Science.gov

Sample records for alias object designations

  1. Descope of the ALIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuefei; Lau, Yun-Kau; Xu, Shengnian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Bai, Shan; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chen, Gerui; Chen, Xian; Ding, Yanwei; Dong, Peng; Gao, Wei; Heinzel, Gerhard; Li, Ming; Li, Shuo; Liu, Fukun; Luo, Ziren; Shao, Mingxue; Spurzem, Rainer; Sun, Baosan; Tang, Wenlin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Yu, Pin; Yuan, Yefei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhou, Zebing

    2015-05-01

    The present work reports on a feasibility study commissioned by the Chinese Academy of Sciences of China to explore various possible mission options to detect gravitational waves in space alternative to that of the eLISA/LISA mission concept. Based on the relative merits assigned to science and technological viability, a few representative mission options descoped from the ALIA mission are considered. A semi-analytic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to understand the cosmic black hole merger histories and the possible scientific merits of the mission options in probing the light seed black holes and their coevolution with galaxies in early Universe. The study indicates that, by choosing the armlength of the interferometer to be three million kilometers and shifting the sensitivity floor to around one-hundredth Hz, together with a very moderate improvement on the position noise budget, there are certain mission options capable of exploring light seed, intermediate mass black hole binaries at high redshift that are not readily accessible to eLISA/LISA, and yet the technological requirements seem to within reach in the next few decades for China.

  2. Object Oriented Modeling and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Object Oriented Modeling and Design seminar is intended for software professionals and students, it covers the concepts and a language-independent graphical notation that can be used to analyze problem requirements, and design a solution to the problem. The seminar discusses the three kinds of object-oriented models class, state, and interaction. The class model represents the static structure of a system, the state model describes the aspects of a system that change over time as well as control behavior and the interaction model describes how objects collaborate to achieve overall results. Existing knowledge of object oriented programming may benefit the learning of modeling and good design. Specific expectations are: Create a class model, Read, recognize, and describe a class model, Describe association and link, Show abstract classes used with multiple inheritance, Explain metadata, reification and constraints, Group classes into a package, Read, recognize, and describe a state model, Explain states and transitions, Read, recognize, and describe interaction model, Explain Use cases and use case relationships, Show concurrency in activity diagram, Object interactions in sequence diagram.

  3. The Extent of Skills Mismatch among Childhood Education Graduates of Princess Alia University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashash, Hyam M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the extent of skill mismatch between the skills the childhood education graduates at Al-Balqa Applied University--Princess Alia University College acquired during their studies and those demanded in the labor market. The descriptive survey design was adopted and the purposive sampling technique was employed to…

  4. Design, Development, and Validation of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Gwen; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Samal, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A learning object is a small, stand-alone, mediated content resource that can be reused in multiple instructional contexts. In this article, we describe our approach to design, develop, and validate Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant learning objects for undergraduate computer science education. We discuss the advantages of…

  5. Integrated Design and Analysis for Heterogeneous Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoping; Yang, Pinghai

    2008-02-01

    The recent advancement of solid freeform fabrication, design techniques and fundamental understanding of material properties in functionally graded material objects has made it possible to design and fabricate multifunctional heterogeneous objects. In this paper, we present an integrated design and analysis approach for heterogeneous object realization, which employs a unified design and analysis model based on B-splines and allows for direct interaction between the design and analysis model without a laborious meshing operation. In the design module, a new approach for intuitively modeling multi-material objects, termed heterogeneous lofting, is presented. In the analysis module, a novel graded B-spline finite element solution procedure is described, which gives orders of magnitude better convergence rate in comparison with current methods, as demonstrated in several case studies. Further advantages of this approach include simplified mesh construction, exact geometry/material composition representation and easy extraction of iso-material surface for manufacturing process planning.

  6. Instructional Designers' Conceptualisations of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, David E.; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported on in this paper was to gain insight into how instructional designers conceptualise learning objects (LOs) and their attributes. It aimed to identify the range and types of conceptualisations of LO attributes held by a group of designers. Data were collected during two phases of semi-structured phone interviews…

  7. Multi-objective engineering design using preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, J.; Martinez, M.; Blasco, X.

    2008-03-01

    System design is a complex task when design parameters have to satisy a number of specifications and objectives which often conflict with those of others. This challenging problem is called multi-objective optimization (MOO). The most common approximation consists in optimizing a single cost index with a weighted sum of objectives. However, once weights are chosen the solution does not guarantee the best compromise among specifications, because there is an infinite number of solutions. A new approach can be stated, based on the designer's experience regarding the required specifications and the associated problems. This valuable information can be translated into preferences for design objectives, and will lead the search process to the best solution in terms of these preferences. This article presents a new method, which enumerates these a priori objective preferences. As a result, a single objective is built automatically and no weight selection need be performed. Problems occuring because of the multimodal nature of the generated single cost index are managed with genetic algorithms (GAs).

  8. Chemical Alias: An Engaging Way to Examine Nomenclature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurushkin, Mikhail; Mikhaylenko, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An educational card game, "Chemical Alias," has been developed as an alternative method of reviewing students' knowledge of nomenclature. In contrast to conventional tests, this highly competitive activity is a fun and effective way to examine and reinforce nomenclature. The students play in pairs, using Clark's famous spiral arrangement…

  9. Evolutionary objections to "alien design" models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, E. J.

    A previous paper demonstrated that the principal supporters of SETI have ignored the biological and evolutionary consequences of a creature's body form. In fact, the supporting evidence they provide actually contradicts their view. The approach they employ is that of the engineer: the process of "designing" a hypothetical creature to a specification irrespective of biological or evolutionary considerations. The principal types of "alien designs" which have been employed shall be discussed, and the evolutionary objections to them given.

  10. Object-oriented accelerator design with HPF

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Qiang; Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper, object-oriented design is applied to codes for beam dynamics simulations in accelerators using High Performance Fortran (HPF). This results in good maintainability, reusability, and extensibility of software, combined with the ease of parallel programming provided by HPF.

  11. Internet Primer: Workshop Design and Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Corinne Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines the design, objectives, and evaluation of an introductory Internet workshop offered with library instruction classes in an electronic classroom at Queens University (Kingston, Ontario, Canada). Presents teaching tips and frequently-asked questions. The Internet primer handouts are appended. (AEF)

  12. Instructional Design Paradigms: Is Object-Oriented Design Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John Minor

    1996-01-01

    Proposes that object-oriented (OO) analysis, design, and programming methods, currently having a major impact on computing, will play an increasing role in shaping the paradigms of performance technology--particularly in instructional design (ID). Ties this crossover of OO from computing to ID to design trends and ongoing research in ID. (AEF)

  13. The alias method: A fast, efficient Monte Carlo sampling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rathkopf, J.A.; Edwards, A.L. ); Smidt, R.K. )

    1990-11-16

    The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Extending the alias Monte Carlo sampling method to general distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.L.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Smidt, R.K. )

    1991-01-07

    The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Optimizing Monitoring Designs under Alternative Objectives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gastelum, Jason A.; USA, Richland Washington; Porter, Ellen A.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes an approach to identify monitoring designs that optimize detection of CO2 leakage from a carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) reservoir and compares the results generated under two alternative objective functions. The first objective function minimizes the expected time to first detection of CO2 leakage, the second more conservative objective function minimizes the maximum time to leakage detection across the set of realizations. The approach applies a simulated annealing algorithm that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating the incumbent monitoring design. The approach takes into account uncertainty by evaluating the performance of potential monitoring designs across amore » set of simulated leakage realizations. The approach relies on a flexible two-tiered signature to infer that CO2 leakage has occurred. This research is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project tasked with conducting risk and uncertainty analysis in the areas of reservoir performance, natural leakage pathways, wellbore integrity, groundwater protection, monitoring, and systems level modeling.« less

  16. Optimizing Monitoring Designs under Alternative Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Jason A.; USA, Richland Washington; Porter, Ellen A.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes an approach to identify monitoring designs that optimize detection of CO2 leakage from a carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) reservoir and compares the results generated under two alternative objective functions. The first objective function minimizes the expected time to first detection of CO2 leakage, the second more conservative objective function minimizes the maximum time to leakage detection across the set of realizations. The approach applies a simulated annealing algorithm that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating the incumbent monitoring design. The approach takes into account uncertainty by evaluating the performance of potential monitoring designs across a set of simulated leakage realizations. The approach relies on a flexible two-tiered signature to infer that CO2 leakage has occurred. This research is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project tasked with conducting risk and uncertainty analysis in the areas of reservoir performance, natural leakage pathways, wellbore integrity, groundwater protection, monitoring, and systems level modeling.

  17. Product quality multi-objective dryer design

    SciTech Connect

    Kiranoudis, C.T.; Maroulis, Z.B.; Marinos-Kouris, D.

    1999-11-01

    Design of conveyor-belt dryers constitutes a mathematical programming problem involving the evaluation of appropriate structural and operational process variables so that total annual plant cost involved is optimized. The increasing need for dehydrated products of the highest quality, imposes the development of criteria that, together with cost, determine the design rules for drying processes. Quality of dehydrated products is a complex resultant of properties characterizing the final products, where the most important one is color. Color is determined as a three-parameter resultant, whose values for products, which have undergone drying should deviate from the corresponding ones of natural products, as little as possible. In this case, product quality dryer design is a complex multi-objective optimization problem, involving the color deviation vector as an objective function and as constraints the ones deriving from the process mathematical model. The mathematical model of the dryer was developed and the fundamental color deterioration laws were determined for the drying process. Non-preference multi-criteria optimization methods were used and the Pareto-optimal set of efficient solutions was evaluated. An example was included to demonstrate the performance of the design procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Zoom lens design for tilted objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Frayer, Daniel K.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Leffler, Heather R.; McGillivray, Kevin D.; Meidinger, Alfred; Phillips, David H.

    2015-09-01

    When a zoom lens views a tilted finite conjugate object, its image plane is both tilted and distorted depending on magnification. Our camera image plane moves with six degrees of freedom; only one moving doublet lens is required to change magnification. Two lens design models were analyzed. The first required the optical and mechanical axes to be collinear, resulting in a tilted stop. The second allowed the optical axis to be tilted from the lens mechanical axis with an untilted stop moving along the mechanical axis. Both designs produced useful zoom lenses with excellent resolution for a distorted image. For both lens designs, the stop is anchored to the moving doublet and its diameter is unchanged throughout magnification changes. This unusual outcome allows the light level at each camera pixel to remain constant, independent of magnification. As-built tolerance analysis is used to compare both optical models. The design application is for proton radiography. At the end of an accelerator, protons exit an aluminum vacuum window producing a shadowgraph image onto an LYSO (lutetium yttrium orthosilicate) scintillator. The 5″ square scintillator emission reflects off a pellicle and is collected by the zoom lenses located 24″ away. Four zoom lenses will view the same pellicle at different alpha and beta angles. Blue emission from the scintillator is viewed at an alpha angle of -14° or -23° and beta angles of ±9° or ±25°. The pellicle directs the light backwards to a zone where adequate shielding of the cameras can be achieved against radiation scattered from the aluminum window.

  19. Design and Implementation of Replicated Object Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koka, Sudhir

    1996-01-01

    One of the widely used techniques for construction of fault tolerant applications is the replication of resources so that if one copy fails sufficient copies may still remain operational to allow the application to continue to function. This thesis involves the design and implementation of an object oriented framework for replicating data on multiple sites and across different platforms. Our approach, called the Replicated Object Layer (ROL) provides a mechanism for consistent replication of data over dynamic networks. ROL uses the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) as a communication protocol that provides for reliable delivery, serialization and fault tolerance. Besides providing type registration, this layer facilitates distributed atomic transactions on replicated data. A novel algorithm called the RMP Commit Protocol, which commits transactions efficiently in reliable multicast environment is presented. ROL provides recovery procedures to ensure that site and communication failures do not corrupt persistent data, and male the system fault tolerant to network partitions. ROL will facilitate building distributed fault tolerant applications by performing the burdensome details of replica consistency operations, and making it completely transparent to the application.Replicated databases are a major class of applications which could be built on top of ROL.

  20. Chicago Healthy Aging Study: Objectives and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Amber; Reid, Kathryn; Kim, Daniel; Garside, Daniel B.; Lu, Brandon; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Zee, Phyllis; Liu, Kiang; Stamler, Jeremiah; Daviglus, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators in the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (CHAS) reexamined 1,395 surviving participants aged 65–84 years (28% women) from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) 1967–1973 cohort whose cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles were originally ascertained at ages 25–44 years. CHAS investigators reexamined 421 participants who were low-risk (LR) at baseline and 974 participants who were non-LR at baseline. LR was defined as having favorable levels of 4 major CVD risk factors: serum total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and no use of cholesterol-lowering medication; blood pressure 120/≤80 mm Hg and no use of antihypertensive medication; no current smoking; and no history of diabetes or heart attack. While the potential of LR status in overcoming the CVD epidemic is being recognized, the long-term association of LR with objectively measured health in older age has not been examined. It is hypothesized that persons who were LR in 1967–1973 and have survived to older age will have less clinical and subclinical CVD, lower levels of inflammatory markers, and better physical performance/functioning and sleep quality. Here we describe the rationale, objectives, design, and implementation of this longitudinal epidemiologic study, compare baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and nonparticipants, and highlight the feasibility of reexamining study participants after an extended period postbaseline with minimal interim contact. PMID:23669655

  1. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  2. Alias-free processing of P-3 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genello, Gerald J., Jr.; Wicks, Michael C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    1999-08-01

    This paper is concerned with multidimensional signal processing and image formation with FOliage PENetrating (FOPEN) airborne radar data which were collected by a Navy P-3 ultra wideband (UWB) radar in 1995 [Raw]. A commonly- used assumption for the processing of the P-3 data is that the beamwidth angle of the radar is limited to 35 degrees [Bes], [Goo]; provided that this assumption is valid, the PRF of the P-3 SAR system yields alias-free data in the slow-time Doppler domain. However, controlled measurements with the P-3 radar have indicated a beamwidth which exceeds 35 degrees [Raw]. In this paper, we examine a method for processing of the P-3 data in which the incorrect assumption that its radar beamwidth angle is limited to 35 degrees is not imposed. In this approach, a SAR processing scheme which enables the user to extract the SAR signature of a specific target area (digital spotlighting) is used to ensure that the resultant reconstructed SAR image is not aliased [S94], [S95], [S99]. The images which are formed via this method with 8192 pulses are shown to be superior in quality to the images which are formed via the conventional P-3 processor with 16386 pulses which was developed at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory [Bes]. In the presentation, we also introduce a method for converting the P-3 deramped data into its alias- free baseband echoed data; the signature of the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) signals in the two-dimensional spectral domain of the resultant data is examined.

  3. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: the role of objects.

    PubMed

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included. PMID:24148875

  4. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  5. Object Design: Twelve Concepts to Know, Understand and Apply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschalek, Douglas G.

    2005-01-01

    Some art teachers say that art is all around us when they actually mean that "design" is all around us. The everyday objects we view, purchase, and use are designed. Some are well designed, others are poorly designed, and many are in-between. Teachers need to develop learning strategies that enable their students to understand how design is part…

  6. 40 CFR 60.4114 - Objections concerning Hg designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections concerning Hg designated... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4114 Objections concerning Hg designated representative. (a) Once a complete certificate...

  7. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  8. Pattern oriented design of cluster running object medical information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Chatzistavrou, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    The object oriented technology has been used for design and implementation purposes of medical information systems in several cases. The representation of patient and health care data, the integration of heterogeneous hospital information systems and the object oriented modeling of health care information systems are the most common amongst them. Object oriented design patterns provide solutions to reoccurring design problems, which can arise during a software development circle. Patterns can be classified in specific categories that represent the design purposes where these can be applied. Well established standards and tools for the design and development of cluster running object oriented parallel applications do not exist. The existing tools and techniques are limited and can only be used for scientific and research purposes. Patterns for the design of cluster running parallel object oriented medical information systems are investigated in this paper.

  9. Control system structure design for object positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgankin, V.; Zamyatin, V.; Zamyatin, S.

    2016-04-01

    Object positioning system is intended for load transposition. Its main feature is the control method which is based on operator muscle force. One of the most important object position system development problems is a control system design. The article presents the first step of this problem solution that consists of control system structure design.

  10. Adapting the Mathematical Task Framework to Design Online Didactic Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Janet; Bezuk, Nadine; Aguilar, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Designing didactic objects involves imagining how students can conceive of specific mathematical topics and then imagining what types of classroom discussions could support these mental constructions. This study investigated whether it was possible to design Java applets that might serve as didactic objects to support online learning where…

  11. The Design, Development, and Use of Multimedia Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Claire; Boyle, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the development and use of learning objects to address a real and urgent educational problem--the teaching and learning of introductory programming. The paper outlines the design principles and development process involved in creating self-contained learning objects that are pedagogically rich. It describes how the objects were…

  12. Design of achromatic and apochromatic plastic micro-objectives.

    PubMed

    Greisukh, Grigoriy I; Ezhov, Evgeniy G; Levin, Il'ya A; Stepanov, Sergei A

    2010-08-10

    The possibility and the efficiency of using a single diffractive lens to achromatize and apochromatize micro-objectives with plastic lenses are shown. In addition, recommendations are given on assembling the starting configurations of the objectives and calculating the design parameters required for subsequent optimization. It is also shown that achievable optical performance of achromatic and apochromatic micro-objectives with plastic lenses satisfy the qualifying standards for cell-phone objectives and closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras. PMID:20697440

  13. Object oriented simulation implementation in support of robust system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    A very brief description of two ``classes`` developed for use in design optimization and sensitivity analyses are given. These classes are used in simulations of systems in early design phases as well as system response assessments. The instanciated classes were coupled to system models to demonstrate the practically and efficiency of using these objects in complex robust design processes.

  14. Liberating Learning Object Design from the Learning Style of Student Instructional Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    Learning objects are a new form of learning resource, and the design of these digital environments has many facets. To investigate senior instructional design students' use of reflection tools in designing learning objects, a series of studies was conducted using the Reflective Action Instructional Design and Learning Object Review Instrument…

  15. Object-Oriented Design for Sparse Direct Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrian, Florin; Kumfert, Gary; Pothen, Alex

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the object-oriented design of a software package for solving sparse, symmetric systems of equations (positive definite and indefinite) by direct methods. At the highest layers, we decouple data structure classes from algorithmic classes for flexibility. We describe the important structural and algorithmic classes in our design, and discuss the trade-offs we made for high performance. The kernels at the lower layers were optimized by hand. Our results show no performance loss from our object-oriented design, while providing flexibility, case of use, and extensibility over solvers using procedural design.

  16. 40 CFR 96.314 - Objections concerning CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.314 Objections... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. (c) Neither the permitting authority nor the Administrator will... CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers....

  17. 40 CFR 96.314 - Objections concerning CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.314 Objections... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. (c) Neither the permitting authority nor the Administrator will... CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers....

  18. 40 CFR 96.314 - Objections concerning CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.314 Objections... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. (c) Neither the permitting authority nor the Administrator will... CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers....

  19. 40 CFR 96.314 - Objections concerning CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.314 Objections... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. (c) Neither the permitting authority nor the Administrator will... CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers....

  20. 40 CFR 96.314 - Objections concerning CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.314 Objections... CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program. (c) Neither the permitting authority nor the Administrator will... CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers....

  1. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  2. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  3. The Pedagogical and Multimedia Designs of Learning Objects for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughey, Margaret; Muirhead, Bill

    2005-01-01

    While much has been written about learning objects, the focus of discussion has been on standards, theoretical principles or post-secondary applications. Little has been published about the issues of the K-12 sector. From the literature, interactivity and scaffolding are the two pedagogical aspects considered crucial to learning object design. In…

  4. Learning Objects, Learning Design, and Adoption through Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of learning objects, the advantages they offer, and related issues. Learning objects focus on content, while the Learning Design specification addresses pedagogy. Underlying both of these approaches is the motivation to reuse, which has cost and quality benefits. Despite these benefits, adoption of the two…

  5. Adapting the mathematical task framework to design online didactic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Janet; Bezuk, Nadine; Aguilar, Karen

    2011-06-01

    Designing didactic objects involves imagining how students can conceive of specific mathematical topics and then imagining what types of classroom discussions could support these mental constructions. This study investigated whether it was possible to design Java applets that might serve as didactic objects to support online learning where 'discussions' are broadly defined as the conversations students have with themselves as they interact with the dynamic mathematical representations on the screen. Eighty-four pre-service elementary teachers enrolled in hybrid mathematics courses were asked to interact with a series of applets designed to support their understanding of qualitative graphing. The results of the surveys indicate that various design features of the applets did in fact cause perturbations and opportunities for resolutions that enabled the users to 'discuss' their learning by reflecting on their in-class discussions and online activities. The discussion includes four design features for guiding future applet creation.

  6. Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.

    2004-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.

  7. Towards Robust Designs Via Multiple-Objective Optimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man Mohan, Rai

    2006-01-01

    Fabricating and operating complex systems involves dealing with uncertainty in the relevant variables. In the case of aircraft, flow conditions are subject to change during operation. Efficiency and engine noise may be different from the expected values because of manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. Engine components may have a shorter life than expected because of manufacturing tolerances. In spite of the important effect of operating- and manufacturing-uncertainty on the performance and expected life of the component or system, traditional aerodynamic shape optimization has focused on obtaining the best design given a set of deterministic flow conditions. Clearly it is important to both maintain near-optimal performance levels at off-design operating conditions, and, ensure that performance does not degrade appreciably when the component shape differs from the optimal shape due to manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. These requirements naturally lead to the idea of robust optimal design wherein the concept of robustness to various perturbations is built into the design optimization procedure. The basic ideas involved in robust optimal design will be included in this lecture. The imposition of the additional requirement of robustness results in a multiple-objective optimization problem requiring appropriate solution procedures. Typically the costs associated with multiple-objective optimization are substantial. Therefore efficient multiple-objective optimization procedures are crucial to the rapid deployment of the principles of robust design in industry. Hence the companion set of lecture notes (Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks ) deals with methodology for solving multiple-objective Optimization problems efficiently, reliably and with little user intervention. Applications of the methodologies presented in the companion lecture to robust design will be included here. The

  8. Object Oriented Design and the Standard Model of particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovaca, Samir

    2007-04-01

    Inspired by the computer as both tool and metaphor, a new path emerges toward understanding life, physics, and existence. The path leads throughout all of nature, from the interior of cells to inside black holes. This view of science is based on the idea that information is the ultimate ``substance'' from which all things are made. Exploring this view, we will focus on Object - Oriented (OO) design as one of the most important designs in software development. The OO design views the world as composed of objects with well defined properties. The dynamics is pictured as interactions among objects. Interactions are mediated by messages that objects exchange with each other. This description closely resembles the view of the elementary particles world created by the Standard Model of particle physics. The object model (OM) provides a theoretical foundation upon which the OO design is built. The OM is based on the principles of abstraction, encapsulation, modularity and hierarchy. We will show that the Standard Model of particle physics follows the OM principles.

  9. Design of object-oriented distributed simulation classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Distributed simulation of aircraft engines as part of a computer aided design package is being developed by NASA Lewis Research Center for the aircraft industry. The project is called NPSS, an acronym for 'Numerical Propulsion Simulation System'. NPSS is a flexible object-oriented simulation of aircraft engines requiring high computing speed. It is desirable to run the simulation on a distributed computer system with multiple processors executing portions of the simulation in parallel. The purpose of this research was to investigate object-oriented structures such that individual objects could be distributed. The set of classes used in the simulation must be designed to facilitate parallel computation. Since the portions of the simulation carried out in parallel are not independent of one another, there is the need for communication among the parallel executing processors which in turn implies need for their synchronization. Communication and synchronization can lead to decreased throughput as parallel processors wait for data or synchronization signals from other processors. As a result of this research, the following have been accomplished. The design and implementation of a set of simulation classes which result in a distributed simulation control program have been completed. The design is based upon MIT 'Actor' model of a concurrent object and uses 'connectors' to structure dynamic connections between simulation components. Connectors may be dynamically created according to the distribution of objects among machines at execution time without any programming changes. Measurements of the basic performance have been carried out with the result that communication overhead of the distributed design is swamped by the computation time of modules unless modules have very short execution times per iteration or time step. An analytical performance model based upon queuing network theory has been designed and implemented. Its application to realistic configurations has

  10. Design of Object-Oriented Distributed Simulation Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1995-01-01

    Distributed simulation of aircraft engines as part of a computer aided design package being developed by NASA Lewis Research Center for the aircraft industry. The project is called NPSS, an acronym for "Numerical Propulsion Simulation System". NPSS is a flexible object-oriented simulation of aircraft engines requiring high computing speed. It is desirable to run the simulation on a distributed computer system with multiple processors executing portions of the simulation in parallel. The purpose of this research was to investigate object-oriented structures such that individual objects could be distributed. The set of classes used in the simulation must be designed to facilitate parallel computation. Since the portions of the simulation carried out in parallel are not independent of one another, there is the need for communication among the parallel executing processors which in turn implies need for their synchronization. Communication and synchronization can lead to decreased throughput as parallel processors wait for data or synchronization signals from other processors. As a result of this research, the following have been accomplished. The design and implementation of a set of simulation classes which result in a distributed simulation control program have been completed. The design is based upon MIT "Actor" model of a concurrent object and uses "connectors" to structure dynamic connections between simulation components. Connectors may be dynamically created according to the distribution of objects among machines at execution time without any programming changes. Measurements of the basic performance have been carried out with the result that communication overhead of the distributed design is swamped by the computation time of modules unless modules have very short execution times per iteration or time step. An analytical performance model based upon queuing network theory has been designed and implemented. Its application to realistic configurations has not

  11. Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Chin, Jessie Yao; Li, Zhuo; Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Ruopeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2008-06-01

    To design conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects, we use the nonuniform rational B -spline (NURBS) to represent the geometrical modeling of the arbitrary object. Based on the method of optical transformation, analytical formulas of the permittivity and permeability tensors are proposed for arbitrarily shaped invisible cloaks. Such formulas can be easily implemented in the design of arbitrary cloaks. Full-wave simulations are given for heart-shaped invisible cloaks and perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) objects, in which we observe that the power-flow lines of incoming electromagnetic waves will be bent smoothly in the cloaks and will return to their original propagation directions after propagating around the object. We also show that the scattered field from the PEC object coated with the invisible cloak is much smaller than that from the PEC core. The application of NURBS in the design of arbitrary cloaks shows transformation optics to be a very general tool to interface with commercial softwares like 3D STUDIOMAX and MAYA. PMID:18643390

  12. Design of single object model of software reuse framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    In order to embody the reuse significance of software reuse framework fully, this paper will analyze in detail about the single object model mentioned in the article "The overall design of software reuse framework" and induce them as add and delete and modify mode, check mode, and search and scroll and display integrated mode. Three modes correspond to their own interface design template, class and database design concept. The modelling idea helps developers clear their minds and speed up. Even laymen can complete the development task easily.

  13. Analyzing and designing object-oriented missile simulations with concurrency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randorf, Jeffrey Allen

    2000-11-01

    A software object model for the six degree-of-freedom missile modeling domain is presented. As a precursor, a domain analysis of the missile modeling domain was started, based on the Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA) technique described by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). It was subsequently determined the FODA methodology is functionally equivalent to the Object Modeling Technique. The analysis used legacy software documentation and code from the ENDOSIM, KDEC, and TFrames 6-DOF modeling tools, including other technical literature. The SEI Object Connection Architecture (OCA) was the template for designing the object model. Three variants of the OCA were considered---a reference structure, a recursive structure, and a reference structure with augmentation for flight vehicle modeling. The reference OCA design option was chosen for maintaining simplicity while not compromising the expressive power of the OMT model. The missile architecture was then analyzed for potential areas of concurrent computing. It was shown how protected objects could be used for data passing between OCA object managers, allowing concurrent access without changing the OCA reference design intent or structure. The implementation language was the 1995 release of Ada. OCA software components were shown how to be expressed as Ada child packages. While acceleration of several low level and other high operations level are possible on proper hardware, there was a 33% degradation of 4th order Runge-Kutta integrator performance of two simultaneous ordinary differential equations using Ada tasking on a single processor machine. The Defense Department's High Level Architecture was introduced and explained in context with the OCA. It was shown the HLA and OCA were not mutually exclusive architectures, but complimentary. HLA was shown as an interoperability solution, with the OCA as an architectural vehicle for software reuse. Further directions for implementing a 6-DOF missile modeling

  14. Motives of Students' Joining Master Program at Princess Alia University College/Al Balqa Applied University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Habahbeh, Abdullah Eid

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at knowing the motives of students' joining master program at Princess Alia University College/Al Balqa Applied University by the graduate students and a degree of their importance and succession, and to know whether these motives differed according to the variables of gender, specialization, age, and marital status. To achieve…

  15. Case Studies and Codes of Ethics: The Relevance of the ACS Experience to ALIA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Stuart; Salmond, Rachel; Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Bowern, Mike; Weckert, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper comments on a recent "Code of Ethics" project conducted on behalf of the Australian Computer Society, and proposes a similar project for the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA). It reviews the scope and methodology of the project, which developed a comprehensive set of case studies and related them to the ACS "Code of…

  16. The Reasons for the Reluctance of Princess Alia University College Students' from Practicing Sports Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odat, Jebril

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the reasons lying behind the reluctance of participation in sport activities among Alia Princess College female students, using descriptive approach. The population of the study consisted of (2000) female students, whereas the sample was of (200) students. They were randomly selected and a questionnaire of 31…

  17. Guide to object-oriented analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Harry C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide Marshall Space Flight Center personnel with guidelines for the use of object-oriented analysis and design and to describe how it can be accomplished within the framework of existing development directives, including the Software Development Plan. It is not intended as a detailed tutorial. The reader is referred to the Coad and Yourdon texts in the References.

  18. Redirector: Designing Cell Factories by Reconstructing the Metabolic Objective

    PubMed Central

    Church, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in computational metabolic optimization are required to realize the full potential of new in vivo metabolic engineering technologies by bridging the gap between computational design and strain development. We present Redirector, a new Flux Balance Analysis-based framework for identifying engineering targets to optimize metabolite production in complex pathways. Previous optimization frameworks have modeled metabolic alterations as directly controlling fluxes by setting particular flux bounds. Redirector develops a more biologically relevant approach, modeling metabolic alterations as changes in the balance of metabolic objectives in the system. This framework iteratively selects enzyme targets, adds the associated reaction fluxes to the metabolic objective, thereby incentivizing flux towards the production of a metabolite of interest. These adjustments to the objective act in competition with cellular growth and represent up-regulation and down-regulation of enzyme mediated reactions. Using the iAF1260 E. coli metabolic network model for optimization of fatty acid production as a test case, Redirector generates designs with as many as 39 simultaneous and 111 unique engineering targets. These designs discover proven in vivo targets, novel supporting pathways and relevant interdependencies, many of which cannot be predicted by other methods. Redirector is available as open and free software, scalable to computational resources, and powerful enough to find all known enzyme targets for fatty acid production. PMID:23341769

  19. Multi Objective Controller Design for Linear System via Optimal Interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozbay, Hitay

    1996-01-01

    We propose a methodology for the design of a controller which satisfies a set of closed-loop objectives simultaneously. The set of objectives consists of: (1) pole placement, (2) decoupled command tracking of step inputs at steady-state, and (3) minimization of step response transients with respect to envelope specifications. We first obtain a characterization of all controllers placing the closed-loop poles in a prescribed region of the complex plane. In this characterization, the free parameter matrix Q(s) is to be determined to attain objectives (2) and (3). Objective (2) is expressed as determining a Pareto optimal solution to a vector valued optimization problem. The solution of this problem is obtained by transforming it to a scalar convex optimization problem. This solution determines Q(O) and the remaining freedom in choosing Q(s) is used to satisfy objective (3). We write Q(s) = (l/v(s))bar-Q(s) for a prescribed polynomial v(s). Bar-Q(s) is a polynomial matrix which is arbitrary except that Q(O) and the order of bar-Q(s) are fixed. Obeying these constraints bar-Q(s) is now to be 'shaped' to minimize the step response characteristics of specific input/output pairs according to the maximum envelope violations. This problem is expressed as a vector valued optimization problem using the concept of Pareto optimality. We then investigate a scalar optimization problem associated with this vector valued problem and show that it is convex. The organization of the report is as follows. The next section includes some definitions and preliminary lemmas. We then give the problem statement which is followed by a section including a detailed development of the design procedure. We then consider an aircraft control example. The last section gives some concluding remarks. The Appendix includes the proofs of technical lemmas, printouts of computer programs, and figures.

  20. Object oriented design of the Liverpool Telescope Robotic Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Stephen N.; Steele, Iain A.

    2002-12-01

    In the traditional, manned observatory, an astronomer must continually be weighing together many factors during the course of an observing run in order to make an appropriate decision on the course of action at that time. Weather conditions may force suspension of the observing program to protect the telescope, later to be resumed when conditions improve. Power outages may force controlled shutdown of computers and other hardware. Changes in sky condition may require on-the-fly changes to the scheduled program. For the Liverpool Telescope (LT), the Robotic Control System (RCS) is designed to act as a replacement for the duty astronomer. The system is required to be robust, reliable and adaptable e.g. to future instrument configurations and varying operational objectives. Consequently, object-oriented techniques which promote modularity and code re-use have been employed throughout the design of this system to facilitate maintainance and future upgrading. This paper describes the task management architecture (TMA) - a configurable, pattern based object model defining the cognitive functionality of the RCS, the environment monitoring architecture (EMA) - a configurable, rule-based decision making paradigm and the use of our proprietary Java message system (JMS) communications architecture to control the telescope and associated instrumentation.

  1. AMR++: Object-oriented design for adaptive mesh refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.

    1998-12-01

    The development of object-oriented libraries for scientific computing is complicated by the wide range of applications that are targeted and the complexity and wide range of numerical methods that are used. A problem is to design a library that can be customized to handle a wide range of target applications and increasingly complex numerical methods while maintaining a sufficiently useful library for simple problems. These problems have been classically at odds with one another and have compromised the design of many object-oriented library solutions. In this paper the authors detail the mechanisms used within AMR**, and object-oriented library for Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), to provide the level of extensibility that is required to make AMR++ easily customizable for the more obscure applications while remaining small and simple for less complex applications. The goal has been to have a complex applications. The goal has been to have a complexity that matches the complexity of the target application. These mechanisms are general and extend to other libraries as well.

  2. Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

  3. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Remove Multiple Orbital Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Alfano, Salvatore; Pinon, Elfego; Gold, Kenn; Gaylor, David

    2012-01-01

    The amount of hazardous debris in Earth orbit has been increasing, posing an evergreater danger to space assets and human missions. In January of 2007, a Chinese ASAT test produced approximately 2600 pieces of orbital debris. In February of 2009, Iridium 33 collided with an inactive Russian satellite, yielding approximately 1300 pieces of debris. These recent disastrous events and the sheer size of the Earth orbiting population make clear the necessity of removing orbital debris. In fact, experts from both NASA and ESA have stated that 10 to 20 pieces of orbital debris need to be removed per year to stabilize the orbital debris environment. However, no spacecraft trajectories have yet been designed for removing multiple debris objects and the size of the debris population makes the design of such trajectories a daunting task. Designing an efficient spacecraft trajectory to rendezvous with each of a large number of orbital debris pieces is akin to the famous Traveling Salesman problem, an NP-complete combinatorial optimization problem in which a number of cities are to be visited in turn. The goal is to choose the order in which the cities are visited so as to minimize the total path distance traveled. In the case of orbital debris, the pieces of debris to be visited must be selected and ordered such that spacecraft propellant consumption is minimized or at least kept low enough to be feasible. Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. has developed specialized algorithms for designing efficient tour missions for near-Earth asteroids that may be applied to the design of efficient spacecraft missions capable of visiting large numbers of orbital debris pieces. The first step is to identify a list of high priority debris targets using the Analytical Graphics, Inc. SOCRATES website and then obtain their state information from Celestrak. The tour trajectory design algorithms will then be used to determine the itinerary of objects and v requirements. These results will shed light

  4. Three High-Tech High Seniors Join the Alia Expedition to Samoa: Science and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, B.; Delaney, R.; Staudigel, D.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S.

