorithm was parallelized and implemented using the Uran supercomputer. A model problem with synthetic gravitational data was solved.
Ontological Problem-Solving Framework for Dynamically Configuring Sensor Systems and Algorithms
Qualls, Joseph; Russomanno, David J.
2011-01-01
The deployment of ubiquitous sensor systems and algorithms has led to many challenges, such as matching sensor systems to compatible algorithms which are capable of satisfying a task. Compounding the challenges is the lack of the requisite knowledge models needed to discover sensors and algorithms and to subsequently integrate their capabilities to satisfy a specific task. A novel ontological problem-solving framework has been designed to match sensors to compatible algorithms to form synthesized systems, which are capable of satisfying a task and then assigning the synthesized systems to high-level missions. The approach designed for the ontological problem-solving framework has been instantiated in the context of a persistence surveillance prototype environment, which includes profiling sensor systems and algorithms to demonstrate proof-of-concept principles. Even though the problem-solving approach was instantiated with profiling sensor systems and algorithms, the ontological framework may be useful with other heterogeneous sensing-system environments. PMID:22163793
Greedy heuristic algorithm for solving series of eee components classification problems*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakovtsev, A. L.; Antamoshkin, A. N.; Fedosov, V. V.
2016-04-01
Algorithms based on using the agglomerative greedy heuristics demonstrate precise and stable results for clustering problems based on k- means and p-median models. Such algorithms are successfully implemented in the processes of production of specialized EEE components for using in space systems which include testing each EEE device and detection of homogeneous production batches of the EEE components based on results of the tests using p-median models. In this paper, authors propose a new version of the genetic algorithm with the greedy agglomerative heuristic which allows solving series of problems. Such algorithm is useful for solving the k-means and p-median clustering problems when the number of clusters is unknown. Computational experiments on real data show that the preciseness of the result decreases insignificantly in comparison with the initial genetic algorithm for solving a single problem.
Qualls, Joseph; Russomanno, David J.
2011-01-01
The lack of knowledge models to represent sensor systems, algorithms, and missions makes opportunistically discovering a synthesis of systems and algorithms that can satisfy high-level mission specifications impractical. A novel ontological problem-solving framework has been designed that leverages knowledge models describing sensors, algorithms, and high-level missions to facilitate automated inference of assigning systems to subtasks that may satisfy a given mission specification. To demonstrate the efficacy of the ontological problem-solving architecture, a family of persistence surveillance sensor systems and algorithms has been instantiated in a prototype environment to demonstrate the assignment of systems to subtasks of high-level missions. PMID:22164081
Salcedo-Sanz, S; Del Ser, J; Landa-Torres, I; Gil-López, S; Portilla-Figueras, J A
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems. PMID:25147860
Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Del Ser, J.; Landa-Torres, I.; Gil-López, S.; Portilla-Figueras, J. A.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems. PMID:25147860
Application of the artificial bee colony algorithm for solving the set covering problem.
Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo; Cuesta, Rodrigo; Paredes, Fernando
2014-01-01
The set covering problem is a formal model for many practical optimization problems. In the set covering problem the goal is to choose a subset of the columns of minimal cost that covers every row. Here, we present a novel application of the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost set covering problem. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. Experimental results show that our artificial bee colony algorithm is competitive in terms of solution quality with other recent metaheuristic approaches for the set covering problem. PMID:24883356
Neural Networks Art: Solving Problems with Multiple Solutions and New Teaching Algorithm
Dmitrienko, V. D; Zakovorotnyi, A. Yu.; Leonov, S. Yu.; Khavina, I. P
2014-01-01
A new discrete neural networks adaptive resonance theory (ART), which allows solving problems with multiple solutions, is developed. New algorithms neural networks teaching ART to prevent degradation and reproduction classes at training noisy input data is developed. Proposed learning algorithms discrete ART networks, allowing obtaining different classification methods of input. PMID:25246988
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marwati, Rini; Yulianti, Kartika; Pangestu, Herny Wulandari
2016-02-01
A fuzzy evolutionary algorithm is an integration of an evolutionary algorithm and a fuzzy system. In this paper, we present an application of a genetic algorithm to a fuzzy evolutionary algorithm to detect and to solve chromosomes conflict. A chromosome conflict is identified by existence of any two genes in a chromosome that has the same values as two genes in another chromosome. Based on this approach, we construct an algorithm to solve a lecture scheduling problem. Time codes, lecture codes, lecturer codes, and room codes are defined as genes. They are collected to become chromosomes. As a result, the conflicted schedule turns into chromosomes conflict. Built in the Delphi program, results show that the conflicted lecture schedule problem is solvable by this algorithm.
Tracking Problem Solving by Multivariate Pattern Analysis and Hidden Markov Model Algorithms
Anderson, John R.
2011-01-01
Multivariate pattern analysis can be combined with hidden Markov model algorithms to track the second-by-second thinking as people solve complex problems. Two applications of this methodology are illustrated with a data set taken from children as they interacted with an intelligent tutoring system for algebra. The first “mind reading” application involves using fMRI activity to track what students are doing as they solve a sequence of algebra problems. The methodology achieves considerable accuracy at determining both what problem-solving step the students are taking and whether they are performing that step correctly. The second “model discovery” application involves using statistical model evaluation to determine how many substates are involved in performing a step of algebraic problem solving. This research indicates that different steps involve different numbers of substates and these substates are associated with different fluency in algebra problem solving. PMID:21820455
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Diana; Crawley, Frank E.
The purpose of this investigation was to identify and describe the differences in the methods used by experts (university chemistry professors) and nonscience major introductory chemistry students, enrolled in a course at the university level, to solve paired algorithmic and conceptual problems. Of the 180 students involved, the problem-solving…
Using Grey Wolf Algorithm to Solve the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korayem, L.; Khorsid, M.; Kassem, S. S.
2015-05-01
The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is a class of the vehicle routing problems (VRPs). In CVRP a set of identical vehicles having fixed capacities are required to fulfill customers' demands for a single commodity. The main objective is to minimize the total cost or distance traveled by the vehicles while satisfying a number of constraints, such as: the capacity constraint of each vehicle, logical flow constraints, etc. One of the methods employed in solving the CVRP is the cluster-first route-second method. It is a technique based on grouping of customers into a number of clusters, where each cluster is served by one vehicle. Once clusters are formed, a route determining the best sequence to visit customers is established within each cluster. The recently bio-inspired grey wolf optimizer (GWO), introduced in 2014, has proven to be efficient in solving unconstrained, as well as, constrained optimization problems. In the current research, our main contributions are: combining GWO with the traditional K-means clustering algorithm to generate the ‘K-GWO’ algorithm, deriving a capacitated version of the K-GWO algorithm by incorporating a capacity constraint into the aforementioned algorithm, and finally, developing 2 new clustering heuristics. The resulting algorithm is used in the clustering phase of the cluster-first route-second method to solve the CVR problem. The algorithm is tested on a number of benchmark problems with encouraging results.
Simulated annealing algorithm for solving chambering student-case assignment problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghazali, Saadiah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza
2015-12-01
The problem related to project assignment problem is one of popular practical problem that appear nowadays. The challenge of solving the problem raise whenever the complexity related to preferences, the existence of real-world constraints and problem size increased. This study focuses on solving a chambering student-case assignment problem by using a simulated annealing algorithm where this problem is classified under project assignment problem. The project assignment problem is considered as hard combinatorial optimization problem and solving it using a metaheuristic approach is an advantage because it could return a good solution in a reasonable time. The problem of assigning chambering students to cases has never been addressed in the literature before. For the proposed problem, it is essential for law graduates to peruse in chambers before they are qualified to become legal counselor. Thus, assigning the chambering students to cases is a critically needed especially when involving many preferences. Hence, this study presents a preliminary study of the proposed project assignment problem. The objective of the study is to minimize the total completion time for all students in solving the given cases. This study employed a minimum cost greedy heuristic in order to construct a feasible initial solution. The search then is preceded with a simulated annealing algorithm for further improvement of solution quality. The analysis of the obtained result has shown that the proposed simulated annealing algorithm has greatly improved the solution constructed by the minimum cost greedy heuristic. Hence, this research has demonstrated the advantages of solving project assignment problem by using metaheuristic techniques.
Heuristic algorithms for solving of the tool routing problem for CNC cutting machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chentsov, P. A.; Petunin, A. A.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shipacheva, E. N.; Sholohov, A. E.
2015-11-01
The article is devoted to the problem of minimizing the path of the cutting tool to shape cutting machines began. This problem can be interpreted as a generalized traveling salesman problem. Earlier version of the dynamic programming method to solve this problem was developed. Unfortunately, this method allows to process an amount not exceeding thirty circuits. In this regard, the task of constructing quasi-optimal route becomes relevant. In this paper we propose options for quasi-optimal greedy algorithms. Comparison of the results of exact and approximate algorithms is given.
A parallel algorithm for solving the n-queens problem based on inspired computational model.
Wang, Zhaocai; Huang, Dongmei; Tan, Jian; Liu, Taigang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Lei
2015-05-01
DNA computing provides a promising method to solve the computationally intractable problems. The n-queens problem is a well-known NP-hard problem, which arranges n queens on an n × n board in different rows, columns and diagonals in order to avoid queens attack each other. In this paper, we present a novel parallel DNA algorithm for solving the n-queens problem using DNA molecular operations based on a biologically inspired computational model. For the n-queens problem, we reasonably design flexible length DNA strands representing elements of the allocation matrix, take appropriate biologic manipulations and get the solutions of the n-queens problem in proper length and O(n(2)) time complexity. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations, simultaneity simplify the complexity of the computation and simulate to verify the feasibility of the DNA algorithm. PMID:25817410
Liu, Haorui; Yi, Fengyan; Yang, Heli
2016-01-01
The shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) easily falls into local optimum when it solves multioptimum function optimization problem, which impacts the accuracy and convergence speed. Therefore this paper presents grouped SFLA for solving continuous optimization problems combined with the excellent characteristics of cloud model transformation between qualitative and quantitative research. The algorithm divides the definition domain into several groups and gives each group a set of frogs. Frogs of each region search in their memeplex, and in the search process the algorithm uses the “elite strategy” to update the location information of existing elite frogs through cloud model algorithm. This method narrows the searching space and it can effectively improve the situation of a local optimum; thus convergence speed and accuracy can be significantly improved. The results of computer simulation confirm this conclusion. PMID:26819584
The delayed coupling method: An algorithm for solving banded diagonal matrix problems in parallel
Mattor, N.; Williams, T.J.; Hewett, D.W.; Dimits, A.M.
1997-09-01
We present a new algorithm for solving banded diagonal matrix problems efficiently on distributed-memory parallel computers, designed originally for use in dynamic alternating-direction implicit partial differential equation solvers. The algorithm optimizes efficiency with respect to the number of numerical operations and to the amount of interprocessor communication. This is called the ``delayed coupling method`` because the communication is deferred until needed. We focus here on tridiagonal and periodic tridiagonal systems.
Tracking Problem Solving by Multivariate Pattern Analysis and Hidden Markov Model Algorithms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, John R.
2012-01-01
Multivariate pattern analysis can be combined with Hidden Markov Model algorithms to track the second-by-second thinking as people solve complex problems. Two applications of this methodology are illustrated with a data set taken from children as they interacted with an intelligent tutoring system for algebra. The first "mind reading" application…
A cuckoo search algorithm by Lévy flights for solving reliability redundancy allocation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valian, Ehsan; Valian, Elham
2013-11-01
A new metaheuristic optimization algorithm, called cuckoo search (CS), was recently developed by Yang and Deb (2009, 2010). This article uses CS and Lévy flights to solve the reliability redundancy allocation problem. The redundancy allocation problem involves setting reliability objectives for components or subsystems in order to meet the resource consumption constraint, e.g. the total cost. The difficulties facing the redundancy allocation problem are to maintain feasibility with respect to three nonlinear constraints, namely, cost, weight and volume-related constraints. The redundancy allocation problems have been studied in the literature for decades, usually using mathematical programming or metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The performance of the algorithm is tested on five well-known reliability redundancy allocation problems and is compared with several well-known methods. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal solutions obtained by CS are better than the best solutions obtained by other methods.
Solving constrained minimum-time robot problems using the sequential gradient restoration algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Allan Y.
1991-01-01
Three constrained minimum-time control problems of a two-link manipulator are solved using the Sequential Gradient and Restoration Algorithm (SGRA). The inequality constraints considered are reduced via Valentine-type transformations to nondifferential path equality constraints. The SGRA is then used to solve these transformed problems with equality constraints. The results obtained indicate that at least one of the two controls is at its limits at any instant in time. The remaining control then adjusts itself so that none of the system constraints is violated. Hence, the minimum-time control is either a pure bang-bang control or a combined bang-bang/singular control.
The minimal residual QR-factorization algorithm for reliably solving subset regression problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verhaegen, M. H.
1987-01-01
A new algorithm to solve test subset regression problems is described, called the minimal residual QR factorization algorithm (MRQR). This scheme performs a QR factorization with a new column pivoting strategy. Basically, this strategy is based on the change in the residual of the least squares problem. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that this basic scheme might be extended in a numerically efficient way to combine the advantages of existing numerical procedures, such as the singular value decomposition, with those of more classical statistical procedures, such as stepwise regression. This extension is presented as an advisory expert system that guides the user in solving the subset regression problem. The advantages of the new procedure are highlighted by a numerical example.
Solving the SAT problem using a DNA computing algorithm based on ligase chain reaction.
Wang, Xiaolong; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Wang, Shi; Zhan, Aibin
2008-01-01
A new DNA computing algorithm based on a ligase chain reaction is demonstrated to solve an SAT problem. The proposed DNA algorithm can solve an n-variable m-clause SAT problem in m steps and the computation time required is O (3m+n). Instead of generating the full-solution DNA library, we start with an empty test tube and then generate solutions that partially satisfy the SAT formula. These partial solutions are then extended step by step by the ligation of new variables using Taq DNA ligase. Correct strands are amplified and false strands are pruned by a ligase chain reaction (LCR) as soon as they fail to satisfy the conditions. If we score and sort the clauses, we can use this algorithm to markedly reduce the number of DNA strands required throughout the computing process. In a computer simulation, the maximum number of DNA strands required was 2(0.48n) when n=50, and the exponent ratio varied inversely with the number of variables n and the clause/variable ratio m/n. This algorithm is highly space-efficient and error-tolerant compared to conventional brute-force searching, and thus can be scaled-up to solve large and hard SAT problems. PMID:17904730
Liu, Derong; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Ding
2015-06-01
In this paper, we establish error bounds of adaptive dynamic programming algorithms for solving undiscounted infinite-horizon optimal control problems of discrete-time deterministic nonlinear systems. We consider approximation errors in the update equations of both value function and control policy. We utilize a new assumption instead of the contraction assumption in discounted optimal control problems. We establish the error bounds for approximate value iteration based on a new error condition. Furthermore, we also establish the error bounds for approximate policy iteration and approximate optimistic policy iteration algorithms. It is shown that the iterative approximate value function can converge to a finite neighborhood of the optimal value function under some conditions. To implement the developed algorithms, critic and action neural networks are used to approximate the value function and control policy, respectively. Finally, a simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed algorithms. PMID:25751878
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Mingfeng; Xia, Ling; Shou, Guofa; Tang, Min
2007-03-01
Computing epicardial potentials from body surface potentials constitutes one form of ill-posed inverse problem of electrocardiography (ECG). To solve this ECG inverse problem, the Tikhonov regularization and truncated singular-value decomposition (TSVD) methods have been commonly used to overcome the ill-posed property by imposing constraints on the magnitudes or derivatives of the computed epicardial potentials. Such direct regularization methods, however, are impractical when the transfer matrix is large. The least-squares QR (LSQR) method, one of the iterative regularization methods based on Lanczos bidiagonalization and QR factorization, has been shown to be numerically more reliable in various circumstances than the other methods considered. This LSQR method, however, to our knowledge, has not been introduced and investigated for the ECG inverse problem. In this paper, the regularization properties of the Krylov subspace iterative method of LSQR for solving the ECG inverse problem were investigated. Due to the 'semi-convergence' property of the LSQR method, the L-curve method was used to determine the stopping iteration number. The performance of the LSQR method for solving the ECG inverse problem was also evaluated based on a realistic heart-torso model simulation protocol. The results show that the inverse solutions recovered by the LSQR method were more accurate than those recovered by the Tikhonov and TSVD methods. In addition, by combing the LSQR with genetic algorithms (GA), the performance can be improved further. It suggests that their combination may provide a good scheme for solving the ECG inverse problem.
A firefly algorithm for solving competitive location-design problem: a case study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Ashtiani, Milad Gorji; Ramezanian, Reza; Makui, Ahmad
2016-07-01
This paper aims at determining the optimal number of new facilities besides specifying both the optimal location and design level of them under the budget constraint in a competitive environment by a novel hybrid continuous and discrete firefly algorithm. A real-world application of locating new chain stores in the city of Tehran, Iran, is used and the results are analyzed. In addition, several examples have been solved to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm. The results demonstrate that the performed method provides good-quality results for the test problems.
Wang, Zhaocai; Huang, Dongmei; Meng, Huajun; Tang, Chengpei
2013-10-01
The minimum spanning tree (MST) problem is to find minimum edge connected subsets containing all the vertex of a given undirected graph. It is a vitally important NP-complete problem in graph theory and applied mathematics, having numerous real life applications. Moreover in previous studies, DNA molecular operations usually were used to solve NP-complete head-to-tail path search problems, rarely for NP-hard problems with multi-lateral path solutions result, such as the minimum spanning tree problem. In this paper, we present a new fast DNA algorithm for solving the MST problem using DNA molecular operations. For an undirected graph with n vertex and m edges, we reasonably design flexible length DNA strands representing the vertex and edges, take appropriate steps and get the solutions of the MST problem in proper length range and O(3m+n) time complexity. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations and simultaneity simplify the complexity of the computation. Results of computer simulative experiments show that the proposed method updates some of the best known values with very short time and that the proposed method provides a better performance with solution accuracy over existing algorithms. PMID:23871964
Problem Solving in the Professions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackling, Noel; And Others
1990-01-01
It is proposed that algorithms and heuristics are useful in improving professional problem-solving abilities when contextualized within the academic discipline. A basic algorithm applied to problem solving in undergraduate engineering education and a similar algorithm applicable to legal problems are used as examples. Problem complexity and…
Solving large-scale real-world telecommunication problems using a grid-based genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luna, Francisco; Nebro, Antonio; Alba, Enrique; Durillo, Juan
2008-11-01
This article analyses the use of a grid-based genetic algorithm (GrEA) to solve a real-world instance of a problem from the telecommunication domain. The problem, known as automatic frequency planning (AFP), is used in a global system for mobile communications (GSM) networks to assign a number of fixed frequencies to a set of GSM transceivers located in the antennae of a cellular phone network. Real data instances of the AFP are very difficult to solve owing to the NP-hard nature of the problem, so combining grid computing and metaheuristics turns out to be a way to provide satisfactory solutions in a reasonable amount of time. GrEA has been deployed on a grid with up to 300 processors to solve an AFP instance of 2612 transceivers. The results not only show that significant running time reductions are achieved, but that the search capability of GrEA clearly outperforms that of the equivalent non-grid algorithm.
