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Sample records for ali fatemi university

  1. ALIS evaluation tests in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Kido, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2009-05-01

    Tohoku University, Japan is developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. The Migration processing drastically increases the quality of the imaging of the buried objects.Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted several test sites. Tests in real mine fields in Croatia has been conducted between December 2007 and April 2008. Under different soil and environment conditions, ALIS worked well. Then ALIS evaluation test started in Cambodia in February 2009 and we could find discrimination capability of ALIS in test lanes, and we are planning to start evaluation test in real mine fields in Cambodia.

  2. ALIS deployment in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Dual sensor is one of the most promising sensors for humanitarian demining operations. Conventional landmine detection depends on highly trained and focused human operators manually sweeping 1m2 plots with a metal detector and listening for characteristic audio signals indicating the presence of AP (Anti-personnel) landmines. In order to reduce the time of plodding detected objects, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. i.e., GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar). The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a real-time sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce ALIS systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. The performance of ALIS has been tested in Cambodia since 2009. More than 80 anti-personnel mines have been detected and removed from local agricultural area. ALIS has cleared more than 70,000 m2 area and returned it to local farmers.

  3. Definition of ALI/ARDS.

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, Krishnan; Napolitano, Lena M

    2011-07-01

    Although acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are caused by different injuries and conditions, their similar clinical picture makes a compelling case for them to be studied as a single entity. An array of potential specific targets for pharmacologic intervention can be applied to ALI/ARDS as one disease. Although a working definition of ALI/ARDS that includes pulmonary and extrapulmonary causes can have benefit in standardizing supportive care, it can also complicate assessments of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. In this article, definitions that have been recently used for ALI/ARDS in various clinical studies are discussed individually.

  4. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  5. Alpha-arrestins Aly1 and Aly2 regulate intracellular trafficking in response to nutrient signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Allyson F; Apffel, Alex; Gardner, Richard G; Cyert, Martha S

    2010-10-15

    Extracellular signals regulate trafficking events to reorganize proteins at the plasma membrane (PM); however, few effectors of this regulation have been identified. β-Arrestins relay signaling cues to the trafficking machinery by controlling agonist-stimulated endocytosis of G-protein-coupled receptors. In contrast, we show that yeast α-arrestins, Aly1 and Aly2, control intracellular sorting of Gap1, the general amino acid permease, in response to nutrients. These studies are the first to demonstrate association of α-arrestins with clathrin and clathrin adaptor proteins (AP) and show that Aly1 and Aly2 interact directly with the γ-subunit of AP-1, Apl4. Aly2-dependent trafficking of Gap1 requires AP-1, which mediates endosome-to-Golgi transport, and the nutrient-regulated kinase, Npr1, which phosphorylates Aly2. During nitrogen starvation, Npr1 phosphorylation of Aly2 may stimulate Gap1 incorporation into AP-1/clathrin-coated vesicles to promote Gap1 trafficking from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Ultimately, increased Aly1-/Aly2-mediated recycling of Gap1 from endosomes results in higher Gap1 levels within cells and at the PM by diverting Gap away from trafficking pathways that lead to vacuolar degradation. This work defines a new role for arrestins in membrane trafficking and offers insight into how α-arrestins coordinate signaling events with protein trafficking.

  6. Hand-held dual-sensor ALIS and its evaluation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2008-04-01

    Since 2002, our research group at Tohoku University has developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data afterwards, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the image of the buried objects. ALIS evaluation test was conducted in Croatia in October 2007. Then after, we stared a half-year evaluation test of ALIS in QC test in Croatia in December 2007. This test will be conducted in various soil and environmental conditions in Croatia.

  7. 1. 903 East Muhammad Ali Boulevard (left building), south (front) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 903 East Muhammad Ali Boulevard (left building), south (front) and west elevations - Phoenix Hill Historic District, 903 East Muhammad Ali Boulevard (Commercial-Residential Building), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  8. Jebel Ali Hotel PV lighting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, M.

    1984-05-01

    A large stand-alone PV lighting project was installed in June 1983 at the Jebel Ali Hotel in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. A high mast lighting system provides illumination for a 130 meter diameter traffic roundabout. The high mast system is powered by a 15 kilowatt peak array of Mobil Solar ribbon PV modules. Along the 700 meter access road leading to the hotel entrance, twenty-one PV powered streetlights provide low-level lighting. Each streetlight consists of a 20 watt fluorescent tube powered by two 35 Wp modules. Operation of both systems is completely automatic. Design, installation, and operating experience to date are reviewed.

  9. Atmospheric monitoring strategy for the Ali site, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, H.; Yin, J.; You, X.; Fu, X.

    2015-04-01

    The astronomical site survey in China has been carried out since 2003. Remote studies and local surveys are performed over the high plateaus, and candidate sites have been selected and performed site testing measurements. The monitoring results show that Ali area in western Tibet can be the best choice for astronomical observations over East Asian regions. Ali site, near the central town of Ali area, has been further identified for small telescope projects and simultaneously for detailed site characterization, and begun construction in 2010. This paper presents the site monitoring strategy and site development plan of the new Ali observatory.

  10. 296. 1900 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, EAST SIDE AND SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    296. 1900 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, EAST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, TOWARD NORTHWEST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  11. 98. 181721 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, PART OF SOUTH REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. 1817-21 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, PART OF SOUTH REAR ON LEFT, TOWARD SOUTHWEST AND SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. 97. 1800 BLOCK, TOWARD SOUTHWEST AND 181721 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. 1800 BLOCK, TOWARD SOUTHWEST AND 1817-21 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, EAST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. 282. 183234 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (50511) TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    282. 1832-34 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, WEST SIDE (505-11) TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  14. Prognostic Significance of Modified Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer_ Comparison with Original ALI

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Saing; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Inkeun; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI, body mass index [BMI] x serum albumin/neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [NLR]) has been shown to predict overall survival (OS) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). CT enables skeletal muscle to be quantified, whereas BMI cannot accurately reflect body composition. The purpose was to evaluate prognostic value of modified ALI (mALI) using CT-determined L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) beyond original ALI. Methods L3MIs were calculated using the CT images of 186 consecutive patients with SCLC taken at diagnosis, and mALI was defined as L3MI x serum albumin/NLR. Using chi-squared test determined maximum cut-offs for low ALI and low mALI, the prognostic values of low ALI and low mALI were tested using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Finally, deviance statistics was used to test whether the goodness of fit of the prognostic model is improved by adding mALI as an extra variable. Results Patients with low ALI (cut-off, 31.1, n = 94) had shorter OS than patients with high ALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 15.8 months; p < 0.001), and patients with low mALI (cut-off 67.7, n = 94) had shorter OS than patients with high mALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 16.5 months; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in estimates of median survival time between low ALI and low mALI (z = 0.000, p = 1.000) and between high ALI and high mALI (z = 0.330, p = 0.740). Multivariable analysis showed that low ALI was an independent prognostic factor for shorter OS (HR, 1.67, p = 0.004), along with advanced age (HR, 1.49, p = 0.045), extensive disease (HR, 2.27, p < 0.001), supportive care only (HR, 7.86, p < 0.001), and elevated LDH (HR, 1.45, p = 0.037). Furthermore, goodness of fit of this prognostic model was not significantly increased by adding mALI as an extra variable (LR difference = 2.220, p = 0.136). Conclusion The present study confirms mALI using CT-determined L3MI has no additional prognostic

  15. Site Protection Program and Progress Report of Ali Observatory, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yunhe; Wang, Xiaohua; He, Jun; Zhou, Shu

    2015-08-01

    The Ali observatory, Tibet, is a promising new site identified through ten year site survey over west China, and it is of significance to establish rules of site protection during site development. The site protection program is described with five aspects: site monitoring, technical support, local government support, specific organization, and public education. The long-term sky brightness monitoring is ready with site testing instruments and basic for light pollution measurement; the monitoring also includes directions of main light sources, providing periodical reports and suggestions for coordinating meetings. The technical supports with institutes and manufacturers help to publish lighting standards and replace light fixtures; the research pays special attention to the blue-rich sources, which impact the important application of high altitude sites. An official leading group towards development and protection of astronomical resources has been established by Ali government; one of its tasks is to issue regulations against light pollution, including special restrictions of airport, mine, and winter heating, and to supervise lighting inspection and rectification. A site protection office under the official group and local astronomical society are organized by Ali observatory; the office can coordinate in government levels and promote related activities. A specific website operated by the protection office releases activity propaganda, evaluation results, and technical comparison with other observatories. Both the site protection office and Ali observatory take responsibility for public education, including popular science lectures, light pollution and energy conservation education. Ali Night Sky Park has been constructed and opens in 2014, and provides a popular place and observational experience. The establishment of Ali Observatory and Night Sky Park brings unexpected social influence, and the starry sky trip to Ali becomes a new format of culture

  16. Sidi Ali Ou Azza (L4): A New Moroccan Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Agee, C. B.; Aaranson, A.; Bouragaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Sidi Ali Ou Azza is the latest meteorite fall in Morocco, it occurred on 28 July 2015 very close (about 40 km) to Tissint martian shergottite fall that occurred on 18 July 2011. It's one of the small group of 23 L4 ordinary chondrite falls.

  17. ALIS through the Looking Glass: Changing Perceptions of Performance Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, John; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Follows up on a Williamson and Fitz-Gibbon article (1990) focusing on the impact of a performance indicator project, COMBSE (Confidential Measurement Based Self-Evaluation), on secondary school English departments. This article describes COMBSE's metamorphosis into another system, ALIS (A Level Information System), that has transcended the…

  18. Enhancing the AliEn Web Service Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianlin; Saiz, Pablo; Carminati, Federico; Betev, Latchezar; Zhou, Daicui; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Furano, Fabrizio; Schreiner, Steffen; Vladimirovna Datskova, Olga; Sankar Banerjee, Subho; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-12-01

    Web Services are an XML based technology that allow applications to communicate with each other across disparate systems. Web Services are becoming the de facto standard that enable inter operability between heterogeneous processes and systems. AliEn2 is a grid environment based on web services. The AliEn2 services can be divided in three categories: Central services, deployed once per organization; Site services, deployed on each of the participating centers; Job Agents running on the worker nodes automatically. A security model to protect these services is essential for the whole system. Current implementations of web server, such as Apache, are not suitable to be used within the grid environment. Apache with the mod_ssl and OpenSSL only supports the X.509 certificates. But in the grid environment, the common credential is the proxy certificate for the purpose of providing restricted proxy and delegation. An Authentication framework was taken for AliEn2 web services to add the ability to accept X.509 certificates and proxy certificates from client-side to Apache Web Server. The authentication framework could also allow the generation of access control policies to limit access to the AliEn2 web services.

  19. Development of handheld dual-sensor ALIS and its evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Feng, Xuan; Takahashi, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Takao

    2006-05-01

    We are developing a new landmine detection sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. Although this is a hand-held system, we can record the metal detector and GPR signal with the sensor position information. Therefore, signal processing for 2-D signal image is possible. For the metal detector, we apply cross-correlation algorism for sharpening the image and estimation of the depth of the target. For GPR signal, we can apply migration algorithm, which drastically reduce the clutter and we can obtain 3-D image of the buried targets. At first, linear interpolation and cubic interpolation are used respectively to deal with the problem of random data position. Comparing results, we find the image quality of two kinds of interpolations is almost same. Then the migration is used to refocus the scattered signals and improve the image quality for reconstructed landmine image. ALIS demonstration were held in Afghanistan in December 2004 and other countries including Egypt and Croatia in 2005. After some demonstrations and evaluation, we received many useful suggestions. Using these advises, we have modified the ALIS and it is now more easy to use. In this paper, we describe the latest characteristics of the ALIS and summarize its operation.

  20. Eremogone ali-gulii (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Murat; Hamzaoğlu, Ergin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eremogone ali-gulii (Caryophyllaceae) is described as a new species of Eremogone in Turkey. The specimens were collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum). The new species is endemic of the Irano-Turanian region and is related to Eremogone scariosa and Eremogone armeniaca. The differences on sterile shoots, habit, sepals and capsules between these species are discussed. Description, distribution, illustration and conservation status of the new species are given. PMID:27081353

  1. Depletion of REF/Aly alters gene expression and reduces RNA polymerase II occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Sarah H.; Conrad, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing is mechanistically linked to transcription with RNA pol II serving as a platform to recruit RNA processing factors to nascent transcripts. The TREX complex member, REF/Aly, has been suggested to play roles in transcription and nuclear RNA stability in addition to its more broadly characterized role in mRNA export. We employed RNA-seq to identify a subset of transcripts with decreased expression in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions upon REF/Aly knockdown, which implies that REF/Aly affects their expression upstream of its role in mRNA export. Transcription inhibition experiments and metabolic labeling assays argue that REF/Aly does not affect stability of selected candidate transcripts. Instead, ChIP assays and nuclear run-on analysis reveal that REF/Aly depletion diminishes the transcription of these candidate genes. Furthermore, we determined that REF/Aly binds directly to candidate transcripts, supporting a direct effect of REF/Aly on candidate gene transcription. Taken together, our data suggest that the importance of REF/Aly is not limited to RNA export, but that REF/Aly is also critical for gene expression at the level of transcription. Our data are consistent with the model that REF/Aly is involved in linking splicing with transcription efficiency. PMID:25477387

  2. Depletion of REF/Aly alters gene expression and reduces RNA polymerase II occupancy.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Sarah H; Conrad, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing is mechanistically linked to transcription with RNA pol II serving as a platform to recruit RNA processing factors to nascent transcripts. The TREX complex member, REF/Aly, has been suggested to play roles in transcription and nuclear RNA stability in addition to its more broadly characterized role in mRNA export. We employed RNA-seq to identify a subset of transcripts with decreased expression in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions upon REF/Aly knockdown, which implies that REF/Aly affects their expression upstream of its role in mRNA export. Transcription inhibition experiments and metabolic labeling assays argue that REF/Aly does not affect stability of selected candidate transcripts. Instead, ChIP assays and nuclear run-on analysis reveal that REF/Aly depletion diminishes the transcription of these candidate genes. Furthermore, we determined that REF/Aly binds directly to candidate transcripts, supporting a direct effect of REF/Aly on candidate gene transcription. Taken together, our data suggest that the importance of REF/Aly is not limited to RNA export, but that REF/Aly is also critical for gene expression at the level of transcription. Our data are consistent with the model that REF/Aly is involved in linking splicing with transcription efficiency.

  3. Contamination of mercury in tongkat Ali hitam herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2006-08-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia has implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation found in Malaysia, containing tongkat Ali hitam, either single or combined preparations, were analyzed for the presence of a heavy toxic metal, mercury, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after performing a simple random sampling to enable each sample an equal chance of being selected in an unbiased manner. Results showed that 26% of these products possessed 0.53-2.35 ppm of mercury, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. The quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia is not exceeding 0.5 ppm for mercury. Out of these 26 products, four products have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia whilst the rest, however, have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia. PMID:16567029

  4. Muhammad Ali's Fighting Words: The Paradox of Violence in Nonviolent Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsevski, Ellen W.; Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While Muhammad Ali has been the subject of countless articles and books written by sports historians and journalists, rhetorical scholars have largely ignored him. This oversight is surprising given both the tradition of social movement scholarship within rhetorical studies and Ali's influential eloquence as a world renowned celebrity espousing…

  5. Comparative Analysis of EO-1 ALI and Hyperion, and Landsat ETM+ Data for Mapping Forest Crown Closure and Leaf Area Index

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Ruiliang; Gong, Peng; Yu, Qian

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a comparative analysis of capabilities of three sensors for mapping forest crown closure (CC) and leaf area index (LAI) was conducted. The three sensors are Hyperspectral Imager (Hyperion) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) onboard EO-1 satellite and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). A total of 38 mixed coniferous forest CC and 38 LAI measurements were collected at Blodgett Forest Research Station, University of California at Berkeley, USA. The analysis method consists of (1) extracting spectral vegetation indices (VIs), spectral texture information and maximum noise fractions (MNFs), (2) establishing multivariate prediction models, (3) predicting and mapping pixel-based CC and LAI values, and (4) validating the mapped CC and LAI results with field validated photo-interpreted CC and LAI values. The experimental results indicate that the Hyperion data are the most effective for mapping forest CC and LAI (CC mapped accuracy (MA) = 76.0%, LAI MA = 74.7%), followed by ALI data (CC MA = 74.5%, LAI MA = 70.7%), with ETM+ data results being least effective (CC MA = 71.1%, LAI MA = 63.4%). This analysis demonstrates that the Hyperion sensor outperforms the other two sensors: ALI and ETM+. This is because of its high spectral resolution with rich subtle spectral information, of its short-wave infrared data for constructing optimal VIs that are slightly affected by the atmosphere, and of its more available MNFs than the other two sensors to be selected for establishing prediction models. Compared to ETM+ data, ALI data are better for mapping forest CC and LAI due to ALI data with more bands and higher signal-to-noise ratios than those of ETM+ data.

  6. Viral factors reveal a role for REF/Aly in nuclear RNA stability.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Sarah H; Hunter, Olga V; Hoover, Ashley; Conrad, Nicholas K

    2012-04-01

    TREX is a conserved multiprotein complex that is necessary for efficient mRNA export to the cytoplasm. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the TREX complex is additionally implicated in RNA quality control pathways, but it is unclear whether this function is conserved in mammalian cells. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 protein binds and recruits the TREX component REF/Aly to viral mRNAs. Here, we demonstrate that REF/Aly is recruited to the KSHV noncoding polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA by ORF57. This recruitment correlates with ORF57-mediated stabilization of PAN RNA, suggesting that REF/Aly promotes nuclear RNA stability. Further supporting this idea, tethering REF/Aly to PAN RNA is sufficient to increase the nuclear abundance and half-life of PAN RNA but is not sufficient to promote its export. Interestingly, REF/Aly appears to protect the poly(A) tail from deadenylation, and REF/Aly-stabilized transcripts are further adenylated over time, consistent with previous reports linking poly(A) tail length with nuclear RNA surveillance. These studies show that REF/Aly can stabilize nuclear RNAs independently of their export and support a broader conservation of RNA quality control mechanisms from yeast to humans.

  7. The development of the hand-held dual-sensor ALIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data afterwards, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the image of the buried objects. The new system, we do not need any standard mark on the ground. Also, ALIS uses two different GPOR systems, including VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) based GPR and an Impulse GPR. VNA based GPR can provide better quality GPR images, although the impulse GPR is faster and light weight. ALIS evaluation tests were held in mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan, Croatia, Egypt and Cambodia. In the two-month evaluation test in Cambodia, ALIS worked without any problem. After some demonstrations and evaluation, we got many useful suggestions. Using these advises, we have modified the ALIS and it is now more easy to use. ALIS will be commercialized in 2007.

  8. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist.

    PubMed

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  9. Gaia16ali and Gaia16alj supernovae confirmed by Euler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelens, M.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16ali and Gaia16alj. Images were obtained through modified Gunn R band filter of the ECAM instrument installed on the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope at La Silla, on 2016 April 19 - 22 UT. These new sources are supernovae candidates and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16ali (near centre of galaxy GALEXASC J041551.89-621715.5) and Gaia16alj.

  10. Relocalization of nuclear ALY proteins to the cytoplasm by the tomato bushy stunt virus P19 pathogenicity protein.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Joachim F; Canto, Tomas; Marshall, David; MacFarlane, Stuart A

    2004-08-01

    The P19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a multifunctional pathogenicity determinant involved in suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing, virus movement, and symptom induction. Here, we report that P19 interacts with the conserved RNA-binding domain of an as yet uncharacterized family of plant ALY proteins that, in animals, are involved in export of RNAs from the nucleus and transcriptional coactivation. We show that the four ALY proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome and two ALY proteins from Nicotiana benthamiana are localized to the nucleus. Moreover, and in contrast to animal ALY, all but one of the proteins are also in the nucleolus, with distinct subnuclear localizations. Infection of plants by TBSV or expression of P19 from Agrobacterium results in relocation of three of the six ALY proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm demonstrating specific targeting of the ALY proteins by P19. The differential effects on subcellular localization indicate that, in plants, the various ALY proteins may have different functions. Interaction with and relocalization of ALY is prevented by mutation of P19 at residues previously shown to be important for P19 function in plants. Down-regulation of expression of two N. benthamiana ALY genes by virus-induced gene silencing did not interfere with posttranscriptional gene silencing. Targeting of ALY proteins during TBSV infection may therefore be related to functions of P19 in addition to its silencing suppression activity. PMID:15299117

  11. Aly/ REF, a factor for mRNA transport, activates RH gene promoter function.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Hiroshi; Kumada, Maki; Omi, Toshinori; Gotoh, Takaya; Lkhagvasuren, Munkhtulga; Okuda, Hiroshi; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kajii, Eiji; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2005-06-01

    The rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are of considerable importance in transfusion medicine as well as in newborn or autoimmune hemolytic diseases due to their high antigenicity. We identified a major DNaseI hypersensitive site at the 5' flanking regions of both RHD and RHCE exon 1. A 34 bp fragment located at -191 to -158 from a translation start position, and containing the TCCCCTCCC sequence, was involved in enhancing promoter activity, which was assessed by luciferase reporter gene assay. A biotin-labelled 34 bp probe isolated an mRNA transporter protein, Aly/REF. The specific binding of Aly/REF to RH promoter in erythroid was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The silencing of Aly/REF by siRNA reduced not only the RH promoter activity of the reporter gene but also transcription from the native genome. These facts provide second proof of Aly/REF as a transcription coactivator, initially identified as a coactivator for the TCRalpha enhancer function. Aly/REF might be a novel transcription cofactor for erythroid-specific genes.

  12. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  13. Effect of Sputtered AlY Coating on High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangyan; Xie, Huanzhang; Su, Yong; Qi, Zeyan; Hou, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    AlY coating on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel was prepared by magnetron sputtering method and some of them were pre-oxidized or vacuum diffusion annealed at 600°C, and the effect of the coating with different treatments on the oxidation behavior of the stainless steel was studied at 1,100°C in air. Results show that the order of the 24-h oxidation mass gain for the specimens is the stainless steel without coating > the stainless steel with coating but without any pre-treatment > the stainless steel with AlY coating after pre-oxidation treatment > the stainless steel with AlY coating after vacuum diffusion annealing. After oxidation, a thick and loose Fe2O3/Cr2O3 film is formed on the stainless steel without coating, while thinner Fe2O3/Cr2O3 film is formed on the stainless steel with AlY coating. Compared to the oxidation film formed on the steel with pre-oxidized coating, the one formed on the steel with vacuum diffusion annealed coating is thinner and denser. The rare earth Y and its oxides Y2O3 in the coating produce reactive element effect and improve the ductility/adhesion of the oxide film, which enhances the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel, especially in the vacuum diffusion annealed AlY coating.

  14. Hyperspectral Transformation from EO-1 ALI Imagery Using Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Synthesis Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien Hoang, Nguyen; Koike, Katsuaki

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is more effective than multispectral remote sensing in many application fields because of having hundreds of observation bands with high spectral resolution. However, hyperspectral remote sensing resources are limited both in temporal and spatial coverage. Therefore, simulation of hyperspectral imagery from multispectral imagery with a small number of bands must be one of innovative topics. Based on this background, we have recently developed a method, Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Synthesis Algorithm (PHISA), to transform Landsat imagery into hyperspectral imagery using the correlation of reflectance at the corresponding bands between Landsat and EO-1 Hyperion data. This study extends PHISA to simulate pseudo-hyperspectral imagery from EO-1 ALI imagery. The pseudo-hyperspectral imagery has the same number of bands as that of high-quality Hyperion bands and the same swath width as ALI scene. The hyperspectral reflectance data simulated from the ALI data show stronger correlation with the original Hyperion data than the one simulated from Landsat data. This high correlation originates from the concurrent observation by the ALI and Hyperion sensors that are on-board the same satellite. The accuracy of simulation results are verified by a statistical analysis and a surface mineral mapping. With a combination of the advantages of both ALI and Hyperion image types, the pseudo-hyperspectral imagery is proved to be useful for detailed identification of minerals for the areas outside the Hyperion coverage.

  15. A calcineurin-dependent switch controls the trafficking function of α-arrestin Aly1/Art6.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Allyson F; Huang, Laiqiang; Thorner, Jeremy; Cyert, Martha S

    2013-08-16

    Proper regulation of plasma membrane protein endocytosis by external stimuli is required for cell growth and survival. In yeast, excess levels of certain nutrients induce endocytosis of the cognate permeases to prevent toxic accumulation of metabolites. The α-arrestins, a family of trafficking adaptors, stimulate ubiquitin-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytosis by interacting with both a client permease and the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5. However, the molecular mechanisms that control α-arrestin function are not well understood. Here, we show that α-arrestin Aly1/Art6 is a phosphoprotein that specifically interacts with and is dephosphorylated by the Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase calcineurin/PP2B. Dephosphorylation of Aly1 by calcineurin at a subset of phospho-sites is required for Aly1-mediated trafficking of the aspartic acid and glutamic acid transporter Dip5 to the vacuole, but it does not alter Rsp5 binding, ubiquitinylation, or stability of Aly1. In addition, dephosphorylation of Aly1 by calcineurin does not regulate the ability of Aly1 to promote the intracellular sorting of the general amino acid permease Gap1. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Aly1 inhibits its vacuolar trafficking function and, conversely, that dephosphorylation of Aly1 by calcineurin serves as a regulatory switch to promote Aly1-mediated trafficking to the vacuole.

  16. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus nucleoprotein interacts with TREX complex adaptor protein Aly/REF.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Vinod R M T; Hong Wai, Tham; Ario Tejo, Bimo; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    We constructed a novel chicken (Gallus gallus) lung cDNA library fused inside yeast acting domain vector (pGADT7). Using yeast two-hybrid screening with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) nucleoprotein (NP) from the strain (A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004(H5N1)) as bait, and the Gallus gallus lung cDNA library as prey, a novel interaction between the Gallus gallus cellular RNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF and the viral NP was identified. This interaction was confirmed and validated with mammalian two hybrid studies and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Cellular localization studies using confocal microscopy showed that NP and Aly/REF co-localize primarily in the nucleus. Further investigations by mammalian two hybrid studies into the binding of NP of other subtypes of influenza virus such as the swine A/New Jersey/1976/H1N1 and pandemic A/Malaysia/854/2009(H1N1) to human Aly/REF, also showed that the NP of these viruses interacts with human Aly/REF. Our findings are also supported by docking studies which showed tight and favorable binding between H5N1 NP and human Aly/REF, using crystal structures from Protein Data Bank. siRNA knockdown of Aly/REF had little effect on the export of HPAI NP and other viral RNA as it showed no significant reduction in virus titer. However, UAP56, another component of the TREX complex, which recruits Aly/REF to mRNA was found to interact even better with H5N1 NP through molecular docking studies. Both these proteins also co-localizes in the nucleus at early infection similar to Aly/REF. Intriguingly, knockdown of UAP56 in A549 infected cells shows significant reduction in viral titer (close to 10 fold reduction). Conclusively, our study have opened new avenues for research of other cellular RNA export adaptors crucial in aiding viral RNA export such as the SRSF3, 9G8 and ASF/SF2 that may play role in influenza virus RNA nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  17. Absinthin attenuates LPS-induced ALI through MIP-1α-mediated inflammatory cell infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nailiang; Xu, Yinghua; Cao, Zhongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by severe lung inflammation, and anti-inflammatory treatment is proposed to be a pertinent therapeutic strategy for the disease. Absinthin is a triterpene, extracted from a Chinese herb, with anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether absinthin can attenuate ALI in a mouse model of lung injury. Mice were treated with various concentrations (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80mg/kg) of absinthin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce ALI. We found that the administration of absinthin relieved LPS-induced acute lung injury, as suggested by reduced histological scores, wet-to-dry ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, and accumulation of inflammatory cells in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, we demonstrated that absinthin significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8); this effect could inhibit the accumulation of inflammatory cells in lung tissues through a mechanism dependent on MMP-8-mediated inactivation of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α. Therefore, we propose that absinthin is a promising novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of ALI.

  18. Mechanism and early intervention research on ALI during emergence surgery of Stanford type-A AAD

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi; Jin, Mu; Dong, Xiuhua; Sun, Lizhong; Liu, Jing; Wang, Rong; Yang, Yanwei; Lin, Peirong; Hou, Siyu; Ma, Yuehua; Wang, Yuefeng; Pan, Xudong; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Stanford type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a severe cardiovascular disease demonstrating the characteristics of acute onset and rapid development, with high morbidity and mortality. The available evidence shows that preoperative acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Stanford type-A AAD is a frequent and important cause for a number of untoward consequences. However, there is no study assessing the incidence of preoperative ALI and its independent determinants before Standford type-A AAD surgery in Chinese adult patients. Methods/design: This is a prospective, double-blind, signal-center clinical trial. We will recruit 130 adult patients undergoing Stanford type-A AAD surgery. The incidence of preoperative ALI will be evaluated. Perioperative clinical baselines and serum variables including coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammatory, reactive oxygen species, and endothelial cell function will be assayed. The independent factors affecting the occurrence of preoperative ALI will be identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/), Registration number NCT01894334. PMID:27759648

  19. Cross calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Meyer, D.J.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) Mission, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) demonstrates a potential technological direction for Landsat Data Continuity Missions. To evaluate ALI's capabilities in this role, a cross-calibration methodology has been developed using image pairs from the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and EO-1 (ALI) to verify the radiometric calibration of ALI with respect to the well-calibrated L7 ETM+ sensor. Results have been obtained using two different approaches. The first approach involves calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors. The second approach uses vicarious calibration techniques to compare the predicted top-of-atmosphere radiance derived from ground reference data collected during the overpass to the measured radiance obtained from the sensor. The results indicate that the relative sensor chip assemblies gains agree with the ETM+ visible and near-infrared bands to within 2% and the shortwave infrared bands to within 4%.

  20. The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

  1. Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

  2. Development of a hand-held GPR MD sensor system (ALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Jun; Feng, Xuan; Zhou, Zheng-Shu; Kobayashi, Takao

    2005-06-01

    ALIS (Advanced Landmine Imaging System), which is a novel landmine detection sensor system combined with a metal detector and GPR, was developed. This is a hand-held equipment, which has a sensor position tracking system, and can visualize the sensor output in real time on a head-mounted PC display. In order to achieve the sensor tracking system, ALIS needs only one CCD camera attached on the sensor handle. The new hand-held system ALIS is a very compact and do not require any additional sensor for sensor position tracking. The acquired signal from the metal detector and GPR is displayed on the PC display on real time, and the sensor trace can be checked by the operator. At the same time, the operator can visually recognize the signal on the same display. The CCD captured image is superimposed with the GPR and metal detector signal, therefore the detection and identification of buried targets is quite easy and reliable. Field evaluation test of ALIS was conducted in Afghanistan, and we demonstrated that it can detect buried antipersonnel landmines, and can also discriminate metal fragments from landmines.

  3. Simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids in Tongkat Ali dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Min; Jang, Moonhee; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular traditional herbs in Southeast Asia and generally consumed as forms of dietary supplements, tea, or drink additives for coffee or energy beverages. In this study, the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids of Tongkat Ali (eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 14,15β-dihydroxyklaineanone, eurycomalactone, and longilactone) was developed and validated. Using the developed method, the content of the six quassinoids was measured in Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplement tablets or capsules, and the resulting data were used to confirm the presence of Tongkat Ali in those products. Among the six quassinoids, eurycomanone was the most abundant quassinoid in all samples tested. The developed method would be useful for the quality assessment of Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplements.

  4. Simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids in Tongkat Ali dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Min; Jang, Moonhee; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular traditional herbs in Southeast Asia and generally consumed as forms of dietary supplements, tea, or drink additives for coffee or energy beverages. In this study, the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids of Tongkat Ali (eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 14,15β-dihydroxyklaineanone, eurycomalactone, and longilactone) was developed and validated. Using the developed method, the content of the six quassinoids was measured in Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplement tablets or capsules, and the resulting data were used to confirm the presence of Tongkat Ali in those products. Among the six quassinoids, eurycomanone was the most abundant quassinoid in all samples tested. The developed method would be useful for the quality assessment of Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplements. PMID:25914245

  5. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory. PMID:25674434

  6. An intravascular MRI contrast agent based on Gd(DO3A-Lys) for tumor angiography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Tong; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; He, Tao; Poh, Zihan; Raju, Anandhkumar; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Robins, Edward G

    2014-01-01

    An intravascular MRI contrast agent Gd(DO3A-Lys), Gadolinium(III) (2,2',2″-(10-(3-(5-benzamido-6-methoxy-6-oxohexylamino)-3-oxopropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetate), has been studied for tumor angiography based on its high relaxivity and long blood half-life. The preparation procedures of the contrast agent have been modified in order to achieve higher yield and improve the synthetic reproducibility. High relaxivity of Gd(DO3A-Lys) has been confirmed by measurements at 3 T, 7 T and 9.4 T magnetic fields. The relaxivity-dependent albumin binding study indicated that Gd(DO3A-Lys) partially bound to albumin protein. In vitro cell viability in HK2 cell indicated low cytotoxicity of Gd(DO3A-Lys) up to 1.2 mM [Gd] concentration. In vivo toxicity studies demonstrated no toxicity of Gd(DO3A-Lys) on kidney tissues up to 0.2 mM [Gd]. While the toxicity on liver tissue was not observed at low dosage (1.0 mM [Gd]), Gd(DO3A-Lys) cause certain damage on hepatic tissue at high dosage (2.0 mM [Gd]). The DO3A-Lys has been labeled with (68)Ga radioisotope for biodistribution studies. (68)Ga(DO3A-Lys) has high uptake in both HT1080 and U87MG xenograft tumors, and has high accumulation in blood. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) in mice bearing U87MG xenograft tumor demonstrated that Gd(DO3A-Lys) could enhance vascular microenvironment around the tumor, and displays promising characteristics of an MRI contrast agent for tumor angiography.

  7. Plant proteins, minerals and trace elements of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali).

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan; Abdul-Rahman, Nurulaini; Rosidi, Bustanur; Lee, Chew Tin

    2013-03-01

    A water extraction method has been used to extract plant proteins from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia harvested from Perak and Pahang, Malaysia. On the basis of the spectroscopic Bradford assay, Tongkat Ali Perak and Pahang contained 0.3868 and 0.9573 mg mL(-1) of crude protein, respectively. The crude proteins were separated by one dimensional 15% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into two (49.8 and 5.5 kD) and four (49.8, 24.7, 21.1 and 5.5 kD) protein spots for Tongkat Ali Perak and Pahang, respectively. Isoleucine was present in the highest concentration significantly. Both plant samples showed differences in the mineral and trace element profiles, but the minerals calcium, magnesium and potassium were present in the highest concentration. The highly concerned toxic metals such as arsenic and lead were not detected. PMID:22468741

  8. Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2010-10-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation. PMID:20434529

  9. Stress field during early magmatism in the Ali Sabieh Dome, Djibouti, SE Afar rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sue, Christian; Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Ahmed Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The so-called Ali Sabieh range, SE Afar rift, exhibits an atypical antiform structure occurring in the overall extensional tectonic context of the Afar triple junction. We dynamically analyzed the brittle deformation of this specific structural high using four different methods in order to better constrain the tectonic evolution of this key-area in the Afar depression. Paleostress inversions appear highly consistent using the four methods, which a posteriori validates this approach. Computed paleostress fields document two major signals: an early E-W extensional field, and a later transcurrent field, kinematically consistent with the previous one. The Ali Sabieh range may have evolved continuously during Oligo-Miocene times from large-scale extensional to transcurrent tectonism, as the result of probable local stress permutation between σ1 and σ2 stress axes.

