Science.gov

Sample records for alhagi sparsifolia shap

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Primary Roots of Alhagi sparsifolia in Response to Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xinwu; Zhang, Chao; Jia, Shirong; Li, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Background Alhagi sparsifolia is a typical desert phreatophyte and has evolved to withstand extreme dry, cold and hot weather. While A. sparsifolia represents an ideal model to study the molecular mechanism of plant adaption to abiotic stress, no research has been done in this aspect to date. Here we took advantage of Illumina platform to survey transcriptome in primary roots of A. sparsifolia under water stress conditions in aim to facilitate the exploration of its genetic basis for drought tolerance. Methodology and Principal Findings We sequenced four primary roots samples individually collected at 0, 6, 24 and 30h from the A. sparsifolia seedlings in the course of 24h of water stress following 6h of rehydration. The resulting 38,763,230, 67,511,150, 49,259,804 and 54,744,906 clean reads were pooled and assembled into 33,255 unigenes with an average length of 1,057 bp. All-unigenes were subjected to functional annotation by searching against the public databases. Based on the established transcriptome database, we further evaluated the gene expression profiles in the four different primary roots samples, and identified numbers of differently expressed genes (DEGs) reflecting the early response to water stress (6h vs. 0h), the late response to water stress (24h vs. 0h) and the response to post water stress rehydration (30h vs. 24h). Moreover, the DEGs specifically regulated at 6, 24 and 30h were captured in order to depict the dynamic changes of gene expression during water stress and subsequent rehydration. Functional categorization of the DEGs indicated the activation of oxidoreductase system, and particularly emphasized the significance of the ‘Glutathione metabolism pathway’ in response to water stress. Conclusions This is the first description of the genetic makeup of A. sparsifolia, thus providing a substantial contribution to the sequence resources for this species. The identified DEGs offer a deep insight into the molecular mechanism of A. sparsifolia

  2. Pantoea alhagi, a novel endophytic bacterium with ability to improve growth and drought tolerance in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoqiong; Xin, Kaiyun; Liu, Hao; Cheng, Juanli; Shen, Xihui; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    A novel strain LTYR-11ZT that exhibited multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits was isolated from the surface-sterilized leaves of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. (Leguminosae), which reprsents one of the top drought tolerant plants in north-west China. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis based on partial sequences of atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB genes revealed that strain LTYR-11ZT was a member of the genus Pantoea, with Pantoea theicola NBRC 110557T and Pantoea intestinalis DSM 28113T as the closest phylogenetic relatives. The results of DNA–DNA hybridization, phenotypic tests and fatty acid analysis confirmed that strain LTYR-11ZT represents a novel species of the genus Pantoea, for which we propose the name Pantoea alhagi sp. nov. Confocal microscopy observation revealed that strain LTYR-11ZT effectively colonizes the rhizoplane of both Arabidopsis and wheat. Strain LTYR-11ZT was able to promote the growth of wheat enhancing its resistance to drought stress. Strain LTYR-11ZT led to increased accumulation of soluble sugars, decreased accumulation of proline and malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased degradation of chlorophyll in leaves of drought-stressed wheat. Our findings will contribute to the development of a novel biotechnological agent to improve the adaptation of crop plants to drought in arid ecosystems. PMID:28128318

  3. Alhagi: a plant genus rich in bioactives for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Gulzar; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Alhagi, a plant genus from family Fabaceae, is widely distributed in many countries of Asia, Australia and Europe. Commonly known as camel thorn, Alhagi has many species famous for feed and folk medicinal uses. Different species of Alhagi such as Alhagi pseudalhagi, A. graecorum, A. sparsifolia, A. kirgisorum, A. maurorum, A. camelorum and A. persarum have been explored for their antioxidant potential and nutritive value along with various medicinal properties. A wide array of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids (alhacidin and alhacin), steroids, pseudalhagin A, phospholipids and polysaccharides have been reported from different parts of Alhagi species. A broad range of biological activities such as antioxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antibacterial and antifungal have been ascribed to different parts of Alhagi. In addition, Alhagi plants are also valued as a rich source of digestible protein and important minerals. This review focuses on the medicinal applications and detailed profile of high-value bioactive phytochemicals along with pharmacological attributes and therapeutic potential of these multi-purpose plants.

  4. Role of exopolysaccharide in salt stress resistance and cell motility of Mesorhizobium alhagi CCNWXJ12-2(T).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Luo, Yantao; Li, Zhefei; Wang, Jiamei; Wei, Gehong

    2017-01-17

    Mesorhizobium alhagi, a legume-symbiont soil bacterium that forms nodules with the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia, can produce large amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) using mannitol as carbon source. However, the role of EPS in M. alhagi CCNWXJ12-2(T), an EPS-producing rhizobium with high salt resistance, remains uncharacterized. Here, we studied the role of EPS in M. alhagi CCNWXJ12-2(T) using EPS-deficient mutants constructed by transposon mutagenesis. The insertion sites of six EPS-deficient mutants were analyzed using single primer PCR, and two putative gene clusters were found to be involved in EPS synthesis. EPS was extracted and quantified, and EPS production in the EPS-deficient mutants was decreased by approximately 25 times compared with the wild-type strain. Phenotypic analysis revealed reduced salt resistance, antioxidant capacity, and cell motility of the mutants compared with the wild-type strain. In conclusion, our results indicate that EPS can influence cellular Na(+) content and antioxidant enzyme activity, as well as play an important role in the stress adaption and cell motility of M. alhagi CCNWXJ12-2(T).

  5. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming

    2011-12-01

    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  6. Evaluation of anhedonia with the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Byerly, Matthew J; Carmody, Thomas J; Grannemann, Bruce D; Bernstein, Ira H; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-06-01

    Anhedonia or inability to experience pleasure not only is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), but also is identified as an important component of the positive valence system in the NIMH Research Domain Criteria. The Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) has been developed for the assessment of hedonic experience or positive valence, but has not been well-studied in depressed outpatient populations. The current study examined the reliability and validity of the SHAPS using a sample of adult outpatients with treatment resistant MDD. Data for the current study were obtained from 122 adult outpatients with a diagnosis of MDD and non-response to adequate treatment with an SSRI and who participated in Project TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD). A Principal Components Analysis was used to define the dimensionality of the SHAPS. Convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated via correlations of the SHAPS total score with "gold standard" measures of depression severity and quality of life. The SHAPS was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = .82). A Principal Components Analysis suggests that the SHAPS is mainly "unidimensional" and limited to hedonic experience among adult outpatients with MDD. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by examining the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient between the SHAPS total score and the HRSD17 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), IDS-C30 (rs = 0.26, p < .01), IDS-SR30 (rs = 0.23, p < .02), QIDS-C16 (rs = 0.22, p < .03), QIDS-SR16 (rs = 0.17, p < .10), QLES-Q (rs = -0.32, p < .002), and the pleasure/enjoyment item (sub-item 21) of the IDS-C (rs = 0.44, p < .0001) and IDS-SR (rs = 0.38, p < .0002). The self-administered SHAPS showed modest sensitivity (76%) and specificity (54%) with the self-administered pleasure/enjoyment single item (sub-item 21) of IDS-SR30. The current study shows that the SHAPS is a reliable and valid

  7. [Changes and analysis of soil quality under different land use types in oasis rim].

    PubMed

    Gui, Dong-Wei; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Zeng, Fan-Jiang; Mu, Gui-Jin; Yang, Fa-Xiang; Zhu, Jun-Tao

    2010-09-01

    The aggravation process of oasisization leads to changes of land use type in oasis rim. In order to discuss the effects of different land use types on soil properties and soil quality, the four land use types located Cele oasis rim in south margin of Tarim Basin, which are the cotton field, orchard, and Caligonum mongolicum Turcz land use type reclaimed by people and nature state land use type covered by Alhagi sparsifolia SHAP, were selected as study object. The relative soil quality index (RI) and the soil quality synthesis index (SQI) were used to analyse the changes of soil quality between four land use types within 0-20 cm, 2040 cm, 40-60 cm soil depth, respectively. Meantime, the fractal theory was used to analyse the particle-size distribution (PSD) property of top soil under different land use types. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in the soil organic matter and total nitrogen in same soil depth between four land use types; the order ranked according to RI was same to the order ranked according to SQI in each soil depth between four land use types. The cotton field and orchard have an obviously positive effect on soil quality of the top soil, however, the soil quality of Alhagi sparsifolia SHAP land use type was gradually increasing along with the increasing soil depth. The soil properties and soil quality of Caligonum mongolicum Turcz land use type were at the lowest level according to the comparison results among all land use types, and the calculation results of PSD fractal dimension also indicated the Caligonum mongolicum Turcz land use type had the worst ability on maintaining soil fine fractions.

  8. Physalis alkekengi and Alhagi maurorum ameliorate the side effect of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Changizi-Ashtiyani, S; Alizadeh, M; Najafi, H; Babaei, S; Khazaei, M; Jafari, M; Hossaini, N; Avan, A; Bastani, B

    2016-07-01

    Cisplatin is frequently being used for the treatment of different tumors, although the application of this agent is associated with nephrotoxicity. Here, we explored the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis alkekengi and Alhagi maurorum; 400 mg kg(-1) per day P. alkekengi and 100 mg kg(-1) per day A. maurorum were administered in rats, orally for 10 days after a single dose of 7 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneal cisplatin. The concentrations of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, and relative and absolute excretion of sodium/potassium were evaluated before/after therapy. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured to assess the oxidative stress induced by cisplatin. Moreover, tissues sections were used for histological analyses and evaluation of the degree of tissue damage. Cisplatin increased serum levels of creatinine and urea-nitrogen, relative/absolute excretion of sodium/potassium, and MDA, whereas decreased FRAP level. Interestingly, P. alkekengi or A. maurorum were able to reduce the level of the renal function markers as well as the levels of sodium/potassium. This effect was more pronounced by P. alkekengi. Moreover, cisplatin induced pathological damage in kidney, whereas treatment with these agents improved this condition. Our findings demonstrate the potential therapeutic impact of P. alkekengi and A. maurorum for improving cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, supporting further investigations on the novel potential clinical application of these agents for patients being treated with cisplatin to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  9. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    PubMed Central

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  10. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  11. Comparison of biological activity of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum with properties of commercial phenolic extracts and resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have different biological properties, including antioxidative activities, but they may also be prooxidants. The effect of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum on oxidative protein/lipid damages (determined by such parameters as levels of protein thiol groups and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species--TBARS) in human blood platelets and human plasma after treatment with hydrogen peroxide--H2O2 (which is the strong biologic oxidant and inflammatory mediator) was studied in vitro. We also studied the effect of A. maurorum extract on blood platelet activation corresponding to thrombin-induced arachidonic acid pathway. Moreover, the present work was designed to study the effect of A. maurorum extract on selected physiological function of blood platelets--adhesion of blood platelets to collagen in vitro. The action of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum was compared with the selected commercial phenolic extracts: extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox®), extract from bark of Yucca schidigera and monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to H2O2 resulted in a decrease of the level of thiol groups in proteins, and an increase of TBARS. In the presence of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum (0.5-50 µg/ml), a reduction of thiol groups oxidation together with the decrease of autoperoxidation of lipids and lipid peroxidation caused by H2O2 or thrombin was observed. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of A. maurorum extract on adhesion of thrombin-activated platelets to collagen were also found. The phenolic fraction from A. maurorum acts as an antioxidant and can be useful as the natural factor protecting against diseases associated with oxidative stress. Tested fraction from A. maurorum has more effective antioxidative activity and antiplatelet properties than aronia extract or other commercial extract, however differences between their actions