Solving multi-objective job shop scheduling problems using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew
2015-05-01
The efforts of finding optimal schedules for the job shop scheduling problems are highly important for many real-world industrial applications. In this paper, a multi-objective based job shop scheduling problem by simultaneously minimizing makespan and tardiness is taken into account. The problem is considered to be more complex due to the multiple business criteria that must be satisfied. To solve the problem more efficiently and to obtain a set of non-dominated solutions, a meta-heuristic based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is presented. In addition, task based representation is used for solution encoding, and tournament selection that is based on rank and crowding distance is applied for offspring selection. Swapping and insertion mutations are employed to increase diversity of population and to perform intensive search. To evaluate the modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, a set of modified benchmarking job shop problems obtained from the OR-Library is used, and the results are considered based on the number of non-dominated solutions and quality of schedules obtained by the algorithm.
Wang, Zhaocai; Pu, Jun; Cao, Liling; Tan, Jian
2015-01-01
The unbalanced assignment problem (UAP) is to optimally resolve the problem of assigning n jobs to m individuals (m < n), such that minimum cost or maximum profit obtained. It is a vitally important Non-deterministic Polynomial (NP) complete problem in operation management and applied mathematics, having numerous real life applications. In this paper, we present a new parallel DNA algorithm for solving the unbalanced assignment problem using DNA molecular operations. We reasonably design flexible-length DNA strands representing different jobs and individuals, take appropriate steps, and get the solutions of the UAP in the proper length range and O(mn) time. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations and simultaneity to simplify the complexity of the computation. PMID:26512650
Wang, Zhaocai; Pu, Jun; Cao, Liling; Tan, Jian
2015-01-01
The unbalanced assignment problem (UAP) is to optimally resolve the problem of assigning n jobs to m individuals (m < n), such that minimum cost or maximum profit obtained. It is a vitally important Non-deterministic Polynomial (NP) complete problem in operation management and applied mathematics, having numerous real life applications. In this paper, we present a new parallel DNA algorithm for solving the unbalanced assignment problem using DNA molecular operations. We reasonably design flexible-length DNA strands representing different jobs and individuals, take appropriate steps, and get the solutions of the UAP in the proper length range and O(mn) time. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations and simultaneity to simplify the complexity of the computation. PMID:26512650
Solving the container pre-marshalling problem using variable length genetic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gheith, Mohamed; Eltawil, Amr B.; Harraz, Nermine A.
2016-04-01
In container terminals, the yard area consists of a set of blocks, which consists of a set of bays. Each bay consists of a set of stacks, which consists of a set of tiers. In the container pre-marshalling problem, an initial layout of a bay is converted to a final desired layout. The final layout follows the given loading schedule of this bay. This has a direct impact on the most important container terminal performance measure: the vessel loading time. The deviation between the current layout and the desired layout is expressed by the value of the mis-overlays. The objective of the pre-marshalling problem is to eliminate the mis-overlays with the minimum number of container movements. In this article, a variable chromosome length genetic algorithm was applied to solve the problem. The results of the new solution approach were compared against benchmark instances and the results were remarkably better.
A hybrid algorithm for solving the EEG inverse problem from spatio-temporal EEG data.
Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Hallez, Hans; Van Hese, Peter; D'Asseler, Yves; Dupré, Luc; Van de Walle, Rik
2008-08-01
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder caused by intense electrical activity in the brain. The electrical activity, which can be modelled through the superposition of several electrical dipoles, can be determined in a non-invasive way by analysing the electro-encephalogram. This source localization requires the solution of an inverse problem. Locally convergent optimization algorithms may be trapped in local solutions and when using global optimization techniques, the computational effort can become expensive. Fast recovery of the electrical sources becomes difficult that way. Therefore, there is a need to solve the inverse problem in an accurate and fast way. This paper performs the localization of multiple dipoles using a global-local hybrid algorithm. Global convergence is guaranteed by using space mapping techniques and independent component analysis in a computationally efficient way. The accuracy is locally obtained by using the Recursively Applied and Projected-MUltiple Signal Classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm. When using this hybrid algorithm, a four times faster solution is obtained. PMID:18427852
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piotrowski, J.
2010-07-01
This paper presents two extensions of Kalker's algorithm Fastsim of the simplified theory of rolling contact. The first extension is for solving tangential contact problems with the coefficient of friction depending on slip velocity. Two friction laws have been considered: with and without recuperation of the static friction. According to the tribological hypothesis for metallic bodies shear failure, the friction law without recuperation of static friction is more suitable for wheel and rail than the other one. Sample results present local quantities inside the contact area (division to slip and adhesion, traction) as well as global ones (creep forces as functions of creepages and rolling velocity). For the coefficient of friction diminishing with slip, the creep forces decay after reaching the maximum and they depend on the rolling velocity. The second extension is for solving tangential contact problems with friction anisotropy characterised by a convex set of the permissible tangential tractions. The effect of the anisotropy has been shown on examples of rolling without spin and in the presence of pure spin for the elliptical set. The friction anisotropy influences tangential tractions and creep forces. Sample results present local and global quantities. Both extensions have been described with the same language of formulation and they may be merged into one, joint algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Ma'shumah, Fathimah; Permana, Dony; Sidarto, Kuntjoro Adji
2015-12-01
Customer Lifetime Value is an important and useful concept in marketing. One of its benefits is to help a company for budgeting marketing expenditure for customer acquisition and customer retention. Many mathematical models have been introduced to calculate CLV considering the customer retention/migration classification scheme. A fairly new class of these models which will be described in this paper uses Markov Chain Models (MCM). This class of models has the major advantage for its flexibility to be modified to several different cases/classification schemes. In this model, the probabilities of customer retention and acquisition play an important role. From Pfeifer and Carraway, 2000, the final formula of CLV obtained from MCM usually contains nonlinear form of the transition probability matrix. This nonlinearity makes the inverse problem of CLV difficult to solve. This paper aims to solve this inverse problem, yielding the approximate transition probabilities for the customers, by applying metaheuristic optimization algorithm developed by Yang, 2013, Flower Pollination Algorithm. The major interpretation of obtaining the transition probabilities are to set goals for marketing teams in keeping the relative frequencies of customer acquisition and customer retention.
Automatic Combination of Operators in a Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem
2015-01-01
Genetic algorithms are powerful search methods inspired by Darwinian evolution. To date, they have been applied to the solution of many optimization problems because of the easy use of their properties and their robustness in finding good solutions to difficult problems. The good operation of genetic algorithms is due in part to its two main variation operators, namely, crossover and mutation operators. Typically, in the literature, we find the use of a single crossover and mutation operator. However, there are studies that have shown that using multi-operators produces synergy and that the operators are mutually complementary. Using multi-operators is not a simple task because which operators to use and how to combine them must be determined, which in itself is an optimization problem. In this paper, it is proposed that the task of exploring the different combinations of the crossover and mutation operators can be carried out by evolutionary computing. The crossover and mutation operators used are those typically used for solving the traveling salesman problem. The process of searching for good combinations was effective, yielding appropriate and synergic combinations of the crossover and mutation operators. The numerical results show that the use of the combination of operators obtained by evolutionary computing is better than the use of a single operator and the use of multi-operators combined in the standard way. The results were also better than those of the last operators reported in the literature. PMID:26367182
He, Qiang; Hu, Xiangtao; Ren, Hong; Zhang, Hongqi
2015-11-01
A novel artificial fish swarm algorithm (NAFSA) is proposed for solving large-scale reliability-redundancy allocation problem (RAP). In NAFSA, the social behaviors of fish swarm are classified in three ways: foraging behavior, reproductive behavior, and random behavior. The foraging behavior designs two position-updating strategies. And, the selection and crossover operators are applied to define the reproductive ability of an artificial fish. For the random behavior, which is essentially a mutation strategy, the basic cloud generator is used as the mutation operator. Finally, numerical results of four benchmark problems and a large-scale RAP are reported and compared. NAFSA shows good performance in terms of computational accuracy and computational efficiency for large scale RAP. PMID:26474934
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamirian, M.; Kamyad, A. V.; Farahi, M. H.
2009-09-01
In this Letter a new approach for solving optimal path planning problems for a single rigid and free moving object in a two and three dimensional space in the presence of stationary or moving obstacles is presented. In this approach the path planning problems have some incompatible objectives such as the length of path that must be minimized, the distance between the path and obstacles that must be maximized and etc., then a multi-objective dynamic optimization problem (MODOP) is achieved. Considering the imprecise nature of decision maker's (DM) judgment, these multiple objectives are viewed as fuzzy variables. By determining intervals for the values of these fuzzy variables, flexible monotonic decreasing or increasing membership functions are determined as the degrees of satisfaction of these fuzzy variables on their intervals. Then, the optimal path planning policy is searched by maximizing the aggregated fuzzy decision values, resulting in a fuzzy multi-objective dynamic optimization problem (FMODOP). Using a suitable t-norm, the FMODOP is converted into a non-linear dynamic optimization problem (NLDOP). By using parametrization method and some calculations, the NLDOP is converted into the sequence of conventional non-linear programming problems (NLPP). It is proved that the solution of this sequence of the NLPPs tends to a Pareto optimal solution which, among other Pareto optimal solutions, has the best satisfaction of DM for the MODOP. Finally, the above procedure as a novel algorithm integrating parametrization method and fuzzy aggregation to solve the MODOP is proposed. Efficiency of our approach is confirmed by some numerical examples.
Martín H, José Antonio
2013-01-01
Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete). In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate) or be absent (no admissible structure), however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to "efficiently" solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs) in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient) however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter α∈N. Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of α>k to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: P(α>k)≤2(-(k+1)), making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results. PMID:23349711
Meta-heuristic algorithm to solve two-sided assembly line balancing problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirawan, A. D.; Maruf, A.
2016-02-01
Two-sided assembly line is a set of sequential workstations where task operations can be performed at two sides of the line. This type of line is commonly used for the assembly of large-sized products: cars, buses, and trucks. This paper propose a Decoding Algorithm with Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO), a recently developed nature-inspired search method to solve the two-sided assembly line balancing problem (TALBP). The algorithm aims to minimize the number of mated-workstations for the given cycle time without violating the synchronization constraints. The correlation between the input parameters and the emergence point of objective function value is tested using scenarios generated by design of experiments. A two-sided assembly line operated in an Indonesia's multinational manufacturing company is considered as the object of this paper. The result of the proposed algorithm shows reduction of workstations and indicates that there is negative correlation between the emergence point of objective function value and the size of population used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurarslan, Gurhan; Karahan, Halil
2015-09-01
In this study, an accurate model was developed for solving problems of groundwater-pollution-source identification. In the developed model, the numerical simulations of flow and pollutant transport in groundwater were carried out using MODFLOW and MT3DMS software. The optimization processes were carried out using a differential evolution algorithm. The performance of the developed model was tested on two hypothetical aquifer models using real and noisy observation data. In the first model, the release histories of the pollution sources were determined assuming that the numbers, locations and active stress periods of the sources are known. In the second model, the release histories of the pollution sources were determined assuming that there is no information on the sources. The results obtained by the developed model were found to be better than those reported in literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Ye; Wang, Ling; Wang, Shengyao; Liu, Min
2014-09-01
In this article, an effective hybrid immune algorithm (HIA) is presented to solve the distributed permutation flow-shop scheduling problem (DPFSP). First, a decoding method is proposed to transfer a job permutation sequence to a feasible schedule considering both factory dispatching and job sequencing. Secondly, a local search with four search operators is presented based on the characteristics of the problem. Thirdly, a special crossover operator is designed for the DPFSP, and mutation and vaccination operators are also applied within the framework of the HIA to perform an immune search. The influence of parameter setting on the HIA is investigated based on the Taguchi method of design of experiment. Extensive numerical testing results based on 420 small-sized instances and 720 large-sized instances are provided. The effectiveness of the HIA is demonstrated by comparison with some existing heuristic algorithms and the variable neighbourhood descent methods. New best known solutions are obtained by the HIA for 17 out of 420 small-sized instances and 585 out of 720 large-sized instances.
Solving University Course Timetabling Problems by a Novel Genetic Algorithm Based on Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Zhenhua; Li, Shanqiang; Xiao, Long
Since the University Course Timetabling Problem (UCTP) is a typical sort of combinatorial issues, many conventional methods turn out to be unavailable when confronted with this complex problem where lots of constraints need to be satisfied especially with the class-flow between floors added. Considering the supreme density of students between classes, this paper proposes a novel algorithm integrating Simulated Annealing (SA) into the Genetic Algorithm (GA) for solving the UCTP with respect to the class-flow where SA is incorporated into the competition and selection strategy of GA and concerning the class-flow caused by the assigned timetable, a modified fitness function is presented that determines the survival of generations. Moreover, via the exchange of lecturing classrooms the timetable with minimum class-flow is eventually derived with the values of defined fitness function. Finally, in terms of the definitions above, a simulation of virtual situation is implemented and the experimental results indicate that the proposed model of classroom arrangement in the paper maintains a high efficiency.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kiesmuller, Ulrich
2009-01-01
At schools special learning and programming environments are often used in the field of algorithms. Particularly with regard to computer science lessons in secondary education, they are supposed to help novices to learn the basics of programming. In several parts of Germany (e.g., Bavaria) these fundamentals are taught as early as in the seventh…
A configuration space Monte Carlo algorithm for solving the nuclear pairing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lingle, Mark
Nuclear pairing correlations using Quantum Monte Carlo are studied in this dissertation. We start by defining the nuclear pairing problem and discussing several historical methods developed to solve this problem, paying special attention to the applicability of such methods. A numerical example discussing pairing correlations in several calcium isotopes using the BCS and Exact Pairing solutions are presented. The ground state energies, correlation energies, and occupation numbers are compared to determine the applicability of each approach to realistic cases. Next we discuss some generalities related to the theory of Markov Chains and Quantum Monte Carlo in regards to nuclear structure. Finally we present our configuration space Monte Carlo algorithm starting from a discussion of a path integral approach by the authors. Some general features of the Pairing Hamiltonian that boost the effectiveness of a configuration space Monte Carlo approach are mentioned. The full details of our method are presented and special attention is paid to convergence and error control. We present a series of examples illustrating the effectiveness of our approach. These include situations with non-constant pairing strengths, limits when pairing correlations are weak, the computation of excited states, and problems when the relevant configuration space is large. We conclude with a chapter examining some of the effects of continuum states in 24O.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Xingxian; Cao, Aixia; Zhang, Jing
2016-07-01
Modal parameters estimation plays an important role for structural health monitoring. Accurately estimating the modal parameters of structures is more challenging as the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of solving the partially described inverse singular value problem (PDISVP) combined with the complex exponential (CE) method to estimate the modal parameters. The PDISVP solving method is to reconstruct an L2-norm optimized (filtered) data matrix from the measured (noisy) data matrix, when the prescribed data constraints are one or several sets of singular triplets of the matrix. The measured data matrix is Hankel structured, which is constructed based on the measured impulse response function (IRF). The reconstructed matrix must maintain the Hankel structure, and be lowered in rank as well. Once the filtered IRF is obtained, the CE method can be applied to extract the modal parameters. Two physical experiments, including a steel cantilever beam with 10 accelerometers mounted, and a steel plate with 30 accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulsive load, respectively, are investigated to test the applicability of the proposed scheme. In addition, the consistency diagram is proposed to exam the agreement among the modal parameters estimated from those different accelerometers. Results indicate that the PDISVP-CE method can significantly remove noise from measured signals and accurately estimate the modal frequencies and damping ratios.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa
2011-01-01
The students' performance in various types of problems dealing with the conservation of matter during chemical reactions has been investigated at different levels of schooling. The participants were 499 ninth grade (ages 14, 15 years) and 624 eleventh grade (ages 16, 17 years) Greek students. Data was collected using a written questionnaire…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J.; Cai, X.
2007-12-01
A water resources system can be defined as a large-scale spatial system, within which distributed ecological system interacts with the stream network and ground water system. Water resources management, the causative factors and hence the solutions to be developed have a significant spatial dimension. This motivates a modeling analysis of water resources management within a spatial analytical framework, where data is usually geo- referenced and in the form of a map. One of the important functions of Geographic information systems (GIS) is to identify spatial patterns of environmental variables. The role of spatial patterns in water resources management has been well established in the literature particularly regarding how to design better spatial patterns for satisfying the designated objectives of water resources management. Evolutionary algorithms (EA) have been demonstrated to be successful in solving complex optimization models for water resources management due to its flexibility to incorporate complex simulation models in the optimal search procedure. The idea of combining GIS and EA motivates the development and application of spatial evolutionary algorithms (SEA). SEA assimilates spatial information into EA, and even changes the representation and operators of EA. In an EA used for water resources management, the mathematical optimization model should be modified to account the spatial patterns; however, spatial patterns are usually implicit, and it is difficult to impose appropriate patterns to spatial data. Also it is difficult to express complex spatial patterns by explicit constraints included in the EA. The GIS can help identify the spatial linkages and correlations based on the spatial knowledge of the problem. These linkages are incorporated in the fitness function for the preference of the compatible vegetation distribution. Unlike a regular GA for spatial models, the SEA employs a special hierarchical hyper-population and spatial genetic operators
Solving mixed integer nonlinear programming problems using spiral dynamics optimization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kania, Adhe; Sidarto, Kuntjoro Adji
2016-02-01
Many engineering and practical problem can be modeled by mixed integer nonlinear programming. This paper proposes to solve the problem with modified spiral dynamics inspired optimization method of Tamura and Yasuda. Four test cases have been examined, including problem in engineering and sport. This method succeeds in obtaining the optimal result in all test cases.