  10. Relationship between elevated soluble CD74 and severity of experimental and clinical ALI/ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guosheng; Sun, Yu; Wang, Kang’an; Chen, Zhengli; Wang, Xingtong; Chang, Fei; Li, Ting; Feng, Ping; Xia, Zhaofan

    2016-01-01

    CD74 is expressed on the cell surface of pulmonary macrophages and contributes to macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-induced inflammatory response in acute lung injury (ALI). A circulating form of CD74 (soluble CD74, sCD74) was recently discovered in autoimmune liver disease. Using two murine ALI models and cells culture, we examined the presence of sCD74 in circulation and alveolar space and preliminarily assessed the biological function of sCD74. The concentrations of sCD74 were increased in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) of murine ALI models. The elevated levels of sCD74 in BALF positively correlated with lung permeability and inflammation. In addition, sCD74 is secreted by macrophages in response to MIF stimulation and itself can stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines. Our clinical study confirmed some findings of basic research. Moreover, we also found Day 3 serum sCD74 levels were associated with worse clinical outcomes. In conclusion, higher serum sCD74 levels may reflect more severe lung injury and may be used to help physicians determine prognosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). PMID:27444250

  11. JAliEn - A new interface between the AliEn jobs and the central services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoras, A. G.; Grigoras, C.; Pedreira, M. M.; Saiz, P.; Schreiner, S.

    2014-06-01

    Since the ALICE experiment began data taking in early 2010, the amount of end user jobs on the AliEn Grid has increased significantly. Presently 1/3 of the 40K CPU cores available to ALICE are occupied by jobs submitted by about 400 distinct users, individually or in organized analysis trains. The overall stability of the AliEn middleware has been excellent throughout the 3 years of running, but the massive amount of end-user analysis and its specific requirements and load has revealed few components which can be improved. One of them is the interface between users and central AliEn services (catalogue, job submission system) which we are currently re-implementing in Java. The interface provides persistent connection with enhanced data and job submission authenticity. In this paper we will describe the architecture of the new interface, the ROOT binding which enables the use of a single interface in addition to the standard UNIX-like access shell and the new security-related features.

  12. Securing the AliEn File Catalogue - Enforcing authorization with accountable file operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Steffen; Bagnasco, Stefano; Sankar Banerjee, Subho; Betev, Latchezar; Carminati, Federico; Vladimirovna Datskova, Olga; Furano, Fabrizio; Grigoras, Alina; Grigoras, Costin; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Peters, Andreas Joachim; Saiz, Pablo; Zhu, Jianlin

    2011-12-01

    The AliEn Grid Services, as operated by the ALICE Collaboration in its global physics analysis grid framework, is based on a central File Catalogue together with a distributed set of storage systems and the possibility to register links to external data resources. This paper describes several identified vulnerabilities in the AliEn File Catalogue access protocol regarding fraud and unauthorized file alteration and presents a more secure and revised design: a new mechanism, called LFN Booking Table, is introduced in order to keep track of access authorization in the transient state of files entering or leaving the File Catalogue. Due to a simplification of the original Access Envelope mechanism for xrootd-protocol-based storage systems, fundamental computational improvements of the mechanism were achieved as well as an up to 50% reduction of the credential's size. By extending the access protocol with signed status messages from the underlying storage system, the File Catalogue receives trusted information about a file's size and checksum and the protocol is no longer dependent on client trust. Altogether, the revised design complies with atomic and consistent transactions and allows for accountable, authentic, and traceable file operations. This paper describes these changes as part and beyond the development of AliEn version 2.19.

  13. Imaging algorithm of a hand-held GPR MD sensor system (ALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuan; Fujiwara, Jun; Zhou, Zheng-shu; Kobayashi, Takao; Sato, Motoyuki

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a new landmine detection system, called advanced landmine imaging system (ALIS), which is equipped with metal detector (MD) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Although this is a hand-held system, we can record the MD and GPR signal with the sensor position information acquired by CCD camera. Therefore, 2D MD image and 3D GPR image are possible after signal processing. But because ALIS is a hand-held system, the sensor position is random when it is operated in the field. So interpolation processing is used to deal with the problem and offer grid data set for both MD and GPR. Good MD image can be achieved after interpolation. Also, interpolation can prepare good data set for migration to get good horizontal slice image. After interpolation, 3D diffraction stacking migration with migration aperture is used to refocus the scattered signals and enhance the signal-clutter ratio for reconstructed good GPR image. The ALIS was tested in Afghanistan in December 2004 and could achieve good landmine image. Especially, GPR could obtain good image of anti-person (AP) mine buried at more than 20cm depth. Also MD image and GPR image could combine to distinguish mine from metal fragment.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... wall = stomach wall; Blad wall = bladder wall; and Bone surf = bone surface.) The use of the ALIs... radionuclide named, but also include contributions from the in-growth of any daughter radionuclide produced...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... wall = stomach wall; Blad wall = bladder wall; and Bone surf = bone surface.) The use of the ALIs... radionuclide named, but also include contributions from the in-growth of any daughter radionuclide produced...

  16. ATP-dependent recruitment of export factor Aly/REF onto intronless mRNAs by RNA helicase UAP56.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ichiro; Ohno, Mutsuhito

    2008-01-01

    Loading of export factors onto mRNAs is a key step in gene expression. In vertebrates, splicing plays a role in this process. Specific protein complexes, exon junction complex and transcription/export complex, are loaded onto mRNAs in a splicing-dependent manner, and adaptor proteins such as Aly/REF in the complexes in turn recruit mRNA exporter TAP-p15 onto the RNA. By contrast, how export factors are recruited onto intronless mRNAs is largely unknown. We previously showed that Aly/REF is preferentially associated with intronless mRNAs in the nucleus. Here we show that Aly/REF could preferentially bind intronless mRNAs in vitro and that this binding was stimulated by RNA helicase UAP56 in an ATP-dependent manner. Consistently, an ATP binding-deficient UAP56 mutant specifically inhibited mRNA export in Xenopus oocytes. Interestingly, ATP activated the RNA binding activity of UAP56 itself. ATP-bound UAP56 therefore bound to both RNA and Aly/REF, and as a result ATPase activity of UAP56 was cooperatively stimulated. These results are consistent with a model in which ATP-bound UAP56 chaperones Aly/REF onto RNA, ATP is then hydrolyzed, and UAP56 dissociates from RNA for the next round of Aly/REF recruitment. Our finding provides a mechanistic insight into how export factors are recruited onto mRNAs.

  17. Theoretical description of slow non-monotonic relaxation processes in Al-Y melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasin, M. G.; Menshikova, S. G.; Ivshin, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    The slow non-monotonic relaxation processes, which have been recently fixed in Al-Y melts, are described theoretically. The theoretical description is based on the Cahn-Hilliard theory and functional methods of non-equilibrium dynamics. In terms of the suggested approach the reasons of this relaxation kinetics are non-linearity of the system near to the liquidus line, which sharply increases with Y concentration, and strong initial heterogeneity of the melt on the concentration of Y atoms. According to our analysis one can conclude that the non-monotonic temporal dependence of viscosity is caused by the Ostwald ripening processes in the rich in yttrium areas.

  18. Summary of Current Radiometric Calibration Coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of- Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  19. Summary of current radiometric calibration coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  20. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and “Malaysian ginseng.” TA roots are a traditional “anti-aging” remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. Methods We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p < 0.05 was used to determine differences between groups. Results Significant improvements were found in the TA group for Tension (−11%), Anger (−12%), and Confusion (−15%). Stress hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) was significantly improved by TA supplementation, with reduced cortisol exposure (−16%) and increased testosterone status (+37%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with tongkat ali root extract improves stress hormone profile and certain mood state parameters, suggesting that this “ancient” remedy may be an effective approach to shielding the body from the detrimental effects of “modern” chronic stress, which may include general day-to-day stress, as well as the stress of dieting, sleep deprivation, and exercise training. PMID:23705671

  1. Migration and interpolation for the hand-held GPR MD sensor system (ALIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuan; Kobayashi, Takao; Takahashi, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Jun; Sato, Motoyuki

    2006-05-01

    We developed a hand-held landmine detection sensor system, ALIS (Advanced Landmine Imaging System), combined with a metal detector and GPR (Ground penetrating radar). The system has a CCD camera attached on the sensor handle and can record the MD and GPR signal with the sensor position information. Therefore, it can offer the visual MD image and GPR image, which is used to define targets. But because ALIS is a hand-held system, the sensor position is random when it is operated in the field by human being. Also GPR normally suffers from very strong clutter. To deal with these problems, the interpolation is a common choice for both MD and GPR to create grid data set firstly and migration was used to improve the quality of GPR image. But generally the interpolation can not improve the quality of data set, although it can offer grid data set for visualization. Also for 3D GPR data set, it will consume much processing time. In fact, the migration can not only improve the quality of GPR data but also interpolate data to offer grid data set. It is a kind of 2.5D interpolation and just uses related data in the diffraction trajectory surface. So it can offer directly the visual GPR image and save the processing time. We will discuss two procedures for GPR, interpolation + migration or only migration, in this paper. Lastly, we also will report some results of evaluation test in 2006 February in Croatia.

  2. Divergence of the gene aly in experimentally evolved cytoraces, the members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Radhika, P N; Ramachandra, N B

    2014-08-01

    We generated cytoraces by crossing the chromosomal races (Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans) of the nasuta subgroup of Drosophila and maintained the offspring over many generations through sibling mating. These cytoraces, along with their parents, are members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila. The gene always early (aly) is one of the rapidly evolving genes in the genus Drosophila and plays a central role in regulating meiosis. Here we examined the rate of molecular evolution of aly in cytoraces of Drosophila and demonstrated that the rate of substitutions amongst cytoraces is around eight times greater than their parents and even amongst species of subgenera. Thus, the presence of positive selection in the laboratory-derived cytoraces based on the analysis of the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates of aly suggests the rapid evolution in cytoraces.

  3. Multi-instrument characterization of optical turbulence at the Ali observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.-Y.; Yao, Y.-Q.; Vernin, J.; Wang, H.-S.; Yin, J.; Qian, X.

    2015-04-01

    In order to characterize the atmospheric optical turbulence at Ali observatory, we have deployed multi-instruments, which are able to continuously monitor the optical turbulence for site evaluation. These instruments include the DIMM, MASS, Single Star SCIDAR and Polaris seeing monitor, and we also plan to install SNODAR and Micro-thermal sensors for the turbulence on surface layer by the end of this year. This configuration allows us to collect a substantial database and make cross-comparison of the results. We have successfully obtained the profiles of optical turbulence and wind speed with Single Star SCIDAR, as well as the key parameters for adaptive optics application, such as seeing, coherence time, and isoplanatic angle. The DIMM seeing measurements are also carried out simultaneously. The median seeing measured by the DIMM and SSS in 2013 is 0.69 and 0.79 arcsec, respectively.

  4. FAMoS - an information service on the usage of data files in AliEn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramyan, A.; Betev, L.; Buncic, P.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoryan, A.; Manukyan, N.; Pedreira, M. M.; Saiz, P.

    2015-05-01

    The File Access Monitoring Service (FAMoS) leverages the information stored in the central AliEn file catalogue, which describes every file in a Unix-like directory structure, as well as metadata on file location and its replicas. In addition, it uses the access information provided by a set of API servers, used by all Grid clients to access the catalogue. The main functions of FAMoS are to sort the file accesses by logical groups, access time, user and storage element. The collected data identifies rarely used groups of files, as well as those with high popularity over different time periods. This information can be further used to optimize file distribution and replication factors, thus increasing the data processing efficiency. The paper describes the FAMoS structure and user interface and presents the results obtained in one year of service operation.

  5. Porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, A.; Yazdi, M.; Mehrpartou, M.; Vosoughi, M.; Younesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mirkuh Ali Mirza Cu-Au porphyry system in East Azerbaijan Province is located on the western part of the Cenozoic Alborz-Azerbaijan volcanic belt. The belt is also an important Cu-Mo-Au metallogenic province in northwestern Iran. The exposed rocks in the study area consist of a volcaniclastic sequence, subvolcanic rocks and intermediate to mafic lava flows of Neogene age. The volcanic rocks show a typical subduction-related magmatic arc geological and geochemical signature, with low concentration of Nb, Ta, and Ti. Mineralization is hosted by Neogene dacitic tuff and porphyritic dacite situated at the intersections of northeast and northwest faults. Field observations, alteration zonation, geochemical haloes and isotopic data of the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex show similarities with typical convergent margin Cu-Au porphyry type deposits. The following features confirm the classic model for Cu-Au porphyry systems: (a) close spatial association with high-K calcalkaline to shoshonitic rock related to post-collision extensional setting (b) low grade Cu (0.57%) (c) stockworks as well as disseminated sulfides (c) zonality of the alteration patterns from intense phyllic at the center to outward weak-phyllic, argillic, and propylitic (d) the presence of a pyritic halo (e) accompanied by sheeted veins and low-sulfidation epithermal gold (f) mineralization spatially associated with intersection of structures, (g) genetically related to diorite porphyry stocks at depth (h) geochemical zonation of (Cu ± Au ± Ag ± Bi) → (Cu + Mo ± Bi ± Au ± Pb ± Zn ± As) → (Au + Mo ± Pb ± Zn) → (As + Ag + Sb + Mn + Ba + Pb + Zn + Hg) → Hg from center to outwards (i) The range of sulfur isotopic values is approximately zero (interpreted to have magmatic source) and similar to other subduction-related porphyry Cu deposits.

  6. Ali Observatory in Tibet: a unique northern site for future CMB ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based CMB observations have been performed at the South Pole and the Atacama desert in Chile. However, a significant fraction of the sky can not be observed from just these two sites. For a full sky coverage from the ground in the future, a northern site for CMB observation, in particular CMB polarization, is required. Besides the long-thought site in Greenland, the high altitude Tibet plateau provides another opportunity. I will describe the Ali Observatory in Tibet, located at N32°19', E80°01', as a potential site for ground-based CMB observations. The new site is located on almost 5100m mountain, near Gar town, where is an excellent site for both infrared and submillimeter observations. Study with the long-term database of ground weather stations and archival satellite data has been performed. The site has enough relative height on the plateau and is accessible by car. The Shiquanhe town is 40 mins away by driving, and a recently opened airport with 40 mins driving, the site also has road excess, electricity, and optical fiber with fast internet. Preliminary measurement of the Precipitable Water Vapor is ~one quarter less than 0.5mm per year and the long term monitoring is under development. In addition, surrounding higher sites are also available and could be further developed if necessary. Ali provides unique northern sky coverage and together with the South Pole and the Atacama desert, future CMB observations will be able to cover the full sky from ground.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air... Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION... Hydrogen H 1 Indium In 49 Iodine I 53 Iridium Ir 77 Iron Fe 26 Krypton Kr 36 Lanthanum La 57 Lead Pb...

  8. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal substances produced by ALI033 were non-protein substances unaffected by protesases. Both, the control and catalase showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal metabolite was not H2O2. The molecular weights of the antifungal substances were ≤3,000 Da. The organic acid content of crude antifungal substances produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 showed high concentrations of lactic acid (502.47 mg/100 g). Therefore, these results suggest that antifungal substance produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 is most likely due to its ability in producing organic acid. PMID:27069906

  9. The DUB-ious lack of ALIS in Salmonella infection: a Salmonella deubiquitinase regulates the autophagy of protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mair; Mesquita, Francisco S; Holden, David W

    2012-12-01

    Ubiquitinated aggregates are formed in eukaryotic cells in response to several external stimuli, including exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) LPS has been shown to induce aggresome-like induced structures (ALIS) in macrophages, these have not been described in S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. Given that LPS is present in infection, this suggests that S. Typhimurium might suppress the formation of ALIS. We found that S. Typhimurium induces the formation of ubiquitinated aggregates in epithelial cells and macrophages, but that their presence is masked by the deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of the S. Typhimurium virulence protein, SseL. SseL deubiquitinates SQSTM1/p62-bound proteins found in S. Typhimurium-induced aggregates and ALIS, and reduces the recruitment of autophagic components. While the functions of ALIS and other ubiquitinated aggregates remain unclear, they serve to sequester cytosolic proteins under a variety of stress conditions and are suggested to be involved in host immune defense. During infection, the deubiquitinase activity of SseL reduces autophagic flux in infected cells and favors bacterial replication. This is a new example of how a bacterial pathogen counteracts the autophagy pathway through the action of a translocated virulence protein.

  10. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  11. Determination of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer in Tongkat Ali preparations obtained in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Ee-Lin; Cheang, Hui-Seong

    2004-01-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia, has implemented the phase 3 registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992, with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety (including the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, containing Tongkat Ali, were analyzed for mercury content using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 36% of the above products possessed 0.52 to 5.30 ppm of mercury and, therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. Out of these 36 products, 5 products that possessed 1.05 to 4.41 ppm of mercury were in fact have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia. However, the rest of the products that contain 0.52 to 5.30 ppm of mercury still have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia. Although this study showed that only 64% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to mercury, they cannot be assumed safe from mercury contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency. PMID:15162849

  12. In vivo effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) extract on reproductive functions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M C; Erasmus, N; Henkel, R R

    2014-05-01

    An aqueous extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) roots is traditionally used to enhance male sexuality. Because previous studies are limited to only few sperm parameters or testosterone concentration, this study investigated the in vivo effects of TA on body and organ weight as well as functional sperm parameters in terms of safety and efficacy in the management of male infertility. Forty-two male rats were divided into a control, low-dose (200 mg kg(-1) BW) and high-dose (800 mg kg(-1) BW) group (n = 14). Rats were force-fed for 14 days and then sacrificed. Total body and organ weights of the prostate, testes, epididymides, gastrocnemius muscle and the omentum were recorded. Moreover, testosterone concentration, sperm concentration, motility, velocity, vitality, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed. Whilst TA decreased BW by 5.7% (P = 0.0276) and omentum fat by 31.9% (P = 0.0496), no changes in organ weights were found for the prostate, testes and epididymides. Testosterone concentration increased by 30.2% (P = 0.0544). Muscle weight also increased, yet not significantly. Whilst sperm concentration, total and progressive motility and vitality increased significantly, MMP improved markedly (P = 0.0765) by 25.1%. Because no detrimental effect could be observed, TA appears safe for possible treatment of male infertility and ageing male problems. PMID:23464350

  13. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat ali) extract on human spermatozoa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, N; Solomon, M C; Fortuin, K A; Henkel, R R

    2012-10-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat ali; TA) is a Malaysian shrub used to treat various illnesses including male infertility. Considering that TA is used to improve male fertility and no report regarding its safety has been published, this study investigated the effects of TA extract on various sperm functions. Semen samples of 27 patients and 13 donors were divided into two groups, washed and swim-up spermatozoa, and incubated with different concentrations of TA (1, 10, 20, 100, 2000 μg ml(-1) ) for 1 h at 37 °C. A sample without addition of TA served as control. For washed spermatozoa, significant dose-dependent trends were found for vitality, total motility, acrosome reaction and reactive oxygen species-positive spermatozoa. However, these trends were only significant if the highest concentrations were included in the calculation. Contrary, the increase in the percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa with increasing TA concentrations is very significant (P < 0.0001), and a significant difference (P = 0.0069) to the control could even be recorded at 20 μg TA per ml. For swim-up spermatozoa, no trend could be observed. Results indicate that the TA extract has no deleterious effects on sperm functions at therapeutically used concentrations (<2.5 μg ml(-1) ). However, at very high concentrations, TA may have harmful effects in vitro. PMID:22332826

  14. A Review of Ferdous al-Hekma fil-Tibb by Ali ibn Raban Tabari.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Khodadoust, Kazem; Mostafidi, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    T Ferdous al-Hekma (Paradise of Wisdom) is one of the oldest medical texts in the Islamic world written in Arabic in 850 AD by Ali ibn Raban Tabari. He was a Persian physician who moved from Tabaristan (Mazandaran province of modern day Iran) to Samarra during the reign of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil (847-861 AD). We studied the book of Ferdous al-Hekma fil-Tibb, in an attempt to comprehend its general outlook on diseases of different organs, their classifications and the associated signs and symptoms. The book is one of the earliest medical pandects of the period of translation, adaptation and expansion of knowledge in the Islamic world during the 9(th) century AD. Tabari was mainly influenced by Hippocrates, Galen and Aristotle, as well as his contemporaries Johanna ibn Massavieh and Hunayn ibn Ishaq. The book is written in thirty chapters in a total number of 308 subtitles. In each part there is an introduction to the symptomatology, followed by organ specific diseases and therapeutic recommendations. Symptoms and physical signs of different diseases are vividly described in Ferdous al-Hekma, and some of them are even understandable for contemporary medical students. PMID:27350863

  15. A Review of Ferdous al-Hekma fil-Tibb by Ali ibn Raban Tabari

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Khodadoust, Kazem; Mostafidi, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    T Ferdous al-Hekma (Paradise of Wisdom) is one of the oldest medical texts in the Islamic world written in Arabic in 850 AD by Ali ibn Raban Tabari. He was a Persian physician who moved from Tabaristan (Mazandaran province of modern day Iran) to Samarra during the reign of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil (847-861 AD). We studied the book of Ferdous al-Hekma fil-Tibb, in an attempt to comprehend its general outlook on diseases of different organs, their classifications and the associated signs and symptoms. The book is one of the earliest medical pandects of the period of translation, adaptation and expansion of knowledge in the Islamic world during the 9th century AD. Tabari was mainly influenced by Hippocrates, Galen and Aristotle, as well as his contemporaries Johanna ibn Massavieh and Hunayn ibn Ishaq. The book is written in thirty chapters in a total number of 308 subtitles. In each part there is an introduction to the symptomatology, followed by organ specific diseases and therapeutic recommendations. Symptoms and physical signs of different diseases are vividly described in Ferdous al-Hekma, and some of them are even understandable for contemporary medical students. PMID:27350863

  16. ALiBERO: Evolving a team of complementary pocket conformations rather than a single leader

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Manuel; Totrov, Max; Abagyan, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Docking and virtual screening (VS) reach maximum potential when the receptor displays the structural changes needed for accurate ligand binding. Unfortunately, these conformational changes are often poorly represented in experimental structures or homology models, debilitating their docking performance. Recently, we have shown that receptors optimized with our LiBERO method (Ligand-guided Backbone Ensemble Receptor Optimization) were able to better discriminate active ligands from inactives in flexible-ligand VS docking experiments. The LiBERO method relies on the use of ligand information for selecting the best performing individual pockets from ensembles derived from normal mode analysis or Monte Carlo. Here we present ALiBERO, a new computational tool that has expanded the pocket selection from single to multiple, allowing for automatic iteration of the sampling-selection procedure. The selection of pockets is performed by a dual method that uses exhaustive combinatorial search plus individual addition of pockets, selecting only those that maximize the discrimination of known actives compounds from decoys. The resulting optimized pockets showed increased VS performance when later used in much larger unrelated test sets consisting of biologically active and inactive ligands. In this paper we will describe the design and implementation of the algorithm, using as a reference the human estrogen receptor alpha. PMID:22947092

  17. Greater self-enhancement in Western than Eastern Ukraine, but failure to replicate the Muhammad Ali effect.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-02-01

    Based on the cross-cultural research linking individualism-collectivism and self-enhancement, this research examines regional pattern of self-enhancement in Ukraine. Broadly speaking, the western part of Ukraine is mainly Ukrainian speaking and historically oriented towards Europe, whereas Eastern Ukraine is mainly Russian speaking and historically oriented towards the Russian cultural sphere. We found self-enhancement on a "better than average" task to be higher in a Western Ukrainian sample compared to an Eastern Ukrainian sample, with differences in independent self-construals supporting assumed regional variation in individualism. However, the Muhammad Ali effect, the finding that self-enhancement is greater in the domain of morality than intelligence, was not replicated. The discussion focuses on the specific sources of this regional difference in self-enhancement, and reasons for why the Muhammad Ali effect was not found. PMID:25684090

  18. Greater self-enhancement in Western than Eastern Ukraine, but failure to replicate the Muhammad Ali effect.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-02-01

    Based on the cross-cultural research linking individualism-collectivism and self-enhancement, this research examines regional pattern of self-enhancement in Ukraine. Broadly speaking, the western part of Ukraine is mainly Ukrainian speaking and historically oriented towards Europe, whereas Eastern Ukraine is mainly Russian speaking and historically oriented towards the Russian cultural sphere. We found self-enhancement on a "better than average" task to be higher in a Western Ukrainian sample compared to an Eastern Ukrainian sample, with differences in independent self-construals supporting assumed regional variation in individualism. However, the Muhammad Ali effect, the finding that self-enhancement is greater in the domain of morality than intelligence, was not replicated. The discussion focuses on the specific sources of this regional difference in self-enhancement, and reasons for why the Muhammad Ali effect was not found.

  19. An evidence-based systematic review of tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Conquer, Julie; Flanagan, Kelly; Isaac, Richard; Rusie, Erica; Windsor, Regina C

    2013-03-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. PMID:23419023

  20. Mapping forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance characteristics with time series of gap-filled Landsat and ALI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E.; Ruzycki, T. S.; Wunderle, J. M.; Kwit, C.; Ewert, D. N.; Voggesser, S. M.; Brandeis, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    We mapped tropical dry forest height (RMSE = 0.9 m, R2 = 0.84, range 0.6-7 m) and foliage height profiles with a time series of gap-filled Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery for the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. We also mapped disturbance type and age with decision tree classification of the image time series. Having mapped these variables in the context of studies of wintering habitat of an endangered Nearctic-Neotropical migrant bird, the Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), we then illustrated relationships between forest vertical structure, disturbance type and counts of forage species important to the Kirtland's Warbler. The ALI imagery and the Landsat time series were both critical to the result for forest height, which the strong relationship of forest height with disturbance type and age facilitated. Also unique to this study was that seven of the eight image time steps were cloud-gap-filled images: mosaics of the clear parts of several cloudy scenes, in which cloud gaps in a reference scene for each time step are filled with image data from alternate scenes. We created each cloud-cleared image, including a virtually seamless ALI image mosaic, with regression tree normalization of the image data that filled cloud gaps. We also illustrated how viewing time series imagery as red-green-blue composites of tasseled cap wetness (RGB wetness composites) aids reference data collection for classifying tropical forest disturbance type and age.

  1. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI) Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF) was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  2. Cloning, sequencing and overexpression in Escherichia coli of the alginatelyase-encoding aly gene of Pseudomonas alginovora: identification of three classes of alginate lyases.

    PubMed Central

    Chavagnat, F; Duez, C; Guinand, M; Potin, P; Barbeyron, T; Henrissat, B; Wallach, J; Ghuysen, J M

    1996-01-01

    A gene of Pseudomonas alginovora, called aly, has been cloned in Escherichia coli using a battery of PCR techniques and sequenced. It encodes a 210-amino-acid alginate lyase (EC 4.2.2.3), Aly, in the form of a 233-amino-acid precursor. P. alginovora Aly has been overproduced in E. coli with a His-tag sequence fused at the C-terminal end under conditions in which the formation of inclusion bodies is avoided. His-tagged P. alginovora Aly has the same enzymic properties as the wild-type enzyme and has the specificity of a mannuronate lyase. It can be purified in a one-step procedure by affinity chromatography on Ni(2+)-nitriloacetate resin. The yield is of 5 mg of enzyme per litre of culture. The amplification factor is 12.5 compared with the level of production by wild-type P. alginovora. The six alginate lyases of known primary structure fall into three distinct classes, one of which comprises the pair P. alginovora Aly and Klebsiella pneumoniae Aly. PMID:8912697

  3. Mineral mapping on the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano using co-orbital ALI, ASTER and Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues and solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperspectral data coverage from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was useful for calibrating Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of a volcanic terrane area of the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano. Following calibration, the ALI and ASTER datasets were co-registered and joined to produce a 13-channel reflectance cube spanning the Visible to Short Wave Infrared (0.4-2.4 ??m). Eigen analysis and comparison of the Hyperion data with the ALI + ASTER reflectance data, as well as mapping results using various ALI+ASTER data subsets, provided insights into the information dimensionality of all the data. In particular, high spectral resolution, low signal-to-noise Hyperion data were only marginally better for mineral mapping than the merged 13-channel, low spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER dataset. Neither the Hyperion nor the combined ALI + ASTER datasets had sufficient information dimensionality for mapping the diverse range of surface materials exposed on the Altiplano. However, it is possible to optimize the use of the multispectral data for mineral-mapping purposes by careful data subsetting, and by employing other appropriate image-processing strategies.

  4. The Interaction of the Cellular Export Adaptor Protein Aly/REF with ICP27 Contributes to the Efficiency of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 mRNA Export

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaochen; Devi-Rao, Gayathri; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP27 enables viral mRNA export by accessing the cellular mRNA export receptor TAP/NXF, which guides mRNA through the nuclear pore complex. ICP27 binds viral mRNAs and interacts with TAP/NXF, providing a link to the cellular mRNA export pathway. ICP27 also interacts with the mRNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF, which binds cellular mRNAs and also interacts with TAP/NXF. Studies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown indicated that Aly/REF is not required for cellular mRNA export, and similar knockdown studies during HSV-1 infection led us to conclude that Aly/REF may be dispensable for viral RNA export. Recently, the structural basis of the interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF was elucidated at atomic resolution, and it was shown that three ICP27 residues, W105, R107, and L108, interface with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain of Aly/REF. Here, to determine the role the interaction of ICP27 and Aly/REF plays during infection, these residues were mutated to alanine, and a recombinant virus, WRL-A, was constructed. Virus production was reduced about 10-fold during WRL-A infection, and export of ICP27 protein and most viral mRNAs was less efficient. We conclude that interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF contributes to efficient viral mRNA export. PMID:23637401

  5. The interaction of the cellular export adaptor protein Aly/REF with ICP27 contributes to the efficiency of herpes simplex virus 1 mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaochen; Devi-Rao, Gayathri; Golovanov, Alexander P; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP27 enables viral mRNA export by accessing the cellular mRNA export receptor TAP/NXF, which guides mRNA through the nuclear pore complex. ICP27 binds viral mRNAs and interacts with TAP/NXF, providing a link to the cellular mRNA export pathway. ICP27 also interacts with the mRNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF, which binds cellular mRNAs and also interacts with TAP/NXF. Studies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown indicated that Aly/REF is not required for cellular mRNA export, and similar knockdown studies during HSV-1 infection led us to conclude that Aly/REF may be dispensable for viral RNA export. Recently, the structural basis of the interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF was elucidated at atomic resolution, and it was shown that three ICP27 residues, W105, R107, and L108, interface with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain of Aly/REF. Here, to determine the role the interaction of ICP27 and Aly/REF plays during infection, these residues were mutated to alanine, and a recombinant virus, WRL-A, was constructed. Virus production was reduced about 10-fold during WRL-A infection, and export of ICP27 protein and most viral mRNAs was less efficient. We conclude that interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF contributes to efficient viral mRNA export.

  6. Equations of state of anhydrous AlF3 and AlI3: Modeling of extreme condition halide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M; Bastea, Sorin; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Goncharov, Alexander F; Radousky, Harry B; Armstrong, Michael R; Roberts, Sarah K; Plaue, Jonathan W

    2015-06-01

    Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (α-AlF3) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI3) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF3 and AlI3 were determined through refinements of collected x-ray diffraction patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives are reported for multiple orders of the Birch-Murnaghan (B-M), finite-strain (F-f), and higher pressure finite-strain (G-g) EOS analysis models. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits an apparent isostructural phase transition at approximately 12 GPa. Aluminum triiodide also undergoes a second-order atomic rearrangement: applied stress transformed a monoclinically distorted face centered cubic (fcc) structure into a standard fcc structural arrangement of iodine atoms. Results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants were obtained with the aim of predicting the yield of halogenated products.

  7. Equations of state of anhydrous AlF3 and AlI3: Modeling of extreme condition halide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M; Bastea, Sorin; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Goncharov, Alexander F; Radousky, Harry B; Armstrong, Michael R; Roberts, Sarah K; Plaue, Jonathan W

    2015-06-01

    Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (α-AlF3) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI3) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF3 and AlI3 were determined through refinements of collected x-ray diffraction patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives are reported for multiple orders of the Birch-Murnaghan (B-M), finite-strain (F-f), and higher pressure finite-strain (G-g) EOS analysis models. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits an apparent isostructural phase transition at approximately 12 GPa. Aluminum triiodide also undergoes a second-order atomic rearrangement: applied stress transformed a monoclinically distorted face centered cubic (fcc) structure into a standard fcc structural arrangement of iodine atoms. Results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants were obtained with the aim of predicting the yield of halogenated products. PMID:26049507

  8. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly-: a joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V.; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly- (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3 y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y >= 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6- in the AuxAly- clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either ``adsorbed'' onto the Al6- square bi-pyramid motif if y >= 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we

  9. New insights into the structure of Om Ali-Thelepte basin, central Tunisia, inferred from gravity data: Hydrogeological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harchi, Mongi; Gabtni, Hakim; El Mejri, Hatem; Dassi, Lassaad; Mammou, Abdallah Ben

    2016-08-01

    This work presents new results from gravity data analyses and interpretation within the Om Ali-Thelepte (OAT) basin, central Tunisia. It focuses on the hydrogeological implication, using several qualitative and quantitative techniques such as horizontal gradient, upward continuation and Euler deconvolution on boreholes log data, seismic reflection data and electrical conductivity measurements. The structures highlighted using the filtering techniques suggest that the Miocene aquifer of OAT basin is cut by four major fault systems that trend E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW. In addition, a NW-SE gravity model established shows the geometry of the Miocene sandstone reservoir and the Upper Cretaceous limestone rocks. Moreover, the superimposition of the electrical conductivity and the structural maps indicates that the low conductivity values of sampled water from boreholes are located around main faults.