  12. Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats: Role of Alhagi maurorum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sheweita, S. A.; Mashaly, S.; Newairy, A. A.; Abdou, H. M.; Eweda, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Alhagi maurorum (camel thorn plant) is a promising medicinal plant due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds as major contents of its constituents. No previous study has been conducted before on A. maurorum extracts as an antioxidative stress and/or antidiabetic herb in STZ-induced DM in rats. Therefore, four groups of rats were allocated as control (C), STZ-induced DM (D), and STZ-induced DM supplemented with 300 mg/kg BW of either aqueous extract (WE) or ethanolic extract (EE) of A. maurorum. The plasma levels of glucose, TG, TC, LDL-C and VLDL-C, MDA, and bilirubin and the activities of transaminases and GR were significantly increased in the diabetic group. Also, diabetic rats showed severe glucose intolerance and histopathological changes in their livers. In addition, levels of insulin, total proteins, GSH, and HDL-C and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GST were significantly decreased in the diabetic rats compared to those of the control group. The ingestion of A. maurorum extracts lowered the blood glucose levels during the OGTT compared to the diabetic rats and restored all tested parameters to their normal levels with the exception of insulin level that could not be restored. It is concluded that A. maurorum extracts decreased elevated blood glucose levels and hyperlipidemia and suppressed oxidative stress caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. PMID:26885249

  13. Simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Cu(II) using stripping voltammetry in groundwater, soil and Alhagi maurorum plants in industrial and urban areas in Northern Border, Saudi Arabia with luminol as a chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Al-Hossainy, Ahmed Farouk

    2015-01-01

    The cathodic stripping voltammetry of Cu(II) and Cd(II) speciation was re-optimized by using luminol (Lu) in groundwater, soil and Alhagi maurorum plants, finding differences with the pre-existing method and a different interpretation for the electroactive species. The main findings are that optimum sensitivity is obtained at 0.3-142.5 ng/mL and 0.065-60.0 ng/mL for copper and cadmium, respectively, that the complexes responsible for adsorption on the electrode are CuLu and CdLu, and that the sensitivity of the method is much improved in the absence of dissolved oxygen. The limit of detection of the method was 0.011 ± 0.001 ng/mL for Cu(II) and 0.013 ± 0.001 ng/mL for Cd(II). The interference of some common ions: Cr(III), Fe(III), Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Mo(II) was studied. It was concluded that application of this method for the determination of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in groundwater, soil and Alhagi maurorum plants led to satisfactory results.

  14. SWIR Hemispherical Air-Glow Plotting System SHAPS: Postprint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    atmosphere, as modeled using the van Rhijn method (4). 60.-~-----~--~- -- 200 10 °07--0~5~~--~15~~-725~ .-3 15 4.5 T.mo (hour!.) Ttm ~ (hou’!!.) a...temporal variations in the irradiance, both short and long term, can be used to validate and calibrate physical models of atmospheric chemistry and...spatio- temporal variations in the irradiance. both short and long term. can be used to validate and calibrate physical models of atmospheric

  15. Clonal structure and genetic diversity of three desert phreatophytes.

    PubMed

    Vonlanthen, Beatrix; Zhang, Ximing; Bruelheide, Helge

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to assess clone sizes of three perennial desert plant species with AFLP markers and to relate them to clonal and genetic diversity and to hydroecology. The study was carried out at the southern rim of the Taklamakan Desert, where sexual regeneration is only possible shortly after rare flooding events, resulting in rarely established cohorts with subsequent extensive vertical growth and horizontal clonal spread. In this environment, repeated seedling establishment is excluded. We expected decreasing clonal and genetic diversity with increasing clone size and increasing distance to the groundwater table and a common response pattern among all study species. Maximum sizes of Populus euphratica and Alhagi sparsifolia clones were 121 ha and 6.1 ha, respectively, while Tamarix ramosissima clones reached a maximum size of only 38 m(2). In P. euphratica and A. sparsifolia, clonal diversity declined with increasing clone size and increasing distance to the groundwater table, while genetic diversity remained unaffected. Tamarix ramosissima differed from the other species because of a much smaller clonality. Clone size and clonal diversity were found to be good proxy variables for clone age. Despite the considerable age of the clones, genetic diversity is maintained in the populations.

  16. 40 CFR 63.2485 - What requirements must I meet for wastewater streams and liquid streams in open systems within an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 63.137 for any equalization unit, neutralization unit, and/or clarifier prior to the activated sludge... unit, neutralization unit, and/or clarifier, percent; QMWa = mass flow rate of total PSHAP and SHAP... unit, kg/hr; QMGn = mass flow rate of total PSHAP and SHAP compounds emitted from the...

  17. 40 CFR 63.2485 - What requirements must I meet for wastewater streams and liquid streams in open systems within an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 63.137 for any equalization unit, neutralization unit, and/or clarifier prior to the activated sludge... unit, neutralization unit, and/or clarifier, percent; QMWa = mass flow rate of total PSHAP and SHAP... unit, kg/hr; QMGn = mass flow rate of total PSHAP and SHAP compounds emitted from the...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2485 - What requirements must I meet for wastewater streams and liquid streams in open systems within an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 63.137 for any equalization unit, neutralization unit, and/or clarifier prior to the activated sludge... unit, neutralization unit, and/or clarifier, percent; QMWa = mass flow rate of total PSHAP and SHAP... unit, kg/hr; QMGn = mass flow rate of total PSHAP and SHAP compounds emitted from the...

  19. Formation of hydroxyapatite in water, Hank's solution, and serum at physiological temperature.

    PubMed

    Yadav, K L; Brown, Paul W

    2003-05-01

    The influence of de-ionized water, Hank's saline solution, and bovine calf serum on formation of stoichiometric (Ca/P = 1.67) hydroxyapatite (SHAp) at physiological temperature was studied. SHAp formed in aqueous solution by acid-base reaction of particulate Ca(H(2)PO(4))(2).H(2)O and Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)O. Hydroxyapatite formation is accompanied by an initial period of surface hydration of the precursors, an induction period, and a period during which the bulk of the conversion to hydroxyapatites occurs. The formation of SHAp occurred more rapidly in Hank's solution and distilled water than in serum. The formation of SHAp from these precursors is strongly inhibited by serum. There were two primary exothermal events associated with SHAp formation: initial heat evolution peak, which was associated with reactant dissolution, and the major heat evolution peak, which was associated with SHAp formation. The presence of the constitutents in serum depresses both. This is a result of serum macromolecules adsorbing onto the available surfaces regardless of whether they are reactants or products. Variations in heat evolution behavior, pH, and the times of disappearance of the reactants and appearance of SHAp correlate with one another.

  20. Laser 'Footprints' on the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) circles the moon, a sophisticated instrument bounces laser light off the moon's surface 28 times per second. An array of five sensors arranged in an X-shap...

  1. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Healther E.; Strong, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia—the reduced capacity to experience pleasure—is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995)—a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences—in adolescents. Adolescents (N=585; M age=14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that: (1) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like “seeing smiling faces” or “smelling flowers”) provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (2) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs; weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  2. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Heather E; Strong, David R

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia-the reduced capacity to experience pleasure-is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995 )-a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences-in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 585, M age = 14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that (a) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like "seeing smiling faces" or "smelling flowers") provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (b) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs, weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations.

  3. Properties of novel bone hemostat prepared using sugar-modified hydroxyapatite, phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium and thermoplastic resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimira, Tokio; Umeda, Tomohiro; Musha, Yoshiro; Itatani, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    A novel hemostatic agent was prepared using phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca), hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HAp) obtained by the hydrolysis of POs-Ca or sugar-containing HAp (s-HAp; 60.3 mass% calcium-deficient HAp and 39.5 mass% organic materials, Ca/P ratio = 1.56) and thermoplastic resin (the mixture of random copolymer of ethylene oxide/propylene oxide (EPO) and polyethylene oxide (EO); EPO : EO : water = 25 : 15 : 60 (mass ratio); 25EPO-15EO). The gel formed by mixing 25EPO-15EO with water (25EPO-15EO/water mass ratio: 0.20) was flash frozen at -80°C, freeze-dried at -50°C for 15 h and then ground using mixer. The consistency conditions of hemostats mixed with POs-Ca or s-HAp were optimized for the practical uses. The mean stanching times of hemostats were: s-HAp/25EPO-15EO (8.2 h; s-HAp/25EPO-15EO = 0.20) > 25EPO-15EO (5.3 h) > POs-Ca/25EPO-15EO (4.7 h; POs-Ca/25EPO-15EO = 0.20). The gentamicin, a typical antibiotic agent, loaded s-HAp/25EPO-15EO composite hemostat showed the steady state releasing in phosphate buffered saline till 10 h immersion at 37.0°C.

  4. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    AWARDS Presentations to top students; PHYSICS IN PRIMARY SCIENCE Amaze and inspire; WEB RESOURCES PhysicsClub goes live; EVENTS GIREP develops thinking; RESEARCH FRONTIERS Carbon dating may not run to time; CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Vocational qualifications; CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Flanders gears up for curriculum change; EXHIBITIONS Building the Universe; EVENTS Physics Discipline Network VII; SPECIAL NEWS FEATURE Progress in UK post-16 courses; Teaching Advancing Physics... the story so far; An outside observer's view of Advancing Physics; Student views of SHAP; Results from the SHAP pilot: successful and girl-friendly; AWARDS Royal visit to publisher;

  5. Corrigendum to "Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, location of pristine material?" [Planet. Space Sci. 125 (2016) 96-104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kossacki, Konrad J.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper was investigated evolution of the material structure in selected locations on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The shape of the surface was described by the shape model SHAP4s v1.0. The considered locations i.e. sectors of the surface were marked in Fig. 1.

  6. Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2004-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents.

  7. Functional and Psychosocial Outcomes of Hand Transplantation Compared with Prosthetic Fitting in Below-Elbow Amputees: A Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Salminger, Stefan; Sturma, Agnes; Roche, Aidan D.; Hruby, Laura A.; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Kumnig, Martin; Ninkovic, Marina; Pierer, Gerhard; Schneeberger, Stefan; Gabl, Markus; Chelmonski, Adam; Jablecki, Jerzy; Aszmann, Oskar C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand-transplantation and improvements in the field of prostheses opened new frontiers in restoring hand function in below-elbow amputees. Both concepts aim at restoring reliable hand function, however, the indications, advantages and limitations for each treatment must be carefully considered depending on level and extent of amputation. Here we report our findings of a multi-center cohort study comparing hand function and quality-of-life of people with transplanted versus prosthetic hands. Methods Hand function in amputees with either transplant or prostheses was tested with Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand measure (DASH). Quality-of-life was compared with the Short-Form 36 (SF-36). Results Transplanted patients (n = 5) achieved a mean ARAT score of 40.86 ± 8.07 and an average SHAP score of 75.00 ± 11.06. Prosthetic patients (n = 7) achieved a mean ARAT score of 39.00 ± 3.61 and an average SHAP score of 75.43 ± 10.81. There was no significant difference between transplanted and prosthetic hands in ARAT, SHAP or DASH. While quality-of-life metrics were equivocal for four scales of the SF-36, transplanted patients reported significantly higher scores in “role-physical” (p = 0.006), “vitality” (p = 0.008), “role-emotional” (p = 0.035) and “mental-health” (p = 0.003). Conclusions The indications for hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting in below-elbow amputees require careful consideration. As functional outcomes were not significantly different between groups, patient’s best interests and the route of least harm should guide treatment. Due to the immunosuppressive side-effects, the indication for allotransplantation must still be restrictive, the best being bilateral amputees. PMID:27589057

  8. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  9. Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German philosopher, born in Königsberg, published his view of the universe in General History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens (1755) in which he presented his nebular hypothesis of the formation of the solar system. It was much like the present theory that the Sun and planets formed from the condensation of a rotating disc of interstellar material. Kant identified the Milky Way as a lens-shap...