A hybrid symbolic/finite-element algorithm for solving nonlinear optimal control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bless, Robert R.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1991-01-01
The general code described is capable of solving difficult nonlinear optimal control problems by using finite elements and a symbolic manipulator. Quick and accurate solutions are obtained with a minimum for user interaction. Since no user programming is required for most problems, there are tremendous savings to be gained in terms of time and money.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hetmaniok, Edyta
2015-08-01
In this paper the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in the casting mould is presented. Proposed approach is based on the mathematical model suitable for describing the investigated solidification process, the lever arm model describing the macrosegregation process, the finite element method for solving the direct problem and the artificial bee colony algorithm for minimizing the functional expressing the error of approximate solution. Goal of the discussed inverse problem is the reconstruction of heat transfer coefficient and distribution of temperature in investigated region on the basis of known measurements of temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hetmaniok, Edyta
2016-07-01
In this paper the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in the casting mould is presented. Proposed approach is based on the mathematical model suitable for describing the investigated solidification process, the lever arm model describing the macrosegregation process, the finite element method for solving the direct problem and the artificial bee colony algorithm for minimizing the functional expressing the error of approximate solution. Goal of the discussed inverse problem is the reconstruction of heat transfer coefficient and distribution of temperature in investigated region on the basis of known measurements of temperature.
Application of a Chimera Full Potential Algorithm for Solving Aerodynamic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
A numerical scheme utilizing a chimera zonal grid approach for solving the three dimensional full potential equation is described. Special emphasis is placed on describing the spatial differencing algorithm around the chimera interface. Results from two spatial discretization variations are presented; one using a hybrid first-order/second-order-accurate scheme and the second using a fully second-order-accurate scheme. The presentation is highlighted with a number of transonic wing flow field computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schütze, Niels; Wöhling, Thomas; de Play, Michael
2010-05-01
Some real-world optimization problems in water resources have a high-dimensional space of decision variables and more than one objective function. In this work, we compare three general-purpose, multi-objective simulation optimization algorithms, namely NSGA-II, AMALGAM, and CMA-ES-MO when solving three real case Multi-objective Optimization Problems (MOPs): (i) a high-dimensional soil hydraulic parameter estimation problem; (ii) a multipurpose multi-reservoir operation problem; and (iii) a scheduling problem in deficit irrigation. We analyze the behaviour of the three algorithms on these test problems considering their formulations ranging from 40 up to 120 decision variables and 2 to 4 objectives. The computational effort required by each algorithm in order to reach the true Pareto front is also analyzed.
A Prefiltered Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Geometric Operators for Solving Sudoku Problems
Crawford, Broderick; Galleguillos, Cristian; Paredes, Fernando
2014-01-01
The Sudoku is a famous logic-placement game, originally popularized in Japan and today widely employed as pastime and as testbed for search algorithms. The classic Sudoku consists in filling a 9 × 9 grid, divided into nine 3 × 3 regions, so that each column, row, and region contains different digits from 1 to 9. This game is known to be NP-complete, with existing various complete and incomplete search algorithms able to solve different instances of it. In this paper, we present a new cuckoo search algorithm for solving Sudoku puzzles combining prefiltering phases and geometric operations. The geometric operators allow one to correctly move toward promising regions of the combinatorial space, while the prefiltering phases are able to previously delete from domains the values that do not conduct to any feasible solution. This integration leads to a more efficient domain filtering and as a consequence to a faster solving process. We illustrate encouraging experimental results where our approach noticeably competes with the best approximate methods reported in the literature. PMID:24707205
A prefiltered cuckoo search algorithm with geometric operators for solving Sudoku problems.
Soto, Ricardo; Crawford, Broderick; Galleguillos, Cristian; Monfroy, Eric; Paredes, Fernando
2014-01-01
The Sudoku is a famous logic-placement game, originally popularized in Japan and today widely employed as pastime and as testbed for search algorithms. The classic Sudoku consists in filling a 9 × 9 grid, divided into nine 3 × 3 regions, so that each column, row, and region contains different digits from 1 to 9. This game is known to be NP-complete, with existing various complete and incomplete search algorithms able to solve different instances of it. In this paper, we present a new cuckoo search algorithm for solving Sudoku puzzles combining prefiltering phases and geometric operations. The geometric operators allow one to correctly move toward promising regions of the combinatorial space, while the prefiltering phases are able to previously delete from domains the values that do not conduct to any feasible solution. This integration leads to a more efficient domain filtering and as a consequence to a faster solving process. We illustrate encouraging experimental results where our approach noticeably competes with the best approximate methods reported in the literature. PMID:24707205
Genetic algorithms - A new technique for solving the neutron spectrum unfolding problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, David W.; Ray Edwards, D.; Bolon, Albert E.
1999-04-01
A new technique utilizing genetic algorithms has been applied to the Bonner sphere neutron spectrum unfolding problem. Genetic algorithms are part of a relatively new field of "evolutionary" solution techniques that mimic living systems with computer-simulated "chromosome" solutions. Solutions mate and mutate to create better solutions. Several benchmark problems, considered representative of radiation protection environments, have been evaluated using the newly developed UMRGA code which implements the genetic algorithm unfolding technique. The results are compared with results from other well-established unfolding codes. The genetic algorithm technique works remarkably well and produces solutions with relatively high spectral qualities. UMRGA appears to be a superior technique in the absence of a priori data - it does not rely on "lucky" guesses of input spectra. Calculated personnel doses associated with the unfolded spectra match benchmark values within a few percent.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DEVANE, J.R.; RIMOLDI, H.J.A.
CHANGES WERE STUDIED IN THE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A FUNCTION OF A CAREFULLY DESIGNED TRAINING PROGRAM. TRAINING WAS DEFINED AS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT AWARENESS OF PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES USED. INSTRUMENTS WERE DEVELOPED AND REFINED TO MEASURE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR. SPECIFICALLY TESTED WAS THE FOLLOWING…
Mental Capacity and Working Memory in Chemistry: Algorithmic "versus" Open-Ended Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Overton, Tina; Bugler, Myfanwy
2012-01-01
Previous research has revealed that problem solving and attainment in chemistry are constrained by mental capacity and working memory. However, the terms mental capacity and working memory come from different theories of cognitive resources, and are assessed using different tasks. The current study examined the relationships between mental…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakir, Ali; AL-Khateeb, Belal; Shaker, Khalid; Jalab, Hamid A.
2014-12-01
The design of course timetables for academic institutions is a very difficult job due to the huge number of possible feasible timetables with respect to the problem size. This process contains lots of constraints that must be taken into account and a large search space to be explored, even if the size of the problem input is not significantly large. Different heuristic approaches have been proposed in the literature in order to solve this kind of problem. One of the efficient solution methods for this problem is tabu search. Different neighborhood structures based on different types of move have been defined in studies using tabu search. In this paper, different neighborhood structures on the operation of tabu search are examined. The performance of different neighborhood structures is tested over eleven benchmark datasets. The obtained results of every neighborhood structures are compared with each other. Results obtained showed the disparity between each neighborhood structures and another in terms of penalty cost.
Techniques of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krantz, Steven G.
The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…
Jiang, Mingfeng; Xia, Ling; Huang, Wenqing; Shou, Guofa; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart
2009-10-01
Regularization is an effective method for the solution of ill-posed ECG inverse problems, such as computing epicardial potentials from body surface potentials. The aim of this work was to explore more robust regularization-based solutions through the application of subspace preconditioned LSQR (SP-LSQR) to the study of model-based ECG inverse problems. Here, we presented three different subspace splitting methods, i.e., SVD, wavelet transform and cosine transform schemes, to the design of the preconditioners for ill-posed problems, and to evaluate the performance of algorithms using a realistic heart-torso model simulation protocol. The results demonstrated that when compared with the LSQR, LSQR-Tik and Tik-LSQR method, the SP-LSQR produced higher efficiency and reconstructed more accurate epcicardial potential distributions. Amongst the three applied subspace splitting schemes, the SVD-based preconditioner yielded the best convergence rate and outperformed the other two in seeking the inverse solutions. Moreover, when optimized by the genetic algorithms (GA), the performances of SP-LSQR method were enhanced. The results from this investigation suggested that the SP-LSQR was a useful regularization technique for cardiac inverse problems. PMID:19564127
Parallel Algorithm Solves Coupled Differential Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayashi, A.
1987-01-01
Numerical methods adapted to concurrent processing. Algorithm solves set of coupled partial differential equations by numerical integration. Adapted to run on hypercube computer, algorithm separates problem into smaller problems solved concurrently. Increase in computing speed with concurrent processing over that achievable with conventional sequential processing appreciable, especially for large problems.
García-Arnau, Marc; Manrique, Daniel; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sosík, Petr
2007-01-01
We present a P system with replicated rewriting to solve the Maximum Clique Problem for a graph. Strings representing cliques are built gradually. This involves the use of inhibitors that control the space of all generated solutions to the problem. Calculating the maximum clique for a graph is a highly relevant issue not only on purely computational grounds, but also because of its relationship to fundamental problems in genomics. We propose to implement the designed P system by means of a DNA algorithm. This algorithm is then compared with two standard papers that addressed the same problem and its DNA implementation in the past. This comparison is carried out on the basis of a series of computational and physical parameters. Our solution features a significantly lower cost in terms of time, the number and size of strands, as well as the simplicity of the biological implementation. PMID:17418940
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly
1991-01-01
Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)
Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
2012-01-01
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karns, Phyllis Spear
The relationship of educational preparation to the problem- solving performance of 55 hospital employed baccalaureate and associate degree nurses working in Wyoming hospitals was studied. Participant data were collected that might correlate with problem-solving ability: age, years of experience in nursing, years of work experience in a…
Problem Solving and Intelligence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Resnick, Lauren B.; Glaser, Robert
This paper argues that a major aspect of intelligence is the ability to solve problems and that careful analysis of problem-solving behavior is a means of specifying many of the psychological processes that make up intelligence. The focus is on the mechanisms involved when, in the absence of complete instruction, a person must "invent" a new…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Ye; Wang, Ling; Wang, Shengyao; Liu, Min
2013-12-01
In this article, an effective shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFLA) is proposed to solve the hybrid flow-shop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines (HFSP-IPM). First, some novel heuristic decoding rules for both job order decision and machine assignment are proposed. Then, three hybrid decoding schemes are designed to decode job order sequences to schedules. A special bi-level crossover and multiple local search operators are incorporated in the searching framework of the SFLA to enrich the memetic searching behaviour and to balance the exploration and exploitation capabilities. Meanwhile, some theoretical analysis for the local search operators is provided for guiding the local search. The parameter setting of the algorithm is also investigated based on the Taguchi method of design of experiments. Finally, numerical testing based on well-known benchmarks and comparisons with some existing algorithms are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Papun; Chakraborti, Debjani
2010-10-01
This paper describes how the genetic algorithms (GAs) can be efficiently used to fuzzy goal programming (FGP) formulation of optimal power flow problems having multiple objectives. In the proposed approach, the different constraints, various relationships of optimal power flow calculations are fuzzily described. In the model formulation of the problem, the membership functions of the defined fuzzy goals are characterized first for measuring the degree of achievement of the aspiration levels of the goals specified in the decision making context. Then, the achievement function for minimizing the regret for under-deviations from the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership goals to the extent possible on the basis of priorities is constructed for optimal power flow problems. In the solution process, the GA method is employed to the FGP formulation of the problem for achievement of the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership functions to the extent possible in the decision making environment. In the GA based solution search process, the conventional Roulette wheel selection scheme, arithmetic crossover and random mutation are taken into consideration to reach a satisfactory decision. The developed method has been tested on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus System. Numerical results show that this method is promising for handling uncertain constraints in practical power systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy
2009-01-01
In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…
Mathematics as Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soifer, Alexander
This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)
Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veal, William
1999-01-01
Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carpenter, Thomas P.; And Others
1980-01-01
Student weaknesses on problem-solving portions of the NAEP mathematics assessment are discussed using Polya's heuristics as a framework. Recommendations for classroom instruction are discussed. (MP) Aspect of National Assessment (NAEP) dealt with in this document: Results (Interpretation).
Solving Tommy's Writing Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burdman, Debra
1986-01-01
The article describes an approach by which word processing helps to solve some of the writing problems of learning disabled students. Aspects considered include prewriting, drafting, revising, and completing the story. (CL)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez, Michael E.
1998-01-01
Many important human activities involve accomplishing goals without a script. There is no formula for true problem-solving. Heuristic, cognitive "rules of thumb" are the problem-solver's best guide. Learners should understand heuristic tools such as means-end analysis, working backwards, successive approximation, and external representation. Since…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
1999-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…
Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…
Problem Solving in Electricity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias
Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidari, A. A.; Kazemizade, O.; Abbaspour, R. A.
2015-12-01
In this paper, a continuous harmony search (HS) approach is investigated for tackling the Uncapacitated Facility Location (UFL) task. This article proposes an efficient modified HS-based optimizer to improve the performance of HS on complex spatial tasks like UFL problems. For this aim, opposition-based learning (OBL) and chaotic patterns are utilized. The proposed technique is examined against several UFL benchmark challenges in specialized literature. Then, the modified HS is substantiated in detail and compared to the basic HS and some other methods. The results showed that new opposition-based chaotic HS (OBCHS) algorithm not only can exploit better solutions competently but it is able to outperform HS in solving UFL problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.
The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez
2005-01-01
A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…
Problem Solving Using Calculators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Billings, Karen; Moursund, David
1978-01-01
The first part in the serialized version of a book on the use of calculators for problem solving is presented. It contains prefaces for teachers and students and a chapter on getting started which includes topics such as symmetries, operations, powers, and chaining. (MP)
Solving Common Mathematical Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luz, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.
Universal Design Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterling, Mary C.
2004-01-01
Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.
2008-01-01
Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…
Solving Problems through Circles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Circumference and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blackburn, Katie; White, David
The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…
The Algorithm Selection Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minton, Steve; Allen, John; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Work on NP-hard problems has shown that many instances of these theoretically computationally difficult problems are quite easy. The field has also shown that choosing the right algorithm for the problem can have a profound effect on the time needed to find a solution. However, to date there has been little work showing how to select the right algorithm for solving any particular problem. The paper refers to this as the algorithm selection problem. It describes some of the aspects that make this problem difficult, as well as proposes a technique for addressing it.
An algorithm for solving the system-level problem in multilevel optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balling, R. J.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.
1994-01-01
A multilevel optimization approach which is applicable to nonhierarchic coupled systems is presented. The approach includes a general treatment of design (or behavior) constraints and coupling constraints at the discipline level through the use of norms. Three different types of norms are examined: the max norm, the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (KS) norm, and the 1(sub p) norm. The max norm is recommended. The approach is demonstrated on a class of hub frame structures which simulate multidisciplinary systems. The max norm is shown to produce system-level constraint functions which are non-smooth. A cutting-plane algorithm is presented which adequately deals with the resulting corners in the constraint functions. The algorithm is tested on hub frames with increasing number of members (which simulate disciplines), and the results are summarized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajan, C. Christober Asir
2010-10-01
The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) are general-purpose optimization techniques based on principles inspired from the biological evolution using metaphors of mechanisms such as neural section, genetic recombination and survival of the fittest. In this, the unit commitment schedule is coded as a string of symbols. An initial population of parent solutions is generated at random. Here, each schedule is formed by committing all the units according to their initial status ("flat start"). Here the parents are obtained from a pre-defined set of solution's i.e. each and every solution is adjusted to meet the requirements. Then, a random recommitment is carried out with respect to the unit's minimum down times. And SA improves the status. A 66-bus utility power system with twelve generating units in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by using the Genetic Algorithm method and other conventional methods.
Li, Kenli; Zou, Shuting; Xv, Jin
2008-01-01
Elliptic curve cryptographic algorithms convert input data to unrecognizable encryption and the unrecognizable data back again into its original decrypted form. The security of this form of encryption hinges on the enormous difficulty that is required to solve the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP), especially over GF(2(n)), n in Z+. This paper describes an effective method to find solutions to the ECDLP by means of a molecular computer. We propose that this research accomplishment would represent a breakthrough for applied biological computation and this paper demonstrates that in principle this is possible. Three DNA-based algorithms: a parallel adder, a parallel multiplier, and a parallel inverse over GF(2(n)) are described. The biological operation time of all of these algorithms is polynomial with respect to n. Considering this analysis, cryptography using a public key might be less secure. In this respect, a principal contribution of this paper is to provide enhanced evidence of the potential of molecular computing to tackle such ambitious computations. PMID:18431451
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cram, Ana Catalina
As worldwide environmental awareness grow, alternative sources of energy have become important to mitigate climate change. Biogas in particular reduces greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming and has the potential of providing 25% of the annual demand for natural gas in the U.S. In 2011, 55,000 metric tons of methane emissions were reduced and 301 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions were avoided through the use of biogas alone. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion through the fermentation of organic material. It is mainly composed of methane with a rage of 50 to 80% in its concentration. Carbon dioxide covers 20 to 50% and small amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen. The biogas production systems are anaerobic digestion facilities and the optimal operation of an anaerobic digester requires the scheduling of all batches from multiple feedstocks during a specific time horizon. The availability times, biomass quantities, biogas production rates and storage decay rates must all be taken into account for maximal biogas production to be achieved during the planning horizon. Little work has been done to optimize the scheduling of different types of feedstock in anaerobic digestion facilities to maximize the total biogas produced by these systems. Therefore, in the present thesis, a new genetic algorithm is developed with the main objective of obtaining the optimal sequence in which different feedstocks will be processed and the optimal time to allocate to each feedstock in the digester with the main objective of maximizing the production of biogas considering different types of feedstocks, arrival times and decay rates. Moreover, all batches need to be processed in the digester in a specified time with the restriction that only one batch can be processed at a time. The developed algorithm is applied to 3 different examples and a comparison with results obtained in previous studies is presented.
Cristofolini, Andrea; Latini, Chiara; Borghi, Carlo A.
2011-02-01
This paper presents a technique for improving the convergence rate of a generalized minimum residual (GMRES) algorithm applied for the solution of a algebraic system produced by the discretization of an electrodynamic problem with a tensorial electrical conductivity. The electrodynamic solver considered in this work is a part of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code in the low magnetic Reynolds number approximation. The code has been developed for the analysis of MHD interaction during the re-entry phase of a space vehicle. This application is a promising technique intensively investigated for the shock mitigation and the vehicle control in the higher layers of a planetary atmosphere. The medium in the considered application is a low density plasma, characterized by a tensorial conductivity. This is a result of the behavior of the free electric charges, which tend to drift in a direction perpendicular both to the electric field and to the magnetic field. In the given approximation, the electrodynamics is described by an elliptical partial differential equation, which is solved by means of a finite element approach. The linear system obtained by discretizing the problem is solved by means of a GMRES iterative method with an incomplete LU factorization threshold preconditioning. The convergence of the solver appears to be strongly affected by the tensorial characteristic of the conductivity. In order to deal with this feature, the bandwidth reduction in the coefficient matrix is considered and a novel technique is proposed and discussed. First, the standard reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM) procedure has been applied to the problem. Then a modification of the RCM procedure (the weighted RCM procedure, WRCM) has been developed. In the last approach, the reordering is performed taking into account the relation between the mesh geometry and the magnetic field direction. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the methods, two cases are considered. The RCM and WRCM procedures
Computer Problem-Solving Coaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth
2005-09-01
Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.