  10. SIRT1 protects rat lung tissue against severe burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating the apoptosis of PMVECs via p38 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lei; He, Ting; Jia, Wenbin; Yang, Longlong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Shi, Jihong; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator type-1 (SIRT1) has been reported to be involved in the cardiopulmonary protection. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced remote acute lung injury (ALI) is currently unknown. The present study aims to investigate the role of SIRT1 in burn-induced remote ALI and the involved signaling pathway. We observed that SIRT1 expression in rat lung tissue after burn injury appeared an increasing trend after a short period of suppression. The upregulation of SIRT1 stimulated by resveratrol exhibited remission of histopathologic changes, reduction of cell apoptosis, and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat pulmonary tissues suffering from severe burn. We next used primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) challenged by burn serum (BS) to simulate in vivo rat lung tissue after burn injury, and found that BS significantly suppressed SIRT1 expression, increased cell apoptosis, and activated p38 MAPK signaling. The use of resveratrol reversed these effects, while knockdown of SIRT1 by shRNA further augmented BS-induced increase of cell apoptosis and activation of p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results indicate that SIRT1 might protect lung tissue against burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating PMVEC apoptosis via p38 MAPK signaling, suggesting its potential therapeutic effects on the treatment of ALI. PMID:25992481

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Gd(DO3A-Lys) and MR imaging studies in an orthotopic U87MG glioma tumor model.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Yang, Chang-Tong; Nasrallah, Fatima Ali; Tay, Hui Chien; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Robins, Edward G

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of Gd(DO3A-Lys), a macrocyclic gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent functionalized with a lysine derivative, was studied in Wistar rats. Kinetic data were fitted using a two-compartment model and revealed Gd(DO3A-Lys) to have a distribution half-life, t1/2 (α), of 1.3 min, an elimination half-life, t1/2 (β), of 24.9 min and a large volume of distribution, VD , of 0.49 L/kg indicative of the agent being able to rapidly distribute into tissues and organs. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) in an orthotopic U87MG glioma mouse model demonstrated considerable enhancement of both the tumor and surrounding vasculature after intravenous administration of Gd(DO3A-Lys). Applying dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the glioma of different sizes further showed distinct uptake characteristics and patterns of enhancement, which suggests the potential for differentiating changes at different stages of tumor growth. Our results indicate that Gd(DO3A-Lys) could be a promising candidate for glioma MR imaging. PMID:25612157

  12. Standardised water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia, Tongkat ali, as testosterone booster for managing men with late-onset hypogonadism?

    PubMed

    Tambi, M I B M; Imran, M K; Henkel, R R

    2012-05-01

    In most countries, millions of people are relying on herbal medicines as remedy for numerous ailments. In South-East Asia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, also known as 'Malaysian ginseng' or Tongkat ali, is used to combat stress and disease and to improve physical strength. Moreover, the compounds of the roots of this plant are reported to have aphrodisiac and testosterone enhancing effects in the rat. Considering that human studies are not available, 76 of 320 patients suffering from late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) were given 200 mg of a standardised water-soluble extract of Tongkat ali for 1 month. The Ageing Males' Symptoms (AMS) according to the standardised rating scale and the serum testosterone concentration were taken. Results show that treatment of LOH patients with this Tongkat ali extract significantly (P < 0.0001) improved the AMS score as well as the serum testosterone concentration. While before treatment only 10.5% of the patients did not show any complaint according to the AMS scale and 35.5% had normal testosterone levels, after the completed treatment 71.7% and 90.8% of the patients showed normal values, respectively. Thus, Tongkat ali extract appears to be useful as a supplement in overcoming the symptoms of LOH and for the management of hypogonadism. PMID:21671978

  13. 75 FR 2921 - In the Matter of the Designation of Said Ali al-Shihri, Also Known as Abu-Sayyaf, Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...'id Ali Jabir al-Khathim al-Shihri, Also Known as Salad, Also Known as Abu Salah Abu Sufyan, Also... Jabir al-Khathim al-Shihri, also known as Salad, also known as Abu Salah Abu Sufyan, also known as...

  14. Binding of cellular export factor REF/Aly by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 protein is not required for efficient KSHV lytic replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Jiang; Verma, Dinesh; Swaminathan, Sankar

    2012-09-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 protein is expressed early during lytic KSHV replication, enhances expression of many KSHV genes, and is essential for virus production. ORF57 is a member of a family of proteins conserved among all human and many animal herpesviruses that are multifunctional regulators of gene expression and act posttranscriptionally to increase accumulation of their target mRNAs. The mechanism of ORF57 action is complex and may involve effects on mRNA transcription, stability, and export. ORF57 directly binds to REF/Aly, a cellular RNA-binding protein component of the TREX complex that mediates RNA transcription and export. We analyzed the effects of an ORF57 mutation known to abrogate REF/Aly binding and demonstrate that the REF-binding mutant is impaired in activation of viral mRNAs and noncoding RNAs confined to the nucleus. Although the inability to bind REF leads to decreased ORF57 activity in enhancing gene expression, there is no demonstrable effect on nuclear export of viral mRNA or the ability of ORF57 to support KSHV replication and virus production. These data indicate that REF/Aly-ORF57 interaction is not essential for KSHV lytic replication but may contribute to target RNA stability independent of effects on RNA export, suggesting a novel role for REF/Aly in viral RNA metabolism.

  15. Freedom Fighters of South Asia: Mohandas K. Gandhi [and] Mohammad Ali Jinnah [and] Jawaharlal Nehru [and] Subhas Chandra Bose [and] Bal Gangadhar Tilak [and] Vallabhbhai Patel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Judith A.

    Biographies of five men who dedicated their lives to fighting for the independence of India are presented. Mohandas K. Gandhi, born in 1869, spent his life in non-violent resistance to the many injustices being perpetrated against the poor and needy of India. Born in 1876, lawyer Mohammad Ali Jinnah was close in ideas, hope, and spirit to Gandhi.…

  16. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  17. Quaternary high-Mg ultrapotassic rocks from the Qal'eh Hasan Ali maars, southeastern Iran: petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Kwan-Nang; Chung, Sun-Lin; Zarrinkoub, Mohammad Hossein; Wang, Fei; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Lee, Hao-Yang

    2015-09-01

    A set of rare, high-Mg ultrapotassic rocks from the Qal'eh Hasan Ali maars, southeastern Iran, was investigated using phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, olivine chemistry, and bulk-rock elemental and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic geochemistry to decipher their petrogenesis and regional tectonic implications. Phlogopite separates yield inverse isochron 40Ar/39Ar ages from ca. 112 to 119 ka, indicating that magma genesis postdated the onset of the Arabia-Eurasia collision at the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The studied rocks are characterized by kamafugitic affinity with relatively low SiO2 and Al2O3 and high CaO and Sr. They contain relatively primitive olivine (Fo85-92) that, on the basis of olivine-liquid Fe/Mg exchange equilibrium, suggests the primary melt to be ultrapotassic with ~13 wt% MgO. Other key geochemical features include extreme enrichment in most incompatible trace elements, depletions in Nb, Ta, P and Ti and enrichment in Pb relative to elements of similar incompatibilities. The Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic ratios of the rocks do not deviate significantly from the bulk silicate Earth (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7055-0.7059, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5125-0.5126 and 176Hf/177Hf = 0.2827-0.2829). Relatively high Zn/Fe, Gd/Yb, Rb, Rb/Sr and P2O5 and low Yb and P/P* for the rocks are consistent with derivation from a mantle source containing clinopyroxene, phlogopite, apatite and garnet that formed in response to modal metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle. Relatively low Hf/Nd and high Sr/Hf of the rocks indicate that the metasomatized lithologies from which the studied rocks formed were derived dominantly from subducted marly sediments. The Qal'eh Hasan Ali magmatism is best explained by small-scale destruction of the continental mantle in a post-collisional setting, presumably driven by localized convective instability as a result of the Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  18. Cross-calibration of MODIS with ETM+ and ALI sensors for long-term monitoring of land surface processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.; Chander, G.

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, data from multiple sensors are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Although higher-level products (e.g., vegetation cover, albedo, surface temperature) derived from different sensors can be validated independently, the degree to which these sensors and their products can be compared to one another is vastly improved if their relative spectroradiometric responses are known. Most often, sensors are directly calibrated to diffuse solar irradiation or vicariously to ground targets. However, space-based targets are not traceable to metrological standards, and vicarious calibrations are expensive and provide a poor sampling of a sensor's full dynamic range. Crosscalibration of two sensors can augment these methods if certain conditions can be met: (1) the spectral responses are similar, (2) the observations are reasonably concurrent (similar atmospheric & solar illumination conditions), (3) errors due to misregistrations of inhomogeneous surfaces can be minimized (including scale differences), and (4) the viewing geometry is similar (or, some reasonable knowledge of surface bi-directional reflectance distribution functions is available). This study explores the impacts of cross-calibrating sensors when such conditions are met to some degree but not perfectly. In order to constrain the range of conditions at some level, the analysis is limited to sensors where cross-calibration studies have been conducted (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) on Landsat-7 (L7), Advance Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion on Earth Observer-1 (EO-1)) and including systems having somewhat dissimilar geometry, spatial resolution & spectral response characteristics but are still part of the so-called "A.M. constellation" (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra platform). Measures for spectral response differences and methods for cross calibrating such sensors are provided in this study. These

  19. 132 Characterization of 2 Epithelial Cell Air-Liquid Interface (ALI) Culture Models for Human Healthy Nasal Mucosa and Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    de Borja Callejas, Fco; Martínez-Antón, Asunción; Roca-Ferrer, Jordi; Cortijo, Julio; Picado, César; Mullol, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary human airway epithelial cells, when submerged in culture, undergo a dedifferentiation with loss of many features of the in vivo airway epithelium. However, when cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI), cells develop a well-differentiated, polarized, and pseudostratified epithelium. The aim of the current study was to characterize the mucociliary differentiation of human nasal mucosa and polyp epithelial cells cultured using an ALI system. Methods Nasal mucosa (NM, n = 3) and nasal polyps (NP, n = 3) were obtained from patients undergoing nasal corrective surgery and endoscopic sinus surgery, respectively. Epithelial cells were obtained from the explant method, and differentiated in ALI culture during 28 days. Cultures were studied at different time points (0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days): tissue ultrastructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); mucous (MUC5AC, MUC5B) and serous (lactoferrin) cell secretion by ELISA; and cytokeratin 18 (epithelial marker), β-tubulin IV (cilia marker), MUC5AC (goblet cell marker), and p63 (basal cell marker) expression by immunocytochemistry. Results In both NM and NP ALI cultures and at days 14 and 28, a pseudostratified epithelium with ciliated, mucus-secreting and basal cells was observed, and expression of cytokeratin 18, b-tubulin IV, MUC5AC and p63 was detected. In NP cultures, both MUC5AC (day 14: 2.2 ± 0.1-folds; day 28: 3.6-fold ± 0.7-fold) and MUC5B (day 14: 3.2-fold ± 0.6-fold; day 28: 3.1-fold ± 1-fold) increased over time compared to day 0 (P < 0.05). In NM cultures, only MUC5B (day 14: 3.9-fold ± 0.9-fold; day 28: 3.4-fold ± 0.4-fold; P < 0.05) but not MUC5AC increased over time compared to day 0 (P < 0.05). Secretion of lactoferrin was present but showed no changes over time in either NM or NP ALI cultures. Conclusions Epithelial cell ALI cultures provide a well-differentiated human nasal mucosa and polyp tissues that may be used as an in vitro model

  20. Evaluation of Acute 13-Week Subchronic Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Powdered Root of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack)

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Liao, Po-Lin; Huang, Wei-Kuang; Tse, Ling-Shan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Cheng, Yu-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is an indigenous traditional herb in Southern Asia. Its powdered root has been processed to produce health supplements, but no detailed toxicology report is available. In this study, neither mutagenicity nor clastogenicity was noted, and acute oral LD50 was more than 6 g/kg b.w. After 4-week subacute and 13-week subchronic exposure paradigms (0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2 g/kg b.w./day), adverse effects attributable to test compound were not observed with respect to body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, macropathology, or histopathology. However, the treatment significantly reduced prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholesterol levels, especially in males (P < 0.05). These changes were judged as pharmacological effects, and they are beneficial to health. The calculated acceptable daily intake (ADI) was up to 1.2 g/adult/day. This information will be useful for product development and safety management. PMID:24062779

  1. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the initiation of sexual performance of inexperienced castrated male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Cheang, H S; Yusof, A P

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, on the initiation of sexual performance and the weights of sexual accessories in inexperienced castrated male rats. The doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, which were extracted from E. longifolia Jack, were orally administered to the rats twice daily for 10 days prior to the tests and continued throughout the test period. Testosterone was used as a positive control after injecting 15 mg/kg daily subcutaneously for 32 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in sexual performance of the treated animals, but the E. longifolia Jack groups showed lower sexual performance in mounting, intromission and ejaculation than the testosterone group. Further results also showed that E. longifolia Jack promoted the growth of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicles as compared with the control, but the growth of sexual accessories at 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack was less than that of testosterone treated group. The present study therefore gives further evidence of the folkuse of E. longifolia as an aphrodisiac. PMID:10803359

  2. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength. PMID:23754792

  3. Evaluation of Acute 13-Week Subchronic Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Powdered Root of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack).

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Liao, Po-Lin; Huang, Wei-Kuang; Tse, Ling-Shan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Cheng, Yu-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is an indigenous traditional herb in Southern Asia. Its powdered root has been processed to produce health supplements, but no detailed toxicology report is available. In this study, neither mutagenicity nor clastogenicity was noted, and acute oral LD50 was more than 6 g/kg b.w. After 4-week subacute and 13-week subchronic exposure paradigms (0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2 g/kg b.w./day), adverse effects attributable to test compound were not observed with respect to body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, macropathology, or histopathology. However, the treatment significantly reduced prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholesterol levels, especially in males (P < 0.05). These changes were judged as pharmacological effects, and they are beneficial to health. The calculated acceptable daily intake (ADI) was up to 1.2 g/adult/day. This information will be useful for product development and safety management. PMID:24062779

  4. Insight into the reaction mechanisms for oxidative addition of strong σ bonds to an Al(i) center.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangfei; Cao, Zexing

    2016-06-21

    The oxidation addition of a series of σ H-X bonds (X = H, B, C, Si, N, P, and O) to a single Al(i) supported by a (NacNac)(-) bidentate ligand ((NacNac)(-) = [ArNC(Me)CHC(Me)NAr](-) and Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3) has been explored through extensive DFT calculations. The presented results show that activation and addition of these σ bonds follow various reaction mechanisms, in which hydride transfer, proton transfer, and Al-X bond coupling steps are involved. The predicted free energy barriers for these oxidative additions range from 8 to 32 kcal mol(-1), and all the reactions are remarkably favorable thermodynamically. However, sterically hindered ligands, for most reactants, make the formation of the initial reactant complex difficult and may reduce the efficiency of the reaction. Calculations reveal a strong dependence of the reaction mechanism and low-energy channel on the bonding features of X-H and the local structural environments. PMID:27249667

  5. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength.

  6. Arginine methylation of REF/ALY promotes efficient handover of mRNA to TAP/NXF1.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Lung; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Snijders, Ambrosius P L; Dickman, Mark J; Wilson, Stuart A

    2010-06-01

    The REF/ALY mRNA export adaptor binds TAP/NXF1 via an arginine-rich region, which overlaps with its RNA-binding domain. When TAP binds a REF:RNA complex, it triggers transfer of the RNA from REF to TAP. Here, we have examined the effects of arginine methylation on the activities of the REF protein in mRNA export. We have mapped the arginine methylation sites of REF using mass spectrometry and find that several arginines within the TAP and RNA binding domains are methylated in vivo. However, arginine methylation has no effect on the REF:TAP interaction. Instead, arginine methylation reduces the RNA-binding activity of REF in vitro and in vivo. The reduced RNA-binding activity of REF in its methylated state is essential for efficient displacement of RNA from REF by TAP in vivo. Therefore, arginine methylation fine-tunes the RNA-binding activity of REF such that the RNA-protein interaction can be readily disrupted by export factors further down the pathway.

  7. Noise disturbance caused by outdoor activities--a simulated-environment study for Ali Sami Yen Stadium, İstanbul.

    PubMed

    Dal, Zeynep; Akdağ, Neşe Yüğrük

    2011-03-01

    Negative effects of noise on individuals, the inevitable result of urbanization, have become a significant urban problem in our day. Introduction of an approach to the noise problem on an urban-planning scale lightens the burden of measures required to be taken against noise at the stages of regional and developmental planning. Stadiums, which should be also evaluated from the point of noise problem when planning decisions are made on the urban planning scale, may cause very serious problems differing depending on the region they are located in. In this article, various dimensions of the noise problem caused by stadiums have been exemplified by making an assessment on Ali Sami Yen football stadium located in Mecidiyeköy district which is among important residential and commercial centres of İstanbul or Turkey. When the simulation results obtained for ordinary days and match days are evaluated, it has been found out that the people living in the area are exposed to noise levels substantially exceeding the acceptable values. Results of the survey conducted in the area have clearly revealed the existence of noise problem, too. PMID:20424911

  8. Investigation on the neutral and anionic BxAlyH2 (x + y = 7, 8, 9) clusters using density functional theory combined with photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-Ping; Shao, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Fang-Hui; Ding, Lei; Yuan, Tao Li

    2016-08-17

    The structure and bonding nature of neutral and negatively charged BxAlyH2 (x + y = 7, 8, 9) clusters are investigated with the aid of previously published experimental photoelectron spectra combined with the present density functional theory calculations. The comparison between the experimental photoelectron spectra and theoretical simulated spectra helps to identify the ground state structures. The accuracy of the obtained ground state structures is further verified by calculating their adiabatic electron affinities and vertical detachment energies and comparing them against available experimental data. The results show that the structures of BxAlyH2 transform from three-dimensional to planar structures as the number of boron atoms increases. Moreover, boron atoms tend to bind together forming Bn units. The hydrogen atoms prefer to bind with boron atoms rather than aluminum atoms. The analyses of the molecular orbital on the ground state structures further support the abovementioned results. PMID:27499430

  9. Molecular-biological analysis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by heat exposure and/or intravenous administration of oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiromasa; Nakagawa, Yasuhisa; Ikemura, Mayumi; Usugi, Eri; Nata, Masayuki

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to molecular-biologically investigate the interaction between heat exposure and pulmonary fat embolization in regards to the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Ten-week-old Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: (1) oleic acid injected into caudal vein after heat exposure, (2) oleic acid injected without heat exposure, (3) soybean oil injected after heat exposure, and (4) soybean oil injected without heat exposure, and then mRNA expression of eight inflammatory mediators related to ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in lung was determined 1h after the injection. mRNA expression of interleukin 1 beta (Il1b), tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa), vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa), transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgfb1) and Hsp70 was significantly increased by heat exposure, while that of Il1b, interleukin 6 (Il6), Tnfa, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (Mip2) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (Gm-csf) was significantly elevated by the injection of oleic acid. Moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in lung almost paralleled their mRNA expressions. In particular, IL-1β expression was synergistically elevated by heat exposure followed by injection of oleic acid. Additionally, IL-6 expression tended to increase under the same conditions as well. It is likely that heat exposure itself injures lung tissue within a short time, and that more than two conditions which induce ALI/ARDS interact with each other synergistically, exacerbating the development of ALI/ARDS.

  10. Stress conditions promote yeast Gap1 permease ubiquitylation and down-regulation via the arrestin-like Bul and Aly proteins.

    PubMed

    Crapeau, Myriam; Merhi, Ahmad; André, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Gap1, the yeast general amino acid permease, is a convenient model for studying how the intracellular traffic of membrane transporters is regulated. Present at the plasma membrane under poor nitrogen supply conditions, it undergoes ubiquitylation, endocytosis, and degradation upon activation of the TORC1 kinase complex in response to an increase in internal amino acids. This down-regulation is stimulated by TORC1-dependent phosphoinhibition of the Npr1 kinase, resulting in activation by dephosphorylation of the arrestin-like Bul1 and Bul2 adaptors recruiting the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase to Gap1. We report here that Gap1 is also down-regulated when cells are treated with the TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or subjected to various stresses and that a lack of the Tco89 subunit of TORC1 causes constitutive Gap1 down-regulation. Both the Bul1 and Bul2 and the Aly1 and Aly2 arrestin-like adaptors of Rsp5 promote this down-regulation without undergoing dephosphorylation. Furthermore, they act via the C-terminal regions of Gap1 not involved in ubiquitylation in response to internal amino acids, whereas a Gap1 mutant altered in the N-terminal tail and resistant to ubiquitylation by internal amino acids is efficiently down-regulated under stress via the Bul and Aly adaptors. Although the Bul proteins mediate Gap1 ubiquitylation of two possible lysines, Lys-9 and Lys-16, the Aly proteins promote ubiquitylation of the Lys-16 residue only. This stress-induced pathway of Gap1 down-regulation targets other permeases as well, and it likely allows cells facing adverse conditions to retrieve amino acids from permease degradation.

  11. Dissection of the prongs of ALI. A retrospective assessment of criminal responsibility by the psychiatric staff of the Clifton T. Perkins Hospital Center.

    PubMed

    Silver, S B; Spodak, M K

    1983-01-01

    The staff of the Clifton T. Perkins Hospital Center has systematically reassessed the impact of the proposed modification of the ALI test removing the second prong. Findings of this retrospective survey reveal few changes in the composite staff opinions reported by the hospital but many variations in the opinions of individual psychiatrists when rating the prongs independently. The effect of these changes in Maryland (while difficult to anticipate) might be an increase in litigation. The resulting fiscal impact, therefore, not only could affect the Division of Corrections but also could increase court costs. The data suggest that rather than limiting psychiatric testimony and ensuring that only the sickest patients are exculpated, the proposed truncation of ALI may have paradoxical consequences. There may be more frequent battles of the experts based on less rigorous science and potential exclusion of affective psychosis from appropriate access to the defense of insanity. While the study methods and sample size prohibit reliable conclusions concerning the likelihood of these consequences in vivo, the issues raised strongly support a need for further investigation before a relatively well-functioning legal framework is changed in favor of the untested rubric of the proposed modifications of ALI.

  12. Comparative alteration mineral mapping using visible to shortwave infrared (0.4-2.4 μm) Hyperion, ALI, and ASTER imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.; Zimbelman, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Hyperion imaging spectrometer data covering an area in the Central Andes between Volcan Socompa and Salar de Llullaillaco were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks associated with several young volcanic systems. Six ALI channels in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (0.4-1.0 ??m) were useful for discriminating between ferric-iron alteration minerals based on the spectral shapes of electronic absorption features seen in continuum-removed spectra. Six ASTER channels in the short wavelength infrared (1.0-2.5 ??m) enabled distinctions between clay and sulfate mineral types based on the positions of band minima related to Al-OH vibrational absorption features. Hyperion imagery embedded in the broader image coverage of ALI and ASTER provided essential leverage for calibrating and improving the mapping accuracy of the multispectral data. This capability is especially valuable in remote areas of the earth where available geologic and other ground truth information is limited.

  13. Mesostructured HfxAlyO2 Thin Films as Reliable and Robust Gate Dielectrics with Tunable Dielectric Constants for High-Performance Graphene-Based Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunseong; Jeon, Woojin; Cho, Yeonchoo; Lee, Min-Hyun; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Park, Jongsun; Park, Seongjun

    2016-07-26

    We introduce a reliable and robust gate dielectric material with tunable dielectric constants based on a mesostructured HfxAlyO2 film. The ultrathin mesostructured HfxAlyO2 film is deposited on graphene via a physisorbed-precursor-assisted atomic layer deposition process and consists of an intermediate state with small crystallized parts in an amorphous matrix. Crystal phase engineering using Al dopant is employed to achieve HfO2 phase transitions, which produce the crystallized part of the mesostructured HfxAlyO2 film. The effects of various Al doping concentrations are examined, and an enhanced dielectric constant of ∼25 is obtained. Further, the leakage current is suppressed (∼10(-8) A/cm(2)) and the dielectric breakdown properties are enhanced (breakdown field: ∼7 MV/cm) by the partially remaining amorphous matrix. We believe that this contribution is theoretically and practically relevant because excellent gate dielectric performance is obtained. In addition, an array of top-gated metal-insulator-graphene field-effect transistors is fabricated on a 6 in. wafer, yielding a capacitance equivalent oxide thickness of less than 1 nm (0.78 nm). This low capacitance equivalent oxide thickness has important implications for the incorporation of graphene into high-performance silicon-based nanoelectronics. PMID:27355098

  14. Barriers of the Development of Web-Based Training in Agricultural Higher Education System in Iran: A Case Study of Hamadan Bu Ali Sina University, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saadi, Heshmatollah; Mirzayi, Khalil; Movahedi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Recently, higher education systems seek to use network-based and Internet-based information technologies in education, teaching and learning. E-learning in Iran higher education system has been started since 2003, however, its development has been very slow. The present study is a survey research. The participants of the study are faculty members,…

  15. Implementation of the final geometry of the V0A detector for the ALICE experiment in the simulator program AliRoot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, L.

    2008-07-01

    The V0A trigger detector of the ALICE experiment is a scintillator hodoscope of 32 channels that has been designed and constructed by the Mexican groups at the Instituto de Física de la UNAM and the CINVESTAV. In this work, the final geometry of the constructed detector and its support frame have been implemented using the geometrical modeler of the Root framework in order to be able to simulate the response and trigger performance of the detector with AliRoot

  16. Energy level of the Si-related DX-center in (AlyGa1-y)1-xInxAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckelmann, Stefan; Lackner, David; Bett, Andreas W.

    2015-03-01

    For the quaternary material (AlyGa1-y)1-xInxAs, the energy level of the silicon-related deep electron trap known as the DX-center is calculated. In addition, the composition range y(x) is derived, for which the silicon-related DX-center level is below the conduction band minimum and thus electronically active. Eventually, the result of the calculation is compared with available measurement data, revealing good agreement regarding the composition when the DX-center energy level crosses the conduction band minimum.

  17. Investigation on the geomorphological characteristics of the Kabutar Ali Chai watershed (NW Iran) and their role in flood production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jananeh, Keristineh

    2016-04-01

    The Kabutar Ali Chai watershed is located in NW Iran, 75 km northwest of Tabriz, on the southern hillsides of Mishow mountains. It occupies an area of 67.46 km2 and the length of the main stream is about 24.5 km. Due to the fact that flooding in this watershed threats the downstream rural areas, an investigation was carried out to extract its geomorphologic characteristics and evaluate their contribution in flood production. In this regard, the watershed area was divided into 4 sections based on physiographic and topographic characteristics and stream network: A1 (the southern, low-height part), A2 (mid-western half), A3 (mid-eastern half) and A4 (the northern and highest part). Hypsometric maps and diagrams prepared for the area show that it is confined between 1390 and 3230m elevation levels with a general dip towards the south. The main part of it (57.93%) is located between the elevation levels of 1390 and 1500m. Using the precipitation records of 4 neighboring stations for 20 years, the estimated time of concentration for the runoff varies in the sub-zones: 1.64 hr in A1 (13.9 km stream length and 710 m altitude difference), 0.63 hr in A2 (7.2 km and 1200 m), 0.35 hr in A3 (4.7 km and 1530 m) and 0.48 hr in A4 (5.9 km and 1330 m.) Dip angle is one of the most important factors affecting the time of concentration for runoff and flood production. The average dip of the main part of the area (79.82%) ranges between 0 and 5°, while only the 0.44% of the area has dips about 30-40°. Highest dips are found in the A4 zone (0-40°) and the weight average dip of the total area is 12.94%. Geologically, the most widespread rocks are Pre-Cambrian shales, schists and limestones (Kahar Formation, 43.53%), upper-Cretaceous flysch sequence comprised of shale, limestone and sandstone (13.99%), Miocene marls, silts, clays and limestones (4.13%) and Quaternary alluvial terraces and plains (30.33%). Geomorphologically, this watershed is comprised of 3 types of lands: (1

  18. Universal Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Sarah; Leventhal, Laura

    Universal usability of World Wide Web (Web) environments—that is, having 90% of households as successful users—requires universal access, usability, and universal design. Factors such as Web technology and user-centered design contribute to universal access and usability, but key to universal usability is a universal design methodology. Universal design principles for the Web follow from universal design principles for the built environment, and emphasize perceptibility, self-explanation, and tailorability for the user. Universally usable Web environments offer the benefit of expanded participation, as well as the unanticipated benefits that generally follow from innovative design initiatives. However, to achieve Web universal usability, Web designers need tools that facilitate the design of intuitive interfaces without sacrificing universal access.

  19. Definitive Metabolite Identification Coupled with Automated Ligand Identification System (ALIS) Technology: A Novel Approach to Uncover Structure-Activity Relationships and Guide Drug Design in a Factor IXa Inhibitor Program.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yong; Yang, Xianshu; Martin, Gary E; Yao, Huifang; Shang, Jackie; Bugianesi, Randal M; Ellsworth, Kenneth P; Sonatore, Lisa M; Nizner, Peter; Sherer, Edward C; Hill, Susan E; Knemeyer, Ian W; Geissler, Wayne M; Dandliker, Peter J; Helmy, Roy; Wood, Harold B

    2016-03-10

    A potent and selective Factor IXa (FIXa) inhibitor was subjected to a series of liver microsomal incubations, which generated a number of metabolites. Using automated ligand identification system-affinity selection (ALIS-AS) methodology, metabolites in the incubation mixture were prioritized by their binding affinities to the FIXa protein. Microgram quantities of the metabolites of interest were then isolated through microisolation analytical capabilities, and structurally characterized using MicroCryoProbe heteronuclear 2D NMR techniques. The isolated metabolites recovered from the NMR experiments were then submitted directly to an in vitro FIXa enzymatic assay. The order of the metabolites' binding affinity to the Factor IXa protein from the ALIS assay was completely consistent with the enzymatic assay results. This work showcases an innovative and efficient approach to uncover structure-activity relationships (SARs) and guide drug design via microisolation-structural characterization and ALIS capabilities. PMID:26871940

  20. The cellular RNA export receptor TAP/NXF1 is required for ICP27-mediated export of herpes simplex virus 1 RNA, but the TREX complex adaptor protein Aly/REF appears to be dispensable.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lisa A; Li, Ling; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M

    2009-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP27 has been shown to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm and to bind viral RNA during infection. ICP27 was found to interact with the cellular RNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF, which is part of the TREX complex, and to relocalize Aly/REF to viral replication sites. ICP27 is exported to the cytoplasm through the export receptor TAP/NXF1, and ICP27 must be able to interact with TAP/NXF1 for efficient export of HSV-1 early and late transcripts. We examined the dynamics of ICP27 movement and its localization with respect to Aly/REF and TAP/NXF1 in living cells during viral infection. Recombinant viruses with a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tag on the N or C terminus of ICP27 were constructed. While the N-terminally tagged ICP27 virus behaved like wild-type HSV-1, the C-terminally tagged virus was defective in viral replication and gene expression, and ICP27 was confined to the nucleus, suggesting that the C-terminal YFP tag interfered with ICP27's C-terminal interactions, including the interaction with TAP/NXF1. To assess the role of Aly/REF and TAP/NXF1 in viral RNA export, these factors were knocked down using small interfering RNA. Knockdown of Aly/REF had little effect on the export of ICP27 or poly(A)(+) RNA during infection. In contrast, a decrease in TAP/NXF1 levels severely impaired export of ICP27 and poly(A)(+) RNA. We conclude that TAP/NXF1 is essential for ICP27-mediated export of RNA during HSV-1 infection, whereas Aly/REF may be dispensable.

  1. A protocol for improving mapping and assessing of seagrass abundance along the West Central Coast of Florida using Landsat TM and EO-1 ALI/Hyperion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Seagrass habitats are characteristic features of shallow waters worldwide and provide a variety of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing techniques can help collect spatial and temporal information about seagrass resources. In this study, we evaluate a protocol that utilizes image optimization algorithms followed by atmospheric and sunglint corrections to the three satellite sensors [Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion (HYP)] and a fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique to map and assess seagrass abundance in Pinellas County, FL, USA. After image preprocessed with image optimization algorithms and atmospheric and sunglint correction approaches, the three sensors' data were used to classify the submerged aquatic vegetation cover (%SAV cover) into 5 classes with a maximum likelihood classifier. Based on three biological metrics [%SAV, leaf area index (LAI), and Biomass] measured from the field, nine multiple regression models were developed for estimating the three biometrics with spectral variables derived from the three sensors' data. Then, five membership maps were created with the three biometrics along with two environmental factors (water depth and distance-to-shoreline). Finally, seagrass abundance maps were produced by using a fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique and five membership maps. The experimental results indicate that the HYP sensor produced the best results of the 5-class classification of %SAV cover (overall accuracy = 87% and Kappa = 0.83 vs. 82% and 0.77 by ALI and 79% and 0.73 by TM) and better multiple regression models for estimating the three biometrics (R2 = 0.66, 0.62 and 0.61 for %SAV, LAI and Biomass vs. 0.62, 0.61 and 0.55 by ALI and 0.58, 0.56 and 0.52 by TM) for creating seagrass abundance maps along with two environmental factors. Combined our results demonstrate that the image optimization algorithms and the fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique were effective in mapping

  2. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Baba Ali magnetite skarn deposit, western Iran - a key to determine conditions of mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanian, Hassan; Radmard, Kaikosrov

    2016-03-01

    The Baba Ali skarn deposit, situated 39 km to the northwest of Hamadan (Iran), is the result of a syenitic pluton that intruded and metamorphosed the diorite host rock. Rare earth element (REE) values in the quartz syenite and diorite range between 35.4 and 560 ppm. Although the distribution pattern of REEs is more and less flat and smooth, light REEs (LREEs) in general show higher concentrations than heavy REEs (HREEs) in different lithounits. The skarn zone reveals the highest REE-enriched pattern, while the ore zone shows the maximum depletion pattern. A comparison of the concentration variations of LREEs (La-Nd), middle REEs (MREEs; Sm-Ho) and HREEs (Er-Lu) of the ore zone samples to the other zones elucidates two important points for the distribution of REEs: 1) the distribution patterns of LREEs and MREEs show a distinct depletion in the ore zone while representing a great enrichment in the skarn facies neighbouring the ore body border and decreasing towards the altered diorite host rock; 2) HREEs show the same pattern, but in the exoskarn do not reveal any distinct increase as observed for LREEs and MREEs. The ratio of La/Y in the Baba Ali skarn ranges from 0.37 to 2.89. The ore zone has the highest La/Y ratio. In this regard the skarn zones exhibit two distinctive portions: 1) one that has La/Y >1 beingadjacent to the ore body and; 2) another one with La/Y < 1 neighbouring altered diorite. Accordingly, the Baba Ali profile, from the quartz syenite to the middle part of the exoskarn, demonstrates chiefly alkaline conditions of formation, with a gradual change to acidic towards the altered diorite host rocks. Utilising three parameters, Ce/Ce*, Eu/Eu* and (Pr/Yb)n, in different minerals implies that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for epidote and garnet were mostly of magmatic origin and for magnetite, actinolite and phlogopite these were of magmatic origin with low REE concentration or meteoric water involved.