  10. Histological Comparison in Rats between Carbonate Apatite Fabricated from Gypsum and Sintered Hydroxyapatite on Bone Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ayukawa, Yasunori; Suzuki, Yumiko; Tsuru, Kanji; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap), the form of apatite found in bone, has recently attracted attention. The purpose of the present study was to histologically evaluate the tissue/cellular response toward the low-crystalline CO3Ap fabricated using a dissolution-precipitation reaction with set gypsum as a precursor. When set gypsum was immersed in a 100°C 1 mol/L Na3PO4 aqueous solution for 24 h, the set gypsum transformed into CO3Ap. Both CO3Ap and sintered hydroxyapatite (s-HAp), which was used as a control, were implanted into surgically created tibial bone defects of rats for histological evaluation. Two and 4 weeks after the implantation, histological sections were created and observed using light microscopy. The CO3Ap granules revealed both direct apposition of the bone matrix by osteoblasts and osteoclastic resorption. In contrast, the s-HAp granules maintained their contour even after 4 weeks following implantation which implied that there was a lack of replacement into the bone. The s-HAp granules were sometimes encapsulated with fibrous tissue, and macrophage polykaryon was occasionally observed directly apposed to the implanted granules. From the viewpoint of bone remodeling, the CO3Ap granules mimicked the bone matrix, suggesting that CO3Ap may be an appropriate bone substitute.

  11. Vegetation as an indicator of soil properties and water quality in the Akarçay stream (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Serteser, Ahmet; Kargioğlu, Mustafa; Içağa, Yilmaz; Konuk, Muhsin

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the relationship among water quality, soil properties, and plant coverage in the region of the Akarçay stream was examined. Correlation analyses were carried out between soil samples taken from each of four plant communities in the Akarçay basin and water in the Akarçay stream. The four plant communities in the study area are as follows: Limonium lilacinum (Boiss. et Bal.) Wag., Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv. Peganum harmala L., and Hordeum marinum Huds. subsp. marinum. B, Cl, EC, K, Mg, Na, pH, and SO4 data from both soil and water samples were subjected to statistical analysis, and significant correlations were obtained (p < 0.05). These correlations indicated that the chemical features of the soil had a major effect on water quality. The important parameters were B, Cl, EC, K, Mg, Na, pH, and SO4 for Limonium lilacinum communities; Ca, K, and pV for Peganum harmala; and B, Cl, Mg, pH, and pV for Alhagi pseudalhagi. There were also statistically significant relationships (p < 0.05) among the parameters examined. These findings strongly suggested that these plant communities can be used as indicators for soil chemistry and water quality.

  12. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of some medicinal plants from Cholistan desert Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Ahmed, Saeed; Anjum, Shazia; Akram, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali; Wariss, Hafiz Muhammad; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-03-01

    Traditional herbal healers "Hakims" use various plants of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan for treating a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases. However, there has never been a scientific validation of these plant-based therapeutics. We compared the antipyretic effect of Echinops echinatus, Alhagi maurorum, Fagonia cretica, Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Panicum turgidum in animal model. These plants were used to reduce E.coli lysate induced pyrexia in rabbits. There were five groups of rabbits having five rabbits in each group. Among these five groups, three received various doses of experimental treatment, paracetamol was given to fourth group known as positive control. The fifth group of animals served as negative control and received no treatment. Ethanol extracts of Fagonia cretica (500 mg/kg), Panicum turgidum (500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg), Alhagi maurorum (500 and 750 mg/kg), Cymbopogon jwarancusa (250 mg/kg) and Echinops echinatus (750 mg/kg) showed significant antipyretic effects when compared with controls and experimental counterparts. These results revealed that ethanol extracts of the plants evaluated in this study have dose dependent antipyretic activity. Further detailed screening of these plant species is recommended.

  13. Vegetation as an Indicator of Soil Properties and Water Quality in the Akarçay Stream (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serteser, Ahmet; Kargιoğlu, Mustafa; Içağa, Yılmaz; Konuk, Muhsin

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the relationship among water quality, soil properties, and plant coverage in the region of the Akarçay stream was examined. Correlation analyses were carried out between soil samples taken from each of four plant communities in the Akarçay basin and water in the Akarçay stream. The four plant communities in the study area are as follows: Limonium lilacinum (Boiss. et Bal.) Wag., Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv. Peganum harmala L., and Hordeum marinum Huds. subsp. marinum. B, Cl, EC, K, Mg, Na, pH, and SO4 data from both soil and water samples were subjected to statistical analysis, and significant correlations were obtained ( p < 0.05). These correlations indicated that the chemical features of the soil had a major effect on water quality. The important parameters were B, Cl, EC, K, Mg, Na, pH, and SO4 for Limonium lilacinum communities; Ca, K, and pV for Peganum harmala; and B, Cl, Mg, pH, and pV for Alhagi pseudalhagi. There were also statistically significant relationships ( p < 0.05) among the parameters examined. These findings strongly suggested that these plant communities can be used as indicators for soil chemistry and water quality.

  14. Biochemical evolution II: origin of life in tubular microstructures on weathered feldspar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Parsons, I; Lee, M R; Smith, J V

    1998-12-22

    Mineral surfaces were important during the emergence of life on Earth because the assembly of the necessary complex biomolecules by random collisions in dilute aqueous solutions is implausible. Most silicate mineral surfaces are hydrophilic and organophobic and unsuitable for catalytic reactions, but some silica-rich surfaces of partly dealuminated feldspars and zeolites are organophilic and potentially catalytic. Weathered alkali feldspar crystals from granitic rocks at Shap, north west England, contain abundant tubular etch pits, typically 0.4-0.6 microm wide, forming an orthogonal honeycomb network in a surface zone 50 microm thick, with 2-3 x 10(6) intersections per mm2 of crystal surface. Surviving metamorphic rocks demonstrate that granites and acidic surface water were present on the Earth's surface by approximately 3.8 Ga. By analogy with Shap granite, honeycombed feldspar has considerable potential as a natural catalytic surface for the start of biochemical evolution. Biomolecules should have become available by catalysis of amino acids, etc. The honeycomb would have provided access to various mineral inclusions in the feldspar, particularly apatite and oxides, which contain phosphorus and transition metals necessary for energetic life. The organized environment would have protected complex molecules from dispersion into dilute solutions, from hydrolysis, and from UV radiation. Sub-micrometer tubes in the honeycomb might have acted as rudimentary cell walls for proto-organisms, which ultimately evolved a lipid lid giving further shelter from the hostile outside environment. A lid would finally have become a complete cell wall permitting detachment and flotation in primordial "soup." Etch features on weathered alkali feldspar from Shap match the shape of overlying soil bacteria.

  15. Prosthetic reconstruction to restore function in transcarpal amputees.

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Roche, A D; Hruby, L A; Sturma, A; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K D; Aszmann, O C

    2016-03-01

    Mutilated hands at the distal level may pose a challenge for reconstruction. Biological treatment options may require multiple surgical interventions and a long rehabilitation course with little hope of good functional outcome. Standard hand prostheses are also not an ideal solution, as they are too long and cumbersome for partial hand injuries. This paper outlines the functional outcomes of prosthetic reconstruction with devices customized for the transcarpal amputation levels. The functional outcome was evaluated with the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH). Functional evaluation was performed at least 12 months after final fitting. Psychological assessment was performed with the Short Form-36. The three patients achieved a mean ARAT score of 35.67 ± 0.58. The average SHAP score was 74 ± 7.81. The average DASH score was found to be 16.11 ± 12.03. The reconstructed hand achieved a score of 75.27 ± 8.16% in SHAP and 62.57 ± 1.02% in ARAT in relation to the healthy hand. All patients exhibited average physical and mental component summary scales in the Short Form-36. The majority of transcarpal amputations are seen in manual laborers due to work-related trauma. Returning to work is the main goal in such young and otherwise-healthy patients. As shown with this study, prosthetic fitting results in quick and reliable functional reconstruction. Therefore, this treatment should be considered as an option during the initial decision-making process of reconstructing difficult traumatic injuries of the hand.

  16. Changes in performance over time while learning to use a myoelectric prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Training increases the functional use of an upper limb prosthesis, but little is known about how people learn to use their prosthesis. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in performance with an upper limb myoelectric prosthesis during practice. The results provide a basis to develop an evidence-based training program. Methods Thirty-one able-bodied participants took part in an experiment as well as thirty-one age- and gender-matched controls. Participants in the experimental condition, randomly assigned to one of four groups, practiced with a myoelectric simulator for five sessions in a two-weeks period. Group 1 practiced direct grasping, Group 2 practiced indirect grasping, Group 3 practiced fixating, and Group 4 practiced a combination of all three tasks. The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) was assessed in a pretest, posttest, and two retention tests. Participants in the control condition performed SHAP two times, two weeks apart with no practice in between. Compressible objects were used in the grasping tasks. Changes in end-point kinematics, joint angles, and grip force control, the latter measured by magnitude of object compression, were examined. Results The experimental groups improved more on SHAP than the control group. Interestingly, the fixation group improved comparable to the other training groups on the SHAP. Improvement in global position of the prosthesis leveled off after three practice sessions, whereas learning to control grip force required more time. The indirect grasping group had the smallest object compression in the beginning and this did not change over time, whereas the direct grasping and the combination group had a decrease in compression over time. Moreover, the indirect grasping group had the smallest grasping time that did not vary over object rigidity, while for the other two groups the grasping time decreased with an increase in object rigidity. Conclusions A training program should spend more

  17. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-07-01

    Croatia: Rijeka’s 2005 science festival attracts an enthusiastic crowd The Middle East: METSMaC conference reaches out to teachers around the Gulf and beyond Spain: Física en Acción 5: a Spanish festival that will have you cycling the tightrope Czech Republic: Astronomy lessons for everyone Sussex Planetarium: Planetarium sets its sights high TV series: Einstein gets animated for C4 cartoon series Memorial: Honouring the great: memorial to Robert Hooke is unveiled at Westminster Abbey Awards: SHAP awards prizes for exceptional student work Group meeting: IOP’s Education Group to meet in September Forthcoming Events

  18. Analysis of piping response to thermal and operational transients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The reactor piping system is an extremely complex three-dimensional structure. Maintaining its structural integrity is essential to the safe operation of the reactor and the steam-supply system. In the safety analysis, various transient loads can be imposed on the piping which may cause plastic deformation and possible damage to the system, including those generated from hydrodynamic wave propagations, thermal and operational transients, as well as the seismic events. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a three-dimensional (3-D) piping code, SHAPS, aimed for short-duration transients due to wave propagation, has been developed. Since 1984, the development work has been shifted to the long-duration accidents originating from the thermal and operational transient. As a result, a new version of the code, SHAPS-2, is being established. This paper describes many features related to this later development. To analyze piping response generated from thermal and operational transients, a 3-D implicit finite element algorithm has been developed for calculating the hoop, flexural, axial, and torsional deformations induced by the thermomechanical loads. The analysis appropriately accounts for stresses arising from the temperature dependence of the elastic material properties, the thermal expansion of the materials, and the changes in the temperature-dependent yield surface. Thermal softening, failure, strain rate, creep, and stress ratching can also be considered.