The Problem-Solving Revolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bardige, Art
1983-01-01
Discusses the use of microcomputers and software as problem-solving tools, including comments on "TK! Solver," automatic problem-solving program (reviewed in detail on pp.84-86 in this same issue). Also discusses problem-solving approaches to bridge the disciplines, such as music/physics, junior high science/mathematics (genetics),…
The Identity of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mamona-Downs, Joanna; Downs, Martin
2005-01-01
This paper raises issues motivated by considering the "identity" of problem solving. This means that we are concerned with how other mathematics education topics impinge on problem solving, and with themes that naturally arise within the problem-solving agenda. We claim that some of these issues need more attention by educational research, while…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya
2013-01-01
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The…
Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya
2016-06-01
The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández Martínez, Juan L.; García Gonzalo, Esperanza; Fernández Álvarez, José P.; Kuzma, Heidi A.; Menéndez Pérez, César O.
2010-05-01
PSO is an optimization technique inspired by the social behavior of individuals in nature (swarms) that has been successfully used in many different engineering fields. In addition, the PSO algorithm can be physically interpreted as a stochastic damped mass-spring system. This analogy has served to introduce the PSO continuous model and to deduce a whole family of PSO algorithms using different finite-differences schemes. These algorithms are characterized in terms of convergence by their respective first and second order stability regions. The performance of these new algorithms is first checked using synthetic functions showing a degree of ill-posedness similar to that found in many geophysical inverse problems having their global minimum located on a very narrow flat valley or surrounded by multiple local minima. Finally we present the application of these PSO algorithms to the analysis and solution of a VES inverse problem associated with a seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer in southern Spain. PSO family members are successfully compared to other well known global optimization algorithms (binary genetic algorithms and simulated annealing) in terms of their respective convergence curves and the sea water intrusion depth posterior histograms.
A Method for Solving Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knoop, Robert
1987-01-01
Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niaz, Mansoor
The main objective of this study is to construct models based on strategies students use to solve chemistry problems and to show that these models form sequences of progressive transitions similar to what Lakatos (1970) in the history of science refers to as progressive 'problemshifts' that increase the explanatory' heuristic power of the models.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsaparlis, Georgios
2005-01-01
This work provides a correlation study of the role of the following cognitive variables on problem solving in elementary physical chemistry: scientific reasoning (level of intellectual development/developmental level), working-memory capacity, functional mental ("M") capacity, and disembedding ability (i.e., degree of perceptual field…
Zhang, Weizhe; Bai, Enci; He, Hui; Cheng, Albert M.K.
2015-01-01
Reducing energy consumption is becoming very important in order to keep battery life and lower overall operational costs for heterogeneous real-time multiprocessor systems. In this paper, we first formulate this as a combinatorial optimization problem. Then, a successful meta-heuristic, called Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) is proposed to reduce the energy consumption. Precocity remission and local optimal avoidance techniques are proposed to avoid the precocity and improve the solution quality. Convergence acceleration significantly reduces the search time. Experimental results show that the SFLA-based energy-aware meta-heuristic uses 30% less energy than the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm, and 60% less energy than the Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm. Remarkably, the running time of the SFLA-based meta-heuristic is 20 and 200 times less than ACO and GA, respectively, for finding the optimal solution. PMID:26110406
Zhang, Weizhe; Bai, Enci; He, Hui; Cheng, Albert M K
2015-01-01
Reducing energy consumption is becoming very important in order to keep battery life and lower overall operational costs for heterogeneous real-time multiprocessor systems. In this paper, we first formulate this as a combinatorial optimization problem. Then, a successful meta-heuristic, called Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) is proposed to reduce the energy consumption. Precocity remission and local optimal avoidance techniques are proposed to avoid the precocity and improve the solution quality. Convergence acceleration significantly reduces the search time. Experimental results show that the SFLA-based energy-aware meta-heuristic uses 30% less energy than the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm, and 60% less energy than the Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm. Remarkably, the running time of the SFLA-based meta-heuristic is 20 and 200 times less than ACO and GA, respectively, for finding the optimal solution. PMID:26110406
Problem Solving: Can Anybody Do It?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bennett, Stuart W.
2008-01-01
This paper examines the definition of a problem and at the process of problem solving. An analysis of a number of first and third year chemistry examination papers from English universities revealed that over ninety per cent of the "problems" fell into the "algorithm" category. Using Bloom's taxonomy and the same examination papers, we found that…
McHugh, P.R.
1995-10-01
Fully coupled, Newton-Krylov algorithms are investigated for solving strongly coupled, nonlinear systems of partial differential equations arising in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Primitive variable forms of the steady incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations that describe the flow of a laminar Newtonian fluid in two-dimensions are specifically considered. Numerical solutions are obtained by first integrating over discrete finite volumes that compose the computational mesh. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations are linearized using Newton`s method. Preconditioned Krylov subspace based iterative algorithms then solve these linear systems on each Newton iteration. Selected Krylov algorithms include the Arnoldi-based Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) algorithm, and the Lanczos-based Conjugate Gradients Squared (CGS), Bi-CGSTAB, and Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residual (TFQMR) algorithms. Both Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization and domain-based additive and multiplicative Schwarz preconditioning strategies are studied. Numerical techniques such as mesh sequencing, adaptive damping, pseudo-transient relaxation, and parameter continuation are used to improve the solution efficiency, while algorithm implementation is simplified using a numerical Jacobian evaluation. The capabilities of standard Newton-Krylov algorithms are demonstrated via solutions to both incompressible and compressible flow problems. Incompressible flow problems include natural convection in an enclosed cavity, and mixed/forced convection past a backward facing step.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loewenstein, M.; Greenblatt. B. J.; Jost, H.; Podolske, J. R.; Elkins, Jim; Hurst, Dale; Romanashkin, Pavel; Atlas, Elliott; Schauffler, Sue; Donnelly, Steve; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
De-nitrification and excess re-nitrification was widely observed by ER-2 instruments in the Arctic vortex during SOLVE in winter/spring 2000. Analyses of these events requires a knowledge of the initial or pre-vortex state of the sampled air masses. The canonical relationship of NOy to the long-lived tracer N2O observed in the unperturbed stratosphere is generally used for this purpose. In this paper we will attempt to establish the current unperturbed NOy:N2O relationship (NOy* algorithm) using the ensemble of extra-vortex data from in situ instruments flying on the ER-2 and DC-8, and from the Mark IV remote measurements on the OMS balloon. Initial analysis indicates a change in the SOLVE NOy* from the values predicted by the 1994 Northern Hemisphere NOy* algorithm which was derived from the observations in the ASHOE/MAESA campaign.
Parent Problem Solving: Analysis of Problem Solving in Parenthood Transition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alpert, Judith L.; And Others
The general purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of adapting the Means-Ends Problem-Solving procedure (MEPS) to the investigation of the individual's transition to parenthood. Specific purposes were to determine (1) the internal consistency of the Parent Problem-Solving Scale (PPSS), of its subclasses, and of a combined subscale;…
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.
1973-01-01
A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.
Problem Solving vis Soap Bubbles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bader, William A.
1975-01-01
Describes the use of a scientific phenomenon related to the concept of surface tension as an intriguing vehicle to direct attention to useful problem solving techniques. The need for a definite building process in attempts to solve mathematical problems is stressed. (EB)
Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ernst, Jeremy V.
2009-01-01
Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
Learning Impasses in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodgson, J. P. E.
1992-01-01
Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacy, Grace
The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…
Learning through Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Hanlie; Olivier, Alwyn; Human, Piet
After conducting several studies on young students' understanding of particular concepts before, during, and after instruction, this paper focuses on the two small scale and several informal teaching experiments based on the idea that the teacher should pose problems to students for which they do not yet have a routine solution method available,…
Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harmel, Sarah Jane
The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
Solving bearing overheating problems
Jendzurski, T.
1995-05-08
Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.
Irrelevance in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, Alon Y.
1992-01-01
The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.
Supporting Problem Solving in PBL
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jonassen, David
2011-01-01
Although the characteristics of PBL (problem focused, student centered, self-directed, etc.) are well known, the components of a problem-based learning environment (PBLE) and the cognitive scaffolds necessary to support learning to solve different kinds of problems with different learners is less clear. This paper identifies the different…
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
AI tools in computer based problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beane, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Problem Solving through Paper Folding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wares, Arsalan
2014-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe a couple of challenging mathematical problems that involve paper folding. These problem-solving tasks can be used to foster geometric and algebraic thinking among students. The context of paper folding makes some of the abstract mathematical ideas involved relatively concrete. When implemented…
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.
1972-01-01
The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.
Computer Enhanced Problem Solving Skill Acquisition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slotnick, Robert S.
1989-01-01
Discusses the implementation of interactive educational software that was designed to enhance critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving in a university psychology course. Piagetian and computer learning perspectives are explained; the courseware package, PsychWare, is described; and the use of heuristics and algorithms in…
Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor
2007-01-01
TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center
2009-09-01
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David
2007-04-12
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David
2007-04-11
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Doha, E.H.; Abd-Elhameed, W.M.; Youssri, Y.H.
2014-01-01
Two families of certain nonsymmetric generalized Jacobi polynomials with negative integer indexes are employed for solving third- and fifth-order two point boundary value problems governed by homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions using a dual Petrov–Galerkin method. The idea behind our method is to use trial functions satisfying the underlying boundary conditions of the differential equations and the test functions satisfying the dual boundary conditions. The resulting linear systems from the application of our method are specially structured and they can be efficiently inverted. The use of generalized Jacobi polynomials simplify the theoretical and numerical analysis of the method and also leads to accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The presented numerical results indicate that the proposed numerical algorithms are reliable and very efficient. PMID:26425358
Al Nasr, Kamal; Ranjan, Desh; Zubair, Mohammad; Chen, Lin; He, Jing
2014-01-01
Electron cryomicroscopy is becoming a major experimental technique in solving the structures of large molecular assemblies. More and more three-dimensional images have been obtained at the medium resolutions between 5 and 10 Å. At this resolution range, major α-helices can be detected as cylindrical sticks and β-sheets can be detected as plain-like regions. A critical question in de novo modeling from cryo-EM images is to determine the match between the detected secondary structures from the image and those on the protein sequence. We formulate this matching problem into a constrained graph problem and present an O(Δ(2)N(2)2(N)) algorithm to this NP-Hard problem. The algorithm incorporates the dynamic programming approach into a constrained K-shortest path algorithm. Our method, DP-TOSS, has been tested using α-proteins with maximum 33 helices and α-β proteins up to five helices and 12 β-strands. The correct match was ranked within the top 35 for 19 of the 20 α-proteins and all nine α-β proteins tested. The results demonstrate that DP-TOSS improves accuracy, time and memory space in deriving the topologies of the secondary structure elements for proteins with a large number of secondary structures and a complex skeleton. PMID:26355788
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.
Solving Problems by Reading Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Witkowski, Joseph C.
1988-01-01
A course at the University of Georgia is described that helps students acquire problem-solving skills so that ultimately the entire remedial program would be improved, giving students with major deficiencies in basic skills a better chance to succeed in their regular university courses. (MLW)
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others
Teachers in elementary schools, supervisors of instruction, and other educational practitioners are the primary audience for this publication. The paper presents philosophical, psychological, and practical reasons for including a problem-solving approach in elementary school instruction. It draws on the writings of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, James…
Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Sabrina Budasi
This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…
Toward a Comprehensive Model of Problem-Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pitt, Ruth B.
Presented is a model of problem solving that incorporates elements of hypothetico-deductive reasoning in the Piagetian sense, and heuristic-algorithmic processing in the information-processing sense. It assumes that people invoke both formal reasoning strategies and learned algorithms whenever they solve problems. The proposed model integrates the…
Genetics problem solving and worldview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Solving combinatorial problems: the 15-puzzle.
Pizlo, Zygmunt; Li, Zheng
2005-09-01
We present a series of experiments in which human subjects were tested with a well-known combinatorial problem called the 15-puzzle and in different-sized variants of this puzzle. Subjects can solve these puzzles reliably by systematically building a solution path, without performing much search and without using distances among the states of the problem. The computational complexity of the underlying mental mechanisms is very low. We formulated a computational model of the underlying cognitive processes on the basis of our results. This model applied a pyramid algorithm to individual stages of each problem. The model's performance proved to be quite similar to the subjects' performance. PMID:16496727
Modeling Applied to Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawl, Andrew; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.
2009-11-01
We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and validate their own Models through guided discovery. Instead, students classify problems under the appropriate instructor-generated Model by selecting a system to consider and describing the interactions that are relevant to that system. We believe that this explicit System, Interactions and Model (S.I.M.) problem modeling strategy represents a key simplification and clarification of the widely disseminated modeling approach originated by Hestenes and collaborators. Our narrower focus allows modeling physics to be integrated into (as opposed to replacing) a typical introductory college mechanics course, while preserving the emphasis on understanding systems and interactions that is the essence of modeling. We have employed the approach in a three-week review course for MIT freshmen who received a D in the fall mechanics course with very encouraging results.
Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.
2010-01-01
Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…
Problem Solving in the Context of Medicine.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woods, Donald R.
1997-01-01
Reviews the book "Medical Problem Solving: An Analysis of Clinical Reasoning," a seminal book whose conclusions on problem solving in medical fields are still valid today. Discusses major problem-solving findings of this book, the application of the findings to education, and relating knowledge to problem-solving skills. (JRH)
Solving the Dark Matter Problem
Baltz, Ted
2009-09-01
Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.
Theoretical and Philosophical Perspectives to Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sherman, Thomas M.; And Others
1988-01-01
Five articles explore various theoretical aspects of problems and problem solving skills. Highlights include strategies to learn problem solving skills; knowledge structures; metacognition; behavioral processes and cognitive psychology; erotetic logic; creativity as an aspect of computer problem solving; and programing as a problem-solving…
Research on Computers and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, John K.; And Others
1988-01-01
Eight articles review and report on research involving computers and problem solving skills. Topics discussed include research design; problem solving skills and programing languages, including BASIC and LOGO; computer anxiety; diagnostic programs for arithmetic problems; and relationships between ability and problem solving scores and between…
King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borchardt, Donald A.
An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-01-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…
Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir
2006-01-01
Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769
Problem Solving in the General Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutman, Andria Price; Lichtenberg, Betty Plunkett
1974-01-01
Five steps common to different problem solving models are listed. Next, seven specific abilities related to solving problems are discussed and examples given. Sample activities, appropriate to help in developing these specific abilities, are suggested. (LS)
Using Logo to Develop Problem Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denenberg, Stewart A.
1993-01-01
Proposes using computer programing teaching problem solving. Describes the problem-solving technique of Top-Down Design, discusses its application to LOGO, and provides examples of programs using LOGO. (MDH)
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina
2013-01-01
This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…
Kindergarten Students Solving Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Nickey Owen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore problem solving with kindergarten students. This line of inquiry is highly significant given that Common Core State Standards emphasize deep, conceptual understanding in mathematics as well as problem solving in kindergarten. However, there is little research on problem solving with kindergarten students.…
Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.
Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…
Affect and Problem Solving: Two Theoretical Perspectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLeod, Douglas B.
Cognitive factors related to problem solving have been explored, but affective factors also play an important role in the teaching of mathematical problem solving. This paper outlines the theories of George Mandler and Bernard Weiner, providing a useful background for research related to affect and problem solving. Data related to the two theories…
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
Solving optimization problems on computational grids.
Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2001-05-01
Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread in parallel branch-and-bound approaches for various problems in combinatorial and network optimization. As the cost of personal computers and low-end workstations has continued to fall, while the speed and capacity of processors and networks have increased dramatically, 'cluster' platforms have become popular in many settings. A somewhat different type of parallel computing platform know as a computational grid (alternatively, metacomputer) has arisen in comparatively recent times. Broadly speaking, this term refers not to a multiprocessor with identical processing nodes but rather to a heterogeneous collection of devices that are widely distributed, possibly around the globe. The advantage of such platforms is obvious: they have the potential to deliver enormous computing power. Just as obviously, however, the complexity of grids makes them very difficult to use. The Condor team, headed by Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin, were among the pioneers in providing infrastructure for grid computations. More recently, the Globus project has developed technologies to support computations on geographically distributed platforms consisting of high-end computers, storage and visualization devices, and other scientific instruments. In 1997, we started the metaneos project as a collaborative effort between optimization specialists and the Condor and Globus groups. Our aim was to address complex, difficult optimization problems in several areas, designing and implementing the algorithms and the software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bilgin, Ibrahim
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pair problem solving technique incorporating Polya's problem solving strategy on undergraduate students' performance in conceptual and algorithmic questions in chemistry. The subjects of this study were 89 students enrolled from two first year chemistry classes. The experimental group was…
Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billionniere, Elodie V.
Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.
Teaching Top-Down Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patrick, Charles
Top-down problem solving is a methodical approach to obtaining real solutions for open-ended problems common in the realms of engineering and science. The technique provides a means for logically understanding a problem prior to attempting a solution. Steps in the top-down problem-solving method include the following: (1) identifying a need; (2)…
Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamilton, Octavia
This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…
Algorithmic Perspectives on Problem Formulations in MDO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael
2000-01-01
This work is concerned with an approach to formulating the multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) problem that reflects an algorithmic perspective on MDO problem solution. The algorithmic perspective focuses on formulating the problem in light of the abilities and inabilities of optimization algorithms, so that the resulting nonlinear programming problem can be solved reliably and efficiently by conventional optimization techniques. We propose a modular approach to formulating MDO problems that takes advantage of the problem structure, maximizes the autonomy of implementation, and allows for multiple easily interchangeable problem statements to be used depending on the available resources and the characteristics of the application problem.
Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.
1993-01-01
Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.
Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyer, Jim
1993-01-01
Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)
Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2013-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…
Error Detection Processes in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allwood, Carl Martin
1984-01-01
Describes a study which analyzed problem solvers' error detection processes by instructing subjects to think aloud when solving statistical problems. Effects of evaluative episodes on error detection, detection of different error types, error detection processes per se, and relationship of error detection behavior to problem-solving proficiency…
Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil
1993-01-01
The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.
General Description of Human Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Gary A.; Weitzenfeld, Julian
A theoretical model relating problem identification to problem solving is presented. The main purpose of the study is to increase understanding of decision making among Air Force educators. The problem-solving process is defined as the generation and evaluation of alternatives that will accomplish what is needed and the reidentification of what is…
Applications of Symmetry to Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leikin, Roza; Berman, Abraham; Zaslavsky, Orit
2000-01-01
Symmetry is an important mathematical concept that plays an extremely important role as a problem solving technique. Presents examples of problems from several branches of mathematics that can be solved using different types of symmetry. Discusses teachers' attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of symmetry in the solutions of these problems.…
Problem solving in health services organizations.