  3. Novel Alginate Lyase (Aly5) from a Polysaccharide-Degrading Marine Bacterium, Flammeovirga sp. Strain MY04: Effects of Module Truncation on Biochemical Characteristics, Alginate Degradation Patterns, and Oligosaccharide-Yielding Properties

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenjun; Gu, Jingyan; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Liu, Huihui; Li, Yuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Alginate lyases are important tools for oligosaccharide preparation, medical treatment, and energy bioconversion. Numerous alginate lyases have been elucidated. However, relatively little is known about their substrate degradation patterns and product-yielding properties, which is a limit to wider enzymatic applications and further enzyme improvements. Herein, we report the characterization and module truncation of Aly5, the first alginate lyase obtained from the polysaccharide-degrading bacterium Flammeovirga. Aly5 is a 566-amino-acid protein and belongs to a novel branch of the polysaccharide lyase 7 (PL7) superfamily. The protein rAly5 is an endolytic enzyme of alginate and associated oligosaccharides. It prefers guluronate (G) to mannuronate (M). Its smallest substrate is an unsaturated pentasaccharide, and its minimum product is an unsaturated disaccharide. The final alginate digests contain unsaturated oligosaccharides that generally range from disaccharides to heptasaccharides, with the tetrasaccharide fraction constituting the highest mass concentration. The disaccharide products are identified as ΔG units. While interestingly, the tri- and tetrasaccharide fractions each contain higher proportions of ΔG to ΔM ends, the larger final products contain only ΔM ends, which constitute a novel oligosaccharide-yielding property of guluronate lyases. The deletion of the noncatalytic region of Aly5 does not alter its M/G preference but significantly decreases the enzymatic activity and enzyme stability. Notably, the truncated protein accumulates large final oligosaccharide products but yields fewer small final products than Aly5, which are codetermined by its M/G preference to and size enlargement of degradable oligosaccharides. This study provides novel enzymatic properties and catalytic mechanisms of a guluronate lyase for potential uses and improvements. PMID:26519393

  4. Baby universes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strominger, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TOPOLOGY CHANGE AND THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 0+1 DIMENSIONS * Third Quantization of Free One-dimensional Universes * Third Quantization of Interacting One-Dimensional Universes * The Single-Universe Approximation and Dynamical Determination of Coupling Constants * The Third Quantized Uncertainty Principle * THIRD QUANTIZATION IN 3+1 DIMENSIONS * The Gauge Invariant Action * Relation to Other Formalisms * PARENT AND BABY UNIVERSES * The Hybrid Action * Baby Universe Field Operators and Spacetime Couplings * INSTANTONS-FROM QUANTUM MECHANICS TO QUANTUM GRAVITY * Quantum Mechanics * Quantum Field Theory * Quantum Gravity * Axionic Instantons * The Small Expansion Parameter * THE AXION MODEL AND THE INSTANTON APPROXIMATION * THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT * The Hawking-Baum Argument * Baby Universes and Coleman's Argument * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  5. Geochemistry, Petrology, and Provenance of Magnetite-Rich Ortaklar Cu Deposit Hosting Basalts from Koçali Complex, Gaziantep, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, E.; Lee, I.; Kang, J.; Dönmez, C.; Yildirim, N.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite-rich Cyprus type VMS deposit has been recently discovered from the Ortaklar-Gaziantep region within Koçali complex, SE Turkey. Magnetite rich sulfide ore bodies are in close contact with underlying footwall spilitic basalts. These basalts are part of Koçali mélange, which represents an accreted oceanic complex during closing of southern Neotethys. These extrusives are low-K, low alkali tholeiites with Ca rich, partially sericitized plagioclase subophitically enclosed by augite with disseminated Fe-Ti oxides and pyrite. Mineral crystallization sequence of plagioclase followed by augite and opaque is typical of MORB. Major and trace element analyses for least altered basalts based on LOI (1.5~3.6 wt%), Ce/Ce* (0.9~1.1) exhibit limited range of element abundances. Low Mg# (59~60) suggests that basalts were derived from moderately evolved magma with fractional crystallization. HFSE (Th, Nb, Hf, Zr) were used for tectonic discrimination and basalts were plotted within MORB end spectrum, near MORB-IAT boundary. N-MORB normalized La to Lu ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 times N-MORB with LREE depletion [(La/Sm)N = 0.58~0.67] and flat HREE [(Tb/Lu)N = 0.95~1.05]. Chondrite normalized REE patterns resemble those of N-MORB but characterized by severe LREE depletion [(La/Sm)CN = 0.35~0.45]. LREE depletion coupled with high Sm/Nd (0.36~0.43), high CaO/Na2O (5.0~6.2) and low Nb/Yb (0.23~0.39) suggest depleted N-MORB composition derived from the refractory mantle source. Analyzed basalts are similar to those found from other rift (Costa Rica Rift Hole 504b) and intra-transform fault (Siqueiros transform). Magnetite emplacement occurring close to the ore-host boundary and lack of pyrrhotite from hosting basalts imply an involvement of oxidized hydrothermal fluids. Basalts probably have formed by late stage, partial melting of the refractory mantle at low pressure, shallow depth, and H2O rich environment. Possible source of mantle heterogeneity can be identified by isotope

  6. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  7. Challenged Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Pricing and financial aid issues affecting research universities, particularly private universities, are examined, including underpricing of services, decentralization, and diversification of higher education in the United States. The growth of federal regulation is also considered, especially the State Postsecondary Review Entities (SPREs)…

  8. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  9. Overseas Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, London (England).

    The following articles and reports are presented in this publication of "Overseas Universities:""Appropriate Technology and University Education," by John Twidell; "The Training of Engineering Staff for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries," by D. W. Daniel, C. A. Leal, J. H. Maynes and T. Wilmore; "A Case Study of an Academic…

  10. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher…

  11. University Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    This book explores how universities relate their built environment to academic discourse, asserting that the character of universities is often a charming dialogue between order and disarray. It contains numerous photographs and building plans for example campuses throughout the world. In part 1, "The Campus," chapters are: (1) "Academic Mission…

  12. Structural phase stability, electronic structure and mechanical properties of alkali metal hydrides AMH4 (A=Li, Na; M=B, AL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, M.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.

    2016-01-01

    The structural stability of Alkali metal hydrides AMH4 (A=Li, Na; M=B, Al) is analyzed among the various crystal structures, namely hexagonal (P63mc), tetragonal (P42/nmc), tetragonal (P-421c), tetragonal (I41/a), orthorhombic (Pnma) and monoclinic (P21/c). It is observed that, orthorhombic (Pnma) phase is the most stable structure for LiBH4, monoclinic (P21/c) for LiAlH4, tetragonal (P42/nmc) for NaBH4 and tetragonal (I41/a) for NaAlH4 at normal pressure. Pressure induced structural phase transitions are observed in LiBH4, LiAlH4, NaBH4 and NaAlH4 at the pressures of 4 GPa, 36.1 GPa, 26.5 GPa and 46 GPa respectively. The electronic structure reveals that these metal hydrides are wide band gap insulators. The calculated elastic constants indicate that these metal hydrides are mechanically stable at normal pressure.

  13. Effect of integrated pest management on controlling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Emamzadeh Agha Ali Abbas (AS) District, Isfahan province, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Shirani-Bidabadi, Leila; Saberi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Jaffary, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still considered as a health problem in the world. Several methods of control in different regions, together with obtaining integrated information on its natural foci, are needed to decrease its prevalence. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of simultaneous interventions on CL control. Materials and Methods: A standard questionnaire was used to identify patients among pilgrims to Emamzadeh Agha Ali Abbas (Isfahan Province, Iran). Subsequently, three methods of controlling the disease, including, spraying residential buildings with Baygon, baiting with zinc phosphide poisons, changing the vegetative cover of the region, improving the environment, and mounting a mesh on all doors and windows of buildings in residential areas were used. The control measures were then evaluated by comparing the number of pilgrims affected by CL after and before the interventions. Results: While 23 pilgrims (1.4%) were affected with CL before the intervention (pretest), five (0.3%) persons were found to have CL after taking control measures. The Chi-square test did not indicate any significant difference in the relative frequency of CL (P = 0.731). Conclusion: The only scientific method for preventing and controlling zoonotic CL (ZCL) is a combination of the control methods (improving the environment and fighting off the disease districts and vectors) together with changing the vegetative cover of the region. Any measure for controlling this disease must be taken and programmed in accordance with the relevant experts’ views, in coordination with the participation of other organizations and the society. PMID:24818102

  14. UIF, a New mRNA export adaptor that works together with REF/ALY, requires FACT for recruitment to mRNA.

    PubMed

    Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Hung, Ming-Lung; Walsh, Matthew J; Snijders, Ambrosius P L; Chang, Chung-Te; Jones, Rachel; Ponting, Chris P; Dickman, Mark J; Wilson, Stuart A

    2009-12-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) export adaptors play an important role in the transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. They couple early mRNA processing events such as 5' capping and 3' end formation with loading of the TAP/NXF1 export receptor onto mRNA. The canonical adaptor REF/ALY/Yra1 is recruited to mRNA via UAP56 and subsequently delivers the mRNA to NXF1 [1]. Knockdown of UAP56 [2, 3] and NXF1 [4-7] in higher eukaryotes efficiently blocks mRNA export, whereas knockdown of REF only causes a modest reduction, suggesting the existence of additional adaptors [8-10]. Here we identify a new UAP56-interacting factor, UIF, which functions as an export adaptor, binding NXF1 and delivering mRNA to the nuclear pore. REF and UIF are simultaneously found on the same mRNA molecules, and both proteins are required for efficient export of mRNA. We show that the histone chaperone FACT specifically binds UIF, but not REF, via the SSRP1 subunit, and this interaction is required for recruitment of UIF to mRNA. Together the results indicate that REF and UIF represent key human adaptors for the export of cellular mRNAs via the UAP56-NXF1 pathway.

  15. Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  16. Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. III. Water-rich aluminium halide hydrates: AlCl3 · 15H2O, AlBr3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 17H2O and AlBr3 · 9H2O.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Horst; Hennings, Erik; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Water-rich aluminium halide hydrate structures are not known in the literature. The highest known water content per Al atom is nine for the perchlorate and fluoride. The nonahydrate of aluminium bromide, stable pentadecahydrates of aluminium chloride, bromide and iodide, and a metastable heptadecahydrate of the iodide have now been crystallized from low-temperature solutions. The structures of these hydrates were determined and are discussed in terms of the development of cation hydration spheres. The pentadecahydrate of the chloride and bromide are isostructural. In AlI(3) · 15H2O, half of the Al(3+) cations are surrounded by two complete hydration spheres, with six H2O in the primary and 12 in the secondary. For the heptadecahydrate of aluminium iodide, this hydration was found for every Al(3+). PMID:25186362

  17. Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. III. Water-rich aluminium halide hydrates: AlCl3 · 15H2O, AlBr3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 17H2O and AlBr3 · 9H2O.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Horst; Hennings, Erik; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Water-rich aluminium halide hydrate structures are not known in the literature. The highest known water content per Al atom is nine for the perchlorate and fluoride. The nonahydrate of aluminium bromide, stable pentadecahydrates of aluminium chloride, bromide and iodide, and a metastable heptadecahydrate of the iodide have now been crystallized from low-temperature solutions. The structures of these hydrates were determined and are discussed in terms of the development of cation hydration spheres. The pentadecahydrate of the chloride and bromide are isostructural. In AlI(3) · 15H2O, half of the Al(3+) cations are surrounded by two complete hydration spheres, with six H2O in the primary and 12 in the secondary. For the heptadecahydrate of aluminium iodide, this hydration was found for every Al(3+).

  18. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  19. A comparison between HfO2/Al2O3 nano-laminates and ternary HfxAlyO compound as the dielectric material in InGaAs based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Igor; Pokroy, Boaz; Eizenberg, Moshe; Ritter, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We compare the electrical properties of HfO2/Al2O3 nano-laminates with those of the ternary HfxAlyO compound in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. The dielectrics were deposited by atomic layer deposition on InGaAs. Water, ozone, and oxygen plasma were tested as oxygen precursors, and best results were obtained using water. The total dielectric thickness was kept constant in our experiments. It was found that the effective dielectric constant increased and the leakage current decreased with the number of periods. Best results were obtained for the ternary compound. The effect of the sublayer thicknesses on the electrical properties of the interface was carefully investigated, as well as the role of post-metallization annealing. Possible explanations for the observed trends are provided. We conclude that the ternary HfxAlyO compound is more favorable than the nano-laminates approach for InGaAs based MOS transistor applications.

  20. Einstein's Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)

  1. Universal Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, John

    1990-01-01

    Described is a symposium of Nobel laureates held in the summer of 1990 to discuss cosmology. Different views on the structure and evolution of the universe are presented. Evidence for different theories of cosmology is discussed. (CW)

  2. Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A universe that expands with time. Although the possibility had been raised earlier through theoretical work carried out by Willem de Sitter (1872-1934), Aleksandr Friedmann (1888-1925), and the Abbé Georges Lemaître (1894-1966), that our universe is expanding was first demonstrated observationally in 1929 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), through his measurements of the redshifts in the spectra of ...

  3. Undulant Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  4. Use of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral image data and real-time field sampling for water quality mapping in the Hirfanlı Dam Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kavurmacı, Murat; Ekercin, Semih; Altaş, Levent; Kurmaç, Yakup

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of water quality variations in Hirfanlı Water Reservoir, which is one of the most important water resources in Turkey, through EO-1 (Earth Observing-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral data and real-time field sampling. The study was materialized in 20 different sampling points during the overpass of the EO-1 ALI sensor over the study area. A multi-linear regression technique was used to explore the relationships between radiometrically corrected EO-1 ALI image data and water quality parameters: chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids. The retrieved and verified results show that the measured and estimated values of water quality parameters are in good agreement (R (2) >0.93). The resulting thematic maps derived from EO-1 multispectral data for chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids show the spatial distribution of the water quality parameters. The results indicate that the reservoir has average nutrient values. Furthermore, chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids values increased at the upstream reservoir and shallow coast of the Hirfanlı Water Reservoir. PMID:23423869

  5. Low-Cost Evaluation of EO-1 Hyperion and ALI for Detection and Biophysical Characterization of Forest Logging in Amazonia (NCC5-481)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael M.; Silva, Jose Natalino; Zweede, Johan C.; Pereira, Rodrigo, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    quantify both the presence and degree of structural disturbance caused by various logging regimes. Our quantitative assessment of Hyperion hyperspectral and ALI multi-spectral data for the detection and structural characterization of selective logging in Amazonia will benefit from data collected through an ongoing project run by the Tropical Forest Foundation, within which we have developed a study of the canopy and landscape biophysics of conventional and reduced-impact logging. We will add to our base of forest structural information in concert with an EO-1 overpass. Using a photon transport model inversion technique that accounts for non-linear mixing of the four biogeophysical indicators, we will estimate these parameters across a gradient of selective logging intensity provided by conventional and reduced impact logging sites. We will also compare our physical ly-based approach to both conventional (e.g., NDVI) and novel (e.g., SWIR-channel) vegetation indices as well as to linear mixture modeling methods. We will cross-compare these approaches using Hyperion and ALI imagers to determine the strengths and limitations of these two sensors for applications of forest biophysics. This effort will yield the first physical ly-based, quantitative analysis of the detection and intensity of selective logging in Amazonia, comparing hyperspectral and improved multi-spectral approaches as well as inverse modeling, linear mixture modeling, and vegetation index techniques.

  6. Evolution and circulation of type-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses in Nad Ali district of Southern Afghanistan during June 2009-February 2011.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Salmaan; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Khurshid, Adnan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2014-01-01

    Oral polio vaccine has been used successfully as a powerful tool to control the spread of wild polioviruses throughout the world; however, during replication in under immunized children, some vaccine viruses revert and acquire the neurovirulent phenotypic properties. In this study, we describe the evolution and circulation of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses (VDPVs) in Helmand province of Afghanistan. We investigated 2646 AFP cases of Afghan children from June 2009-February 2011 and isolated 103 (04%) vaccine viruses, 45(1.7%) wild type polioviruses and six (0.22%) type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). These cVDPVs showed 97.7%-98.2% nucleotide and 98%-98.7% amino acid homology in VP1 region on comparison with Sabin type 2 reference strain. All these cVDPVs had two signature mutations of neurovirulent phenotypes and 12 additional mutations in P1 capsid region that might also have contributed to increase neurovirulence and replication. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these viruses were closely related and originated from previously reported Sabin like 2 virus from Pakistan which did not conform to the standard definition of VDPVs at that time. It was also observed that initial OPV dose was administered approximately 9 months prior to the collection of first stool specimen of index case. Our findings support that suboptimal surveillance and low routine immunization coverage have contributed to the emergence and spread of these viruses in Afghanistan. We therefore recommend high quality immunization campaigns not only in affected district Nad Ali but also in the bordering areas between Pakistan and Afghanistan to prevent the spread of cVDPVs.

  7. Sputter deposition of MgxAlyOz thin films in a dual-magnetron device: a multi-species Monte Carlo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupov, M.; Saraiva, M.; Depla, D.; Bogaerts, A.

    2012-07-01

    A multi-species Monte Carlo (MC) model, combined with an analytical surface model, has been developed in order to investigate the general plasma processes occurring during the sputter deposition of complex oxide films in a dual-magnetron sputter deposition system. The important plasma species, such as electrons, Ar+ ions, fast Ar atoms and sputtered metal atoms (i.e. Mg and Al atoms) are described with the so-called multi-species MC model, whereas the deposition of MgxAlyOz films is treated by an analytical surface model. Target-substrate distances for both magnetrons in the dual-magnetron setup are varied for the purpose of growing stoichiometric complex oxide thin films. The metal atoms are sputtered from pure metallic targets, whereas the oxygen flux is only directed toward the substrate and is high enough to obtain fully oxidized thin films but low enough to avoid target poisoning. The calculations correspond to typical experimental conditions applied to grow these complex oxide films. In this paper, some calculation results are shown, such as the densities of various plasma species, their fluxes toward the targets and substrate, the deposition rates, as well as the film stoichiometry. Moreover, some results of the combined model are compared with experimental observations. Note that this is the first complete model, which can be applied for large and complicated magnetron reactor geometries, such as dual-magnetron configurations. With this model, we are able to describe all important plasma species as well as the deposition process. It can also be used to predict film stoichiometries of complex oxide films on the substrate.

  8. Development of Antisense Therapeutic and Imaging Agents to Detect and Suppress Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Expression in Acute Lung Injury (ALI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuefei

    This dissertation focuses on the development and investigation of antisense imaging and therapeutic agents, combined with nanotechnology, to detect and suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression for the diagnosis and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). To achieve this goal, several efforts were made. The first effort was the identification and characterization of high binding affinity antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and shell-crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticle (SCK)-PNA conjugates to the iNOS mRNA. Antisense binding sites on the iNOS mRNA were first mapped by a procedure for rapidly generating a library of antisense accessible sites on native mRNAs (MASL) which involves reverse transcription of whole cell mRNA extracts with a random oligodeoxynucleotide primer followed by mRNA-specific PCR. Antisense PNAs against the antisense accessible sites were accordingly synthesized and characterized. The second effort was the investigation of cationic shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticle (cSCK)-mediated siRNA delivery to suppress iNOS expression for the treatment of ALI. siRNA with its unique gene-specific properties could serve as a promising therapeutic agent, however success in this area has been challenged by a lack of efficient biocompatible transfection agents. cSCK with its nanometer size and positive charge previously showed efficient cellular delivery of phosphorothioate ODNs (oligodeoxynucleotides), plasmid DNA and PNA. Herein, cSCK showed good siRNA binding and facilitated efficient siRNA transfection in HeLa, a mouse macrophage cell line and other human cell lines. cSCK led to greater silencing efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000 in HeLa cells as determined by the viability following transfection with cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic siRNAs, as well in 293T and HEK cells, and was comparable in BEAS-2B and MCF10a cells. The third effort was the preparation of an iNOS imaging probe through electrostatic complexation between a radiolabeled

  9. Conformational preferences of DNA following damage by aristolochic acids: Structural and energetic insights into the different mutagenic potential of the ALI and ALII-N(6)-dA adducts.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Abendong, Minette N; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2015-04-21

    Aristolochic acids (AAI and AAII), produced by the Aristolochiaceae family of plants, are classified as group I (human) carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. These acids are metabolized in cells to yield aristolactams (ALI and ALII, respectively), which further form bulky adducts with the purine nucleobases. Specifically, the adenine lesions are more persistent in cells and have been associated with chronic renal diseases and related carcinogenesis. To understand the structural basis of the nephrotoxicity induced by AAs, the ALI-N(6)-dA and ALII-N(6)-dA lesions are systematically studied using computational methods. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the aristolactam moiety intrinsically prefers a planar conformation with respect to adenine. Nucleoside and nucleotide models suggest that the anti and syn orientations about the glycosidic bond are isoenergetic for both adducts. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations reveal that the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation is the most stable conformer for both types of AL-N(6)-dA adducted DNA, which agrees with previous experimental work on the ALII-N(6)-dA adduct and thereby validates our approach. Interestingly, this conformer differs from the dominant conformations adopted by other N6-linked adenine lesions, including those derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the second most stable syn base-displaced intercalated conformation lies closer in energy to the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation for ALI-N(6)-dA compared to ALII-N(6)-dA. This indicates that a mixture of conformations may be detectable for ALI-N(6)-dA in DNA. If this enhanced conformational flexibility of double-stranded DNA persists when bound to a lesion-bypass polymerase, this provides a possible structural explanation for the previously observed greater nephrotoxic potential for the ALI versus ALII-N(6)-dA adduct. In addition, the structural

  10. Plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  11. University Builders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Martin

    This publication explores a diverse collection of new university buildings. Ranging from the design of vast new campuses, such as that by Wilford and Stirling at Temasek, Singapore, through to the relatively modest yet strategically important, such as the intervention by Allies and Morrison at Southampton, this book examines the new higher…

  12. Universities 2035

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrift, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the future of Western higher education. Situated midway between an analysis and a polemic, it concerns itself with how we might begin to actively design the universities of the future. That will require a productionist account of higher education which is so far sadly lacking. But there are signs that such an account might be…

  13. Universal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobryn, Nancy M.

    Universal Studies, a study program designed to help students develop emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually, is described. Development of the personality and character of the individual is emphasized, as are innovation, creativity, individualized instruction, independent learning, and realizing human potential. These goals are characterized…

  14. Widener University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valesey, Brigitte; Allen, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1821, Widener University is a two-state (Pennsylvania and Delaware), four-campus, eight-college private institution serving approximately 6,700 students. Following arrival of the new senior vice president and provost in 2004 and subsequent reorganization of vice presidential responsibilities, Student Affairs is now led by a dean of…

  15. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choe, Kevin; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500-2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents' identification, determination, further development and most importantly, the

  16. Petrochemistry of ultrapotassic tephrites and associated cognate plutonic xenoliths with carbonatite affinities from the late Quaternary Qa’le Hasan Ali maars, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, S.; Stern, C. R.; Moradian, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Quaternary Qa’le Hasan Ali (QHA) maars in central Iran occur at the intersection of the north-south Nayband fault, which defines the western boundary of the Lut micro-continental block, and a system of northwest-southeast faults, subparallel to the Zagros suture zone, that formed during the Arabian-Eurasian collision. These post-collisional maars intrude Eocene volcanic rocks of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, which was generated by the subduction of Neotethys oceanic lithosphere below Iran. The highly potassic, Ti-phlogopite + Mg-rich (Fo89-92) olivine + diopside-augite + aegirine-augite basanite tephrites forming the tuff rims of the QHA maars contain tephrite-coated plutonic xenoliths, some of which are interpreted as co-genetic with the tephrites based on their similar mineralogy and Sr isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70590). Cognate plutonic xenoliths have up to ∼20 vol% calcite, considered to be magmatic calcite because of (1) its grain size, which is similar to feldspars and aegirine-augite pyroxenes in these rocks, (2) the occurrence of fine-grained inclusions of pyroxene and apatite within these calcite grains, and (3) the similarity of the Sr-isotopic composition of this calcite with the other minerals in these rocks. The fact that the magmatic calcite has remained intact and did not volatilize during the transport of these xenoliths to the surface in the hot tephrite magma implies a short transit time, indicating that they are samples of a shallow plutonic complex, as does the presence of anorthoclase in these plutonic xenoliths. Their high modal proportion of magmatic calcite suggests that this shallow plutonic complex has affinities with carbonatites. The magmatic calcite-bearing plutonic xenoliths have high LREE/HREE ratios and contain REE-rich allanite (with up to ∼20 wt% LREE) and britholite (∼60 wt% LREE) that make up ∼3 modal percent of the most calcite-rich samples. Similar to many post-collisional highly potassic rocks

  17. Diffusion, diffraction des neutrons en temps réel et études réalisées in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnard, O.

    2003-02-01

    La diffusion des neutrons est une technique particulièrement efficace pour l'analyse en temps réel des processus réactionnels dans la matière. La diffraction de neutrons in situ a été développée très tôt sur les sources à haut flux tel que l'Institut Laue Langevin. Ces études nécessitent un flux de neutrons important et un détecteur couvrant un domaine angulaire le plus grand possible. Les neutrons offrent la spécificité d'être très peu absorbés par nombre de matériaux, cette faible absorption fait de la diffusion neutronique un excellent outil pour sonder la matière en volume et de manière non destructive. Cela permet en particulier d'utiliser des environnements d'échantillons complexes tout en conservant un flux raisonnable. La diffusion de neutrons en temps réel est donc très largement utilisée par diverses communautés scientifiques : sciences des matériaux, physiciens, chimistes... L'objet de ce cours est de donner les paramètres importants pour ce type d'étude et d'illustrer le propos à l'aide d'exemples pris dans des domaines scientifiques divers : électrochimie, magnétisme, métallurgie, chimie du solide. Après avoir présenté quelques repères méthodologiques sur les méthodes d'acquisition de données, des exemples montreront le fort potentiel de la diffusion neutronique en temps réel pour l'étude de la matière dans des conditions dynamiques. Enfin, nous donnerons aussi quelques conseils pour la visualisation, le dépouillement et l'analyse de ce type d'expérience. La diffusion des neutrons sur poudre est actuellement très bien adaptée aux études réalisées in situ. Cependant, nous verrons que la faisabilité d'études in situ s'étend à d'autres techniques expérimentales telles que la diffusion des neutrons aux petits angles et même la diffusion sur monocristal qui est en plein renouveau.

  18. Le champ critique de claquage de films d'oxyde de polyphénylène réalisés par voie électrochimique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adohi, B.; Gosse, J. P.; Gosse, B.

    1991-10-01

    The electrical breakdown of thin films of polyphenylene oxide electrochemically deposited on stainless steel plane substrates has been studied. First it was examined the dependence of the medium surrounding the dielectric and the electrodes (nature, hydrostatic pressure) on the breakdown voltage and on its statistical distribution. Between sphere and plane electrodes, it appears that even for pressurified gases, breakdown of the film is caused by the gas breakdown. We have analysed the discharges occurring at atmosphere pressure in the test cell. Breakdown of the film occurred when the electric field due to the charge deposited on its surface was about 230 V/μm. We have also studied self-healing capacitors with PPO as a dielectric, and determined the life-time of this material. On a étudié le claquage électrique de films minces d'oxyde de polyphénylène de quelques microns d'épaisseur déposés par voie électrochimique sur un plan en acier inoxydable. L'étude a d'abord été faite en rampe de tension continue dans la géométrie d'électrodes sphèreplan, en fonction du milieu ambiant liquide ou gazeux. L'influence de la pression sur la rigidité diélectrique du matériau, les distributions statistiques de Weibull et les cratères formés au moment du claquage, dans les différents milieux et dans les deux polarités de l'électrode sphérique montrent que le claquage du matériau est causé par des décharges qui se produisent dans le milieu environnant. A partir de l'analyse quantitative de ces décharges, on propose comme critère de caractérisation de la rupture d'un matériau sounmis aux décharges, le champ créé au moment de la rupture par les charges déposées à sa surface. On a réalisé ensuite des échantillons plans << autocicatrisables >> par dépôt de couches minces d'aluminium (quelques milliers d'Å d'épaisseur) sur le film de PPO. On étudie dans cette configuration la durée de vie du matériau.

  19. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choe, Kevin; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500-2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents' identification, determination, further development and most importantly, the

  20. A new myxosporean species Myxobolus sclerii sp. nov. and one known species M. stomum Ali et al. 2003 from two Indian major carp fishes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

    2010-04-01

    The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9-9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3-5.7(5 ± 0.98) μm in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar capsules two, equal and measuring 4-5.4(4.7 ± 0.98) × 1-2.6(1.8 ± 1.31) μm in size. A rod-shaped medium-sized intercapsular process is present. Iodinophilous vacuole present measuring 2.19-4.13(3.16 ± 1.37) μm in diameter. Spores of M. stomum Ali et al.2003 measure 9.8-10.3(10.0 ± 0.35) × 7.9-8.7(8.3 ± 0.56) μm in size, with rounded anterior and posterior end. Spore valves smooth, symmetrical, thick measuring 0.88 μm in thickness. Parietal folds absent. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules are equal, pear-shaped measuring 4.8-5.2(5.0 ± 0.28) × 1.5-2.3(1.9 ± 0.56) μm in size, each with a neck leading to a fine duct opening independently. Both polar capsules converge slightly anteriorly but diverge apart posteriorly occupying more than half of spore body. Intercapsular appendix is absent. Earlier, the parasite was recorded in the buccal cavity, muscles and lips of Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskal), Egypt. A new locality-Ropar Wetland, a new location-scales and a new host- Labeo rohita (Hamilton) are recorded for this parasite. PMID:21526031

  1. Centennial-scale vegetation and climate changes in the Middle Atlas, Morocco: new insights from multi-proxy investigations at Lake Sidi Ali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, William; Campbell, Jennifer; Joannin, Sebastien; Mischke, Steffen; Zielhofer, Christoph; de Batist, Marc; Mikdad, Abdes

    2016-04-01

    The karstic lakes of the Middle Atlas, Morocco, represent a valuable archive of environmental and climatic change for Northwest Africa. Here we present the results of centennial-scale palynological and charcoal analyses as part of a multiproxy palaeolimnological study of sediment cores from Lake Sidi Ali in the Middle Atlas, Morocco (33° 03 N, 05° 00 W; 2,080 m a.s.l.). Supported by absolute dating including 23 more than twenty AMS 14C dates on pollen concentrates, the record covers the entire Holocene and offers insights into vegetation and climate change at a regionally unprecedented centennial-scale. Pollen assemblages are dominated by steppic herbs, evergreen oaks (Quercus), junipers (Cupressaceae) and Atlantic cedar (Cedrus atlantica). A long-term evolution of the montane vegetation is recorded, reflecting progressive changes in the dominant arboreal taxa and leading to the full establishment of the emblematic cedar forests of the area during the mid-Holocene by 6000 cal BP. Orbital-scale changes in seasonality and growing season moisture availability linked to declining summer insolation are implicated, with a transition from (a) warm, dry summers associated with summer drought tolerant taxa especially evergreen Quercus, high algal productivity in the lake, and high background levels of microcharcoal reflecting distant fire activity during the early Holocene, to (b) cool, relatively humid summers with dominance of montane conifers, declining algal productivity in the lake, and episodic local fire activity during the mid- to late Holocene. Superimposed on the long-term environmental changes are recurrent centennial-scale fluctuations in vegetation composition, reflecting competitive dynamics between the major taxa, initially between steppic and arboreal elements, and later between the major tree taxa. Parallels with hydrological proxies including stable O and C isotopes suggest common responses to climatic drivers (fluctuations in moisture sources and

  2. Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödinger, E.

    2011-02-01

    Preface; Part I. The de Sitter Universe: 1. Synthetic construction; 2. The reduced model: geodesics; 3. The elliptic interpretation; 4. The static frame; 5. The determination of parallaxes; 6. The Lemaître-Robertson frame; Part II. The Theory of Geodesics: 7. On null geodesics; i. Determination of the parameter for null lines in special cases; ii. Frequency shift; 8. Free particles and light rays in general expanding spaces, flat or hyperspherical; i. Flat spaces; ii. Spherical spaces; iii. The red shift for spherical spaces; Part III. Waves in General Riemannian Space-Time: 9. The nature of our approximation; 10. The Hamilton-Jacobi theory in a gravitational field; 11. Procuring approximate solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation from wave theory; Part IV. Waves in an Expanding Universe: 12. General considerations; 13. Proper vibrations and wave parcels; Bibliography.

  3. University lobbying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In the past year, an increasing number of individual academic institutions have lobbied in Congress for new science facilities funds thus circumventing the traditional peer review process of evaluating the merits of such facilities. As an attempt to stem this rising tide, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) governing council and the Association of American Universities (AAU) recently and independently issued strong statements condemning lobbying by individual universities and enthusiastically supporting the peer review system.“Informed peer judgments on the scientific merits of specific proposals, in open competition, should be a central element in the awarding of all federal funds for science,” the NAS resolution stated. AAU, meanwhile, implored “scientists, leaders of America's universities, and members of Congress” to “refrain from actions that would make scientific decisions a test of political influence rather than a judgment on the quality of the work to be done.” Roughly 50 research institutions constitute AAU; the two AAU Canadian members did not vote on the consortium's statement.

  4. Open University

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-18

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  5. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  6. Purdue University

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.; Grabowski, Z.; Mayer, R.H.

    1995-08-01

    The Purdue University group, including several thesis students, is working on a measurement of high-spin nuclear states at ATLAS. They use in-beam gamma-ray techniques to investigate several aspects of nuclear structure at high spin, testing the validity of shell-model calculations for high-spin-yrast states near Z = 50. The nuclei are produced via deep inelastic reactions, rather than with the more conventional fusion reactions. This technique allows the study of neutron-rich nuclei that cannot be studied by other means. The group is studying proton-rich nuclei with N{approximately}82 using the FMA and an electron spectrometer. Furthermore, D. Nisius is a Ph.D. student, resident at ANL, performing his thesis work under the supervision of R.V.F. Janssens.