  19. Comparative study of state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers for multigrasp prosthetic hands

    PubMed Central

    Segil, Jacob L.; Controzzi, Marco; Weir, Richard F. ff.; Cipriani, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A myoelectric controller should provide an intuitive and effective human-machine interface that deciphers user intent in real-time and is robust enough to operate in daily life. Many myoelectric control architectures have been developed, including pattern recognition systems, finite state machines, and more recently, postural control schemes. Here, we present a comparative study of two types of finite state machines and a postural control scheme using both virtual and physical assessment procedures with seven nondisabled subjects. The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) was used in order to compare the effectiveness of the controllers during activities of daily living using a multigrasp artificial hand. Also, a virtual hand posture matching task was used to compare the controllers when reproducing six target postures. The performance when using the postural control scheme was significantly better (p < 0.05) than when using the finite state machines during the physical assessment when comparing within-subject averages using the SHAP percent difference metric. The virtual assessment results described significantly greater completion rates (97% and 99%) for the finite state machines, but the movement time tended to be faster (2.7 s) for the postural control scheme. Our results substantiate that postural control schemes rival other state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers. PMID:25803683

  20. Anhedonia and major depression: the role of agomelatine.

    PubMed

    Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Anhedonia is a condition in which the capacity to experience pleasure is totally or partially lost. Although anhedonia is a feature of major depressive disorder according to DSM IV criteria for major depression diagnosis, so far it has received relatively little attention. The scale that is most commonly used in the measurement of anhedonia is the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), a brief 14-item self-report questionnaire designed to measure hedonic tone and its absence. Two studies have described the efficacy of agomelatine in the treatment of anhedonia: an open-label study and a comparative trial versus the antidepressant venlafaxine XR. In both studies agomelatine significantly reduced anhedonia, as indicated using the SHAPS. This reduction was observed after the first week of treatment (P<0.05) and at different times until the end of the trial. Moreover, in the comparative trial, a significant difference between groups was observed in favor of agomelatine, after 1 (P<0.05), 2 (P<0.01), and 8 weeks (P<0.01). The possible effect of agomelatine on anhedonia may represent a novel area of interest among antidepressant agents and deserves further investigation, with larger samples and double-blind placebo-controlled designs.

  1. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.

    PubMed

    Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

    1987-01-01

    Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus.

  2. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  3. Bringing physics to life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    `I'm doing a physics that is pulling me towards it.' `I like the course being more up to date.' `You learn the physics but you also think ``well I actually see a point in knowing this physics''.' `This course presents physics in a more interesting way as it focuses on practical activity and applications of physics.' `The industrial visit gives students the opportunity to look for science in action.' These are just some of the comments from students and teachers piloting the new Salters Horners Advanced Physics course (SHAP). Contexts and applications drive the course, providing interest and motivation for students and alerting them to some of the many career areas that involve physics. For example, the operation of a CD player leads to a study of waves and superposition; archaeological surveying and analysis brings in d.c. circuitry and x-ray diffraction; consideration of safety in rail transport involves learning about mechanics and electromagnetism. The course is produced by a team directed from the University of York and funded by a consortium of industrial and charitable sponsors. It is examined by Edexcel and support materials are published by Heinemann. The pilot, involving some 50 centres, began in September 1998 with the new subject core and the AS qualification intermediate between GCSE and the full A-level standard. The course has been fully approved by QCA, and from September 2000 it will be open to all. For comprehensive information about SHAP, visit the project's website: www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/salters/physics . Pilot materials for students, teachers and technicians are available from Heinemann. They will be re-edited and published in full colour for September 2000. Members of the team will attend the annual ASE meeting in Leeds this month; there will be a talk and a hands-on workshop where student activities can be sampled. Materials will be on view at the University of York stand. In addition, Edexcel and the York team are running a series of

  4. Rehand: Realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Ryo; Higashihara, Takanori; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Myoelectric prosthetic hands provide an appearance with five fingers and a grasping function to forearm amputees. However, they have problems in weight, appearance, and cost. This paper reports on the Rehand, a realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer. It provides a realistic appearance that is same as the cosmetic prosthetic hand and a grasping function. A simple link mechanism with one linear actuator for grasping and 3D printed parts achieve low cost, light weight, and ease of maintenance. An operating system based on a distance sensor provides a natural operability equivalent to the myoelectric control system. A supporter socket allows them to wear the prosthetic hand easily. An evaluation using the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) demonstrated that an amputee was able to operate various objects and do everyday activities with the Rehand.

  5. Temperament and character inventory dimensions and anhedonia in detoxified substance-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, G; Cloninger, C R; Janiri, L

    2008-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between anhedonia, craving and temperament and character dimensions in a sample of 50 patients with alcohol and opiate dependence recruited after a period of detoxification. The following scales were applied: Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (BRMS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for craving, and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The temperament dimension of Novelty Seeking was positively correlated to craving and anhedonia (p < .01), with a higher score of Novelty Seeking in the subsample of anhedonic subjects with respect to both non-anhedonic and control subjects. In our study, the possibility that difficulty in experiencing pleasure in psychiatric disorders can lead to the use of psychoactive substances in an attempt to decrease anhedonia, is extended to subjects without psychiatric disorders who may try substances to counterbalance a tonic state of anhedonia.

  6. New materials systems for advanced tribological and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei

    In this study, two different materials systems were developed to address current industrial problems of wear. The first system consisted of sterically hindered aliphatic polyester (SHAP) lubricants for use in hard disk magnetic recording applications. Specific goals included improved adhesion, durability and tribochemical stability compared to commercial perfluoropolyethers. While commercial perfluoropolyether lubricants are subject to catalytic degradation and mechanical scission, or suffer from severe stiction and dewetting problems, SHAP lubricants manifest greatly reduced stiction, superb thermal and oxidation stability, and excellent friction property, and make good candidates for broader applications, such as lubricants for MEMs or general purpose lubricants. The second material system involved a blend of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and an Aromatic Thermosetting Polyester (ATSP) to achieve greatly improved mechanical properties and wear resistance compared to currently available blends of PTFE. The unique solid bonding capability and liquid crystalline nature of ATSP help form high aspect ratio microstructures, which allows fabrication of PTFE/ATSP composites across the entire composition range with greatly improved performance under greatly simplified conditions. A third project involved the design of new wide-spectrum antibacterial filters for point-of-use systems that are robust and can be easily regenerated and maintained. Silver coated fiberglass with colloidal sized silver particles was developed. Systems made of silver coated fiberglass are highly effective, have high capacity and can be regenerated easily. These disinfection units do not leach silver ions, or add taste or disinfection by-products into the treated water. Protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia can be held by the filter and destroyed during regeneration. They are an inexpensive, cleaner alternative to current point-of-use systems.

  7. Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improves task performance in individuals with upper limb loss using a myoelectric prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefer, Matthew; Tan, Daniel; Sidek, Steven M.; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Tactile feedback is critical to grip and object manipulation. Its absence results in reliance on visual and auditory cues. Our objective was to assess the effect of sensory feedback on task performance in individuals with limb loss. Approach. Stimulation of the peripheral nerves using implanted cuff electrodes provided two subjects with sensory feedback with intensity proportional to forces on the thumb, index, and middle fingers of their prosthetic hand during object manipulation. Both subjects perceived the sensation on their phantom hand at locations corresponding to the locations of the forces on the prosthetic hand. A bend sensor measured prosthetic hand span. Hand span modulated the intensity of sensory feedback perceived on the thenar eminence for subject 1 and the middle finger for subject 2. We performed three functional tests with the blindfolded subjects. First, the subject tried to determine whether or not a wooden block had been placed in his prosthetic hand. Second, the subject had to locate and remove magnetic blocks from a metal table. Third, the subject performed the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP). We also measured the subject’s sense of embodiment with a survey and his self-confidence. Main results. Blindfolded performance with sensory feedback was similar to sighted performance in the wooden block and magnetic block tasks. Performance on the SHAP, a measure of hand mechanical function and control, was similar with and without sensory feedback. An embodiment survey showed an improved sense of integration of the prosthesis in self body image with sensory feedback. Significance. Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improved object discrimination and manipulation, embodiment, and confidence. With both forms of feedback, the blindfolded subjects tended toward results obtained with visual feedback.

  8. Nitrogen fixation and metabolism by groundwater-dependent perennial plants in a hyperarid desert.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Stefan K; Kahmen, Ansgar; Arampatsis, Christina; Popp, Marianne; Adams, Mark

    2004-11-01

    The Central Asian Taklamakan desert is characterized by a hyperarid climate with less than 50 mm annual precipitation but a permanent shallow groundwater table. The perched groundwater (2-16 m) could present a reliable and constant source of nitrogen throughout the growing season and help overcome temporal nitrogen limitations that are common in arid environments. We investigated the importance of groundwater and nitrogen fixation in the nitrogen metabolism of desert plants by assessing the possible forms and availability of soil N and atmospheric N and the seasonal variation in concentration as well as isotopic composition of plant N. Water availability was experimentally modified in the desert foreland through simulated flooding to estimate the contribution of surface water and temporally increased soil moisture for nutrient uptake and plant-water relations. The natural vegetation of the Taklamakan desert is dominated by plants with high foliar nitrogen concentrations (2-3% DM) and leaf nitrate reductase activity (NRA) (0.2-1 micromol NO2- g(-1) FW h(-1)). There is little evidence that nitrogen is a limiting resource as all perennial plants exhibited fast rates of growth. The extremely dry soil conditions preclude all but minor contributions of soil N to total plant N so that groundwater is suggested as the dominant source of N with concentrations of 100 microM NO3-. Flood irrigation had little beneficial effect on nitrogen metabolism and growth, further confirming the dependence on groundwater. Nitrogen fixation was determined by the 15N natural abundance method and was a significant component of the N-requirement of the legume Alhagi, the average contribution of biologically fixed nitrogen in Alhagi was 54.8%. But nitrogen fixing plants had little ecological advantage owing to the more or less constant supply of N available from groundwater. From our data we conclude that the perennial species investigated have adapted to the environmental conditions through

  9. Development of an IgY Antibody-Based Immunoassay for the Screening of the CYP2E1 Inhibitor/Enhancer from Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhihui; Jiang, Xuemei; Li, Cui; Xue, Huiting; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. It is essential to evaluate the expression of CYP2E1 in the studies of drug–drug interactions and the screening of drugs, natural products, and foodstuffs. The present work is a feasibility study on the development of immunoassays using a specific and sensitive chicken-sourced anti-CYP2E1 IgY antibody. Cloning, expression, and purification of a recombinant CYP2E1 (mice origin) protein were carried out. Anti-CYP2E1 IgY antibodies were generated by immunizing white Leghorn chickens with purified recombinant CYP2E1 protein and were purified by immune affinity chromatography. The IgY titer attained a peak level (≥1:128,000) after the fifth booster injection. For evaluation of the expression of CYP2E1 in different herbal treatment samples, the mice were treated by oral gavage for 3 days with alcohol (50% 15 mL/kg), acetaminophen (APAP, 300 mg/kg), Cornus officinalis extract (100 mg/kg), Alhagi-honey extract (100 mg/kg), Apocynum venetum extract (100 mg/kg), hyperoside (50 mg/kg), isoquercetin (50 mg/kg), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (50 mg/kg), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (50 mg/kg), and 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (50 mg/kg). The expression of CYP2E1 was determined by Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) using anti-CYP2E1 IgY in liver tissue. The results showed that C. officinalis extract, Alhagi-honey extract, A. venetum extract, hyperoside, isoquercetin, and their xenobiotics 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid significantly decreased CYP2E1 levels. Alcohol and APAP treatments significantly increased CYP2E1 levels as analyzed with Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. The IMB method is suitable for large-scale screening, and it is a rapid screening (20 min) that uses a portable magnet and has no professional requirements for the