Rakich, J S; Krigline, A B
1996-01-01
Health services organization managers at all levels are constantly confronted with problems. Conditions encountered that initiate the need for problem solving are opportunity, threat, crisis, deviation, and improvement. A general problem-solving model presenting an orderly process by which managers can approach this important task is described. An example of the model applied to the current strategic climate is presented. PMID:10158720
Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.
Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills. PMID:19592762
Secondary School Genetics Instruction: Making Problem Solving Explicit and Meaningful.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, Norman; Stewart, James
1985-01-01
Explains an algorithm which details procedures for solving a broad class of genetics problems common to pre-college biology. Several flow charts (developed from the algorithm) are given with sample questions and suggestions for student use. Conclusions are based on the authors' research (which includes student interviews and textbook analyses).…
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-10-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.
Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda
2008-01-01
This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)
Readiness for Solving Story Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunlap, William F.
1982-01-01
Readiness activities are described which are designed to help learning disabled (LD) students learn to perform computations in story problems. Activities proceed from concrete objects to numbers and involve the students in devising story problems. The language experience approach is incorporated with the enactive, iconic, and symbolic levels of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Easton, Don
1999-03-01
This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.
Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette
2003-01-01
Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)
Neural Network Solves "Traveling-Salesman" Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anilkumar P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.
1990-01-01
Experimental electronic neural network solves "traveling-salesman" problem. Plans round trip of minimum distance among N cities, visiting every city once and only once (without backtracking). This problem is paradigm of many problems of global optimization (e.g., routing or allocation of resources) occuring in industry, business, and government. Applied to large number of cities (or resources), circuits of this kind expected to solve problem faster and more cheaply.
Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.
2014-04-01
This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.
Solving the Tulsa ozone problem
Wagner, K.K.; Wilson, J.D.; Gibeau, E.
1998-12-31
Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.
Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Wayne
2007-01-01
Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…
A Problem-Solving Model for Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Roger O.
This second in a series of three papers on the Associated Staff Training Program of the Foreign Language Innovative Curriculum Study concentrates on the problem solving strategy employed by the program's specially trained innovative agents--the Instructional Systems Consultants (ISC). The problem-solving method used is first illustrated by citing…
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…
Problem Solving Software for Math Classes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutner, Joanne
1987-01-01
Described are 10 computer software programs for problem solving related to mathematics. Programs described are: (1) Box Solves Story Problems; (2) Safari Search; (3) Puzzle Tanks; (4) The King's Rule; (5) The Factory; (6) The Royal Rules; (7) The Enchanted Forest; (8) Gears; (9) The Super Factory; and (10) Creativity Unlimited. (RH)
Solving Problems with Charts & Tables. Pipefitter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.
Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, this instructional module is designed to help individuals employed as pipefitters learn to solve problems with charts and tables. Outlined in the first section is a five-step procedure for solving problems involving tables and/or charts: identifying the question to…
Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pelánek, Radek; Jarušek, Petr
2015-01-01
Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Problem Solving and Technology. ACESIA Monograph 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lomon, Earle L.; And Others
1977-01-01
The two articles dealing with problem solving and technology in this publication should be useful to those developing the kinds of materials, experiences, and thinking that elementary school industrial arts offers children. The first article accepts problem solving as an educational goal and reports a timely and universally acceptable approach.…
Geographic Information Systems: Implications for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Audet, Richard H.; Abegg, Gerald L.
1996-01-01
Compares expert-/novice-based problem-solving behaviors with a Geographic Information Systems program. Uses naturalistic methods to analyze problem-solving strategies for occurrence of thematic elements. Reports that experts relied on logical formulations to query the database while novices used trial-and-error methods and midlevel cognitive…
Children Solving Problems. The Developing Child Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thornton, Stephanie
The developmental increase in the ability to solve problems is a puzzle. Does it come from basic changes in mental skills, or is it a matter of practice? This book from the Developing Child series synthesizes recent research examining children's problem-solving skills development. Chapter 1 presents the major themes: (1) there is increasing…
Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…
Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waugh, Michael; And Others
Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…
Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ollerton, Mike
2007-01-01
In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed the way…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Problem Solving Software: What Does It Teach?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffield, Judith A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for teaching problem solving skills. It was conducted in three phases. During the first phase, two pieces of problem solving software, "The King's Rule" and "Safari Search," were identified and analyzed. During the second phase, two groups of six…
Developing Legal Problem-Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nathanson, Stephen
1994-01-01
A law professor explains how he came to view legal problem solving as the driving concept in law school curriculum design and draws on personal experience and a survey of students concerning teaching methods in a commercial law course. He outlines six curriculum design principles for teaching legal problem solving. (MSE)
Beyond Computation: Improving Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Jennifer M.; Olson, Jennifer S.; Wrobel, Margaret L.
This action research describes a program for improving mathematical problem solving skills. The targeted population consisted of first grade students in a transient, middle class community as well as third and sixth grade students from a growing, middle to upper class in Illinois. The concerns of problem solving were documented through teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits
Johnson, T. H.; Biamonte, J. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.
2013-01-01
Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.
Solving a Spacecraft Design Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, D. K.
1998-01-01
We have probably all been amazed at the ingenuity of spacecraft engineers when we see some of the solutions they invent for such problems as landing a roving vehicle on Mars-as engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory did for NASA's Mars Pathfinder project-without using retro-rockets or even putting a spacecraft in orbit first.
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1973-01-01
The TENEX computer system, the ARPA network, and computer language design technology was applied to support the complex system programs. By combining the pragmatic and theoretical aspects of robot development, an approach is created which is grounded in realism, but which also has at its disposal the power that comes from looking at complex problems from an abstract analytical point of view.
Solving the wrong hierarchy problem
Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson
2016-06-29
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs massmore » by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.« less
Sour landfill gas problem solved
Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.
1996-05-01
In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.
Energy Landscapes and Solved Protein Folding Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolynes, Peter
2004-03-01
Peter G. Wolynes Center for Theoretical Biological Physics Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Physics University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0371 Fifteen years ago, how proteins folded into organized structures on the basis of their sequence was a great mystery. By characterizing the energy landscapes of proteins with tools from the statistical mechanics of disordered systems like spin glasses, a "new view' of the folding process became possible. Energy landscape theory provided an incentive to pursue heroic new experiments and to carry out difficult computer simulations addressing protein folding mechanisms. Many aspects of folding kinetics revealed by these studies can be quantitatively understood using the simple idea that the topography of the energy landscape is that of a "rugged funnel". Energy landscape theory provided a quantitative means of characterizing which amino acid sequences can rapidly fold. Algorithms based on energy landscape theory have been used to successfully design novel sequences that fold to a given structure in the laboratory. Energy landscape ideas have begun to transform the prediction of protein structure from sequence data from being an art to being a science. The success of energy landscape- based algorithms in predicting protein structure from sequence will be highlighted. While there is still much to learn about folding mechanisms and much work to do achieving universally reliable structure prediction, many parts of what used to be called "the protein folding problem" can now be considered solved.
Efficient algorithms for proximity problems
Wee, Y.C.
1989-01-01
Computational geometry is currently a very active area of research in computer science because of its applications to VLSI design, database retrieval, robotics, pattern recognition, etc. The author studies a number of proximity problems which are fundamental in computational geometry. Optimal or improved sequential and parallel algorithms for these problems are presented. Along the way, some relations among the proximity problems are also established. Chapter 2 presents an O(N log{sup 2} N) time divide-and-conquer algorithm for solving the all pairs geographic nearest neighbors problem (GNN) for a set of N sites in the plane under any L{sub p} metric. Chapter 3 presents an O(N log N) divide-and-conquer algorithm for computing the angle restricted Voronoi diagram for a set of N sites in the plane. Chapter 4 introduces a new data structure for the dynamic version of GNN. Chapter 5 defines a new formalism called the quasi-valid range aggregation. This formalism leads to a new and simple method for reducing non-range query-like problems to range queries and often to orthogonal range queries, with immediate applications to the attracted neighbor and the planar all-pairs nearest neighbors problem. Chapter 6 introduces a new approach for the construction of the Voronoi diagram. Using this approach, we design an O(log N) time O (N) processor algorithm for constructing the Voronoi diagram with L{sub 1} and L. metrics on a CREW PRAM machine. Even though the GNN and the Delaunay triangulation (DT) do not have an inclusion relation, we show, using some range type queries, how to efficiently construct DT from the GNN relations over a constant number of angular ranges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, Jun; Liu, Xinbao; Pardalos, Panos M.; Fan, Wenjuan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Shanlin
2016-03-01
Motivated by applications in manufacturing industry, we consider a supply chain scheduling problem, where each job is characterised by non-identical sizes, different release times and unequal processing times. The objective is to minimise the makespan by making batching and sequencing decisions. The problem is formalised as a mixed integer programming model and proved to be strongly NP-hard. Some structural properties are presented for both the general case and a special case. Based on these properties, a lower bound is derived, and a novel two-phase heuristic (TP-H) is developed to solve the problem, which guarantees to obtain a worst case performance ratio of ?. Computational experiments with a set of different sizes of random instances are conducted to evaluate the proposed approach TP-H, which is superior to another two heuristics proposed in the literature. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate that TP-H can effectively and efficiently solve large-size problems in a reasonable time.
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Background: Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P < 0.05. Results: The RAS mean scores and the PSI mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of a midwife's considering herself as a member of the health team, expressing herself within the health care team, being able to say “no” when necessary, cooperating with her colleagues, taking part in problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P < 0.01). Conclusions: There were significant statistical differences between assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession. PMID:26793247
Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)
... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...
Lesion mapping of social problem solving
Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.
2014-01-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene
2005-01-01
This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…
Spatial visualization in physics problem solving.
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A; Hegarty, Mary
2007-07-01
Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naíve students were administered kinematics problems and spatial visualization ability tests. In Study 2, 17 (8 high- and 9 low-spatial ability) additional students completed think-aloud protocols while they solved the kinematics problems. In Study 3, the eye movements of fifteen (9 high- and 6 low-spatial ability) students were recorded while the students solved kinematics problems. In contrast to high-spatial students, most low-spatial students did not combine two motion vectors, were unable to switch frames of reference, and tended to interpret graphs literally. The results of the study suggest an important relationship between spatial visualization ability and solving kinematics problems with multiple spatial parameters. PMID:21635308
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…
Task Variables in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldin, Gerald A., Ed.; McClintock, C. Edwin, Ed.
A framework for research in problem solving is provided by categorizing and defining variables describing problem tasks. A model is presented in an article by Kulm for the classification of task variables into broad categories. The model attempts to draw realtionships between these categories of task variables and the stages of problem solving…
Collaborative Problem Solving in Shared Space
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Lin; Mills, Leila A.; Ifenthaler, Dirk
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative problem solving in a shared virtual space. The main question asked was: How will the performance and processes differ between collaborative problem solvers and independent problem solvers over time? A total of 104 university students (63 female and 41 male) participated in an experimental…
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Organizational Structure and Complex Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, Selwyn W.; Baloff, Nicholas
1969-01-01
The problem-solving efficiency of different organization structures is discussed in relation to task requirements and the appropriate organizational behavior, to group adaptation to a task over time, and to various group characteristics. (LN)
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Using Problem Solving to Teach the Disabled.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cardon, Phillip L.; Scott, Michael L.
2000-01-01
Technology education can and should play a role in the development of ideas through problem solving to assist teachers of students with disabilities. Technology teachers can adapt the Engineering for Success model in working with these students. (JOW)
A Heuristic Framework to Solve a General Delivery Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lian, Lian; Castelain, Emmanuel
2010-06-01
This paper presents a new distribution and route planning problem, General Delivery Problem (GDP) which is more general than the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem. To solve a GDP, a three-phase framework heuristic approach based on decomposition techniques is introduced. The decomposition techniques are employed to divide an original problem into a set of sub-problems, which can reduce the problem size. A kind of decomposition technique, Capacity Clustering Algorithm (CCA), is embedded into the framework with Simulated Annealing (SA) to solve a special GDP. The proposed three-phase framework with the above two algorithms is compared with five other decomposition methods in a distribution instance of the Regional Fire and Emergency Center in the north of France.
Solving scheduling tournament problems using a new version of CLONALG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Cáceres, Leslie; Riff, María Cristina
2015-01-01
The travelling tournament problem (TTP) is an important and well-known problem within the collective sports research community. The problem is NP-hard which makes difficult finding quality solution in short amount of time. Recently a new kind of TTP has been proposed 'The Relaxed Travelling Tournament Problem'. This version of the problem allows teams to have some days off during the tournament. In this paper, we propose an immune algorithm that is able to solve both problem versions. The algorithm uses moves which are based on the team home/away patterns. One of these moves has been specially designed for the relaxed travel tournament instances. We have tested the algorithm using well-known problem benchmarks and the results obtained are very encouraging.
A Graph Based Backtracking Algorithm for Solving General CSPs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pang, Wanlin; Goodwin, Scott D.
2003-01-01
Many AI tasks can be formalized as constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), which involve finding values for variables subject to constraints. While solving a CSP is an NP-complete task in general, tractable classes of CSPs have been identified based on the structure of the underlying constraint graphs. Much effort has been spent on exploiting structural properties of the constraint graph to improve the efficiency of finding a solution. These efforts contributed to development of a class of CSP solving algorithms called decomposition algorithms. The strength of CSP decomposition is that its worst-case complexity depends on the structural properties of the constraint graph and is usually better than the worst-case complexity of search methods. Its practical application is limited, however, since it cannot be applied if the CSP is not decomposable. In this paper, we propose a graph based backtracking algorithm called omega-CDBT, which shares merits and overcomes the weaknesses of both decomposition and search approaches.
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.
2012-01-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E
2012-10-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
Engineering calculations for solving the orbital allotment problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reilly, C.; Walton, E. K.; Mount-Campbell, C.; Caldecott, R.; Aebker, E.; Mata, F.
1988-01-01
Four approaches for calculating downlink interferences for shaped-beam antennas are described. An investigation of alternative mixed-integer programming models for satellite synthesis is summarized. Plans for coordinating the various programs developed under this grant are outlined. Two procedures for ordering satellites to initialize the k-permutation algorithm are proposed. Results are presented for the k-permutation algorithms. Feasible solutions are found for 5 of the 6 problems considered. Finally, it is demonstrated that the k-permutation algorithm can be used to solve arc allotment problems.
The Functional Equivalence of Problem Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simon, Herbert A.
1975-01-01
This analysis of solutions to the Tower of Hanoi Problem underscores the importance of subject-by-subject analysis of "What is learned" in understanding human behavior in problem-solving situations, and provides a technique for describing subjects' task performance programs in detail. (Author/BJG)
Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forgan, James W.
2002-01-01
This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
GIS Live and Web Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.
2007-01-01
GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…
Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.
1985-01-01
Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)
Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.
2005-01-01
This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…
Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary
2007-01-01
Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…
Teaching Teamwork and Problem Solving Concurrently
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.; Reinsch, Roger W.; Tyrell, Sharon K.
2008-01-01
Teamwork and problem-solving skills have frequently been identified by business leaders as being key competencies; thus, teaching methods such as problem-based learning and team-based learning have been developed. However, the focus of these methods has been on teaching one skill or the other. A key argument for teaching the skills concurrently is…
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blasetti, Sean M.
2010-01-01
This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…
Reflect ... for Better Problem Solving and Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krulik, Stephen; Rudnick, Jesse A.
1994-01-01
Elaborates the final step of Polya's heuristic model, reflecting, to improve students' problem-solving performance. After checking answers for accuracy, the following steps are suggested: (1) test reasonableness and practicality; (2) write a summary paragraph; (3) find other solutions; (4) change the conditions; and (5) extend the problem. (MKR)
Solving Geometry Problems via Mechanical Principles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu Kwong
2004-01-01
The application of physical principles in solving mathematics problems have often been neglected in the teaching of physics or mathematics, especially at the secondary school level. This paper discusses how to apply the mechanical principles to geometry problems via concrete examples, which aims at providing insight and inspirations to physics or…
Model Formulation for Physics Problem Solving. Draft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novak, Gordon S., Jr.
The major task in solving a physics problem is to construct an appropriate model of the problem in terms of physical principles. The functions performed by such a model, the information which needs to be represented, and the knowledge used in selecting and instantiating an appropriate model are discussed. An example of a model for a mechanics…
Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dieterly, D. L.
1980-01-01
An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.
Instructional Design for Heuristic-Based Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ingram, Albert L.
1988-01-01
Discussion of instructional design models focuses on a study concerned with developing effective instruction in heuristic-based problem solving for computer programing. Highlights include distinctions between algorithms and heuristics; pretests and posttests; revised instructional design procedures; student attitudes; task analysis; and…
Prospective Elementary Teachers' Misunderstandings in Solving Ratio and Proportion Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monteiro, Cecilia
2003-01-01
This study explores difficulties that prospective elementary mathematics teachers have with the concepts of ratio and proportion, mainly when they are engaged in solving problems using algorithm procedures. These difficulties can be traced back to earlier experiences when they were students of junior and high school. The reflection on these…
Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volna, Eva
2016-06-01
The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
2016-01-01
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.
The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem-solving
Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho
2014-09-01
This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.
Problem solving in a distributed environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rashid, R. F.
1980-01-01
Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana
2011-01-01
The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741
Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox
Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano
2014-08-15
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borg, Suzanne
2009-01-01
This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…
Correlates of Problem-Solving Flexibility.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenberger, Ellen; And Others
Problem solving flexibility (PSF), an ability commonly assessed in creativity batteries, was studied in a sample of middle class children (grades 1 through 3, average IQ 114), tested on questions resembling Guilford's consequences procedure. An hypothesis linking PSF with alertness to and interest in the environment was generally supported, more…
Problem-Solving Skills for Office Supervisors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hathaway, Sandy
This package contains a selection of exercises designed to facilitate learning of problem-solving/communication skills within the area of office supervision. It does not provide the learning material or lesson plans. Section 1 is an overview that explains the scope of the material, learning methods, use of the teaching package, teaching resources,…
Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…
Option X, Level B Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.
This guide outlines an Option X course on problem solving techniques. The 16 learner objectives identified in the Mathematics Program Guide stress applications orientation to concepts about numbers and operations and common plane and solid figures. Techniques covered include working with diagrams, organizing information, using patterns,…
Design and Problem Solving in Technology Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Custer, Rodney L.
1999-01-01
Collectively, technological literacy embraces everything from intelligent consumerism to concerns about environmental degradation, ethics, and elitism. Technological problem solving can have social, ecological, or technological goals and may be categorized by four types: invention, design, trouble shooting, and procedures. Every citizen should be…
Taylor series to solve friction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Béchet, Fabien; Lejeune, Arnaud; Potier-Ferry, Michel
2010-06-01
Thin metallic sheet transportation appears in numerous manufacturing processes such as continuous annealing, levelling or galvanization. It involves various nonlinear phenomena and, in particular, contact with friction. We develop a numerical method to solve this kind of mechanical problem, using shell finite elements and the Asymptotic Numerical Method (ANM). This article focuses on the treatment of the friction equations with ANM.