    2005-12-01

    Three high school seniors from High Tech High (HTH) participated in the ALIA expedition that explored the Samoan hot spot track through seafloor mapping, rock sampling and the study of the water column above an active submarine volcano. The primary responsibility of the HTH participants focused on outreach and education, but they also were substantively involved in all scientific aspects of the cruise. Education and outreach activities included: maintaining the cruise website,the creation of ERESE digital library resources for earth science education, live video-conferences with students half a world away in San Diego, and offering tours of the Research Vessel Kilo Moana during an open house event organized with the Samoa Department of Eduation. At this occasion, the HTH seniors shared experiences and knowledge with the visiting Samoan elementary and high school students. Science involvement of the high school seniors included deck and laboratory work, by assisting with dredging, piston coring, rock cataloguing, casting CTDs, and computer programming. Three major computer programming efforts by the HTH seniors substantively supported the outreach activities and the science operations during ALIA. (1) The development of "CustomHTMLExport", a utility that allows for the export of photographs and their metadata into web pages and digital library collection. (2) The "CruiseWatch" featureson the ALIA website (http://earthref.org/ERESE/projects/ALIA/) that displays in near - real time key shipboard data such as the location on a map, geographic coordinates, ship speed, direction and wind speed and dredging data. (3) A dredge location simulator to predict the location of the dredge with respect to the ship and the seafloor which was made necessary for the safety of dredging due to the failure of pingers that normally are used to provide critical data for the location of the dredge with respect to the seafloor. The dredge location model is based a fluid dynamics approach

  5. Towards an Object-Oriented Model for the Design and Development of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrysostomou, Chrysostomos; Papadopoulos, George

    2008-01-01

    This work introduces the concept of an Object-Oriented Learning Object (OOLO) that is developed in a manner similar to the one that software objects are developed through Object-Oriented Software Engineering (OO SWE) techniques. In order to make the application of the OOLO feasible and efficient, an OOLO model needs to be developed based on…

  6. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  7. 40 CFR 97.417 - Objections concerning designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.417 Objections concerning designated... designated representative or the finality of any decision or order by the Administrator under the TR NOX... of TR NOX Annual allowance transfers....

  8. 40 CFR 97.417 - Objections concerning designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.417 Objections concerning designated... designated representative or the finality of any decision or order by the Administrator under the TR NOX... of TR NOX Annual allowance transfers....

  9. 40 CFR 97.417 - Objections concerning designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.417 Objections concerning designated... designated representative or the finality of any decision or order by the Administrator under the TR NOX... of TR NOX Annual allowance transfers....

  10. A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel; Melo, Walcelio L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted at the University of Maryland in which we experimentally investigated the suite of Object-Oriented (00) design metrics introduced by [Chidamber and Kemerer, 1994]. In order to do this, we assessed these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes. This study is complementary to [Lieand Henry, 1993] where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known 00 analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on experimental results, the advantages and drawbacks of these 00 metrics are discussed and suggestions for improvement are provided. Several of Chidamber and Kemerer's 00 metrics appear to be adequate to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. We also showed that they are, on our data set, better predictors than "traditional" code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes.

  11. An NAFP Project: Use of Object Oriented Methodologies and Design Patterns to Refactor Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    In the early problem-solution era of software programming, functional decompositions were mainly used to design and implement software solutions. In functional decompositions, functions and data are introduced as two separate entities during the design phase, and are followed as such in the implementation phase. Functional decompositions make use of refactoring through optimizing the algorithms, grouping similar functionalities into common reusable functions, and using abstract representations of data where possible; all these are done during the implementation phase. This paper advocates the usage of object-oriented methodologies and design patterns as the centerpieces of refactoring software solutions. Refactoring software is a method of changing software design while explicitly preserving its external functionalities. The combined usage of object-oriented methodologies and design patterns to refactor should also benefit the overall software life cycle cost with improved software.

  12. Data Quality Objectives Process for Designation of K Basins Debris

    SciTech Connect

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from the K Basins and onsite disposal of the debris at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material previously has been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) or Central Waste Complex (CWC). The goal of this DQO process and the resulting Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to provide the strategy for characterizing and designating the K-Basin debris to determine if it meets the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), Revision 3 (BHI 1998). A critical part of the DQO process is to agree on regulatory and WAC interpretation, to support preparation of the DQO workbook and SAP.

  13. Technology Allows Engineers to Make Solid Objects from Computer Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Computer operators using the technique of three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping may soon be able to sculpt an object on the screen and within minutes, have a paper, plastic, or ceramic version of the object in hand. The process uses the principle that physical objects can be created in layers. (MSE)

  14. Teacher Trainees as Learning Object Designers: Problems and Issues in Learning Object Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, Cetin; Altun, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs) can be defined as resources that are reusable, digital with the aim of fulfilling learning objectives (or expectations). Educators, both at the individual and institutional levels, are cautioned about the fact that LOs are to be processed through a proper development process. Who should be involved in the LO development…

  15. Possibility of object recognition using Altera's model based design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, A. J.; Wu, F.; Harvey, P. K.; Smith, J. S.

    2009-07-01

    Object recognition is an image processing task of finding a given object in a selected image or video sequence. Object recognition can be divided into two areas: one of these is decision-theoretic and deals with patterns described by quantitative descriptors, for example such as length, area, shape and texture. With this Graphical User Interface Circuitry (GUIC) methodology employed here being relatively new for object recognition systems, the aim of this work is to identify if the developed circuitry can detect certain shapes or strings within the target image. A much smaller reference image feeds the preset data for identification, tests are conducted for both binary and greyscale and the additional mathematical morphology to highlight the area within the target image with the object(s) are located is also presented. This then provides proof that basic recognition methods are valid and would allow the progression to developing decision-theoretical and learning based approaches using GUICs for use in multidisciplinary tasks.

  16. 40 CFR 97.517 - Objections concerning designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.517 Objections concerning... designated representative or the finality of any decision or order by the Administrator under the TR NOX... of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers....

  17. 40 CFR 97.517 - Objections concerning designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.517 Objections concerning... designated representative or the finality of any decision or order by the Administrator under the TR NOX... of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers....

  18. 40 CFR 97.517 - Objections concerning designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.517 Objections concerning... designated representative or the finality of any decision or order by the Administrator under the TR NOX... of TR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers....

  19. Two mirror objective design for multispectral remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    A two mirror flat field anastigmatic telescope was designed for multispectral sensing. The design was adapted to prism-type beamsplitting arrangements without loss of multispectral image quality by the addition of one refractive element. In addition to being relatively simple and mechanically insensitive, the design is immune to focus shift caused by index of refraction variation with temperature.

  20. Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branon, Rovy F., III

    2011-01-01

    Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

  1. Instructional Objectives for a Junior College Course in Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, Ann, Comp.

    These instructional objectives have been selected from materials submitted to the Curriculum Laboratory of the Graduate School of Education at UCLA by John Christenson. Arranged by major course goals, these objectives are offered simply as samples that may be used where they correspond to the skills, abilities, and attitudes instructors want their…

  2. Object migration and authentication. [in computer operating systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gligor, V. D.; Lindsay, B. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a mechanism permitting a type manager to fabricate a migrated object representation which can be entrusted to other subsystems or transmitted outside of the control of a local computer system. The migrated object representation is signed by the type manager in such a way that the type manager's signature cannot be forged and the manager is able to authenticate its own signature. Subsequently, the type manager can retrieve the migrated representation and validate its contents before reconstructing the object in its original representation. This facility allows type managers to authenticate the contents of off-line or network storage and solves problems stemming from the hierarchical structure of the system itself.

  3. Rethinking modeling framework design: object modeling system 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Object Modeling System (OMS) is a framework for environmental model development, data provisioning, testing, validation, and deployment. It provides a bridge for transferring technology from the research organization to the program delivery agency. The framework provides a consistent and efficie...

  4. Learning Object Design Considerations for Small-Screen Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Daniel; Hedberg, John

    2008-01-01

    The key limitation of handheld technology for the delivery of learning objects is the small screen that is available for effective display. The smallness of the screen not only adversely affects the clarity, but it also negatively impacts on the acceptance and integration of this potentially useful technology in education. Handheld devices are…

  5. Artifact reduction in lenticular multiscopic 3D displays by means of anti-alias filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Janusz; Agniel, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    This paper addresses the issue of artifact visibility in automultiscopic 3-D lenticular displays. A straightforward extension of the two-view lenticular autostereoscopic principle to M views results in an M-fold loss of horizontal resolution due to the subsampling needed to properly multiplex the views. In order to circumvent the imbalance between the horizontal and vertical resolution, a tilt can be applied to the lenticules to orient them at a small angle to the vertical direction, as is done in the SynthaGram display from Stereographics Corp. In either case, to avoid aliasing the subsampling should be preceded by suitable lowpass pre-filtering. Although for purely vertical lenticules a sufficiently narrowband lowpass horizontal filtering suffices, the situation is more complicated for diagonal lenticules; the subsampling of each view is no more orthogonal, and more complex sampling models need to be considered. Based on multidimensional sampling theory, we have studied multiview sampling models based on lattices. These models approximate pixel positions on a lenticular automultiscopic display and lead to optimal anti-alias filters. In this paper, we report results for a separable approximation to non-separable 2-D anti-alias filters based on the assumption that the lenticule slant is small. We have carried out experiments on a variety of images, and different filter bandwidths. We have observed that the theoretically-optimal bandwidth is too restrictive; aliasing artifacts disappear, but some image details are lost as well. Somewhat wider bandwidths result in images with almost no aliasing and largely preserved detail. For subjectively-optimized filters, the improvements, although localized, are clear and enhance the 3-D viewing experience.

  6. 75 FR 56660 - Removal of an Alias of an Existing Specially Designated National Listing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... (a.k.a. CHUNG, Lo Ping; a.k.a. LAW, Stephen; a.k.a. LO, Ping Han; a.k.a. LO, Ping Hau; a.k.a. LO, Ping Zhong; a.k.a. LO, Steven; a.k.a. NAING, Htun Myint; a.k.a. NAING, Tun Myint; a.k.a. NAING, U...

  7. Design of adaptive objective lens for ultrabroad near infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Gongpu; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-03-01

    We present a compound adaptive objective lens in which a water-filled membrane lens is inserted into a front group (one lens) and a back group (two lenses). This adaptive objective lens works in the ultrabroad near infrared waveband (760nm ~ 920nm) with the volume scan of > 1mm3 and the resolution of 2.8 μm (calculated at the wavelength of 840 nm). The focal range is 19.5mm ~ 20.5mm and the numerical number is 0.196. The size of the adaptive lens is 10mm (diameter) × 17mm (length). This kind of lens can be widely used in three-dimensional (3D) volume biomedical imaging instruments, such as confocal microscope, optical coherence tomography (OCT), two photon microscope, etc.

  8. Object-oriented design of preconditioned iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bruaset, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    In this talk the author discusses how object-oriented programming techniques can be used to develop a flexible software package for preconditioned iterative methods. The ideas described have been used to implement the linear algebra part of Diffpack, which is a collection of C++ class libraries that provides high-level tools for the solution of partial differential equations. In particular, this software package is aimed at rapid development of PDE-based numerical simulators, primarily using finite element methods.

  9. Transit telescope designs optimized for multiple object spectroscopy with fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments to simultaneously study the spectra of many objects in the field of view of a telescope can be made using fused silica fibers. The spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the University of Arizona has been modified for such operation, and is used routinely to study the dynamics of galaxy clusters. Consideration has been given to how the multifiber technique can best be used to obtain spectra of the many faint objects identified by deep transit survey instruments and new space and radio telescopes. A transit survey such as that planned by McGraw et al. (1980), with CCDs at the focus of a 2m transit telescope, will identify objects down to 24th magnitude, and down to 22nd magnitude will give very complete data on variability and optical energy distribution. A telescope with much larger aperture is required for spectroscopic follow up. It is suggested that large telescopes dedicated to this type of work can be made and operated for only a fraction of the cost of a general-purpose telescope.

  10. Design and Implementation of an Object Oriented Learning Activity System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…

  11. Design examples of diffraction-limited catadioptric objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallert, Frank

    1996-08-01

    The paper relates to different inventions, comprising three diffraction-limited catadioptric designs. All the systems use only spherical shaped surfaces and are designed from one kind of optical material only. In the examples the glass BK7 from the Schott-catalogue was used. The first example gives a three element design reaching equal performance as a Schmidt camera but with only 25 percent of its length. Additionally the field is flat and conveniently located behind the system. The second example is designed to reduce the central obstruction. It's somewhat based on the principle of the Houghton-camera. For a f-number 4 system with 1000 millimeters focal length it gives outstanding image quality at a 5 degree's field--even capable for diffraction-limited visual use. For reduced f-number 5,6 the image is diffraction-limited at the whole field. In terms of color correction it outperforms every Schmidt-Cassegrain or apochromatic triplet of even arbitrarily more reduced light gathering power. The third example is the equivalent for the so-called Wynne corrector triplet that corrects the aberrations of a parabolical mirror. But the invented corrector corrects additionally the spherical aberration of a spherical mirror. The corrector is able to correct all third order aberrations without introducing longitudinal and lateral color.

  12. A multiple objective optimization approach to aircraft control systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabak, D.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an aircraft lateral control system, subject to several performance criteria and constraints, is considered. While in the previous studies of the same model a single criterion optimization, with other performance requirements expressed as constraints, has been pursued, the current approach involves a multiple criteria optimization. In particular, a Pareto optimal solution is sought.

  13. Two Paper Airplane Design Challenges: Customizing for Different Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Meyer, Allison Antink

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of scientific inquiry into college classrooms has steadily risen as faculty work to move away from exclusively didactic methods. One type of inquiry structure, the design task, produces a product rather than simply a conclusion. This offers students a context to apply their understanding of content in a tangible way that has…

  14. Near-Earth object intercept trajectory design for planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardaxis, George; Wie, Bong

    2014-08-01

    Tracking the orbit of asteroids and planning for asteroid missions have ceased to be a simple exercise, and become more of a necessity, as the number of identified potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids increases. Several software tools such as Mystic, MALTO, Copernicus, SNAP, OTIS, and GMAT have been developed by NASA for spacecraft trajectory optimization and mission design. However, this paper further expands upon the development and validation of an Asteroid Mission Design Software Tool (AMiDST), through the use of approach and post-encounter orbital variations and analytic keyhole theory. Combining these new capabilities with that of a high-precision orbit propagator, this paper describes fictional mission trajectory design examples of using AMiDST as applied to a fictitious asteroid 2013 PDC-E. During the 2013 IAA Planetary Defense Conference, the asteroid 2013 PDC-E was used for an exercise where participants simulated the decision-making process for developing deflection and civil defense responses to a hypothetical asteroid threat.

  15. Fuzzy bi-objective preventive health care network design.

    PubMed

    Davari, Soheil; Kilic, Kemal; Ertek, Gurdal

    2015-09-01

    Preventive health care is unlike health care for acute ailments, as people are less alert to their unknown medical problems. In order to motivate public and to attain desired participation levels for preventive programs, the attractiveness of the health care facility is a major concern. Health economics literature indicates that attractiveness of a facility is significantly influenced by proximity of the clients to it. Hence attractiveness is generally modelled as a function of distance. However, abundant empirical evidence suggests that other qualitative factors such as perceived quality, attractions nearby, amenities, etc. also influence attractiveness. Therefore, a realistic measure should incorporate the vagueness in the concept of attractiveness to the model. The public policy makers should also maintain the equity among various neighborhoods, which should be considered as a second objective. Finally, even though the general tendency in the literature is to focus on health benefits, the cost effectiveness is still a factor that should be considered. In this paper, a fuzzy bi-objective model with budget constraints is developed. Later, by modelling the attractiveness by means of fuzzy triangular numbers and treating the budget constraint as a soft constraint, a modified (and more realistic) version of the model is introduced. Two solution methodologies, namely fuzzy goal programming and fuzzy chance constrained optimization are proposed as solutions. Both the original and the modified models are solved within the framework of a case study in Istanbul, Turkey. In the case study, the Microsoft Bing Map is utilized in order to determine more accurate distance measures among the nodes. PMID:25171939

  16. The European Atherosclerosis Research Study (EARS): design and objectives.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The European Atherosclerosis Research Study--EARS--is a multicentre collaborative project sponsored by the European Community. Its main objective is to study, in young people, the biological expression of a paternal history of premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the relative share of heredity and environment in this expression. In 14 centres in 11 European countries, the offspring of fathers who suffered from a documented AMI before the age of 55 years (cases) are compared with age- and sex-matched control individuals. Genetic variables (restriction fragment length polymorphisms of candidate genes), lifestyle variables and biochemical variables that are known or suspected to play a role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), are studied. The cultural and ethnic diversity within Europe allows a thorough investigation of the relative importance and the potential interactions of genetics and environment in the pathogenesis of CHD. A standardized core methodology and centralized storage of blood samples with particular types of analyses systematically carried out in one or a few specialized laboratories, from a strong basis for valid cross-cultural analyses. The results of this study will offer new clues for the modelling of individual risk for developing CHD. PMID:7960370

  17. ALIA 2000. Capitalising on Knowledge: The Information Profession in the 21st Century (Canberra, Australia, October 23-26, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Library and Information Association, Deakin.

    This proceeding of the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) 2000 conference contains 64 papers presented at the main conference and 12 papers presented at the fringe conference. Topics covered include: the 21st century information environment; user perspectives of the future of the Internet; the user interface; public libraries in…

  18. Cognitive Task Analysis of Experts in Designing Multimedia Learning Object Guideline (M-LOG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Palanisamy, Punithavathy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and develop a set of guidelines for multimedia learning objects to inform instructional designers (IDs) about the procedures involved in the process of content analysis. This study was motivated by the absence of standardized procedures in the beginning phase of the multimedia learning object design which is…

  19. Wind direction alias removal studies of Seasat scatterometer-derived wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtele, M. G.; Borowski, M.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Peteherych, S.; Appleby, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Seasat SASS fields for the North Atlantic were employed to test if meteorological features were discernible within the Seasat-produced wind fields, and if the features aided in determining a unique wind vector solution. Two groups were formed to work in isolation from each other until a true wind vector field was obtained for each SASS observation. The SASS data covered 1500 km swaths, and the angle of the Seasat antennas relative to the earth was known. Visible and IR data, along with surface weather stations, ship and ship buoy data were also available to the interpreters. Two-vector solutions by the two teams showed almost perfect agreement, and the alias problem was noted to reduce to a selection of two vectors 180 deg apart. Comparisons with the surface measurements in regards to wind directions resulted in agreement to within a standard deviation of 20% for direction. The SASS data is concluded to be useful for producing streamlines, isotachs, and mesoscale as well as cyclone-scale features.

  20. Dynamic load balancing for petascale quantum Monte Carlo applications: The Alias method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, C. D.; Krishnan, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Kent, P. R. C.

    2013-02-01

    Diffusion Monte Carlo is a highly accurate Quantum Monte Carlo method for electronic structure calculations of materials, but it requires frequent load balancing or population redistribution steps to maintain efficiency on parallel machines. This step can be a significant factor affecting performance, and will become more important as the number of processing elements increases. We propose a new dynamic load balancing algorithm, the Alias Method, and evaluate it theoretically and empirically. An important feature of the new algorithm is that the load can be perfectly balanced with each process receiving at most one message. It is also optimal in the maximum size of messages received by any process. We also optimize its implementation to reduce network contention, a process facilitated by the low messaging requirement of the algorithm: a simple renumbering of the MPI ranks based on proximity and a space filling curve significantly improves the MPI Allgather performance. Empirical results on the petaflop Cray XT Jaguar supercomputer at ORNL show up to 30% improvement in performance on 120,000 cores. The load balancing algorithm may be straightforwardly implemented in existing codes. The algorithm may also be employed by any method with many near identical computational tasks that require load balancing.

  1. Dynamic load balancing for petascale quantum Monte Carlo applications: The Alias method

    SciTech Connect

    Sudheer, C. D.; Krishnan, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Kent, P. R. C.

    2013-02-01

    Diffusion Monte Carlo is the most accurate widely used Quantum Monte Carlo method for the electronic structure of materials, but it requires frequent load balancing or population redistribution steps to maintain efficiency and avoid accumulation of systematic errors on parallel machines. The load balancing step can be a significant factor affecting performance, and will become more important as the number of processing elements increases. We propose a new dynamic load balancing algorithm, the Alias Method, and evaluate it theoretically and empirically. An important feature of the new algorithm is that the load can be perfectly balanced with each process receiving at most one message. It is also optimal in the maximum size of messages received by any process. We also optimize its implementation to reduce network contention, a process facilitated by the low messaging requirement of the algorithm. Empirical results on the petaflop Cray XT Jaguar supercomputer at ORNL showing up to 30% improvement in performance on 120,000 cores. The load balancing algorithm may be straightforwardly implemented in existing codes. The algorithm may also be employed by any method with many near identical computational tasks that requires load balancing.

  2. Albumin Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Safety Analysis of the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Moy, Claudia S.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.; Jones, Elizabeth B.; Weisman, David; Pettigrew, Creed; Ginsberg, Myron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumin treatment of ischemic stroke was associated with cardiopulmonary adverse events in previous studies and a low incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to describe the neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events in the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial. Methods Ischemic stroke patients, aged 18–83 and a baseline NIHSS ≥ 6, were randomized to treatment with ALB or saline control within 5 hours of stroke onset. Neurological adverse events included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, hemicraniectomy, neurological deterioration and neurological death. Cardiopulmonary adverse events included pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation, pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism. Results Among 830 patients, neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events were not differentially associated with poor outcome between ALB and saline control subjects. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the first 24h was low overall (2.9%, 24/830) but more common in the ALB treated subjects (RR = 2.4, CI95 1.01–5.8). The rate of pulmonary edema/CHF in the first 48h was 7.9% (59/830) and was more common among ALB treated subjects (RR = 10.7, CI95 4.3–26.6); this complication was expected and was satisfactorily managed with mandated diuretic administration and intravenous fluid guidelines. Troponin elevations in the first 48h were common, occurring without ECG change or cardiac symptoms in 52 subjects (12.5%). Conclusions ALB therapy was associated with an increase in symptomatic ICH and pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure but this did not affect final outcomes. Troponin elevation occurs routinely in the first 48 hours after acute ischemic stroke. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00235495 PMID:26325387

  3. Methodology for object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design: Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Successful application of software engineering methodologies requires an integrated analysis and design life-cycle in which the various phases flow smoothly 'seamlessly' from analysis through design to implementation. Furthermore, different analysis methodologies often lead to different structuring of the system so that the transition from analysis to design may be awkward depending on the design methodology to be used. This is especially important when object-oriented programming is to be used for implementation when the original specification and perhaps high-level design is non-object oriented. Two approaches to real-time systems analysis which can lead to an object-oriented design are contrasted: (1) modeling the system using structured analysis with real-time extensions which emphasizes data and control flows followed by the abstraction of objects where the operations or methods of the objects correspond to processes in the data flow diagrams and then design in terms of these objects; and (2) modeling the system from the beginning as a set of naturally occurring concurrent entities (objects) each having its own time-behavior defined by a set of states and state-transition rules and seamlessly transforming the analysis models into high-level design models. A new concept of a 'real-time systems-analysis object' is introduced and becomes the basic building block of a series of seamlessly-connected models which progress from the object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design system analysis logical models through the physical architectural models and the high-level design stages. The methodology is appropriate to the overall specification including hardware and software modules. In software modules, the systems analysis objects are transformed into software objects.

  4. A Framework for the Flexible Content Packaging of Learning Objects and Learning Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukasiak, Jason; Agostinho, Shirley; Burnett, Ian; Drury, Gerrard; Goodes, Jason; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori; Harper, Barry

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a platform-independent method for packaging learning objects and learning designs. The method, entitled a Smart Learning Design Framework, is based on the MPEG-21 standard, and uses IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) to provide bibliographic, technical, and pedagogical descriptors for the retrieval and description of learning…

  5. MODeLeR: A Virtual Constructivist Learning Environment and Methodology for Object-Oriented Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, John W.; Koonce, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article contains a description of the organization and method of use of an active learning environment named MODeLeR, (Multimedia Object Design Learning Resource), a tool designed to facilitate the learning of concepts pertaining to object modeling with the Unified Modeling Language (UML). MODeLeR was created to provide an authentic,…

  6. 20 CFR 220.58 - Objections to the designated physician or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... psychologist. 220.58 Section 220.58 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... designated physician or psychologist. A claimant or his or her representative may object to his or her being examined by a designated physician or psychologist. If there is a good reason for the objection, the...

  7. 20 CFR 220.58 - Objections to the designated physician or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... psychologist. 220.58 Section 220.58 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... designated physician or psychologist. A claimant or his or her representative may object to his or her being examined by a designated physician or psychologist. If there is a good reason for the objection, the...

  8. 20 CFR 220.58 - Objections to the designated physician or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... psychologist. 220.58 Section 220.58 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... designated physician or psychologist. A claimant or his or her representative may object to his or her being examined by a designated physician or psychologist. If there is a good reason for the objection, the...

  9. 20 CFR 220.58 - Objections to the designated physician or psychologist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... psychologist. 220.58 Section 220.58 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... designated physician or psychologist. A claimant or his or her representative may object to his or her being examined by a designated physician or psychologist. If there is a good reason for the objection, the...

  10. Embedded or Linked Learning Objects: Implications for Content Development, Course Design and Classroom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Gail; Crichton, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This research explores the idea of embedding and linking to existing content in learning object repositories and investigates teacher-designer use of learning objects within one high school mathematics course in an online school. This qualitative case study supports and extends the learning object literature, and brings forward context-specific…

  11. Design and Implementation of ROCK & ROLL: A Deductive Object-Oriented Database System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barja, Maria L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the design and implementation of a deductive object-oriented database which is built upon a formally defined data model that uses two languages: an imperative programming language called ROCK (Rule Object Computation Kernel), and a logic language called ROLL (Rule Object Logic Language). (LRW)

  12. Double surface imaging designs with unconstrained object to image mapping under rotational symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiayao; Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we present a novel imaging design formed by two optical surfaces with rotational symmetry. In these designs, both object and image shapes are given but mapping from object to image is obtained through the design process. In the examples considered, the image from a planar object surface is virtual and located at infinity and is seen from a known pupil, which can emulate a human eye. The differential equation method is used to provide single optical surface imaging designs by considering the local properties of the imaging surface and the wavefronts. In the first introductory part, both the rotational symmetrical and the freeform single surface imaging designs are presented using the differential equation method. In these designs, not only the mapping is obtained in the design process, but also the shape of the object is found. In the second part, the method is extended to two surface designs with rotational symmetry and the astigmatism of the image has been studied. By adding one more optical surface to the system, the shape of the rotational symmetrical object can be designed while controlling the tangential rays and sagittal rays simultaneously. As a result, designs without astigmatism (at the small pupil limit) on a planar object surface have been obtained.

  13. Object-oriented design tools for supramolecular devices and biomedical nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen C; Bhalerao, Khaustaub; Ferrari, Mauro

    2004-05-01

    Nanotechnology provides multifunctional agents for in vivo use that increasingly blur the distinction between pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Realization of such therapeutic nanodevices requires multidisciplinary effort that is difficult for individual device developers to sustain, and identification of appropriate collaborations outside ones own field can itself be challenging. Further, as in vivo nanodevices become increasingly complex, their design will increasingly demand systems level thinking. System engineering tools such as object-oriented analysis, object-oriented design (OOA/D) and unified modeling language (UML) are applicable to nanodevices built from biological components, help logically manage the knowledge needed to design them, and help identify useful collaborative relationships for device designers. We demonstrate the utility of these systems engineering tools by reverse engineering an existing molecular device (the bacmid molecular cloning system) using them, and illustrate how object-oriented approaches identify fungible components (objects) in nanodevices in a way that facilitates design of families of related devices, rather than single inventions. We also explore the utility of object-oriented approaches for design of another class of therapeutic nanodevices, vaccines. While they are useful for design of current nanodevices, the power of systems design tools for biomedical nanotechnology will become increasingly apparent as the complexity and sophistication of in vivo nanosystems increases. The nested, hierarchical nature of object-oriented approaches allows treatment of devices as objects in higher-order structures, and so will facilitate concatenation of multiple devices into higher-order, higher-function nanosystems. PMID:15194610

  14. Design Strategies and Knowledge in Object-Oriented Programming: Effects of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detienne, Francoise

    1995-01-01

    Presents research findings from an empirical study of design strategies and knowledge used in object-oriented (OO) software design by programmers both experienced and not experienced with OO programming. Results indicated that levels of experience with OO programming affect the design process. (Author/JKP)

  15. Single optical surface imaging designs with unconstrained object to image mapping with non-rotational symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiayao; Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    In this work, novel imaging designs with a single freeform optical surface (either refractive or reflective) are presented. In these designs, not only the mapping is obtained in the design process, but also the shape of the object is found. In the examples considered, the image is virtual and located at infinity and is seen from known pupil, which can emulate a human eye. In the first introductory part, 2D designs and 3D designs by rotation using the differential equation method for the limit case of small pupil have been reviewed. Furthermore, the differential equation method is used to provide the freedom to control the tangential rays and sagittal rays simultaneously. In the second part, according to the study of astigmatism of different types of design with rotational symmetry, the differential equation method for 3D rotational design without astigmatism (at the small pupil limit) on a curved object surface has been extended to 3D freeform design. The result of this extended method has been proved to coincide with the former 3D design by rotation which is a special case of 3D freeform design. Finally, the initial condition has been used as an additional freedom to control the shape of the object surface. As a result, a reflective design with a much flatter object surface has been obtained.

  16. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  17. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND STATISTICAL DESIGN SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A MONITORING PROTOCOL FOR RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outputs of the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) Process and discussions about developing a statistical design that will be used to implement the research study of recreational beach waters.

  18. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization.

    PubMed

    Adly, Amr A; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K

    2015-05-01

    Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper. PMID:26257939

  19. Design of refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Fu, Ru-Lian; Sun, Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Wu

    A refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle was designed. This objective consists of six elements, including one binary surface and two hyperboloids. It has a 40[degree sign] field of view, a 1.25 f-number, and a 18 mm image diameter, with a compact structure and a light weight. All optical specifications reach proposed designing targets. Besides, we considered fabrication issues about special surfaces of the system.

  20. Human-computer interaction in freeform object design and simultaneous manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lin, Heng; Ma, Liang; Chen, Delin

    2004-03-01

    Freeform object design and simultaneous manufacturing is a novel virtual design and manufacturing method that aims to enable creative and individualized product geometry design and rapid manufacturing of the designed model. The geometry is defined through the process of "virtual sculpting" during which the designer can touch and visualize the designed object in a virtual environment. Natural human-computer interaction is a key issue for this method. This paper first briefly reviewed the principle of the method, including the system configuration, data flow, and fundamental algorithm. Then an input/output device was developed to achieve natural human-computer interaction. Structure of the device and algorithms of calculating the input coordinates and output force were presented. Finally a feedback model was proposed and discussed to apply force feedback during virtual sculpting design.

  1. Remembering Math: The Design of Digital Learning Objects to Spark Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard; Wolfenstein, Moses; Williams, Caroline C.; Rockman, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how the design of digital learning objects can spark professional learning. The challenge was to build learning objects that would help experienced special education teachers, who had been teaching in math classes, to demonstrate their proficiency in middle and secondary school mathematics on the PRAXIS examination. While…

  2. A Case Study: Developing Learning Objects with an Explicit Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Julie

    2010-01-01

    In learning object design an emphasis on visual attractiveness and high technological impact has seemed to persist while content frequently reflects a lack of clear pedagogical basis for the application of learning objects for online learning. Most apparent is the absence of supportive scaffolding for the student user; interactivity built on an…

  3. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Switch Reluctance Motors Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Mehran; Rashidi, Farzan

    In this paper a design methodology based on multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is presented to design the switched reluctance motors with multiple conflicting objectives such as efficiency, power factor, full load torque, and full load current, specified dimension, weight of cooper and iron and also manufacturing cost. The optimally designed motor is compared with an industrial motor having the same ratings. Results verify that the proposed method gives better performance for the multi-objective optimization problems. The results of optimal design show the reduction in the specified dimension, weight and manufacturing cost, and the improvement in the power factor, full load torque, and efficiency of the motor.A major advantage of the method is its quite short response time in obtaining the optimal design.

  4. Advanced Computing Technologies for Rocket Engine Propulsion Systems: Object-Oriented Design with C++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekele, Gete

    2002-01-01

    This document explores the use of advanced computer technologies with an emphasis on object-oriented design to be applied in the development of software for a rocket engine to improve vehicle safety and reliability. The primary focus is on phase one of this project, the smart start sequence module. The objectives are: 1) To use current sound software engineering practices, object-orientation; 2) To improve on software development time, maintenance, execution and management; 3) To provide an alternate design choice for control, implementation, and performance.

  5. Design of a Model Execution Framework: Repetitive Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Justin S.; Briggs, Jeffery L.

    2008-01-01

    The ROSE framework was designed to facilitate complex system analyses. It completely divorces the model execution process from the model itself. By doing so ROSE frees the modeler to develop a library of standard modeling processes such as Design of Experiments, optimizers, parameter studies, and sensitivity studies which can then be applied to any of their available models. The ROSE framework accomplishes this by means of a well defined API and object structure. Both the API and object structure are presented here with enough detail to implement ROSE in any object-oriented language or modeling tool.

  6. An Ontological Representation of Learning Objects and Learning Designs as Codified Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Frosch-Wilke, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is discussing about the similarities between the life cycle of knowledge management and the processes in which learning objects are created, evaluated and used. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes LO and learning designs and depicts their integration into the knowledge life cycle (KLC) of the KMCI,…

  7. A Pedagogical Approach to the Design of Learning Objects for Complex Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busetti, Emanuela; Dettori, Giuliana; Forcheri, Paola; Ierardi, Maria Grazia

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe an approach to the design of learning objects (LOs) suitable to support learning in complex domains. We briefly discuss, from an educational point of view, the methodological choices underlying the design of LOs to be used as didactical materials in a distributed Web-based environment, presently under development,…

  8. Ecologically and economically conscious design of the injected pultrusion process via multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasagupta, Deepak; Kardos, John L.

    2004-05-01

    Injected pultrusion (IP) is an environmentally benign continuous process for low-cost manufacture of prismatic polymer composites. IP has been of recent regulatory interest as an option to achieve significant vapour emissions reduction. This work describes the design of the IP process with multiple design objectives. In our previous work (Srinivasagupta D et al 2003 J. Compos. Mater. at press), an algorithm for economic design using a validated three-dimensional physical model of the IP process was developed, subject to controllability considerations. In this work, this algorithm was used in a multi-objective optimization approach to simultaneously meet economic, quality related, and environmental objectives. The retrofit design of a bench-scale set-up was considered, and the concept of exergy loss in the process, as well as in vapour emission, was introduced. The multi-objective approach was able to determine the optimal values of the processing parameters such as heating zone temperatures and resin injection pressure, as well as the equipment specifications (die dimensions, heater, puller and pump ratings) that satisfy the various objectives in a weighted sense, and result in enhanced throughput rates. The economic objective did not coincide with the environmental objective, and a compromise became necessary. It was seen that most of the exergy loss is in the conversion of electric power into process heating. Vapour exergy loss was observed to be negligible for the most part.

  9. The study on gear transmission multi-objective optimum design based on SQP algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quancai; Qiao, Xuetao; Wu, Cuirong; Wang, Xingxing

    2011-12-01

    Gear mechanism is the most popular transmission mechanism; however, the traditional design method is complex and not accurate. Optimization design is the effective method to solve the above problems, used in gear design method. In many of the optimization software MATLAB, there are obvious advantage projects and numerical calculation. There is a single gear transmission as example, the mathematical model of gear transmission system, based on the analysis of the objective function, and on the basis of design variables and confirmation of choice restrictive conditions. The results show that the algorithm through MATLAB, the optimization designs, efficient, reliable, simple.

  10. Integrating end-to-end threads of control into object-oriented analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandlish, Janet E.; Macdonald, James R.; Graves, Sara J.

    1993-01-01

    Current object-oriented analysis and design methodologies fall short in their use of mechanisms for identifying threads of control for the system being developed. The scenarios which typically describe a system are more global than looking at the individual objects and representing their behavior. Unlike conventional methodologies that use data flow and process-dependency diagrams, object-oriented methodologies do not provide a model for representing these global threads end-to-end. Tracing through threads of control is key to ensuring that a system is complete and timing constraints are addressed. The existence of multiple threads of control in a system necessitates a partitioning of the system into processes. This paper describes the application and representation of end-to-end threads of control to the object-oriented analysis and design process using object-oriented constructs. The issue of representation is viewed as a grouping problem, that is, how to group classes/objects at a higher level of abstraction so that the system may be viewed as a whole with both classes/objects and their associated dynamic behavior. Existing object-oriented development methodology techniques are extended by adding design-level constructs termed logical composite classes and process composite classes. Logical composite classes are design-level classes which group classes/objects both logically and by thread of control information. Process composite classes further refine the logical composite class groupings by using process partitioning criteria to produce optimum concurrent execution results. The goal of these design-level constructs is to ultimately provide the basis for a mechanism that can support the creation of process composite classes in an automated way. Using an automated mechanism makes it easier to partition a system into concurrently executing elements that can be run in parallel on multiple processors.