  10. Identification of medicinal plants for the treatment of kidney and urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney stones are the third most common urinary tract problems after urinary tract infections and prostate pathology. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow. They are usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Medicinal herbs are used in different cultures as a reliable source of natural remedies. Objectives: This study aimed to determine native medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Shiraz for the treatment of kidney stones. Materials and Methods: The ethno-medicinal data were collected between July and September 2012 through face-to-face interview with local herbalist. Results: A total of 18 species belonging to 19 botanical families were recorded in study area. Species with the highest frequency of mentions were Alhagi maurorum (51.58%), Tribulus terrestris (51.58%), and Nigella sativa (48.14). The most frequently used plant parts were aerial parts (38%), leaf (33%) and fruits (17%). Decoction (68%) was the most frequently prescribed method of preparation. Most of the medicinal plants recommended by Shirazian herbalists have not been investigated in animal and humane models of renal stone which provides a new area of research. Conclusion: In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs. PMID:27689108

  11. Characterization of strains unlike Mesorhizobium loti that nodulate lotus spp. in saline soils of Granada, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lorite, María J; Muñoz, Socorro; Olivares, José; Soto, María J; Sanjuán, Juan

    2010-06-01

    Lotus species are forage legumes with potential as pastures in low-fertility and environmentally constrained soils, owing to their high persistence and yield under those conditions. The aim of this work was the characterization of phenetic and genetic diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria able to establish efficient symbiosis with Lotus spp. A total of 180 isolates able to nodulate Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis from two locations in Granada, Spain, were characterized. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA, atpD, and recA gene sequence analyses, showing the presence of bacteria related to different species of the genus Mesorhizobium: Mesorhizobium tarimense/Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium chacoense/Mesorhizobium albiziae, and the recently described species, Mesorhizobium alhagi. No Mesorhizobium loti-like bacteria were found, although most isolates carried nodC and nifH symbiotic genes closely related to those of M. loti, considered the type species of bacteria nodulating Lotus, and other Lotus rhizobia. A significant portion of the isolates showed both high salt tolerance and good symbiotic performance with L. corniculatus, and many behaved like salt-dependent bacteria, showing faster growth and better symbiotic performance when media were supplemented with Na or Ca salts.

  12. Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used to Cure Jaundice by Traditional Healers of Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; TaghavizadehYazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

  13. Comparative evaluation of oxidative stress status and manganese availability in plants growing on manganese mine.

    PubMed

    Boojar, Massod Mashhadi Akbar; Goodarzi, Faranak

    2008-11-01

    This study pioneered an approach that determined the effects of excess manganese (Mn) on three species; Datura stramonium, Alhagi camelthorn and Chenopodium ambrosioides. We investigated their levels of Mn, antioxidative enzymes and oxidative damage biomarkers in plants (zone 1) in and outside (zone 2) the Mn mine. The results showed that total and available Mn were at toxic levels for plants growing on zone 1. The Mn levels in each plant species were higher in leaves, stems and roots. Mn was only accumulated significantly in leaf vacuoles of A. camelthorn. Antioxidative enzyme activities of C. ambrosioides and/or D. stramonium in zone 1 were higher in leaves, stems and then in their roots. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and dityrosine levels were insignificantly higher in tissues of the studied plants in zone 1 with respect to zone 2. The roots of studied plants showed significantly higher levels of these biomarkers in comparison with their leaves in zone 1. Accordingly, antioxidative enzymatic response to Mn-stress in D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides and possibly accumulation of Mn in leaf vacuoles of A. camelthorn, protected them from oxidative damages and involved in their tolerance in Mn mine.

  14. Four-fluid MHD Simulations of the Plasma and Neutral Gas Environment of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Near Perihelion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhenguang; Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas; Jia, Xianzhe; Rubin, Martin; Fougere, Nicolas; Tenishev, Valeriy; Combi, Michael; Bieler, Andre; Hansen, Kenneth; Shou, Yinsi; Altwegg, Kathrin

    2016-04-01

    The neutral and plasma environment is critical in understanding the interaction of the solar wind and comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), the target of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission. In this study, we have developed a 3-D four-fluid model, which is based on BATS-R-US (Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme) within SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework) that solves the governing multi-fluid MHD equations and the Euler equations for the neutral gas fluid. These equations describe the behavior and interactions of the cometary heavy ions, the solar wind protons, the electrons, and the neutrals. We simulated the plasma and neutral gas environment of comet CG with SHAP5 model near perihelion and we showed that the plasma environment in the inner coma region have some new features: magnetic reconnection in the tail region, a magnetic pile-up region on the nightside, and nucleus directed plasma flow inside the nightside reconnection region.

  15. The relationship between taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide and anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Al-Mesaabi, Wahda; Bahusain, Eman; Mutawa, Meera

    2014-02-28

    It has been proposed that taste sensitivity to bitter compounds such as, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), represents a genetic marker for an increased vulnerability to depressive illness. Previous explorations of this idea have proven equivocal. This study refines and further explores this idea by focusing specifically on anhedonia (diminished hedonic capacity), a key symptom in some depressive illness, linked also with sensory pleasure. It is hypothesized that diminished PTC taste sensitivity will be associated with more general decrements in hedonic capacity (anhedonia). An opportunity sample of 198 university students were assessed using paper strips impregnated with PTC, the same participants also completed a widely used assessment of hedonic capacity, the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS). Hedonic capacity scores positively correlated with PTC taste sensitivity; specifically, heightened hedonic capacity was associated with heightened sensitivity to the bitter taste of PTC. Furthermore, modest differences were observed between those least (non-tasters) and most (supertasters) sensitive to PTC, with non-tasters reporting significantly lower hedonic capacity scores than supertasters. PTC taste sensitivity may represent a peripheral risk factor for anhedonia.

  16. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS.

  17. Erratum: The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. XXVIII. Combining the Constraints on the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, Jeremy R.; Huchra, John P.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Ferrarese, Laura; Ford, Holland C.; Gibson, Brad K.; Graham, John A.; Hughes, Shaun M. G.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Macri, Lucas M.; Madore, Barry F.; Sakai, Shoko; Sebo, Kim M.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Stetson, Peter B.

    2000-12-01

    In the article ``The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. XXVIII. Combining the Constraints on the Hubble Constant'' (ApJ, 529, 786 [2000]), by Jeremy R. Mould, John P. Huchra, Wendy L. Freedman, Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr., Laura Ferrarese, Holland C. Ford, Brad K. Gibson, John A. Graham, Shaun M. G. Hughes, Garth D. Illingworth, Daniel D. Kelson, Lucas M. Macri, Barry F. Madore, Shoko Sakai, Kim M. Sebo, Nancy A. Silbermann, and Peter B. Stetson, some sign errors need to be corrected. 1. In equation (A2) the minus signs should be plus signs. The correct version is Vcosmic=VH+Vc,LG+Vin,Virgo+Vin,GA+Vin,Shap+... 2. In Table A1 the declination of the Great Attractor (GA) is -44°, and that of the Shapley supercluster is -31°, i.e., south declination, not north, as implied in the table. The first error is the authors' and the second occurred in the publication process. In both cases the computer code was correct, and the errors are in the published representation. None of the results presented in the paper are therefore affected in any way. The authors thank Dr. Jim Condon for pointing out the error in equation (A2)

  18. Camera on Vessel: A Camera-Based System to Measure Change in Water Volume in a Drinking Glass.

    PubMed

    Ayoola, Idowu; Chen, Wei; Feijs, Loe

    2015-09-18

    A major problem related to chronic health is patients' "compliance" with new lifestyle changes, medical prescriptions, recommendations, or restrictions. Heart-failure and hemodialysis patients are usually placed on fluid restrictions due to their hemodynamic status. A holistic approach to managing fluid imbalance will incorporate the monitoring of salt-water intake, body-fluid retention, and fluid excretion in order to provide effective intervention at an early stage. Such an approach creates a need to develop a smart device that can monitor the drinking activities of the patient. This paper employs an empirical approach to infer the real water level in a conically shapped glass and the volume difference due to changes in water level. The method uses a low-resolution miniaturized camera to obtain images using an Arduino microcontroller. The images are processed in MATLAB. Conventional segmentation techniques (such as a Sobel filter to obtain a binary image) are applied to extract the level gradient, and an ellipsoidal fitting helps to estimate the size of the cup. The fitting (using least-squares criterion) between derived measurements in pixel and the real measurements shows a low covariance between the estimated measurement and the mean. The correlation between the estimated results to ground truth produced a variation of 3% from the mean.

  19. Camera on Vessel: A Camera-Based System to Measure Change in Water Volume in a Drinking Glass

    PubMed Central

    Ayoola, Idowu; Chen, Wei; Feijs, Loe

    2015-01-01

    A major problem related to chronic health is patients’ “compliance” with new lifestyle changes, medical prescriptions, recommendations, or restrictions. Heart-failure and hemodialysis patients are usually placed on fluid restrictions due to their hemodynamic status. A holistic approach to managing fluid imbalance will incorporate the monitoring of salt-water intake, body-fluid retention, and fluid excretion in order to provide effective intervention at an early stage. Such an approach creates a need to develop a smart device that can monitor the drinking activities of the patient. This paper employs an empirical approach to infer the real water level in a conically shapped glass and the volume difference due to changes in water level. The method uses a low-resolution miniaturized camera to obtain images using an Arduino microcontroller. The images are processed in MATLAB. Conventional segmentation techniques (such as a Sobel filter to obtain a binary image) are applied to extract the level gradient, and an ellipsoidal fitting helps to estimate the size of the cup. The fitting (using least-squares criterion) between derived measurements in pixel and the real measurements shows a low covariance between the estimated measurement and the mean. The correlation between the estimated results to ground truth produced a variation of 3% from the mean. PMID:26393600

  20. Floral miniaturisation and autogamy in boreal-arctic plants are epitomised by Iceland's most frequent orchid, Platanthera hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Richard M; Sramkó, Gábor; Rudall, Paula J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. This paper concludes our series of publications comparing island and mainland speciation in European butterfly-orchids, by studying the morphology, phylogenetics and reproductive biology of the controversial circum-arctic species Platanthera (Limnorchis) hyperborea-the most frequent of seven Icelandic orchids. We draw particular attention to its phylogenetic placement, remarkable reproductive biology and morphological convergence on other Platanthera lineages through floral miniaturisation. Methods. Five populations of P. hyperborea in southwest Iceland were measured for 33 morphological characters and subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy of selected flowers. Representative samples from six populations were sequenced for nrITS and placed in a taxonomically broader phylogenetic matrix derived from previous studies. Key Results . Section Limnorchis consists of three distinct ITS-delimited clades based on P. stricta, P. sparsifolia-limosa-aquilonis and P. dilatata-hyperborea. Within the latter group, supposed species boundaries overlap; instead, the data indicate a crude stepwise series of ribotypic transitions extending eastward from North America to Iceland. Morphometric data failed to identify any taxonomically meaningful partitions among Icelandic P. hyperborea populations, despite the presence of a distinct and apparently plesiomorphic ribotype at the most glacially influenced habitat sampled. Microscopic study of the flowers revealed several distinguishing features (some not previously reported), including resupinate lateral sepals, toothed bract margins, club-shaped papillae shared by both the interior of the labellar spur and the stigmatic surface, and an exceptionally adhesive stigma that is reliably covered in disaggregated pollen masses prior to anthesis; auricles are absent. Conclusions. Ribotypes suggest that Icelandic P. hyperborea represents the terminus of a