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Making Problem-Solving Simulations More Realistic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cotton, Samuel E.
2002-01-01
Many problem-solving activities include mathematical principles but students do not use them during the design and experimentation phases before creating a prototype or product. Restricting the amount and/or type of materials available to students will require them to calculate and requisition the materials needed. (JOW)
Models of Strategy for Solving Physics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larkin, Jill H.
A set of computer implemented models are presented which can assist in developing problem solving strategies. The three levels of expertise which are covered are beginners (those who have completed at least one university physics course), intermediates (university level physics majors in their third year of study), and professionals (university…
Is Problem Solving Dependent on Language?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baldo, J.V.; Dronkers, N.F.; Wilkins, D.; Ludy, C.; Raskin, P.; Kim, J.
2005-01-01
There has been a long-standing debate in the fields of philosophy and cognitive science surrounding the relationship of language to cognition, but the exact nature of this relationship is still unclear (Sokolov, 1968/1972). In the current study, we explored the role of language in one aspect of cognition, namely problem solving, by administering…
Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz
2009-01-01
In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…
Structural and Linguistic Variables in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jerman, Max; Mirman, Sanford
This paper reports on an experiment designed to investigate the effect of structural and linguistic variables on level of difficulty in solving arithmetic word problems. Identification of such variables is intended to assist curriculum writers in preparing exercises at a specified level of difficulty for students at various age levels. The study…
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Effective Practices (Part 4): Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moursund, Dave
1996-01-01
Discusses the use of computers to help with problem solving. Topics include information science, including effective procedure and procedural thinking; templates; artificially intelligent agents and expert systems; and applications in education, including the goal of computer literacy for all students, and integrated software packages such as…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Kit Ee Dawn
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Problem-solving for better health.
Smith, B; Barnett, S; Collado, D; Connor, M; DePasquale, J; Gross, L; McDermott, V; Sykes, A
1994-01-01
An outline is given of an approach to the health-for-all goals which involves optimizing resource use, prioritizing people's well-being, achieving excellence and a measurable impact at all levels of care, and solving health problems in a broad developmental context. PMID:8141991
How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.
2013-01-01
This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…
Problem Solving. Workplace Education Program Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burkhart, Jennifer
The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. This document consists of three modules for the problem-solving and computer learning systems classes of…
Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, James
1983-01-01
Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)
Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.
Raise the Bar on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Englard, Lisa
2010-01-01
In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…
Informal Evaluation Strategies for Real Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellis, Arthur K.; Alleman-Brooks, Janet
1978-01-01
Examples of possible methods for unobtrusively evaluating student progress through real problem solving outcomes without formal testing are illustrated. These methods include the use of interviews, artifacts, observations, I learned statements, checklists, flow of discussion charts, and self-awareness exercises. (MN)
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Problem Solving and Behavior Therapy Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nezu, Arthur M.
2004-01-01
Over three decades ago, D'Zurilla and Goldfried (1971) published a seminal article delineating a model of problem-solving training geared to enhance social competence and decrease psychological distress. Since that time, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to test various hypotheses that this model has engendered. Much of this…
Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watras, Joseph
2011-01-01
In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Daoquan
2012-01-01
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
A SURVEY OF PROBLEM-SOLVING COURSES.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
EDWARDS, M.O.
TO DETERMINE THE DESIRABILITY OF HAVING ITS OWN CREATIVITY COURSE, THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE SURVEYED 43 ORGANIZATIONS ON THEIR PROBLEM SOLVING COURSES. FIFTEEN INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS, FOUR CONSULTING FIRMS, A GOVERNMENT AGENCY, A RESEARCH CORPORATION, AND NINE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES RESPONDED WITH SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON COURSE LENGTH…
ARPACK: Solving large scale eigenvalue problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehoucq, Rich; Maschhoff, Kristi; Sorensen, Danny; Yang, Chao
2013-11-01
ARPACK is a collection of Fortran77 subroutines designed to solve large scale eigenvalue problems. The package is designed to compute a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a general n by n matrix A. It is most appropriate for large sparse or structured matrices A where structured means that a matrix-vector product w
Problem-Solving Models for Computer Literacy: Getting Smarter at Solving Problems. Student Lessons.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moursund, David
This book is intended for use as a student guide. It is about human problem solving and provides information on how the mind works, placing a major emphasis on the role of computers as an aid in problem solving. The book is written with the underlying philosophy of discovery-based learning based on two premises: first, through the appropriate…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
2008-01-01
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.
2013-01-01
The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…
Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.
2014-01-01
Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…
Problem-Framing: A perspective on environmental problem-solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardwell, Lisa V.
1991-09-01
The specter of environmental calamity calls for the best efforts of an involved public. Ironically, the way people understand the issues all too often serves to discourage and frustrate rather than motivate them to action. This article draws from problem-solving perspectives offered by cognitive psychology and conflict management to examine a framework for thinking about environmental problems that promises to help rather than hinder efforts to address them. Problem-framing emphasizes focusing on the problem definition. Since how one defines a problem determines one's understanding of and approach to that problem, being able to redefine or reframe a problem and to explore the “problem space” can help broaden the range of alternatives and solutions examined. Problem-framing incorporates a cognitive perspective on how people respond to information. It explains why an emphasis on problem definition is not part of people's typical approach to problems. It recognizes the importance of structure and of having ways to organize that information on one's problem-solving effort. Finally, problem-framing draws on both cognitive psychology and conflict management for strategies to manage information and to create a problem-solving environment that not only encourages participation but can yield better approaches to our environmental problems.
Problem solving stages in the five square problem.
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794
Problem solving stages in the five square problem
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794
Combining Computational and Social Effort for Collaborative Problem Solving
Wagy, Mark D.; Bongard, Josh C.
2015-01-01
Rather than replacing human labor, there is growing evidence that networked computers create opportunities for collaborations of people and algorithms to solve problems beyond either of them. In this study, we demonstrate the conditions under which such synergy can arise. We show that, for a design task, three elements are sufficient: humans apply intuitions to the problem, algorithms automatically determine and report back on the quality of designs, and humans observe and innovate on others’ designs to focus creative and computational effort on good designs. This study suggests how such collaborations should be composed for other domains, as well as how social and computational dynamics mutually influence one another during collaborative problem solving. PMID:26544199
Combining Computational and Social Effort for Collaborative Problem Solving.
Wagy, Mark D; Bongard, Josh C
2015-01-01
Rather than replacing human labor, there is growing evidence that networked computers create opportunities for collaborations of people and algorithms to solve problems beyond either of them. In this study, we demonstrate the conditions under which such synergy can arise. We show that, for a design task, three elements are sufficient: humans apply intuitions to the problem, algorithms automatically determine and report back on the quality of designs, and humans observe and innovate on others' designs to focus creative and computational effort on good designs. This study suggests how such collaborations should be composed for other domains, as well as how social and computational dynamics mutually influence one another during collaborative problem solving. PMID:26544199
Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg
2008-01-01
CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.
Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual restructuring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibáñez Orcajo, Teresa; Martínez Aznar, Mercedes
2005-10-01
This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students experienced a conceptual restructuring that stayed with them over time and involved the following specific theories: the location of hereditary information, the transmission of hereditary information, and the appearance of new characteristic. The learning connections between these specific theories were also studied. Furthermore, these results were compared with a control group that worked with closed problems, the usual approach to genetics teaching in Spanish classrooms. Consequently, we were able to verify that our methodology results in better learning.
Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS) -- Identifying student's problem solving skills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy; Wieman, Carl
2009-05-01
Problem solving is central to any physics curriculum and physics educators have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving; however, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because CAPS removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. CAPS has been developed and validated at Colorado and measures a person's competence in 44 separate skills that are used when solving a wide range of in-depth problems including classical mechanics and quantum mechanics problems. Understanding the specific processes that impact how a person solves a problem identifies which components are specific to physics and those that transfer across discipline, and provides insight for improved methods for teaching. 1. Supported in part by funding from National Science Foundation
Solving the shepherding problem: heuristics for herding autonomous, interacting agents.
Strömbom, Daniel; Mann, Richard P; Wilson, Alan M; Hailes, Stephen; Morton, A Jennifer; Sumpter, David J T; King, Andrew J
2014-11-01
Herding of sheep by dogs is a powerful example of one individual causing many unwilling individuals to move in the same direction. Similar phenomena are central to crowd control, cleaning the environment and other engineering problems. Despite single dogs solving this 'shepherding problem' every day, it remains unknown which algorithm they employ or whether a general algorithm exists for shepherding. Here, we demonstrate such an algorithm, based on adaptive switching between collecting the agents when they are too dispersed and driving them once they are aggregated. Our algorithm reproduces key features of empirical data collected from sheep-dog interactions and suggests new ways in which robots can be designed to influence movements of living and artificial agents. PMID:25165603
Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.
Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James
2016-07-01
There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem-solving
Using Problem-Solution Maps to Improve Students' Problem-Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Selvaratnam, Mailoo; Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
2008-01-01
The effectiveness of problem solving as a learning tool is often diminished because students typically use only an algorithmic approach to get to the answer. We discuss a way of encouraging students to reflect on the solution to their problem by requiring them--after they have arrived at their solution--to draw solution maps. A solution map…
Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian
Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.
A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.
1989-01-01
A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.
Russian Doll Search for solving Constraint Optimization problems
Verfaillie, G.; Lemaitre, M.
1996-12-31
If the Constraint Satisfaction framework has been extended to deal with Constraint Optimization problems, it appears that optimization is far more complex than satisfaction. One of the causes of the inefficiency of complete tree search methods, like Depth First Branch and Bound, lies in the poor quality of the lower bound on the global valuation of a partial assignment, even when using Forward Checking techniques. In this paper, we introduce the Russian Doll Search algorithm which replaces one search by n successive searches on nested subproblems (n being the number of problem variables), records the results of each search and uses them later, when solving larger subproblems, in order to improve the lower bound on the global valuation of any partial assignment. On small random problems and on large real scheduling problems, this algorithm yields surprisingly good results, which greatly improve as the problems get more constrained and the bandwidth of the used variable ordering diminishes.
Linear systems of equations solved using mathematical algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bareiss, E. H.
1968-01-01
New mathematical algorithm solves linear systems of equations, AX equals B, and preserves the integer properties of the coefficients. The algorithms presented can also be used for the efficient evaluation of determinates and their leading minors.
Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana
2008-10-01
We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.
Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun
Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.
Optimization neural network for solving flow problems.
Perfetti, R
1995-01-01
This paper describes a neural network for solving flow problems, which are of interest in many areas of application as in fuel, hydro, and electric power scheduling. The neural network consist of two layers: a hidden layer and an output layer. The hidden units correspond to the nodes of the flow graph. The output units represent the branch variables. The network has a linear order of complexity, it is easily programmable, and it is suited for analog very large scale integration (VLSI) realization. The functionality of the proposed network is illustrated by a simulation example concerning the maximal flow problem. PMID:18263420
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
Johnson, Eric D.; Tubau, Elisabet
2015-01-01
Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on “transparent” Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976
The Effect of a Problem-Solving Teaching Method on Student Problem-Solving Processes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frank, David V.; Herron, J. Dudley
A problem-solving method of teaching was used in the recitation sections of a freshmen chemistry course for science and engineering majors at Purdue University. The method was based on prior research which revealed that good problem solvers formed better representations and used heuristics more often than poor problem solvers. Consequently, the…
A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritchard, David
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin
2006-01-01
Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).
Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines.
Clark, Kevin B
2015-11-01
A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices. PMID
Solving the shepherding problem: heuristics for herding autonomous, interacting agents
Strömbom, Daniel; Mann, Richard P.; Wilson, Alan M.; Hailes, Stephen; Morton, A. Jennifer; Sumpter, David J. T.; King, Andrew J.
2014-01-01
Herding of sheep by dogs is a powerful example of one individual causing many unwilling individuals to move in the same direction. Similar phenomena are central to crowd control, cleaning the environment and other engineering problems. Despite single dogs solving this ‘shepherding problem’ every day, it remains unknown which algorithm they employ or whether a general algorithm exists for shepherding. Here, we demonstrate such an algorithm, based on adaptive switching between collecting the agents when they are too dispersed and driving them once they are aggregated. Our algorithm reproduces key features of empirical data collected from sheep–dog interactions and suggests new ways in which robots can be designed to influence movements of living and artificial agents. PMID:25165603
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.
2013-01-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…
Can compactifications solve the cosmological constant problem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali
2016-06-01
Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant Λ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at Λ = 0. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain Λ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why Λ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cosmological constant to zero. We also show that the fundamental Planck mass is being sent to zero, and so the central problem is trivially avoided by removing high energy physics altogether. On the other hand, by including various large mass scales from particle physics with a high fundamental Planck mass, one is faced with a real problem, whose only known solution involves accidental cancellations in a landscape.
The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…
A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grigg, Sarah J.
2012-01-01
In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…
"I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John
2008-01-01
This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.
2004-01-01
This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…
Scientific problem solving by expert systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Good, Ron
Human expert problem solving in science is defined and used to account for scientific discovery. These ideas, attributed largely to Herbert Simon, are used in a description of BACON.5, a machine expert problem solver that discovers scientific laws using data-driven heuristics and expectations such as symmetry. Trial-and-error search of data-driven scientific discovery is drastically reduced when the BACON.5 system is altered to include expectations, such as symmetry, which have been influential in real (i.e., human) discoveries of scientific laws. A discussion of the implications of BACON.5-type research for traditional science education research recognizes the importance of a qualitative understanding of the relationships among pieces of a physical or biological system.
Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef
1988-01-01
An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.
Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving
Gilhooly, Kenneth J.
2016-01-01
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745
Incubation and Intuition in Creative Problem Solving.
Gilhooly, Kenneth J
2016-01-01
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation. PMID:27499745
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective
Ganor-Stern, Dana
2016-01-01
Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults’ ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner. PMID:27171224
Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).
Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J
2008-06-22
Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318
Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.
1988-01-01
This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.
Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2012-01-01
Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…
Experimenting with Classroom Formats To Encourage Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, Eileen; Kazimir, Jessica; Vandemeulebroeke, Lynn; Burgos, Carlos
2002-01-01
Describes how modifying familiar classroom formats in a college geometry class helped encourage student problem solving. Demonstrates these modified formats in the context of problems students explored, which resemble the problem-solving settings of mathematicians. (KHR)
Circumspect descent prevails in solving random constraint satisfaction problems.
Alava, Mikko; Ardelius, John; Aurell, Erik; Kaski, Petteri; Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Orponen, Pekka; Seitz, Sakari
2008-10-01
We study the performance of stochastic local search algorithms for random instances of the K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problem. We present a stochastic local search algorithm, ChainSAT, which moves in the energy landscape of a problem instance by never going upwards in energy. ChainSAT is a focused algorithm in the sense that it focuses on variables occurring in unsatisfied clauses. We show by extensive numerical investigations that ChainSAT and other focused algorithms solve large K-SAT instances almost surely in linear time, up to high clause-to-variable ratios alpha; for example, for K = 4 we observe linear-time performance well beyond the recently postulated clustering and condensation transitions in the solution space. The performance of ChainSAT is a surprise given that by design the algorithm gets trapped into the first local energy minimum it encounters, yet no such minima are encountered. We also study the geometry of the solution space as accessed by stochastic local search algorithms. PMID:18832149
Solving molecular docking problems with multi-objective metaheuristics.
García-Godoy, María Jesús; López-Camacho, Esteban; García-Nieto, José; Aldana-Montes, Antonio J Nebroand José F
2015-01-01
Molecular docking is a hard optimization problem that has been tackled in the past with metaheuristics, demonstrating new and challenging results when looking for one objective: the minimum binding energy. However, only a few papers can be found in the literature that deal with this problem by means of a multi-objective approach, and no experimental comparisons have been made in order to clarify which of them has the best overall performance. In this paper, we use and compare, for the first time, a set of representative multi-objective optimization algorithms applied to solve complex molecular docking problems. The approach followed is focused on optimizing the intermolecular and intramolecular energies as two main objectives to minimize. Specifically, these algorithms are: two variants of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), speed modulation multi-objective particle swarm optimization (SMPSO), third evolution step of generalized differential evolution (GDE3), multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) and S-metric evolutionary multi-objective optimization (SMS-EMOA). We assess the performance of the algorithms by applying quality indicators intended to measure convergence and the diversity of the generated Pareto front approximations. We carry out a comparison with another reference mono-objective algorithm in the problem domain (Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) provided by the AutoDock tool). Furthermore, the ligand binding site and molecular interactions of computed solutions are analyzed, showing promising results for the multi-objective approaches. In addition, a case study of application for aeroplysinin-1 is performed, showing the effectiveness of our multi-objective approach in drug discovery. PMID:26042856
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Baafi, Ernest
2016-05-01
In this study, hybrid models are designed to predict groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine and the hydraulic head (HH) in observation wells at different distances from the centre of the pit during its advance. Hybrid methods coupling artificial neural network (ANN) with genetic algorithm (GA) methods (ANN-GA), and simulated annealing (SA) methods (ANN-SA), were utilised. Ratios of depth of pit penetration in aquifer to aquifer thickness, pit bottom radius to its top radius, inverse of pit advance time and the HH in the observation wells to the distance of observation wells from the centre of the pit were used as inputs to the networks. To achieve the objective two hybrid models consisting of ANN-GA and ANN-SA with 4-5-3-1 arrangement were designed. In addition, by switching the last argument of the input layer with the argument of the output layer of two earlier models, two new models were developed to predict the HH in the observation wells for the period of the mining process. The accuracy and reliability of models are verified by field data, results of a numerical finite element model using SEEP/W, outputs of simple ANNs and some well-known analytical solutions. Predicted results obtained by the hybrid methods are closer to the field data compared to the outputs of analytical and simple ANN models. Results show that despite the use of fewer and simpler parameters by the hybrid models, the ANN-GA and to some extent the ANN-SA have the ability to compete with the numerical models.
Solving Fuzzy Optimization Problem Using Hybrid Ls-Sa Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasant, Pandian
2011-06-01
Fuzzy optimization problem has been one of the most and prominent topics inside the broad area of computational intelligent. It's especially relevant in the filed of fuzzy non-linear programming. It's application as well as practical realization can been seen in all the real world problems. In this paper a large scale non-linear fuzzy programming problem has been solved by hybrid optimization techniques of Line Search (LS), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Pattern Search (PS). As industrial production planning problem with cubic objective function, 8 decision variables and 29 constraints has been solved successfully using LS-SA-PS hybrid optimization techniques. The computational results for the objective function respect to vagueness factor and level of satisfaction has been provided in the form of 2D and 3D plots. The outcome is very promising and strongly suggests that the hybrid LS-SA-PS algorithm is very efficient and productive in solving the large scale non-linear fuzzy programming problem.