  11. Representing object oriented specifications and designs with extended data flow notations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buser, Jon Franklin; Ward, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of using extended data flow notations to document object oriented designs and specifications is discussed. Extended data flow notations, for the purposes here, refer to notations that are based on the rules of Yourdon/DeMarco data flow analysis. The extensions include additional notation for representing real-time systems as well as some proposed extensions specific to object oriented development. Some advantages of data flow notations are stated. How data flow diagrams are used to represent software objects are investigated. Some problem areas with regard to using data flow notations for object oriented development are noted. Some initial solutions to these problems are proposed.

  12. The Design of a Novel Survey for Small Objects in the Solar System

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Chen, W.P.; de Pater, I.; Lee, T.; Lissauer, J.; Rice, J.; Liang, C.; Cook, K.; Marshall, S.; Akerlof, C.

    2000-08-21

    We evaluated several concepts for a new survey for small objects in the Solar System. We designed a highly novel survey for comets in the outer region of the Solar System, which exploits the occultations of relatively bright stars to infer the presence of otherwise extremely faint objects. The populations and distributions of these objects are not known; the uncertainties span orders of magnitude! These objects are important scientifically as probes of the primordial solar system, and programmatically now that major investments may be made in the possible mitigation of the hazard of asteroid or comet collisions with the Earth.

  13. Optical design methods to suppress aberrations which are caused by change of object distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Shunsuke; Shibuya, Masato; Maehara, Kazuhisa; Oka, Mikio; Nakadate, Suezou

    2011-10-01

    An object distance range within which fine image can be obtained by focus adjustment is limited since aberrations are caused by change of object distance. We have developed a novel optical design method to suppress variation of coma, astigmatism and field curvature induced by change of object distance. Variation of astigmatism and field curvature can be suppressed by introducing appropriate distortion. Also variation of coma caused by change of object distance can be suppressed by using spherical image surface which pivot is located at the center of exit pupil.

  14. Object oriented design and programming for experiment online applications---Experiences with a prototype application

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.

    1991-03-01

    The increase in the variety of computer platforms incorporated into online data acquisition systems at Fermilab compels consideration of how to best design and implement applications to be maintainable, reusable and portable. To this end we have evaluated the applicability to Object Oriented Design techniques, and Object Oriented Programming languages for online applications. We report on this evaluation. We are designing a specific application which provides a framework for experimenters to access and display their raw data on UNIX workstations that form part of their distributed online data acquisition system. We have chosen to implement this using the C++ OOP language. We report on our experiences in object oriented design and lessons learned which we will apply to future software development. 14 refs.

  15. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  16. Development of a sequential optimization procedure for robust design and tolerance design within a bi-objective paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sangmun; Cho, Byung Rae

    2008-11-01

    Many practitioners and researchers have implemented robust design and tolerance design as quality improvement and process optimization tools for more than two decades. Robust design is an enhanced process/product design methodology for determining the best settings of control factors while minimizing process bias and variability. Tolerance design is aimed at determining the best tolerance limits for minimizing the total cost incurred by both the customer and manufacturer by balancing quality loss due to variations in product performance and the cost of controlling these variations. Although robust design and tolerance design have received much attention from researchers and practitioners, there is ample room for improvement. First, most researchers consider robust design and tolerance design as separate research fields. Second, most research work is based on a single quality characteristic. The primary goal of this paper is to integrate a sequential robust design-tolerance design optimization procedure within a bi-objective paradigm, which, the authors believe, is the first attempt in the robust design and tolerance design literature. Models are proposed and numerical examples along with sensitivity analysis are performed for verification purposes.

  17. Clinical simulation as a boundary object in design of health IT-systems.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Jensen, Sanne; Lyng, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are very complex, holding numerous stakeholders with various approaches and goals towards the design of health IT-systems. Some of these differences may be approached by applying the concept of boundary objects in a participatory IT-design process. Traditionally clinical simulation provides the opportunity to evaluate the design and the usage of clinical IT-systems without endangering the patients and interrupting clinical work. In this paper we present how clinical simulation additionally holds the potential to function as a boundary object in the design process. The case points out that clinical simulation provides an opportunity for discussions and mutual learning among the various stakeholders involved in design of standardized electronic clinical documentation templates. The paper presents and discusses the use of clinical simulation in the translation, transfer and transformation of knowledge between various stakeholders in a large healthcare organization. PMID:23941951

  18. Object-Oriented Control System Design Using On-Line Training of Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with the object-oriented model development of a neuro-controller design for permanent magnet (PM) dc motor drives. The system under study is described as a collection of interacting objects. Each object module describes the object behaviors, called methods. The characteristics of the object are included in its variables. The knowledge of the object exists within its variables, and the performance is determined by its methods. This structure maps well to the real world objects that comprise the system being modeled. A dynamic learning architecture that possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control is incorporated to enforce constraints on connections and control the dynamics of the motor. The control action is implemented "on-line", in "real time" in such a way that the predicted trajectory follows a specified reference model. A design example of controlling a PM dc motor drive on-line shows the effectiveness of the design tool. This will therefore be very useful in aerospace applications. It is expected to provide an innovative and noval software model for the rocket engine numerical simulator executive.

  19. An integrated control/structure design method using multi-objective optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Sandeep; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1991-01-01

    The benefits are demonstrated of a multiobjective optimization based control structure integrated design methodology. An application of the proposed CSI methodology to the integrated design of the Spacecraft COntrol Lab Experiment (SCOLE) configuration is presented. Integrated design resulted in reducing both the control performance measure and the mass. Thus, better overall performance is achieved through integrated design optimization. The mutliobjective optimization approach used provides Pareto optimal solutions by unconstrained minimization of a differentiable KS function. Furthermore, adjusting the parameters gives insight into the trade-offs involved between different objectives.

  20. A Software Designed For STP Data Plot and Analysis Based on Object-oriented Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, L.; Murata, K.

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, we design a system that is named "STARS (Solar-Terrestrial data Analysis and Reference System)". The STARS provides a research environment that researchers can refer to and analyse a variety of data with single software. This software design is based on the OMT (Object Modeling Technique). The OMT is one of the object-oriented techniques, which has an advantage in maintenance improvement, reuse and long time development of a system. At the Center for Information Technology, Ehime University, after our designing of the STARS, we have already started implementing the STARS. The latest version of the STARS, the STARS5, was released in 2006. Any user can download the system from our WWW site (http:// www.infonet.cite.ehime-u.ac.jp/STARS). The present paper is mainly devoted to the design of a data analysis software system. Through our designing, we paid attention so that the design is flexible and applicable when other developers design software for the similar purpose. If our model is so particular only for our own purpose, it would be useless for other developers. Through our design of the domain object model, we carefully removed the parts, which depend on the system resources, e.g. hardware and software. We put the dependent parts into the application object model. In the present design, therefore, the domain object model and the utility object model are independent of computer resource. This helps anther developer to construct his/her own system based the present design. They simply modify their own application object models according to their system resource. This division of the design between dependent and independent part into three object models is one of the advantages in the OMT. If the design of software is completely done along with the OMT, implementation is rather simple and automatic: developers simply map their designs on our programs. If one creates "ganother STARS" with other programming language such as Java, the programmer

  1. Optimal design of multichannel fiber Bragg grating filters using Pareto multi-objective optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Tundong; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A Pareto-based multi-objective optimization approach is proposed to design multichannel FBG filters. Instead of defining a single optimal objective, the proposed method establishes the multi-objective model by taking two design objectives into account, which are minimizing the maximum index modulation and minimizing the mean dispersion error. To address this optimization problem, we develop a two-stage evolutionary computation approach integrating an elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). NSGA-II is utilized to search for the candidate solutions in terms of both objectives. The obtained results are provided as Pareto front. Subsequently, the best compromise solution is determined by the TOPSIS method from the Pareto front according to the decision maker's preference. The design results show that the proposed approach yields a remarkable reduction of the maximum index modulation and the performance of dispersion spectra of the designed filter can be optimized simultaneously.

  2. An object oriented design for high performance linear algebra on distributed memory architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. |; Walker, D.W.; Pozo, R.

    1993-12-31

    We describe the design of ScaLAPACK++, an object oriented C++ library for implementing linear algebra computations on distributed memory multicomputers. This package, when complete, will support distributed dense, banded, sparse matrix operations for symmetric, positive-definite, and non-symmetric cases. In ScaLAPACK++ we have employed object oriented design methods to enchance scalability, portability, flexibility, and ease-of-use. We illustrate some of these points by describing the implementation of a right-looking LU factorization for dense systems in ScaLAPACK++.

  3. Object-oriented software design for the Mt. Wilson 100-inch Hooker telescope adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas G.

    2000-06-01

    The object oriented software design paradigm has been instrumented in the development of the Adoptics software used in the Hooker telescope's ADOPT adaptive optics system. The software runs on a Pentium-class PC host and eight DSP processors connected to the host's motherboard bus. C++ classes were created to implement most of the host software's functionality, with the object oriented features of inheritance, encapsulation and abstraction being the most useful. Careful class design at the inception of the project allowed for the rapid addition of features without comprising the integrity of the software. Base class implementations include the DSP system, real-time graphical displays and opto-mechanical actuator control.

  4. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The customer (scientist or project manager) most often does not want just one point solution to the mission design problem Instead, an exploration of a multi-objective trade space is required. For a typical main-belt asteroid mission the customer might wish to see the trade-space of: Launch date vs. Flight time vs. Deliverable mass, while varying the destination asteroid, planetary flybys, launch year, etcetera. To address this question we use a multi-objective discrete outer-loop which defines many single objective real-valued inner-loop problems.

  5. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Low-Thrust Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Ghosh, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen that defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  6. How to design and fly your humanly space object in space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor; Hall, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    Today's space exploration, both robotic- and human-exploration driven, is dominated by objects and artifacts which are mostly conceived, designed and built through technology and engineering approaches. They are functional, reliable, safe, and expensive. Building on considerations and concepts established in an earlier paper, we can state that the current approach leaves very little room for art and design based objects, as organizations-typically led by engineers, project and business managers-see the inclusion of these disciplines and artifacts as nice to have instead of a genuine need, let alone requirement. In this paper we will offer initial discussions about where design and engineering practices are different or similar and how to bridge them and highlight the benefits that domains such as design or art can offer to space exploration. Some of the design considerations and approaches will be demonstrated through the double diamond of divergence-convergence cycles of design, leading to an experimental piece called a "cybernetic astronaut chair", which was designed as a form of abstraction and discussion point to highlight a subset of concepts and ideas that designers may consider when designing objects for space use, with attention to human-centered or humanly interactions. Although there are few suggested functional needs for chairs in space, they can provide reassuring emotional experiences from home, while being far away from home. In zero gravity, back-to-back seats provide affordances-or add variety in a cybernetic sense-to accommodate two astronauts simultaneously, while implying the circularity of cybernetics in a rather symbolic way. The cybernetic astronaut chair allows us to refine the three-actor model proposed in a previous paper, defining the circular interactions between the artist or designer; object or process; and user or observer. We will also dedicate a brief discussion to the process of navigating through the complex regulations of space

  7. OBJECTIVE METEOROLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME DESIGNED TO ELUCIDATE OZONE'S DEPENDENCE ON METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper utilizes a two-stage clustering approach as part of an objective classification scheme designed to elucidate 03's dependence on meteorology. hen applied to ten years (1981-1990) of meteorological data for Birmingham, Alabama, the classification scheme identified seven ...

  8. WV R-EMAP STUDY: MULTIPLE-OBJECTIVE SAMPLING DESIGN FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-objective sampling design has been implemented through Regional Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) support of a cooperative agreement with the state of West Virginia. Goals of the project include: 1) development and testing of a temperature-adjusted fish IBI for t...

  9. A Mastery Rubric: Guiding Curriculum Design, Admissions and Development of Course Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Umans, Jason G.; McCarter, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a "Mastery Rubric" (MR) used to design both the curriculum and the assessments in a new two-year certificate programme intended to train physicians in clinical research skills. The MR for clinical research skills is built around a set of core research skills: critical review of literature; articulation of research objective;…

  10. A niched Pareto tabu search for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Wu, Jianfeng; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Jichun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a new multi-objective optimization method, the niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS), for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed NPTS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport code, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to search for the near Pareto-optimal tradeoffs of groundwater remediation strategies. The difference between the proposed NPTS and the existing multiple objective tabu search (MOTS) lies in the use of the niche selection strategy and fitness archiving to maintain the diversity of the optimal solutions along the Pareto front and avoid repetitive calculations of the objective functions associated with the flow and transport model. Sensitivity analysis of the NPTS parameters is evaluated through a synthetic pump-and-treat remediation application involving two conflicting objectives, minimizations of both remediation cost and contaminant mass remaining in the aquifer. Moreover, the proposed NPTS is applied to a large-scale pump-and-treat groundwater remediation system of the field site at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, involving minimizations of both total pumping rates and contaminant mass remaining in the aquifer. Additional comparison of the results based on the NPTS with those obtained from other two methods, namely the single objective tabu search (SOTS) and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), further indicates that the proposed NPTS has desirable computation efficiency, stability, and robustness and is a promising tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems.

  11. Multi-objective approach for the automatic design of optical systems.

    PubMed

    Carneiro de Albuquerque, Bráulio Fonseca; Luis de Sousa, Fabiano; Montes, Amauri Silva

    2016-03-21

    An innovative method for the automatic design of optical systems is presented and verified. The proposed method is based on a multi-objective evolutionary memetic optimization algorithm. The multi-objective approach simultaneously, but separately, addresses the image quality, tolerance, and complexity of the system. The memetic technique breaks down the search for optical designs in to three different parts or phases: optical glass selection, exploration, and exploitation. The optical glass selection phase defines the most appropriate set of glasses for the system under design. The glass selection phase limits the available glasses from hundreds to just a few, drastically reducing the design space and significantly increasing the efficiency of the automatic design method. The exploration phase is based on an evolutionary algorithm (EA), more specifically, on a problem-tailored generalized extremal optimization (GEO) algorithm, named Optical GEO (O-GEO). The new EA incorporates many features customized for lens design, such as optical system codification and diversity operators. The trade-off systems found in the exploration phase are refined by a local search, based on the damped least square method in the exploitation phase. As a result, the method returns a set of trade-off solutions, generating a Pareto front. Our method delivers alternative and useful insights for the compromise solutions in a lens design problem. The efficiency of the proposed method is verified through real-world examples, showing excellent results for the tested problems. PMID:27136851

  12. Multi-point objective-oriented sequential sampling strategy for constrained robust design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Siliang; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Metamodelling techniques are widely used to approximate system responses of expensive simulation models. In association with the use of metamodels, objective-oriented sequential sampling methods have been demonstrated to be effective in balancing the need for searching an optimal solution versus reducing the metamodelling uncertainty. However, existing infilling criteria are developed for deterministic problems and restricted to one sampling point in one iteration. To exploit the use of multiple samples and identify the true robust solution in fewer iterations, a multi-point objective-oriented sequential sampling strategy is proposed for constrained robust design problems. In this article, earlier development of objective-oriented sequential sampling strategy for unconstrained robust design is first extended to constrained problems. Next, a double-loop multi-point sequential sampling strategy is developed. The proposed methods are validated using two mathematical examples followed by a highly nonlinear automotive crashworthiness design example. The results show that the proposed method can mitigate the effect of both metamodelling uncertainty and design uncertainty, and identify the robust design solution more efficiently than the single-point sequential sampling approach.

  13. The conceptual development of a methodology for solving multi-objective hierarchical thermal design problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bascaran, E.; Bannerot, R.; Mistree, F.

    1987-01-01

    The design of thermal systems is complicated by changing operating conditions, the large number of alternatives, the strong dependance of thermal properties on temperature and pressure and sometimes the lack of a good understanding of the basic phenomena involved. A conceptual development is presented for organizing multi-objective hierarchical thermal design problems into a series of decision support problems which are compatible and solvable with DSIDES, a software system that is under development in the Systems Design Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Houston. The software is currently being used to support the design of a variety of mechanical design problems including ships and airplanes. In this paper, a hierarchical coupled thermal problem is presented and solved by way of example.

  14. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization design of vehicle magnetorheological fluid damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Yang; Gao, Fang

    2007-07-01

    Structure design and parameters selection are crucial steps in developing magnetorheological fluid (MRF) damper for vehicle semi-active suspension system. Most traditional methods for deciding structure parameters by experiential expressions are unilateral and imprecise. In this paper, a multiobjective evolutionary optimization approach will be used to solve the optimization design problem. Based on Bingham fluid models, a structure design for MRF damper with shearing valve mode is completed for vehicle suspension. To reduce the dynamic response time and to enlarge the range the controllable damping force are taken as the optimization objectives. Three crucial parameters, including gap width, effective axial pole length and coil turns number are taken as optimization variables, a hybrid evolutionary algorithm combining particle swarm optimization (PSO) and crossover is employed to search for the Pareto solutions, According to the optimized results, a new type MRF damper design is accomplished for a pickup truck suspension system. The proposed method and analysis present a beneficial reference for MRF damper design.

  15. An Enhanced Multi-Objective Optimization Technique for Comprehensive Aerospace Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Rajadas, John N.

    2000-01-01

    An enhanced multiobjective formulation technique, capable of emphasizing specific objective functions during the optimization process, has been demonstrated on a complex multidisciplinary design application. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (K-S) function approach, which has been used successfully in a variety of multiobjective optimization problems, has been modified using weight factors which enables the designer to emphasize specific design objectives during the optimization process. The technique has been implemented in two distinctively different problems. The first is a classical three bar truss problem and the second is a high-speed aircraft (a doubly swept wing-body configuration) application in which the multiobjective optimization procedure simultaneously minimizes the sonic boom and the drag-to-lift ratio (C(sub D)/C(sub L)) of the aircraft while maintaining the lift coefficient within prescribed limits. The results are compared with those of an equally weighted K-S multiobjective optimization. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhanced multiobjective optimization procedure.

  16. TES Carbon Monoxide Validation during the Two AVE Campaigns using the Argus and ALIAS Instruments on NASA's WB-57F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jinena P.; Luo, Ming; Christensen, Lance E.; Loewenstein, Max; Jost, Hansjurg; Webster, Christopher R.; Osterman, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) focuses on validating Aura satellite measurements of important atmospheric trace gases using ground-based, aircraft, and balloon-borne instruments. Global satellite observations of CO from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite have been ongoing since September 2004. This paper discusses CO validation experiments during the Oct-AVE (2004 Houston, Texas) and CR-AVE (2006 San Jose, Costa Rica) campaigns. The coincidences in location and time between the satellite observations and the available in situ profiles for some cases are not ideal. However, the CO distribution patterns in the two validation flight areas are shown to have very little variability in the aircraft and satellite . observations, thereby making them suitable for validation comparisons. TES CO profiles, which typically have a retrieval uncertainty of 10-20%, are compared with in situ CO measurements from NASA Ames Research Center's Argus instrument taken on board the WB-57F aircraft during Oct-AVE. TES CO retrievals during CR-AVE are compared with in situ measurements from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) instrument as well as with the Argus instrument, both taken on board the WB-57F aircraft. During CR-AVE, the average overall difference between ALIAS and Argus CO was 4%, with the ALIAS measurement higher. During individual flights, 2-min time-averaged differences between the two in situ instruments had standard deviation of 14%. The TES averaging kernels and a priori constraint profiles for CO are applied to the in situ data for proper comparisons to account for the reduced vertical resolution and the influence of the a priori in the satellite-derived profile. In the TES sensitive pressure range, approx.700-200 hPa, the in situ profiles and TES profiles agree within 5-10%, less than the variability in CO distributions obtained by both TES and the aircraft instruments in the two

  17. DISCO: An object-oriented system for music composition and sound design

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wright, J. M.

    2000-09-05

    This paper describes an object-oriented approach to music composition and sound design. The approach unifies the processes of music making and instrument building by using similar logic, objects, and procedures. The composition modules use an abstract representation of musical data, which can be easily mapped onto different synthesis languages or a traditionally notated score. An abstract base class is used to derive classes on different time scales. Objects can be related to act across time scales, as well as across an entire piece, and relationships between similar objects can replicate traditional music operations or introduce new ones. The DISCO (Digital Instrument for Sonification and Composition) system is an open-ended work in progress.

  18. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays. PMID:26218496

  19. Object-Oriented Multi-Disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    An Object-Oriented Optimization (O3) tool was developed that leverages existing tools and practices, and allows the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. At the heart of the O3 tool is the Central Executive Module (CEM), which can integrate disparate software packages in a cross platform network environment so as to quickly perform optimization and design tasks in a cohesive, streamlined manner. This object-oriented framework can integrate the analysis codes for multiple disciplines instead of relying on one code to perform the analysis for all disciplines. The CEM was written in FORTRAN and the script commands for each performance index were submitted through the use of the FORTRAN Call System command. In this CEM, the user chooses an optimization methodology, defines objective and constraint functions from performance indices, and provides starting and side constraints for continuous as well as discrete design variables. The structural analysis modules such as computations of the structural weight, stress, deflection, buckling, and flutter and divergence speeds have been developed and incorporated into the O3 tool to build an object-oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization (MDAO) tool.

  20. A simulation-optimisation approach for designing water distribution networks under multiple objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Pham Van, Tinh; Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Especially in arid and semi-arid regions, water distribution networks are of major importance for an integrated water resources management in order to convey water over long distances from sources to consumers. However, to design a network optimally is still a challenge which requires an appropriate determination of: (1) pipe/pump/tank characteristics - decision variables (2) cost/network reliability - objective functions including (3) a given set of constraints. Thereby, objective functions are contradicting, which means that by minimising costs network reliability is decreasing resulting in a higher risk of network failures. For solving this multi-objective design problem, a simulation-optimisation approach is developed. The approach couples a hydraulic network model (Epanet) with an optimiser, namely the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES). The simulation-optimisation model is applied on international published benchmark cases for single and multi-objective optimisation and simultaneous optimisation of above mentioned decision variables as well as network layout. Results are encouraging. The proposed model performs with similar or better results, which means smaller costs and higher network reliability. Subsequently, the new model is applied for an optimal design and operation of a water distribution system to supply the coastal arid region of Al-Batinah (North of Oman) with water for agricultural production.

  1. Multidisciplinary design optimization of vehicle instrument panel based on multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Guangqiang

    2013-03-01

    Typical multidisciplinary design optimization(MDO) has gradually been proposed to balance performances of lightweight, noise, vibration and harshness(NVH) and safety for instrument panel(IP) structure in the automotive development. Nevertheless, plastic constitutive relation of Polypropylene(PP) under different strain rates, has not been taken into consideration in current reliability-based and collaborative IP MDO design. In this paper, based on tensile test under different strain rates, the constitutive relation of Polypropylene material is studied. Impact simulation tests for head and knee bolster are carried out to meet the regulation of FMVSS 201 and FMVSS 208, respectively. NVH analysis is performed to obtain mainly the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes, while the crashworthiness analysis is employed to examine the crash behavior of IP structure. With the consideration of lightweight, NVH, head and knee bolster impact performance, design of experiment(DOE), response surface model(RSM), and collaborative optimization(CO) are applied to realize the determined and reliability-based optimizations, respectively. Furthermore, based on multi-objective genetic algorithm(MOGA), the optimal Pareto sets are completed to solve the multi-objective optimization(MOO) problem. The proposed research ensures the smoothness of Pareto set, enhances the ability of engineers to make a comprehensive decision about multi-objectives and choose the optimal design, and improves the quality and efficiency of MDO.

  2. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines. OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  3. Design of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Performance prediction of turbomachines is a significant part of aircraft propulsion design. In the conceptual design stage, there is an important need to quantify compressor and turbine aerodynamic performance and develop initial geometry parameters at the 2-D level prior to more extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses. The Object-oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is being developed to perform 2-D meridional flowthrough analysis of turbomachines using an implicit formulation of the governing equations to solve for the conditions at the exit of each blade row. OTAC is designed to perform meanline or streamline calculations; for streamline analyses simple radial equilibrium is used as a governing equation to solve for spanwise property variations. While the goal for OTAC is to allow simulation of physical effects and architectural features unavailable in other existing codes, it must first prove capable of performing calculations for conventional turbomachines.OTAC is being developed using the interpreted language features available in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code described by Claus et al (1991). Using the NPSS framework came with several distinct advantages, including access to the pre-existing NPSS thermodynamic property packages and the NPSS Newton-Raphson solver. The remaining objects necessary for OTAC were written in the NPSS framework interpreted language. These new objects form the core of OTAC and are the BladeRow, BladeSegment, TransitionSection, Expander, Reducer, and OTACstart Elements. The BladeRow and BladeSegment consumed the initial bulk of the development effort and required determining the equations applicable to flow through turbomachinery blade rows given specific assumptions about the nature of that flow. Once these objects were completed, OTAC was tested and found to agree with existing solutions from other codes; these tests included various meanline and streamline comparisons of axial

  4. The design of the AIE: An object-oriented application development system

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, R.S.; Widing, M.A.

    1992-02-27

    Three years ago, in response to our challenging development context, the Advanced Modeling and Analysis Section designed and implemented an object-oriented environment -- the Application Interface Engine (AIE). Our prototyping requirements forced existing application development systems beyond their capabilities. Programmers at AMAS and its contractors have developed over twenty applications using AIE. Our initial experience has been very positive. AIE extends an object-oriented programming language with syntax and classes to support applications specification. This extended system improves all stages of the application engineering life cycle, from rapid prototyping to long term maintenance.

  5. Object-oriented design patterns for multiphysics modeling in Fortran 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Rouson, Damian; Xia, Jim

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: catalog object-oriented software design patterns for multiphysics modeling; demonstrate them in Fortran 2003 and C++; and compare the capabilities of the two languages. The conclusions are: the presented patterns integrate multiple abstractions, allowing much of the numerics and physics to be determined at compile-time or runtime; negligible lines of Fortran emulate the required C++ features; and C++ requires considerable effort (or considerable reliance on libraries to relive that effort) to emulate the required Fortran 2003 features.

  6. An Object-Oriented Collection of Minimum Degree Algorithms: Design, Implementation, and Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumfert, Gary; Pothen, Alex

    1999-01-01

    The multiple minimum degree (MMD) algorithm and its variants have enjoyed 20+ years of research and progress in generating fill-reducing orderings for sparse, symmetric positive definite matrices. Although conceptually simple, efficient implementations of these algorithms are deceptively complex and highly specialized. In this case study, we present an object-oriented library that implements several recent minimum degree-like algorithms. We discuss how object-oriented design forces us to decompose these algorithms in a different manner than earlier codes and demonstrate how this impacts the flexibility and efficiency of our C++ implementation. We compare the performance of our code against other implementations in C or Fortran.

  7. Joint digital-optical design of imaging systems for grayscale objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. Dirk; Stork, David G.

    2008-09-01

    In many imaging applications, the objects of interest have broad range of strongly correlated spectral components. For example, the spectral components of grayscale objects such as media printed with black ink or toner are nearly perfectly correlated spatially. We describe how to exploit such correlation during the design of electro-optical imaging systems to achieve greater imaging performance and lower optical component cost. These advantages are achieved by jointly optimizing optical, detector, and digital image processing subsystems using a unified statistical imaging performance measure. The resulting optical systems have lower F# and greater depth-of-field than systems that do not exploit spectral correlations.

  8. Data management in an object-oriented distributed aircraft conceptual design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhijie

    In the competitive global market place, aerospace companies are forced to deliver the right products to the right market, with the right cost, and at the right time. However, the rapid development of technologies and new business opportunities, such as mergers, acquisitions, supply chain management, etc., have dramatically increased the complexity of designing an aircraft. Therefore, the pressure to reduce design cycle time and cost is enormous. One way to solve such a dilemma is to develop and apply advanced engineering environments (AEEs), which are distributed collaborative virtual design environments linking researchers, technologists, designers, etc., together by incorporating application tools and advanced computational, communications, and networking facilities. Aircraft conceptual design, as the first design stage, provides major opportunity to compress design cycle time and is the cheapest place for making design changes. However, traditional aircraft conceptual design programs, which are monolithic programs, cannot provide satisfactory functionality to meet new design requirements due to the lack of domain flexibility and analysis scalability. Therefore, we are in need of the next generation aircraft conceptual design environment (NextADE). To build the NextADE, the framework and the data management problem are two major problems that need to be addressed at the forefront. Solving these two problems, particularly the data management problem, is the focus of this research. In this dissertation, in light of AEEs, a distributed object-oriented framework is firstly formulated and tested for the NextADE. In order to improve interoperability and simplify the integration of heterogeneous application tools, data management is one of the major problems that need to be tackled. To solve this problem, taking into account the characteristics of aircraft conceptual design data, a robust, extensible object-oriented data model is then proposed according to the

  9. Multi-objective optimal design of lithium-ion battery packs based on evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severino, Bernardo; Gana, Felipe; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo; Estévez, Pablo A.; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R.; Orchard, Marcos E.; Reyes, Jorge; Cortés, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-battery energy storage systems (LiBESS) are increasingly being used on electric mobility and stationary applications. Despite its increasing use and improvements of the technology there are still challenges associated with cost reduction, increasing lifetime and capacity, and higher safety. A correct battery thermal management system (BTMS) design is critical to achieve these goals. In this paper, a general framework for obtaining optimal BTMS designs is proposed. Due to the trade-off between the BTMS's design goals and the complex modeling of thermal response inside the battery pack, this paper proposes to solve this problem using a novel Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) approach. A theoretical case of a module with 6 cells and a real case of a pack used in a Solar Race Car are presented. The results show the capabilities of the proposal methodology, in which improved designs for battery packs are obtained.

  10. Technical considerations for designing low-cost, long-wave infrared objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Gerard; Dalzell, Kristy; Robitaille, Blaise

    2014-06-01

    With the growth of uncooled infrared imaging in the consumer market, the balance between cost implications and performance criteria in the objective lens must be examined carefully. The increased availability of consumer-grade, long-wave infrared cameras is related to a decrease in military usage but it is also due to the decreasing costs of the cameras themselves. This has also driven up demand for low-cost, long-wave objectives that can resolve smaller pixels while maintaining high performance. Smaller pixels are traditionally associated with high cost objectives because of higher resolution requirements but, with careful consideration of all the requirements and proper selection of materials, costs can be moderated. This paper examines the cost/performance trade-off implications associated with optical and mechanical requirements of long-wave infrared objectives. Optical performance, f-number, field of view, distortion, focus range and thermal range all affect the cost of the objective. Because raw lens material cost is often the most expensive item in the construction, selection of the material as well as the shape of the lens while maintaining acceptable performance and cost targets were explored. As a result of these considerations, a low-cost, lightweight, well-performing objective was successfully designed, manufactured and tested.

  11. Using object-oriented analysis to design a multi-mission ground data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical approach and descriptive methodology that is adapted from Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) techniques. The technique is described and then used to communicate key issues of system logical architecture. The essence of the approach is to limit the analysis to only service objects, with the idea of providing a direct mapping from the design to a client-server implementation. Key perspectives on the system, such as user interaction, data flow and management, service interfaces, hardware configuration, and system and data integrity are covered. A significant advantage of this service-oriented approach is that it permits mapping all of these different perspectives on the system onto a single common substrate. This services substrate is readily represented diagramatically, thus making details of the overall design much more accessible.

  12. Fatigue design of a cellular phone folder using regression model-based multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Jongsoo

    2016-08-01

    In a folding cellular phone, the folding device is repeatedly opened and closed by the user, which eventually results in fatigue damage, particularly to the front of the folder. Hence, it is important to improve the safety and endurance of the folder while also reducing its weight. This article presents an optimal design for the folder front that maximizes its fatigue endurance while minimizing its thickness. Design data for analysis and optimization were obtained experimentally using a test jig. Multi-objective optimization was carried out using a nonlinear regression model. Three regression methods were employed: back-propagation neural networks, logistic regression and support vector machines. The AdaBoost ensemble technique was also used to improve the approximation. Two-objective Pareto-optimal solutions were identified using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, a numerically optimized solution was validated against experimental product data, in terms of both fatigue endurance and thickness index.

  13. Boundary objects in clinical simulation and design of eHealth.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sanne; Kushniruk, Andre

    2016-06-01

    Development and implementation of eHealth is challenging due to the complexity of clinical work practices and organizations. Standardizing work processes and documentation procedures is one way of coping with these challenges, and acceptance of these initiatives and acceptance of the clinical information system are vital for success. Clinical simulation may be used as "boundary objects" and help transferring of knowledge between groups of stakeholders and help to better understand needs and requirements in other parts of the organization. This article presents a case study about design of electronic documentation templates for nurses' initial patient assessment, where clinical simulation was used as a boundary object and thereby achieved mutual clinical agreement on the content. Results showed that meetings prior to and in between workshops allowed all communities of practice an opportunity to voice their point of view and affect the final result. Implications of considering clinical simulations as boundary objects are discussed. PMID:25301197

  14. Design Method for a Bilateral Control System Considering Ambient Environment around Operated Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Susa, Shigeru; Hyodo, Shoyo; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In teleoperation, the operated objects are often present in an ambient environment such as water or blood. It then becomes difficult to distinguish between the reaction force from the operated objects and the reaction force from the ambient environment. This affects the safety of the operation and the operation itself. In this paper, we propose a control method for reproducing the reaction forces from an operated object, excluding the reaction forces from the ambient environment. We introduced the concept of dynamic reproducibility, which is an ideal condition considering the ambient environment. Furthermore, a bilateral control system that considers the ambient environment is designed on the basis of dynamic reproducibility. The validity of the proposed system is confirmed by the simulation results and the experimental results.

  15. Design and evaluation of an ultra-slim objective for in-vivo deep optical biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Sara M.; Liang, Chen; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.; Descour, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million breast biopsies are performed in the US each year. In order to provide real-time, in-vivo imaging with sub-cellular resolution for optical biopsies, we have designed an ultra-slim objective to fit inside the 1-mm-diameter hypodermic needles currently used for breast biopsies to image tissue stained by the fluorescent probe proflavine. To ensure high-quality imaging performance, experimental tests were performed to characterize fiber bundle’s light-coupling efficiency and simulations were performed to evaluate the impact of candidate lens materials’ autofluorescence. A prototype of NA = 0.4, 250-µm field of view, ultra-slim objective optics was built and tested, yielding diffraction-limited performance and estimated resolution of 0.9 µm. When used in conjunction with a commercial coherent fiber bundle to relay the image formed by the objective, the measured resolution was 2.5 µm. PMID:20389489

  16. Multi-objective design optimization of the transverse gaseous jet in supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The mixing process between the injectant and the supersonic crossflow is one of the important issues for the design of the scramjet engine, and the efficiency mixing has a great impact on the improvement of the combustion efficiency. A hovering vortex is formed between the separation region and the barrel shock wave, and this may be induced by the large negative density gradient. The separation region provides a good mixing area for the injectant and the subsonic boundary layer. In the current study, the transverse injection flow field with a freestream Mach number of 3.5 has been optimized by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) coupled with the Kriging surrogate model; and the variance analysis method and the extreme difference analysis method have been employed to evaluate the values of the objective functions. The obtained results show that the jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio is the most important design variable for the transverse injection flow field, and the injectant molecular weight and the slot width should be considered for the mixing process between the injectant and the supersonic crossflow. There exists an optimal penetration height for the mixing efficiency, and its value is about 14.3 mm in the range considered in the current study. The larger penetration height provides a larger total pressure loss, and there must be a tradeoff between these two objection functions. In addition, this study demonstrates that the multi-objective design optimization method with the data mining technique can be used efficiently to explore the relationship between the design variables and the objective functions.