  1. An Investigation of the Growth Inhibitory Capacity of Several Medicinal Plants From Iran on Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilbeig, Maryam; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional herbal medicine is a valuable resource that provides new drugs for cancer treatment. Objectives: In this study we aim to screen and investigate the in vitro anti-tumor activities of ten species of plants commonly grown in Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: We used the MTT colorimetric assay to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of these plants on various tumor cell lines. The IC50 was calculated as a scale for this evaluation. Results: Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed the inhibitoriest effects on Jurkat cells with > 80% inhibition at 200 µg/mL. Satureja hortensis (IC50: 66.7 µg/mL) was the most effective. These plants also strongly inhibited K562 cell growth; Satureja bachtiarica (IC50: 28.3 µg/mL), Satureja hortensis (IC50: 52 µg/mL) and Thymus vulgaris (IC50: 87 µg/mL) were the most effective extracts. Cichorium intybus, Rheum ribes, Alhagi pseudalhagi and Glycyrrihza glabra also showed notable effects on the leukemia cell lines. The Raji cell line was mostly inhibited by Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus vulgaris with approximately 40% inhibition at 200µg/ml. The influence of these extracts on solid tumor cell lines was not strong. Fen cells were mostly affected by Glycyrrihza glabra (IC50: 182 µg/mL) and HeLa cells by Satureja hortensis (31.6% growth inhibitory effect at 200 µg/mL). Conclusions: Leukemic cell lines were more sensitive to the extracts than the solid tumor cell lines; Satureja hortensis, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed remarkable inhibitory potential. PMID:26634114

  2. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  3. Evolution and taxonomy of native mesorhizobia nodulating medicinal Glycyrrhiza species in China.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Li, Li; Wei, Gehong; Räsänen, Leena; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-06-01

    Previously, 159 bacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of wild perennial Glycyrrhiza legume species grown on 40 sites in central and north-western China, in which 57 strains were classified as "true symbionts" belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genomic fingerprinting and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene [20]. In the present work, the phylogeny of Glycyrrhiza nodulating mesorhizobia was further examined by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The concatenated gene tree of three housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, recA, and rpoB) of 59 strains including the 29 mesorhizobial test strains and 30 type mesorhizobial species, was constructed applying the maximum likelihood method and Bayesian inference. In the concatenated gene tree, the 29 test strains were distributed in seven separate clades. Seventeen test strains clustered with Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium temperatum, Mesorhizobium muleiense, and Mesorhizobium alhagi with high bootstrap support (BS>85%). Eight test strains did not cluster with any of the described Mesorhizobium species. Based on the results, we proposed these eight test strains might belong to a putative new species of the genus Mesorhizobium. The sequences of three accessory genes (nodA, nodC, and nifH) of the test strains were also analyzed and were compared with those of representatives of the 30 described mesorhizobial species. The results showed that mesorhizobia involved in symbiosis with Glycyrrhiza plants probably have acquired some genetic material from other rhizobia in co-evolution with Glycyrrhiza and other legume species.

  4. The metabolism of neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam by soil enrichment cultures, and the bacterial diversity and plant growth-promoting properties of the cultured isolates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Can; Wang, Ying; Ma, Yuan; Zhai, Shan; Zhou, Ling-Yan; Dai, Yi-Jun; Yuan, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A soil enrichment culture (SEC) rapidly degraded 96% of 200 mg L(-1) neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam (TMX) in MSM broth within 30 d; therefore, its metabolic pathway of TMX, bacterial diversity and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) activities of the cultured isolates were studied. The SEC transformed TMX via the nitro reduction pathway to form nitrso, urea metabolites and via cleavage of the oxadiazine cycle to form a new metabolite, hydroxyl CLO-tri. In addition, 16S rRNA gene-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that uncultured rhizobacteria are predominant in the SEC broth and that 77.8% of the identified bacteria belonged to uncultured bacteria. A total of 31 cultured bacterial strains including six genera (Achromobacter, Agromyces, Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Microbacterium and Pseudoxanthomonas) were isolated from the SEC broth. The 12 strains of Ensifer adhaerens have the ability to degrade TMX. All six selected bacteria showed PGPR activities. E. adhaerens TMX-23 and Agromyces mediolanus TMX-25 produced indole-3-acetic acid, whereas E. adhaerens TMX-23 and Mesorhizobium alhagi TMX-36 are N2-fixing bacteria. The six-isolated microbes were tolerant to 200 mg L(-1) TMX, and the growth of E. adhaerens was significantly enhanced by TMX, whereas that of Achromobacter sp. TMX-5 and Microbacterium sp.TMX-6 were enhanced slightly. The present study will help to explain the fate of TMX in the environment and its microbial degradation mechanism, as well as to facilitate future investigations of the mechanism through which TMX enhances plant vigor.

  5. Spatial and temporal dynamics of soil moisture and salinity in typical plant communities of Sangonghe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Fengxue; Chu, Yu; Zhang, Yuandong; Liu, Yongqiang; Anabiek, Subai; Ye, Qian; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    Soil moisture, salinity, ground water table and salt concentration were measured monthly in seven typical plant communities for one year in Sangonghe basin of Xinjiang. Temporal dynamics of soil water and salinity during growing season were compared within these communities. The dominant species in each of these communities were Suaeda physophora, Reaumuria soongorica, Anabasis aphylla and Kalidium foliatum, Tamarix ramosissima, Alhagi pseudalhagi and Haloxylon ammodendron respectively. Results show that soil water content and salinity were significantly different among all these communities. In the edge of alluvial fan and low reaches of the river, ground water table was high, soil profile was moist, and salt concentrated in the soil upper layers and surface. Soils were all saline with dominant species of T. ramosissima, A. aphylla and K. foliatum. In the plain area, communities were dominated by R. soongoricaand S. physophora Ground water table was generally low, but soil surface and up layer contained high salt concentration. Soil here belonged to strong to medium salinized soil. In ecotone, ground water table increased due to the irrigation in the nearby oasis. From soil surface to deep layers, water content increased gradually with no salt accumulation for all the layers. Vegetation in ecotone was stable and dominated by A. pseudalhagi. In intervale of desert, ground water table was very deep and soil was very dry throughout of the profile. There were no significant differences in vertical and temporal change of soil moisture. Communities were dominated by H. ammodendron. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the soil moisture and salinity caused community subrogation, and were the two main factors that affected distribution and succession of plant communities.

  6. MDD Analysis of Microtexturally Characterized K-Feldspar Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, C. H.; Heizler, M. T.; Parsons, I.; Heizler, L.

    2011-12-01

    Multiple diffusion domain (MDD) analysis of K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar age spectra is a powerful thermochronological tool dating back 25 years, but continued validation of the basic assumptions of the model can be afforded by microanalysis of K-feldspar crystal fragments. MDD theory assumes that diffusion of Ar in K-feldspars is controlled by domains of varying size bounded by infinitely fast diffusion pathways. However, the physical character of these domain boundaries is not fully understood and this issue remains a point of criticism of the MDD model. We have evaluated the relationship between texture, age, and thermal history via step heating and modeling of texturally characterized K-feldspar crystal fragments (250-500 μm). K-feldspar phenocrysts from the Shap granite, chosen for their well-studied and relatively simple microtextures, contain large areas of homogenous regular strain-controlled film perthite with periodicities on the order of ~1 μm and abundant misfit dislocations, as well as areas of much coarser, irregular, slightly turbid, patch and vein perthite. Total gas ages (TGA) for all Shap fragments, regardless of texture, show less than 2% variation, but the shape of the age spectra varies with microtexture. Film perthites produce flat spectra whereas patch/vein perthite spectra have initial steps 5 - 25% older than the age of the emplacement with younger plateau or gently rising steps afterward. Patch/vein perthites have substantial microporosity and their spectral shapes may be a consequence of trapped 40Ar* that has diffused into micropores or other defects that have no continuity with the crystal boundaries. Correlations between spectral shape and heating schedule suggest that initial old ages are produced by the early release of trapped 40Ar* separated from the K parent rather than degassing of excess 40Ar*. The MH-42 K-feldspar from the Chain of Ponds Pluton has two primary microtextures: a coarse patch/vein perthite with lamellae 1-20 μm in

  7. Acute and temporal expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated gene 6 product, TSG6, in mesenchymal stem cells creates microenvironments required for their successful transplantation into muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Torihashi, Shigeko; Ho, Mioko; Kawakubo, Yuji; Komatsu, Kazumi; Nagai, Masataka; Hirayama, Yuri; Kawabata, Yuka; Takenaka-Ninagawa, Nana; Wanachewin, Orawan; Zhuo, Lisheng; Kimata, Koji

    2015-09-11

    Previously, we demonstrated that when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from mouse ES cells were transplanted into skeletal muscle, more than 60% of them differentiated into muscles in the crush-injured tibialis anterior muscle in vivo, although MSCs neither differentiated nor settled in the intact muscle. Microenvironments, including the extracellular matrix between the injured and intact muscle, were quite different. In the injured muscle, hyaluronan (HA), heavy chains of inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), CD44, and TNF-α-stimulated gene 6 product (TSG-6) increased 24-48 h after injury, although basement membrane components of differentiated muscle such as perlecan, laminin, and type IV collagen increased gradually 4 days after the crush. We then investigated the microenvironments crucial for cell transplantation, using the lysate of C2C12 myotubules for mimicking injured circumstances in vivo. MSCs settled in the intact muscle when they were transplanted together with the C2C12 lysate or TSG6. MSCs produced and released TSG6 when they were cultured with C2C12 lysates in vitro. MSCs pretreated with the lysate also settled in the intact muscle. Furthermore, MSCs whose TSG6 was knocked down by shRNA, even if transplanted or pretreated with the lysate, could not settle in the muscle. Immunofluorescent staining showed that HA and IαI always co-localized or were distributed closely, suggesting formation of covalent complexes, i.e. the SHAP-HA complex in the presence of TSG6. Thus, TSG6, HA, and IαI were crucial factors for the settlement and probably the subsequent differentiation of MSCs.

  8. Biochemical evolution III: Polymerization on organophilic silica-rich surfaces, crystal–chemical modeling, formation of first cells, and geological clues

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph V.; Arnold, Frederick P.; Parsons, Ian; Lee, Martin R.