Longest jobs first algorithm in solving job shop scheduling using adaptive genetic algorithm (GA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alizadeh Sahzabi, Vahid; Karimi, Iman; Alizadeh Sahzabi, Navid; Mamaani Barnaghi, Peiman
2011-12-01
In this paper, genetic algorithm was used to solve job shop scheduling problems. One example discussed in JSSP (Job Shop Scheduling Problem) and I described how we can solve such these problems by genetic algorithm. The goal in JSSP is to gain the shortest process time. Furthermore I proposed a method to obtain best performance on performing all jobs in shortest time. The method mainly, is according to Genetic algorithm (GA) and crossing over between parents always follows the rule which the longest process is at the first in the job queue. In the other word chromosomes is suggested to sorts based on the longest processes to shortest i.e. "longest job first" says firstly look which machine contains most processing time during its performing all its jobs and that is the bottleneck. Secondly, start sort those jobs which are belonging to that specific machine descending. Based on the achieved results," longest jobs first" is the optimized status in job shop scheduling problems. In our results the accuracy would grow up to 94.7% for total processing time and the method improved 4% the accuracy of performing all jobs in the presented example.
Longest jobs first algorithm in solving job shop scheduling using adaptive genetic algorithm (GA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alizadeh Sahzabi, Vahid; Karimi, Iman; Alizadeh Sahzabi, Navid; Mamaani Barnaghi, Peiman
2012-01-01
In this paper, genetic algorithm was used to solve job shop scheduling problems. One example discussed in JSSP (Job Shop Scheduling Problem) and I described how we can solve such these problems by genetic algorithm. The goal in JSSP is to gain the shortest process time. Furthermore I proposed a method to obtain best performance on performing all jobs in shortest time. The method mainly, is according to Genetic algorithm (GA) and crossing over between parents always follows the rule which the longest process is at the first in the job queue. In the other word chromosomes is suggested to sorts based on the longest processes to shortest i.e. "longest job first" says firstly look which machine contains most processing time during its performing all its jobs and that is the bottleneck. Secondly, start sort those jobs which are belonging to that specific machine descending. Based on the achieved results," longest jobs first" is the optimized status in job shop scheduling problems. In our results the accuracy would grow up to 94.7% for total processing time and the method improved 4% the accuracy of performing all jobs in the presented example.
Experience with two parallel programs solving the traveling salesman problem
Mohan, J.
1983-01-01
The traveling salesman problem is solved on CM*, a multiprocessor system, using two parallel search programs based on the branch and bound algorithm of Little, Murty, Sweeny and Karel. One of these programs is synchronous and has a master-slave process structure, while the other is asynchronous and has an egalitarian structure. The absolute execution times and the speedups of the two programs differ significantly. Their execution times differ because of the difference in their process structure. Their speedups differ because they require different amounts of computation to solve the same problem. This difference in the amount of computation is explained by their different heuristic granularities. The difference between the speedup of the asynchronous second program and linear speedup is attributed to processors idling owing to resource contention. 6 references.
Solving unstructured grid problems on massively parallel computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammond, Steven W.; Schreiber, Robert
1990-01-01
A highly parallel graph mapping technique that enables one to efficiently solve unstructured grid problems on massively parallel computers is presented. Many implicit and explicit methods for solving discretized partial differential equations require each point in the discretization to exchange data with its neighboring points every time step or iteration. The cost of this communication can negate the high performance promised by massively parallel computing. To eliminate this bottleneck, the graph of the irregular problem is mapped into the graph representing the interconnection topology of the computer such that the sum of the distances that the messages travel is minimized. It is shown that using the heuristic mapping algorithm significantly reduces the communication time compared to a naive assignment of processes to processors.
A cognitive model for problem solving in computer science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parham, Jennifer R.
According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in solving them. Approaching assessment from this perspective would reveal potential errors leading to incorrect solutions. This dissertation proposes a model describing how people solve computational problems by storing, retrieving, and manipulating information and knowledge. It describes how metacognition interacts with schemata representing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as with the external sources of information that might be needed to arrive at a solution. Metacognition includes higher-order, executive processes responsible for controlling and monitoring schemata, which in turn represent the algorithmic knowledge needed for organizing and adapting concepts to a specific domain. The model illustrates how metacognitive processes interact with the knowledge represented by schemata as well as the information from external sources. This research investigates the differences in the way computer science novices use their metacognition and schemata to solve a computer programming problem. After J. Parham and L. Gugerty reached an 85% reliability for six metacognitive processes and six domain-specific schemata for writing a computer program, the resulting vocabulary provided the foundation for supporting the existence of and the interaction between metacognition, schemata, and external sources of information in computer programming. Overall, the participants in this research used their schemata 6% more than their metacognition and their metacognitive processes to control and monitor their schemata used to write a computer program. This research has potential implications in computer science education and software
Glycoprotein Structural Genomics: Solving the Glycosylation Problem
Chang, Veronica T.; Crispin, Max; Aricescu, A. Radu; Harvey, David J.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Fennelly, Janet A.; Yu, Chao; Boles, Kent S.; Evans, Edward J.; Stuart, David I.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Owens, Raymond J.; Davis, Simon J.
2007-01-01
Summary Glycoproteins present special problems for structural genomic analysis because they often require glycosylation in order to fold correctly, whereas their chemical and conformational heterogeneity generally inhibits crystallization. We show that the “glycosylation problem” can be solved by expressing glycoproteins transiently in mammalian cells in the presence of the N-glycosylation processing inhibitors, kifunensine or swainsonine. This allows the correct folding of the glycoproteins, but leaves them sensitive to enzymes, such as endoglycosidase H, that reduce the N-glycans to single residues, enhancing crystallization. Since the scalability of transient mammalian expression is now comparable to that of bacterial systems, this approach should relieve one of the major bottlenecks in structural genomic analysis. PMID:17355862
A mathematical model of a computational problem solving system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aris, Teh Noranis Mohd; Nazeer, Shahrin Azuan
2015-05-01
This paper presents a mathematical model based on fuzzy logic for a computational problem solving system. The fuzzy logic uses truth degrees as a mathematical model to represent vague algorithm. The fuzzy logic mathematical model consists of fuzzy solution and fuzzy optimization modules. The algorithm is evaluated based on a software metrics calculation that produces the fuzzy set membership. The fuzzy solution mathematical model is integrated in the fuzzy inference engine that predicts various solutions to computational problems. The solution is extracted from a fuzzy rule base. Then, the solutions are evaluated based on a software metrics calculation that produces the level of fuzzy set membership. The fuzzy optimization mathematical model is integrated in the recommendation generation engine that generate the optimize solution.
Problem Solving and Chemical Equilibrium: Successful versus Unsuccessful Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camacho, Moises; Good, Ron
1989-01-01
Describes the problem-solving behaviors of experts and novices engaged in solving seven chemical equilibrium problems. Lists 27 behavioral tendencies of successful and unsuccessful problem solvers. Discusses several implications for a problem solving theory, think-aloud techniques, adequacy of the chemistry domain, and chemistry instruction.…
Solving quantum ground-state problems with nuclear magnetic resonance.
Li, Zhaokai; Yung, Man-Hong; Chen, Hongwei; Lu, Dawei; Whitfield, James D; Peng, Xinhua; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Du, Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
Quantum ground-state problems are computationally hard problems for general many-body Hamiltonians; there is no classical or quantum algorithm known to be able to solve them efficiently. Nevertheless, if a trial wavefunction approximating the ground state is available, as often happens for many problems in physics and chemistry, a quantum computer could employ this trial wavefunction to project the ground state by means of the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). We performed an experimental realization of this idea by implementing a variational-wavefunction approach to solve the ground-state problem of the Heisenberg spin model with an NMR quantum simulator. Our iterative phase estimation procedure yields a high accuracy for the eigenenergies (to the 10⁻⁵ decimal digit). The ground-state fidelity was distilled to be more than 80%, and the singlet-to-triplet switching near the critical field is reliably captured. This result shows that quantum simulators can better leverage classical trial wave functions than classical computers. PMID:22355607
Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aickelin, Uwe
2010-04-01
This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Gary E.
This study examined the effects of specially designed thinking journal activities that have been attributed with encouraging reflective thinking, on instruction using generic, or content-free, problem solving software. Sixty-three fourth grade students participated in four instructional sessions using the software package called "Moptown Hotel."…
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lederman, Eric
2009-01-01
In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…
Parallel algorithms for boundary value problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Avi
1990-01-01
A general approach to solve boundary value problems numerically in a parallel environment is discussed. The basic algorithm consists of two steps: the local step where all the P available processors work in parallel, and the global step where one processor solves a tridiagonal linear system of the order P. The main advantages of this approach are two fold. First, this suggested approach is very flexible, especially in the local step and thus the algorithm can be used with any number of processors and with any of the SIMD or MIMD machines. Secondly, the communication complexity is very small and thus can be used as easily with shared memory machines. Several examples for using this strategy are discussed.
Promoting Problem Solving across Geometry and Algebra by Using Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erbas, A. Kursat; Ledford, Sara D.; Orrill, Chandra Hawley; Polly, Drew
2005-01-01
Technology is a powerful tool in assisting students in problem solving by allowing for multiple representations. The vignette offered in this article provides insight into ways to solve open-ended problems using multiple technologies.
Academic Achievement, Situational Stress, and Problem-Solving Flexibility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rollins, Boyd C.; Calder, Colleen
1975-01-01
Tested two hypotheses: (1) academic underachievers will have less problem solving flexibility during failure than during success; and (2) academic overachievers will have more problem solving flexibility during failure than during success. Subjects were tenth grade boys. (Author/SDH)
Solving Fluid Flow Problems on Moving and Adaptive Overlapping Grids
Henshaw, W
2005-07-28
Solution of fluid dynamics problems on overlapping grids will be discussed. An overlapping grid consists of a set of structured component grids that cover a domain and overlap where they meet. Overlapping grids provide an effective approach for developing efficient and accurate approximations for complex, possibly moving geometry. Topics to be addressed include the reactive Euler equations, the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and elliptic equations solved with a multigrid algorithm. Recent developments coupling moving grids and adaptive mesh refinement and preliminary parallel results will also be presented.
On stochastic approximation algorithms for classes of PAC learning problems
Rao, N.S.V.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.; Oblow, E.M.
1994-03-01
The classical stochastic approximation methods are shown to yield algorithms to solve several formulations of the PAC learning problem defined on the domain [o,1]{sup d}. Under some assumptions on different ability of the probability measure functions, simple algorithms to solve some PAC learning problems are proposed based on networks of non-polynomial units (e.g. artificial neural networks). Conditions on the sizes of these samples required to ensure the error bounds are derived using martingale inequalities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuzhong
Using GA solve the winner determination problem (WDP) with large bids and items, run under different distribution, because the search space is large, constraint complex and it may easy to produce infeasible solution, would affect the efficiency and quality of algorithm. This paper present improved MKGA, including three operator: preprocessing, insert bid and exchange recombination, and use Monkey-king elite preservation strategy. Experimental results show that improved MKGA is better than SGA in population size and computation. The problem that traditional branch and bound algorithm hard to solve, improved MKGA can solve and achieve better effect.
Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng
2010-01-01
In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
The Authentic Performance-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtis, David; Denton, Rob
A new authentic performance-based approach to assessing problem solving was developed for use in vocational education and other programs in Australia. The process of developing the problem-solving assessment instrument and process included the following phases: (1) exploration of the theoretical conceptions of problem solving; (2) identification…
Conflict Management: A Premarital Training Program in Mutual Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridley, Carl A.; And Others
1981-01-01
Evaluated the effectiveness of a structured educational program to train premarital couples in communication and mutual problem-solving skills. Couples (N=26) participated in a problem-solving training program, while similar couples (N=28) participated in a relationship discussion group. The problem-solving group showed a greater increase in…
Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modica, Erasmo
2010-01-01
This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…
Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…
Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal
2014-01-01
This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…
The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel
2012-01-01
Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…
Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Woei
2013-01-01
Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…
A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. A…
Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth
1979-01-01
Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)
Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…
Problem Solving Strategies for Pharmaceutical/Chemical Technology College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grant, George F.; Alexander, William E.
Teaching problem solving strategies and steps to first year college students enrolled in the pharmaceutical/chemical technology program as a part of their first year chemistry course focused on teaching the students the basic steps in problem solving and encouraging them to plan carefully and focus on the problem solving process rather than to…
Uncertainty during the Early Stages of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Hoyos, Maria; Gray, Eddie; Simpson, Adrian
2004-01-01
This paper discusses the role of uncertainty during the early stages of problem solving. It is argued that students start the problem solving activity with some degree of uncertainty that may vary from high to low. This degree of uncertainty may affect students' decisions at early stages of the problem solving process. It may be suggested that an…
Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.
2010-01-01
Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…
Development of a Content Coding System for Marital Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winemiller, David R.; Mitchell, M. Ellen
While much research has focused on the processes of marital problem solving, the content of marital problem solving has received considerably less attention. This study examined the initial efforts to develop a method for assessing marital problem solving content. Married individuals (N=36) completed a demographic information sheet, the Dyadic…
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu Ryan, Qing
2013-01-01
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…
Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.
2011-01-01
Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-10-01
In a companion paper, we discuss students' ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss students' ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two-step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.
Improving the efficiency of solving discrete optimization problems: The case of VRP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belov, A.; Slastnikov, S.
2016-02-01
Paper is devoted constructing efficient metaheuristics algorithms for discrete optimization problems. Particularly, we consider vehicle routing problem applying original ant colony optimization method to solve it. Besides, some parts of algorithm are separated for parallel computing. Some experimental results are performed to compare the efficiency of these methods.
A spectral algorithm for the seriation problem
Atkins, J.E.; Boman, E.G.; Hendrickson, B.
1994-11-01
Given a set of objects and a correlation function f reflecting the desire for two items to be near each other, find all sequences {pi} of the items so that correlation preferences are preserved; that is if {pi}(i) < {pi}(j) < {pi}(k) then f(i,j) {ge} f(i,k) and f(j,k) {ge} f(i,k). This seriation problem has numerous applications, for instance, solving it yields a solution to the consecutive ones problem. We present a spectral algorithm for this problem that has a number of interesting features. Whereas most previous applications of spectral techniques provided bounds or heuristics, our result is an algorithm for a nontrivial combinatorial problem. Our analysis introduces powerful tools from matrix theory to the theoretical computer science community. Also, spectral methods are being applied as heuristics for a variety of sequencing problems and our result helps explain and justify these applications. Although the worst case running time for our approach is not competitive with that of existing methods for well posed problem instances, unlike combinatorial approaches our algorithm remains a credible heuristic for the important cases where there are errors in the data.
Petri Net Modeling and Decomposition Method for Solving Production Scheduling Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishi, Tatsushi; Maeno, Ryota
Considering the need to develop general scheduling problem solver, the recent integration of Petri Nets as modeling tools into effective optimization methods for scheduling problems is very promising. The paper addresses a Petri Net modeling and decomposition method for solving a wide variety of scheduling problems. The scheduling problems are represented as the optimal transition firing sequence problems for timed Petri Nets. The Petri Net is decomposed into several subnets in which each subproblem can be easily solved by Dijkstra' algorithm. The approach is applied to a flowshop scheduling problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of a simulated annealing method.
Social Emotional Optimization Algorithm for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao
Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.
Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization
Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam
2016-01-01
This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872
Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.
Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam
2016-01-01
This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee
2005-01-01
A problem solving strategy, Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), developed by Arthur Whimbey to help students monitor and understand their own thought process is presented. The TAPPS strategy encouraged the students interact verbally with each other to solve chemistry problems and improve the achievements in chemistry.
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lederman, Eric
2009-02-01
In How to Solve It, accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to mathematicians but of interest to cognitive psychologists and problem solvers in all fields. I had the good fortune to be introduced to Polya's ideas in my first undergraduate class in physics.
Analyzing the many skills involved in solving complex physics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.
2015-05-01
We have empirically identified over 40 distinct sub-skills that affect a person's ability to solve complex problems in many different contexts. The identification of so many sub-skills explains why it has been so difficult to teach or assess problem solving as a single skill. The existence of these sub-skills is supported by several studies comparing a wide range of individuals' strengths and weaknesses in these sub-skills, their "problem solving fingerprint," while solving different types of problems including a classical mechanics problem, quantum mechanics problems, and a complex trip-planning problem with no physics. We see clear differences in the problem solving fingerprint of physics and engineering majors compared to the elementary education majors that we tested. The implications of these findings for guiding the teaching and assessing of problem solving in physics instruction are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.
The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…
Improved local linearization algorithm for solving the quaternion equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yen, K.; Cook, G.
1980-01-01
The objective of this paper is to develop a new and more accurate local linearization algorithm for numerically solving sets of linear time-varying differential equations. Of special interest is the application of this algorithm to the quaternion rate equations. The results are compared, both analytically and experimentally, with previous results using local linearization methods. The new algorithm requires approximately one-third more calculations per step than the previously developed local linearization algorithm; however, this disadvantage could be reduced by using parallel implementation. For some cases the new algorithm yields significant improvement in accuracy, even with an enlarged sampling interval. The reverse is true in other cases. The errors depend on the values of angular velocity, angular acceleration, and integration step size. One important result is that for the worst case the new algorithm can guarantee eigenvalues nearer the region of stability than can the previously developed algorithm.
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Strategies, Not Solutions: Involving Students in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Von Kuster, Lee N.
1984-01-01
Defines problem solving, discusses the use of problems developed by students that are relevant to their own lives, presents examples of practical mathematics problems that deal with local situations, discusses fringe benefits of this type of problem solving, and addresses teachers' concern that this method consumes too much time. (MBR)
Decision making and problem solving with computer assistance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kraiss, F.
1980-01-01
In modern guidance and control systems, the human as manager, supervisor, decision maker, problem solver and trouble shooter, often has to cope with a marginal mental workload. To improve this situation, computers should be used to reduce the operator from mental stress. This should not solely be done by increased automation, but by a reasonable sharing of tasks in a human-computer team, where the computer supports the human intelligence. Recent developments in this area are summarized. It is shown that interactive support of operator by intelligent computer is feasible during information evaluation, decision making and problem solving. The applied artificial intelligence algorithms comprehend pattern recognition and classification, adaptation and machine learning as well as dynamic and heuristic programming. Elementary examples are presented to explain basic principles.
Problem-solving test: Tryptophan operon mutants.
Szeberényi, József
2010-09-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: tryptophan, operon, operator, repressor, inducer, corepressor, promoter, RNA polymerase, chromosome-polysome complex, regulatory gene, cis-acting element, trans-acting element, plasmid, transformation. PMID:21567855
Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
2014-09-01
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PMID:25000309
Deterministic algorithm with agglomerative heuristic for location problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakovtsev, L.; Stupina, A.