  17. Multi-Period Many-Objective Groundwater Monitoring Design Given Systematic Model Errors and Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    This study demonstrates how many-objective long-term groundwater monitoring (LTGM) network design tradeoffs evolve across multiple management periods given systematic models errors (i.e., predictive bias), groundwater flow-and-transport forecasting uncertainties, and contaminant observation uncertainties. Our analysis utilizes the Adaptive Strategies for Sampling in Space and Time (ASSIST) framework, which is composed of three primary components: (1) bias-aware Ensemble Kalman Filtering, (2) many-objective hierarchical Bayesian optimization, and (3) interactive visual analytics for understanding spatiotemporal network design tradeoffs. A physical aquifer experiment is utilized to develop a severely challenging multi-period observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) that reflects the challenges and decisions faced in monitoring contaminated groundwater systems. The experimental aquifer OSSE shows both the influence and consequences of plume dynamics as well as alternative cost-savings strategies in shaping how LTGM many-objective tradeoffs evolve. Our findings highlight the need to move beyond least cost purely statistical monitoring frameworks to consider many-objective evaluations of LTGM tradeoffs. The ASSIST framework provides a highly flexible approach for measuring the value of observables that simultaneously improves how the data are used to inform decisions.

  18. Application of fuzzy theories to formulation of multi-objective design problems. [for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhingra, A. K.; Rao, S. S.; Miura, H.

    1988-01-01

    Much of the decision making in real world takes place in an environment in which the goals, the constraints, and the consequences of possible actions are not known precisely. In order to deal with imprecision quantitatively, the tools of fuzzy set theory can by used. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of fuzzy theories in the formulation and solution of two types of helicopter design problems involving multiple objectives. The first problem deals with the determination of optimal flight parameters to accomplish a specified mission in the presence of three competing objectives. The second problem addresses the optimal design of the main rotor of a helicopter involving eight objective functions. A method of solving these multi-objective problems using nonlinear programming techniques is presented. Results obtained using fuzzy formulation are compared with those obtained using crisp optimization techniques. The outlined procedures are expected to be useful in situations where doubt arises about the exactness of permissible values, degree of credibility, and correctness of statements and judgements.

  19. Design for sustainability of industrial symbiosis based on emergy and multi-objective particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-08-15

    Industrial symbiosis provides novel and practical pathway to the design for the sustainability. Decision support tool for its verification is necessary for practitioners and policy makers, while to date, quantitative research is limited. The objective of this work is to present an innovative approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied by the proposed method, a few of compromises between high profitability and high sustainability can be obtained for the decision-makers/stakeholders to make decision. PMID:27110990

  20. Design of Frame Transfer Area CCD Imaging System for Dark Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Yan, Y. H.

    2015-05-01

    To realize the requirement of low-noise observation of the dark objects in deep-space missions, a simple and stable design method for the imaging system of space camera is proposed in this paper, and it is performed for the schematic circuit diagram design of each part of the CCD47-20 back illuminated AIMO produced by E2V company. The long exposure for the dark object observation can be realized by adjusting the delay time. The imaging system circuit uses the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) and correlated double sampling (CDS) analog-to-digital converter (AD) which can remove the noise in the image signal. The Altera's CycloneIII EP3C25Q240C8 field programmable gate array (FPGA) is adopted as the core control device in the imaging system to write the driver, which is modularly designed and portable as well. The simulation and measurement show that the drive circuit works normally to satisfy the requirement of systematic design.

  1. Design of a Motorcycle Composite Swing-Arm by Means of Multi-objective Optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airoldi, Alessandro; Bertoli, Simone; Lanzi, Luca; Sirna, Marco; Sala, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    A study for the replacement of a metallic swing-arm of a high performance motorcycle with a composite part is presented. Considering the high structural effectiveness of the original metallic component, the case study evaluates the potential of composites in a challenging application. The FE model of the original component is developed to evaluate the structural performance in the most significant load conditions. A manufacturing process, based on a RTM technique, is proposed and analysed in order to develop realistic design hypotheses. The design approach is based on an optimisation process with 60 design variables. A constrained multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to identify the solutions representing the best trade-off between mass reduction and improvement of torsional stiffness. Results show that composite materials can enhance the structural efficiency of the original metallic part, even considering technological limitations and damage tolerance requirements.

  2. A software framework for microarray and gene expression object model (MAGE-OM) array design annotation

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Matloob; Ivens, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    Background The MIAME and MAGE-OM standards defined by the MGED society provide a specification and implementation of a software infrastructure to facilitate the submission and sharing of data from microarray studies via public repositories. However, although the MAGE object model is flexible enough to support different annotation strategies, the annotation of array descriptions can be complex. Results We have developed a graphical Java-based application (Adamant) to assist with submission of Microarray designs to public repositories. Output of the application is fully compliant with the standards prescribed by the various public data repositories. Conclusion Adamant will allow researchers to annotate and submit their own array designs to public repositories without requiring programming expertise, knowledge of the MAGE-OM or XML. The application has been used to submit a number of ArrayDesigns to the Array Express database. PMID:18366695

  3. On the Design of a Parallel Object-Oriented Data Mining Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C.; Cantu-Paz, E.

    2000-05-17

    As data mining techniques are applied to ever larger data sets, it is becoming clear that parallel processors will play an important role in reducing the turn around time for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the design of a parallel object-oriented toolkit for mining scientific data sets. After a brief discussion of our design goals, we describe our overall system design that uses data mining to find useful information in raw data in an iterative and interactive manner. Using decision trees as an example, we illustrate how the need to support flexibility and extensibility can make the parallel implementation of our algorithms very challenging. As this is work in progress, we also describe the solution approaches we are considering to address these challenges.

  4. Design of polarized infrared athermal telephoto objective for penetrating the fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Duorui; Fu, Qiang; Zhao, Zhao; Zhao, Bin; Zhong, Lijun; Zhan, Juntong

    2014-11-01

    Polarized infrared imaging technology is a new detection technique which own the ability of spying through the fog, highlighting the target and recognizing the forgeries, these characters make it a good advantage of increasing the work distance in the fog. Compared to the traditional infrared imaging method, polarized infrared imaging can identify the background and target easily, that is the most distinguishing feature of polarized infrared imaging technology. Owning to the large refractive index of the infrared material, temperature change will bring defocus seriously, athermal infrared objective is necessarily. On the other hand, athermal objective has large total length, and hard to be integrated for their huge volume. However telephoto objective has the character of small volume and short total length. The paper introduce a method of polarized and athermal infrared telephoto objective which can spy the fog. First assign the optical power of the fore group and the rear group on the basis of the principle of telephoto objective, the power of the fore group is positive and the rear group is negative; then distribute the optical power within each group to realize the ability of athermalization, finally computer-aided software is used to correct aberration. In order to prove the feasibility of the scheme, an athermal optical system was designed by virtue of ZEMAX software which works at 8~12 µm, the focal length of 150mm, F number is 2, and total length of the telephoto objective is 120mm. The environment temperature analysis shows that the optical system have stable imaging quality, MTF is close to diffraction limit. This telephoto objective is available for infrared polarized imaging.

  5. Building a Tool for Cost-Based Design of Object-Oriented Database Schemas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskup, Joachim; Menzel, Ralf

    In the traditional waterfall approach for building a software application, the phases of requirements analysis, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance follow one another. Aiming at the efficiency of a database application, we see that the outcome of the implementation phase decisively determines how much time the execution of queries and updates requires and how much space is needed to store the application data. But, these costs of the application result from decisions made not only in the implementation phase but also before that during the design phase. In this paper, we describe a tool to support the cost-based design of database applications. Based on earlier research where we designed a cost-model for an abstract object-oriented database machine, the tool shall provide its user with cost estimates during the design phase. We discuss which modifications and additions to our cost-model we use to build the tool. Specifically, we portray how we adapt the tool to a concrete DBMS. After picturing a design process that employs our tool, we conclude by assessing the achievements of the present work and how we benefited from our earlier underlying research.

  6. Multi-objective experimental design for (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouvin, Jeroen; Cajot, Simon; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Ampofo-Asiama, Jerry; Anné, Jozef; Van Impe, Jan; Geeraerd, Annemie; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2015-10-01

    (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis is an excellent technique to resolve fluxes in the central carbon metabolism but costs can be significant when using specialized tracers. This work presents a framework for cost-effective design of (13)C-tracer experiments, illustrated on two different networks. Linear and non-linear optimal input mixtures are computed for networks for Streptomyces lividans and a carcinoma cell line. If only glucose tracers are considered as labeled substrate for a carcinoma cell line or S. lividans, the best parameter estimation accuracy is obtained by mixtures containing high amounts of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose combined with uniformly labeled glucose. Experimental designs are evaluated based on a linear (D-criterion) and non-linear approach (S-criterion). Both approaches generate almost the same input mixture, however, the linear approach is favored due to its low computational effort. The high amount of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose in the optimal designs coincides with a high experimental cost, which is further enhanced when labeling is introduced in glutamine and aspartate tracers. Multi-objective optimization gives the possibility to assess experimental quality and cost at the same time and can reveal excellent compromise experiments. For example, the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% position one labeled glutamine and the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% uniformly labeled glutamine perform equally well for the carcinoma cell line, but the first mixture offers a decrease in cost of $ 120 per ml-scale cell culture experiment. We demonstrated the validity of a multi-objective linear approach to perform optimal experimental designs for the non-linear problem of (13)C-metabolic flux analysis. Tools and a workflow are provided to perform multi-objective design. The effortless calculation of the D-criterion can be exploited to perform high-throughput screening of possible (13)C-tracers, while the illustrated benefit of multi-objective

  7. A multi-objective model for designing a group layout of a dynamic cellular manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, Reza; Shirazi, Hossein; Javadian, Nikbakhsh; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming model to design a group layout of a cellular manufacturing system in a dynamic environment, in which the number of cells to be formed is variable. Cell formation (CF) and group layout (GL) are concurrently made in a dynamic environment by the integrated model, which incorporates with an extensive coverage of important manufacturing features used in the design of CMSs. Additionally, there are some features that make the presented model different from the previous studies. These features include the following: (1) the variable number of cells, (2) the integrated CF and GL decisions in a dynamic environment by a multi-objective mathematical model, and (3) two conflicting objectives that minimize the total costs (i.e., costs of intra and inter-cell material handling, machine relocation, purchasing new machines, machine overhead, machine processing, and forming cells) and minimize the imbalance of workload among cells. Furthermore, the presented model considers some limitations, such as machine capability, machine capacity, part demands satisfaction, cell size, material flow conservation, and location assignment. Four numerical examples are solved by the GAMS software to illustrate the promising results obtained by the incorporated features.

  8. ROSE: The Design of a General Tool for the Independent Optimization of Object-Oriented Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.; Philip, B.; Quinlan, D.

    1999-05-18

    ROSE represents a programmable preprocessor for the highly aggressive optimization of C++ object-oriented frameworks. A fundamental feature of ROSE is that it preserves the semantics, the implicit meaning, of the object-oriented framework's abstractions throughout the optimization process, permitting the framework's abstractions to be recognized and optimizations to capitalize upon the added value of the framework's true meaning. In contrast, a C++ compiler only sees the semantics of the C++ language and thus is severely limited in what optimizations it can introduce. The use of the semantics of the framework's abstractions avoids program analysis that would be incapable of recapturing the framework's full semantics from those of the C++ language implementation of the application or framework. Just as no level of program analysis within the C++ compiler would not be expected to recognize the use of adaptive mesh refinement and introduce optimizations based upon such information. Since ROSE is programmable, additional specialized program analysis is possible which then compliments the semantics of the framework's abstractions. Enabling an optimization mechanism to use the high level semantics of the framework's abstractions together with a programmable level of program analysis (e.g. dependence analysis), at the level of the framework's abstractions, allows for the design of high performance object-oriented frameworks with uniquely tailored sophisticated optimizations far beyond the limits of contemporary serial F0RTRAN 77, C or C++ language compiler technology. In short, faster, more highly aggressive optimizations are possible. The resulting optimizations are literally driven by the framework's definition of its abstractions. Since the abstractions within a framework are of third party design the optimizations are similarly of third party design, specifically independent of the compiler and the applications that use the framework. The interface to ROSE is

  9. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multiobjective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems.

  10. The Implementation of Satellite Attitude Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, W. Mark; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom; Anderson, Mark O.; Drury, Derek

    1998-01-01

    NASA established the Small Explorer (SNMX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions. The SMEX program has produced five satellites, three of which have been successfully launched. The remaining two spacecraft are scheduled for launch within the coming year. NASA has recently developed a prototype for the next generation Small Explorer spacecraft (SMEX-Lite). This paper describes the object-oriented design (OOD) of the SMEX-Lite Attitude Control System (ACS) software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. This paper first describes high level requirements governing the SMEX-Lite ACS software architecture. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will also discuss the design of several ACS software components. Specifically, object-oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude determination, attitude control, and failure detection. Finally, this paper will address the establishment of the ACS Foundation Class (AFC) Library. The AFC is a large software repository, requiring a minimal amount of code modifications to produce ACS software for future projects.

  11. Time and frequency constrained sonar signal design for optimal detection of elastic objects.

    PubMed

    Hamschin, Brandon; Loughlin, Patrick J

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the task of model-based transmit signal design for optimizing detection is considered. Building on past work that designs the spectral magnitude for optimizing detection, two methods for synthesizing minimum duration signals with this spectral magnitude are developed. The methods are applied to the design of signals that are optimal for detecting elastic objects in the presence of additive noise and self-noise. Elastic objects are modeled as linear time-invariant systems with known impulse responses, while additive noise (e.g., ocean noise or receiver noise) and acoustic self-noise (e.g., reverberation or clutter) are modeled as stationary Gaussian random processes with known power spectral densities. The first approach finds the waveform that preserves the optimal spectral magnitude while achieving the minimum temporal duration. The second approach yields a finite-length time-domain sequence by maximizing temporal energy concentration, subject to the constraint that the spectral magnitude is close (in a least-squares sense) to the optimal spectral magnitude. The two approaches are then connected analytically, showing the former is a limiting case of the latter. Simulation examples that illustrate the theory are accompanied by discussions that address practical applicability and how one might satisfy the need for target and environmental models in the real-world. PMID:23556586

  12. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems. Two assumptions are frequently made to simplify the modeling of an interplanetary high-thrust trajectory during the preliminary design phase. The first assumption is that because the available thrust is high, any maneuvers performed by the spacecraft can be modeled as discrete changes in velocity. This assumption removes the need to integrate the equations of motion governing the motion of a spacecraft under thrust and allows the change in velocity to be modeled as an impulse and the expenditure of propellant to be modeled using the time-independent solution to Tsiolkovsky's rocket equation [1]. The second assumption is that the spacecraft moves primarily under the influence of the central body, i.e. the sun, and all other perturbing forces may be neglected in preliminary design. The path of the spacecraft may then be modeled as a series of conic sections. When a spacecraft performs a close

  13. Multi-objective design of fuzzy logic controller in supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    Unlike commonly used methods, in this paper, we have introduced a new approach for designing fuzzy controllers. In this approach, we have simultaneously optimized both objective functions of a supply chain over a two-dimensional space. Then, we have obtained a spectrum of optimized points, each of which represents a set of optimal parameters which can be chosen by the manager according to the importance of objective functions. Our used supply chain model is a member of inventory and order-based production control system family, a generalization of the periodic review which is termed `Order-Up-To policy.' An auto rule maker, based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, has been applied to the experimental initial fuzzy rules. According to performance measurement, our results indicate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  14. KUIPER BELT OBJECT OCCULTATIONS: EXPECTED RATES, FALSE POSITIVES, AND SURVEY DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerton, S. J.; Welch, D. L.; Kavelaars, J. J. E-mail: welch@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2009-05-15

    A novel method of generating artificial scintillation noise is developed and used to evaluate occultation rates and false positive rates for surveys probing the Kuiper Belt with the method of serendipitous stellar occultations. A thorough examination of survey design shows that (1) diffraction-dominated occultations are critically (Nyquist) sampled at a rate of 2 Fsu{sup -1}, corresponding to 40 s{sup -1} for objects at 40 AU, (2) occultation detection rates are maximized when targets are observed at solar opposition, (3) Main Belt asteroids will produce occultations light curves identical to those of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) if target stars are observed at solar elongations of: 116{sup 0} {approx}< {epsilon} {approx}< 125 deg., or 131 deg. {approx}< {epsilon} {approx}< 141 deg., and (4) genuine KBO occultations are likely to be so rare that a detection threshold of {approx}>7-8{sigma} should be adopted to ensure that viable candidate events can be disentangled from false positives.

  15. The Degree of Applying the Theoretical Frameworks of Child-Raising Specialty Courses in the Field of Training among the Female Students of Princess Alia University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweeikat, Mashhour Mohammad; AL-Kaddah, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying to what extent the female students in Child Education department at Princess Alia University College manage to apply the theoretical part in field training program. The data, which is the scope of this study, consists of 42 staff members and 36 educational supervisors responsible for the program. The two researchers…

  16. The role of object representation in the design of the intelligent radiology workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Macura, K. J.; Macura, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the design of the Intelligent Radiology Workstation (IRW) that is intended to handle heterogeneous radiologic data (text, image, video) and radiologic knowledge in such a way that it is easy to store, access, use, and repurpose. An object-based structure is used to combine the relational database, hybrid knowledge base, and hypermedia within a common framework. Functions such as data entry and retrieval, browsing, and intelligent processing of data are available in the single environment. IRW open architecture allows radiologic digital resources to be used for clinical practice, diagnosis support, education, and research. PMID:7950058

  17. Design and implementation of distributed multimedia surveillance system based on object-oriented middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuesong; Jiang, Ling; Hu, Ruimin

    2006-10-01

    Currently, the applications of surveillance system have been increasingly widespread. But there are few surveillance platforms that can meet the requirement of large-scale, cross-regional, and flexible surveillance business. In the paper, we present a distributed surveillance system platform to improve safety and security of the society. The system is constructed by an object-oriented middleware called as Internet Communications Engine (ICE). This middleware helps our platform to integrate a lot of surveillance resource of the society and accommodate diverse range of surveillance industry requirements. In the follow sections, we will describe in detail the design concepts of system and introduce traits of ICE.

  18. Optimal Design of Groundwater Remediation Problems under Uncertainty Using Probabilistic Multi-objective Evolutionary Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Wu, J.

    2011-12-01

    The previous work in the field of multi-objective optimization under uncertainty has concerned with the probabilistic multi-objective algorithm itself, how to effectively evaluate an estimate of uncertain objectives and identify a set of reliable Pareto optimal solutions. However, the design of a robust and reliable groundwater remediation system encounters major difficulties owing to the inherent uncertainty of hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity (K). Thus, we need to make reduction of uncertainty associated with the site characteristics of the contaminated aquifers. In this study, we first use the Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGSIM) to generate 1000 conditional realizations of lnK based on the sampled conditioning data acquired by field test. It is worthwhile to note that the cost for field test often weighs heavily upon the remediation cost and must thus be taken into account in the tradeoff between the solution reliability and remedial cost optimality. In this situation, we perform Monte Carlo simulation to make an uncertainty analysis of lnK realizations associated with the different number of conditioning data points. The results indicate that the uncertainty of the site characteristics and the contaminant concentration output from transport model is decreasing and then tends toward stabilization with the increase of conditioning data. This study presents a probabilistic multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (PMOEA) that integrates noisy genetic algorithm (NGA) and probabilistic multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The evident difference between deterministic MOGA and probabilistic MOGA is the use of probabilistic Pareto domination ranking and niche technique to ensure that each solution found is most reliable and robust. The proposed algorithm is then evaluated through a synthetic pump-and-treat (PAT) groundwater remediation test case. The 1000 lnK realizations generated by SGSIM with appropriate number of conditioning data (30

  19. Pattern recognition with composite correlation filters designed with multi-object combinatorial optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, Abdul; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Cuevas, Andres; Kober, Vitaly; Trujillo, Leonardo

    2014-10-23

    Composite correlation filters are used for solving a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. These filters are given by a combination of several training templates chosen by a designer in an ad hoc manner. In this work, we present a new approach for the design of composite filters based on multi-objective combinatorial optimization. Given a vast search space of training templates, an iterative algorithm is used to synthesize a filter with an optimized performance in terms of several competing criteria. Furthermore, by employing a suggested binary-search procedure a filter bank with a minimum number of filters can be constructed, for a prespecified trade-off of performance metrics. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed method in recognizing geometrically distorted versions of a target in cluttered and noisy scenes are discussed and compared in terms of recognition performance and complexity with existing state-of-the-art filters.

  20. Pattern recognition with composite correlation filters designed with multi-object combinatorial optimization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Awwal, Abdul; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Cuevas, Andres; Kober, Vitaly; Trujillo, Leonardo

    2014-10-23

    Composite correlation filters are used for solving a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. These filters are given by a combination of several training templates chosen by a designer in an ad hoc manner. In this work, we present a new approach for the design of composite filters based on multi-objective combinatorial optimization. Given a vast search space of training templates, an iterative algorithm is used to synthesize a filter with an optimized performance in terms of several competing criteria. Furthermore, by employing a suggested binary-search procedure a filter bank with a minimum number of filters can be constructed, formore » a prespecified trade-off of performance metrics. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed method in recognizing geometrically distorted versions of a target in cluttered and noisy scenes are discussed and compared in terms of recognition performance and complexity with existing state-of-the-art filters.« less

  1. Pattern recognition with composite correlation filters designed with multi-objective combinatorial optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Cuevas, Andres; Kober, Vitaly; Trujillo, Leonardo; Awwal, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Composite correlation filters are used for solving a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. These filters are given by a combination of several training templates chosen by a designer in an ad hoc manner. In this work, we present a new approach for the design of composite filters based on multi-objective combinatorial optimization. Given a vast search space of training templates, an iterative algorithm is used to synthesize a filter with an optimized performance in terms of several competing criteria. Moreover, by employing a suggested binary-search procedure a filter bank with a minimum number of filters can be constructed, for a prespecified trade-off of performance metrics. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed method in recognizing geometrically distorted versions of a target in cluttered and noisy scenes are discussed and compared in terms of recognition performance and complexity with existing state-of-the-art filters.

  2. Utilizing object-oriented design to build advanced optimization strategies with generic implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, M.S.; Hart, W.E.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Romero, V.J.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    the benefits of applying optimization to computational models are well known, but their range of widespread application to date has been limited. This effort attempts to extend the disciplinary areas to which optimization algorithms may be readily applied through the development and application of advanced optimization strategies capable of handling the computational difficulties associated with complex simulation codes. Towards this goal, a flexible software framework is under continued development for the application of optimization techniques to broad classes of engineering applications, including those with high computational expense and nonsmooth, nonconvex design space features. Object-oriented software design with C++ has been employed as a tool in providing a flexible, extensible, and robust multidisciplinary toolkit with computationally intensive simulations. In this paper, demonstrations of advanced optimization strategies using the software are presented in the hybridization and parallel processing research areas. Performance of the advanced strategies is compared with a benchmark nonlinear programming optimization.

  3. Structural Model Tuning Capability in an Object-Oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Shun-fat; Pak, Chan-gi

    2008-01-01

    Updating the finite element model using measured data is a challenging problem in the area of structural dynamics. The model updating process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of dynamic properties of structures. Accurate rigid body dynamics are important for flight control system design and aeroelastic trim analysis. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. In this research, a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool is introduced to optimize the objective function and constraints such that the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes are matched to the target data as well as the mass matrix being orthogonalized.

  4. Structural Model Tuning Capability in an Object-Oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Shun-fat; Pak, Chan-gi

    2008-01-01

    Updating the finite element model using measured data is a challenging problem in the area of structural dynamics. The model updating process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of dynamic properties of structures. Accurate rigid body dynamics are important for flight control system design and aeroelastic trim analysis. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. In this research, a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tool is introduced to optimize the objective function and constraints such that the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes are matched to the target data as well as the mass matrix being orthogonalized.

  5. Optomechanical design and tolerance of a microscope objective at 121.6 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, Derek S.; Jota, Thiago S.; Gao, Weichuan; Luepke, Dakota; Densmore, Victor; Kim, Young-Sik; Kim, Gun-Hee; Milster, Thomas D.

    2015-08-01

    By utilizing the Hydrogen-Lyman-α (HLA) source at 121.6 nm, we hope to achieve an intrinsic resolution of 247 nm at 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) and 92 nm at 0.8 NA. The motivation for 121.6 nm microscopy is the existence of a transparent window in the air absorption spectrum at that wavelength, which allows for the sample to be in air while the microscope is in an enclosed nitrogen environment. The microscope objective consists of two reflective optics and a LiF window, and it has been designed to demonstrate diffraction limited performance over a 160μm full field at 121.6 nm. The optomechanical design consists of mechanical subcells for each optical component, precision spacers and a barrel bore, which allow for submicron control of tolerance parameters.

  6. A possibilistic approach to rotorcraft design through a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Han Gil

    Most of the engineering design processes in use today in the field may be considered as a series of successive decision making steps. The decision maker uses information at hand, determines the direction of the procedure, and generates information for the next step and/or other decision makers. However, the information is often incomplete, especially in the early stages of the design process of a complex system. As the complexity of the system increases, uncertainties eventually become unmanageable using traditional tools. In such a case, the tools and analysis values need to be "softened" to account for the designer's intuition. One of the methods that deals with issues of intuition and incompleteness is possibility theory. Through the use of possibility theory coupled with fuzzy inference, the uncertainties estimated by the intuition of the designer are quantified for design problems. By involving quantified uncertainties in the tools, the solutions can represent a possible set, instead of a crisp spot, for predefined levels of certainty. From a different point of view, it is a well known fact that engineering design is a multi-objective problem or a set of such problems. The decision maker aims to find satisfactory solutions, sometimes compromising the objectives that conflict with each other. Once the candidates of possible solutions are generated, a satisfactory solution can be found by various decision-making techniques. A number of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) have been developed, and can be found in the literature, which are capable of generating alternative solutions and evaluating multiple sets of solutions in one single execution of an algorithm. One of the MOEA techniques that has been proven to be very successful for this class of problems is the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) which falls under the dominance-based category of methods. The Pareto dominance that is used in SPEA, however, is not enough to account for the

  7. Design notes for the next generation persistent object manager for CAP

    SciTech Connect

    Isely, M.; Fischler, M.; Galli, M.

    1995-05-01

    The CAP query system software at Fermilab has several major components, including SQS (for managing the query), the retrieval system (for fetching auxiliary data), and the query software itself. The central query software in particular is essentially a modified version of the `ptool` product created at UIC (University of Illinois at Chicago) as part of the PASS project under Bob Grossman. The original UIC version was designed for use in a single-user non-distributed Unix environment. The Fermi modifications were an attempt to permit multi-user access to a data set distributed over a set of storage nodes. (The hardware is an IBM SP-x system - a cluster of AIX POWER2 nodes with an IBM-proprietary high speed switch interconnect). Since the implementation work of the Fermi-ized ptool, the CAP members have learned quite a bit about the nature of queries and where the current performance bottlenecks exist. This has lead them to design a persistent object manager that will overcome these problems. For backwards compatibility with ptool, the ptool persistent object API will largely be retained, but the implementation will be entirely different.

  8. Representing and Extracting Lung Cancer Study Metadata: Study Objective and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gathright, Jean I.; Oh, Andrea; Abarca, Phillip A.; Han, Mary; Sago, William; Spiegel, Marshall L.; Wolf, Brian; Garon, Edward B.; Bui, Alex A.T.; Aberle, Denise R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the information retrieval step in Casama (Contextualized Semantic Maps), a project that summarizes and contextualizes current research articles on driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. Casama’s representation of lung cancer studies aims to capture elements that will assist an end-user in retrieving studies and, importantly, judging their strength. This paper focuses on two types of study metadata: study objective and study design. 430 abstracts on EGFR and ALK mutations in lung cancer were annotated manually. Casama’s support vector machine (SVM) automatically classified the abstracts by study objective with as much as 129% higher F-scores compared to PubMed’s built-in filters. A second SVM classified the abstracts by epidemiological study design, suggesting strength of evidence at a more granular level than in previous work. The classification results and the top features determined by the classifiers suggest that this scheme would be generalizable to other mutations in lung cancer, as well as studies on driver mutations in other cancer domains. PMID:25618216

  9. Representing and extracting lung cancer study metadata: study objective and study design.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gathright, Jean I; Oh, Andrea; Abarca, Phillip A; Han, Mary; Sago, William; Spiegel, Marshall L; Wolf, Brian; Garon, Edward B; Bui, Alex A T; Aberle, Denise R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the information retrieval step in Casama (Contextualized Semantic Maps), a project that summarizes and contextualizes current research papers on driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. Casama׳s representation of lung cancer studies aims to capture elements that will assist an end-user in retrieving studies and, importantly, judging their strength. This paper focuses on two types of study metadata: study objective and study design. 430 abstracts on EGFR and ALK mutations in lung cancer were annotated manually. Casama׳s support vector machine (SVM) automatically classified the abstracts by study objective with as much as 129% higher F-scores compared to PubMed׳s built-in filters. A second SVM classified the abstracts by epidemiological study design, suggesting strength of evidence at a more granular level than in previous work. The classification results and the top features determined by the classifiers suggest that this scheme would be generalizable to other mutations in lung cancer, as well as studies on driver mutations in other cancer domains. PMID:25618216

  10. Object oriented design (OOD) in real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Joe; Richard, Henri; Lowman, Alan; Youngren, Rob

    2006-05-01

    Using Object Oriented Design (OOD) concepts in AMRDEC's Hardware-in-the Loop (HWIL) real-time simulations allows the user to interchange parts of the simulation to meet test requirements. A large-scale three-spectral band simulator connected via a high speed reflective memory ring for time-critical data transfers to PC controllers connected by non real-time Ethernet protocols is used to separate software objects from logical entities close to their respective controlled hardware. Each standalone object does its own dynamic initialization, real-time processing, and end of run processing; therefore it can be easily maintained and updated. A Resource Allocation Program (RAP) is also utilized along with a device table to allocate, organize, and document the communication protocol between the software and hardware components. A GUI display program lists all allocations and deallocations of HWIL memory and hardware resources. This interactive program is also used to clean up defunct allocations of dead processes. Three examples are presented using the OOD and RAP concepts. The first is the control of an ACUTRONICS built three-axis flight table using the same control for calibration and real-time functions. The second is the transportability of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulation from an Onyx residence to a Linux-PC. The third is the replacement of the 6-DOF simulation with a replay program to drive the facility with archived run data for demonstration or analysis purposes.

  11. System design and improvement of an emergency department using Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goienetxea Uriarte, A.; Ruiz Zúñiga, E.; Urenda Moris, M.; Ng, A. H. C.

    2015-05-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is nowadays widely used to support decision makers in system analysis and improvement. However, the use of simulation for improving stochastic logistic processes is not common among healthcare providers. The process of improving healthcare systems involves the necessity to deal with trade-off optimal solutions that take into consideration a multiple number of variables and objectives. Complementing DES with Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) creates a superior base for finding these solutions and in consequence, facilitates the decision-making process. This paper presents how SMO has been applied for system improvement analysis in a Swedish Emergency Department (ED). A significant number of input variables, constraints and objectives were considered when defining the optimization problem. As a result of the project, the decision makers were provided with a range of optimal solutions which reduces considerably the length of stay and waiting times for the ED patients. SMO has proved to be an appropriate technique to support healthcare system design and improvement processes. A key factor for the success of this project has been the involvement and engagement of the stakeholders during the whole process.

  12. Multi-objective optimization design and experimental investigation of centrifugal fan performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Songling; Hu, Chenxing; Zhang, Qian

    2013-11-01

    Current studies of fan performance optimization mainly focus on two aspects: one is to improve the blade profile, and another is only to consider the influence of single impeller structural parameter on fan performance. However, there are few studies on the comprehensive effect of the key parameters such as blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width on the fan performance. The G4-73 backward centrifugal fan widely used in power plants is selected as the research object. Based on orthogonal design and BP neural network, a model for predicting the centrifugal fan performance parameters is established, and the maximum relative errors of the total pressure and efficiency are 0.974% and 0.333%, respectively. Multi-objective optimization of total pressure and efficiency of the fan is conducted with genetic algorithm, and the optimum combination of impeller structural parameters is proposed. The optimized parameters of blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width are seperately 14, 43.9°, and 21 cm. The experiments on centrifugal fan performance and noise are conducted before and after the installation of the new impeller. The experimental results show that with the new impeller, the total pressure of fan increases significantly in total range of the flow rate, and the fan efficiency is improved when the relative flow is above 75%, also the high efficiency area is broadened. Additionally, in 65% -100% relative flow, the fan noise is reduced. Under the design operating condition, total pressure and efficiency of the fan are improved by 6.91% and 0.5%, respectively. This research sheds light on the considering of comprehensive effect of impeller structrual parameters on fan performance, and a new impeller can be designed to satisfy the engineering demand such as energy-saving, noise reduction or solving air pressure insufficiency for power plants.

  13. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES OF THE SINGLE CELL TEST SYSTEM FOR SO2 DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J

    2007-01-15

    The single cell test system development for the SRNL sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer has been completed. Operating experience and improved operating procedures were developed during test operations in FY06 and the first quarter of FY07. Eight different cell configurations, using various MEA designs, have been tested. The single cell test electrolyzer has been modified to overcome difficulties experienced during testing, including modifications to the inlet connection to eliminate minute acid leaks that caused short circuits. The test facility was modified by adding a water bath for cell heating, thus permitting operation over a wider range of flowrates and cell temperatures. Modifications were also identified to permit continuous water flushing of the cathode to remove sulfur, thus extending operating time between required shutdowns. This is also expected to permit a means of independently measuring the rate of sulfur formation, and the corresponding SO{sub 2} flux through the membrane. This report contains a discussion of the design issues being addressed by the single cell test program, a test matrix being conducted to address these issues, and a summary of the performance objectives for the single cell test system. The current primary objective of single cell test system is to characterize and qualify electrolyzer configurations for the following 100-hour longevity tests. Although the single cell test system development is considered complete, SRNL will continue to utilize the test facility and the single cell electrolyzer to measure the operability and performance of various cell design configurations, including new MEA's produced by the component development tasks.

  14. The Implementation of Satellite Control System Software Using Object Oriented Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark O.; Reid, Mark; Drury, Derek; Hansell, William; Phillips, Tom

    1998-01-01

    NASA established the Small Explorer (SMEX) program in 1988 to provide frequent opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive space science missions that can be launched into low earth orbit by small expendable vehicles. The development schedule for each SMEX spacecraft was three years from start to launch. The SMEX program has produced five satellites; Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST), Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE). SAMPEX and FAST are on-orbit, TRACE is scheduled to be launched in April of 1998, WIRE is scheduled to be launched in September of 1998, and SWAS is scheduled to be launched in January of 1999. In each of these missions, the Attitude Control System (ACS) software was written using a modular procedural design. Current program goals require complete spacecraft development within 18 months. This requirement has increased pressure to write reusable flight software. Object-Oriented Design (OOD) offers the constructs for developing an application that only needs modification for mission unique requirements. This paper describes the OOD that was used to develop the SMEX-Lite ACS software. The SMEX-Lite ACS is three-axis controlled, momentum stabilized, and is capable of performing sub-arc-minute pointing. The paper first describes the high level requirements which governed the architecture of the SMEX-Lite ACS software. Next, the context in which the software resides is explained. The paper describes the benefits of encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism with respect to the implementation of an ACS software system. This paper will discuss the design of several software components that comprise the ACS software. Specifically, Object-Oriented designs are presented for sensor data processing, attitude control, attitude determination and failure detection. The paper addresses

  15. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project. PMID:26528815

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for Cooling Unit of Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J. W.; Yu, C. G.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the performance of cooling units for automotive thermoelectric generators, a study is carried out to optimize the cold side and the fin distributions arranged on its inner faces. Based on the experimental measurements and numerical simulations, a response surface model of different internal structures is built to analyze the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of fluid flow in the cooling unit. For the fin distributions, five independent variables including height, length, thickness, space and distance from walls are considered. An experimental study design incorporating the central composite design method is used to assess the influence of fin distributions on the temperature field and the pressure drop in the cooling units. The archive-based micro genetic algorithm (AMGA) is used for multi-objective optimization to analyze the sensitivity of the design variables and to build a database from which to construct the surrogate model. Finally, improvement measures are proposed for optimization of the cooling system and guidelines are provided for future research.

  17. Design of Frame-transferred Surface Array CCD Imaging System for Dark Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-heng; Yan, Yi-hua

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the requirement of low-noise observations of dark objects in deep-space explorations, the design method for a simple and stable space camera imaging system is proposed in this paper. Based on the back-illuminated frame-transferred surface array CCD (CCD47-20AIMO) produced by the British E2V company, the circuitry design is given for the every part of the system. In which the applications of the correlated double-sampling analog-digital converter (AD) and the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) can effectively suppress the correlated noise in the image signal. In addition, a drive control method favorable to the adjustment of exposure time is proposed, in the light-sensing stage it provides the exposure time with an independent and adjustable time delay to make the imaging system satisfy the requirement of long exposure time setting. The imaging system adopts the Cyclone III-series EP3C25Q240C8 field programable gate array produced by the Altera company as the kernel control device, and the drives are programmed in modules according to the function of the every device, in favor of transplantation. The simulative and experimental results indicate that the drive circuitry works normally, and that the system design can satisfy the preset requirement.