    1999-01-01

    Catalysis at organophilic silica-rich surfaces of zeolites and feldspars might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and other geological sources. Crystal–chemical modeling yielded packings for amino acids neatly encapsulated in 10-ring channels of the molecular sieve silicalite-ZSM-5-(mutinaite). Calculation of binding and activation energies for catalytic assembly into polymers is progressing for a chemical composition with one catalytic Al–OH site per 25 neutral Si tetrahedral sites. Internal channel intersections and external terminations provide special stereochemical features suitable for complex organic species. Polymer migration along nano/micrometer channels of ancient weathered feldspars, plus exploitation of phosphorus and various transition metals in entrapped apatite and other microminerals, might have generated complexes of replicating catalytic biomolecules, leading to primitive cellular organisms. The first cell wall might have been an internal mineral surface, from which the cell developed a protective biological cap emerging into a nutrient-rich “soup.” Ultimately, the biological cap might have expanded into a complete cell wall, allowing mobility and colonization of energy-rich challenging environments. Electron microscopy of honeycomb channels inside weathered feldspars of the Shap granite (northwest England) has revealed modern bacteria, perhaps indicative of Archean ones. All known early rocks were metamorphosed too highly during geologic time to permit simple survival of large-pore zeolites, honeycombed feldspar, and encapsulated species. Possible microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbents/catalysts are discussed for planning of systematic study of black cherts from weakly metamorphosed Archaean sediments. PMID:10097060

  9. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 on Irreversible Pulpitis of Mature Erupted Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Eba, Hisanori; Murasawa, Yusuke; Iohara, Koichiro; Isogai, Zenzo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Misako

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix degradation and the modulation of cell behavior. These proteinases have also been implicated in tissue repair and regeneration. Our previous studies have demonstrated that MMP-3 elicits stimulatory effects on the proliferation and the migration of endothelial cells as well as anti-apoptotic effects on these cells in vitro. In addition, we found that MMP-3 enhanced the regeneration of lost pulp tissue in a rat incisor pulp injury model. However, continuously erupting rodent incisors exhibit significantly different pulp organization compared with mature erupted teeth. Therefore, we have further extended these studies using a canine irreversible pulpitis model to investigate the effects of MMP-3. In this study, the crowns of the canine mature premolars were removed and the pulp tissues were amputated. The amputated pulp tissues remained exposed for 24 or 72 hours to induce mild or severe irreversible pulpitis, respectively, followed by sealing of the cavities. In both models, the whole pulp tissues became necrotic by day 14. In this mild pulpitis model, the regeneration of pulp tissue with vasculature and nerves was observed until 14 days after sealing with MMP-3, followed by extracellular matrix formation in the regenerated pulp tissues until day 28. The treatment with MMP-3 resulted in a decrease in the number of macrophage and antigen-presenting cells and a significant inhibition of IL-6 expression on day 3. The inhibition of MMP-3 activity abolished these anti-inflammatory effects. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that MMP-3 was involved in the modification of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated proteins and hyaluronan (SHAP-HA) complexes possibly through the degradation of versican. These results demonstrate that MMP-3 can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and suggest that MMP-3 might represent a useful therapy for the treatment of mild irreversible pulpitis. PMID:23285075

  10. The anti-inflammatory effects of matrix metalloproteinase-3 on irreversible pulpitis of mature erupted teeth.

    PubMed

    Eba, Hisanori; Murasawa, Yusuke; Iohara, Koichiro; Isogai, Zenzo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Misako

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix degradation and the modulation of cell behavior. These proteinases have also been implicated in tissue repair and regeneration. Our previous studies have demonstrated that MMP-3 elicits stimulatory effects on the proliferation and the migration of endothelial cells as well as anti-apoptotic effects on these cells in vitro. In addition, we found that MMP-3 enhanced the regeneration of lost pulp tissue in a rat incisor pulp injury model. However, continuously erupting rodent incisors exhibit significantly different pulp organization compared with mature erupted teeth. Therefore, we have further extended these studies using a canine irreversible pulpitis model to investigate the effects of MMP-3. In this study, the crowns of the canine mature premolars were removed and the pulp tissues were amputated. The amputated pulp tissues remained exposed for 24 or 72 hours to induce mild or severe irreversible pulpitis, respectively, followed by sealing of the cavities. In both models, the whole pulp tissues became necrotic by day 14. In this mild pulpitis model, the regeneration of pulp tissue with vasculature and nerves was observed until 14 days after sealing with MMP-3, followed by extracellular matrix formation in the regenerated pulp tissues until day 28. The treatment with MMP-3 resulted in a decrease in the number of macrophage and antigen-presenting cells and a significant inhibition of IL-6 expression on day 3. The inhibition of MMP-3 activity abolished these anti-inflammatory effects. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that MMP-3 was involved in the modification of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated proteins and hyaluronan (SHAP-HA) complexes possibly through the degradation of versican. These results demonstrate that MMP-3 can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and suggest that MMP-3 might represent a useful therapy for the treatment of mild irreversible pulpitis.

  11. Acute and Temporal Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α-stimulated Gene 6 Product, TSG6, in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Creates Microenvironments Required for Their Successful Transplantation into Muscle Tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Torihashi, Shigeko; Ho, Mioko; Kawakubo, Yuji; Komatsu, Kazumi; Nagai, Masataka; Hirayama, Yuri; Kawabata, Yuka; Takenaka-Ninagawa, Nana; Wanachewin, Orawan; Zhuo, Lisheng; Kimata, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from mouse ES cells were transplanted into skeletal muscle, more than 60% of them differentiated into muscles in the crush-injured tibialis anterior muscle in vivo, although MSCs neither differentiated nor settled in the intact muscle. Microenvironments, including the extracellular matrix between the injured and intact muscle, were quite different. In the injured muscle, hyaluronan (HA), heavy chains of inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), CD44, and TNF-α-stimulated gene 6 product (TSG-6) increased 24–48 h after injury, although basement membrane components of differentiated muscle such as perlecan, laminin, and type IV collagen increased gradually 4 days after the crush. We then investigated the microenvironments crucial for cell transplantation, using the lysate of C2C12 myotubules for mimicking injured circumstances in vivo. MSCs settled in the intact muscle when they were transplanted together with the C2C12 lysate or TSG6. MSCs produced and released TSG6 when they were cultured with C2C12 lysates in vitro. MSCs pretreated with the lysate also settled in the intact muscle. Furthermore, MSCs whose TSG6 was knocked down by shRNA, even if transplanted or pretreated with the lysate, could not settle in the muscle. Immunofluorescent staining showed that HA and IαI always co-localized or were distributed closely, suggesting formation of covalent complexes, i.e. the SHAP-HA complex in the presence of TSG6. Thus, TSG6, HA, and IαI were crucial factors for the settlement and probably the subsequent differentiation of MSCs. PMID:26178374

  12. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, is the pristine material present anywhere close to the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossacki, Konrad

    2016-10-01

    Observations of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko indicate high complexity of the topography (Thomas et al., 2015). Presence of numerous pits, and depressions, as well as scarps suggests complex evolution of the nucleus. This in turn makes uncertain presence of the pristine material anywhere close to the surface. However, non-uniformity of the mechanical strength of the nucleus suggests, that in some locations material can retain initial structure. This should be expected neither in the final Philae landing site Abydos, where the compressive strength of the material is about 2 MPa (Spohn et al., 2015), neither in the location of the first touch down, where beneath a layer of unconsolidated material possibly is a hard material (Biele et al., 2015). Both locations are at low latitudes, where the flux of solar energy is much higher than northern parts of the lobes, illuminated when the comet is far form perihelion. Groussin et al. (2015) investigated what inclination of slopes corresponds to the presence of falling-out boulders and have found, that the average strength is probably lower than 1.5 kPa.I attempted to answer the question, whether in poorly illuminated regions of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are possible thermal conditions suitable for preservation of a pristine unconsolidated ice-dust material. For this purpose I calculated evolution of the temperature and structure of the material versus depth in selected locations in region Ma'at. This region is in general smooth (El-Maary et al., 2015), which may indicate presence of a loose dust mantle on the surface. The applied shape model is SHAP4s v1.0 (Preuskner et al., 2015). The performed simulations indicate, that in Scenario A preservation of low uni-axial compressive strength is possible, but only in shadowed locations, beneath a dust mantle of low thermal conductivity, at least few centimeters thick.

  13. Spin-transfer pathways in paramagnetic lithium transition-metal phosphates from combined broadband isotropic solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Clément, Raphaële J; Pell, Andrew J; Middlemiss, Derek S; Strobridge, Fiona C; Miller, Joel K; Whittingham, M Stanley; Emsley, Lyndon; Grey, Clare P; Pintacuda, Guido

    2012-10-17

    Substituted lithium transition-metal (TM) phosphate LiFe(x)Mn(1-x)PO(4) materials with olivine-type structures are among the most promising next generation lithium ion battery cathodes. However, a complete atomic-level description of the structure of such phases is not yet available. Here, a combined experimental and theoretical approach to the detailed assignment of the (31)P NMR spectra of the LiFe(x)Mn(1-x)PO(4) (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) pure and mixed TM phosphates is developed and applied. Key to the present work is the development of a new NMR experiment enabling the characterization of complex paramagnetic materials via the complete separation of the individual isotropic chemical shifts, along with solid-state hybrid DFT calculations providing the separate hyperfine contributions of all distinct Mn-O-P and Fe-O-P bond pathways. The NMR experiment, referred to as aMAT, makes use of short high-powered adiabatic pulses (SHAPs), which can achieve 100% inversion over a range of isotropic shifts on the order of 1 MHz and with anisotropies greater than 100 kHz. In addition to complete spectral assignments of the mixed phases, the present study provides a detailed insight into the differences in electronic structure driving the variations in hyperfine parameters across the range of materials. A simple model delimiting the effects of distortions due to Mn/Fe substitution is also proposed and applied. The combined approach has clear future applications to TM-bearing battery cathode phases in particular and for the understanding of complex paramagnetic phases in general.

  14. The anti-tumor effect of p53 gene-loaded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruibo; Yang, Xinyan; Chen, Cen; Chen, Kan; Wang, Shibing; Xie, Chungang; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Kong, Xiangdong

    2014-04-01

    This research focused on anti-tumor effect of pEGFP-C1-p53 (p53) gene-loaded hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. Four kinds of HAp nanoparticles, spherical HAp nanoparticles (S-HAp, diameter: 50 nm), needle-like HAp nanoparticles (N-HAp, average length: 110 nm and width: 30 nm), rod-like HAp nanoparticles (R-HAp, average length: 100 nm and width: 30 nm), and short-rod-like HAp nanoparticles (SR-HAp, average length: 40 nm and width: 30 nm), were prepared initially. The HAp nanoparticles with or without being modified by PEI (named HAp and HAp-PEI, respectively) have excellent biocompatibility as shown by MTT assay and crystal violet staining tests. Then, the subsequent MTT, Hocehst staining tests, and Western blot showed that the killing effect of p53-loaded HAp-PEI (HAp-PEI-p53) was effective with fair selectivity toward Hep-3B and HuH-7 cells' cell lines. Moreover, HAp-PEI-p53 could inhibit the tumor growth in vivo, and the mechanism of tumor growth inhibition was verified by the hematoxylin and eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling, P53 protein immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscope of the tumor cell in vivo. We found that HAp-PEI-p53 has good anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo, especially for the S-HAp-PEI-p53. Tumor metastasis could be suppressed significantly by the S-HAp-PEI-p53 and N-HAp-PEI-p53 treatments by the in vivo imaging system. All these results lead to the conclusion that the particle sizes of HAp ranging from 100 to 200 nm are appropriate for cancer gene therapy and may be widely used in anti-cancer investigation.