2015-10-01
Authors consider the clustering problem solved with the k-means method and p-median problem with various distance metrics. The p-median problem and the k-means problem as its special case are most popular models of the location theory. They are implemented for solving problems of clustering and many practically important logistic problems such as optimal factory or warehouse location, oil or gas wells, optimal drilling for oil offshore, steam generators in heavy oil fields. Authors propose new deterministic heuristic algorithm based on ideas of the Information Bottleneck Clustering and genetic algorithms with greedy heuristic. In this paper, results of running new algorithm on various data sets are given in comparison with known deterministic and stochastic methods. New algorithm is shown to be significantly faster than the Information Bottleneck Clustering method having analogous preciseness.
An efficient algorithm for solving the phase field crystal model
Cheng Mowei Warren, James A.
2008-06-01
We present and discuss the development of an unconditionally stable algorithm used to solve the evolution equations of the phase field crystal (PFC) model. This algorithm allows for an arbitrarily large algorithmic time step. As the basis for our analysis of the accuracy of this algorithm, we determine an effective time step in Fourier space. We then compare our calculations with a set of representative numerical results, and demonstrate that this algorithm is an effective approach for the study of the PFC models, yielding a time step effectively 180 times larger than the Euler algorithm for a representative set of material parameters. As the PFC model is just a simple example of a wide class of density functional theories, we expect this method will have wide applicability to modeling systems of considerable interest to the materials modeling communities.
Cognitive restructuring as an early stage in problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.
This article examines the hypothesis that there are preliminary stages in problem solving which most chemists neglect when trying to teach their students how to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. It is during these early stages that relevant information is disembedded from the question and the problem is restructured. Unless students can successfully complete these cognitive restructuring stages, they cannot proceed on to the more analytic stages in problem solving that have received more attention from chemists.Preliminary evidence for this hypothesis consists of linear correlations between student ability to handle disembedding and cognitive restructuring tasks in the spatial domain and their ability to solve chemistry problems.
A descriptive study of cooperative problem solving introductory physics labs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knutson, Paul Aanond
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those skills are the foundation for the quantitative aspects of problem solving. (Chi, et al., 1981). The literature also indicates that cooperative problem solving should enhance the students' performance. As a practical matter surveys of departments that require introductory physics classes expect their students to have general qualitative problem solving skills. The students in this study were asked to solve problem(s) before coming to a lab session and then cooperatively assess whether or not their answers were correct by conducting a laboratory activity for which they had to plan the procedure and obtain the necessary results. TA's were expected to provide instruction under a cognitive apprenticeship model. The results showed that the cooperative problem solving laboratories had almost no impact on the students' problem solving skills as measured from the start of a two hour lab session to the end of the lab session...The reason for this may have been that students did not have enough experience in the solving of different kinds of problems in the two domains of Newton's second Law and gravitation to overcome their misconceptions and become competent. Another possibility was that the TA's did not follow the cognitive apprenticeship model as consistently as might have been needed.
The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wampler, Wendi N.
Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities
Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruiz, Philippe E.
2011-01-01
Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived…
Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norris, A. C.
1980-01-01
Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)
Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberényi, József
2014-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…
Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2010-10-01
Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.
Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pescetti, D.
2008-01-01
The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…
Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression
Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.
2009-01-01
Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677
Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiest, Lynda R.
2008-01-01
Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…
A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.
2003-01-01
Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)
Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc
2011-01-01
The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…
Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budak, Ibrahim
2012-01-01
Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…
Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…
Schema Induction in Problem Solving: A Multidimensional Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhe; Mo, Lei
2004-01-01
The present research examined the processes of schema formation in problem solving. In 4 experiments, participants experienced a series of tasks analogous to A. S. Luchins' (1942) water jar problems before attempting to solve isomorphic target problems. Juxtaposing illustrative source instances varying in procedural features along multiple…
A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knutson, Paul Aanond
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…
Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-01-01
In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…
Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University
1997-01-01
Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…
Schoenfeld's Problem Solving Theory in a Student Controlled Learning Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
2007-01-01
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes of solving problems. Crucial episodes are:…
Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
2008-07-01
Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving. PMID:17899456
Solving initial and boundary value problems using learning automata particle swarm optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemati, Kourosh; Mariyam Shamsuddin, Siti; Darus, Maslina
2015-05-01
In this article, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is modified to use the learning automata (LA) technique for solving initial and boundary value problems. A constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem using a penalty method to define an appropriate fitness function, which is optimized using the LA-PSO method. This method analyses a large number of candidate solutions of the unconstrained problem with the LA-PSO algorithm to minimize an error measure, which quantifies how well a candidate solution satisfies the governing ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or partial differential equations (PDEs) and the boundary conditions. This approach is very capable of solving linear and nonlinear ODEs, systems of ordinary differential equations, and linear and nonlinear PDEs. The computational efficiency and accuracy of the PSO algorithm combined with the LA technique for solving initial and boundary value problems were improved. Numerical results demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
Solving Globally-Optimal Threading Problems in ''Polynomial-Time''
Uberbacher, E.C.; Xu, D.; Xu, Y.
1999-04-12
Computational protein threading is a powerful technique for recognizing native-like folds of a protein sequence from a protein fold database. In this paper, we present an improved algorithm (over our previous work) for solving the globally-optimal threading problem, and illustrate how the computational complexity and the fold recognition accuracy of the algorithm change as the cutoff distance for pairwise interactions changes. For a given fold of m residues and M core secondary structures (or simply cores) and a protein sequence of n residues, the algorithm guarantees to find a sequence-fold alignment (threading) that is globally optimal, measured collectively by (1) the singleton match fitness, (2) pairwise interaction preference, and (3) alignment gap penalties, in O(mn + MnN{sup 1.5C-1}) time and O(mn + nN{sup C-1}) space. C, the topological complexity of a fold as we term, is a value which characterizes the overall structure of the considered pairwise interactions in the fold, which are typically determined by a specified cutoff distance between the beta carbon atoms of a pair of amino acids in the fold. C is typically a small positive integer. N represents the maximum number of possible alignments between an individual core of the fold and the protein sequence when its neighboring cores are already aligned, and its value is significantly less than n. When interacting amino acids are required to see each other, C is bounded from above by a small integer no matter how large the cutoff distance is. This indicates that the protein threading problem is polynomial-time solvable if the condition of seeing each other between interacting amino acids is sufficient for accurate fold recognition. A number of extensions have been made to our basic threading algorithm to allow finding a globally-optimal threading under various constraints, which include consistencies with (1) specified secondary structures (both cores and loops), (2) disulfide bonds, (3) active sites, etc.
Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-07-01
Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25245306
The Family as a Small Problem Solving Group
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tallman, Irving
1970-01-01
Analyzes relationship between "open channels of communication" and "centralization of authority", and "cultural" variables in terms of their contributions to optimal problem solving structures and activities. (Author)
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009
2009-01-01
Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…
a Genetic Algorithm for Urban Transit Routing Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chew, Joanne Suk Chun; Lee, Lai Soon
The Urban Transit Routing Problem (UTRP) involves solving a set of transit route networks, which proved to be a highly complex multi-constrained problem. In this study, a bus route network to find an efficient network to meet customer demands given information on link travel times is considered. An evolutionary optimization technique, called Genetic Algorithm is proposed to solve the UTRP. The main objective is to minimize the passenger costs where the quality of the route sets is evaluated by a set of parameters. Initial computational experiments show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the benchmark results for Mandl's problems.
Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan
2013-10-01
Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.
Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems
Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan
2013-01-01
Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making. PMID:24141795
Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise
1999-01-01
When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2009-01-01
This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…
Additional approaches to solving the phase problem in optics.
Zenkova, C Yu; Gorsky, M P; Ryabiy, P A; Angelskaya, A O
2016-04-20
The paper presents principal approaches to diagnosing the structure-forming skeleton of a complex optical field. Analysis of optical field singularity algorithms, depending on intensity discretization and image resolution, has been carried out. An optimal approach is chosen, which allows us to get much closer to the solution of the phase problem of localization speckle-field special points. The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of the intensity of a speckle field is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a position change of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval and introduce an additional algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions. PMID:27140136
A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga
2011-01-01
In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…
Learning New Problem-Solving Strategies Leads to Changes in Problem Representation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alibali, Martha W.; Phillips, Karin M. O.; Fischer, Allison D.
2009-01-01
Children sometimes solve problems incorrectly because they fail to represent key features of the problems. One potential source of improvements in children's problem representations is learning new problem-solving strategies. Ninety-one 3rd- and 4th-grade students solved mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3+4+6=3+__) and completed a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2013-06-01
Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students’ problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student’s expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value “communication” between the student’s qualitative description of the physical situation and the student’s formal mathematical descriptions (usually equations) at two points: when initially setting up the equations, and when evaluating the final mathematical answer for meaning and plausibility. We argue that (i) neither the rubrics nor the associated problem-solving strategies explicitly value this kind of communication during mathematical manipulations of the chosen equations, and (ii) such communication is an aspect of problem-solving expertise. To make this argument, we present a case study of two students, Alex and Pat, solving the same kinematics problem in clinical interviews. We argue that Pat’s solution, which connects manipulation of equations to their physical interpretation, is more expertlike than Alex’s solution, which uses equations more algorithmically. We then show that the types of problem-solving rubrics currently available do not discriminate between these two types of solutions. We conclude that problem-solving rubrics should be revised or repurposed to more accurately assess problem-solving expertise.
Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling
2008-10-01
In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.
Solving workplace problems associated with VDTs.
Slovak, A J; Trevers, C
1988-06-01
The introduction of VDTs into the vast majority of modern working environments represents a substantial change in the disciplines of work for many people. This paper describes how the health and safety issues associated with this change were managed in one organisation by the acquisition of ergonomics skills and their combination with occupational health surveillance techniques. The results show that ergonomics problems far outweighed symptomatic complaints, but symptomatic complaints were strongly associated with high VDT occupancy. The processes used resulted in high response rates from VDT users and an excellent 'clear-up' rate of problems. The solution of these problems was quantified in terms of difficulty and cost. PMID:15676651
Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFilippo, Shirley
1975-01-01
Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)
Solving maximum cut problems in the Adleman-Lipton model.
Xiao, Dongmei; Li, Wenxia; Zhang, Zhizhou; He, Lin
2005-12-01
In this paper, we consider a procedure for solving maximum cut problems in the Adleman-Lipton model. The procedure works in O(n2) steps for maximum cut problems of an undirected graph with n vertices. PMID:16236426
A fuzzy record-to-record travel algorithm for solving rough set attribute reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mafarja, Majdi; Abdullah, Salwani
2015-02-01
Attribute reduction can be defined as the process of determining a minimal subset of attributes from an original set of attributes. This paper proposes a new attribute reduction method that is based on a record-to-record travel algorithm for solving rough set attribute reduction problems. This algorithm has a solitary parameter called the DEVIATION, which plays a pivotal role in controlling the acceptance of the worse solutions, after it becomes pre-tuned. In this paper, we focus on a fuzzy-based record-to-record travel algorithm for attribute reduction (FuzzyRRTAR). This algorithm employs an intelligent fuzzy logic controller mechanism to control the value of DEVIATION, which is dynamically changed throughout the search process. The proposed method was tested on standard benchmark data sets. The results show that FuzzyRRTAR is efficient in solving attribute reduction problems when compared with other meta-heuristic approaches.
Trends in problem-solving research - Twelve recently described tasks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coates, G. D.; Alluisi, E. A.; Morgan, B. B., Jr.
1971-01-01
Review of descriptions of the 12 problem-solving tasks developed since the last review (Ray, 1955) of this topic, indicating that the newer tasks are more sophisticated in design and provide for better experimental control than those used prior to 1953. Validity, reliability, sensitivity, trainability, problem structure, and problem difficulty are discussed as criteria for the selection of tasks to be used in studies of skilled problem-solving performance.
Kinetic model solves visbreaker constraint control problem
Iscovici, R.S. )
1994-05-01
A kinetic model of the visbreaking process was developed and used in an advanced control algorithm implemented in a distributed control system (DCS). During development, model predictions were checked against unit history data and compared to the actual unit performance with respect to fuel oil stability vs. cracking conversion. In the first stage, the algorithm was used in open-loop supervisory control. In the second stage the advanced control loop was closed and the visbreaking units was run automatically. The visbreaker control, based on process kinetics, is simple enough to be developed and implemented in a DCS, eliminating need for higher-power computers at the information system (IS) level, and reducing to a minimum data transfer from them to the process regulatory control level based on the DCS. The advanced control application led to profits estimated at $4.5 million annually, more than expected. The visbreaker advanced control showed how process engineering knowledge used in powerful and versatile DCSs could increase profit, shorten pay-out time and ease the workload on unit operators.
Using Problem-Solving Teaching: Theoretical and Philosophical Considerations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osborne, Edward W.
A rationale for the teaching of thinking and problem-solving skills is outlined, and the definition of and design for teaching such skills are discussed. Developing the ability of students to think has surfaced in recent years as one of the major purposes of American education. Problem solving has been described as a major type of thinking…
Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian
2007-01-01
This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…
Childhood Physical Punishment and Problem Solving in Marriage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cast, Alicia D.; Schweingruber, David; Berns, Nancy
2006-01-01
Drawing from social learning theories and symbolic interactionist understandings of social life, the authors suggest that physical punishment teaches aggressive and controlling strategies for solving the problems of living together and hinders the development of important problem-solving skills, specifically the ability to role take with others.…
Concept Learning versus Problem Solving: Is There a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nurrenbern, Susan C.; Pickering, Miles
1987-01-01
Reports on a study into the relationship between a student's ability to solve problems in chemistry and his/her understanding of molecular concepts. Argues that teaching students to solve problems about chemistry is not equivalent to teaching about the nature of matter. (TW)
Relationship between Problem-Solving Style and Mathematical Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tai, Wen-Chun; Lin, Su-Wei
2015-01-01
Currently, mathematics education is focused on ensuring that students can apply the knowledge and skills they learn to everyday life; students are expected to develop their problem-solving abilities to face challenges by adopting various perspectives. When faced with a problem, students may employ different methods or patterns to solve it. If this…
Conceptual Learning in a Principled Design Problem Solving Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prusak, Naomi; Hershkowitz, Rina; Schwarz, Baruch B.
2013-01-01
To what extent can instructional design be based on principles for instilling a culture of problem solving and conceptual learning? This is the main focus of the study described in this paper, in which third grade students participated in a one-year course designed to foster problem solving and mathematical reasoning. The design relied on five…
Effects of Problem-Solving Strategies on Different Ability Levels.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nichols, Teresa M.
To determine if differing ability levels will affect the acquisition of problem-solving skills and self-esteem as a result of participation in two approaches to teaching problem-solving skills, a study was conducted with sixth graders in a posttest-only control group experimental design. Subjects were 102 sixth graders randomly assigned to 5…
Cognitive Restructuring as a First Step in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.
Chemists have bemoaned for years their students' inability to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. However, at least part of this inability must be attributed to the fact that chemists have historically tried to teach their students to solve problems by doing nothing more than working examples. In recent years, chemists have begun to…
The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.
Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately…
The Winning Edge: Tips for Creative Problem-Solving Teams.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Safris, Richard
Intended for coaches of school competitive problem-solving teams, this publication details 70 suggestions for building, motivating, and training problem-solving teams in grades 4 to 8. The tips cover a range of topics related to preparing for competition, the competition itself, and post-competition. The pre-competition suggestions include: (1)…
Chaining in Problem Solving: A Critique and Reinvestigation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blumberg, Phyllis
This study investigated the question of whether young children can form response chains in problem solving. After reviewing the literature relating to chaining as a component of problem solving, the author argues that a test of chaining should be free of requirements to recall previously learned material, remember general information, or apply…
Use of External Visual Representations in Probability Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corter, James E.; Zahner, Doris C.
2007-01-01
We investigate the use of external visual representations in probability problem solving. Twenty-six students enrolled in an introductory statistics course for social sciences graduate students (post-baccalaureate) solved eight probability problems in a structured interview format. Results show that students spontaneously use self-generated…
Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen
2008-01-01
The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…
A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gok, Tolga
2010-01-01
Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…
A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vendlinski, Terry
This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin
2015-01-01
We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…
Learning from Examples versus Verbal Directions in Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M.; Anderson, John R.
2015-01-01
This event-related fMRI study investigated the differences between learning from examples and learning from verbal directions in mathematical problem solving and how these instruction types affect the activity of relevant brain regions during instruction and solution periods within problem-solving trials. We identified distinct neural signatures…
Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Dae S.
2011-01-01
In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…
Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.
2012-01-01
There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…
Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarrett, Denise, Ed.
2000-01-01
This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…
Secondary 2 Students' Difficulties in Solving Non-Routine Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph
2009-01-01
As part of a study on mathematical problem solving of secondary 2 (13- to 14-years old) students in Singapore, 56 Secondary two students from ten secondary schools participated in this study. The purpose of this paper is to explore difficulties faced by 56 Secondary 2 students when solving problems. These interviews were analysed using the…
An Approach to Simulate Understanding Student Problem-Solving Behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Z. W.; Willoughby, T. L.
1991-01-01
This paper describes a method of understanding student problem-solving behavior during computer-assisted instruction using trigonometry as the example domain. Instead of attempting to model the student's process for solving problems, techniques which infer the equivalence between two adjacent steps in the student's process are used to determine…
Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yee, Sean P.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…
Students' Use of Technological Features while Solving a Mathematics Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Hollylynne Stohl; Hollebrands, Karen F.
2006-01-01
The design of technology tools has the potential to dramatically influence how students interact with tools, and these interactions, in turn, may influence students' mathematical problem solving. To better understand these interactions, we analyzed eighth grade students' problem solving as they used a java applet designed to specifically accompany…
Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie
2010-01-01
We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…
Improving Students' Ability To Problem Solve through Social Skills Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hopp, Mary Ann; Horn, Cheryl L.; McGraw, Kelleen; Meyer, Jenny
When elementary and middle level students lack effective problem-solving skills, they may make poor behavior choices in social conflicts, contributing to a negative learning and instructional environment. This action research project evaluated the impact of using social skills instruction to improve students' ability to solve problems related to…
Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morin, Danielle; Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Saadé, Raafat George
2015-01-01
This article investigates students' perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills…
The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli
2016-01-01
Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which it…
Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oughton, John M.
1995-01-01
Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…
Exploring Parental Influences on Children's Problem-Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Derrington, Taletha; And Others
This study examined the impact of different styles of parental communication and teaching on children's problem solving, focusing on how parental teaching and communication styles affected children's performance on four problem-solving games involving deduction/categorization and planning. Thirty-two children ages 4 and 5 years and their families…
Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maries, Alexandru
2013-01-01
This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber
2009-01-01
This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…