  7. A fractal model of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, Ioan

    The book represents a revisioned, extended, completed and translated version of the book "Superposed Universes. A scientific novel and a SF story" (1995). The book contains a hypothesis by the author concerning the complexity of the Nature. An introduction to the theories of numbers, manyfolds and topology is given. The possible connection with the theory of evolution of the Universe is discussed. The book contains also in the last chapter a SF story based on the hypothesis presented. A connection with fractals theory is given. A part of his earlier studies (1955-1956) were subsequently published without citation by Ali Kyrala (Phys. Rev. vol.117, No.5, march 1, 1960). The book contains as an important appendix the early papers (some of which are published in the coauthoprship with his scientific advisors): 1) T.T. Vescan, A. Weiszmann and I.Gottlieb, Contributii la studiul problemelor geometrice ale teoriei relativitatii restranse. Academia R.P.R. Baza Timisoara. Lucrarile consfatuirii de geometrie diferentiala din 9-12 iunie 1955. In this paper the authors show a new method of the calculation of the metrics. 2) Jean Gottlieb, L'hyphotese d'un modele de la structure de la matiere, Revista Matematica y Fisica Teorica, Serie A, Volumen XY, No.1, y.2, 1964 3) I. Gottlieb, Some hypotheses on space, time and gravitation, Studies in Gravitation Theory, CIP Press, Bucharest, 1988, pp.227-234 as well as some recent papers (published in the coauthorship with his disciples): 4)M. Agop, Gottlieb speace-time. A fractal axiomatic model of the Universe. in Particles and Fields, Editors: M.Agop and P.D. Ioannou, Athens University Press, 2005, pp. 59-141 5) I. Gottlieb, M.Agop and V.Enache, Games with Cantor's dust. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, vol.40 (2009) pp. 940-945 6) I. Gottlieb, My picture over the World, Bull. of the Polytechnic Institute of Iasi. Tom LVI)LX, Fasc. 1, 2010, pp. 1-18. The book contains also a dedication to father Vasile Gottlieb and wife Cleopatra

  8. Luminescent properties of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} and its luminescence improvement by incorporating A{sup +} (A=Li, Na, and K)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Panlai Wang, Zhijun Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2014-12-15

    A novel green phosphor SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} is synthesized by a high temperature solid-state method, and its luminescent property is investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} indicate a similarity crystalline phase to SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} shows green emission under 369 nm excitation, and the prominent luminescence in green (544 nm) due to {sup 5}D{sub 4}–{sup 7}F{sub 5} transition of Tb{sup 3+}. For the 544 nm emission, excitation spectrum has several excitation band from 200 nm to 400 nm. Emission intensity of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} is influenced by Tb{sup 3+} concentration, and concentration quenching effect of Tb{sup 3+} in SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is also observed. With incorporating A{sup +} (A=Li, Na, and K) as compensator charge, the emission intensity of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} can be obviously enhanced. CIE color coordinates of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} locate in the green region. The results indicate this phosphor may be a potential application in white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} can produce green emission under near-UV excitation, and its luminescent properties can be improved by incorporating A{sup +} (A=Li, Na, and K). - Highlights: • SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} can produce green emission under near-UV excitation. • Concentration quenching effect of Tb{sup 3+} in SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is observed. • Emission intensities of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} are enhanced by codoped A{sup +} (A=Li, Na, K)

  9. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance of SubstitutedLiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2007-11-28

    A complete series of LiNi0.4Co0.2-yAlyMn0.4O2 (0<_y<_0.2) materials have been synthesized and investigated as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. When cycled between 2.0 and 4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2, stable capacities of ~;;160 mAh/g for y=0 to ~;;110 mAh/g for y=0.2 are achieved. Upon increasing the current density, it is found that all materials containing aluminum show reduced polarization and improved rate performance. The optimal performance at all current densities was found for the compound with y=0.05. The effect of aluminumsubstitution on the crystal structure of the host is discussed.

  10. Application of multivariate statistical analysis and hydrochemical and isotopic investigations for evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agriculture purposes: case of Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer, central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Imen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater plays a dominant role in arid regions; it is among the most available water resources in Tunisia. Located in northwestern Tunisia, Oum Ali-Thelepte is a deep Miocene sedimentary aquifer, where groundwater is the most important source of water supply. The aim of the study is to investigate the hydrochemical processes leading to mineralization and to assess water quality with respect to agriculture and drinking for a better management of groundwater resources. To achieve such objectives, water analysis was carried out on 16 groundwater samples collected during January-February 2014. Stable isotopes and 26 hydrochemical parameters were examined. The interpretation of these analytical data showed that the concentrations of major and trace elements were within the permissible level for human use. The distribution of mineral processes in this aquifer was identified using conventional classification techniques, suggesting that the water facies gradually changes from Ca-HCO3 to Mg-SO4 type and are controlled by water-rock interaction. These results were endorsed using multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The sustainability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed based on the water quality index (WQI) and on Wilcox and Richards's diagrams. This aquifer has been classified as "excellent water" serving good irrigation in the area. As for the stable isotope, the measurements showed that groundwater samples lay between global meteoric water line (GMWL) and LMWL; hence, this arrangement signifies that the recharge of the Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer is ensured by rainwater infiltration through mountains in the border of the aquifer without evaporation effects. PMID:26842239

  11. Application of multivariate statistical analysis and hydrochemical and isotopic investigations for evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agriculture purposes: case of Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer, central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Imen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater plays a dominant role in arid regions; it is among the most available water resources in Tunisia. Located in northwestern Tunisia, Oum Ali-Thelepte is a deep Miocene sedimentary aquifer, where groundwater is the most important source of water supply. The aim of the study is to investigate the hydrochemical processes leading to mineralization and to assess water quality with respect to agriculture and drinking for a better management of groundwater resources. To achieve such objectives, water analysis was carried out on 16 groundwater samples collected during January-February 2014. Stable isotopes and 26 hydrochemical parameters were examined. The interpretation of these analytical data showed that the concentrations of major and trace elements were within the permissible level for human use. The distribution of mineral processes in this aquifer was identified using conventional classification techniques, suggesting that the water facies gradually changes from Ca-HCO3 to Mg-SO4 type and are controlled by water-rock interaction. These results were endorsed using multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The sustainability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed based on the water quality index (WQI) and on Wilcox and Richards's diagrams. This aquifer has been classified as "excellent water" serving good irrigation in the area. As for the stable isotope, the measurements showed that groundwater samples lay between global meteoric water line (GMWL) and LMWL; hence, this arrangement signifies that the recharge of the Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer is ensured by rainwater infiltration through mountains in the border of the aquifer without evaporation effects.

  12. University Handbook. University of Wisconsin, Whitewater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Whitewater.

    The University of Wisconsin-Whitewater's handbook is divided into major sections dealing with: the university; business services; university services; student matters; curricular matters; and personnel matters. Various topics are covered, including: tuition for senior citizens, medical insurance, risk management, degree requirements, student…

  13. The Global University Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  14. Motivating University Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, Paul; Sousa, Celio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said to have made university research less of a…

  15. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  16. Clinical Findings Leading to the Diagnosis of Sepsis in Neonates Hospitalized in Imam Khomeini and Bu Ali Hospitals, Sari, Iran: 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Roya; Yaghobian, Mahbobeh; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the important diseases in neonatal period is sepsis. Clinical sign and symptoms in addition to lab tests are the most important way to accurate diagnosis and prevention of mortality. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the most clinical sign and symptoms which leading to diagnosis of sepsis. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The medical records of patients hospitalized in hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences during 2011-2012 were reviewed. Variables were age, sex, birth and admission weight, clinical sign and symptoms, methods of delivery, admission and discharge condition, discharge status, the time elapsed between showing the symptom and admission to hospital, gestational age and the result of cultures. The data were recorded in a checklist and analyzed with SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: finding showed that 120 patients discharged during period of study with diagnosis of sepsis. Discharged status of 27 (%22/5) were expired. Median age was 1 day with 8 hours SD, length of stay were 12±1 days, gestational age was 34±3 weeks and median birth weight was 2477±977 grams. The median time elapsed between showing the symptom and admission to hospital was 38±31 hours. Blood culture in 10 (%8/3) and urine culture in 8 (%7/6) patients were positive. None of patients have positive lumbar puncture culture. The frequent sign and symptpms in patients were respiratory distress, poor feeding and lethargy. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is not possible only by specific laboratory exams. Clinical sign and symptoms can help us to prediction and diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Results of this research revealed that it is not clear which one of manifestations was started first or the second because of medical history sheets don’t show this process. PMID:24999128

  17. Cross-calibration of the Terra MODIS, Landsat 7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI sensors using near-simultaneous surface observation over the Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada, test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Meyer, D.J.; Xiong, X.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-calibration methodology has been developed using coincident image pairs from the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Earth Observing EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) to verify the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of these sensors with respect to each other. To quantify the effects due to different spectral responses, the Relative Spectral Responses (RSR) of these sensors were studied and compared by developing a set of "figures-of-merit." Seven cloud-free scenes collected over the Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada (RVPN), test site were used to conduct the cross-calibration study. This cross-calibration approach was based on image statistics from near-simultaneous observations made by different satellite sensors. Homogeneous regions of interest (ROI) were selected in the image pairs, and the mean target statistics were converted to absolute units of at-sensor reflectance. Using these reflectances, a set of cross-calibration equations were developed giving a relative gain and bias between the sensor pair.

  18. Metaphor and Universal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blown, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

  19. Gambling with the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    This is an excerpt from Stephen Hawking's book The Universe in a Nutshell. Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, were able to show that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that the universe and time itself must have had a beginning in a tremendous explosion. The discovery of the expansion of the universe is one of the great intellectual revolutions of the twentieth century.

  20. The Latin American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joseph, Ed.; Weatherhead, Richard W., Ed.

    A comparative overview is presented of the Latin American university, which is seen as an institution with a particular history and definite role. Chapters are as follows: "The Latin American University: An Introduction," by Joseph Maier and Richard W. Weatherhead; "Origin and Philosophy of the Spanish American University," by Mario Gongora;…

  1. What Are Good Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Raewyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers how we can arrive at a concept of the good university. It begins with ideas expressed by Australian Vice-Chancellors and in the "league tables" for universities, which essentially reproduce existing privilege. It then considers definitions of the good university via wish lists, classic texts, horror lists, structural…

  2. John Carroll University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kathleen Lis; Rombalski, Patrick; O'Dell, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    John Carroll University (JCU) is a Jesuit Catholic institution located in University Heights, approximately 10 miles east of Cleveland, Ohio. Founded in 1888, the university has a population of 3,400 undergraduates and 800 graduate students. The Division of Student Affairs at JCU comprises 11 units. The mission of the division is the same as that…

  3. University-Community Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    1986-01-01

    Common issues in university-community relationships, such as neighborhood problems and their solutions, facility expansion, traffic and parking, crime, housing, recreation facilities, and city services, are discussed. Findings from a study of the university-community relationship at Ohio State University are outlined. (MSE)

  4. Sierra University in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celis, Francisco Manuel Orozco

    2003-01-01

    Sierra University was designed to promote the development of the mountain communities in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The university offers high school graduates an opportunity to pursue their studies in their home region, in order to stimulate economic development and contribute to social cohesion in the highlands area. The university is equipped…

  5. Our Listless Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan

    1983-01-01

    Students in the best universities do not believe in anything, and those universities are doing nothing about it. The great questions--God, freedom, and immortality--hardly touch the young. The universities have no vision, no view of what a human being must know in order to be considered educated. (MLW)

  6. The Moral University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  7. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  8. International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassler, Maggie (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) is described in this video, hosted by Marina Sirtis from the 'Star Trek' television show's Starship Enterprise. A complete explanation of what ISU is, how the university functions, and the benefits that the university provides are described. Included are brief comments from former ISU graduates.

  9. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  10. Regulation of University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nevgi, Anne; Trigwell, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study are twofold: firstly, to explore dimensions in the regulation of teaching in a multidisciplinary sample of university teachers, and secondly, to analyse factors related to the regulation of university teaching. Seventy-three university teachers representing several disciplines participated in the study. These teachers…

  11. Evolution of Universal Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

    2001-01-01

    Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

  12. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  13. Universities scale like cities.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  14. Selling University Reform: The University of Melbourne and the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the "Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings" and the "Academic Rankings of World Universities" by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, some Australian universities have become especially concerned with being ranked among the 100 leading universities. The University of Melbourne, Australia's second oldest…

  15. Is our Universe natural?

    PubMed

    Carroll, Sean M

    2006-04-27

    It goes without saying that we are stuck with the Universe we have. Nevertheless, we would like to go beyond simply describing our observed Universe, and try to understand why it is that way rather than some other way. When considering both the state in which we find our current Universe, and the laws of physics it obeys, we discover features that seem remarkably unnatural to us. Physicists and cosmologists have been exploring increasingly ambitious ideas in an attempt to explain how surprising aspects of our Universe can arise from simple dynamical principles.

  16. The Chinese Television University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of China's Beijing Broadcasting and Television University: background, establishment, administration and structure, students, courses, teaching package, and course production. (JD)

  17. New Openings in University-Industry Cooperation: Aalto University as the Forerunner of European University Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markkula, Markku; Lappalainen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The Innovation University (IU)--to be called the Aalto University after Alvav Aalto, a famous Finnish architect and MIT professor--is a new university which will be created through a merger of three existing universities: the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), the Helsinki School of Economics (HSE) and the University of Art and Design…

  18. Understanding University Technology Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Federal government agencies provide about $33 billion a year to universities to conduct scientific research. That continuing investment expands human knowledge and helps educate the next generation of science and technology leaders. New discoveries from university research also form the basis for many new products and processes that benefit the…

  19. The universal propagator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klauder, John R.

    1993-01-01

    For a general Hamiltonian appropriate to a single canonical degree of freedom, a universal propagator with the property that it correctly evolves the coherent-state Hilbert space representatives for an arbitrary fiducial vector is characterized and defined. The universal propagator is explicitly constructed for the harmonic oscillator, with a result that differs from the conventional propagators for this system.

  20. University-industry interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

  1. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl Jaspers and…

  2. University Freedom in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolasir, Semiyha

    2006-01-01

    Freedom means the right of the universities to do their scientific activities and to regulate and do the higher education through their organs. The three feet that make up the university freedom are scientific freedom, administrative freedom and financial freedom. Scientific freedom is realized by the freedom of the faculty and teaching staff and…

  3. Talent Management for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores human resource management practices in the university sector with a specific focus on talent pools and talent management more generally. The paper defines talent management in the context of the university sector and then explores its interdependence with organisational strategy, the metrics used to measure academic performance…

  4. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  5. Universal Design Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…

  6. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market" (Vaughan C. Judd); (3)…

  7. Universals, Typologies and Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.

    Two questions are raised: Is it possible to characterize the notion human language in terms of absolute and typological universals? And if so, what is the relationship between these universals and those formulated for primary languages? Given these questions, the purpose of the paper is to: (1) investigate some of the methodological considerations…

  8. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  9. The United Nations University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salam, Abdus

    1973-01-01

    Reports the progress already made toward the establishment of a postgraduate international university under United Nations auspices. The resolution adopted by the U.N. General Assembly provides a concise statement of the nature and aims of the United Nations University, which is likely to start operating in 1974. (JR)

  10. Universal Symbols and Cartography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modley, Rudolf

    The broad use of maps by non-cartographers imposes on the cartographer the burden to make maps not only accurate, but to use symbols which make map-reading easier for the public. The latter requirement implies a need for universal symbols. Although there are no universal symbols today (letters, words, and figures, to a lesser extent, are dependent…

  11. The Kept University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Eyal; Washburn, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Examines the trend of increasing collaboration between American universities and corporations, including issues such as the academic-industrial complex, secrecy and science, the university as a business/commercial enterprise, who controls the research agenda, downsizing the humanities, and on-line marketing of course material. Expresses concerns…

  12. Faculty Handbook, Stanford University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    University policies, regulations, and procedures that apply to faculty members directly or indirectly, as well as the university's organization and governance, are described in the 1975 handbook. A brief history of Stanford's academic development and a bibliography to other information sources related to academic affairs are also provided.…

  13. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  14. Universal Playground Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This publication presents principles of universal playgrounds, designed to maximize accessibility for all children, with and without disabilities. First, the rationale for the universal playground is given including the importance of play and the value of integration. Next current guidelines for playground design are discussed including safety,…

  15. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    The issues of ethics in the university and the role of higher education in society are addressed. Distinctions are made between legal behavior and ethical behavior, and the question of how the university needs to balance the two in order to fulfill its unique role in society while it simultaneously strives to reside and survive within it is…

  16. [The University in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Morris B.

    The university reflects the revolution in the world. Large numbers of "find out" students are not goal oriented and are affected by malaise; many approve of the use of violence in certain situations. Part of the revolution must be accepted and part rejected. The university is extremely vulnerable to violence and, unless it is contained, American…

  17. Biotechnology and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wofsy, Leon

    1986-01-01

    Biotechnology is changing the values of the university's bioscience community. Priorities are distorted by entrepreneurial incentives and government pressures that increase the scientist's dependence on industry and the military. The university is seen as inattentive to the social, ethical, and educational challenges. (Author/MLW)

  18. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

  19. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  20. Dynamics of Anisotropic Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jérôme

    2006-11-01

    We present a general study of the dynamical properties of Anisotropic Bianchi Universes in the context of Einstein General Relativity. Integrability results using Kovalevskaya exponents are reported and connected to general knowledge about Bianchi dynamics. Finally, dynamics toward singularity in Bianchi type VIII and IX universes are showed to be equivalent in some precise sence.

  1. Evolution of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. D.

    The underlying principles and discoveries of cosmology are presented in a qualitative form. The General Theory of Relativity is the basis for the science of the structure of the Universe, and Friedmann in 1922-4 demonstrated that the Universe is either expanding or contracting; Hubble in 1929 provided evidence for expansion. The physical processes of the evolution of the Universe to date have been projected to include origins in a superdense, superhot state with violent reactions between elementary particles. The resulting matter fragmented into the stellar systems and agglomerations presently observed. Observational data of the most distant galaxies now covers a range of 10 Gpc. Current studies focus on the missing matter in the Universe and the mean density of matter, the gravitation of vacuum, relict radiation from the Big Bang, the curvature of space-time, and theories for the earliest moments of the Universe, including pancake theories, the synthesis of light elements, and black and white holes.

  2. Pratique de la prophylaxie de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse: enquête réalisée auprès des professionnels de santé de la ville de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Naibe, Dangwe Temoua; Samadoulougou, André; Kabore, Hervé; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'impact clinique et l'incidence de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse ont conduit à établir des recommandations pour la thromboprophylaxie. L'objectif de notre étude était d’évaluer la pratique de cette prophylaxie par les professionnels de santé de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête d'intention réalisée dans le mois de mai 2012 au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo et Centre Médical avec Antenne chirurgicale Paul VI. Un questionnaire a été administré auprès des prescripteurs impliqués dans la prophylaxie de la maladie thromboembolique veineuse (MTEV). Résultats Une interview a été administrée à 86 professionnels de santé dont 20 attachés de santé en anesthésie-réanimation, 17 chirurgiens, 11 médecins généralistes et 07 gynécologue-obstétriciens. Leur expérience professionnelle était inférieure à cinq ans dans 65% des cas et ils exerçaient dans 70% des cas au CHU-YO. Les héparines de bas poids moléculaire étaient les plus utilisées (81,4%) avec une intention de prescription significativement plus élevée en réanimation et en chirurgie (p<0,05). Dans 65,7% des cas, la prophylaxie était maintenue jusqu'à la mobilisation des patients. Le coût élevé de l'héparinothérapie représentait une raison de la non utilisation de la prophylaxie dans 46,5% des cas. Conclusion Nous constatons que la réalisation de la prophylaxie de la MTEV reste insuffisante à Ouagadougou en dépit de l'existence de recommandations précises de bonnes pratiques. Ces résultats suggèrent la nécessité de la formation médicale continue des professionnels de santé, avec l’établissement des recommandations de pratique clinique adaptée à notre niveau de développement. PMID:25995791

  3. Participation du patient Marocain atteint du cancer au choix thérapeutique: résultat d'une enquête réalisée auprès de 272 patient

    PubMed Central

    Boukir, Anwar; Azghari, Ilham; El Kabous, Mustapha; Jouid, Khalid; Boutayeb, Saber; El Ghissassi, Ibrahim; Mrabti, Hind; Errrihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La décision médicale partagée ‘Shared decision making’ est un concept qui se développe depuis les années 1990. Il donne aux patients le soutien nécessaire pour exprimer leurs préférences et partager la décision médicale. Cette étude cherche à estimer le degré de participation du patient Marocain atteint de cancer au choix thérapeutique. Méthodes Cette enquête a été réalisée auprès de 272 malades sous chimiothérapie pour une pathologie cancéreuse sous forme d'un entretien verbal basé sur un questionnaire. Les patients ont été sélectionnés selon un mode d’échantillonnage aléatoire, le nombre de patients a été choisi pour une marge d'erreur de 5% et un seuil de probabilité qui approxime les 90%. Résultats Seulement 5.5% des patients dans l'enquête ont participé activement dans le choix thérapeutique. Pour 94% des patients de l’échantillon la stratégie thérapeutique adoptée par le médecin est la bonne et représente l'option optimale. Les principales causes retrouvées qui expliquent la non participation à la décision thérapeutique sont le bas niveau d'instruction, la non réceptivité à l'information ainsi que des défauts majeures dans la transmission et la perception de l'information. Conclusion Ces résultats prouvent que la relation médecin malade dans notre contexte baigne toujours dans le modèle paternaliste. La responsabilité de la décision thérapeutique est le plus souvent laissée au médecin. Il est nécessaire d'informer et d'impliquer le patient de façon active dans le choix thérapeutique afin de mieux sauvegarder la relation médecin-malade qui doit être fondée sur la confiance ainsi que sur une approche participative. PMID:26918070

  4. Résultats de la chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par tunnélisation: à propos de 262 cas réalisés au CHR de Banfora (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Djiguimdé, Pierre Windinmanégdé; Diomandé, Ibrahim Abib; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Koffi, Konan Virgile; Meda, Tierinyê Armand; Diomandé, Gossé François; Sanou, Jerôme; Meda-Hien, Gertude; Sankara, Paté; Meda, Nonfounikoun

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte demeure la première cause de cécité dans les pays en voie de développement posant un problème de santé publique. Le but de cette étude est de faire le bilan d'une activité de chirurgie avancée de la cataracte par la technique dite de « phacoalternative » ou par tunnélisation. Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective de base réalisée au Burkina Faso portant sur la chirurgie de la cataracte par la technique de tunnélisation. L’âge moyen de nos patients atteints de cataracte était de 62,47 ± 12,77 ans avec un sex-ratio de 0,98. La majorité des patients opérés (82,82%) étaient des cultivateurs et des ménagères. L'acuité visuelle de loin était réduite à la perception lumineuse dans 68,70% des cas. La profondeur moyenne de la chambre antérieure était de 2,98 ± 0,53 mm. L’épaisseur moyenne du cristallin était de 3,55 ± 0,75 mm. La longueur axiale moyenne de l’œil de nos patients opérés de la cataracte était de 22,88 ± 0,90 mm. La puissance réfractive moyenne estimée de la cornée était de 43,21 ± 2,03 dioptries chez nos patients. La puissance moyenne estimée de l'implant intra oculaire (IOL) utilisé était de23,11 ± 2,35D. La majorité (79,6%) de nos patients avait une bonne acuité visuelle après la chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation. La chirurgie de la cataracte par tunnélisation est une technique révolutionnaire adaptée aux pays pauvres d'Afrique. Elle permet une lutte efficace à moindre coût contre la cécité par cataracte dans nos régions. La tunnélisation est une technique chirurgicale adaptée pour lutter efficacement contre la cécité due à la cataracte en Afrique. PMID:27022426

  5. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  6. The Transient Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin John

    When one looks at the night sky, one usually gets the impression of a static and constant universe. Quite apart from appearances, the sky is teeming with violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. These capricious objects are not only penetrating probes into physical conditions too extreme for earthbound laboratories, but they are also useful tools to measure the universe. In this dissertation, I investigate the observational and theoretical properties of three classes of transient/variable objects: thermonuclear supernovae, Cepheid variable stars, and active galactic nuclei.

  7. University Presses: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Robert B.

    Historical information on university presses and their problems are considered. University presses in the United States have their roots in 15th century England when the Oxford University Press was established in 1478. The first U.S. press to use the term "university press" was Cornell University; the press operated from 1869 until it was closed…

  8. Profiting from University Research: Tapping into University Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that industry sponsored research in the university environment is increasing. Lists reasons for companies to use university research. Notes 1980 Baigh-Dole Bill which allows the university first rights to technologies they develop. (MVL)

  9. University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    University of Florida Campus, Plaza of the Americas, University of Florida Campus Quad Bounded by West University Avenue, US 441/Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road, and North-South Drive, Gainesville, Alachua County, FL

  10. California's "Free" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudhea, David

    1974-01-01

    Heliotrope, Orpheus, and Communiversity, San Francisco's three free universities, offer curricula with combinations of alchemy, magic, Volkswagen repairs, options in education, dance, conversational Mandarin, basic plumbing, and brain wave experiences. (Author/PG)

  11. Improved universal electrical connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Universal electrical connector for use with various types of electric cable, inserts, and pin styles is described. Connector may be used over variety of environmental conditions. Details of construction are discussed. Illustrations of connector are included.

  12. Evaluation of University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1979-01-01

    Faculty evaluation guidelines, which have been in effect for five years at North Carolina State University's School of Education, are described. Outcomes of this system are summarized, as well as some of the problems associated with it. (GDC)

  13. Institutional Strategies: Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Phyllis

    1982-01-01

    The planning process, objectives, and procedures used by Duke's chancellor during the retrenchment process are summarized. The emphasis was placed on enhancing the university's strengths while reducing costs and on enlisting faculty support and assistance in the change process. (MSE)

  14. Many Universes POSSIBLE!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pankaj K.

    An innovative scientific work on the evolution of the universe unravels a fresh phenomenon about the birth and evolution of a Big Bang. We see why Big Bang is not the earliest evolutionary stage of the universe rather it is necessarily just a part of the Universe which couldn't be revered more than a womb for clusters. SYNTESIS: The Big Bang starts from a black hole i.e. prior to Big Bang there was a black hole and there is expected a number of Big Bang in the universe going similar to our Big Bang and the whole process of the expansion and contraction of the Big Bang as described in the paper.

  15. Universality in string interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-tin; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

    2016-09-01

    In this note, we provide evidence for universality in the low-energy expansion of tree-level string interactions. More precisely, in the α'-expansion of tree-level scattering amplitudes, we conjecture that the leading transcendental coefficient at each order in α' is universal for all perturbative string theories. We have checked this universality up to seven points and trace its origin to the ability to restructure the disk integrals of open bosonic string into those of the superstring. The accompanying kinematic functions have the same low-energy limit and do not introduce any transcendental numbers in their α'-corrections. Universality in the closed-string sector then follows from KLT-relations.

  16. University/industry research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The problems encountered in mixing industrial and university research goals can be major, but so can the benefits. The National Science Board (NSB) recently released a report on “University-Industry Research Relationships: Selected Studies” (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983). It is an analysis of the much-discussed new trend toward increased industrial funding of university research projects.University laboratories cannot generally solve industry's R&D problems. Success for the corporation in sponsoring academic research is realized in the value of cooperative research programs as training exercises for future industrial scientists. An occasional patent arising from such a project is considered an added benefit, not a primary goal.

  17. Berkeley College, Yale University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the controversial architectural technique of combining contemporary features with traditional designs at Yale University's Berkeley College, and discusses whether there is a place for this type of juxtaposition in architectural design. Photos and diagrams are included. (GR)

  18. The universal path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  19. Physics of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Mendel

    ch. 1. Physics of the universe. Introduction. Is Newton's theory an explanation of gravity? The expanding universe. The oscillating universe cosmology. The theory of general relativity. The role of space and time. Geometry and matter. Generalization of Einstein's field equations. A unified field theory -- ch. 2. A language of cosmology: the mathematical basis of general relativity. Introduction. Einstein's tensor formulation. The Riemann curvature tensor. The geodesic equation. The vacuum equation. The crucial tests of general relativity. The logic of the spacetime language -- ch. 3. A unified field theory in general relativity: extension from the tensor to the quaternion language. Introduction. Factorization of Einstein's tensor field equations. The Riemann curvature tensor in quaternion form. The quaternion metrical field equations. A symmetric tensor-antisymmetric tensor representation of general relativity - gravity and electromagnetism. The Einstein field equations from the symmetric tensor part. The Maxwell field equations from the antisymmetric tensor part. Conclusions -- ch. 4. An oscillating, spiral universe cosmology. introduction. Dynamics of the expansion and contraction of the universe. Dynamics of the oscillating universe cosmology. Derivation of the Hubble law as an approximation. The spiral structure of the universe. Concluding remarks -- ch. 5. Dark matter. Introduction. The field equations and the ground state solution for the bound particle-antiparticle pair. Olber's paradox -- ch. 6. Concluding remarks. Black holes. Pulsars. On the human race and cosmology -- ch. 7. Philosophical considerations. On truth. Positivism versus realism, subjectivity versus objectivity. On Mach's influence in physics and cosmology. References and notes -- Postscript. Physics in the 21st century. Holism. The universe. The Mach principle and the origin of inertia from general relativity.

  20. The Endless Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhardt, Paul

    2003-09-24

    This talk will introduce the Cyclic Model of the Universe, a radical alternative to standard big bang/inflationary cosmology in which space and time exist indefinitely, high energy inflation is avoided, dark energy is given a prominent role, and the universe undergoes periodic epochs of expansion and cooling. The model, which is motivated by recent ideas in superstring theory, seems capable of reproducing all of the successes of the standard picture and leads to distinctive predictions.

  1. Baby universes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Barkley, J.; Budd, T.; Loll, R.

    2011-11-01

    The behavior of baby universes has been an important ingredient in understanding and quantifying non-critical string theory or, equivalently, models of two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity coupled to matter. Within a regularized description based on dynamical triangulations, we amend an earlier conjecture by Jain and Mathur on the scaling behavior of genus-g surfaces containing particular baby universe 'necks', and perform a non-trivial numerical check on our improved conjecture.

  2. Decay of oscillating universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithani, Audrey Todhunter

    It has been suggested by Ellis et al that the universe could be eternal in the past, without beginning. In their model, the "emergent universe'' exists forever in the past, in an "eternal'' phase before inflation begins. We will show that in general, such an "eternal'' phase is not possible, because of an instability due to quantum tunneling. One candidate model, the "simple harmonic universe'' has been shown by Graham et al to be perturbatively stable; we find that it is unstable with respect to quantum tunneling. We also investigate the stability of a distinct oscillating model in loop quantum cosmology with respect to small perturbations and to quantum collapse. We find that the model has perturbatively stable and unstable solutions, with both types of solutions occupying significant regions of the parameter space. All solutions are unstable with respect to collapse by quantum tunneling to zero size. In addition, we investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and the Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. Finally, we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe. Although the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence in canonical quantum cosmology, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. Here, we apply this approach to the simple harmonic universe, by extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field φ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock''.

  3. The Low Temperature Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Roger; Simeon, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We are used to thinking of the universe as a hot place, full of bright stars, quasars, gamma ray bursts, and so on, emanating from a giant explosion-the Big Bang. However, the universe can also be a surprisingly cool place. It is permeated by a background radiation with a temperature close to that of liquid helium. This paper is based on a public lecture aimed at non-specialists.

  4. University contracts summary book

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The principal objectives of the Fossil Energy Program are to seek new ideas, new data, fundamental knowledge that will support the ongoing programs, and new processes to better utilize the nation's fossil energy resources with greater efficiency and environmental acceptability. Toward this end, the Department of Energy supports research projects conducted by universities and colleges to: Ensure a foundation for innovative technology through the use of the capabilities and talents in our academic institutions; provide an effective, two-way channel of communication between the Department of Energy and the academic community; and ensure that trained technical manpower is developed to carry out basic and applied research in support of DOE's mission. Fossil Energy's university activities emphasize the type of research that universities can do best - research to explore the potential of novel process concepts, develop innovative methods and materials for improving existing processes, and obtain fundamental information on the structure of coal and mechanisms of reactions of coal, shale oil, and other fossil energy sources. University programs are managed by different Fossil Energy technical groups; the individual projects are described in greater detail in this book. It is clear that a number of research areas related to the DOE Fossil Energy Program have been appropriate for university involvement, and that, with support from DOE, university scientific and technical expertise can be expected to continue to play a significant role in the advancement of fossil energy technology in the years to come.

  5. The University-Industry Relations of an Entrepreneurial University: The Case of the University of Twente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Frits

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of the University of Twente from a regional teaching university to a national research university, the "entrepreneurial university" of the Netherlands. Focuses on spinoffs from the university, an incubator in a business and science park and the generation of venture capital. Estimates the regional impact of such…

  6. University teaching - where next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    A one-day workshop will take place on 23 April 1999 at the University of Edinburgh's Conference and Training Centre to consider the topic `The future of university teaching? Multimedia, web and new technologies'. The workshop is being organized by Edinburgh Parallel Computing Centre and will be attended by experts in distance learning from various institutions including the Clyde Virtual University and the Open University, plus a speaker from the USA. They will present case studies of the opportunities new technologies provide for higher education, covering all aspects from development of electronic courses through delivery mechanisms to user feedback. There is certainly an increasing need for quality teaching materials and new ways of learning. The workshop will aim to discuss how those involved in university teaching can benefit from new developments such as multimedia, the Internet, as well as new computing and networking technologies. Participation is free, with lunch and refreshments provided. More information and registration details can be found at http://www.epcc.ed.ac.uk/epcc-tec/JTAP/workshop/ or by e-mail to epcc-tec@epcc.ed.ac.uk.

  7. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

  8. The Universe Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Pam

    1998-10-01

    The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

  9. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  10. The A{sub 1-x}UNbO{sub 6-x/2} compounds (x=0, A=Li, Na, K, Cs and x=0.5, A=Rb, Cs): from layered to tunneled structure

    SciTech Connect

    Surble, S.; Obbade, S. . E-mail: said.obbade@ensc-lille.fr; Saad, S.; Yagoubi, S.; Dion, C.; Abraham, F.

    2006-10-15

    Attempts to prepare alkaline metal uranyl niobates of composition A{sub 1-x}UNbO{sub 6-x/2} by high-temperature solid-state reactions of A{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} led to pure compounds for x=0 and A=Li (1), Na (2), K (3), Cs (4) and for x=0.5 and A=Rb (5), Cs (6). Single crystals were grown for 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and for the mixed Na{sub 0.92}Cs{sub 0.08}UNbO{sub 6} (7) compound. Crystallographic data: 1, monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/c, a=10.3091(11), b=6.4414(10), c=7.5602(5)A, {beta}=100.65(1), Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.054 (wR{sub 2}=0.107); 3, 5 and 7 orthorhombic, Pnma, Z=8, with a=10.307(2), 10.272(4) and 10.432(3)A, b=7.588(1), 7.628(3) and 7.681(2)A, c=13.403(2), 13.451(5) and 13.853(4)A, R{sub 1}=0.023, 0.046 and 0.036 (wR{sub 2}=0.058, 0.0106 and 0.088) for 3, 5 and 7, respectively; 6, orthorhombic, Cmcm, Z=8, and a=13.952(3), b=10.607(2)A, c=7.748(2)A, R{sub 1}=0.044 (wR{sub 2}=0.117). The crystal structure of 1 is characterized by {sub {approx}}{sup 2}[UNbO{sub 6}]{sup -} layers of uranophane sheet anion topology parallel to the (100) plane. These layers are formed by the association by edge-sharing of {sub {approx}}{sup 1}[UO{sub 5}]{sup 4-} chains of edge-shared UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids and {sub {approx}}{sup 1}[NbO{sub 4}]{sup 3-} chains of corner-shared NbO{sub 5} square pyramids alternating along the [010] direction. The Li{sup +} ions are located between two consecutive layers and hold them together; the Li{sup +} ions and two layers constitute a neutral ''sandwich'' {l_brace}(UNbO{sub 6}){sup -}-(Li){sub 2}{sup 2+}-(UNbO{sub 6}){sup -}{r_brace}. In this unusual structure, the neutral sandwiches are stacked one above another with no formal chemical bonds between the neutral sandwiches. The homeotypic compounds 3, 5, 6, 7 have open-framework structures built from the association by edge-sharing in two directions of parallel {sub {approx}}{sup 1}[UO{sub 5}]{sup 4-} chains of edge-shared UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids and {sub

  11. Music of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are quite familiar with what a supernova looks like — when these stars are destroyed in the most massive explosions in the universe, they leave their mark as one of the brightest objects in space, at least for several weeks. While the supernova can be seen, it cant be heard, as sound waves cannot travel through space. But what if the light waves emitted by the exploding star and other cosmological phenomena could be translated into sound? Thats the idea behind a Rhythms of the Universe, a musical project to sonify the universe by Grateful Dead percussionist and Grammy award-winning artist Mickey Hart that caught the attention of Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist George Smoot of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Sounds courtesy of Keith Jackson. Images courtesy of NASA

  12. The Biological Universe Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic Evolution has been seen as leading to two possible world views: a physical universe in which life is rare or unique to Earth, and a biological universe, in which the processes of cosmic evolution commonly end in life. These two worldviews now hang in the balance, in the same way that the heliocentric and geocentric worldviews were in the balance four hundred years ago when Galileo wrote his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems (1632). Astrobiology is the science that will decide which of the two modern astronomical worldviews is true. A third world view, the postbiological universe, is also possible and deserves more discussion. The confirmation of one of these worldviews will have profound implications for human destiny.