  18. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project. PMID:26528815

  19. Power and Propulsion System Design for Near-Earth Object Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Landau, Damon F.; Bury, Kristen M.; Malone, Shane P.; Hickman, Tyler A.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are exciting targets for exploration; they are relatively easy to reach but relatively little is known about them. With solar electric propulsion, a vast number of interesting NEOs can be reached within a few years and with extensive flexibility in launch date. An additional advantage of electric propulsion for these missions is that a spacecraft can be small, enabling a fleet of explorers launched on a single vehicle or as secondary payloads. Commercial, flight-proven Hall thruster systems have great appeal based on their performance and low cost risk, but one issue with these systems is that the power processing units (PPUs) are designed for regulated spacecraft power architectures which are not attractive for small NEO missions. In this study we consider the integrated design of power and propulsion systems that utilize the capabilities of existing PPUs in an unregulated power architecture. Models for solar array and engine performance are combined with low-thrust trajectory analyses to bound spacecraft design parameters for a large class of NEO missions, then detailed array performance models are used to examine the array output voltage and current over a bounded mission set. Operational relationships between the power and electric propulsion systems are discussed, and it is shown that both the SPT-100 and BPT-4000 PPUs can perform missions over a solar range of 0.7 AU to 1.5 AU - encompassing NEOs, Venus, and Mars - within their operable input voltage ranges. A number of design trades to control the array voltage are available, including cell string layout, array offpointing during mission operations, and power draw by the Hall thruster system.

  20. Object-oriented design: Deriving conceptual solutions to large-scale information processing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    The Vertical Integration of Science, Technology, and Applications (VISTA) Project is a long-term effort conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) directed toward accelerating the process of making research results (data, models, advanced concepts) usable and available to R D applications. The initial goal of the program is to develop a software-based information system to guide the assessment and remediation process for hazardous waste sites at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The information system will link users (DOE, laboratories, and remediation contractors) to computer models and technical data available at PNL, to speed up the remediation process, while decreasing costs and accelerating the deployment of new technologies. This report describes a methodology used to design components of the VISTA information system based on an object-oriented computing model. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  2. Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study in China: Objectives, Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Xu, Jie; Wang, Anxing; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Wei, Wen Bin; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The population-based “Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study was designed to examine prevalence and associations of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities (APA) in a general population. In this report, the objectives, design and baseline data of the APAC study are described. Methods The study included 5,440 participants (40.1% women) with an age of 40+ years who were randomly selected from the population of the Kailuan Study which included 101,510 employees and retirees of the Kailuan Co. Ltd, a large coal mine industry located in Tangshan, Hebei, China. Exclusion criteria were previous cerebral stroke, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease. In 2010 and 2011, information on potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all participants underwent transcranial Doppler sonography, measurement of the ankle brachial index, and bilateral carotid duplex sonography. In a first follow-up examination in 2012/2013, retinal photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were additionally performed. In a planned long-term follow-up, data from clinical examinations and laboratory tests and the occurrence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events will be collected to build up a predicting model for the risk of ischemic events. Results At baseline, mean age of the participants was 55.2±11.8 years, and men showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence of arterial hypertension (55.5% vs. 36.5%) and hyperlipidemia (50.7% vs. 46.0%) and a higher blood homocysteine concentration (18.68±10.28µmol/L versus 11.69±6.40µmol/L). Conclusions The APAC is the first study to prospectively evaluate the relationship between intracranial arterial stenosis, retinal nerve fiber layer changes, retinal microvascular signs, and the eventual development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events. PMID:24386406

  3. On the design and implementation of a parallel, object-oriented, image processing toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Baldwin, C; Fodor, I; Tang, N A

    2000-06-22

    Advanced in technology have enabled us to collect data from observations, experiments, and simulations at an ever increasing pace. As these data sets approach the terabyte and petabyte range, scientists are increasingly using semi-automated techniques from data mining and pattern recognition to find useful information in the data. In order for data mining to be successful, the raw data must first be processed into a form suitable for the detection of patterns. When the data is in the form of images, this can involve a substantial amount of processing on very large data sets. To help make this task more efficient, they are designing and implementing an object-oriented image processing toolkit that specifically targets massively-parallel, distributed-memory architectures. They first show that it is possible to use object-oriented technology to effectively address the diverse needs of image applications. Next, they describe how we abstract out the similarities in image processing algorithms to enable re-use in the software. They will also discuss the difficulties encountered in parallelizing image algorithms on massively parallel machines as well as the bottlenecks to high performance. They will demonstrate the work using images from an astronomical data set, and illustrate how techniques such as filters and denoising through the thresholding of wavelet coefficients can be applied when a large image is distributed across several processors.

  4. Design and implementation of a parallel object-oriented image processing toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, Chandrika; Baldwin, Chuck H.; Fodor, Imola K.; Tang, Nu A.

    2000-10-01

    Advances in technology have enabled us to collect data from observations, experiments, and simulations at an ever increasing pace. As these data sets approach the terabyte and petabyte range, scientists are increasingly using semi-automated techniques from data mining and pattern recognition to find useful information in the data. In order for data mining to be successful, the raw data must first be processed into a form suitable for the detection of patterns. When the data is in the form of images, this can involve a substantial amount of processing on very large data sets. To help make this task more efficient, we are designing and implementing an object-oriented image processing toolkit that specifically targets massively-parallel, distributed-memory architectures. We first show that it is possible to use object-oriented technology to effectively address the diverse needs of image applications. Next, we describe how we abstract out the similarities in image processing algorithms to enable re-use in our software. We will also discuss the difficulties encountered in parallelizing image algorithms on the massively parallel machines as well as the bottlenecks to high performance. We will demonstrate our work using images from an astronomical data set, and illustrate how techniques such as filters and denoising through the thresholding of wavelet coefficients can be applied when a large image is distributed across several processors.

  5. Recovery Act: Multi-Objective Optimization Approaches for the Design of Carbon Geological Sequestration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, Domenico

    2013-05-31

    The main objective of this project is to provide training opportunities for two graduate students in order to improve the human capital and skills required for implementing and deploying carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The graduate student effort will be geared towards the formulation and implementation of an integrated simulation-optimization framework to provide a rigorous scientific support to the design CCS systems that, for any given site: (a) maximize the amount of carbon storage; (b) minimize the total cost associated with the CCS project; (c) minimize the risk of CO2 upward leakage from injected formations. The framework will stem from a combination of data obtained from geophysical investigations, a multiphase flow model, and a stochastic multi-objective optimization algorithm. The methodology will rely on a geostatistical approach to generate ensembles of scenarios of the parameters that are expected to have large sensitivities and uncertainties on the model response and thus on the risk assessment, in particular the permeability properties of the injected formation and its cap rock. The safety theme will be addressed quantitatively by including the risk of CO2 upward leakage from the injected formations as one the objectives that should be minimized in the optimization problem. The research performed under this grant is significant to academic researchers and professionals weighing the benefits, costs, and risks of CO2 sequestration. Project managers in initial planning stages of CCS projects will be able to generate optimal tradeoff surfaces and with corresponding injection plans for potential sequestration sites leading to cost efficient preliminary project planning. In addition, uncertainties concerning CCS have been researched. Uncertainty topics included Uncertainty Analysis of Continuity of Geological Confining Units using Categorical Indicator Kriging (CIK) and the Influence of Uncertain Parameters on the Leakage of CO2 to

  6. Enhancing Interactivity and Productivity through Object-Oriented Authoring: An Instructional Designer's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Bryan L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the effect of object-oriented programming on the evolution of authoring systems. Topics include the definition of an object; examples of object-oriented authoring interfaces; what object-orientation means to an instructional developer; how object orientation increases productivity and enhances interactivity; and the future of courseware…

  7. A web-based medical safety reporting system for a large multicenter clinical trial - The ALIAS experience

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenle; Waldman, Bonnie D.; Dillon, Catherine; Pauls, Keith; Kim, Jaemyung; Patterson, Lynn; Ginsberg, Myron D.; Hill, Michael D.; Palesch, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    An Electronic Safety Reporting (ESR) module was developed and integrated into a home-grown web-based Clinical Trial Management System (CTMS) to enhance the efficiency, completeness and consistency of reporting and reviewing serious adverse events, monitoring safety, and submitting safety reports to regulatory authorities for a large multicenter clinical trial. The architecture of this integrated module provided many advantages. First, the ESR module was developed based on a comprehensive procedure which incorporated both computer logic processing steps and human intervention steps in order to deal with the complex and unexpected situations where pre-programmed computer logic may fail. Secondly, safety and efficacy data were managed within the same relational database. Relevant data captured on efficacy case report forms, such as demographics, medical history, lab data and concomitant medications, were directly retrievable for MedWatch report composition without requiring redundant data entry. Finally, the ESR module shared the same generic user interfaces and data processing functions with other modules in the CTMS. These generic components include data editing, data retrieving, data reporting, dictionary-based automatic and interactive coding, event driven and calendar driven automatic email notifications, and user privilege management. This integrated ESR module was implemented in the Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Trial - Part 1. A total of 397 serious adverse event reports were processed and 33 FDA MedWatch reports, 28 initial reports, and 5 follow-up reports were submitted to FDA and Health Canada using this system. Experiences and lessons learned from the development and implementation of this system are presented in this paper. PMID:20828636

  8. A web-based medical safety reporting system for a large multicenter clinical trial: the ALIAS experience.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenle; Waldman, Bonnie D; Dillon, Catherine; Pauls, Keith; Kim, Jaemyung; Patterson, Lynn; Ginsberg, Myron D; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko

    2010-11-01

    An electronic safety reporting (ESR) module was developed and integrated into a home-grown web-based clinical trial management system (CTMS) to enhance the efficiency, completeness and consistency of reporting and reviewing serious adverse events, monitoring safety, and submitting safety reports to regulatory authorities for a large multicenter clinical trial. The architecture of this integrated module provided many advantages. First, the ESR module was developed based on a comprehensive procedure which incorporated both computer logic processing steps and human intervention steps in order to deal with the complex and unexpected situations where pre-programmed computer logic may fail. Second, safety and efficacy data were managed within the same relational database. Relevant data captured on efficacy case report forms, such as demographics, medical history, lab data and concomitant medications, were directly retrievable for MedWatch report composition without requiring redundant data entry. Finally, the ESR module shared the same generic user interfaces and data processing functions with other modules in the CTMS. These generic components include data editing, data retrieving, data reporting, dictionary-based automatic and interactive coding, event-driven and calendar-driven automatic email notifications, and user privilege management. This integrated ESR module was implemented in the Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Trial-Part 1. A total of 397 serious adverse event reports were processed and 33 FDA MedWatch reports, 28 initial reports, and 5 follow-up reports were submitted to FDA and Health Canada using this system. Experiences and lessons learned from the development and implementation of this system are presented in this paper. PMID:20828636

  9. The Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study: objectives, design, and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Hartert, Tina V; Deng, Xinqing; Hartman, Terryl J; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jin, Meiling; Bai, Chunxue; Gross, Myron; Roberts, L Jackson; Sheller, James R; Christman, John; Dupont, William; Griffin, Marie; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-06-01

    The Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study is the first population-based incidence study designed to assess the associations of dietary antioxidant intake and measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity with development of adult-onset asthma and allergic rhinitis. A total of 65,732 participants in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing cohort study in seven districts of Shanghai, People's Republic of China, were recruited to the Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study from 2003 to 2007. Dietary intake was assessed in the parent study by using a validated and quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline recruitment and at the first biennial follow-up survey. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure baseline oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nutrient levels at the baseline survey. Incident asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed by using a modification of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire during the biennial in-person survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by either methacholine challenge testing or test of reversibility to beta-agonists. Dietary antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and urinary isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress, were measured prior to disease onset. This paper describes the study objectives, design, population demographics, and recruitment results. PMID:18397914

  10. A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics as Quality Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which we empirically investigated the suits of object-oriented (00) design metrics introduced in another work. More specifically, our goal is to assess these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes and, therefore, determine whether they can be used as early quality indicators. This study is complementary to the work described where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known 00 analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on empirical and quantitative analysis, the advantages and drawbacks of these 00 metrics are discussed. Several of Chidamber and Kamerer's 00 metrics appear to be useful to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. Also, on our data set, they are better predictors than 'traditional' code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes.

  11. Subjective and objective rating of spectrally different pseudorandom noises--implications for speech masking design.

    PubMed

    Hongisto, Valtteri; Oliva, David; Rekola, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Artificial sound masking is increasingly used in open-plan offices to improve speech privacy and to reduce distraction caused by speech sounds. Most of the masking sounds are based on pseudorandom continuous noise filtered to a specific spectrum that should be optimized in respect with speech masking efficiency and comfort. The aim of this study was to increase basic understanding regarding the comfort. The second aim was to determine how well objective rating methods (15 different noise indices) predict the subjective ratings. Twenty-three subjects rated the loudness, disturbance, pleasantness, and six other subjective measures of 11 spectrally different noises in laboratory conditions. Speech was not present during the experiment. All sounds were presented at 42 dB LAeq within 50-10,000 Hz. Unexpectedly, the subjects were most satisfied with sounds having emphasis on low frequencies. A sound having a slope of -7 dB per octave increment resulted in the highest satisfaction. Changes in subjective ratings were reasonably well predicted by five noise indices, while many well-known noise indices frequently used in building design underperformed in this task. The results are expected to benefit in the design of masking sounds and other appliances. PMID:25786947

  12. The Shanghai Women’s Asthma and Allergy Study: Objectives, Design, and Recruitment Results

    PubMed Central

    Hartert, Tina V.; Deng, Xinqing; Hartman, Terryl J.; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jin, Meiling; Bai, Chunxue; Gross, Myron; Roberts, L. Jackson; Sheller, James R.; Christman, John; Dupont, William; Griffin, Marie; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-01-01

    The Shanghai Women’s Asthma and Allergy Study is the first population-based incidence study designed to assess the associations of dietary antioxidant intake and measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity with development of adult-onset asthma and allergic rhinitis. A total of 65,732 participants in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, an ongoing cohort study in seven districts of Shanghai, People’s Republic of China, were recruited to the Shanghai Women’s Asthma and Allergy Study from 2003 to 2007. Dietary intake was assessed in the parent study by using a validated and quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline recruitment and at the first biennial follow-up survey. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure baseline oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nutrient levels at the baseline survey. Incident asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed by using a modification of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire during the biennial in-person survey of the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by either methacholine challenge testing or test of reversibility to beta-agonists. Dietary antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and urinary isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress, were measured prior to disease onset. This paper describes the study objectives, design, population demographics, and recruitment results. PMID:18397914

  13. Achieving diverse and monoallelic olfactory receptor selection through dual-objective optimization design.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens; Xing, Jianhua

    2016-05-24

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and constructed a comprehensive model that has all its components based on physical interactions. Analyzing the model reveals an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic barrier crossing coupled to a negative feedback loop that mechanistically differs from previous theoretical proposals, and a previously unidentified enhancer competition step. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression, and has multiple predictions validated by existing experimental results. Through making an analogy to a physical system with thermally activated barrier crossing and comparative reverse engineering analyses, the study reveals that the olfactory receptor selection system is optimally designed, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle for multiobjective optimization in biology. PMID:27162367

  14. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design objectives for equipment to control releases of..., Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals; Form; Contents; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.34a Design...) An application for a construction permit shall include a description of the preliminary design...

  15. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: scientific objectives and experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, as well as their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP examines the consistency of model predictions in simulating Pliocene climate and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved by geological climate archives. Here we provide a description of the aim and objectives of the next phase of the model intercomparison project (PlioMIP Phase 2), and we present the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilized for climate model experiments in Phase 2. Following on from PlioMIP Phase 1, Phase 2 will continue to be a mechanism for sampling structural uncertainty within climate models. However, Phase 1 demonstrated the requirement to better understand boundary condition uncertainties as well as uncertainty in the methodologies used for data-model comparison. Therefore, our strategy for Phase 2 is to utilize state-of-the-art boundary conditions that have emerged over the last 5 years. These include a new palaeogeographic reconstruction, detailing ocean bathymetry and land-ice surface topography. The ice surface topography is built upon the lessons learned from offline ice sheet modelling studies. Land surface cover has been enhanced by recent additions of Pliocene soils and lakes. Atmospheric reconstructions of palaeo-CO2 are emerging on orbital timescales, and these are also incorporated into PlioMIP Phase 2. New records of surface and sea surface temperature change are being produced that will be more temporally consistent with the boundary conditions and forcings used within models. Finally we have designed a suite of prioritized experiments that tackle issues surrounding the basic understanding of the Pliocene and its relevance in the context of future climate change in a discrete way.

  16. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: Scientific Objectives and Experimental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, as well as their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP examines the consistency of model predictions in simulating Pliocene climate and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved by geological climate archives. Here we provide a description of the aim and objectives of the next phase of the model intercomparison project (PlioMIP Phase 2), and we present the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilized for climate model experiments in Phase 2. Following on from PlioMIP Phase 1, Phase 2 will continue to be a mechanism for sampling structural uncertainty within climate models. However, Phase 1 demonstrated the requirement to better understand boundary condition uncertainties as well as uncertainty in the methodologies used for data-model comparison. Therefore, our strategy for Phase 2 is to utilize state-of-the-art boundary conditions that have emerged over the last 5 years. These include a new palaeogeographic reconstruction, detailing ocean bathymetry and land-ice surface topography. The ice surface topography is built upon the lessons learned from offline ice sheet modelling studies. Land surface cover has been enhanced by recent additions of Pliocene soils and lakes. Atmospheric reconstructions of palaeo-CO2 are emerging on orbital timescales, and these are also incorporated into PlioMIP Phase 2. New records of surface and sea surface temperature change are being produced that will be more temporally consistent with the boundary conditions and forcings used within models. Finally we have designed a suite of prioritized experiments that tackle issues surrounding the basic understanding of the Pliocene and its relevance in the context of future climate change in a discrete way.

  17. An optical spectrograph design for a new-generation multiple object Doppler instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes an optical spectrograph design for the W.M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker (ET) multi-object Doppler radial velocity instrument. The Keck ET is currently installed at the Sloan 2.5m telescope (Ge et al. this proceedings), and is capable of simultaneously monitoring 60 stars with high precision for a planet survey. The spectrograph consists of an entrance slit, collimator optics, a Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating, camera optics and a 4kx4k CCD camera, and provides a spectral resolution of R =5000, with a 180 mm diameter collimated beam. The collimator and camera optics (300 mm largest diameter) are made of two standard optical grade glasses: BK7 and F2, respectively. The spectrograph is transmissive and optimized for delivering high throughput and high image quality over the entire operation bandwidth: 500-590 nm. The f/4 input beams from the Keck ET interferometer are converted to f/1.5 beams on the detector by this spectrograph, and form 60 stellar fringe spectra.

  18. The Impact of Ada and Object-Oriented Design in NASA Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon; Bailey, John; Stark, Mike

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights and key findings of 10 years of use and study of Ada and object-oriented design in NASA Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). In 1985, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) began investigating how the Ada language might apply to FDD software development projects. Although they began cautiously using Ada on only a few pilot projects, they expected that, if the Ada pilots showed promising results, the FDD would fully transition its entire development organization from FORTRAN to Ada within 10 years. However, 10 years later, the FDD still produced 80 percent of its software in FORTRAN and had begun using C and C++, despite positive results on Ada projects. This paper presents the final results of a SEL study to quantify the impact of Ada in the FDD, to determine why Ada has not flourished, and to recommend future directions regarding Ada. Project trends in both languages are examined as are external factors and cultural issues that affected the infusion of this technology. The detailed results of this study were published in a formal study report in March of 1995. This paper supersedes the preliminary results of this study that were presented at the Eighteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop in 1993.

  19. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model for Densified Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Md. S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for longhaul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus is not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  20. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model For Densified Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Md S. Roni; Sandra Eksioglu; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for long-haul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus in not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  1. Object-Oriented/Data-Oriented Design of a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been much progress towards improved phenomenological modeling and algorithmic updates for the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which provides a probabilistic physical simulation of gas Rows. These improvements have largely been based on the work of the originator of the DSMC method, Graeme Bird. Of primary importance are improved chemistry, internal energy, and physics modeling and a reduction in time to solution. These allow for an expanded range of possible solutions In altitude and velocity space. NASA's current production code, the DSMC Analysis Code (DAC), is well-established and based on Bird's 1994 algorithms written in Fortran 77 and has proven difficult to upgrade. A new DSMC code is being developed in the C++ programming language using object-oriented and data-oriented design paradigms to facilitate the inclusion of the recent improvements and future development activities. The development efforts on the new code, the Multiphysics Algorithm with Particles (MAP), are described, and performance comparisons are made with DAC.

  2. StarView: The object oriented design of the ST DADS user interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. D.; Pollizzi, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    StarView is the user interface being developed for the Hubble Space Telescope Data Archive and Distribution Service (ST DADS). ST DADS is the data archive for HST observations and a relational database catalog describing the archived data. Users will use StarView to query the catalog and select appropriate datasets for study. StarView sends requests for archived datasets to ST DADS which processes the requests and returns the database to the user. StarView is designed to be a powerful and extensible user interface. Unique features include an internal relational database to navigate query results, a form definition language that will work with both CRT and X interfaces, a data definition language that will allow StarView to work with any relational database, and the ability to generate adhoc queries without requiring the user to understand the structure of the ST DADS catalog. Ultimately, StarView will allow the user to refine queries in the local database for improved performance and merge in data from external sources for correlation with other query results. The user will be able to create a query from single or multiple forms, merging the selected attributes into a single query. Arbitrary selection of attributes for querying is supported. The user will be able to select how query results are viewed. A standard form or table-row format may be used. Navigation capabilities are provided to aid the user in viewing query results. Object oriented analysis and design techniques were used in the design of StarView to support the mechanisms and concepts required to implement these features. One such mechanism is the Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm. The MVC allows the user to have multiple views of the underlying database, while providing a consistent mechanism for interaction regardless of the view. This approach supports both CRT and X interfaces while providing a common mode of user interaction. Another powerful abstraction is the concept of a Query Model. This

  3. Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

    2009-04-01

    important feedbacks of potential ecological change be on biogeochemical cycles? What are the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine life and what will the influence of anthropogenic change be? We will outline a set of science objectives and observation parameters to be collected at all ESONET sites, as well as a set of rather specific objectives and thus parameters that might only be measured at some sites. We will also present the preliminary module specifications now being considered by ESONET. In a practical sense the observatory design has been divided into those that will be included in a so called ‘generic' module and those that will be part of science-specific modules. Outlining preliminary module specifications is required to move forward with studies of observatory design and operation. These specifications are importantly provisional and can be updated as science needs and feasibility change. A functional cleavage not only comes between aspects that are considered generic or specific, but also the settings in which those systems will be used. For example, some modules will be on the seabed and some will be moored in the water column. In order to address many of the questions posed above ESONET users will require other supporting data from other programs from local to international levels. Examples of these other data sources include satellite oceanographic data, climatic data, air-sea interface data, and the known distribution and abundances of marine fauna. Thus the connection of ESONET to other programs is integral to its success. The development of ESONET provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Furthermore, ESONET and several other developing ocean observatory programs are integrating into larger science frameworks including the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programs. It is only in a greater integrated framework that the full

  4. Integrating an object system into CLIPS: Language design and implementation issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auburn, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the reasons why an object system with integrated pattern-matching and object-oriented programming facilities is desirable for CLIPS and how it is possible to integrate such a system into CLIPS while maintaining the run-time performance and the low memory usage for which CLIPS is known. The requirements for an object system in CLIPS that includes object-oriented programming and integrated pattern-matching are discussed and various techniques for optimizing the object system and its integration with the pattern-matcher are presented.

  5. Impact of science objectives and requirements on probe mission and system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledbetter, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    Problem areas in probe science technology are discussed that require a solution before probe systems can actually be designed. Considered are the effects of the model atmospheres on probe design; secondly, the effects of implementing the requirements to locate and measure the clouds and, trade-offs between descent sampling and measurement criteria as they affect probe system design.

  6. Aspects of Applying AN Object Oriented Design to a Small Satellite Flight Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Ulrich; Baetz, Bastian; Klinkner, Sabine; Eickhoff, Jens

    2015-09-01

    As part of the small satellite program at the Institute of Space Systems at the University of Stuttgart, an object oriented flight software was developed. This paper details aspects encountered during the development and experiences gained. It shows that object orientation might be a valuable tool in the development of future complex and autonomous flight software.

  7. How to Combine Objectives and Methods of Evaluation in Iterative ILE Design: Lessons Learned from Designing Ambre-Add

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogry, S.; Jean-Daubias, S.; Guin, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with evaluating an interactive learning environment (ILE) during the iterative-design process. Various aspects of the system must be assessed and a number of evaluation methods are available. In designing the ILE Ambre-add, several techniques were combined to test and refine the system. In particular, we point out the merits of…

  8. The five elements process: designing optimal landscapes to meet bird conservation objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Will, T.C.; Ruth, J.M.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Krueper, D.; Hahn, D.; Fitzgerald, J.; Dettmers, R.; Beardmore, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004 at Port Aransas, Texas, Partners in Flight (PIF) and representatives from the other NABCI bird initiative met to discuss the process of stepping down PIF continental population objectives (Rich et al. 2004) to regional and local scales. Participants also discussed rolling up local population estimates and targets to assess the feasibility of the landscape changes necessary to meet continental objectives. Since the process of stepping-down/rolling-up population objectives shifts focus from identifying priority species to formulating quantitative estimates of how much habitat was needed, where, and by when the Port Aransas group called the stepping-down/rolling-up process a??stepping forward.a?? Participants agreed that stepping forward objectives was the beginning of an inevitably iterative dialog necessary to evaluate the assumptions of PIF population estimates and objectives as well as the methods used to monitor local implementation. To facilitate the translation of continental population objectives into biologically sound, measurable regional and local population-based habitat targets the Port Aransas group recommended a process no commonly referred to as the Five Elements Processa?|

  9. Multi-objective design of vehicle suspension systems via a local diffusion genetic algorithm for disjoint Pareto frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Mohamed F.; Nassef, Ashraf O.; Hamza, Karim

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a multi-objective design optimization study of a vehicle suspension system with passive variable stiffness and active damping. Design of suspension systems is particularly challenging when the effective mass of the vehicle is subject to considerable variation during service. Perfectly maintaining the suspension performance under the variable load typically requires a controlled actuator to emulate variable stiffness. This is typically done through a hydraulic or pneumatic system, which can be too costly for small/medium pick-up trucks. The system in this article employs two springs with an offset to the second spring so that it engages during large deformation only, thereby providing passive variable stiffness without expensive hydraulics. The system damping is assumed to be controlled via variable viscosity magnetizable fluid, which can be implemented in a compact, low-power set-up. Performance indices from the literature are evaluated at minimum and maximum weight, and regarded as objectives in a multi-objective problem. As the individual objectives are prone to having local optima, the multi-objective problem is prone to having a disjointed Pareto-space. To deal with this issue, a modification is proposed to a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The algorithm performance is investigated via analytical test functions as well as the design case of the suspension system.

  10. Human factors issues in the design of stereo-rendered photorealistic objects: a stereoscopic Turing test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, Collin D.; Clewlow, John C.; Kessel, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    We present visual acuity metrics, human factors issues, and technical considerations in the construction of a stereorendered reality test in the spirit of the Turing test, Alan Turing's famous artificial intelligence test designed to explore the boundaries between human and machine interaction. The overall aim of this work is to provide guiding principles in the design of a stereoscopic reality test.

  11. Integration of multi-objective structural optimization into cementless hip prosthesis design: Improved Austin-Moore model.

    PubMed

    Kharmanda, G

    2016-11-01

    A new strategy of multi-objective structural optimization is integrated into Austin-Moore prosthesis in order to improve its performance. The new resulting model is so-called Improved Austin-Moore. The topology optimization is considered as a conceptual design stage to sketch several kinds of hollow stems according to the daily loading cases. The shape optimization presents the detailed design stage considering several objectives. Here, A new multiplicative formulation is proposed as a performance scale in order to define the best compromise between several requirements. Numerical applications on 2D and 3D problems are carried out to show the advantages of the proposed model. PMID:27028554

  12. The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) Phase 2: Scientific objectives and experimental design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Rowley, David; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Chandler, Mark A.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Finally we have designed a suite of prioritized experiments that tackle issues surrounding the basic understanding of the Pliocene and its relevance in the context of future climate change in a discrete way.

  13. PROCESS DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE FRAMEWORK UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing chemical processes for environment requires consideration of several indexes of environmental impact including ozone depletion and global warming potentials, human and aquatic toxicity, and photochemical oxidation, and acid rain potentials. Current methodologies like t...

  14. Applying Formal Methods and Object-Oriented Design to Existing Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Betty; Auernheimer, Brent

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a project appling formal methods to a portion of the shuttle on-orbit digital autopilot (DAP). Three objectives of the project were to: demonstrate the use of formal methods on a shuttle application, facilitate the incorporation and validation of new requirements for the system, and verify the safety-critical properties to be exhibited by the software.

  15. Four Strategies for Designing Instruction for Diverse Cultures: Context and Localization of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiel, Tel; Squires, Josh; Orey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    E-learning promises to reach a more heterogeneous student body comprised of non-traditional learners. As educational institutions reach out to new students, serious concern must be paid to cultural concerns and individual differences. Learning objects provide a framework to think about localizing educational content. The authors provide an…

  16. Learning Mathematics by Designing, Programming, and Investigating with Interactive, Dynamic Computer-Based Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Neil; Buteau, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    As part of their undergraduate mathematics curriculum, students at Brock University learn to create and use computer-based tools with dynamic, visual interfaces, called Exploratory Objects, developed for the purpose of conducting pure or applied mathematical investigations. A student's Development Process Model of creating and using an Exploratory…

  17. Policy as Boundary Object: A New Way to Look at Educational Policy Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emad, Gholamreza; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-01-01

    Policy implementation research in general and educational policy in particular is loosely connected to policy-making processes. There is a gap particularly in the field of vocational education. This often leads to conflicts and contradictions between policy-maker objectives and end-user implementation. To avoid such a disconnect, the relation…

  18. Designing Learning Object Repositories as Systems for Managing Educational Communities Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Demetrios G.; Zervas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs) have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their…

  19. Design and Use of a Learning Object for Finding Complex Polynomial Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Julio; Gimenez, Marcos H.; Hueso, Jose L.; Martinez, Eulalia; Riera, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Complex numbers are essential in many fields of engineering, but students often fail to have a natural insight of them. We present a learning object for the study of complex polynomials that graphically shows that any complex polynomials has a root and, furthermore, is useful to find the approximate roots of a complex polynomial. Moreover, we…

  20. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  1. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and educational…

  2. Comparing Infants' Use of Featural and Spatiotemporal Information in an Object Individuation Task Using a New Event-Monitoring Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krojgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Discussions have recently taken place on whether spatiotemporal information is more important than featural information when infants attempt to individuate objects. Hitherto, spatiotemporal and featural information have only been compared directly by using cognitively demanding "event-mapping" designs" (e.g. Xu & Carey, 1996 ), whereas the simpler…

  3. Teacher-Directed Software Design: The Development of Learning Objects for Students with Special Needs in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie; Miller, Darcy; Robinson, LeAnne

    2003-01-01

    Working with special education teachers in elementary settings student instructional designers created three instructional tools based on the concept of "Learning Objects." Graduate and undergraduate students under the supervision of two faculty members in their university's Department of Teaching and Learning worked with local teachers to produce…

  4. Robust design of multiple trailing edge flaps for helicopter vibration reduction: A multi-objective bat algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Rajnish; Ganguli, Ranjan; Seetharama Bhat, M.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine an optimal trailing edge flap configuration and flap location to achieve minimum hub vibration levels and flap actuation power simultaneously. An aeroelastic analysis of a soft in-plane four-bladed rotor is performed in conjunction with optimal control. A second-order polynomial response surface based on an orthogonal array (OA) with 3-level design describes both the objectives adequately. Two new orthogonal arrays called MGB2P-OA and MGB4P-OA are proposed to generate nonlinear response surfaces with all interaction terms for two and four parameters, respectively. A multi-objective bat algorithm (MOBA) approach is used to obtain the optimal design point for the mutually conflicting objectives. MOBA is a recently developed nature-inspired metaheuristic optimization algorithm that is based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. It is found that MOBA inspired Pareto optimal trailing edge flap design reduces vibration levels by 73% and flap actuation power by 27% in comparison with the baseline design.

  5. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Applications for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals;...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the Criterion âAs Low as is Reasonably Achievableâ for Radioactive Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix I to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the Criterion âAs Low as is Reasonably Achievableâ for Radioactive Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents I Appendix I to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and...

  10. Design of anamorphic magnification high-numerical aperture objective for extreme ultraviolet lithography by curvatures combination method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yanqiu; Cao, Zhen

    2016-06-20

    An anamorphic magnification extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic objective could increase the size of the exposure field at a wafer in the orthogonal scanning direction to improve the throughput of the lithographic system. In this paper, we present a curvatures combination method for an anamorphic magnification EUV lithographic objective with high numerical aperture (NA). This method achieves an anamorphic magnification initial structure by use of the double-curvature surfaces, which are formed by combining the curvatures of the corresponding surfaces into two coaxial spherical systems. A series of control measures is taken to design the two coaxial spherical systems for ensuring the rationalities of the initial structure and the surfaces after combining. The image quality of the anamorphic initial structure is optimized by a gradual optimization process. Finally, as an example, we design an Mx1/4 and My1/8 anamorphic magnification EUV lithographic objective with the presented design method. This objective achieves 0.5 NA and a 26  mm×16.5  mm exposure field at the wafer. The wavefront error RMS reaches 0.06λ (λ=13.5  nm), and the distortion is less than 2.8 nm. The design result proves the availability of the curvatures combination method. PMID:27409118

  11. 40 CFR 33.406 - May a recipient designate a lead agency for fair share objective negotiation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.406 May a... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May a recipient designate a lead...

  12. Analyzing Accessibility Dimension of Urban Quality of Life: Where Urban Designers Face Duality between Subjective and Objective Reading of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotfi, Sedigheh; Koohsari, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of urban quality of life and the promotion of its concept in particular, has always been the central focus of urban designers. This term is a multi-conceptual and dimensions. However most of the scholars have agreed that the concept consisted from two main dimensions; objective and subjective which these two approaches are used for its…

  13. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and...

  14. Design and fabrication of a miniature objective consisting of high refractive index zinc sulfide lenses for laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadfan, Adam; Pawlowski, Michal; Wang, Ye; Subramanian, Kaushik; Gabay, Ilan; Ben-Yakar, Adela; Tkaczyk, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    A miniature laser ablation probe relying on an optical fiber to deliver light requires a high coupling efficiency objective with sufficient magnification in order to provide adequate power and field for surgery. A diffraction-limited optical design is presented that utilizes high refractive index zinc sulfide to meet specifications while reducing the miniature objective down to two lenses. The design has a hypercentric conjugate plane on the fiber side and is telecentric on the tissue end. Two versions of the objective were built on a diamond lathe-a traditional cylindrical design and a custom-tapered mount. Both received an antireflective coating. The objectives performed as designed in terms of observable resolution and field of view as measured by imaging a 1951 USAF resolution target. The slanted edge technique was used to find Strehl ratios of 0.75 and 0.78, respectively, indicating nearly diffraction-limited performance. Finally, preliminary ablation experiments indicated threshold fluence of gold film was comparable to similar reported probes.

  15. 40 CFR 33.406 - May a recipient designate a lead agency for fair share objective negotiation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.406 May a... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a recipient designate a lead...

  16. 40 CFR 33.406 - May a recipient designate a lead agency for fair share objective negotiation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.406 May a... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May a recipient designate a lead...

  17. 40 CFR 33.406 - May a recipient designate a lead agency for fair share objective negotiation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.406 May a... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May a recipient designate a lead...

  18. 40 CFR 33.406 - May a recipient designate a lead agency for fair share objective negotiation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.406 May a... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May a recipient designate a lead...