  15. Categorization of Cathartic (Purgative) Medicines Mentioned in TPM Resources According to Their Specific Function

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) resources, the human digestive system includes four steps. In the first step, gastric digestion, the ingested food pours into the stomach and changes into the leachate called chylous due to the heat produced in the stomach. In the second step, hepatic digestion, the chylous enters in the liver through mesenteric vessels and transforms into the quadruple humors, sanguine, phlegm, bile and black bile due to the liver heat. In the case of humor predominance, using moshel or cathartic medicines is considered as a strategic medical plan. In this study, we introduce cathartic (purgative) medicines mentioned in TPM resources according to their specific function. Methods: Literature review of TPM resources, including Canon of Medicine and Aghili’s Makhzan-ul-Adwiah was performed in order to find cathartics cited in the aforementioned books, prescribed specifically for different humor’s predominance in the body. Results: The survey found that the cathartics are categorized into eight groups: Cathartic of “balgham” such as “Citrullus colocynthis and Colchicum autumnale”Cathartic of bile such as “Prunus domestica and Alhagi Camelorum A. maurorum”Cathartic of “sovda” such as “lajward stone and Armenian stone”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar” such as “Marrubium vulgarre and Rivand extract”Cathartic of melancholy and phlegm such as “Cuscuta epithymum and Adiantum capillus venerisCathartic of bile and phlegm such as “Nepeta menthoides and Fumaria parviflora”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar and phlegm such as Urtica dioica and Qsa’alhmarCathartic of all mucus such as “Cassia acutifolia” and “kharbaghe Aswad” Conclusion: Medical students of traditional Persian medicine should be familiar with cathartics and purgatives specific for each humor. In this study, cathartics has classified into main cathartics of phlegm, bile, black bile, Ma’a-e-asfar, black bile and phlegm, Ma

  16. Categorization of Cathartic (Purgative) Medicines Mentioned in TPM Resources According to Their Specific Function

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) resources, the human digestive system includes four steps. In the first step, gastric digestion, the ingested food pours into the stomach and changes into the leachate called chylous due to the heat produced in the stomach. In the second step, hepatic digestion, the chylous enters in the liver through mesenteric vessels and transforms into the quadruple humors, sanguine, phlegm, bile and black bile due to the liver heat. In the case of humor predominance, using moshel or cathartic medicines is considered as a strategic medical plan. In this study, we introduce cathartic (purgative) medicines mentioned in TPM resources according to their specific function. Methods: Literature review of TPM resources, including Canon of Medicine and Aghili’s Makhzan-ul-Adwiah was performed in order to find cathartics cited in the aforementioned books, prescribed specifically for different humor’s predominance in the body. Results: The survey found that the cathartics are categorized into eight groups: Cathartic of “balgham” such as “Citrullus colocynthis and Colchicum autumnale”Cathartic of bile such as “Prunus domestica and Alhagi Camelorum A. maurorum”Cathartic of “sovda” such as “lajward stone and Armenian stone”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar” such as “Marrubium vulgarre and Rivand extract”Cathartic of melancholy and phlegm such as “Cuscuta epithymum and Adiantum capillus venerisCathartic of bile and phlegm such as “Nepeta menthoides and Fumaria parviflora”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar and phlegm such as Urtica dioica and Qsa’alhmarCathartic of all mucus such as “Cassia acutifolia” and “kharbaghe Aswad” Conclusion: Medical students of traditional Persian medicine should be familiar with cathartics and purgatives specific for each humor. In this study, cathartics has classified into main cathartics of phlegm, bile, black bile, Ma’a-e-asfar, black bile and phlegm, Ma

  17. Study of cliff activity dominating the gas and dust comae of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the early phase of the Rosetta mission using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, Raphael; Su, Cheng-Chin; Liao, Ying; Rubin, Martin; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Thomas, Nicolas; altwegg, kathrin; Sierks, Holger; OSIRIS, ROSINA

    2016-10-01

    The study by [1] has proposed the idea that the cometary dust jets in the northern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko arise mainly from rough cliff like terrain. Using our 3D gas and dust dynamics coma model [2] we have run simulations targeting the question whether areas with high gravitational slopes alone can indeed account for both the ROSINA/COPS and the OSIRIS data obtained for mid August to end October 2014.The basis of our simulations is the shape model "SHAP4S" of [3]. Surface temperatures have been defined using a simple 1-D thermal model (including insolation, shadowing, thermal emission, sublimation but neglecting conduction) computed for each facet of the shape model allowing a consistent and known description of the gas flux and its initial temperature. In a next step we use the DSMC program PDSC++ [4] to calculate the gas properties in 3D space. The gas solution can be compared with the in situ measurements by ROSINA/COPS. In a subsequent step dust particles are introduced into the gas flow to determine dust densities and with a column integrator and Mie theory dust brightnesses that can be compared to OSIRIS data.To examine cliff activity we have divided the surface into two sets. One with gravitational slopes larger than 30° which we call cliffs and one with slopes less than 30° which we shall call plains. We have set up two models, "cliff only" and "plains only" where the respective set of areas are active and the others inert. The outgassing areas are assumed to be purely insolation driven. The "cliffs only" model is a statistically equally good fit to the ROSINA/COPS data as the global insolation driven model presented in [2]. The "plains only" model on the other hand is statistically inferior to the "cliffs only" model. We found in [2] that increased activity in the Hapi region (called inhomogeneous model) of the comet improves the fit of the gas results significantly. We can show in this study that a "cliffs + Hapi" model fits the

  18. Modeling of the VIRTIS-M Observations of the Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fougere, Nicolas; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy; Bieler, Andre; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Toth, Gabor; Huang, Zhenguang; Gombosi, Tamas; Hansen, Kenneth; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Debout, Vincent; Erard, Stephane; Leyrat, Cedric; Fink, Uwe; Rubin, Martin; Altwegg, Kathrin; Tzou, Chia-Yu; Le Roy, Lena; Calmonte, Ursina; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Reme, Henri; Hassig, Myrtha; Fuselier, Stephen; Fiethe, Bjorn; De Keyser, Johan

    2015-11-01

    The recent images of the inner coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) made by the infrared channel of the VIRTIS-M instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft show the gas distribution as it expands in the coma (Migliorini et al. 2015, DPS abstract).Since VIRTIS is a remote sensing instrument, a proper modeling of these observations requires the computation of the full coma of comet CG, which necessitates the use of a kinetic approach due to the rather low gas densities. Hence, we apply a Direct Simulation Monde Carlo (DSMC) method to solve the Boltzmann equation and describe CG’s coma from the nucleus surface up to a few hundreds of kilometers. The model uses the SHAP5 nucleus shape model from the OSIRIS team. The gas flux distribution takes into account solar illumination, including self-shadowing. The local activity at the surface of the nucleus is given by spherical harmonics expansion reproducing best the ROSINA-DFMS data. The densities from the DSMC model outputs are then integrated along the line-of-sight to create synthetic images that are directly comparable with the VIRTIS-M column density measurements.The good agreement between the observations and the model illustrates our continuously improving understanding of the physics of the coma of comet CG.AcknowledgementsWork at UofM was supported by contracts JPL#1266313, JPL#1266314 and NASA grant NNX09AB59G. Work at UoB was funded by the State of Bern, the Swiss National Science Foundation and by the European Space Agency PRODEX Program. Work at Southwest Research institute was supported by subcontract #1496541 from the JPL. Work at BIRA-IASB was supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office via PRODEX/ROSINA PEA 90020. The authors would like to thank ASI, CNES, DLR, NASA for supporting this research. VIRTIS was built by a consortium formed by Italy, France and Germany, under the scientific responsibility of the IAPS of INAF, which guides also the scientific operations. The consortium includes also the

  19. Visuomotor behaviours when using a myoelectric prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study showed that the gaze patterns of amputee users of myoelectric prostheses differ markedly from those seen in anatomically intact subjects. Gaze behaviour is a promising outcome measures for prosthesis designers, as it appears to reflect the strategies adopted by amputees to compensate for the absence of proprioceptive feedback and uncertainty/delays in the control system, factors believed to be central to the difficulty in using prostheses. The primary aim of our study was to characterise visuomotor behaviours over learning to use a trans-radial myoelectric prosthesis. Secondly, as there are logistical advantages to using anatomically intact subjects in prosthesis evaluation studies, we investigated similarities in visuomotor behaviours between anatomically intact users of a trans-radial prosthesis simulator and experienced trans-radial myoelectric prosthesis users. Methods In part 1 of the study, we investigated visuomotor behaviours during performance of a functional task (reaching, grasping and manipulating a carton) in a group of seven anatomically intact subjects over learning to use a trans-radial myoelectric prosthesis simulator (Dataset 1). Secondly, we compared their patterns of visuomotor behaviour with those of four experienced trans-radial myoelectric prosthesis users (Dataset 2). We recorded task movement time, performance on the SHAP test of hand function and gaze behaviour. Results Dataset 1 showed that while reaching and grasping the object, anatomically intact subjects using the prosthesis simulator devoted around 90% of their visual attention to either the hand or the area of the object to be grasped. This pattern of behaviour did not change with training, and similar patterns were seen in Dataset 2. Anatomically intact subjects exhibited significant increases in task duration at their first attempts to use the prosthesis simulator. At the end of training, the values had decreased and were similar to those seen in Dataset

  20. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  1. The combined Mössbauer and XRF Spectrometer MIMOS IIA for In-Situ Geochemical and Mineralogical Analysis of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Blumers, Mathias; Girones-Lopez, Jordi; Bernhardt, Bodo; Lechner, Peter; Str, Lothar; Maul, Jasmine; Soltau, Heike; Henkel, Hartmut; Br, Johannes; Claude, D.; Henrich, Cristina

    The Miniaturised Müssbauer Spectrometers MIMOS II on board the two NASA Mars Explo-o ration Rovers (MER) have now collected valuable scientific data for more than six years [1-4]. This mission has demonstrated that Müss-bauer spectroscopy is extremely valuable for the in situ exploration of extraterrestrial bodies and the study of Fe-bearing samples. A MIMOS instrument is also on the scientific payload of the Russian mission Phobos Grunt sched-uled for 2011 [5]. The instrument MIMOS IIA originally developed for the ESA ExoMars mission (now 2018) will use newly designed Si-Drift detectors with circular geometry (SDD) [6,7] allowing high resolution X-ray fluores-cence spectroscopy simultaneously to Müssbauer measurements. The new design of the improved MIMOS II instrument is reduced in total mass (less than 400 g). The sensorhead of MIMOS IIA will be equipped with a ring of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) optimized for the backscatter geometry of the miniaturized Müssbauer spectrometer. The main goal of the new detector system design was to combine high energy resolution at high counting rates and large detector area while making maximum use of the area close to the collimator of the 57Co Müssbauer source. The active area per SDD segment is 2x45 mm2. The energy resolution at 5.9 keV is ¡ 280 eV at room temperature and 131 eV FWHM at -40oC. This performance will increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduce the integration time of Müssbauer measurement by a factor of up to 10. In addition to the Müssbauer analysis simultaneous acquisition of the X-ray fluorescence spectrum will provide data on the sample's elemental composition [7]. Preliminary studies at room temperature and normal pressure show detec-tion of X-rays down to 1 keV. A new control-and readout electronics for MIMOS IIA allows spectra acquisition at highest possible countrates available at about 360 mm2 total detector area. This is possible due to digital pulse shap-ing and pulsed JFET reset

  2. Surficial geology of the lower Comb Wash, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longpré, Claire I.

    2001-01-01

    . Most precipitation is monsoonal, convective storms that bring moisture from the Gulf of Mexico beginning in early July and ending by October. Large frontal storms during December and January are responsible for most winter precipitation (Figure 2). The record from U.S. Geological Survey gauging station number 09379000 operated by the BLM from 1959 through 1968 indicates that Comb Wash flows in direct response to precipitation events. Most daily discharge and peak events occur in late July through September, coinciding with high intensity monsoon thunderstorms. Comb Wash supports a variety of vegetation typical of the Great Basin Desert and the northern desert shrub zone as described by Fowler and Koch (1982). On the lower alluvial terraces, bushes and shrubs dominate the vegetation, including: sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), winterfat (Eurotia lanata), greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), and shadscale (Atriplex concertifolia). Juniper trees (Juniperus osteosperma) can be found on the rocky colluvial slopes near Comb Ridge and on the higher terrace near Cedar Mesa. The floodplain contains an abundance of riparian vegetation including cottonwood (Populus fremontii), willow (Salix exigua), and tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). Tamarisk is one of 7 non-native species present in the lower Comb Wash watershed. At least seven known species of noxious weeds have invaded the watershed, including Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), field bindweed (Convolvulus avensis), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), Russian knapweed (Centaurea repens), tamarisk and camel thorn (Alhagi pseudalhagi). Of these, tamarisk or salt-cedar has most aggressively colonized the southwestern United States, including the San Juan watershed. Graf (1978) estimates that since the late 19th century, tamarisk has spread at a rate of 20 km per year. Tamarisk first appeared in Comb Wash during the mid to early 20th century based on