  13. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1999-12-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. The Biological Universe provides a rich and colorful history of the attempts during the twentieth century to answer questions such as whether "biological law" reigns throughout the universe and whether there are other histories, religions, and philosophies outside those on Earth. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a "biophysical cosmology" that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe. This book will fascinate astronomers, historians of science, biochemists, and science fiction readers.

  14. Phonology without universal grammar

    PubMed Central

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  15. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  16. The anamorphic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J. E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ''anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  17. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  18. The apparent Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binétruy, P.; Helou, A.

    2015-10-01

    We exploit the parallel between dynamical black holes and cosmological spacetimes to describe the evolution of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes from the point of view of an observer in terms of the dynamics of the apparent horizon. Using the Hayward-Kodama formalism of dynamical black holes, we clarify the role of the Clausius relation to derive the Friedmann equations for a Universe, in the spirit of Jacobson’s work on the thermodynamics of spacetime. We also show how dynamics at the horizon naturally leads to the quantum-mechanical process of Hawking radiation. We comment on the connection of this work with recent ideas to consider our observable Universe as a Bose-Einstein condensate and on the corresponding role of vacuum energy.

  19. The Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    2004-02-18

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain measurable phenomena, but not much larger. This allows the construction of a local ensemble of such universes, given modest extrapolations of the observed properties of the cosmos. We then assume that further out similar universes can be constructed, but with different standard model parameters, strongly correlated with the size in a definite way, where by size is meant the Hubble scale at late times. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes supporting life as we know it. The result allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Other possible implications of the assumptions made will be discussed, including a possible connection between the QCD vacuum structure and cosmological horizon structure. In all cases, our approach is as bottoms-up and as phenomenological as possible, suggesting that theories of the multiverse may eventually lay some claim of being scientific.

  20. The anamorphic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ``anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  1. Astrochemistry : The molecular universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Helen J.; McCoustra, Martin R. S.; Williams, David A.

    2002-04-01

    Helen J Fraser, Martin R S McCoustra and David A Williams present a simple guide to astrochemistry. Molecules play a fundamental role in many regions of our universe. The science where chemistry and astronomy overlap is known as astrochemistry, a branch of astronomy that has risen in importance over recent years. In this article we review the significance of chemistry in several astronomical years. IN this article we review the significance of chemistry in several astronomical environments including the early universe, interstellar clouds, starforming regions and protoplanetary disks. We discuss theoretical models, laboratory experiments and observational data, and present several recent and exciting results that challenge our perception of the ``molecular universe''.

  2. Imaging the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-07-01

    An international team of cosmologists has released the first detailed images of the universe in its infancy. The images reveal the structure that existed when the universe was a tiny fraction of its current age and 1,000 times smaller and hotter than it is today. Research carried out as part of this project is shedding light on some of cosmology's long-standing mysteries, such as the nature of the matter and energy that dominate intergalactic space and whether space is ''curved'' or ''flat.''(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  3. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  4. Understanding the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstein, George

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Steps to Astronomy: 1. The sky; 2. The origins of astronomy; 3. Gravity and orbits; 4. Light; 5. The astronomers' tools: telescopes and space probes; Part II. The Solar System: 6. Introducing the Solar System; 7. The inner Solar System; 8. The outer Solar System; 9. Smaller bodies in the Solar System; 10. Planets beyond the Solar System; Part III. Stars: 11. Our Sun; 12. A census of stars; 13. The formation of stars and planets; 14. Stellar structure; 15. Stellar evolution and death; Part IV. Galaxies and the Universe: 16. The Milky Way galaxy; 17. Galaxies; 18. Cosmology; 19. Life in the Universe; Index.

  5. UTM: Universal Transit Modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans J.

    2014-12-01

    The Universal Transit Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of transiting or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.

  6. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2000-03-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  7. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1996-09-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  8. The Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heacox, William D.

    2015-11-01

    Introducing the Universe; Part I. Conceptual Foundations: 1. Newtonian cosmology; 2. General relativity; 3. Relativistic cosmology; Part II. General Relativity: 4. General covariance; 5. Equivalence principle; 6. Space-time curvature; 7. Einstein field equations of gravitation; Part III. Universal Expansion: 8. Cosmological field equations; 9. Cosmography; 10. Expansion dynamics; Part IV. Expansion Models: 11. Radiation; 12. Matter; 13. Dark energy; 14. Observational constraints; 15. Concordance cosmological model; Part V. Expansion History: 16. Particle era; 17. Plasma era; 18. Galaxy era; 19. Afterword: the new modern cosmology; Part VI: Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  9. [Traditions of university studies at Kaunas University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Brazdzionyte, Julija

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the dimensions of the traditions of the idea of the university that are relevant in our today's world--the autonomy of the university, education of a free and creative personality, and belonging to the unified space of studies--and to review the experience of Kaunas University of Medicine in the development of the traditions of university studies. The research object was university studies, and the methods applied in this research were analysis of literature and analysis of documents. The article consists of the introduction, two parts, and generalization. The first part discusses the autonomy of the university, the importance of liberal studies, and the influence of the European higher education and provides a generalized survey of the historical tradition of university studies in Lithuania. The second part of the article reviews the predominant factors that condition the development of university studies at Kaunas University of Medicine: organization of studies and implementation of liberal studies realized through general university education subjects into the modern content of university studies. The generalization of the results of the performed analysis allows for stating that the contents and the organization of curricula and the ongoing reforms at Kaunas University of Medicine expand the continuity of the traditions of the European university education, highlight the idea of the university, and realize university studies that reflect modern global tendencies. PMID:17090986

  10. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  11. State University System of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some information about the State University System of Florida. The following are presented in this paper: (1) University Work Plans and Annual Reports; (2) State University System 2009 Annual Report; (3) Quick Facts: Planned New Degree Programs--2010 to 2013; (4) State University System Tuition Differential Summary, FY…

  12. Universal Design for Academic Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmen, John P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Universal design (UD) can play a role in many aspects of academic life and is often thought of in the context of learning. However, this chapter focuses on the impact of UD on the design of facilities in a university or campus setting. Universal design has the potential for transforming universities into truly egalitarian institutions that…

  13. Student Perceptions of University Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemann, Gary L.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    Student perceptions of the effectiveness of three state universities was studied: Arizona State University, University of Arizona, and Northern Arizona University. An operational definition of effectiveness was proposed based on the literature, and a list of organizational activities was validated by administrators, faculty, community…

  14. Universals in the World's Musics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven; Jordania, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many decades of skepticism have prevented the field of musicology from embracing the importance of musical universals. When universals "have" been discussed, it has generally been in the form of meta-critiques about the concept of universals, rather than in positive proposals about actual universals. We present here a typology of four categories…

  15. The Urban University in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.

    The urban university has become the dominant institution of higher learning in America. Although the concept of university is in keeping with traditions in American higher education, there are major obstacles to the fulfillment of the urban university's purpose. The urban college and university have great potential in playing an increasingly…

  16. NRC Targets University Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

  17. Oregon State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic…

  18. Mathematics: The Universal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is considered the universal language, but students who speak languages other than English have difficulty doing mathematics in English. For instance, because of a lack of familiarity with the problem's context, many have trouble understanding exactly what operations to perform. In the United States, approximately one in seven students…

  19. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  20. Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…

  1. The Changing University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom, Ed.

    This collection of papers investigates change and compares university education experiences worldwide, looking at it from the perspective of numbers of students, range of institutions, funding, institutional functions, boundaries, and directions, orientation of students and staff, and institutional change. After an introduction by Tom Schuler,…

  2. Scaling, Universality, and Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    Theories of scaling apply wherever similarity exists across many scales. This similarity may be found in geometry and in dynamical processes. Universality arises when the qualitative character of a system is sufficient to quantitatively predict its essential features, such as the exponents that characterize scaling laws. Within geomorphology, two areas where the concepts of scaling and universality have found application are the geometry of river networks and the statistical structure of topography. We begin this review with a pedagogical presentation of scaling and universality. We then describe recent progress made in applying these ideas to networks and topography. This overview leads to a synthesis that attempts a classification of surface and network properties based on generic mechanisms and geometric constraints. We also briefly review how scaling and universality have been applied to related problems in sedimentology-specifically, the origin of stromatolites and the relation of the statistical properties of submarine-canyon topography to the size distribution of turbidite deposits. Throughout the review, our intention is to elucidate not only the problems that can be solved using these concepts, but also those that cannot.

  3. Personnel Management. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual is one of 10 completed in the Ohio Management Improvement Program (MIP) during the 1971-73 biennium. In this project, Ohio's 34 public universities and colleges, in an effort directed and staffed by the Ohio Board of Regents, have developed manuals of management practices, in this case, concerning personnel management. Emphasis in this…

  4. University research in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The contributions which universities can make to aeronautical research projects are discussed. The activities of several facilities are presented to show the effectiveness of the educational and research programs. Reference is made to the Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 which permits an exchange of federal agency personnel with state and local governments and with public and private higher education schools.

  5. College and University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Joseph F., Ed.; Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Following an introductory discussion by E. J. Josey that provides a perspective on college and university libraries, the following essays are presented: (1) "Academic Library Planning--Definitions and Early Planning Studies in Academic Libraries" (Stanton F. Biddle); (2) "Academic Libraries and Academic Computing--Rationale for a Modern Marriage"…

  6. Mobility of University Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This study deals with interuniversity mobility. Part I examines the harmonization of action taken to encourage mobility, the removal of legislative and statutory obstacles to mobility, the simplification of university staff regulations and careers, and incentives to mobility. Part II describes the ideas and activities of UNESCO, the Council of…

  7. Highbrows in University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Adriaan; Van Den Berg, Muriel

    2004-01-01

    Is it still possible to combine two programmes of study in higher education, and if so, what are the characteristics of these double-students and what kind of obstacles do they face? In the Netherlands, about 10 percent of students in university education take two studies at the same time. Different theoretical approaches offer hypotheses to…

  8. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    1992-01-01

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  9. Creating Adaptable Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    2010-01-01

    Shifting demographics, rising costs of operations, a changing competitive landscape, reductions in state appropriations, pressures for accountability, and a widespread economic decline characterize the environment in which today's colleges and universities operate. This article examines some of the current responses to these challenges and…

  10. University Student Online Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  11. A Universe of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldovich, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    Reprinted from the original Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…

  12. Revisiting the University Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Grahame; Lorenz, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that the most important trends in the recent metamorphosis of higher education, especially of university teaching and research, cannot be understood without placing them in the context of general developments in political life. Both processes reveal alarming features and there is a link between them. In recent decades a religion…

  13. Universal voice processor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a universal voice processor is discussed. The device is based on several circuit configurations using hybrid techniques to satisfy the electrical specifications. The steps taken during the design process are described. Circuit diagrams of the final design are presented. Mathematical models are included to support the theoretical aspects.

  14. Islamist Movement Challenges Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisian and Egyptian universities, scholars face a growing Islamist resolve to remake their countries on the basis of religious principles. Both Tunisia and Egypt face questions that could affect higher education across the Middle East and North Africa: Can their new Islamist governments spread conservative religious values and also create…

  15. [Harvard University Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, David E.

    A series of three papers on the Harvard University Archives is presented. The first paper gives the history of the Archives and describes the collections. The second paper deals with the accessioning and preservation of records. The third paper describes the reference service. In each paper the particular description of the Harvard University…

  16. Discovering the Invisible Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of radio waves, infrared, and x-rays and their importance in describing the universe and its origins is discussed. Topics include radio waves from space, the radio pioneers of World War II, radio telescopes, infrared radiation, satellites, space missions, and x-ray telescopes. (KR)

  17. Universities in Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Universities often seem to be far more concerned about their international connections than their local relationships. The local context seems not to matter much either to their jetsetting vice-chancellors or to their lecturers and researchers under pressure to get papers published in obscure journals. That is how it may seem, but it is not…

  18. [University of California Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Carol S.

    The historical development of the University of California Archives is traced. In 1929 the U.S. Bureau of the Budget foresaw the need to develop a method to rapidly separate valuable from routine documents and to establish guidelines for the evaluation of records. Records management -- a system to store, service, analyze, and weed documents -- has…

  19. Entropy of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Humitaka

    2010-06-01

    Charles Darwin's calculation of a life of Earth had ignited Kelvin's insight on a life of Sun, which had eventually inherited to the physical study of stellar structure and energy source. Nuclear energy had secured a longevity of the universe and the goal of the cosmic evolution has been secured by the entropy of black holes.

  20. Universal nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, Marcin; Kotowski, Michal

    2010-06-15

    We give a universal recipe for constructing nonlinear entanglement witnesses able to detect nonclassical correlations in arbitrary systems of distinguishable and/or identical particles for an arbitrary number of constituents. The constructed witnesses are expressed in terms of expectation values of observables. As such, they are, at least in principle, measurable in experiments.

  1. University City Core Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia City Planning Commission, PA.

    A redevelopment plan for an urban core area of about 300 acres was warranted by--(1) unsuitable building conditions, (2) undesirable land usage, and (3) faulty traffic circulation. The plan includes expansion of two universities and creation of a regional science center, high school, and medical center. Guidelines for proposed land use and zoning…

  2. Teaching Geomorphology at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, David; Hamilton, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphology courses in British universities emphasize the main landform/process systems rather than more abstract concepts. Recommends a more theoretical focus on fundamental geomorphic processes and methodological problems. Available from: Faculty of Modern Studies, Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford OX3 OBP, England. (Author/AV)

  3. University Community Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, John Bruce; Lewis, Steven

    This report is of an omnibus survey of campus attitudes conducted by the Survey Research Center (SRC) of the State University of New York at Buffalo. Its primary purpose was to provide accurate information as a basis for effective decisions by institutional policy makers. A random sample of 326 students, 98 faculty, and 95 staff participated in…

  4. Howard University Bookstore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxon, Hazel Carter; Negron, Jaime

    1977-01-01

    Two full-time university bookstores, with three satellites helping during rush period, serve the Howard students and faculty. Solutions to problems of space, acquiring used books, and communications with faculty members are discussed, and the successful retailing of black studies books is described. (LBH)

  5. Evolution of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primack, Joel

    2006-04-01

    Cosmology is in the midst of a scientific revolution that is establishing its lasting foundations. The good agreement between many different sorts of observations and the predictions of the now-standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory gives us hope that this is humanity's first picture of the history of the universe as a whole that might actually be true. An unexpected feature of this new picture is that we humans appear to be central or special in many ways -- for example, we are made of the rarest stuff in the universe (stardust); we are intermediate in size between the smallest possible size (the Planck length) and the largest size (the cosmic horizon); and we are living at a pivotal time: the period in the history of the universe when its expansion began to accelerate rather than slow down, and in the middle of the ten-billion-year lifetime of our solar system and of the billion year most habitable period of our planet, and at what must be the end of the exponential growth of human impact on the earth. This talk will review key observations that support modern cosmology, describe some symbolic ways of understanding the modern cosmos, and discuss some possible implications of a cosmic perspective for our 21st century worldview. Based on a new book, The View from the Center of the Universe: Discovering Our Extraordinary Place in the Cosmos, by Joel R. Primack and Nancy Ellen Abrams (Riverhead Books, April 2006).

  6. Universal nanopatternable interfacial bonding.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuzhe; Garland, Shaun; Howland, Michael; Revzin, Alexander; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-12-01

    A nanopatternable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oligomer layer is demonstrated as an interfacial adhesive for its intrinsic transferability and universal adhesiveness. Utilizing the well-established surface modification and bonding techniques of PDMS surfaces, irreversible bonding is formed (up to 400 kPa) between a wide range of substrate pairs, representing ones within and across different materials categories, including metals, ceramics, thermoset, and thermoplastic polymers.

  7. The Universal Trap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Paul

    The compulsory system of education is criticized on the grounds that it has become a regimented "universal trap" antithetical to democracy. In contrast to the Jeffersonian concept of education in the service of citizen initiative for the preservation of freedom, current compulsory education is a tool of industrialism and of a rigidly stratified…

  8. University Libraries in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.

    1986-01-01

    College and university libraries are experiencing change in the ways they provide services and in their responses to rising costs and reduced financial support. These conditions result from three major phenomena: the information explosion, the technology revolution, and escalating library costs. (MLW)

  9. University-linked localities

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; Gnani, Shamini

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose that reframing the old concept of ‘academic general practices’ as ‘university-linked localities’ will help to integrate the work of those leading commissioning, education, research and public health. It will provide a ‘playground’ for different disciplines to creatively interact for the benefit of all. PMID:26265944

  10. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  11. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  12. The University Needs "You"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities need English education professors who know what it is to teach five classes a day, accommodate IEPs, and still take on extracurricular activities. They need English education professors who not only present at NCTE Annual Conventions, but who also want to be in schools talking to teachers on a regular basis. They need…

  13. Organizing University Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas E.

    During a period of projected declining enrollments some years ago, colleges and universities began looking to business and industry for models and methods to achieve stability and exhibit accountability. Zero-based budgeting, computerized record keeping, and planned-programmed-budgeting systems found their way to college campuses. A trend to…

  14. University Libraries in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    1986-01-01

    This profile of university libraries in Pakistan covers history of higher education and role of the library; organization of library service (strong central library, decentralized library service, central library with department libraries); resources and collection building; technical processing; readers' services; administration and staffing;…

  15. Reinventing the University Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Eric

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how librarians and university press staffers could cooperate to improve the scholarly communication system. Causes of system decline, the environment for cooperation, several change models, possible changes to the publish or perish tenure system, and the probability of a slow transition to a new scholarly communications model are…

  16. Mapping the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, S. D.

    1999-06-01

    Galaxies congregate into clusters, clusters amass into superclusters and so on - at every observed scale, as astronomers build maps of the sky, they find matter organized into clumps. Yet taken as a whole, the texture of the universe is smooth, in keeping with theory. A new "music of the spheres" may explain how ordered structures emerged from the original smooth chaos.

  17. The Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J

    2004-04-09

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain essentially all phenomena that can be conceivably measured. The initial time is taken as the epoch when the lowest CMB modes undergo horizon crossing, and the final time taken when the wavelengths of CMB photons are comparable with the Hubble scale, i.e. with the nominal size of the universe. This allows the definition of a local ensemble of similarly constructed universes, using only modest extrapolations of the observed behavior of the cosmos. We then assume that further out in spacetime, similar universes can be constructed but containing different standard model parameters. Within this multiverse ensemble, it is assumed that the standard model parameters are strongly correlated with size, i.e. with the value of the inverse Hubble parameter at the final time, in a manner as previously suggested. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes which allow life as we know it, and invites a speculation regarding the most natural distribution of sizes. If small sizes are favored, this in turn allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Subsequent sections of the paper explore other possible implications. In all cases, the approach is as bottoms up and as phenomenological as possible, and suggests that theories of the multiverse so constructed may in fact lay some claim of being scientific.

  18. Masters of the universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Matt; Stock, Dave

    2010-08-01

    MEETING REPORT Massive stars make a profound impact on their surroundings, their galaxies and the evolution of the universe as a whole. Matt Austin and Dave Stock report on an RAS Discussion Meeting that considered current progress in understanding these complex stars.

  19. Homecoming at Atwater University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah M.; Van Pelt, Scott; Kingsak, Phoebe; Williams, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Atwater University (AU) administration is struggling with an increased number of student alcohol-related problems. In particular, during the annual homecoming parade, students are extremely intoxicated and belligerent toward alumni. The new dean of students is appalled by the condoned student behavior. He also received two complaint letters from…

  20. Overseas Universities 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, R. G., Ed.

    Educational policies and programs in overseas universities of developing nations are explored in a series of nine articles. In "Development and the Role of the Humanities," Sir Cyril Philips calls for a reconsideration of the role of the humanities in the educational policies of developing nations and international aid-giving agencies. Malcolm…

  1. Images of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Carole

    1991-11-01

    Images of the Universe is a special collection of essays written to celebrate astronomy and the inauguration of the British Astronomical Association. Colin Ronan opens the book with a fascinating account of developments over the past hundred years. Next, the solar system is explored by Richard Baum, John Rogers, Richard McKim, and Patrick Moore. Comets and meteors are explained by David Hughes. The stars, birthplace of the elements, are examined by Jacqueline Mitton and John Isles. Paul Murdin gives an account of the brightest supernova to be seen from Earth since 1604. Iain Nicolson explores G2, the single dwarf called the Sun. Heather Couper and Nigel Henbest look at the Milky Way, the hazy band of light that is the edge on view of our galaxy. Malcolm Longair looks beyond our own galaxy into the deep sky. Paul Davies gives an account of the first one second of the existence of our expanding Universe. How did it all happen? Martin Rees, the cosmologist, speculates on the origin of the Universe. The ensuing narrative by many famous astronomers and science writers is written at a general level and will be accessible to anyone with a passing interest in the astronomical wonders of our universe. Carole Stott is the author of The Greenwich Guide to Stargazing (1990), and The Greenwich Guide to Astronomy in Action (1990).

  2. Universities Are Funny Places!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Universities are funny places. They have a strong sense of hierarchy and rank. They have an amazing disparity in salary levels and status between staff, are class conscious, and are run by a large bureaucracy that oils and keeps the machinery going. They operate as educational institutions and yet also are entrepreneurial, marketing themselves in…

  3. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  4. Entrepreneurial Planning: Tufts University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on key strategic decisions taken at Tufts University (Massachusetts) under President Jean Mayer noting the role of formal planning and institutional research. Initiatives in the following areas are described: the School of Veterinary Medicine, nutrition, environmental management, entrepreneurial liberation, fund raising, and a…

  5. Tax Reform & University Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John Holt

    This brochure discusses the implications of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 for university and college development officers charged with the responsibility for solicitation of gifts, bequests and grants from foundations. The solicitation of deferred gifts, bequests and grants from foundations is discussed in chapter one in relation to tax reform and…

  6. Explorers of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Busby, Michael R.; Sotoohi, Goli; Rodriguez, William J.; Hennig, Lee Ann; Berenty, Jerry; King, Terry; Grener, Doreen; Kruzan, John

    1998-01-01

    The Explorers of the Universe is a multifaceted scientific/literacy project that involves teachers and their students with problem oriented situations using authentic materials. This paper presents examples of self-directed cases researched by high school students and the met acognitive tools they use in the planning, carrying out, and finalizing their reports.

  7. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  8. The Universe's First Fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster VersionFigure 1Figure 2

    This is an image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of stars and galaxies in the Ursa Major constellation. This infrared image covers a region of space so large that light would take up to 100 million years to travel across it. Figure 1 is the same image after stars, galaxies and other sources were masked out. The remaining background light is from a period of time when the universe was less than one billion years old, and most likely originated from the universe's very first groups of objects -- either huge stars or voracious black holes. Darker shades in the image on the left correspond to dimmer parts of the background glow, while yellow and white show the brightest light.

    Brief History of the Universe In figure 2, the artist's timeline chronicles the history of the universe, from its explosive beginning to its mature, present-day state.

    Our universe began in a tremendous explosion known as the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago (left side of strip). Observations by NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer and Wilkinson Anisotropy Microwave Probe revealed microwave light from this very early epoch, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, providing strong evidence that our universe did blast into existence. Results from the Cosmic Background Explorer were honored with the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics.

    A period of darkness ensued, until about a few hundred million years later, when the first objects flooded the universe with light. This first light is believed to have been captured in data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The light detected by Spitzer would have originated as visible and ultraviolet light, then stretched, or redshifted, to lower-energy infrared wavelengths during its long voyage to reach us across expanding space. The light detected by the

  9. Universe or Multiverse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    Part I. Overviews: 1. Introduction and overview Bernard Carr; 2. Living in the multiverse Steven Weinberg; 3. Enlightenment, knowledge, ignorance, temptation Frank Wilczek; Part II. Cosmology and Astrophysics: 4. Cosmology and the multiverse Martin J. Rees; 5. The anthropic principle revisited Bernard Carr; 6. Cosmology from the top down Stephen Hawking; 7. The multiverse hierarchy Max Tegmark; 8. The inflationary universe Andrei Linde; 9. A model of anthropic reasoning: the dark to ordinary matter ratio Frank Wilczek; 10. Anthropic predictions: the case of the cosmological constant Alexander Vilenkin; 11. The definition and classification of universes James D. Bjorken; 12. M/string theory and anthropic reasoning Renata Kallosh; 13. The anthropic principle, dark energy and the LHC Savas Dimopoulos and Scott Thomas; Part III. Particle Physics and Quantum Theory: 14. Quarks, electrons and atoms in closely related universes Craig J. Hogan; 15. The fine-tuning problems of particle physics and anthropic mechanisms John F. Donoghue; 16. The anthropic landscape of string theory Leonard Susskind; 17. Cosmology and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics Viatcheslav Mukhanov; 18. Anthropic reasoning and quantum cosmology James B. Hartle; 19. Micro-anthropic principle for quantum theory Brandon Carter; Part IV. More General Philosophical Issues: 20. Scientific alternatives to the anthropic principle Lee Smolin; 21. Making predictions in a multiverse: conundrums, dangers, coincidences Anthony Aguirre; 22. Multiverses: description, uniqueness and testing George Ellis; 23. Predictions and tests of multiverse theories Don N. Page; 24. Observation selection theory and cosmological fine-tuning Nick Bostrom; 25. Are anthropic arguments, involving multiverses and beyond, legitimate? William R. Stoeger; 26. The multiverse hypothesis: a theistic perspective Robin Collins; 27. Living in a simulated universe John D. Barrow; 28. Universes galore: where will it all end? Paul

  10. The Artful Universe Expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  11. Lithium in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Sean G.; Norris, John E.; Beers, Timothy C.

    To observe the products of nucleosynthesis created in the Big Bang and during the earliest episodes of star formation, it is necessary to turn to the oldest and least metal--enriched objects known. Contrary to common perceptions, these are not high redshift objects, but rather, are the most metal--poor stars of the Galactic halo. We have investigated whether the Li abundance in such stars is consistent with a single value, as is required if the Li is exclusively of primordial origin, or whether there is a range of Li, indicative of additional processing. Systematic and random errors were minimised through restrictive selection criteria and double--blind processing of high signal--to--noise data. High--resolution spectra of 22 stars, with [Fe/H] < -2.3 and lying within ~300K of the main--sequence turnoff, have been obtained. We find that, although three stars are depleted, 86% of the sample possess Li abundances consistent with no detectable spread in A(Li), with an estimated abundance dispersion of sigma <= 0.03~dex. This compelling evidence against a spread in the Spite Plateau leads to the conclusion that either the stars have all changed their surface Li abundances very uniformly, or else they exhibit the primordial abundance of cosmological significance. Although we cannot rule out uniform depletion, economy of hypothesis supports the latter interpretation.

  12. Universal Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughery, Mike

    1994-01-01

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  13. Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays

  14. Mapping the universe.

    PubMed

    Geller, M J; Huchra, J P

    1989-11-17

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km s(-1) are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the "Great Wall" with a minimum extent of 60 h(-1) Mpc x 170 h(-1) Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe.

  15. Mapping the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km/s are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the 'Great Wall' with a minimum extent of 60/h Mpc x 170/h Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km/s per Mpc. The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe.

  16. Universal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughery, Mike

    A universal test facility (UTF) for Space Station Freedom is developed. In this context, universal means that the experimental rack design must be: automated, highly marketable, and able to perform diverse microgravity experiments according to NASA space station requirements. In order to fulfill these broad objectives, the facility's customers, and their respective requirements, are first defined. From these definitions, specific design goals and the scope of the first phase of this project are determined. An examination is first made into what types of research are most likely to make the UTF marketable. Based on our findings, the experiments for which the UTF would most likely be used included: protein crystal growth, hydroponics food growth, gas combustion, gallium arsenide crystal growth, microorganism development, and cell encapsulation. Therefore, the UTF is designed to fulfill all of the major requirements for the experiments listed above. The versatility of the design is achieved by taking advantage of the many overlapping requirements presented by these experiments.

  17. Mapping the universe.

    PubMed

    Geller, M J; Huchra, J P

    1989-11-17

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km s(-1) are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the "Great Wall" with a minimum extent of 60 h(-1) Mpc x 170 h(-1) Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe. PMID:17812575

  18. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  19. Our evolving universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    Our Evolving Universe is a lucid, non-technical and infectiously enthusiastic introduction to current astronomy and cosmology. Highly illustrated throughout with the latest colour images from the world's most advanced telescopes, it also provides a colourful view of our Universe. Malcolm Longair takes us on a breathtaking tour of the most dramatic recent results astronomers have on the birth of stars, the hunt for black holes and dark matter, on gravitational lensing and the latest tests of the Big Bang. He leads the reader right up to understand the key questions that future research in astronomy and cosmology must answer. A clear and comprehensive glossary of technical terms is also provided. For the general reader, student or professional wishing to understand the key questions today's astronomers and cosmologists are trying to answer, this is an invaluable and inspiring read.

  20. Beyond universal precautions.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W

    1995-01-01

    Universal precautions have gained wide acceptance in the literature and are promoted by major health care regulatory bodies as a measure to prevent nosocomial transmission of bloodborne diseases. Nevertheless, Dr. James G. Wright and associates (see pages 1089 to 1095 of this issue) provide evidence of the infrequent use of universal precautions by surgeons in Toronto. Their findings are consistent with those of similar studies and point to the limitations of any safety approach that relies on the active compliance of individuals rather than on passive, environmental controls. Successful approaches to optimizing workplace safety should first emphasize passive measures for risk abatement, including firm policies, the use of safer equipment and techniques, procedural safeguards and regular monitoring. Routine voluntary screening of patients undergoing procedures that pose a high risk of contamination may improve compliance to safety procedures by health care personnel. Further study is required. PMID:7712416

  1. The universal Higgs fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Pier Paolo; Kannike, Kristjan; Masina, Isabella; Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a `universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our `universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M h = 124 .4 ± 1 .6 GeV.

  2. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  3. Kansas State University

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.; Carnes, K.; Needham, V.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has fabricated the niobium resonators and some other linac components required for the superconducting accel/decel linac now in operation at Kansas State University. Several staff members from KSU spent a substantial period of time at ANL during FY 1985 in order to learn the technology, and they return occasionally to assemble and test the resonators. There is a continuing interchange of technical information between ANL and KSU related to linac operations, tuning, and resonator maintenance.

  4. Universal Stoppers Are Rupert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Richard P.; Wetzel, John E.

    2008-01-01

    A stopper is called "universal" if it can be used to plug pipes whose cross-sections are a circle, a square, and an isosceles triangle, with the diameter of the circle, the side of the square, and the base and altitude of the triangle all equal. Echoing the well-known result for equal cubes that is attributed to Prince Rupert, we show that it is…

  5. Imagine the Universe!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Welcome to Imagine the Universe! Contained on this CD-ROM you will find three astronomy and space science learning centers, individually captured from the World Wide Web in December of 2000. Each site contains its own learning adventure full of facts, fun, beautiful images, movies, and excitement. (1) Imagine The Universe: this site is dedicated to a discussion about our Universe... what we know about it, how it is evolving, and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains. Emphasizing the X-ray and gamma-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, it also discusses how scientists know what they know, what mysteries remain, and how the answers to remaining mysteries may one day be found. Lots of movies, quizzes, and a special section for educators. Geared for ages 14 and up. This site can be viewed on-line at http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/. (2) StarChild- a learning center for young astronomers: the 1998 Webby Award Winner for Best Education Website, StarChild is aimed at ages 4-14. It contains easy-to-understand information about our Solar System, the Universe, and space exploration. There are also activities, songs, movies, and puzzles. This site can be viewed on-line at http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/. (3) Astronomy Picture of the Day: APOD offers a new astronomical image and caption each calendar day. We have captured the year 2000 entries of this award-winning site and included them on the disk. The images and information provide a wonderful resource for all ages. This site can be viewed on-line at http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html.

  6. Inflation in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The hot big bang cosmology, or the standard cosmology as it is appropriately known, is a highly successful model, providing a reliable and tested accounting of the Universe from 0.01 sec after the bang until today, some 15 Gyr later. However, very special initial data seem to be required in order to account for the observed smoothness and flatness of our Hubble volume and for the existence of the small primeval density inhomogeneities required for the formation of structure in the Universe. Inflation offers a means of accounting for these special initial data, which is based upon physics at sub-planck energy scales (<< m/sub pl/ approx. = 10/sup 19/ GeV) and is motivated by contemporary ideas in particle theory. Here I review the status of the 'Inflationary Paradigm'. At present essentially all inflationary models involve a very weakly-coupled (quantified by the presence of a dimensionless parameter of order 10/sup -12/ or so) scalar field which is displaced from the minimum of its potential. Regions of the Universe where the scalar field is initially displaced from its minimum undergo inflation as the scalar field relaxes, resulting in a Universe today which resembles ours in regions much larger than our present Hubble volume (approx. = 10/sup 28/ cm), but which on very large scales (>> 10/sup 28/ cm) may be highly irregular. The most conspicuous blemish on the paradigm is the lack of a compelling particle physics model to implement it. I also review some other unresolved issues, and discuss in detail the all important confrontation between inflation and observational data. Finally, I discuss the possibility that inflation leads to large-scale, primeval magnetic fields of sufficient strength to be of astrophysical interest. 123 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Universal grating coupler design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Flueckiger, Jonas; Lin, Charlie; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2013-10-01

    A universal design methodology for grating couplers based on the silicon-on-insultator platform is presented in this paper. Our design methodology accomodates various etch depths, silicon thickness (e.g., 220 nm, 300 nm), incident angles, and cladding materials (e.g., silicon oxide or air), and has been verified by simulations and measurement results. Further more, the design methodology presented can be applied to a wide range, from 1260 nm to 1675 nm, of wavelengths.