  19. Optimal design of groundwater remediation system using a probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiankun; Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Yun; Qian, Jiazhong; Wu, Jichun

    2014-11-01

    This study develops a new probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (PMOFHS) for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems under uncertainty associated with the hydraulic conductivity (K) of aquifers. The PMOFHS integrates the previously developed deterministic multi-objective optimization method, namely multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (MOFHS) with a probabilistic sorting technique to search for Pareto-optimal solutions to multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy hydrogeological environment arising from insufficient K data. The PMOFHS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to identify the optimal design of groundwater remediation systems for a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem and a three-dimensional Indiana field application involving two objectives: (i) minimization of the total remediation cost through the engineering planning horizon, and (ii) minimization of the mass remaining in the aquifer at the end of the operational period, whereby the pump-and-treat (PAT) technology is used to clean up contaminated groundwater. Also, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Comprehensive analysis indicates that the proposed PMOFHS can find Pareto-optimal solutions with low variability and high reliability and is a potentially effective tool for optimizing multi-objective groundwater remediation problems under uncertainty.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of long-term groundwater monitoring network design using a probabilistic Pareto genetic algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiankun; Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Yun; Qian, Jiazhong; Wu, Jichun

    2016-03-01

    Optimal design of long term groundwater monitoring (LTGM) network often involves conflicting objectives and substantial uncertainty arising from insufficient hydraulic conductivity (K) data. This study develops a new multi-objective simulation-optimization model involving four objectives: minimizations of (i) the total sampling costs for monitoring contaminant plume, (ii) mass estimation error, (iii) the first moment estimation error, and (iv) the second moment estimation error of the contaminant plume, for LTGM network design problems. Then a new probabilistic Pareto genetic algorithm (PPGA) coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed to search for the Pareto-optimal solutions to the multi-objective LTGM problems under uncertainty of the K-fields. The PPGA integrates the niched Pareto genetic algorithm with probabilistic Pareto sorting scheme to deal with the uncertainty of objectives caused by the uncertain K-field. Also, the elitist selection strategy, the operation library and the Pareto solution set filter are conducted to improve the diversity and reliability of Pareto-optimal solutions by the PPGA. Furthermore, the sampling strategy of noisy genetic algorithm is adopted to cope with the uncertainty of the K-fields and improve the computational efficiency of the PPGA. In particular, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in finding Pareto-optimal sampling network designs of LTGM systems through a two-dimensional hypothetical example and a three-dimensional field application in Indiana (USA). Comprehensive analysis demonstrates that the proposed PPGA can find Pareto optimal solutions with low variability and high reliability and is a promising tool for optimizing multi-objective LTGM network designs under uncertainty.

  1. Perception Of "Features" And "Objects": Applications To The Design Of Instrument Panel Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poynter, Douglas; Czarnomski, Alan J.

    1988-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether socalled feature displays allow for faster and more accurate processing compared to object displays. Previous psychological studies indicate that features can be processed in parallel across the visual field, whereas objects must be processed one at a time with the aid of attentional focus. Numbers and letters are examples of objects; line orientation and color are examples of features. In this experiment, subjects were asked to search displays composed of up to 16 elements for the presence of specific elements. The ability to detect, localize, and identify targets was influenced by display format. Digital errors increased with the number of elements, the number of targets, and the distance of the target from the fixation point. Line orientation errors increased only with the number of targets. Several other display types were evaluated, and each produced a pattern of errors similar to either digital or line orientation format. Results of the study were discussed in terms of Feature Integration Theory, which distinguishes between elements that are processed with parallel versus serial mechanisms.

  2. A Multi-Objective Advanced Design Methodology of Composite Beam-to-Column Joints Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Pucinotti, Raffaele; Ferrario, Fabio; Bursi, Oreste S.

    2008-07-08

    A multi-objective advanced design methodology dealing with seismic actions followed by fire on steel-concrete composite full strength joints with concrete filled tubes is proposed in this paper. The specimens were designed in detail in order to exhibit a suitable fire behaviour after a severe earthquake. The major aspects of the cyclic behaviour of composite joints are presented and commented upon. The data obtained from monotonic and cyclic experimental tests have been used to calibrate a model of the joint in order to perform seismic simulations on several moment resisting frames. A hysteretic law was used to take into account the seismic degradation of the joints. Finally, fire tests were conducted with the objective to evaluate fire resistance of the connection already damaged by an earthquake. The experimental activity together with FE simulation demonstrated the adequacy of the advanced design methodology.

  3. Multi-objective LQR with optimum weight selection to design FOPID controllers for delayed fractional order processes.

    PubMed

    Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu

    2015-09-01

    An optimal trade-off design for fractional order (FO)-PID controller is proposed with a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) based technique using two conflicting time domain objectives. A class of delayed FO systems with single non-integer order element, exhibiting both sluggish and oscillatory open loop responses, have been controlled here. The FO time delay processes are handled within a multi-objective optimization (MOO) formalism of LQR based FOPID design. A comparison is made between two contemporary approaches of stabilizing time-delay systems withinLQR. The MOO control design methodology yields the Pareto optimal trade-off solutions between the tracking performance and total variation (TV) of the control signal. Tuning rules are formed for the optimal LQR-FOPID controller parameters, using median of the non-dominated Pareto solutions to handle delayed FO processes. PMID:26096954

  4. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a "Data Profiling" Tool for Electronic Health Data.

    PubMed

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a "data profiling" tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool's functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  5. Developing a User Oriented Design Methodology for Learning Activities Using Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragou, ?lga; Kameas, Achilles

    2013-01-01

    International Standards in High and Open and Distance Education are used for developing Open Educational Resources (OERs). Current issues in e-learning community are the specification of learning chunks and the definition of describing designs for different units of learning (activities, units, courses) in a generic though expandable format.…

  6. Prospective Secondary Teachers Repositioning by Designing, Implementing and Testing Mathematics Learning Objects: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgombelo, Joyce R.; Buteau, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual framework developed to illuminate how prospective teachers' learning experiences are shaped by didactic-sensitive activities in departments of mathematics. We draw from the experiences of prospective teachers in the Department of Mathematics at our institution in designing, implementing (i.e. computer…

  7. Learning from and with Museum Objects: Design Perspectives, Environment, and Emerging Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartiainen, Henriikka; Enkenberg, Jorma

    2013-01-01

    Sociocultural approaches emphasize the systemic, context-bound nature of learning, which is mediated by other people, physical and conceptual artifacts, and tools. However, current educational systems tend not to approach learning from the systemic perspective, and mostly situate learning within classroom environments. This design-based research…

  8. Whole Building Design Objectives for Campus Safety and Security: A System Dynamics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Charles G.

    2010-01-01

    The May/June 2009 issue of "Facilities Manager" introduced APPA readers to the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG)--today's most comprehensive Internet-based depository of resources contributing to a systems approach for everything of a building nature. The emphasis in that article was on Operations and Maintenance (O&M) issues and procedures. In…

  9. Dependency-tracking object-oriented multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) formulation on a large-scale system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlqvist, Maria Alexandra

    2001-12-01

    Advances in computer technology and analysis software are making optimization of engineering systems more attractive and affordable than ever before. Optimization is becoming a necessary tool in order for companies to stay competitive. While the concept of optimization has been known almost as long as mankind, specific procedures on how to optimize engineering systems are younger. Currently, efforts are being made to reduce the computational time and simplify the organizational complexity involved with solving multidisciplinary systems. The work presented in this dissertation deals with how an object-oriented, dependency-tracking, demand-driven language can be used in reducing the computational time in performing multidisciplinary design optimizations. The work also discusses how the object-oriented language was used in integrating optimization functionality with a missile design system. The object-oriented dependency-tracking demand-driven language is applied to a large-scale multidisciplinary missile system involving disciplines such as a geometry engine, weight analysis, propulsion, aerodynamics, trajectory analysis, and cost analysis. Also discussed is the need for using approximations in optimizing a large-scale system. Designed experiments and response surface techniques were employed in creating approximation models for the problem at hand. Using these approximations to evaluate the responses was found to be useful at points in the design space where one or more responses could not otherwise be evaluated. Different optimization schemes were studied including response surface analysis of different resolutions in conjunction with higher fidelity optimization and higher fidelity optimization without approximation models. The contributions of this work are the application of MDO capabilities to a large-scale missile design system modeled in an object-oriented dependency-tracking environment, the use of response surface approximations to fit areas in the design

  10. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. PMID:25916976

  11. Does walkable neighbourhood design influence the association between objective crime and walking?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated associations between objectively measured crime and walking, and findings are mixed. One explanation for null or counterintuitive findings emerges from criminology studies, which indicate that the permeable street layouts and non-residential land uses that underpin walkable neighbourhoods are also associated with more crime. This study examined associations between objective crime and walking, controlling for the characteristics of walkable neighbourhoods. Methods A population representative sample of adults (25–65 years) (n = 3,487) completed the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Survey (2006–2008) demographic and walking frequency items. Objective environmental measures were generated for each participant’s 400 m and 1600 m neighbourhood areas, including burglary, personal crime (i.e., crimes committed against people) in public space, residential density, street connectivity and local destinations. Log-linear negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between crime and walking frequency/week, with progressive adjustment for residential density, street connectivity and local destinations. Results Burglary and personal crime occurring within a participant’s 400 m and 1600 m neighbourhoods were positively and significantly associated with walking frequency. For example, for every additional 10 crimes against the person/year within 400 m of a participant’s home, walking frequency increased by 8% (relative change = 1.077, p = 0.017). Associations remained constant after controlling for residential density and street connectivity, but attenuated after adjusting for local destinations (e.g., for personal crime in 400 m: relative change = 1.054, p = 0.104). This pattern of attenuation was evident across both crime categories and both neighbourhood sizes. Conclusions The observed positive associations between objective crime and walking appear to be a function of

  12. Multi-objective molecular de novo design by adaptive fragment prioritization.

    PubMed

    Reutlinger, Michael; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2014-04-14

    We present the development and application of a computational molecular de novo design method for obtaining bioactive compounds with desired on- and off-target binding. The approach translates the nature-inspired concept of ant colony optimization to combinatorial building block selection. By relying on publicly available structure-activity data, we developed a predictive quantitative polypharmacology model for 640 human drug targets. By taking reductive amination as an example of a privileged reaction, we obtained novel subtype-selective and multitarget-modulating dopamine D4 antagonists, as well as ligands selective for the sigma-1 receptor with accurately predicted affinities. The nanomolar potencies of the hits obtained, their high ligand efficiencies, and an overall success rate of 90 % demonstrate that this ligand-based computer-aided molecular design method may guide target-focused combinatorial chemistry. PMID:24623390

  13. New Exoskeleton Arm Concept Design And Actuation For Haptic Interaction With Virtual Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarov, D.; Veneva, I.; Tsveov, M.; Tiankov, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the work presented in this paper the conceptual design and actuation of one new exoskeleton of the upper limb is presented. The device is designed for application where both motion tracking and force feedback are required, such as human interaction with virtual environment or rehabilitation tasks. The choice is presented of mechanical structure kinematical equivalent to the structure of the human arm. An actuation system is selected based on braided pneumatic muscle actuators. Antagonistic drive system for each joint is shown, using pulley and cable transmissions. Force/displacement diagrams are presented of two antagonistic acting muscles. Kinematics and dynamic estimations are performed of the system exoskeleton and upper limb. Selected parameters ensure in the antagonistic scheme joint torque regulation and human arm range of motion.

  14. Object-oriented design patterns in Fortran 90/95: mazev1, mazev2 and mazev3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decyk, Viktor K.; Gardner, Henry J.

    2008-04-01

    This paper discusses the concept, application, and usefulness of software design patterns for scientific programming in Fortran 90/95. An example from the discipline of object-oriented design patterns, that of a game based on navigation through a maze, is used to describe how some important patterns can be implemented in Fortran 90/95 and how the progressive introduction of design patterns can usefully restructure Fortran software as it evolves. This example is complemented by a discussion of how design patterns have been used in a real-life simulation of Particle-in-Cell plasma physics. The following patterns are mentioned in this paper: Factory, Strategy, Template, Abstract Factory and Facade. Program summaryProgram title: mazev1, mazev2, mazev3 Catalogue identifier: AEAI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1958 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 100 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: Unix/Linux/Mac (FreeBSD)/Windows (Cygwin) RAM: These are interactive programs with small (KB) memory requirements Classification: 6.5, 20 Nature of problem: A sequence of programs which demonstrate the use of object oriented design patterns for the restructuring of Fortran 90/95 software. The programs implement a simple maze game similar to that described in [1]. Solution method: Restructuring uses versions of the Template, Strategy and Factory design patterns. Running time: Interactive. References:E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object Oriented Software, Addison-Wesley, 1995, ISBN 0201633612.

  15. AMR++: A design for parallel object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.

    1997-11-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement computations are complicated by their dynamic nature. In the serial environment they require substantial infrastructures to support the regridding processes, intergrid operations, and local bookkeeping of positions of grids relative to one another. In the parallel environment the dynamic behavior is more problematic because it requires dynamic distribution support and load balancing. Parallel AMR is further complicated by the substantial task parallelism, in addition to the obvious data parallelism, this task parallelism requires additional infrastructure to support efficiently. The degree of parallelism is typically dependent upon the algorithms in use and the equations being solved. Different algorithms have significant compromises between computation and communication. Substantial research work is often required to define efficient methods and suitable infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to introduce AMR++ as an object-oriented library which forms a part of the OVERTURE framework, a much larger object-oriented numerical framework developed and supported at Los Alamos National Laboratory and distributed on the Web for the last several years.

  16. Design of silicone rubber according to requirements based on the multi-objective optimization of chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Yuxi; Sun Sheng; Liu Lili; Mu Yue; An Lijia

    2004-08-16

    The explicit expression between composition and mechanical properties of silicone rubber was derived from the physics of polymer elasticity, the implicit expression among material composition, reaction conditions and reaction efficiency was obtained from chemical thermodynamics and kinetics, and then an implicit multi-objective optimization model was constructed. Genetic algorithm was applied to optimize material composition and reaction conditions, and the finite element method of cross-linking reaction processes was used to solve multi-objective functions, on the basis of which a new optimization methodology of cross-linking reaction processes was established. Using this methodology, rubber materials can be designed according to pre-specified requirements.

  17. The research and design for a high availability object storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Ling; Tan, Zhihu; Gu, Peng; Wan, Jiguang

    2008-12-01

    With the growing scale of the computer storage systems, the likelihood of multi-disk failures happening in the storage systems has increased dramatically. Based on a thorough analysis on the fault-tolerance capability on various existing storage systems, we propose a new hierarchical, highly reliable, multi-disk fault-tolerant storage system architecture: High Availability Object Storage System (HAOSS). In the HAOSS, each object has an attribute field for reliability level, which can be set by the user according to the importance of data. Higher reliability level corresponds to better data survivability in case of multi-device failure. The HAOSS is composed of two layers: the upper-layer and the lower-layer. The upper-layer achieves the high availability by storing multiple replicas for each storage object in a set of storage devices. The individual replicas can service the I/O requests in parallel so as to obtain high performance. The lower-layer deploys RAID5, RAID6 or RAID_Blaum coding schemes to tolerate multi-disk failures. In addition, the disk utilization rate of RAID_Blaum is higher than that of multiple replicas, and it can be further improved by growing the RAID group size. These advantages come at the price of more complicated fault-tolerant coding schemes, which involve a large amount of calculation for encoding and cause an adverse impact on the I/O performance, especially on the write performance. Results from both our internal experiments and third-party independent tests have shown that HAOSS servers have better multi-disk- failure tolerance than existing similar products. In a 1000Mb Ethernet interconnection environment, with a request block size of 1024KB, the sequential read performance for a HAOSS server reaches 104MB/s, which is very close to the theoretical maximum effective bandwidth of Ethernet networks. The HAOSS offers a complete storage solution for high availability applications without the compromises that today's storage systems

  18. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiative Heating Experiment, RHE, aboard the Aeroassist Flight Experiment, AFE, (now cancelled) was to make in-situ measurements of the stagnation region shock layer radiation during an aerobraking maneuver from geosynchronous to low earth orbit. The measurements were to provide a data base to help develop and validate aerothermodynamic computational models. Although cancelled, much work was done to develop the science requirements and to successfully meet RHE technical challenges. This paper discusses the RHE scientific objectives and expected science performance of a small sapphire window for the RHE radiometers. The spectral range required was from 170 to 900 nm. The window size was based on radiometer sensitivity requirements including capability of on-orbit solar calibration.

  19. Studies on Muon Induction Acceleration and an Objective Lens Design for Transmission Muon Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artikova, Sayyora; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Naito, Fujio

    Muon acceleration will be accomplished by a set of induction cells, where each increases the energy of the muon beam by an increment of up to 30 kV. The cells are arranged in a linear way resulting in total accelerating voltage of 300 kV. Acceleration time in the linac is about hundred nanoseconds. Induction field calculation is based on an electrostatic approximation. Beam dynamics in the induction accelerator is investigated and final beam focusing on specimen is realized by designing a pole piece lens.

  20. Applications to engineering design of the general geometry, grid & analysis (GGA) object in DT-NURBES

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.; Ferguson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The DT-NURBS spline geometry subroutine library is a Non-Uniform Rational B-spline library developed with the goal of providing a common mathematical base for integrating geometrically dependent analysis tools with design geometry; and as a tool for use in the development of multi-disciplinary applications. In this paper we will describe the approach taken with the DT-NURBS library, the basic library entities themselves and how they can be used to affect the integration of diverse geometries and analyses.

  1. CCLab--a multi-objective genetic algorithm based combinatorial library design software and an application for histone deacetylase inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guanghua; Xue, Mengzhu; Su, Mingbo; Hu, Dingyu; Li, Yanlian; Xiong, Bing; Ma, Lanping; Meng, Tao; Chen, Yuelei; Li, Jingya; Li, Jia; Shen, Jingkang

    2012-07-15

    The introduction of the multi-objective optimization has dramatically changed the virtual combinatorial library design, which can consider many objectives simultaneously, such as synthesis cost and drug-likeness, thus may increase positive rates of biological active compounds. Here we described a software called CCLab (Combinatorial Chemistry Laboratory) for combinatorial library design based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. Tests of the convergence ability and the ratio to re-take the building blocks in the reference library were conducted to assess the software in silico, and then it was applied to a real case of designing a 5×6 HDAC inhibitor library. Sixteen compounds in the resulted library were synthesized, and the histone deactetylase (HDAC) enzymatic assays proved that 14 compounds showed inhibitory ratios more than 50% against tested 3 HDAC enzymes at concentration of 20 μg/mL, with IC(50) values of 3 compounds comparable to SAHA. These results demonstrated that the CCLab software could enhance the hit rates of the designed library and would be beneficial for medicinal chemists to design focused library in drug development (the software can be downloaded at: http://202.127.30.184:8080/drugdesign.html). PMID:22738629

  2. Designing concept maps for a precise and objective description of pharmaceutical innovations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When a new drug is launched onto the market, information about the new manufactured product is contained in its monograph and evaluation report published by national drug agencies. Health professionals need to be able to determine rapidly and easily whether the new manufactured product is potentially useful for their practice. There is therefore a need to identify the best way to group together and visualize the main items of information describing the nature and potential impact of the new drug. The objective of this study was to identify these items of information and to bring them together in a model that could serve as the standard for presenting the main features of new manufactured product. Methods We developed a preliminary conceptual model of pharmaceutical innovations, based on the knowledge of the authors. We then refined this model, using a random sample of 40 new manufactured drugs recently approved by the national drug regulatory authorities in France and covering a broad spectrum of innovations and therapeutic areas. Finally, we used another sample of 20 new manufactured drugs to determine whether the model was sufficiently comprehensive. Results The results of our modeling led to three sub models described as conceptual maps representingi) the medical context for use of the new drug (indications, type of effect, therapeutical arsenal for the same indications), ii) the nature of the novelty of the new drug (new molecule, new mechanism of action, new combination, new dosage, etc.), and iii) the impact of the drug in terms of efficacy, safety and ease of use, compared with other drugs with the same indications. Conclusions Our model can help to standardize information about new drugs released onto the market. It is potentially useful to the pharmaceutical industry, medical journals, editors of drug databases and medical software, and national or international drug regulation agencies, as a means of describing the main properties of new

  3. Multi-pinhole collimator design for small-object imaging with SiliSPECT: a high-resolution SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokouhi, S.; Metzler, S. D.; Wilson, D. W.; Peterson, T. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a multi-pinhole collimator for a dual-headed, stationary SPECT system that incorporates high-resolution silicon double-sided strip detectors. The compact camera design of our system enables imaging at source-collimator distances between 20 and 30 mm. Our analytical calculations show that using knife-edge pinholes with small-opening angles or cylindrically shaped pinholes in a focused, multi-pinhole configuration in combination with this camera geometry can generate narrow sensitivity profiles across the field of view that can be useful for imaging small objects at high sensitivity and resolution. The current prototype system uses two collimators each containing 127 cylindrically shaped pinholes that are focused toward a target volume. Our goal is imaging objects such as a mouse brain, which could find potential applications in molecular imaging.

  4. Multi-pinhole collimator design for small-object imaging with SiliSPECT: a high-resolution SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi, S; Metzler, S D; Wilson, D W; Peterson, T E

    2010-01-01

    We have designed a multi-pinhole collimator for a dual-headed, stationary SPECT system that incorporates high-resolution silicon double-sided strip detectors. The compact camera design of our system enables imaging at source–collimator distances between 20 and 30 mm. Our analytical calculations show that using knife-edge pinholes with small-opening angles or cylindrically shaped pinholes in a focused, multi-pinhole configuration in combination with this camera geometry can generate narrow sensitivity profiles across the field of view that can be useful for imaging small objects at high sensitivity and resolution. The current prototype system uses two collimators each containing 127 cylindrically shaped pinholes that are focused toward a target volume. Our goal is imaging objects such as a mouse brain, which could find potential applications in molecular imaging. PMID:19088387

  5. Rosetta3: An Object-Oriented Software Suite for the Simulation and Design of Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Tyka, Michael; Lewis, Steven M.; Lange, Oliver F.; Thompson, James; Jacak, Ron; Kaufman, Kristian; Renfrew, P. Douglas; Smith, Colin A.; Sheffler, Will; Davis, Ian W.; Cooper, Seth; Treuille, Adrien; Mandell, Daniel J.; Richter, Florian; Ban, Yih-En Andrew; Fleishman, Sarel J.; Corn, Jacob E.; Kim, David E.; Lyskov, Sergey; Berrondo, Monica; Mentzer, Stuart; Popović, Zoran; Havranek, James J.; Karanicolas, John; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Kortemme, Tanja; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Kuhlman, Brian; Baker, David; Bradley, Philip

    2013-01-01

    We have recently completed a full re-architecturing of the Rosetta molecular modeling program, generalizing and expanding its existing functionality. The new architecture enables the rapid prototyping of novel protocols by providing easy to use interfaces to powerful tools for molecular modeling. The source code of this rearchitecturing has been released as Rosetta3 and is freely available for academic use. At the time of its release, it contained 470,000 lines of code. Counting currently unpublished protocols at the time of this writing, the source includes 1,285,000 lines. Its rapid growth is a testament to its ease of use. This document describes the requirements for our new architecture, justifies the design decisions, sketches out central classes, and highlights a few of the common tasks that the new software can perform. PMID:21187238

  6. ROSETTA3: an object-oriented software suite for the simulation and design of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Tyka, Michael; Lewis, Steven M; Lange, Oliver F; Thompson, James; Jacak, Ron; Kaufman, Kristian; Renfrew, P Douglas; Smith, Colin A; Sheffler, Will; Davis, Ian W; Cooper, Seth; Treuille, Adrien; Mandell, Daniel J; Richter, Florian; Ban, Yih-En Andrew; Fleishman, Sarel J; Corn, Jacob E; Kim, David E; Lyskov, Sergey; Berrondo, Monica; Mentzer, Stuart; Popović, Zoran; Havranek, James J; Karanicolas, John; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Kortemme, Tanja; Gray, Jeffrey J; Kuhlman, Brian; Baker, David; Bradley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We have recently completed a full re-architecturing of the ROSETTA molecular modeling program, generalizing and expanding its existing functionality. The new architecture enables the rapid prototyping of novel protocols by providing easy-to-use interfaces to powerful tools for molecular modeling. The source code of this rearchitecturing has been released as ROSETTA3 and is freely available for academic use. At the time of its release, it contained 470,000 lines of code. Counting currently unpublished protocols at the time of this writing, the source includes 1,285,000 lines. Its rapid growth is a testament to its ease of use. This chapter describes the requirements for our new architecture, justifies the design decisions, sketches out central classes, and highlights a few of the common tasks that the new software can perform. PMID:21187238

  7. Physicochemical design and analysis of self-propelled objects that are characteristically sensitive to environments.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Satoshi; Nagayama, Masaharu; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2015-04-28

    The development of self-propelled motors that mimic biological motors is an important challenge for the transport of either themselves or some material in a small space, since biological systems exhibit high autonomy and various types of responses, such as taxis and swarming. In this perspective, we review non-living systems that behave like living matter. We especially focus on nonlinearity to enhance autonomy and the response of the system, since characteristic nonlinear phenomena, such as oscillation, synchronization, pattern formation, bifurcation, and hysteresis, are coupled to self-motion of which driving force is the difference in the interfacial tension. Mathematical modelling based on reaction-diffusion equations and equations of motion as well as physicochemical analysis from the point of view of the molecular structure are also important for the design of non-living motors that mimic living motors. PMID:25826144

  8. SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer: Science objectives, design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S. V.; Pertsov, A. A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2011-06-01

    The goals and construction details of a new design Polish-led X-ray spectrophotometer are described. The instrument is aimed to observe emission from entire solar corona and is placed as a separate block within the Russian TESIS X- and EUV complex aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON solar orbiting observatory. SphinX uses silicon PIN diode detectors for high time resolution measurements of the solar spectra in the range 0.8-15 keV. Its spectral resolution allows for discerning more than hundred separate energy bands in this range. The instrument dynamic range extends two orders of magnitude below and above these representative for GOES. The relative and absolute accuracy of spectral measurements is expected to be better than few percent, as follows from extensive ground laboratory calibrations.

  9. Design aspects of a solar array drive for spot, with a high platform stability objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabillic, J.; Fournier, J. P.; Anstett, P.; Souliac, M.; Thomin, G.

    1981-01-01

    A solar array drive mechanism (MEGS) for the SPOT platform, which is a prototype of a multimission platform, is described. High-resolution cameras and other optical instruments are carried by the platform, requiring excellent platform stability in order to obtain high-quality pictures. Therefore, a severe requirement for the MEGS is the low level of disturbing torques it may generate considering the 0.6 times 10 to the minus 3 power deg/sec stability required. The mechanical design aspects aiming at reducing the mean friction torque, and therefore its fluctuations, are described as well as the method of compensation of the motor imperfections. It was concluded, however, that this is not sufficient to reach the stability requirement.

  10. Co-ordinated Design of AVR-PSS Using Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvabala, B.; Devaraj, D.

    Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) regulates the generator terminal voltage by controlling the amount of current supplied to the generator field winding by the exciter. Power system stabilizer (PSS) is installed with AVR to damp the low frequency oscillations in power system by providing a supplementary signal to the excitation system. Optimal tuning of AVR controller and PSS parameters is necessary for the satisfactory operation of the power system. When applying tuning method to obtain the optimal controller parameters individually, AVR improves the voltage regulation of the system and PSS improves the damping of the system. Simultaneous tuning of AVR and PSS is necessary to obtain better both voltage regulation and oscillation damping in the system. This paper deals with the optimal tuning of AVR controller and PSS parameters in the synchronous machine. The problem of obtaining the optimal controller parameters is formulated as an optimization problem and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) is applied to solve the optimization problem. The suitability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through computer simulation in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system.

  11. Simulation of autofocus lens design for a cell phone camera with object distance from infinity to 9.754 mm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Pan, Jui-Wen; Huang, Kai-Chang; Chu, Pu-Yi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the simulation of an autofocus lens design with large depth of field for a cell phone camera. The object distance of the lens is from infinity to 9.754 mm. When the object distance is from infinity to 550 mm, the value of the modulation transfer function (MTF) is greater than 0.6 for the spatial frequency of 114 lp/mm, the optical distortion is less than 1.5%, and the relative illumination is greater than 67%. When the object distance is from 325 to 9.754 mm, the MTF values is greater than 0.4 for close-up shooting. The optical distortion is less than 1.454%, and the relative illumination is greater than 68.8%. PMID:26479654

  12. Experiment design for measuring the probability of detection in remote sensing: how many objects and how many passes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.; Morton, Kenneth D.

    2014-05-01

    Buried threat detection system (e.g., GPR, FLIR, EMI) performance can be summarized through two related statistics: the probability of detection (PD), and the false alarm rate (FAR). These statistics impact system rate of forward advance, clearance probability, and the overall usefulness of the system. Understanding system PD and FAR for each target type of interest is fundamental to making informed decisions regarding system procurement and deployment. Since PD and FAR cannot be measured directly, proper experimental design is required to ensure that estimates of PD and FAR are accurate. Given an unlimited number of target emplacements, estimating PD is straightforward. However in realistic scenarios with constrained budgets, limited experimental collection time and space, and limited number of targets, estimating PD becomes significantly more complicated. For example, it may be less expensive to collect data over the same exact target emplacement multiple times than to collect once over multiple unique target emplacements. Clearly there is a difference between the quantity and value of the information obtained from these two experiments (one collection over multiple objects, and multiple collections over one particular object). This work will clarify and quantify the amount of information gained from multiple data collections over one target compared to collecting over multiple unique target burials. Results provide a closed-form solution to estimating the relative value of collecting multiple times over one object, or emplacing a new object, and how to optimize experimental design to achieve stated goals and simultaneously minimize cost.

  13. A master-slave parallel hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for groundwater remediation design under general hydrogeological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Yang, Y.; Luo, Q.; Wu, J.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a new hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the niched Pareto tabu search combined with a genetic algorithm (NPTSGA), whereby the global search ability of niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS) is improved by the diversification of candidate solutions arose from the evolving nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) population. Also, the NPTSGA coupled with the commonly used groundwater flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed methodology is then applied to a large-scale field groundwater remediation system for cleanup of large trichloroethylene (TCE) plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Furthermore, a master-slave (MS) parallelization scheme based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is incorporated into the NPTSGA to implement objective function evaluations in distributed processor environment, which can greatly improve the efficiency of the NPTSGA in finding Pareto-optimal solutions to the real-world application. This study shows that the MS parallel NPTSGA in comparison with the original NPTS and NSGA-II can balance the tradeoff between diversity and optimality of solutions during the search process and is an efficient and effective tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems under complicated hydrogeologic conditions.

  14. Save now, pay later? Multi-period many-objective groundwater monitoring design given systematic model errors and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Kollat, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates how many-objective long-term groundwater monitoring (LTGM) network design tradeoffs evolve across multiple management periods given systematic models errors (i.e., predictive bias), groundwater flow-and-transport forecasting uncertainties, and contaminant observation uncertainties. Our analysis utilizes the Adaptive Strategies for Sampling in Space and Time (ASSIST) framework, which is composed of three primary components: (1) bias-aware Ensemble Kalman Filtering, (2) many-objective hierarchical Bayesian optimization, and (3) interactive visual analytics for understanding spatiotemporal network design tradeoffs. A physical aquifer experiment is utilized to develop a severely challenging multi-period observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) that reflects the challenges and decisions faced in monitoring contaminated groundwater systems. The experimental aquifer OSSE shows both the influence and consequences of plume dynamics as well as alternative cost-savings strategies in shaping how LTGM many-objective tradeoffs evolve. Our findings highlight the need to move beyond least cost purely statistical monitoring frameworks to consider many-objective evaluations of LTGM tradeoffs. The ASSIST framework provides a highly flexible approach for measuring the value of observables that simultaneously improves how the data are used to inform decisions.

  15. The Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System: Scientific Objectives and Design Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, A.; Coates, A.; Josset, J.; Paar, G.; Sims, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Stereo Camera System (SCS) will provide wide-angle (48 degree) multi-spectral stereo imaging of the Beagle 2 landing site in Isidis Planitia with an angular resolution of 0.75 milliradians. Based on the SpaceX Modular Micro-Imager, the SCS is composed of twin cameras (with 1024 by 1024 pixel frame transfer CCD) and twin filter wheel units (with a combined total of 24 filters). The primary mission objective is to construct a digital elevation model of the area in reach of the lander’s robot arm. The SCS specifications and following baseline studies are described: Panoramic RGB colour imaging of the landing site and panoramic multi-spectral imaging at 12 distinct wavelengths to study the mineralogy of landing site. Solar observations to measure water vapour absorption and the atmospheric dust optical density. Also envisaged are multi-spectral observations of Phobos &Deimos (observations of the moons relative to background stars will be used to determine the lander’s location and orientation relative to the Martian surface), monitoring of the landing site to detect temporal changes, observation of the actions and effects of the other PAW experiments (including rock texture studies with a close-up-lens) and collaborative observations with the Mars Express orbiter instrument teams. Due to be launched in May of this year, the total system mass is 360 g, the required volume envelope is 747 cm^3 and the average power consumption is 1.8 W. A 10Mbit/s RS422 bus connects each camera to the lander common electronics.

  16. Pricing index-based catastrophe bonds: Part 2: Object-oriented design issues and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, André J. A.

    2010-02-01

    This work is the second installment in a two-part series, and focuses on object-oriented programming methods to implement an augmented-state variable approach to aggregate the PCS index and introduce the Bermudan-style call feature into the proposed CAT bond model. The PCS index is aggregated quarterly using a discrete Asian running-sum formulation. The resulting aggregate PCS index augmented-state variable is used to specify the payoff (principle) on the CAT bond based on reinsurance layers. The purpose of the Bermudan-style call option is to allow the reinsurer to minimize their interest rate risk exposure on making fixed coupon payments under prevailing interest rates. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of uncertainty in the frequency and magnitude of hurricanes on the price of the CAT bond. Results indicate that while the CAT bond is highly sensitive to the natural variability in the frequency of landfalling hurricanes between El Ninõ and non-El Ninõ years, it remains relatively insensitive to uncertainty in the magnitude of damages. In addition, results indicate that the maximum price of the CAT bond is insensitive to whether it is engineered to cover low frequency high magnitude events in a 'high' reinsurance layer relative to high frequency low magnitude events in a 'low' reinsurance layer. Also, while it is possible for the reinsurer to minimize their interest rate risk exposure on the fixed coupon payments, the impact of this risk on the price of the CAT bond appears small relative to the natural variability in the CAT bond price, and consequently catastrophic risk, due to uncertainty in the frequency and magnitude of landfalling hurricanes.

  17. Circularity measuring system: A shape gauge designed especially for use on large objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrkaste, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Circularity Measuring System (CMS) was developed to make an in-situ determination of shape similarity for selected fit large cylinders (RSRM segments). It does this to a repeatable accuracy of 0.10 mm (0.004 inch). This is less that the goal of 0.07 mm (0.003 inch), but was determined adequate because of the addition of an assembly aid that increased the entry chamfer of the clevis side of the joint. The usefulness of the CMS is demonstrated by the application to measurements other than its specified design purpose, such as submarine hull circularity, SRM mid-case circularity, as well as circularity of interfacing SRM tooling, specifically the rounding devices and horizontal disassembly devices. Commercialization of the tool is being pursued, since it is an enhancement of metrology technology for circularity determination. The most accurate in-situ technology it replaces is determined from a template. The CMS is an improvement in accuracy and operation.

  18. Science objectives and performance of a radiometer and window design for atmospheric entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.; Whiting, Ellis E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques developed for measuring stagnation-point radiation in NASA's cancelled Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). It specifies the need for such a measurement; the types and requirements for the needed instruments; the Radiative Heating Experiment (RHE) developed for the AFE; the requirements, design parameters, and performance of the window developed for the RHE; the procedures and summary of the technique; and results of the arc-jet wind tunnel experiment conducted to demonstrate the overall concept. Subjects emphasized are the commercial implications of the knowledge to be gained by this experiment in connection with the Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV), the nonequilibrium nature of the radiation, concerns over the contribution of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation to the overall radiation, and the limit on the flight environment of the vehicle imposed by the limitations on the window material. Results show that a technique exists with which the stagnation-point radiation can be measured in flight in an environment of interest to commercial ASTV applications.

  19. Optimal design of groundwater remediation systems using a probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Q.; Wu, J.; Qian, J.

    2013-12-01

    This study develops a new probabilistic multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (PMOFHS) for optimal design of groundwater remediation system under uncertainty associated with the hydraulic conductivity of aquifers. The PMOFHS integrates the previously developed deterministic multi-objective optimization method, namely multi-objective fast harmony search algorithm (MOFHS) with a probabilistic Pareto domination ranking and probabilistic niche technique to search for Pareto-optimal solutions to multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy hydrogeological environment arising from insufficient hydraulic conductivity data. The PMOFHS is then coupled with the commonly used flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, to identify the optimal groundwater remediation system of a two-dimensional hypothetical test problem involving two objectives: (i) minimization of the total remediation cost through the engineering planning horizon, and (ii) minimization of the percentage of mass remaining in the aquifer at the end of the operational period, which uses the Pump-and-Treat (PAT) technology to clean up contaminated groundwater. Also, Monte Carlo (MC) analysis is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The MC analysis is taken to each Pareto solutions for every K realization. Then the statistical mean and the upper and lower bounds of uncertainty intervals of 95% confidence level are calculated. The MC analysis results show that all of the Pareto-optimal solutions are located between the upper and lower bounds of the MC analysis. Moreover, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) between the Pareto-optimal solutions by the PMOFHS and the average values of optimal solutions by the MC analysis are 0.0204 for the first objective and 0.0318 for the second objective, quite smaller than those RMSEs between the results by the existing probabilistic multi-objective genetic algorithm (PMOGA) and the MC analysis, 0.0384 and 0.0397, respectively. In

  20. Design methodology for a confocal imaging system using an objective microlens array with an increased working distance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woojae; Shin, Ryung; Lim, Jiseok; Kang, Shinill

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a design methodology for a multi-optical probe confocal imaging system was developed. To develop an imaging system that has the required resolving power and imaging area, this study focused on a design methodology to create a scalable and easy-to-implement confocal imaging system. This system overcomes the limitations of the optical complexities of conventional multi-optical probe confocal imaging systems and the short working distance using a micro-objective lens module composed of two microlens arrays and a telecentric relay optical system. The micro-objective lens module was fabricated on a glass substrate using backside alignment photolithography and thermal reflow processes. To test the feasibility of the developed methodology, an optical system with a resolution of 1 μm/pixel using multi-optical probes with an array size of 10 × 10 was designed and constructed. The developed system provides a 1 mm × 1 mm field of view and a sample scanning range of 100 μm. The optical resolution was evaluated by conducting sample tests using a knife-edge detecting method. The measured lateral resolution of the system was 0.98 μm. PMID:27615370

  1. A multi-objective optimization model for hub network design under uncertainty: An inexact rough-interval fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niakan, F.; Vahdani, B.; Mohammadi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer model to optimize the location of hubs within a hub network design problem under uncertainty. The considered objectives include minimizing the maximum accumulated travel time, minimizing the total costs including transportation, fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions costs, and finally maximizing the minimum service reliability. In the proposed model, it is assumed that for connecting two nodes, there are several types of arc in which their capacity, transportation mode, travel time, and transportation and construction costs are different. Moreover, in this model, determining the capacity of the hubs is part of the decision-making procedure and balancing requirements are imposed on the network. To solve the model, a hybrid solution approach is utilized based on inexact programming, interval-valued fuzzy programming and rough interval programming. Furthermore, a hybrid multi-objective metaheuristic algorithm, namely multi-objective invasive weed optimization (MOIWO), is developed for the given problem. Finally, various computational experiments are carried out to assess the proposed model and solution approaches.

  2. Design of high-performance adaptive objective lens with large optical depth scanning range for ultrabroad near infrared microscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Gongpu; Mauger, Thomas F.; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    We report on the theory and design of adaptive objective lens for ultra broadband near infrared light imaging with large dynamic optical depth scanning range by using an embedded tunable lens, which can find wide applications in deep tissue biomedical imaging systems, such as confocal microscope, optical coherence tomography (OCT), two-photon microscopy, etc., both in vivo and ex vivo. This design is based on, but not limited to, a home-made prototype of liquid-filled membrane lens with a clear aperture of 8mm and the thickness of 2.55mm ~3.18mm. It is beneficial to have an adaptive objective lens which allows an extended depth scanning range larger than the focal length zoom range, since this will keep the magnification of the whole system, numerical aperture (NA), field of view (FOV), and resolution more consistent. To achieve this goal, a systematic theory is presented, for the first time to our acknowledgment, by inserting the varifocal lens in between a front and a back solid lens group. The designed objective has a compact size (10mm-diameter and 15mm-length), ultrabroad working bandwidth (760nm - 920nm), a large depth scanning range (7.36mm in air) — 1.533 times of focal length zoom range (4.8mm in air), and a FOV around 1mm × 1mm. Diffraction-limited performance can be achieved within this ultrabroad bandwidth through all the scanning depth (the resolution is 2.22 μm - 2.81 μm, calculated at the wavelength of 800nm with the NA of 0.214 - 0.171). The chromatic focal shift value is within the depth of focus (field). The chromatic difference in distortion is nearly zero and the maximum distortion is less than 0.05%. PMID:26417508

  3. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis :

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Brian M.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Eldred, Michael S.; Jakeman, John Davis; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Vigil, Dena M.; Wildey, Timothy Michael; Bohnhoff, William J.; Eddy, John P.; Hu, Kenneth T.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bauman, Lara E; Hough, Patricia Diane

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the Dakota software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  4. Generalized design of a zero-geometric-loss, astigmatism-free, modified four-objective multipass matrix system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yin; Sun, LiQun; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Zilong

    2016-02-20

    During this study we constructed a generalized parametric modified four-objective multipass matrix system (MMS). We used an optical system comprising four asymmetrical spherical mirrors to improve the alignment process. The use of a paraxial equation for the design of the front transfer optics yielded the initial condition for modeling our MMS. We performed a ray tracing simulation to calculate the significant aberration of the system (astigmatism). Based on the calculated meridional and sagittal focus positions, the complementary focusing mirror was easily designed to provide an output beam free of astigmatism. We have presented an example of a 108-transit multipass system (5×7 matrix arrangement) with a relatively larger numerical aperture source (xenon light source). The whole system exhibits zero theoretical geometrical loss when simulated with Zemax software. The MMS construction strategy described in this study provides an anastigmatic output beam and the generalized approach to design a controllable matrix spot pattern on the field mirrors. Asymmetrical reflective mirrors aid in aligning the whole system with high efficiency. With the generalized design strategy in terms of optics configuration and asymmetrical fabrication method in this paper, other kinds of multipass matrix system coupled with different sources and detector systems also can be achieved. PMID:26906598

  5. Process Management and Exception Handling in Multiprocessor Operating Systems Using Object-Oriented Design Techniques. Revised Sep. 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent; Johnston, Gary; Campbell, Roy

    1988-01-01

    The programming of the interrupt handling mechanisms, process switching primitives, scheduling mechanism, and synchronization primitives of an operating system for a multiprocessor require both efficient code in order to support the needs of high- performance or real-time applications and careful organization to facilitate maintenance. Although many advantages have been claimed for object-oriented class hierarchical languages and their corresponding design methodologies, the application of these techniques to the design of the primitives within an operating system has not been widely demonstrated. To investigate the role of class hierarchical design in systems programming, the authors have constructed the Choices multiprocessor operating system architecture the C++ programming language. During the implementation, it was found that many operating system design concerns can be represented advantageously using a class hierarchical approach, including: the separation of mechanism and policy; the organization of an operating system into layers, each of which represents an abstract machine; and the notions of process and exception management. In this paper, we discuss an implementation of the low-level primitives of this system and outline the strategy by which we developed our solution.

  6. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Vigil, Dena M.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Lefantzi, Sophia; Hough, Patricia Diane; Eddy, John P.

    2011-12-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the DAKOTA software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of DAKOTA-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quantification, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of DAKOTA's iterative analysis capabilities.

  7. Towards a mutually reinforcing future : opportunities to integrate nuclear weapons stewardship and arms control objectives.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2010-07-01

    2010 NPR and President Obama's 2009 Prague Speech highlighted two key objectives with an inherent underlying tension: (1) Moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons; and (2) Sustaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear arsenal. Objective 1 depends, inter alia, upon reductions in stockpiles at home and abroad and maintaining stability. Objective 2 depends upon needed investments in modernization and life extension. Objectives being pursued predominantly in parallel by largely separate communities.

  8. 78 FR 7485 - Designation of Seven Individuals and One Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13581, “Blocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Order 13581, ``Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations'' AGENCY: Office of Foreign... Transnational Criminal Organizations.'' DATES: The designations by the Director of OFAC, pursuant to Executive..., ``Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations'' (the ``Order''), pursuant to, inter alia,...

  9. Design and fabrication of a chirped array of refractive ellipsoidal micro-lenses for an apposition eye camera objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wippermann, Frank; Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Dannberg, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Apposition compound eye camera objectives are one approach for a vast reduction of the optical system length of an imaging optical sensor. Despite imaging the complete field of view through one aperture like in classical lenses, these objectives split the overall field of view in separated channels which are located adjoined like in insect eyes. Due to the splitting each channel can be optimized for reduction of aberrations occuring under oblique incidence. A correction for astigmatism, field curvature and distortion occurring under oblique incidence can be accomplished by the use of anamorphic micro-lenses leading to an improved resolution of the camera objective. In contrast to regular arrays of equally shaped and equidistant positioned micro-lenses the parameters of the lenses like radii of curvature, center position and angular orientation are functions of the position within the array. These functions can be derived analytically leading to a complete description of the array parameters. We present design considerations for a chirped array containing 130x130 individually shaped ellipsoidal micro-lenses. Melting of photo-resist is employed as fabrication technology for achieving diffraction limited performance. Detailed considerations for the semi-automated layout generation of the photo lithographical masks as well as characterization data of first realized prototypes of the array are given.

  10. Comparing State-of-the-Art Evolutionary Multi-Objective Algorithms for Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Kollat, J. B.

    2005-12-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a modified version of Deb's Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which the authors have named the Epsilon-Dominance Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (Epsilon-NSGAII), at solving a four objective long-term groundwater monitoring (LTM) design test case. The Epsilon-NSGAII incorporates prior theoretical competent evolutionary algorithm (EA) design concepts and epsilon-dominance archiving to improve the original NSGAII's efficiency, reliability, and ease-of-use. This algorithm eliminates much of the traditional trial-and-error parameterization associated with evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) through epsilon-dominance archiving, dynamic population sizing, and automatic termination. The effectiveness and reliability of the new algorithm is compared to the original NSGAII as well as two other benchmark multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs), the Epsilon-Dominance Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (Epsilon-MOEA) and the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2). These MOEAs have been selected because they have been demonstrated to be highly effective at solving numerous multi-objective problems. The results presented in this study indicate superior performance of the Epsilon-NSGAII in terms of the hypervolume indicator, unary Epsilon-indicator, and first-order empirical attainment function metrics. In addition, the runtime metric results indicate that the diversity and convergence dynamics of the Epsilon-NSGAII are competitive to superior relative to the SPEA2, with both algorithms greatly outperforming the NSGAII and Epsilon-MOEA in terms of these metrics. The improvements in performance of the Epsilon-NSGAII over its parent algorithm the NSGAII demonstrate that the application of Epsilon-dominance archiving, dynamic population sizing with archive injection, and automatic termination greatly improve algorithm efficiency and reliability. In addition, the usability of

  11. Multi-objective optimal design of magnetorheological engine mount based on an improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ling; Duan, Xuwei; Deng, Zhaoxue; Li, Yinong

    2014-03-01

    A novel flow-mode magneto-rheological (MR) engine mount integrated a diaphragm de-coupler and the spoiler plate is designed and developed to isolate engine and the transmission from the chassis in a wide frequency range and overcome the stiffness in high frequency. A lumped parameter model of the MR engine mount in single degree of freedom system is further developed based on bond graph method to predict the performance of the MR engine mount accurately. The optimization mathematical model is established to minimize the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed. In this mathematical model, the lumped parameters are considered as design variables. The maximum of force transmissibility and the corresponding frequency in low frequency range as well as individual lumped parameter are limited as constraints. The multiple interval sensitivity analysis method is developed to select the optimized variables and improve the efficiency of optimization process. An improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. The synthesized distance between the individual in Pareto set and the individual in possible set in engineering is defined and calculated. A set of real design parameters is thus obtained by the internal relationship between the optimal lumped parameters and practical design parameters for the MR engine mount. The program flowchart for the improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is given. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach in minimizing the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed.

  12. Design and test of an object-oriented GIS to map plant species in the Southern Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, Stanley A.; Neville, Paul R. H.; Budge, Thomas K.; Morrison, Susan C.; Helfrich, Donald A.; Fruit, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    Elevational and latitudinal shifts occur in the flora of the Rocky Mountains due to long term climate change. In order to specify which species are successfully migrating with these changes, and which are not, an object-oriented, image-based geographic information system (GIS) is being created to animate evolving ecological regimes of temperature and precipitation. Research at the Earth Data Analysis Center (EDAC) is developing a landscape model that includes the spatial, spectral and temporal domains. It is designed to visualize migratory changes in the Rocky Mountain flora, and to specify future community compositions. The object-oriented database will eventually tag each of the nearly 6000 species with a unique hue, intensity, and saturation value, so their movements can be individually traced. An associated GIS includes environmental parameters that control the distribution of each species in the landscape, and satellite imagery is used to help visualize the terrain. Polygons for the GIS are delineated as landform facets that are static in ecological time. The model manages these facets as a triangular irregular net (TIN), and their analysis assesses the gradual progression of species as they migrate through the TIN. Using an appropriate climate change model, the goal will be to stop the modeling process to assess both the rate and direction of species' change and to specify the changing community composition of each landscape facet.

  13. Multi-objective constrained design of nickel-base superalloys using data mining- and thermodynamics-driven genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menou, Edern; Ramstein, Gérard; Bertrand, Emmanuel; Tancret, Franck

    2016-06-01

    A new computational framework for systematic and optimal alloy design is introduced. It is based on a multi-objective genetic algorithm which allows (i) the screening of vast compositional ranges and (ii) the optimisation of the performance of novel alloys. Alloys performance is evaluated on the basis of their predicted constitutional and thermomechanical properties. To this end, the CALPHAD method is used for assessing equilibrium characteristics (such as constitution, stability or processability) while Gaussian processes provide an estimate of thermomechanical properties (such as tensile strength or creep resistance), based on a multi-variable non-linear regression of existing data. These three independently well-assessed tools were unified within a single C++ routine. The method was applied to the design of affordable nickel-base superalloys for service in power plants, providing numerous candidates with superior expected microstructural stability and strength. An overview of the metallurgy of optimised alloys, as well as two detailed examples of optimal alloys, suggest that improvements over current commercial alloys are achievable at lower costs.

  14. Object Based Numerical Zooming Between the NPSS Version 1 and a 1-Dimensional Meanline High Pressure Compressor Design Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, G.; Naiman, C.; auBuchon, M.

    2000-01-01

    Within NASA's High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program, NASA Glenn Research Center is developing an environment for the analysis/design of propulsion systems for aircraft and space vehicles called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures, and heat transfer, along with the concept of numerical zooming between 0- Dimensional to 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional component engine codes. The vision for NPSS is to create a "numerical test cell" enabling full engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. Current "state-of-the-art" engine simulations are 0-dimensional in that there is there is no axial, radial or circumferential resolution within a given component (e.g. a compressor or turbine has no internal station designations). In these 0-dimensional cycle simulations the individual component performance characteristics typically come from a table look-up (map) with adjustments for off-design effects such as variable geometry, Reynolds effects, and clearances. Zooming one or more of the engine components to a higher order, physics-based analysis means a higher order code is executed and the results from this analysis are used to adjust the 0-dimensional component performance characteristics within the system simulation. By drawing on the results from more predictive, physics based higher order analysis codes, "cycle" simulations are refined to closely model and predict the complex physical processes inherent to engines. As part of the overall development of the NPSS, NASA and industry began the process of defining and implementing an object class structure that enables Numerical Zooming between the NPSS Version I (0-dimension) and higher order 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional analysis codes. The NPSS Version I preserves the historical cycle engineering practices but also extends these classical practices into the area of numerical zooming for

  15. MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) instrument on board TARANIS satellite: scientific objectives, design, characterization results and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Hébert, P.; Le Mer-Dachard, F.; Cansot, E.; Offroy, M.; Ravel, K.; Gaillac, S.; Sato, M.; Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNings and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite. Its main objective is to study impulsive transfers of energy between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment. It will be sun-synchronous at an altitude of 700 km. It will be launched from late 2017 for at least 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths (from gamma-rays to radio waves including optical). TARANIS instruments are currently in calibration and qualification phase. The purpose of this poster is to present the MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) scientific objectives and the sensor design, to show the performances of this instrument using the recent characterization, and at last to promote its products. The MicroCameras, developed by Sodern, are dedicated to the spatial description of TLEs and their parent lightning. They are able to differentiate sprite and lightning thanks to two narrow bands ([757-767 nm] and [772-782 nm]) that provide simultaneous pairs of images of an Event. The calibration results will be detailed. Simulation results of the differentiation method will be shown. Photometers, developed by Bertin Technologies, will provide temporal measurements and spectral characteristics of TLEs and lightning. It is a key instrument because of its on-board detection of the TLEs which can trigger the whole payload. Photometers use four spectral bands in the [170-260 nm], [332-342 nm], [757-767 nm] and [600-900 nm] and have the same field of view as cameras. The calibration results will also be detailed. The on-board TLE detection algorithm remote-controlled parameters will be tuned before launch using the electronic board and simulated or real events waveforms. Automatic classification tools are now tested to produce for the Scientific Mission Center some lists of elves, sprites or lightning without TLE following the recent work of Offroy et al. [2015] using ISUAL spectrophotometer data.

  16. Designing a Multi-Objective Multi-Support Accuracy Assessment of the 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD 2001) of the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database design and diverse application of NLCD 2001 pose significant challenges for accuracy assessment because numerous objectives are of interest, including accuracy of land cover, percent urban imperviousness, percent tree canopy, land-cover composition, and net change. ...

  17. Incorporating location, routing, and inventory decisions in a bi-objective supply chain design problem with risk-pooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza; Forouzanfar, Fateme; Ebrahimnejad, Sadoullah

    2013-07-01

    This paper considers a single-sourcing network design problem for a three-level supply chain. For the first time, a novel mathematical model is presented considering risk-pooling, the inventory existence at distribution centers (DCs) under demand uncertainty, the existence of several alternatives to transport the product between facilities, and routing of vehicles from distribution centers to customer in a stochastic supply chain system, simultaneously. This problem is formulated as a bi-objective stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. The aim of this model is to determine the number of located distribution centers, their locations, and capacity levels, and allocating customers to distribution centers and distribution centers to suppliers. It also determines the inventory control decisions on the amount of ordered products and the amount of safety stocks at each opened DC, selecting a type of vehicle for transportation. Moreover, it determines routing decisions, such as determination of vehicles' routes starting from an opened distribution center to serve its allocated customers and returning to that distribution center. All are done in a way that the total system cost and the total transportation time are minimized. The Lingo software is used to solve the presented model. The computational results are illustrated in this paper.

  18. Using expected allele number as objective function to design between and within breed conservation of farm animal biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Simianer, H

    2005-06-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity in farm animal species can be achieved by preventing extinction of breeds and by reducing genetic drift within breeds. It is suggested to use the expected number of alleles segregating in the species after a given time period as objective function in the design of conservation strategies. A formal approach is presented to predict this quantity based on marker information, accounting for extinction probability of breeds and effective population size within breeds as the major component of genetic drift. Based on this model, relative efficiency of different strategies of diversity conservation can be quantified. Formulas are given to derive the marginal expected number of alleles with respect to genetic drift within population and extinction probability, respectively. The suggested approach is illustrated with an example of 13 European cattle breeds. With the assumed parameters, drift is shown to be the major force leading to loss of alleles, and different breeds are prioritized for activities to reduce risk of extinction and for measures to reduce genetic drift, respectively. Although different aspects of the model need to be further refined, the suggested methodology provides a general and flexible tool to derive the optimum conservation strategy in various scenarios. PMID:16130469

  19. Deflection of Hazardous Near-Earth Objects by High Concentrated Sunlight and Adequate Design of Optical Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylyev, V. P.

    2013-02-01

    Some detailed astronomical and applied aspects deflection of hazardous near-Earth objects (NEO) by direct high concentrated sunlight, causing intensive local ablation of their surfaces, are considered. The major requirements to solar concentrating optics within a single collector (a large mirror) approach, along with the asteroid properties being most substantial in achieving the predetermined effect for the period less than a year (mid-thrust action), are discussed. Such a hastened strategy may become topical in the case of late detection of potential danger, and also, if required, in providing the possibility for some additional action. It is also more acceptable in the public perception and keeping the peace for mankind rather than a long-run expectation of the incorrigible deflection resulting shortly ahead of the predicted hazard. The conventional concave reflectors have been graved to be practically inapplicable within the high concentrating geometry. This is primarily because of the dramatic spread of their focal spots at needful inclinations of optical axis from the direction toward the Sun, as well as of problematic use of the secondary optics. An alternative design of a mirrored ring-array collector is presented (as a tested and approved point-focus version of innovative reflective lenses for sunlight concentration within this approach), and comparative analysis was made. The assessment argues in favor of such a type of high-aperture optics having more capabilities than conventional devices. Mainly, this is because of the underside position (as respects the entrance aperture) of its focal area that allows avoidance of target shadowing the reflecting surfaces and minimizes their coating by the ejected debris. By using the modern asteroids database, some key estimations have been obtained. The surface irradiance around 4-5 MW/m2 (average across the focal spot concentration level ~5 × 103) for the ring-array collector size ~0.5 of asteroid diameter might

  20. Incorporating Learning Objects in a Curriculum Re-Design to Meet Needs of Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Illinois Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pense, Seburn L.; Calvin, Jennifer; Watson, Dennis G.; Wakefield, Dexter B.

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-experimental pilot study of curriculum re-design using Learning Objects (LO) to instruct agricultural education students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) was conducted in five high schools in the federally designated economically distressed area, the Illinois Delta Region. Six LOs were developed based on a unit of instruction in…

  1. Learning Objects, Learning Objectives and Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, Fernando; Lopez, Genoveva; Manrique, Daniel; Vines, Jose Maria

    2008-01-01

    Educational research and development into e-learning mainly focuses on the inclusion of new technological features without taking into account psycho-pedagogical concerns that are likely to improve a learner's cognitive process in this new educational category. This paper presents an instructional model that combines objectivist and constructivist…

  2. Optimal design activated sludge process by means of multi-objective optimization: case study in Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenliang; Yao, Chonghua; Lu, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    Optimal design of activated sludge process (ASP) using multi-objective optimization was studied, and a benchmark process in Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1) was taken as a target process. The objectives of the study were to achieve four indexes of percentage of effluent violation (PEV), overall cost index (OCI), total volume and total suspended solids, making up four cases for comparative analysis. Models were solved by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in MATLAB. Results show that: ineffective solutions can be rejected by adding constraints, and newly added objectives can affect the relationship between the existing objectives; taking Pareto solutions as process parameters, the performance indexes of PEV and OCI can be improved more than with the default process parameters of BSM1, especially for N removal and resistance against dynamic NH4(+)-N in influent. The results indicate that multi-objective optimization is a useful method for optimal design ASP. PMID:24845320

  3. Designing a multi-objective, multi-support accuracy assessment of the 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD 2001) of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehman, S.V.; Wickham, J.D.; Wade, T.G.; Smith, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The database design and diverse application of NLCD 2001 pose significant challenges for accuracy assessment because numerous objectives are of interest, including accuracy of land-cover, percent urban imperviousness, percent tree canopy, land-cover composition, and net change. A multi-support approach is needed because these objectives require spatial units of different sizes for reference data collection and analysis. Determining a sampling design that meets the full suite of desirable objectives for the NLCD 2001 accuracy assessment requires reconciling potentially conflicting design features that arise from targeting the different objectives. Multi-stage cluster sampling provides the general structure to achieve a multi-support assessment, and the flexibility to target different objectives at different stages of the design. We describe the implementation of two-stage cluster sampling for the initial phase of the NLCD 2001 assessment, and identify gaps in existing knowledge where research is needed to allow full implementation of a multi-objective, multi-support assessment. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  4. Design of relative motion and attitude profiles for three-dimensional resident space object imaging with a laser rangefinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, M.; Beck, J.; Udrea, B.

    This paper focuses on the aerospace application of a single beam laser rangefinder (LRF) for 3D imaging, shape detection, and reconstruction in the context of a space-based space situational awareness (SSA) mission scenario. The primary limitation to 3D imaging from LRF point clouds is the one-dimensional nature of the single beam measurements. A method that combines relative orbital motion and scanning attitude motion to generate point clouds has been developed and the design and characterization of multiple relative motion and attitude maneuver profiles are presented. The target resident space object (RSO) has the shape of a generic telecommunications satellite. The shape and attitude of the RSO are unknown to the chaser satellite however, it is assumed that the RSO is un-cooperative and has fixed inertial pointing. All sensors in the metrology chain are assumed ideal. A previous study by the authors used pure Keplerian motion to perform a similar 3D imaging mission at an asteroid. A new baseline for proximity operations maneuvers for LRF scanning, based on a waypoint adaptation of the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire (HCW) equations is examined. Propellant expenditure for each waypoint profile is discussed and combinations of relative motion and attitude maneuvers that minimize the propellant used to achieve a minimum required point cloud density are studied. Both LRF strike-point coverage and point cloud density are maximized; the capability for 3D shape registration and reconstruction from point clouds generated with a single beam LRF without catalog comparison is proven. Next, a method of using edge detection algorithms to process a point cloud into a 3D modeled image containing reconstructed shapes is presented. Weighted accuracy of edge reconstruction with respect to the true model is used to calculate a qualitative “ metric” that evaluates effectiveness of coverage. Both edge recognition algorithms and the metric are independent of point cloud densit

  5. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A.; Maguire, C.F.

    1995-10-01

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method.

  6. 36 CFR 65.2 - Effects of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Advisory Council has adopted procedures concerning, inter alia, their commenting responsibility in 36 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effects of designation. 65.2... NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARKS PROGRAM § 65.2 Effects of designation. (a) The purpose of the National...

  7. 36 CFR 65.2 - Effects of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Advisory Council has adopted procedures concerning, inter alia, their commenting responsibility in 36 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effects of designation. 65.2... NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARKS PROGRAM § 65.2 Effects of designation. (a) The purpose of the National...

  8. 36 CFR 65.2 - Effects of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Advisory Council has adopted procedures concerning, inter alia, their commenting responsibility in 36 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effects of designation. 65.2... NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARKS PROGRAM § 65.2 Effects of designation. (a) The purpose of the National...

  9. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid...

  10. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid...

  11. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid...

  12. Design Of Instructional Objectives Of Undergraduate Solid State Physics Course: A First Step To Physics Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Sastri, O.; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that most of the undergraduate study in India is conducted through the affiliate system in which affiliated colleges run the courses prescribed by a Board of Studies of the affiliating University in the form of a syllabus, which happens to be the only academic link between the students, teachers and the examiners. This document is limited only to defining the contents of the course without any hint about the instructional/learning objectives. Given these limitations of the existing course structure an attempt has been made to define the instructional/learning objectives for an undergraduate course of study in Solid State Physics prescribed in B. Sc. (Honours and Pass Course) in Physics of Himachal Pradesh University, India. It is not only the first step to enhance learning but to make teaching research based as well, as has been practiced in US and West as a foundation of Physics Education Research. The instructional objectives/learning objectives are written using Mager's approach and classified using Bloom's taxonomy. An effort has also been made to make it ready for adoption in the classroom.

  13. Different Modes of Digital Learning Object Use in School Settings: Do We Design for Individual or Collaborative Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this paper is to gain classroom based empirical evidence on the learning effectiveness of learning objects used in two types of study settings: Collaborative and individual. A total of 127 seventh and ninth grade students participated in the experiments. They were assigned into one of the study modes and worked…

  14. The Pedagogy of Critical Thinking: Object Design Implications for Improving Students' Thoughtful Engagement within E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcaen, Philip L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author described how a model of teaching critical thinking couples with the development of learning objects may help respond to broader calls for critical thinking both as a central goal in education and as a key aspect in the ecology of 21st century e-learning environment. The model developed by the Canadian Critical Thinking…

  15. The influence of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on attentional behavior and decision making. A t-DCS study on emotionally vs. functionally designed objects.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Barbara; Balzarotti, Stefania; Mazzucchelli, Nicla

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has shown that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be crucial in cognitive control of affective impulses during decision making. The present study examines whether modulation of r-DLPFC with transcranial direct current stimulation influences attentional behavior and decision-making in a purchase task requiring participants to choose either emotional/attractive or functional/useful objects. 30 participants were shown sixteen pairs of emotionally or functionally designed products while their eye-movements were recorded. Participants were asked to judge aesthetics and usefulness of each object, and to decide which object of each pair they would buy. Results revealed that participants decided to buy the functionally designed objects more often regardless of condition; however, participants receiving anodal stimulation were faster in decision making. Although stimulation of r-DLPFC did not affect the actual purchasing choice and had little effect on visual exploration during decision making, it influenced perceived usefulness and attractiveness, with temporary inhibition of r-DLPFC leading to evaluate functional objects as less attractive. Finally, anodal stimulation led to judge the objects as more useful. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26859525

  16. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a “Data Profiling” Tool for Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a “data profiling” tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool’s functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  17. Assessing Online Learning Objects: Student Evaluation of a Guide on the Side Interactive Learning Tutorial Designed by SRJC Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtue, Alicia; Dean, Ellen; Matheson, Molly

    2014-01-01

    More and more of today's scholars conduct their research in a digital realm rather than using a print collection. The University of Arizona Libraries Guide on the Side tutorial software offers an opportunity to apply the principles of active learning with real world research scenarios. This paper reports on the design and introduction of…

  18. Multi-objective design and extended optimization for developing a miniature light emitting diode pocket-sized projection display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Tzeng, Yih-Fong; Li, Si-Xian

    2008-09-01

    This research proposes a new extended optimization method for a miniature light emitting diode (LED) pocket-sized projection display, introducing integration of the Taguchi method and principal component analysis in order to optimize the multiple quality characteristics of an LED pocket-sized projection display. With the aid of interactive optimization, control factors with three different levels are carefully selected in the complicated preliminary experiments. A set of optimal design parameters is well selected for best results on the combined effects of the total luminous flux, illumination uniformity, and the packing size of the system. The selected control factors are inclusive of major lens and system specifications, such as lens overall length, X-CUB semi-aperture, length of light integrator, width of integrator, total internal reflection (TIR) prism entering semi-diameter for the TIR prism, air-gap of the TIR prism, and digital micromirror device (DMD) position; an L18 orthogonal array is applied and implemented in the experiments. According to experimental results, the optimal design parameters for the projection display can be determined as A1 (lens specifications: type I), B3 (lens length: overall length), C1 (X-CUB semi-aperture: 8 mm), D3 (integrator length: 36.6 mm), E2 (integrator width: 3.5 mm), F2 (TIR prism entering semi-diameter: 11 mm), G1 (TIR prism air-gap: 1.0024 mm), and H1 (DMD location: -0:5 mm). In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also employed to identify the factor A (lens specifications), factor D (integrator length), factor F (TIR prism entering semi-diameter), and factor G (TIR prism air-gap) as key parameters, which account for 71.82% of the total variance. The other factors when compared are found to have relatively weaker impacts on the process design. Furthermore, a confirmation experiment of the optimal design parameters shows that the aforesaid multiple performance characteristics are optimized to achieve the best

  19. Objective Assessment and Design Improvement of a Staring, Sparse Transducer Array by the Spatial Crosstalk Matrix for 3D Photoacoustic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kosik, Ivan; Raess, Avery

    2015-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of 3D photoacoustic (PA) images requires detection of photoacoustic signals from many angles. Several groups have adopted staring ultrasound arrays, but assessment of array performance has been limited. We previously reported on a method to calibrate a 3D PA tomography (PAT) staring array system and analyze system performance using singular value decomposition (SVD). The developed SVD metric, however, was impractical for large system matrices, which are typical of 3D PAT problems. The present study consisted of two main objectives. The first objective aimed to introduce the crosstalk matrix concept to the field of PAT for system design. Figures-of-merit utilized in this study were root mean square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and a three dimensional structural similarity index, which were derived between the normalized spatial crosstalk matrix and the identity matrix. The applicability of this approach for 3D PAT was validated by observing the response of the figures-of-merit in relation to well-understood PAT sampling characteristics (i.e. spatial and temporal sampling rate). The second objective aimed to utilize the figures-of-merit to characterize and improve the performance of a near-spherical staring array design. Transducer arrangement, array radius, and array angular coverage were the design parameters examined. We observed that the performance of a 129-element staring transducer array for 3D PAT could be improved by selection of optimal values of the design parameters. The results suggested that this formulation could be used to objectively characterize 3D PAT system performance and would enable the development of efficient strategies for system design optimization. PMID:25875177

  20. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's reference manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  1. DAKOTA, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  2. Strain measurement of objects subjected to aerodynamic heating using digital image correlation: experimental design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bing; Jiang, Tianyun; Wu, Dafang

    2014-11-01

    In thermomechanical testing of hypersonic materials and structures, direct observation and quantitative strain measurement of the front surface of a test specimen directly exposed to severe aerodynamic heating has been considered as a very challenging task. In this work, a novel quartz infrared heating device with an observation window is designed to reproduce the transient thermal environment experienced by hypersonic vehicles. The specially designed experimental system allows the capture of test article's surface images at various temperatures using an optical system outfitted with a bandpass filter. The captured images are post-processed by digital image correlation to extract full-field thermal deformation. To verify the viability and accuracy of the established system, thermal strains of a chromiumnickel austenite stainless steel sample heated from room temperature up to 600 °C were determined. The preliminary results indicate that the air disturbance between the camera and the specimen due to heat haze induces apparent distortions in the recorded images and large errors in the measured strains, but the average values of the measured strains are accurate enough. Limitations and further improvements of the proposed technique are discussed. PMID:25430144

  3. Vertical flow constructed wetlands subject to load variations: an improved design methodology connected to outlet quality objectives.

    PubMed

    Boutin, C; Prost-Boucle, S

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed four campsites and four rural villages of major tourist interest, called tourist-interest or ti-villages, that were monitored for several years, generating over 70 performance balances for vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) that were intentionally scaled down for experimental trials. The wastewater effectively qualifies as domestic sewage, although relatively concentrated, with the campsites presenting particularly high nitrogen concentrations (122 gTKN L(-1)) (TKN: total Kjeldahl nitrogen). The applied daily loads were also particularly high, with some combinations of load parameters (hydraulic load, organic matter, TKN) leading to 400% overloading. Even under those drastic conditions, the quality of effluent remained excellent on the characteristic organic matter parameters, with removal performances always over 85%. Analysis of the dataset points to two major design thresholds: for campsites, in order to maintain a 73% nitrification rate even at the height of the summer season, the load applied onto the first stage filter in operation could achieve up to 600 gCOD m(-2) day(-1) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). For tourist-interest villages, in order to maintain an 85% nitrification rate, the load applied onto the second stage filter in operation could achieve up to 22 gTKN m(-2).day(-1). Here, VFCWs were demonstrated to robustly handle a massive increase in loads applied, providing the construction and operation stringently follow design standards and practices. PMID:26287842

  4. A probabilistic and multi-objective conceptual design methodology for the evaluation of thermal management systems on air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordaz, Irian

    This thesis addresses the challenges associated with thermal management systems (TMS) evaluation and selection in the conceptual design of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles with sustained cruise. The proposed methodology identifies analysis tools and techniques which allow the proper investigation of the design space for various thermal management technologies. The design space exploration environment and alternative multi-objective decision making technique defined as Pareto-based Joint Probability Decision Making (PJPDM) is based on the approximation of 3-D Pareto frontiers and probabilistic technology effectiveness maps. These are generated through the evaluation of a Pareto Fitness function and Monte Carlo analysis. In contrast to Joint Probability Decision Making (JPDM), the proposed PJPDM technique does not require preemptive knowledge of weighting factors for competing objectives or goal constraints which can introduce bias into the final solution. Preemptive bias in a complex problem can degrade the overall capabilities of the final design. The implementation of PJPDM in this thesis eliminates the need for the numerical optimizer which is required with JPDM in order to improve upon a solution. In addition, a physics-based formulation is presented for the quantification of TMS safety effectiveness corresponding to debris impact/damage and how it can be applied towards risk mitigation. Lastly, a formulation loosely based on non-preemptive Goal Programming with equal weighted deviations is provided for the resolution of the inverse design space. This key step helps link vehicle capabilities to TMS technology subsystems in a top-down design approach. The methodology provides the designer more knowledge up front to help make proper engineering decisions and assumptions in the conceptual design phase regarding which technologies show greatest promise, and how to guide future technology research.