  8. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  9. A Universal Syntax Checker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, John Francis, III

    A universal syntax checker was constructed to be utilized with a text editor in a time-sharing environment. This syntax checker is a top-down, left-right, slow-back parser that will provide, when supplied the syntax of any language in the Backus-normal form, a syntax check for any string written in a language described. The procedure is capable of…

  10. The International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaerts, Roger; Peeters, Walter

    2006-05-01

    The International Space University (ISU) offers, with the support of the world space community and within an international and intercultural environment, interdisciplinary post-graduate programmes in space studies. These graduate programmes prepare professionals from all sectors to meet the challenges of international space cooperation and the restructuring of the space sector. Although it was created as recently as 1987, the ISU is remarkably successful: by 2005 it had around 2400 alumni, forming a strong network in the space community.

  11. Dark matter universe

    PubMed Central

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  12. Astronomy in Romanian universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosu, Mihail

    In this work we present characteristics of the Romanian higher education related to the study of Astronomy. In spite of Romanian economic problems, opportunities for Bachelor's degree, Master's degree (at "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca) and Ph.D. degree are provided for students enrolled at the faculties of Mathematics or Physics. General regulations, description of courses, research resources and job opportunities are also described and discussed in this paper.

  13. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  14. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  15. [Universal electrogustometer EG-2].

    PubMed

    Wałkanis, Andrzej; Czesak, Michał; Pleskacz, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Electrogustometry is a method for taste diagnosis and measurement. The EG-2 project is being developed in cooperation between Warsaw University of Technology and Military institute of Medicine in Warsaw. The device is an evolution of the recent universal electrogustometer EG-1 prototype. Due to considerations and experiences acquired during prototype usage, many enhancements have been incorporated into device. The aim was to create an easy-to-use, portable, battery powered device, enabled for fast measurements. Developed electrogustometer is using innovative, low-power microprocessor system, which control whole device. User interface is based on 5.7" graphical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and touchscreen. It can be directly operated by finger or with optional stylus. Dedicated GUI (Graphical User Interface) offers simple, predefined measurements and advance settings of signal parameters. It is also possible to store measurements results and patients data in an internal memory. User interface is multilanguage. Signals for patients examinations, supplied with bipolar electrode, are generated by an on-board circuit using DDS (Direct-Digital Synthesis) and DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter). Electrogustometer is able to generate DC, sinus, triangle or rectangle signals with current amplitude from 0 to 500 pA and frequency form 0 to 500 Hz. Device is designed for manual and automeasurement modes. By using USB (Universal Serial Bus) port it is possible to retrieve data stored in internal memory and charging of built-in Li-lon battery as a source of power.

  16. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  17. Universality and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas Christian

    The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.

  18. The universal ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C.

    1998-01-01

    A genetic annealing model for the universal ancestor of all extant life is presented; the name of the model derives from its resemblance to physical annealing. The scenario pictured starts when "genetic temperatures" were very high, cellular entities (progenotes) were very simple, and information processing systems were inaccurate. Initially, both mutation rate and lateral gene transfer levels were elevated. The latter was pandemic and pervasive to the extent that it, not vertical inheritance, defined the evolutionary dynamic. As increasingly complex and precise biological structures and processes evolved, both the mutation rate and the scope and level of lateral gene transfer, i.e., evolutionary temperature, dropped, and the evolutionary dynamic gradually became that characteristic of modern cells. The various subsystems of the cell "crystallized," i.e., became refractory to lateral gene transfer, at different stages of "cooling," with the translation apparatus probably crystallizing first. Organismal lineages, and so organisms as we know them, did not exist at these early stages. The universal phylogenetic tree, therefore, is not an organismal tree at its base but gradually becomes one as its peripheral branchings emerge. The universal ancestor is not a discrete entity. It is, rather, a diverse community of cells that survives and evolves as a biological unit. This communal ancestor has a physical history but not a genealogical one. Over time, this ancestor refined into a smaller number of increasingly complex cell types with the ancestors of the three primary groupings of organisms arising as a result.

  19. The Universal Oxygen Connector.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Mark A; Gombkoto, Rebecca L M

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the benefits of using the Universal Oxygen Connector. Until now, an oxygen hose was only able to connect to a 22-mm fitting, such as those found on humidifiers used in the recovery room, and oxygen tubing was only able to connect to a Christmas tree type adapter. The Universal Oxygen Connector, manufactured and sold by International Medical, Inc (Burnsville, Minn), was developed to allow the practitioner to attach either a 22-mm oxygen hose, oxygen tubing, or a 15-mm oxygen adapter to the same connector. Patients benefit from the administration of supplemental oxygen in the perioperative period. Supplemental oxygen has been shown to decrease postoperative hypoxemia, infection, and in some cases, nausea and vomiting. As such, oxygen should be administered during transport from the operating room to the recovery room, in the recovery room, and at times during transport to the patient room and in the patient room. Oxygen also should be administered whenever a patient receiving oxygen is transported. Use of the Universal Oxygen Connector decreases material waste, decreases hospital costs, saves time and effort and, most importantly, promotes patient safety by providing a versatile system for oxygen delivery.

  20. Coronaviruses and the human airway: a universal system for virus-host interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Hulda R; Dijkman, Ronald

    2016-02-06

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are large RNA viruses that infect the human respiratory tract. The emergence of both Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory syndrome CoVs as well as the yearly circulation of four common CoVs highlights the importance of elucidating the different mechanisms employed by these viruses to evade the host immune response, determine their tropism and identify antiviral compounds. Various animal models have been established to investigate HCoV infection, including mice and non-human primates. To establish a link between the research conducted in animal models and humans, an organotypic human airway culture system, that recapitulates the human airway epithelium, has been developed. Currently, different cell culture systems are available to recapitulate the human airways, including the Air-Liquid Interface (ALI) human airway epithelium (HAE) model. Tracheobronchial HAE cultures recapitulate the primary entry point of human respiratory viruses while the alveolar model allows for elucidation of mechanisms involved in viral infection and pathogenesis in the alveoli. These organotypic human airway cultures represent a universal platform to study respiratory virus-host interaction by offering more detailed insights compared to cell lines. Additionally, the epidemic potential of this virus family highlights the need for both vaccines and antivirals. No commercial vaccine is available but various effective antivirals have been identified, some with potential for human treatment. These morphological airway cultures are also well suited for the identification of antivirals, evaluation of compound toxicity and viral inhibition.

  1. Worth the Journey: The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe: Bulletin of the AAUP, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Described is the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum, which is the nation's largest museum devoted to archaeology and anthropology. Though not an art museum, the University Museum contains objects of artistic quality as well as artifacts that reveal whole cultures of such areas as the Near East, Mediterranean, and Egypt. (JMD)

  2. Who Should Go to University? Justice in University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben; Martin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Current debates regarding justice in university admissions most often approach the question of access to university from a technical, policy-focussed perspective. Despite the attention that access to university receives in the press and policy literature, ethical discussion tends to focus on technical matters such as who should pay for university…

  3. Green University Initiatives in China: A Case of Tsinghua University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Wanxia; Zou, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine green university initiatives in the context of China, using Tsinghua University, which is China's green university pioneer, as a case study. Design/methodology/approach: The research method used for this paper is a case study based on participant observation and document analysis. The approach to…

  4. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  5. Critiquing Neoliberalism in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    While students chanting "No cuts, No fees, No corporate universities" may be dismissed as youthful hyperbole by some, it is not as superficial a characterisation of the state of our public university system as it seems.

  6. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  7. Education in a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrow, Kenneth J. Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 30 essays on the character, administration, and management of research universities research university emphasizes the perspective of statistics and operations research: The essays are: "A Robust Faculty Planning Model" (Frederick Biedenweg); "Looking Back at Computer Models Employed in the Stanford University Administration"…

  8. Do Universities Have "Successful" Brands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Branding in universities is a topical issue, but arguably few UK universities have fully developed "successful" brands in the manner of commercial organizations. This qualitative paper explores the opinions of 40 opinion formers on which UK universities have successful brands and the associations these brands have. Current literature on what…

  9. A University of the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The term "open university" was coined by that visionary "seedsman" of reformist ideas Michael Young in an article for a 1962 number of "Where?" magazine. He proposed an "open university" to prepare people for external degrees at London University, with three key functions: (1) to organise new and better correspondence courses for the degree; (2)…

  10. Remembering the University of Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Nineteen essays comprise this personal and historical look at the University of Utah and the relationship between the university, its people, and the community. Essays include: "One Cannot Live Long Enough to Outgrow a University" (Ramona Wilcox Cannon); "Ever in the Freshness of Its Youth" (G. Homer Durham); "The Final Payoff" (David W. Evans);…

  11. The Universality of Acquisitional Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salus, Peter H.

    This paper is concerned with the Aristotelian notion of "universal" as applied to phonological phenomena. It is claimed that speech production in children and adults, in normal and deviant speakers, and in a variety of languages, can all be described according to the same universal phonological rules which constitute the universal process of…

  12. University Relations: The HP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard benefited from one of the earliest examples of knowledge transfer in a strategic relationship, with the investment by Stanford University professor Frederick Terman in the work of former students Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett. Today, HP University Relations (UR) works with university partners to create similar valuable synergy. UR…

  13. Industry Investment in University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldart, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Practical, political, and ethical issues result from industry investments in university research. These issues are discussed in terms of the commercialization of university research, challenge to academic integrity (considering academic freedom and government funding), and implications for the university (considering contracts, mergers,…

  14. Widening Participation in University Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Barbara; Carrington, Suzanne; Bland, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports how one Australian university and the Queensland Department of Education and Training (DET) are working together to increase the number of school students from low socio-economic backgrounds enrolling in undergraduate university degrees. This innovative program involves university lecturers and school teachers working together…

  15. Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osters, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Texas A&M University is a research extensive institution located in College Station. More than 45,000 students attend the university (about 20% are graduate or professional students). Academically, the university is known for its engineering, business, and agricultural and veterinary medicine programs, although there are more than 150 programs of…

  16. Flordia State University

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.; Frawley, A.; Myers, E.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne fabricated the niobium resonators and some auxiliary devices for the superconducting-linac energy booster built at Florida State University. Personnel from FSU came to ANL to assemble and test the resonators. The main resonator fabrication work for FSU was completed during 1986, but we continue to interact with personnel concerning ongoing refinements in the technology. Topics in which we were most recently involved are (1) a change in the method of cooling the FSU resonators and (2) the transfer of information about fast tuner upgrades. During the past year there was very little interaction.

  17. Journey Through the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.

    2005-12-01

    Journey through the Universe held its first Journey Week January 21-28, 2005 in Hilo, Hawaii. This ambitious program uses the fi elds of space, earth science and exploration to engage communities with long-term connections to science, mathematics and technology. All content is aligned to state and national education standards. Last year, the Hawaii-based program trained 135 teachers, visited more than 120 classrooms, talked to more than 5,000 students and hosted three family science events for more than 2,500 people. In 2006 the program seeks to reach an additional 8,000 students in public, private and charter schools in North Hawaii.

  18. Optimal Universal Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Yunlong; Ma, Teng; Fei, Shao-Ming; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Wang, Zhi-Xi

    2016-01-01

    We study universal uncertainty relations and present a method called joint probability distribution diagram to improve the majorization bounds constructed independently in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230401 (2013)] and [J. Phys. A. 46, 272002 (2013)]. The results give rise to state independent uncertainty relations satisfied by any nonnegative Schur-concave functions. On the other hand, a remarkable recent result of entropic uncertainty relation is the direct-sum majorization relation. In this paper, we illustrate our bounds by showing how they provide a complement to that in [Phys. Rev. A. 89, 052115 (2014)]. PMID:27775010

  19. On separate universes

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: enrico.pajer@gmail.com

    2015-10-01

    The separate universe conjecture states that in General Relativity a density perturbation behaves locally (i.e. on scales much smaller than the wavelength of the mode) as a separate universe with different background density and curvature. We prove this conjecture for a spherical compensated tophat density perturbation of arbitrary amplitude and radius in ΛCDM. We then use Conformal Fermi Coordinates to generalize this result to scalar perturbations of arbitrary configuration and scale in a general cosmology with a mixture of fluids, but to linear order in perturbations. In this case, the separate universe conjecture holds for the isotropic part of the perturbations. The anisotropic part on the other hand is exactly captured by a tidal field in the Newtonian form. We show that the separate universe picture is restricted to scales larger than the sound horizons of all fluid components. We then derive an expression for the locally measured matter bispectrum induced by a long-wavelength mode of arbitrary wavelength, a new result which in standard perturbation theory is equivalent to a relativistic second-order calculation. We show that nonlinear gravitational dynamics does not generate observable contributions that scale like local-type non-Gaussianity f{sup loc}{sub NL}, and hence does not contribute to a scale-dependent galaxy bias Δ b ∝ k{sup −2} on large scales; rather, the locally measurable long-short mode coupling assumes a form essentially identical to subhorizon perturbation theory results, once the long-mode density perturbation is replaced by the synchronous-comoving gauge density perturbation. Apparent f{sup loc}{sub NL}-type contributions arise through projection effects on photon propagation, which depend on the specific large-scale structure tracer and observable considered, and are in principle distinguishable from the local mode coupling induced by gravity. We conclude that any observation of f{sup loc}{sub NL} beyond these projection effects

  20. VLSI Universal Noiseless Coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji; Fang, Wai-Chi

    1989-01-01

    Proposed universal noiseless coder (UNC) compresses stream of data signals for efficient transmission in channel of limited bandwidth. Noiseless in sense original data completely recoverable from output code. System built as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit, compressing data in real time at input rates as high as 24 Mb/s, and possibly faster, depending on specific design. Approach yields small, lightweight system operating reliably and consuming little power. Constructed as single, compact, low-power VLSI circuit chip. Design of VLSI circuit chip made specific to code algorithms. Entire UNC fabricated in single chip, worst-case power dissipation less than 1 W.

  1. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  2. Physics in our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The recent detection of gravitational waves from the merger of two massive black holes means that we must now take Newton's approach to the Universe even more seriously than we have taken it since Principia: General Relativity has now been tested, as never before, and GR has passed with flying colors! In my poster I try to summarize all of fundamental physics taken together --- gravitation, dark energy, and particles. But the whole job is not yet done: mass + energy remains as a final frontier. It may be that the topology of 4-space is the answer: how I wish I were a mathematical topologist of great ability!

  3. Alone in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard

    Recent measurements of over 1056 confirmed exoplanets reveal details about their masses, compositions, orbital parameters, possible evolutionary histories, and even their atmospheres. These results, though marking just the beginnings of a dramatic new period of exoplanet discovery, suggest that for all practical purposes we are alone in the universe, at least in the sense implied by SETI: extraterrestrial intelligence. This talk will summarize the evidence to date, offer conclusions about the critical importance of increased exoplanet research, and emphasize the need for a renewed appreciation of the rare value of the Earth, its fragile environment, and its inhabitants.

  4. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  5. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  6. Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, David L.; T-Raissi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This final report describes the R&D activities and projects conducted for NASA under the 6-year NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities grant program. Contained within this report are summaries of the overall activities, one-page description of all the reports funded under this program and all of the individual reports from each of the 29 projects supported by the effort. The R&D activities cover hydrogen technologies related to production, cryogenics, sensors, storage, separation processes, fuel cells, resource assessments and education. In the span of 6 years, the NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities program funded a total of 44 individual university projects, and employed more than 100 faculty and over 100 graduate research students in the six participating universities. Researchers involved in this program have filed more than 20 patents in all hydrogen technology areas and put out over 220 technical publications in the last 2 years alone. This 6 year hydrogen research program was conducted by a consortium of six Florida universities: Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida State University (FSU) and Florida A&M University (FAMU) in Tallahassee, University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, and University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida managed the research activities of all consortium member universities except those at the University of Florida. This report does not include any of the programs or activities conducted at the University of Florida, but can be found in NASA/CR-2008-215440-PART 1-3.

  7. Universal Payload Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Ralph B.

    2003-01-01

    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center has a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and control of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to remote experimenters and International Partners physically located in different parts of the world. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground-based electronic document configuration management and collaborative workflow system that was built to service the POIC's information management needs. This paper discusses the application components that comprise the PIMS system, the challenges that influenced its design and architecture, and the selected technologies it employs. This paper will also touch on the advantages of the architecture, details of the user interface, and lessons learned along the way to a successful deployment. With PIMS, a sophisticated software solution has been built that is not only universally accessible for POIC customer s information management needs, but also universally adaptable in implementation and application as a generalized information management system.

  8. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  9. Carbon in the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, NASA missions have revealed that we live in a Universe that is not a hydrogen-dominated, physicist's paradise, but in a molecular Universe with complex molecules directly interwoven into its fabric. These missions have shown that molecules are an abundant and important component of astronomical objects at all stages of their evolution and that they play a key role in many processes that dominate the structure and evolution of galaxies. Closer to home in our galaxy, the Milky Way, they have revealed a unique and complex organic inventory of regions of star and planet formation that may well represent some of the prebiotic roots to life. Astrobiology emerges from the great interest in understanding astrochemical evolution from simple to complex molecules, especially those with biogenic potential and the roles they may play as primordial seeds in the origin of life on habitable worlds. The first part of this talk will highlight how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with dedicated laboratory simulations, have revealed the widespread presence of complex organics across deep space. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the evolution of these materials and astrobiology.

  10. Universality of fragment shapes.

    PubMed

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  11. Is the Universe transparent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kai; Avgoustidis, A.; Li, Zhengxiang

    2015-12-01

    We present our study on cosmic opacity, which relates to changes in photon number as photons travel from the source to the observer. Cosmic opacity may be caused by absorption or scattering due to matter in the Universe, or by extragalactic magnetic fields that can turn photons into unobserved particles (e.g., light axions, chameleons, gravitons, Kaluza-Klein modes), and it is crucial to correctly interpret astronomical photometric measurements like type Ia supernovae observations. On the other hand, the expansion rate at different epochs, i.e., the observational Hubble parameter data H (z ), are obtained from differential ageing of passively evolving galaxies or from baryon acoustic oscillations and thus are not affected by cosmic opacity. In this work, we first construct opacity-free luminosity distances from H (z ) determinations, taking into consideration correlations between different redshifts for our error analysis. Moreover, we let the light-curve fitting parameters, accounting for distance estimation in type Ia supernovae observations, free to ensure that our analysis is authentically cosmological-model independent and gives a robust result. Any nonzero residuals between these two kinds of luminosity distances can be deemed as an indication of the existence of cosmic opacity. While a transparent Universe is currently consistent with the data, our results show that strong constraints on opacity (and consequently on physical mechanisms that could cause it) can be obtained in a cosmological-model-independent fashion.

  12. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  13. Imagine the Universe!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.

    2003-01-01

    Welcome to the 2004 edition of the education CD from the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. We hope that you will find it to be an exciting and fun learning experience. We have tried very hard to make this CD as user-friendly as possible and along the way we have discovered some things that every user may need to know. Please read the README file found on the CD if you have any questions or problems using the disk. Then, after that, if you still have problems, email us at itu@athena.gsfc.nasa.gov. We will be happy to help you 'get going'! Below are links to all of the sites included on the CD. You will also find the addresses for the on-line version of each of these sites. If you have a good Internet connection available, we recommend that you view the sites on-line. There you will find the latest updated information, interactive activities, and active links to other sites. Included on the disk are: Imagine The Universe! This site is dedicated to a discussion about our Universe... what we know about it, how it is evolving, and the kinds of objects and phenomena it contains. Emphasizing the X-ray and gamma-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, it also discusses how scientists know what they know, what mysteries remain, and how the answers to remaining mysteries may one day be found. Lots of movies, quizzes, and a special section for educators. Geared for ages 14 and up. This site can be viewed on-line at http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/. StarChild: A learning center for young astronomers The 1998 Webby Award Winner for Best Education Website, StarChild is aimed at ages 4-14. It contains easy-to-understand information about our Solar System, the Universe, and space exploration. There are also activities, songs, movies, and puzzles! This site can be viewed on-line at http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Astronomy Picture of the Day APOD offers a new astronomical image and caption each calendar day. We have captured the year 2003

  14. Rocket University at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    "Rocket University" is an exciting new initiative at Kennedy Space Center led by NASA's Engineering and Technology Directorate. This hands-on experience has been established to develop, refine & maintain targeted flight engineering skills to enable the Agency and KSC strategic goals. Through "RocketU", KSC is developing a nimble, rapid flight engineering life cycle systems knowledge base. Ongoing activities in RocketU develop and test new technologies and potential customer systems through small scale vehicles, build and maintain flight experience through balloon and small-scale rocket missions, and enable a revolving fresh perspective of engineers with hands on expertise back into the large scale NASA programs, providing a more experienced multi-disciplined set of systems engineers. This overview will define the Program, highlight aspects of the training curriculum, and identify recent accomplishments and activities.

  15. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  16. Language universals at birth.

    PubMed

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Berent, Iris; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Bion, Ricardo A H; Cattarossi, Luigi; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2014-04-22

    The evolution of human languages is driven both by primitive biases present in the human sensorimotor systems and by cultural transmission among speakers. However, whether the design of the language faculty is further shaped by linguistic biological biases remains controversial. To address this question, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the brain activity of neonates is sensitive to a putatively universal phonological constraint. Across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to both lbif and bdif. Newborn infants (2-5 d old) listening to these three types of syllables displayed distinct hemodynamic responses in temporal-perisylvian areas of their left hemisphere. Moreover, the oxyhemoglobin concentration changes elicited by a syllable type mirrored both the degree of its preference across languages and behavioral linguistic preferences documented experimentally in adulthood. These findings suggest that humans possess early, experience-independent, linguistic biases concerning syllable structure that shape language perception and acquisition.

  17. Universal leakage elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-05-15

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions.

  18. Zöllner's Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-12-01

    The idea that space is not Euclidean by necessity, and that there are other kinds of "curved" spaces, diffused slowly to the physical and astronomical sciences. Until Einstein's general theory of relativity, only a handful of astronomers contemplated a connection between non-Euclidean geometry and real space. One of them, the German astrophysicist Johann Carl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882), suggested in 1872 a remarkable cosmological model describing a finite universe in closed space. I examine Zöllner's little-known contribution to cosmology and also his even more unorthodox speculations of a four-dimensional space including both physical and spiritual phenomena. I provide an overview of Zöllner's scientific work, of his status in the German scientific community, and of the controversies caused by his polemical style of science. Zöllner's cosmology was effectively forgotten, but there is no reason why it should remain an unwritten chapter in the history of science.

  19. Universal visualization platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Alexander G.; Li, Hongli; Yu, Min; Smrtic, Mary Beth; Cvek, Urska; Goodell, Howie; Gupta, Vivek; Lawrence, Christine; Zhou, Jainping; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Grinstein, Georges G.

    2005-03-01

    Although there are a number of visualization systems to choose from when analyzing data, only a few of these allow for the integration of other visualization and analysis techniques. There are even fewer visualization toolkits and frameworks from which one can develop ones own visualization applications. Even within the research community, scientists either use what they can from the available tools or start from scratch to define a program in which they are able to develop new or modified visualization techniques and analysis algorithms. Presented here is a new general-purpose platform for constructing numerous visualization and analysis applications. The focus of this system is the design and experimentation of new techniques, and where the sharing of and integration with other tools becomes second nature. Moreover, this platform supports multiple large data sets, and the recording and visualizing of user sessions. Here we introduce the Universal Visualization Platform (UVP) as a modern data visualization and analysis system.

  20. University Engagement at INL

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, Sean Robert; Rynes, Amanda Renee

    2014-07-01

    There are currently over 900 facilities in over 170 countries which fall under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. As additional nations look to purse civilian nuclear programs or to expand infrastructure already in place, the number of reactors and accompanying facilities as well as the quantity of material has greatly increased. Due to the breadth of the threat and the burden placed on the IAEA as nuclear applications expand, it has become increasingly important that safeguards professionals have a strong understanding of both the technical and political aspects of nonproliferation starting early in their career. To begin overcoming this challenge, Idaho National Laboratory, has partnered with local universities to deliver a graduate level nuclear engineering course that covers both aspects of the field with a focus on safeguards applications. To date over 60 students across multiple disciplines have participated in this course with many deciding to transition into a nonproliferation area of focus in both their academic and professional careers.

  1. Universe exploration vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Handley, D.; Swan, P.; Sadeh, W.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. space policy is discussed in terms of present and planned activities in the solar system and beyond to develop a concept for expanding space travel. The history of space exploration is briefly reviewed with references to the Mariner II, Apollo, and Discoverer programs. Attention is given to the issues related to return trips to the moon, sprint vs repetitive missions to Mars, and the implications of propulsion needs. The concept of terraforming other bodies within the solar system so that they can support human activity is identified as the next major phase of exploration. The following phase is considered to be the use of robotic or manned missions that extend beyond the solar system. Reference is given to a proposed Thousand Astronomical Units mission as a precursor to exploratory expansion into the universe, and current robotic mission activities are mentioned.

  2. Is the Universe odd?

    SciTech Connect

    Land, Kate; Magueijo, Joao

    2005-11-15

    We investigate the point-parity and mirror-parity handedness of the large angle anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular we consider whether the observed low CMB quadrupole could more generally signal odd point-parity, i.e., suppression of even multipoles. Even though this feature is 'visually' present in most renditions of the WMAP dataset we find that it never supports parity preference beyond the meagre 95% confidence level. This is fortunate as point-parity handedness implies almost certainly a high level of galactic contamination. Mirror reflection parity, on the contrary, is related to the emergence of a preferred axis, defining the symmetry plane. We use this technique to make contact with recent claims for an anisotropic Universe, showing that the detected preferred axis is associated with positive (even) mirror parity. This feature may be an important clue in identifying the culprit for this unexpected signal.

  3. Revealing the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, James; Lightman, Alan

    1983-05-01

    Contributors include Owen Gingerich, Kenneth Bracher, Robert F. C. Vessot, Fred L. Whipple, Fred Franklin, Robert W. Noyes, Robert Rosner, Harvey Tananbaum, Alan P. Lightman, Walter H. G. Lewin, William H. Press, John Huchra, and George B. Field. Alan Lightman, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences since 1996, is adjunct professor of humanities at MIT. He is the author of several books on science, including "Ancient Light: Our Changing View of the Universe" (1991) and "Origins: The Lives and Worlds of Modern Cosmologists" (with R. Brawer, 1990). His works of fiction include "Einstein's Dreams" (1993), "The Diagnosis" (2000), which was a finalist for the National Book Award, and, most recently, "Reunion" (2003).

  4. Universal newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Declau, F; Doyen, A; Robillard, T; de Varebeke, S Janssens

    2005-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common congenital anomalies, occurring in approximately 1-2 infants per 1000. Left undetected, hearing impairments in infants can negatively impact speech and language acquisition, academic achievement, social and emotional development. These negative impacts can be diminished and even eliminated through early intervention at or before 6 months of age. Reliable screening tests that minimize referral rates and maximize sensitivity and specificity are available. The goal of universal neonatal hearing screening is to maximize linguistic and communicative competence and literacy development for children who are hard of hearing or deaf. Audiologic and medical evaluations should be in progress before 3 months of age. Infants with confirmed hearing loss should receive intervention before 6 months of age from health care and education professionals with expertise in hearing loss and deafness in infants and young children. PMID:16363265

  5. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  6. Inflating an inhomogeneous universe

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C.; Rasero, Javier E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz

    2014-08-01

    While cosmological inflation can erase primordial inhomogeneities, it is possible that inflation may not begin in a significantly inhomogeneous universe. This issue is particularly pressing in multifield scenarios, where even the homogeneous dynamics may depend sensitively on the initial configuration. This paper presents an initial survey of the onset of inflation in multifield models, via qualitative lattice-based simulations that do not include local gravitational backreaction. Using hybrid inflation as a test model, our results suggest that small subhorizon inhomogeneities do play a key role in determining whether inflation begins in multifield scenarios. Interestingly, some configurations which do not inflate in the homogeneous limit ''succeed'' after inhomogeneity is included, while other initial configurations which inflate in the homogeneous limit ''fail'' when inhomogeneity is added.

  7. Fred Hoyle's Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Jane

    2005-08-01

    Fred Hoyle was a Yorkshire truant who became the voice of British astronomy. For fifty years, he spoke out for astronomy in the newspapers, on government committees, at scientific meetings, in popular books and on the radio. He devised a never-ending history of the universe, and worked out how the elements were made. He founded a prestigious institute for theoretical astronomy and built a giant telescope, and if it rained on his summer holiday, he sat in his caravan and wrote science fiction novels for his legions of fans around the world. Fred Hoyle also claimed that diseases fall from the sky, that the big bang never happened, and that the Astronomer Royal should be abolished. When the outspoken Fred Hoyle spoke out for astronomy, some astronomers really wished he had kept his mouth shut. This book tells the behind-the-scenes story of Hoyle's widely acclaimed and deeply controversial role in the ideas, organization and public face of astronomy in post-war Britain. It chronicles the triumphs, acrimony, jealousies, rewards and bitter feuds of a field in turmoil, and meets the astronomers, contemplating cosmic questions, keeping secrets, losing their tempers, winkling information out of distant stars and, over tea on the lawn, discussing the finer points of libel law. Fred Hoyle's Universe draws on previously confidential government documents, recently released personal correspondence and interviews with Hoyle's friends, colleagues and critics, as well as with Hoyle himself, to bring you the man, the science, and the scandal behind the genial and genteel facade of the most exciting period in the history of astronomy.

  8. Between universalism and regionalism: universal systematics from imperial Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung

    2015-12-01

    Historiographic discussions of the universality and regionality of science have to date focused on European cases for making regional science universal. This paper presents a new perspective by moving beyond European origins and illuminating a non-European scientist's engagement with the universality and regionality of science. It will examine the case of the Japanese botanist Nakai Takenoshin (1882-1952), an internationally recognized authority on Korean flora based at Tokyo Imperial University. Serving on the International Committee on Botanical Nomenclature in 1926, Nakai endorsed and acted upon European claims of universal science, whilst simultaneously unsettling them with his regionally shaped systematics. Eventually he came to promote his own systematics, built regionally on Korean flora, as the new universal. By analysing his shifting claims in relation to those of other European and non-European botanists, this paper makes two arguments. First, universalism and regionalism were not contradictory foundations of scientific practice but useful tools used by this non-European botanist in maintaining his scientific authority as a representative Japanese systematist. Second, his claims to universality and regionalism were both imperially charged. An imperially monopolized study of Korean plants left a regional imprint on Nakai's systematics. In order to maintain his scientific authority beyond its region of origin he had to assert either the expanding regionalism of 'East Asia' or universalism.

  9. Is the Universe logotropic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2015-07-01

    We consider the possibility that the universe is made of a single dark fluid described by a logotropic equation of state P = A ln( ρ/ρ*, where ρ is the rest-mass density, ρ * is a reference density, and A is the logotropic temperature. The energy density ɛ is the sum of two terms: a rest-mass energy term ρ c 2 that mimics dark matter and an internal energy term u( ρ) = - P( ρ) - A that mimics dark energy. This decomposition leads to a natural, and physical, unification of dark matter and dark energy, and elucidates their mysterious nature. In the early universe, the rest-mass energy dominates and the dark fluid behaves as pressureless dark matter ( P ≃ 0, ɛ ∝ a -3. In the late universe, the internal energy dominates and the dark fluid behaves as dark energy ( P ˜ - ɛ, ɛ ∝ ln a. The logotropic model depends on a single parameter B = A / ρ Λ c 2 (dimensionless logotropic temperature), where ρ Λ = 6.72 × 10-24 g m-3 is the cosmological density. For B = 0, we recover the ΛCDM model with a different justification. For B > 0, we can describe deviations from the ΛCDM model. Using cosmological constraints, we find that 0 ≤ B ≤ 0.09425. We consider the possibility that dark matter halos are described by the same logotropic equation of state. When B > 0, pressure gradients prevent gravitational collapse and provide halo density cores instead of cuspy density profiles, in agreement with the observations. The universal rotation curve of logotropic dark matter halos is consistent with the observational Burkert profile (Burkert, Astrophys. J. 447, L25 (1995)) up to the halo radius. It decreases as r -1 at large distances, similarly to the profile of dark matter halos close to the core radius (Burkert, arXiv:1501.06604). Interestingly, if we assume that all the dark matter halos have the same logotropic temperature B, we find that their surface density Σ 0 = ρ0 r h is constant. This result is in agreement with the observations (Donato et al., Mon

  10. Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.

  11. Our Astounding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Monika

    2016-04-01

    The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment with new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to being a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing, and participating with other children and adults. Children learn through play. From birth, children are active participants in building their own understanding. Teachers prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid that becomes excited and curious to know when we show them the Universe pictures and tell them about the strange objects in our Universe. So my aim is to keep them ignited by doing different activities throughout the year related to Space. I am always a firm believer of: Creativity is the key to success in the future, and primary education is where teachers can bring creativity in children at that level. One of my main ways of teaching is to conduct various presentations on The Solar System and beyond and debates on Space explorations. A Planet making project is one of the all-time favorite project for my students where they dare to dream to fly in the universe, and with their imagination, kids make different celestial objects and present them. To inculcate scientific attitude I arrange film screening, simulation exercises and quizzes on various topics of astronomy. Every year we celebrate World Space Week 4th to 10th of Oct. The motivation among all came through different hands-on activities like-painting, slogan competition, topics related to space, poetry and essay writing on various topics related to astronomy, assembly presentations in school. I am indeed overwhelmed when I started the very special Space and Astronomy club where young toddlers are involved in different activities like a star gazing program, conducting

  12. 13 Universities on NCAA Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The 13 universities currently on National Collegiate Athletics Association probation, their probation expiration dates, sports affected, sanctions, and grounds for probationary action are listed. (MSE)

  13. The Medieval German University: Transformation and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinges, Rainer Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the university system within the Holy Roman Empire, especially in Germany, explaining that the University of Prague in 1348 was the Empire's first university. Reports that after the University of Prague, the new university type, or the "German type," developed by combining types of universities in Bologna and Paris.…

  14. Building Effective Community-University Partnerships: Are Universities Truly Ready?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Susan Eckerle; Munger, Felix; Mitchell, Terry; Mackeigan, Mary; Farrar, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Community service learning and community-based research necessitate the development of strong community-university partnerships. In this paper, students, faculty, and a community partner critically reflect upon the process of establishing a long-term community-university partnership through the integration of a community service learning component…

  15. McMaster University`s artificial computing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, A.; Bentley, M.

    1996-12-31

    This will be McMaster University`s first entry into the AAAI Mobile Robotics competition. As such, this year will serve as a testing ground for future developments. It is the goal of the designers to experiment with new techniques and approaches based on their engineering background.

  16. The Rockefeller University: College and University Systems Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1981

    1981-01-01

    With a unique organizational structure, the Rockefeller University's need for administrative information systems is different from most institutions of higher education. The financial reporting needs of the many different laboratories led the university to purchase a computer-based accounting system. (MLW)

  17. The European System for Electing University Presidents and University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Huaide

    2014-01-01

    The system of electing university presidents in Spain, Switzerland, Italy, and the United Kingdom has distinctive characteristics. Almost all university presidents are elected by teachers and students, either directly or indirectly through elections with government approval of the appointment a mere formality. Principles of these elections include…

  18. Assessing Civic Engagement at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Bringle, Robert G.; Hatcher, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty and staff at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) have developed several tools to assess campus civic engagement initiatives. This chapter describes the IUPUI Faculty Survey and the Civic-Minded Graduate Scale, and reports on findings from campus-based assessment and research.

  19. Corporate Universities versus Traditional Universities: Comparison through Published Organisation Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, John S.; Martin, Michele C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a part of an ongoing empirical, multi-modal comparative investigation into corporate universities in the US and the UK, the first stage of which was reported in Walton and Martin (2000). This second stage consists of an in-depth comparative study of the aims and objectives of corporate universities in the UK and US compared to…

  20. Law of Universal Repulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongquan

    2012-02-01

    All objects in the universe repel each other. Repulsion between two objects is directly proportional to the external energy (mv^2) of their relative motion and indirectly proportional to their relative motion radius (one object is in relative rest, while the other one is in relative motion). Application examples Suppose a man whose mass is 100 kg, runs on the earth at a speed of 10 meters per second. The radius of the earth is 637100 meters. The repulsion between the earth and the man is: F=mv^2/r=0.00157N; if his speed reaches the first cosmic speed ( 7.9 km per second ), then calculate: F=mv^2/r=980N, just overcome the gravity of the earth. A car with a certain velocity running in a straight highway ( actually with some slight curves ) can't fly up. However, if it encounters an arched bridge, it is possible for the car to fly. That is the consequence of the arch bridge has changed its movement radius, and the repulsion is increased. A aircraft's taking off and flying are not only because of the fluid - air, but also because of the change of its motion radius ( forming virtual arched bridge in the air ), which increases the repulsion.

  1. University of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Acquadro, J.C.; Added, N.; Ferraretto, M.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has agreed to assist the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in the construction of a small superconducting heavy-ion linac to serve as an energy booster for projectiles from their 8-MV tandem. This booster will be similar in many respects to the ANL booster linac built in the late 1970s. The ANL contribution to this project will be (1) to build (at USP expense) 14 split-ring niobium resonators and some of the associated rf electronics, (2) to provide technical information, and (3) to train USP staff members in several phases of superconducting-linac technology. Two Brazilian engineers worked at Argonne for one year, gaining experience in cryogenics and in superconducting-resonator technology. Another engineer worked on the new control system at ATLAS for two years, the first year supported by Sao Paulo and the second with direct ANL support. Sao Paulo personnel returned to ANL in 1993 for assembly and testing of the first batch of completed resonators. The fabrication of the resonators will be completed by early 1995 when the Sao Paulo personnel will come back for final assembly and testing. Fabrication of electronics modules at ANL is still in progress.

  2. Local Universe Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is addressing the "small-scale crisis" and understanding structure formation at the smallest scales. Standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmological simulations of Milky Way-size DM halos predict many more DM sub-halos than the number of dwarf galaxies observed. This is the so-called Missing Satellites Problem. The most popular interpretation of the Missing Satellites Problem is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The virialized extent of the Milky Way's halo should contain ~500 satellites, while only ˜100 satellites and dwarfs are observed in the whole Local Group. Despite the large amount of theoretical work and new optical observations, the discrepancy, even if reduced, still persists between observations and hierarchical models, regardless of the model parameters. It may be possible to find those isolated ultra-faint missing dwarf galaxies via their neutral gas component, which is one of the goals we are pursuing with the SKA precursor KAT-7 in South Africa, and soon with the SKA pathfinder MeerKAT.

  3. Universal ripper miner

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A universal ripper miner used to cut, collect and transfer material from an underground mine working face includes a cutter head that is vertically movable in an arcuate cutting cycle by means of drive members, such as hydraulically actuated pistons. The cutter head may support a circular cutter bit having a circular cutting edge that may be indexed to incrementally expose a fresh cutting edge. An automatic indexing system is disclosed wherein indexing occurs by means of a worm gear and indexing lever mechanism. The invention also contemplates a bi-directional bit holder enabling cutting to occur in both the upstroke and the downstroke cutting cycle. Another feature of the invention discloses multiple bits arranged in an in-line, radially staggered pattern, or a side-by-side pattern to increase the mining capacity in each cutting cycle. An on-board resharpening system is also disclosed for resharpening the cutting edge at the end of cutting stroke position. The aforementioned improvement features may be used either singly, or in any proposed combination with each other.

  4. Gravity Driven Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2010-03-01

    Flowing global gravitation initially produced space without time or mass. Space-time and mass are properties of flowing global gravitation. From its fabric, primal mass spins spontaneously giving rise to local gravitational space-time curvatures. Global gravity is the unifying background field. Gravity began flowing from its singularity with a big whoosh. It curves with angular rotational precession, creating a spatial geometry similar to the windings of a ball of string. Three-dimensional global gravity swirls locally into massive densities. Concurrently with these densities, local gravity curvatures of space-time arise. The expanse between celestial objects is not completely empty, void space as generally believed; it is antecedent gravity, a prerequisite associated field necessary for originating the first quantum particles. Gravity is dark energy; gravity's spin, as the second fundamental force, is electromagnetic dark matter. Electromagnetic masses attract then gravity compresses hot, dense and small---then bang, the first hydrogen star of which there are many. There may have been many big bangs, but no Big Bang that ultimately created the universe.

  5. Universal Quantum Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Dorje C.; Hughston, Lane P.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a family of operations in quantum mechanics that one can regard as “universal quantum measurements” (UQMs). These measurements are applicable to all finite dimensional quantum systems and entail the specification of only a minimal amount of structure. The first class of UQM that we consider involves the specification of the initial state of the system—no further structure is brought into play. We call operations of this type “tomographic measurements”, since given the statistics of the outcomes one can deduce the original state of the system. Next, we construct a disentangling operation, the outcome of which, when the procedure is applied to a general mixed state of an entangled composite system, is a disentangled product of pure constituent states. This operation exists whenever the dimension of the Hilbert space is not a prime, and can be used to model the decay of a composite system. As another example, we show how one can make a measurement of the direction along which the spin of a particle of spin s is oriented (s = 1/2, 1,...). The required additional structure in this case involves the embedding of CP1 as a rational curve of degree 2s in CP2s.

  6. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  7. Viscous dark fluid universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  8. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  9. Universities and Patent Demands

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Andrew K.; Feldman, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. ‘The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.’ The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose. PMID:27774221

  10. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Hallberg, Carl; Cecil, Jim

    1994-01-01

    A state-of-the-art instrumentation amplifier capable of being used with most types of transducers has been developed at the Kennedy Space Center. This Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) can eliminate costly measurement setup item and troubleshooting, improve system reliability and provide more accurate data than conventional amplifiers. The USCA can configure itself for maximum resolution and accuracy based on information read from a RAM chip attached to each transducer. Excitation voltages or current are also automatically configured. The amplifier uses both analog and digital state-of-the-art technology with analog-to-digital conversion performed in the early stages in order to minimize errors introduced by offset and gain drifts in the analog components. A dynamic temperature compensation scheme has been designed to achieve and maintain 12-bit accuracy of the amplifier from 0 to 70 C. The digital signal processing section allows the implementation of digital filters up to 511th order. The amplifier can also perform real-time linearizations up to fourth order while processing data at a rate of 23.438 kS/s. Both digital and analog outputs are available from the amplifier.

  11. Sign Program for a University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Architectural and Engineering News, 1968

    1968-01-01

    A co-ordinated sign program for a multi-campus university not only helps students and visitors find their way around, but is a design element that adds identification and unity. Graphic designer, Paul Arthur, has designed a modular sign system for the University of Tennessee with all elements having standard color, lettering, size and materials.…

  12. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  13. The Future of the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Don N.; McKee, M. Randall

    1983-01-01

    The future of the universe is discussed in terms of several models. These include the closed, open, and critical models of the universe. Black holes and speculation on what may happen to life in the cosmological models are also discussed. (JN)

  14. University Satellite Campus Management Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Doug; Stott, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Among the 60 or so university satellite campuses in Australia are many that are probably failing to meet the high expectations of their universities and the communities they were designed to serve. While in some cases this may be due to the demand driven system, it may also be attributable in part to the ways in which they are managed. The…

  15. The Overseas University Leadership Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the content and format of the Overseas University Leadership Program organized by the National Academy of Education Administration in Beijing, China. Universities provide the country with scientific and technological expertise, pave the path to individual advancement, and are major economic engines. China's new mission…

  16. Gifted Students' Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendaglio, Sal

    2013-01-01

    The transition from school to university presents novel demands for all students. Although this educational milestone has been addressed by scholars, particularly those interested in the study of higher education, there is a dearth of literature regarding gifted students' experience of their handling demands of first-year university. In the…

  17. Outdoor Recreation at Brock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Hutson, Garrett

    2007-01-01

    Brock University offers both undergraduate and graduate programs and is host to approximately 17,000 students. It is the only Canadian university located in a World Biosphere Reserve--the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail passes through campus, and offers ample opportunities for hiking, mountain biking, nature interpretation and outdoor…

  18. Psychiatric Epidemiology: The University Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Armando R.

    1976-01-01

    In an effort to provide a meaningful didactic experience within the constraint of limited teaching hours, the author searched for a "community" which might be examined. A community fulfilling the established criteria for trainees in a university training program is the university itself. Its use is described. (LBH)

  19. A University for the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Over the past year lifelong learning in universities has come under the spotlight of politicians, educationalists, journalists and adult learners. For some, the concern has been about countering the fall-out from changes in public funding and challenging the reduction in provision--and even closure--of university departments. A number of…

  20. Organizational Roles of University Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Walter C.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of relationships found empirically to hold among 20 organizational characteristics of university committees, two patterns are derived of the organizational roles which university committees play: the deliberative, collective decision-making role of member-dominated committees and the one-person advisory role of chairperson-dominated…

  1. Internationalization and the Cosmopolitical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britez, Rodrigo; Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the issues that surround the internationalization of higher education as a way to open discussion about the construction of an alternative cosmopolitical vision of the university, necessary if the university is to fulfill any historic tasks concerning the creation of globally aware citizens. The authors indicate that…

  2. China's Vocational Universities. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Anning

    This ERIC Digest describes the development and characteristics of vocational universities (VUs) in China. In response to the demand for increased numbers of trained technical workers in the 1980's, VUs developed and the higher vocational education system in China was reformed. Currently, 101 vocational universities are in existence in China. These…

  3. Cable Television and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Richard

    Universities contain powerful blocs of resistance to new educational technology, perhaps especially to television. University attitudes and structures as well as faculty ignorance, apathy, and resistance affect the development of cable television. No one seems to speak with great confidence and precision about the educational potential of cable.…

  4. The University as an Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, James A., Ed.

    This collection of studies by men and women who understand universities and have the experience and ability to view them in perspectives of history and international experience demonstrates that universities constitute a genus of institution that is unique in its totality and comparable to other organizations only in certain of its…

  5. University--Science Fair Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Erika; Taylor, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Describes a partnership between a fifth-grade teacher and a university methods professor that involved developing an elementary science fair project mentored by university students. Provides opportunities for elementary students to conduct scientific investigations to learn about science, and opportunities for education majors to have firsthand…

  6. Growing an Emerging Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  7. Student Leadership at the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Ann T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is about the utilization of student leadership at the University. Based on research, student leadership opportunities at the university have been frequently at a low percentage (Zimmerman, Burkhart, 2002). The researcher identifies practical ways to involve students in various leadership activities. Emphases are placed on…

  8. Mature Students at Lancaster University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Susan; Ward, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the degree performance of adult students admitted to the University of Lancaster (England) during the period 1978-80, and analyzes the adult student entrants to the university by age group, sex, and entry qualifications during the same period. (CT)

  9. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  10. Industry-University Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth A.

    1984-01-01

    Points out advantages and disadvantages of industry-university research programs from industry and university viewpoints. Identifies conditions essential for long-term success of such arrangements. Also provides a case study of practices at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), discussing policy guidelines and giving examples of joint…

  11. Water Recycling in Schools & Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeten, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Consider the waste streams generated in schools and universities. So what is in the typical used water generated in schools and universities? It is typically about 99 percent water, with the remaining 1 percent mainly made up of organic compounds. Used water contains nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. When one judges it on its quality, it…

  12. What Is the University Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Conor

    2015-01-01

    What is the University today? In this paper, a Foucault and Deleuzo-Guattarian inspired approach is taken. I argue that the University is, today, a site of "neoliberal governmentality," which governs students and academics as sites of human capital. That is, students and academics are governed to self-govern themselves as sites of human…

  13. Are Universities Becoming More Unequal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Lau; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2016-01-01

    Observers have expressed concern about growing inequality in resources across universities. But are universities really becoming more unequal? We argue that the typical approach of examining endowment growth alone is not sensible. In line with the literature on household inequality, we focus instead on a comprehensive income measure. We find that…

  14. The Work of the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Richard C.

    The essays and speeches in this collection, published on Richard Levins 10th anniversary as president of Yale University, reflects his intellectual passions and the depth of his understanding of the work of the university.The first section, "From the Beginning," contains: (1) "Calm Seas, Auspicious Gales"; and (2) "Beyond the Ivy Walls: Our…

  15. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  16. Managing University Research Microdata Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfrey, Lynn; Fry, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of microdata collections in a university context. It is a cross-country analysis: Collection management at data services in Canada and South Africa are considered. The case studies are of two university sub-contexts: One collection is located in a library; the other at a Faculty-based Data Service. Stages in…

  17. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  18. University Research: Understanding Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Since World War II, the federal government has maintained a partnership with the nation's research universities, based on the bipartisan consensus that (1) the nation needs to invest its resources in curiosity-driven, competitively awarded basic research, and (2) basic research is best conducted at the nation's universities. As a result of that…

  19. The Universities and Federal Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, John C.

    The impact of increasing federal regulation on American universities is discussed based on an informal survey of senior academic and administrative officials in 13 public and private universities. As government regulation is becoming more intensive and compliance more resource- and time-consuming, government is perceived as having little…

  20. Towards a Cosmopolitan African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I offer a defence of cosmopolitanism as an enabling condition for university education in Africa. Recent xenophobic outbursts in South Africa suggests that the enactment of defensible virtues in societies remain distant from the practices of many people. My contention is that university education ought to take seriously the…

  1. Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Meredith; Stubbs, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Universities play a fundamental role in addressing global environmental challenges as their education, research and community involvement can produce long-lasting environmental effects and societal change. By demonstrating best practice in their operations, research and teaching, universities have both multiple and multiplier effects on society.…

  2. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  3. Agnosis in the University Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    One significant, tangible and interesting challenge for the privatised university is its impedance of particular forms of effective engagement and action in teaching and research, notably with respect to inequities in the broader social context, and the position of the university within that context. In the face of significant resource constraints…

  4. Jaspers' Concept of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Robert

    1976-01-01

    The general character of Jaspers' idea of the university is outlined, and some basic objections to that view are examined. Throughout the paper an attempt is made to establish the relevance of Jaspers' work to current university problems. (Author/LBH)

  5. Baby universes with induced gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yihong; Gao, Hongbo

    1989-12-01

    Some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. The authors prove that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential.

  6. The Architect as University President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Architecture blends the arts and sciences in a vigorous way--one well suited to a university presidency. In this article, the author shares how his architectural education and background prepared and helped him for his responsibility as president of Clemson University. A big part of his responsibility is to help plan, financially support, build,…

  7. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  8. Desktop Publishing in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstyn, Joan N., Ed.

    Highlighting changes in the work of people within the university, this book presents nine essays that examine the effects of desktop publishing and electronic publishing on professors and students, librarians, and those who work at university presses and in publication departments. Essays in the book are: (1) "Introduction: The Promise of Desktop…

  9. University Students: Attainment and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, L. B.; Douglass, L.

    1975-01-01

    The extent to which 230 university students following a one-year psychology course were 'active' (i.e., competitively or recreationally involved) in sport or 'non-participant' was compared with their scores on measures of personality, attitude, social class, sex, previous school involvement in sport, and attainment in university course work.…

  10. University Autonomy: The Ethiopian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebru, Demewoz Admasu

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses and analyzes the state of university autonomy in Ethiopia at a time when the country has embarked on massive expansion of the sector, and universities are established out of urban centers based on regional equity. Legislative provisions and case study reports were reviewed, and lived experiences documented with emphasis on…

  11. The Philosophy of University Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  12. University Rankings and Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  13. Islamic Universities Spread through Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on new universities for Muslims, many supported by groups in the Middle East, which are spreading through the sub-Saharan region. The Islamic University in Uganda is a prime example of a new kind of institution that has slowly been spreading its way across the continent. Embracing both conservative Muslim values and modern…

  14. Visualising the "Internationalisation" of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkin, Graham; Devjee, Faiyaz; Farnsworth, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development and testing of a model for measuring the internationalisation of universities and to assist with the strategic planning of…

  15. The Black Hole Universe Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  16. University cardiology clinic.

    PubMed

    Borozanov, V

    2013-01-01

    In distant 1972, within framework of the Internal Clinic, a cardiologic department was organized which was soon, on 29.XII.1974, transformed into the Cardiology Clinic, later the Institute for Heart Diseases, and in 2008 was renamed the University Cardiology Clinic. The greater part of its foundation was possible owing to Prof. Dimitar Arsov and Prof. Radovan Percinkovski, who was the clinic's first director in the period from 1974 to 1984. In 1985, the Clinic moved into its own new building, and in that way was physically detached from the Internal Clinics. Until its move to the new building, the Clinic functioned in the Internal Clinics building, organized as an outpatient polyclinic and inpatient infirmary department with clinical beds, a coronary intensive care unit and a haemodynamics laboratory equipped with the most modern equipment of that time. Today the Clinic functions through two integral divisions: an inpatient infirmary department which comprises an intensive coronary care unit and fourteen wards which altogether have 139 clinical beds, and the diagnostic centre which comprises an emergency clinic and day hospital, a communal and consultative outpatients' clinic functioning on a daily basis, through which some 300-350 patients pass every day, and diagnostic laboratories with a capacity of nearly 100 non-invasive and 20-30 invasive diagnostic procedures daily. The Clinic is a teaching base, and its doctors are educators of students at the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Faculties, and also of students at the High School for Nurses and X-ray technicians, but also for those in Internal Medicine and especially Cardiology. The Clinic is also a base for scientific Masters' and post-doctoral studies, and such higher degrees are achieved not only by doctors who work here, but also by doctors from Medical Centres both in the country and abroad. Doctors working in this institution publish widely, not only a great number of books and monographs, but also original

  17. Universality of market superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denys, Mateusz; Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard; Jagielski, Maciej; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-10-01

    We use a key concept of the continuous-time random walk formalism, i.e., continuous and fluctuating interevent times in which mutual dependence is taken into account, to model market fluctuation data when traders experience excessive (or superthreshold) losses or excessive (or superthreshold) profits. We analytically derive a class of "superstatistics" that accurately model empirical market activity data supplied by Bogachev, Ludescher, Tsallis, and Bunde that exhibit transition thresholds. We measure the interevent times between excessive losses and excessive profits and use the mean interevent discrete (or step) time as a control variable to derive a universal description of empirical data collapse. Our dominant superstatistic value is a power-law corrected by the lower incomplete gamma function, which asymptotically tends toward robustness but initially gives an exponential. We find that the scaling shape exponent that drives our superstatistics subordinates itself and a "superscaling" configuration emerges. Thanks to the Weibull copula function, our approach reproduces the empirically proven dependence between successive interevent times. We also use the approach to calculate a dynamic risk function and hence the dynamic VaR, which is significant in financial risk analysis. Our results indicate that there is a functional (but not literal) balance between excessive profits and excessive losses that can be described using the same body of superstatistics but different calibration values and driving parameters. We also extend our original approach to cover empirical seismic activity data (e.g., given by Corral), the interevent times of which range from minutes to years. Superpositioned superstatistics is another class of superstatistics that protects power-law behavior both for short- and long-time behaviors. These behaviors describe well the collapse of seismic activity data and capture so-called volatility clustering phenomena.

  18. TIGER: the universal biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstadler, Steven A.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Blyn, Lawrence B.; Eshoo, Mark W.; Hall, Thomas A.; Jiang, Yun; Drader, Jared J.; Hannis, James C.; Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A.; Cummins, Lendell L.; Libby, Brian; Walcott, Demetrius J.; Schink, Amy; Massire, Christian; Ranken, Raymond; Gutierrez, Jose; Manalili, Sheri; Ivy, Cristina; Melton, Rachael; Levene, Harold; Barrett-Wilt, Greg; Li, Feng; Zapp, Vanessa; White, Neill; Samant, Vivek; McNeil, John A.; Knize, Duane; Robbins, David; Rudnick, Karl; Desai, Anjali; Moradi, Emily; Ecker, David J.

    2005-03-01

    In this work, we describe a strategy for the detection and characterization of microorganisms associated with a potential biological warfare attack or a natural outbreak of an emerging infectious disease. This approach, termed TIGER (Triangulation Identification for the Genetic Evaluation of Risks), relies on mass spectrometry-derived base composition signatures obtained from PCR amplification of broadly conserved regions of the microbial genome(s) in a sample. The sample can be derived from air filtration devices, clinical samples, or other sources. Core to this approach are "intelligent PCR primers" that target broadly conserved regions of microbial genomes that flank variable regions. This approach requires that high-performance mass measurements be made on PCR products in the 80-140 bp size range in a high-throughput, robust modality. As will be demonstrated, the concept is equally applicable to bacteria and viruses and could be further applied to fungi and protozoa. In addition to describing the fundamental strategy of this approach, several specific examples of TIGER are presented that illustrate the impact this approach could have on the way biological weapons attacks are detected and the way that the etiologies of infectious diseases are determined. The first example illustrates how any bacterial species might be identified, using Bacillus anthracis as the test agent. The second example demonstrates how DNA-genome viruses are identified using five members of Poxviridae family, whose members includes Variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox. The third example demonstrates how RNA-genome viruses are identified using the Alphaviruses (VEE, WEE, and EEE) as representative examples. These examples illustrate how the TIGER technology can be applied to create a universal identification strategy for all pathogens, including those that infect humans, livestock, and plants.

  19. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'

  20. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'

  1. PREFACE: The Quantum Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Bassi, Angelo; Dowker, Fay; Dürr, Detlef

    2007-03-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical entitled 'The Quantum Universe' is dedicated to Professor Giancarlo Ghirardi on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Giancarlo Ghirardi has made many important contributions to the foundations of quantum mechanics including the celebrated Ghirardi Rimini Weber (GRW) model of spontaneous wavefunction collapse. However, although Professor Ghirardi's birthday is the inspiration for this issue, it has a much broader scope than the area traditionally known as Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. All invited authors are experts in areas of physics in which quantum theory is fundamental: non relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum computation and information, quantum field theory, quantum gravity, quantum cosmology and philosophy of science. The issue was conceived as an opportunity for workers in these diverse areas to share with the widest possible readership their views on quantum theory. Authors were encouraged to give their personal assessment of the role of quantum theory in their work particularly as it pertains to a vision of the global aims of their research. The articles are accessible to any physicist with a solid knowledge of quantum mechanics, and many contain an emphasis on conceptual developments, both those achieved and those hoped for. One theme that runs throughout Giancarlo Ghirardi's contributions to science is the unity of physics: the development of the GRW model itself was motivated by the conviction that the same physics should govern microscopic and macroscopic systems. However, readers of this special issue will clearly see that there is no unity as yet in the views of workers on fundamental quantum theories. Indeed the diversity of the articles, ranging from technical developments in well defined approaches, to new proposals for interpretations of quantum mechanics, indicates the state of fundamental physics: healthily active and yet lacking the consensus we seek in science

  2. University cardiology clinic.

    PubMed

    Borozanov, V

    2013-01-01

    In distant 1972, within framework of the Internal Clinic, a cardiologic department was organized which was soon, on 29.XII.1974, transformed into the Cardiology Clinic, later the Institute for Heart Diseases, and in 2008 was renamed the University Cardiology Clinic. The greater part of its foundation was possible owing to Prof. Dimitar Arsov and Prof. Radovan Percinkovski, who was the clinic's first director in the period from 1974 to 1984. In 1985, the Clinic moved into its own new building, and in that way was physically detached from the Internal Clinics. Until its move to the new building, the Clinic functioned in the Internal Clinics building, organized as an outpatient polyclinic and inpatient infirmary department with clinical beds, a coronary intensive care unit and a haemodynamics laboratory equipped with the most modern equipment of that time. Today the Clinic functions through two integral divisions: an inpatient infirmary department which comprises an intensive coronary care unit and fourteen wards which altogether have 139 clinical beds, and the diagnostic centre which comprises an emergency clinic and day hospital, a communal and consultative outpatients' clinic functioning on a daily basis, through which some 300-350 patients pass every day, and diagnostic laboratories with a capacity of nearly 100 non-invasive and 20-30 invasive diagnostic procedures daily. The Clinic is a teaching base, and its doctors are educators of students at the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Faculties, and also of students at the High School for Nurses and X-ray technicians, but also for those in Internal Medicine and especially Cardiology. The Clinic is also a base for scientific Masters' and post-doctoral studies, and such higher degrees are achieved not only by doctors who work here, but also by doctors from Medical Centres both in the country and abroad. Doctors working in this institution publish widely, not only a great number of books and monographs, but also original

  3. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  4. [To promote the change of health education orientation and to incorporate the Spanish universities to the task].

    PubMed

    García Martínez, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    The problem health education faces in Spanish schools is the inconsistency between objectives and means. Therefore, it is common to find health education initiatives limited by not only lack of institutional support and training of professionals, but also by its adherence to a theory-based learning. This article analyses the need for a practical alternative, which would involve researchers/teachers and students in thinking and building the best health practices for them and their community. Parent-like behaviour, based on information and/or persuasion, looks to protect adolescent health and well-being until they are able to take on responsibility of their own, despite the fact that adolescents' search for knowledge influences their own perceptions of what is best for individual and community health. In order to tackle this challenge faced by health educators, in contrast to the theory-based teaching model, it is necessary to implicate the people into the learning process. An in depth study on the definition of health education paradigms (informative, persuasive and political-ecological) (García et al., 2001) has been developed, and which Jensen (1997) divides into two types: moral (informative) and democratic (ecological). As part of this process to transform health education into a participatory practice, and given its social impact, there is also a need to implement health education at higher educational levels and not only in primary and secondary school as occurs in Spain. Turning universities into 'health promoting agencies' (Dooris, 2001) would imply coordinating education with personal, professional and community action, and would be supported and driven by organisational change at university level and would require the participation of all involved when defining the course of action. As a consequence, the people involved in health education learning processes at university level would improve not only their quality of life, but they would also build

  5. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education, discuss the…

  6. Acceleration of black hole universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  7. Astrobiology and the Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Four hundred years ago two astronomical world views hung in the balance: the geocentric and the heliocentric. Today astronomy faces a similar choice between two grand world views: a purely physical universe, in which cosmic evolution commonly ends in planets, stars and galaxies, and a biological universe, in which cosmic evolution routinely results in life, mind and intelligence. Astrobiology is the science providing the data to make this critical choice. This 20th century overview shows how we have arrived at the view that cosmic evolution may have resulted in life and intelligence in the universe. It examines how our astronomical world view has changed over the last century, recalls the opinions of astronomical pioneers like Russell, Shapley, and Struve on life in the universe, and shows how planetary science, planetary systems science, origins of life studies and SETI have combined to form a new discipline. Astrobiology now commands \\$50 million in direct funding from NASA, funds 15 Astrobiology Institute members around the country and four affiliates around the world, and seeks to answer one of astronomy's oldest questions. Whether we live in a mostly physical universe, as exemplified in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, or in a biological universe, as portrayed in Arthur C. Clarke's works, this reality will have profound consequences, no less than the Copernican theory. Astrobiology also looks to the future of life; taking a long-term ``Stapledonian" view, it is possible we may live in a postbiological universe.

  8. Computational capacity of the universe.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Seth

    2002-06-10

    All physical systems register and process information. The laws of physics determine the amount of information that a physical system can register (number of bits) and the number of elementary logic operations that a system can perform (number of ops). The Universe is a physical system. The amount of information that the Universe can register and the number of elementary operations that it can have performed over its history are calculated. The Universe can have performed 10(120) ops on 10(90) bits ( 10(120) bits including gravitational degrees of freedom).

  9. The role of the university.

    PubMed

    Starck, P L

    1987-01-01

    The role of the university, and particularly the health sciences university, in promoting positive health for women is twofold. First, the dissemination of existing knowledge raises awareness of special health needs and identifies gaps in the present research and literature base. Second, universities must project future needs of women in a rapidly changing society where such things as space travel may become commonplace. Reduction of the risk of debilitating disease and promotion of positive attitudes will enhance the quality of life for women. A logotherapeutic approach to choosing one's own attitudes toward life's challenges promotes successful coping in a dynamic society.

  10. Visualizing the universe, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    These decades are the first in which we can begin to map the universe. Recent surveys reveal patterns in the distribution of galaxies -- patterns coherent on scales of 150 million light years or more. These patterns contrast with the smoothness of the radiation background measured by the COBE satellite. Together these observations challenge our understanding of the origin of galaxies and large-scale structure in the universe. 'Visualizing the universe' is crucial for exploring the 3-dimensional maps, for analyzing them, for comparing the data with simulations, for designing instruments to make deeper maps with new large telescopes, and for sharing the excitement of discovery with the public.

  11. Female physicists in Ugandan universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ujanga, Florence M.; Ssentongo, Grace Spencer; Ayugi, Gertrude; Akoba, Rashida; Saphina, Biira

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, only one public university in Uganda had a department of physics. Several women graduated from this department, but not many showed much interest in pursuing higher degrees in physics. Currently, there are five public universities in Uganda with departments of physics, and there has been an increase in the number of female graduates in physics. At the same time, the number of women pursuing higher degrees in physics has increased, and the universities have registered an increase in female physics lecturers.

  12. The role of the university.

    PubMed Central

    Starck, P L

    1987-01-01

    The role of the university, and particularly the health sciences university, in promoting positive health for women is twofold. First, the dissemination of existing knowledge raises awareness of special health needs and identifies gaps in the present research and literature base. Second, universities must project future needs of women in a rapidly changing society where such things as space travel may become commonplace. Reduction of the risk of debilitating disease and promotion of positive attitudes will enhance the quality of life for women. A logotherapeutic approach to choosing one's own attitudes toward life's challenges promotes successful coping in a dynamic society. PMID:3120225

  13. Can the Universe be "tilted"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Daile

    1992-03-01

    We investigated the "tilting" of the universe, i.e., a non-Doppler origin of the dipole moment of the cosmic background radiation(CBR). Superhorizon-sized isocurvature, rotational and true vaccuum bubble perturbations are considered. We show that the more natural way of the "tilting" the Universe is via the true vaccuum buble perturbation. Neverthless, due to the small filling fraction of the bubbles of viable extended inflationary models, we find that the probability of the real occurence in the universe is quite insignificant.

  14. An International Student's Guide to Mexican Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Alan, Ed.; Salazar, Sylvia Ortega, Ed.

    This guide for students interested in studying at Mexican universities covers 50 universities including all state universities, the National University of Mexico, as well as a representative selection of the leading private universities. Introductory material provides a brief history of Mexico, a discussion of differences from and similarities to…

  15. Teacher Education Program Reviews at University of North Florida, Florida State University, Florida Atlantic University, University of South Florida, March 1994-April 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, David A.

    This report offers the review of four joint teacher education reviews conducted in the Florida State University System (SUS). Institutions reviewed are: University of North Florida (UNF), Florida State University (FSU), Florida Atlantic University (FAU), and the University of South Florida (USF). Joint teams were composed of the National Council…

  16. The Pragmatic University: A Feasible Utopia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2016-01-01

    "Imaginings" of the modern university include such ideas as "the ecological university" and "the pragmatic university". In his attempt to separate utopian from dystopian visions of the university, Ronald Barnett concentrates on an analysis of the ecological university and ignores, for example, the case of the…

  17. Report of the Commission on University Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Univ., Edmonton. The Senate.

    A report of the Commission on University Purpose of The University of Alberta, Canada, is presented. Based on the perceptions of the various publics, the Commission sought to clarify the purposes and functions of the university. After an introductory section on the historical development of universities and The University of Alberta, changing…

  18. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics) G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The wave planetology [1-3 & others] proceeds from the following: "planetary structures are made by orbits and rotations". A uniform reason makes uniform structures. Inertia-gravity waves arising in planetary bodies due to their movements in Keplerian elliptical orbits with periodically changing accelerations warp these bodies in such way that they acquire polyhedron shapes (after interference of standing waves of four directions). Strong Newtonian gravity makes bodies larger than ~400 to 500 km in diameter globular and polyhedra are rarely seen. Only geomorphologic, geologic and geophysical mapping can develop these hidden structures. But small bodies, normally less than ~ 300 to 400 km in diameter, often show parts of the polyhedra, rarely fully developed forms (the asteroid Steins and satellite Amalthea present rather perfect forms of "diamond"). Depending on warping wavelengths (they make harmonics) various Plato's figures superimposed on each other can be distinguished. The fundamental wave 1 produces a tetrahedron, intrinsically dichotomic figure in which a vertex (contraction) always is opposed to a face (expansion). From the recent examples the best is the saturnian northern hexagon (a face) opposed to the southern hurricane (a vertex). The first overtone wave 2 is responsible for creation of structural octahedra. Whole ‘diamonds" and their parts are known [4, 5]. Other overtones produce less developed (because of smaller wave amplitudes) planetary shapes complicating main forms. Thus, the first common structural peculiarity of planetary bodies is their polyhedron nature. Not less important is the second common structural peculiarity. As all globular or smaller more or less isometric bodies rotate, they have an angular momentum. It is inevitably different in tropic and extra-tropic belts having uneven radii or distances to

  19. Emergent Universe with Particle Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Anirban; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of an emergent universe solution to Einstein's field equations allowing for an irreversible creation of matter at the expense of the gravitational field is shown. With the universe being chosen as spatially flat FRW spacetime together with equation of state proposed in Mukherjee et al. (Class. Quant. Grav. 23, 6927, 2006), the solution exists when the ratio of the phenomenological matter creation rate to the number density times the Hubble parameter is a number β of the order of unity and independent of time. The thermodynamic behaviour is also determined for this solution. Interestingly, we also find that an emergent universe scenario is present with usual equation of state in cosmology when the matter creation rate is chosen to be a constant. More general class of emergent universe solutions are also discussed.

  20. Imagine the Universe!. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Bene, Meredith; Cliffe, J. Allie; Lochner, James C.

    1998-01-01

    Imagine the Universe! gives students, teachers, and the general public a window on how high-energy astrophysics is used to probe the structure and evolution of the Universe. This is the universe as revealed by X-rays, gamma-rays and cosmic rays. Information about this exciting branch of astronomy is available in Imagine the Universe! at a variety of reading levels, and is illustrated with on-line graphics, animations, and movies. Information is presented on topics ranging from the Sun to black holes to X-ray and gamma-ray satellites. Imagine! also features a Teacher's Corner with study guides, lesson plans, and information on other education resources. Further descriptions of features of the Imagine! site and the other sites included on the CD-ROM may be found in sections V and VI of the booklet file.