  5. [The design and implementation of the web typical surface object spectral information system in arid areas based on .NET and SuperMap].

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Zhang, Fei; Ji, Hong-jiang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristic of object spectrum is not only the base of the quantification analysis of remote sensing, but also the main content of the basic research of remote sensing. The typical surface object spectral database in arid areas oasis is of great significance for applied research on remote sensing in soil salinization. In the present paper, the authors took the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis as an example, unified .NET and the SuperMap platform with SQL Server database stored data, used the B/S pattern and the C# language to design and develop the typical surface object spectral information system, and established the typical surface object spectral database according to the characteristics of arid areas oasis. The system implemented the classified storage and the management of typical surface object spectral information and the related attribute data of the study areas; this system also implemented visualized two-way query between the maps and attribute data, the drawings of the surface object spectral response curves and the processing of the derivative spectral data and its drawings. In addition, the system initially possessed a simple spectral data mining and analysis capabilities, and this advantage provided an efficient, reliable and convenient data management and application platform for the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis's follow-up study in soil salinization. Finally, It's easy to maintain, convinient for secondary development and practically operating in good condition. PMID:21942043

  6. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  7. Designing the objective structured clinical examination to cover all major areas of physical medicine and rehabilitation over 3 yrs.

    PubMed

    Garstang, Susan; Altschuler, Eric L; Jain, Sheela; Delisa, Joel A

    2012-06-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that training programs comprehensively evaluate residents in the six core Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. One of the ways we do this in our residency is by administering a nine-station Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the end of each year, which evaluates tasks such as history taking, focused physical examination, communication, professionalism, procedural skills, management, prescription writing, and understanding systems-based practice. We have classified our OSCE stations into what we consider key areas in our field and assessed these on a rotating basis over 3 yrs. This results in the assessment of 27 areas over the 3 yrs of residency. Structuring the OSCE as a series of stations over 3 yrs is an efficient method to evaluate residents' competencies that are required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and certifying boards. An analysis of OSCE scores when compared with American Board of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation parts 1 and 2 scores and final summative resident evaluation scores reveals that OSCE results correlate with part 1 scores and final evaluation scores but do not show the same strong correlations with part 2 scores. We discuss the way the OSCE can complete other assessment techniques and ways to improve cases in the future. PMID:22469878

  8. Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power Systems (MCNSPS) conceptual design and evaluation report. Volume 1: Objectives, summary results and introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetch, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to determine which reactor, conversion, and radiator technologies would best fulfill future Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power System Requirements. Specifically, the requirement was 10 megawatts for 5 years of full power operation and 10 years systems life on orbit. A variety of liquid metal and gas cooled reactors, static and dynamic conversion systems, and passive and dynamic radiators were considered. Four concepts were selected for more detailed study. The concepts are: a gas cooled reactor with closed cycle Brayton turbine-alternator conversion with heat pipe and pumped tube-fin heat rejection; a lithium cooled reactor with a free piston Stirling engine-linear alternator and a pumped tube-fin radiator; a lithium cooled reactor with potassium Rankine turbine-alternator and heat pipe radiator; and a lithium cooled incore thermionic static conversion reactor with a heat pipe radiator. The systems recommended for further development to meet a 10 megawatt long life requirement are the lithium cooled reactor with the K-Rankine conversion and heat pipe radiator, and the lithium cooled incore thermionic reactor with heat pipe radiator.

  9. High-dose albumin treatment for acute ischaemic stroke (ALIAS): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Myron D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Moy, Claudia S.; Barsan, William G.; Waldman, Bonnie D.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In animal models of ischaemic stroke, 25% albumin reduced brain infarction and improved neurobehavioral outcome. In a pilot clinical trial, albumin doses as high as 2 g per kg were safely tolerated. Trial Design and Methods This was a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind trial to test the superiority of 25% albumin (dose 2 g [8 ml] per kg; maximum, 750 ml) over an equivalent volume of isotonic saline in improving the outcome of acute ischaemic stroke. Eligibility criteria were an ischaemic (i.e., non-haemorrhagic) stroke with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 6 or above, ability to treat within 5 hours of onset, age 18 through 83 years, and written informed consent. The major exclusion criteria were cardiovascular. The objective was to test the hypothesis that the primary outcome (defined as either a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1, or a NIHSS score of 0 or 1, or both, at 90 days) with albumin treatment was superior to saline by an absolute margin of 10 percentage points. Centralised web-based randomisation was by a minimisation-plus-biased-coin algorithm. Thrombolytic therapies were permitted. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00235495. Findings The trial was stopped prematurely for futility after 841 participants were randomised (422 patients to albumin and 419 to saline). The primary outcome did not differ by treatment assignment (albumin, 44.1%; saline, 44.2%; relative benefit, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 – 1.10 adjusted for baseline NIHSS score and thrombolysis stratum). Secondary outcomes were also neutral. The chief adverse event was mild-to-moderate pulmonary edema, which was more common with albumin than saline (13.1% and 1.2%, respectively), as was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage within 24 hours (albumin, 4.1%; saline, 1.7%). While the favourable outcome rate in albumin-treated subjects remained consistent at 44–45% over the course of the trial, the

  10. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma

  11. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design.

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, D E; Frank, F R; Fowler, E H; Troup, C M; Milton, R M

    1987-01-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration (ranging from 25-3506 ppm). MIC vapors were statically generated in a double chamber exposure design. Precautionary measures taken during exposures are discussed. Guinea pigs were more susceptible than rats to MIC exposure-related early mortality. A greater than one order of magnitude difference was observed between an MIC concentration that caused no early mortality in rats (3506 ppm) and an MIC concentration that caused partial (6%) early mortality in guinea pigs (225 ppm) for exposures of 10 to 15 min duration. For both species, the most noteworthy clinical signs during exposure were lacrimation, blepharospasm, and mouth breathing. Fifteen minute LC50 tests with 14-day postexposure follow-up were conducted, and the LC50 (95% confidence limit) values were 171 (114-256) ppm for rats and 112 (61-204) ppm for guinea pigs. Target exposure concentrations for the toxicologic investigations of MIC-induced early mortality were established. A short summary of pertinent results of Union Carbide Corporation's post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations is presented. PMID:3622426

  12. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, D.E.; Frank, F.R.; Fowler, E.H.; Troup, C.M.; Milton, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration. MIC vapors were statically generated in a double chamber exposure design. Precautionary measures taken during exposures are discussed. Guinea pigs were more susceptible than rats to MIC exposure-related early mortality. A greater than one order of magnitude difference was observed between an MIC concentration that caused no early mortality in rats (3506 ppm) and an MIC concentration that caused partial (6%) early mortality in guinea pigs (225 ppm) for exposures of 10 to 15 min duration. For both species, the most noteworthy clinical signs during exposure were lacrimation, blepharospasm, and mouth breathing. Fifteen minute LC/sub 50/ tests with 14-day postexposure follow-up were conducted, and the LC/sub 50/ (95% confidence limit) values were 171 (114-256) ppm for rats and 112 (61-204) ppm for guinea pigs. Target exposure concentrations for the toxicologic investigations of MIC-induced early mortality were established. A short summary of pertinent results of Union Carbide Corporation's post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations is presented.

  13. Miniature LIMS system designed for sensitive in situ measurements of organic deposits in materials on solar system objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedo, Andreas; Moreno-García, Pavel; Grimaudo, Valentine; Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Tulej, Marek; Broekmann, Peter; Wurz, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In situ investigation of chemical composition is of considerable interest for application in planetary missions. The possibility of bio-relevant organic chemistry on the surfaces of comets and primitive asteroids is one of the most intriguing problems of the current astrobiology. Rock-water interface existed in early small solar body history, in addition to extensive mineralogical modifications of the surface could have initiated also a rich organic and bio-organic chemistry [1]. Current space instrumentation designed for molecular detection use thermal evaporation source combined with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry [2]. Hence, it is capable of collecting data of the volatile fraction of the investigated sample. Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LD-MS) is another method for molecule detection capable of vaporisation and ionisation of molecules present on a solid substrate surface, e.g. a rock. A miniature laser ablation ionisation reflectron-type time-of-flight mass analyser (LMS) developed by our group for in situ measurements of the elemental, isotopic composition can be used also for sensitive analyses of chemical compounds present on solid surfaces with high spatial resolution [3-6]. Comparing to laser ablation laser desorption analyses are conducted at laser irradiance reduced by approximately 103-104 times. In laser ablation mode, the LMS system offers high dynamic range of at least eight orders of magnitude and allows for the detection in the ppb range for metallic- and non-metallic elements. Instrument mass resolution m/Δm is about 800 at the 56Fe mass peak when the instrument is used in ablation mode. The mass resolution is increased to m/Δm >1000 when desorption studies are conducted (at ~600 m/q). We will demonstrate the instrument performance conducting molecular desorption studies of different species, e.g. organic, biotic and abiotic. Laser ablation/ionisation studies are conducted in parallel to complement the laser desorption

  14. Automated water analyser computer supported system (AWACSS) Part I: Project objectives, basic technology, immunoassay development, software design and networking.

    PubMed

    Tschmelak, Jens; Proll, Guenther; Riedt, Johannes; Kaiser, Joachim; Kraemmer, Peter; Bárzaga, Luis; Wilkinson, James S; Hua, Ping; Hole, J Patrick; Nudd, Richard; Jackson, Michael; Abuknesha, Ram; Barceló, Damià; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; de Alda, Maria J López; Sacher, Frank; Stien, Jan; Slobodník, Jaroslav; Oswald, Peter; Kozmenko, Helena; Korenková, Eva; Tóthová, Lívia; Krascsenits, Zoltan; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2005-02-15

    A novel analytical system AWACSS (automated water analyser computer-supported system) based on immunochemical technology has been developed that can measure several organic pollutants at low nanogram per litre level in a single few-minutes analysis without any prior sample pre-concentration nor pre-treatment steps. Having in mind actual needs of water-sector managers related to the implementation of the Drinking Water Directive (DWD) (98/83/EC, 1998) and Water Framework Directive WFD (2000/60/EC, 2000), drinking, ground, surface, and waste waters were major media used for the evaluation of the system performance. The instrument was equipped with remote control and surveillance facilities. The system's software allows for the internet-based networking between the measurement and control stations, global management, trend analysis, and early-warning applications. The experience of water laboratories has been utilised at the design of the instrument's hardware and software in order to make the system rugged and user-friendly. Several market surveys were conducted during the project to assess the applicability of the final system. A web-based AWACSS database was created for automated evaluation and storage of the obtained data in a format compatible with major databases of environmental organic pollutants in Europe. This first part article gives the reader an overview of the aims and scope of the AWACSS project as well as details about basic technology, immunoassays, software, and networking developed and utilised within the research project. The second part article reports on the system performance, first real sample measurements, and an international collaborative trial (inter-laboratory tests) to compare the biosensor with conventional anayltical methods. PMID:15626603

  15. Multi-objective Mixed Integer Programming approach for facility layout design by considering closeness ratings, material handling, and re-layout cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Satrio Wiwoho, Yoga

    2016-01-01

    Facility layout becomes one of production system factor that should be managed well, as it is designated for the location of production. In managing the layout, designing the layout by considering the optimal layout condition that supports the work condition is essential. One of the method for facility layout optimization is Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In this study, the MIP is solved using Lingo 9.0 software and considering quantitative and qualitative objectives to be achieved simultaneously: minimizing material handling cost, maximizing closeness rating, and minimizing re-layout cost. The research took place in Rekayasa Wangdi as a make to order company, focusing on the making of concrete brick dough stirring machine with 10 departments involved. The result shows an improvement in the new layout for 333,72 points of objective value compared with the initial layout. As the conclusion, the proposed MIP is proven to be used to model facility layout problem under multi objective consideration for a more realistic look.

  16. Design and performance of a throughput-matched, zero-geometric-loss, modified three objective multipass matrix system for FTIR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, David R; Goddard, Andrew; Seakins, Paul W

    2007-11-10

    The design of and initial results obtained from a multipass matrix system (MMS) for mid-infrared spectroscopy that operates in the Highly Instrumented Reactor for Atmospheric Chemistry (HIRAC) recently constructed in the School of Chemistry at the University of Leeds, is described. HIRAC is an evacuable, temperature variable, photochemical atmospheric reaction chamber. The MMS design is a modified Chernin cell, utilizing three objective mirrors and two field mirrors. In addition to providing the paraxial equations required for design of a throughput matched multipass cell and throughput matched transfer optics, advanced ray tracing simulations have been performed for the Chernin design described herein. The simulations indicate that, for this MMS, which features small off-axis angles and preserves perfectly the focal properties of the original White design, the paraxial equations are nearly exact, throughput losses due to astigmatism are insignificant, and the system has zero theoretical geometric loss. Measurements of the signal incident on the detector at different matrix arrangements confirm the ray trace results, suggesting that geometric loss in this system is insignificant. The MMS described herein provides adequate stability to permit measurements while the chamber mixing fans are on, gives very good detection limits for some representative species, and is easy to align. PMID:17994138

  17. Design, assembly, and optical bench testing of a high-numerical-aperture miniature injection-molded objective for fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Carlson, Kristen D.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Descour, Michael R.

    2006-04-01

    The design, analysis, assembly methods, and optical-bench test results for a miniature injection-molded plastic objective lens used in a fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope are presented. The five-lens plastic objective was tested as a stand-alone optical system before its integration into a confocal microscope for in vivo imaging of cells and tissue. Changing the spacing and rotation of the individual optical elements can compensate for fabrication inaccuracies and improve performance. The system performance of the miniature objective lens is measured by use of an industry-accepted slanted-edge modulation transfer function (MTF) metric. An estimated Strehl ratio of 0.61 and a MTF value of 0.66 at the fiber-optic bundle Nyquist frequency have been obtained. The optical bench testing system is configured to permit interactive optical alignment during testing to optimize performance. These results are part of an effort to demonstrate the manufacturability of low-cost, high-performance biomedical optics for high-resolution in vivo imaging. Disposable endoscopic microscope objectives could help in vivo confocal microscopy technology mature to permit wide-scale clinical screening and detection of early cancers and precancerous lesions.

  18. Adaptive Objectness for Object Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pengpeng; Pang, Yu; Liao, Chunyuan; Mei, Xue; Ling, Haibin

    2016-07-01

    Object tracking is a long standing problem in vision. While great efforts have been spent to improve tracking performance, a simple yet reliable prior knowledge is left unexploited: the target object in tracking must be an object other than non-object. The recently proposed and popularized objectness measure provides a natural way to model such prior in visual tracking. Thus motivated, in this paper we propose to adapt objectness for visual object tracking. Instead of directly applying an existing objectness measure that is generic and handles various objects and environments, we adapt it to be compatible to the specific tracking sequence and object. More specifically, we use the newly proposed BING objectness as the base, and then train an object-adaptive objectness for each tracking task. The training is implemented by using an adaptive support vector machine that integrates information from the specific tracking target into the BING measure. We emphasize that the benefit of the proposed adaptive objectness, named ADOBING, is generic. To show this, we combine ADOBING with seven top performed trackers in recent evaluations. We run the ADOBING-enhanced trackers with their base trackers on two popular benchmarks, the CVPR2013 benchmark (50 sequences) and the Princeton Tracking Benchmark (100 sequences). On both benchmarks, our methods not only consistently improve the base trackers, but also achieve the best known performances. Noting that the way we integrate objectness in visual tracking is generic and straightforward, we expect even more improvement by using tracker-specific objectness.

  19. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  20. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    PubMed

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889

  1. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 developers manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Giunta, Anthony Andrew; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a developers manual for the DAKOTA software and describes the DAKOTA class hierarchies and their interrelationships. It derives directly from annotation of the actual source code and provides detailed class documentation, including all member functions and attributes.

  2. DAKOTA, a multilevel parellel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 uers's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Giunta, Anthony Andrew; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the DAKOTA software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  3. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the DAKOTA software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  4. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, developers manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a developers manual for the DAKOTA software and describes the DAKOTA class hierarchies and their interrelationships. It derives directly from annotation of the actual source code and provides detailed class documentation, including all member functions and attributes.

  5. Miniature Schwarzschild objective as a micro-optical component free of main aberrations: concept, design, and first realization with silicon-glass micromachining.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Maciej; Passilly, Nicolas; Bargiel, Sylwester; Froehly, Luc; Gorecki, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the conception of a new micro-optical component fabricated within the wafer-level approach: a micromachined reflective objective, the so-called micro-Schwarzschild objective, characterized by superior optical performances than widespread microlenses. The system, made of two vertically integrated mirrors, works in transmission similarly as microlenses. While the specific geometric configuration of the two-mirrors allows elimination of most common optical aberrations, the reflective architecture provides inherent achromaticity. This paper presents in detail the optical design and analyzes fabrication tolerances. It also describes a fabrication flow chart based on silicon micromachining done at the wafer level that could allow production of thousands of such micro-optical devices within a single fabrication run. The realized prototype employs the two-step KOH etching process to generate the micromirror pairs followed by glass reflow for the secondary mirror generation and selective metallic deposition. Despite an insufficient mirror quality attributed to this specific silicon etching technique and highlighted by the reflective configuration, the objective fabrication in terms of alignment, bonding, and coating is shown as feasible. PMID:27139684

  6. Standardization of Course Plan and Design of Objective Structured Field Examination (OSFE) for the Assessment of Pharm.D. Student’s Community Pharmacy Clerkship Skills

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Shokri, Javad; Mohajel Nayebi, Ali Reza; Nemati, Mahboob; Azarmi, Yadollah; Charkhpour, Mohammad; Najafi, Moslem

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was aimed to design Objective Structured Field Examination (OSFE) and also standardize the course plan of community pharmacy clerkship at Pharmacy Faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Iran). Methods: The study was composed of several stages including; evaluation of the old program, standardization and implementation of the new course plan, design and implementation of OSFE, and finally results evaluation. Results: Lack of a fair final assessment protocol and proper organized educating system in various fields of community pharmacy clerkship skills were assigned as the main weaknesses of the old program. Educational priorities were determined and student’s feedback was assessed to design the new curriculum consisting of sessions to fulfill a 60-hour training course. More than 70% of the students were satisfied and successfulness and efficiency of the new clerkship program was significantly greater than the old program (P<0.05). In addition, they believed that OSFE was a suitable testing method. Conclusion: The defined course plan was successfully improved different skills of the students and OSFE was concluded as a proper performance based assessment method. This is easily adoptable by pharmacy faculties to improve the educational outcomes of the clerkship course. PMID:24511477

  7. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  8. Scientific Objectives and Design Study of an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) for the NAOS Visitor Focus at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Marcantonio, Paolo Di; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca; Santin, Paolo

    We present the scientific case for an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) that we propose as a visitor instrument for the secondary port of NAOS at the VLT. We show that such an instrument would be ideal for intermediate resolution (R=16,000) spectroscopy of faint sky-limited objects down to a magnitude of V=24.0 and will complement very effectively the near-IR imaging capabilities of CONICA. We present examples of science programmes that could be carried out with such an instrument and which cannot be addressed with existing VLT instruments. We also report on the result of a two-year design study of the instrument, with specific reference to its use as parallel instrument of NAOS.

  9. Design and evaluation of objective methods for analyzing hypometabolism from PET FDG brain images while taking into account finite resolution effects

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, T.L.; Galt, J.R.; Votaw, J.R. |

    1994-05-01

    Objective analyses of positron emission tomographic (PET) FDG brain metabolism studies are complicated by intersubject anatomical differences as well as finite resolution effects within patents. The goal of this study was to design and test techniques that could duplicate the diagnostic interpretation of PET FDG brain studies by clinicians. The clinicians had access to both PET and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of each patent and could discriminate physiological from anatomical effects. The methods create a predicted normal cortical metabolic (PM) image for each individual from his MRI. The PM is compared to actual count levels seen in the PET image. The PM incorporates resolution effects, but not physiological anomalies; the PET image incorporates both. Thus, comparisons between them should highlight physiological differences.

  10. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  11. VERTOS II: Percutaneous vertebroplasty versus conservative therapy in patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures; rationale, objectives and design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Klazen, CAH; Verhaar, HJJ; Lampmann, LEH; Juttmann, JR; Blonk, MC; Jansen, FH; Tielbeek, AV; Schoemaker, MC; Buskens, E; van der Graaf, Y; Janssens, X; Fransen, H; van Everdingen, KJ; Muller, AF; Mali, WPThM; Lohle, PNM

    2007-01-01

    Background The standard care in patients with a painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is conservative therapy. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV), a minimally invasive technique, is gaining popularity as a new treatment option. Many prospective and retrospective studies have reported on the effectiveness and safety of PV, but no large randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been published. Objective To estimate cost-effectiveness of PV compared to conservative therapy in terms of: pain reduction, quality of life, complications, secondary fractures and mortality. Materials and methods The VERTOS II study is designed as a prospective, multicenter RCT. Patients with a painful VCF with bone edema on MR imaging, local back pain for 6 weeks or less, osteopenia and aged 50 years or older, after obtaining informed consent are included and randomized for PV or conservative therapy. In total 200 patients will be enrolled. Follow-up is at regular intervals during a 1-year period with standard questionnaires, addressing: clinical symptoms, pain medication, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Secondary fractures, necessary additional therapies and complications are recorded. Conclusion The VERTOS II study is the first methodologically sound RCT designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of PV compared to conservative therapy in patients with an acute osteoporotic VCF. Trial registration , NCT00232466 PMID:17973983

  12. 78 FR 41995 - Designation of an Individual Pursuant to Executive Order 13619

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Stability of Burma'' (``E.O. 13619''), 77 FR 41243 (July 13, 2012), pursuant to, inter alia, the... Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of an Individual Pursuant to Executive Order 13619 AGENCY... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the name of one individual whose property and interests...

  13. 78 FR 31632 - Unblocking of (1) One Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order 13573

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ..., ``Blocking Property of Senior Officials of the Government of Syria'' from the list of Specially Designated... of Senior Officials of the Government of Syria,'' (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the... Abdukllah; a.k.a. RAJIHAH, Dawud); DOB 1947; POB Damascus, Syria; Minister of Defense; General...

  14. 77 FR 50210 - Unblocking of One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order 13573

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ..., ``Blocking Property of Senior Officials of the Government of Syria'' from the list of Specially Designated... of Senior Officials of the Government of Syria,'' (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the.... HIJAB, Riyad Farid), Syria; DOB 1966; POB Deir Ezzor, Syria; Prime Minister (individual) . The...

  15. Optomechanical design concept for GMACS: a wide-field multi-object moderate resolution optical spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Prochaska, Travis; Shectman, Stephen A.; Hammond, Randolph P.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the conceptual optomechanical design for GMACS, a wide-field, multi-object, moderate-resolution optical spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMACS is a candidate first-light instrument for the GMT and will be one of several instruments housed in the Gregorian Instrument Rotator (GIR) located at the Gregorian focus. The instrument samples a 9 arcminute x 18 arcminute field of view providing two resolution modes (i.e, low resolution, R ~ 2000, and moderate resolution, R ~ 4000) over a 3700 Å to 10200 Å wavelength range. To minimize the size of the optics, four fold mirrors at the GMT focal plane redirect the full field into four individual "arms", that each comprises a double spectrograph with a red and blue channel. Hence, each arm samples a 4.5 arcminute x 9 arcminute field of view. The optical layout naturally leads to three separate optomechanical assemblies: a focal plane assembly, and two identical optics modules. The focal plane assembly contains the last element of the telescope's wide-field corrector, slit-mask, tent-mirror assembly, and slit-mask magazine. Each of the two optics modules supports two of the four instrument arms and houses the aft-optics (i.e. collimators, dichroics, gratings, and cameras). A grating exchange mechanism, and articulated gratings and cameras facilitate multiple resolution modes. In this paper we describe the details of the GMACS optomechanical design, including the requirements and considerations leading to the design, mechanism details, optics mounts, and predicted flexure performance.

  16. Objective sampling design in a highly heterogeneous landscape - characterizing environmental determinants of malaria vector distribution in French Guiana, in the Amazonian region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sampling design is a key issue when establishing species inventories and characterizing habitats within highly heterogeneous landscapes. Sampling efforts in such environments may be constrained and many field studies only rely on subjective and/or qualitative approaches to design collection strategy. The region of Cacao, in French Guiana, provides an excellent study site to understand the presence and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes, their species dynamics and the transmission risk of malaria across various environments. We propose an objective methodology to define a stratified sampling design. Following thorough environmental characterization, a factorial analysis of mixed groups allows the data to be reduced and non-collinear principal components to be identified while balancing the influences of the different environmental factors. Such components defined new variables which could then be used in a robust k-means clustering procedure. Then, we identified five clusters that corresponded to our sampling strata and selected sampling sites in each stratum. Results We validated our method by comparing the species overlap of entomological collections from selected sites and the environmental similarities of the same sites. The Morisita index was significantly correlated (Pearson linear correlation) with environmental similarity based on i) the balanced environmental variable groups considered jointly (p = 0.001) and ii) land cover/use (p-value << 0.001). The Jaccard index was significantly correlated with land cover/use-based environmental similarity (p-value = 0.001). Conclusions The results validate our sampling approach. Land cover/use maps (based on high spatial resolution satellite images) were shown to be particularly useful when studying the presence, density and diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes at local scales and in very heterogeneous landscapes. PMID:24289184

  17. Setting Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Aaron J.

    1977-01-01

    The author questions the extent to which educators have relied on "relevance" and learner participation in objective-setting in the past decade. He describes a useful approach to learner-oriented evaluation in which content relevance was not judged by participants until after they had been exposed to it. (MF)

  18. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    van der Waaij, Liesbeth H.; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A. M.

    2010-01-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers’ choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers’ selection practices. The participatory farmers’ discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective “traits” and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and “traits” identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers’ ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production

  19. An Impact Study of the Design of Exergaming Parameters on Body Intensity from Objective and Gameplay-Based Player Experience Perspectives, Based on Balance Training Exergame

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Kinect-based exergames allow players to undertake physical exercise in an interactive manner with visual stimulation. Previous studies focused on investigating physical fitness based on calories or heart rate to ascertain the effectiveness of exergames. However, designing an exergame for specific training purposes, with intensity levels suited to the needs and skills of the players, requires the investigation of motion performance to study player experience. This study investigates how parameters of a Kinect-based exergame, combined with balance training exercises, influence the balance control ability and intensity level the player can tolerate, by analyzing both objective and gameplay-based player experience, and taking enjoyment and difficulty levels into account. The exergame tested required participants to maintain their balance standing on one leg within a posture frame (PF) while a force plate evaluated the player's balance control ability in both static and dynamic gaming modes. The number of collisions with the PF depended on the frame's travel time for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate and angle for dynamic PFs. In terms of center of pressure (COP) metrics, significant impacts were caused by the frame's travel time on MDIST-AP for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate on MDIST-ML and TOTEX for dynamic PFs. The best static PF balance control performance was observed with a larger frame offset by a travel time of 2 seconds, and the worst performance with a smaller frame and a travel time of 1 second. The best dynamic PF performance was with a leg-raising rate of 1 second at a 45-degree angle, while the worst performance was with a rate of 2 seconds at a 90-degree angle. The results demonstrated that different evaluation methods for player experience could result in different findings, making it harder to study the design of those exergames with training purposes based on player experience. PMID:23922716

  20. An impact study of the design of exergaming parameters on body intensity from objective and gameplay-based player experience perspectives, based on balance training exergame.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tien-Lung; Lee, Chia-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Kinect-based exergames allow players to undertake physical exercise in an interactive manner with visual stimulation. Previous studies focused on investigating physical fitness based on calories or heart rate to ascertain the effectiveness of exergames. However, designing an exergame for specific training purposes, with intensity levels suited to the needs and skills of the players, requires the investigation of motion performance to study player experience. This study investigates how parameters of a Kinect-based exergame, combined with balance training exercises, influence the balance control ability and intensity level the player can tolerate, by analyzing both objective and gameplay-based player experience, and taking enjoyment and difficulty levels into account. The exergame tested required participants to maintain their balance standing on one leg within a posture frame (PF) while a force plate evaluated the player's balance control ability in both static and dynamic gaming modes. The number of collisions with the PF depended on the frame's travel time for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate and angle for dynamic PFs. In terms of center of pressure (COP) metrics, significant impacts were caused by the frame's travel time on MDIST-AP for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate on MDIST-ML and TOTEX for dynamic PFs. The best static PF balance control performance was observed with a larger frame offset by a travel time of 2 seconds, and the worst performance with a smaller frame and a travel time of 1 second. The best dynamic PF performance was with a leg-raising rate of 1 second at a 45-degree angle, while the worst performance was with a rate of 2 seconds at a 90-degree angle. The results demonstrated that different evaluation methods for player experience could result in different findings, making it harder to study the design of those exergames with training purposes based on player experience. PMID:23922716

  1. Numerical integration of gravitational field for general three-dimensional objects and its application to gravitational study of grand design spiral arm structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We present a method to integrate the gravitational field for general three-dimensional objects. By adopting the spherical polar coordinates centered at the evaluation point as the integration variables, we numerically compute the volume integral representation of the gravitational potential and of the acceleration vector. The variable transformation completely removes the algebraic singularities of the original integrals. The comparison with exact solutions reveals around 15 digits accuracy of the new method. Meanwhile, the 6 digit accuracy of the integrated gravitational field is realized by around 106 evaluations of the integrand per evaluation point, which costs at most a few seconds at a PC with Intel Core i7-4600U CPU running at 2.10 GHz clock. By using the new method, we show the gravitational field of a grand design spiral arm structure as an example. The computed gravitational field shows not only spiral shaped details but also a global feature composed of a thick oblate spheroid and a thin disc. The developed method is directly applicable to the electromagnetic field computation by means of Coulomb's law, the Biot-Savart law, and their retarded extensions. Sample FORTRAN 90 programs and test results are electronically available.

  2. Object-oriented design and implementation of CFDLab: a computer-assisted learning tool for fluid dynamics using dual reciprocity boundary element methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.

    1999-08-01

    As lecturers, our main concern and goal is to develop more attractive and efficient ways of communicating up-to-date scientific knowledge to our students and facilitate an in-depth understanding of physical phenomena. Computer-based instruction is very promising to help both teachers and learners in their difficult task, which involves complex cognitive psychological processes. This complexity is reflected in high demands on the design and implementation methods used to create computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs. Due to their concepts, flexibility, maintainability and extended library resources, object-oriented modeling techniques are very suitable to produce this type of pedagogical tool. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) enjoys not only a growing importance in today's research, but is also very powerful for teaching and learning fluid dynamics. For this purpose, an educational PC program for university level called 'CFDLab 1.1' for Windows™ was developed with an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for multitasking and point-and-click operations. It uses the dual reciprocity boundary element method as a versatile numerical scheme, allowing to handle a variety of relevant governing equations in two dimensions on personal computers due to its simple pre- and postprocessing including 2D Laplace, Poisson, diffusion, transient convection-diffusion.

  3. Regional soft tissue pains: alias myofascial pain?

    PubMed

    Tunks, E; Crook, J

    1999-06-01

    This chapter deals with four main questions: what is the evidence that 'myofascial pain' syndromes exist?; what is the evidence that the myofascial pain concept is clinically useful?; what is the evidence that managing patients in terms of the myofascial pain diagnosis confers benefits?; and what is the evidence-based management of myofascial pain? The purpose of a diagnosis is to provide boundaries around subgroups of illness in a population since each subgroup presumably has a different mechanism, natural history, prognosis, course and response to treatment. The current literature is divided in its conceptual approach to the problem of regional musculoskeletal pain. Some authors regard myofascial pain as being distinct from regional musculoskeletal pain while others regard these as synonymous. A postulated theory of the pathophysiology of myofascial pain is discussed. This contrasts with a view that regional myofascial pain represents a non-specific localized pain arising from multiple regional, systemic and psychosocial factors. In order to consider myofascial pain as a distinct diagnosis, it would be necessary to resolve reliability issues in the identification of its critical diagnostic features. Beyond reliability issues, there are also problems of sensitivity and specificity--i.e. of the patient population that it identifies--which must be resolved if controlled trials are to be conducted. The clinical usefulness of the myofascial pain diagnosis is considered with regard to what is believed about the course of healing, the determinants of disability, the course of regional versus widespread musculoskeletal pain, the relationship of musculoskeletal injury to pain, and the evidence-based management of musculoskeletal pain. An epidemiological perspective is proposed with regard to regional musculoskeletal pain. This allows for the identification of operationally defined strata of regional musculoskeletal pain and permits studies in course, prognosis and treatment, even though some conceptual issues such as the 'myofascial pain diagnosis' remain to be clarified. PMID:10952868

  4. [Small handbook of dioxin et alias].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Hermanns, J F; Hermanns-Lê, T; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    1999-08-01

    Dioxin is the common name for a series of 75 dibenzodioxins, 135 dibenzofurans and 209 PCBs. Among these chemicals, less than 30 prove to be toxic. Those molecules can act as hormone disrupters, suppress the immune system, alter the physiology of the sebaceus follicle and participate in the carcinogenesis of sacromas, lymphomas and some carcinomas. They may be responsible for some birth defects. In some regions of the world, dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals are present in the environment, the food chain and body tissues at doses at or near at the level supposed to cause harm to public health. PMID:10548891

  5. 78 FR 31631 - Designation of Three (3) Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13573 of May 18, 2011, “Blocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... of May 18, 2011, ``Blocking Property of Senior Officials of the Government of Syria'' AGENCY: Office... Senior Officials of the Government of Syria.'' DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the... Officials of the Government of Syria,'' (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the International...

  6. 76 FR 55167 - Designation of Three Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13573 of May 18, 2011, “Blocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... May 18, 2011, ``Blocking Property of Senior Officials of the Government of Syria'' AGENCY: Office of... Officials of the Government of Syria.'' DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the three... the Government of Syria,'' (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the International...

  7. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram

  8. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-01

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced. PMID:27505830

  9. Debunking the Buzz Words Or Can Hermeneutic Analysis Be Used To Evaluate Pedagogically Based Learning Objects Designed from Constructivist Epistemological Ontologies Defined in XML Metadata?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Bronwyn; Hensman, Jim; Hofmann, Tobias; Dewey, Barbara; Brown, Helen; Cameron, Sonja

    Arguably the biggest "buzz word" of the current year has been "learning or knowledge object". To understand the learning object and why it should be such a highly desirable commodity, it is necessary to unpack not only this concept but more importantly revisit some contributing concepts and constructs (more buzz words) that support the building of…

  10. Infant Perception of Visually Presented Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, T. G. R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A previously-reported experiment designed to determine if newborn infants can distinguish between an object and a picture of that object is flawed. The experimental design and an improved design are discussed. (BB)

  11. Gender Object Identification Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  12. Package for fragile objects

    DOEpatents

    Burgeson, Duane A.

    1977-01-01

    A package for fragile objects such as radioactive fusion pellets of micron size shipped in mounted condition or unmounted condition with a frangible inner container which is supported in a second inner container which in turn is supported in a final outer container, the second inner container having recesses for supporting alternate design inner containers.

  13. Developing Design Criteria for Research Facilities (A Report on a Brief Exploratory Study of Approaches to Establishing an Objective, Quantitative Data Base).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Wesley L.

    A study which was concerned with establishing data and a criteria basis for evaluating and designing research and science facilities is overviewed with suggestions for facility design. The surveying method, organization, and results are all included, revealing statistical information for science facility planners. Problems and misconceptions of…

  14. The Development of an Instrument Designed To Secure Student Assessment of Teaching Behaviors That Correlate with Objective Measures of Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Stephen H.

    This paper describes the development of a research instrument designed to reveal student assessment of teacher behavior and to determine whether this can be correlated to student gain, as evidenced by pre- and posttest scores in the BSCS Third Quarterly Chievement Test. The experiment was carried out with ninth and tenth grade public school…

  15. Finding the object'' proceedings addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report - Designing a Groundwater Monitoring Network for the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Lindberg, Jon W.

    2002-09-30

    This document presents the results of a series of interviews held with technical, management, and regulatory staff to determine the groundwater data quality objectives (DQOs) for monitoring activities associated with the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 operable units located in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This assessment is needed to address changing contaminant plume conditions (e.g., plume migration) and to ensure that monitoring activities meet the requirements for performance monitoring as prescribed by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) past practice, and Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) regulatory requirements and orders.

  17. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High-­Resolution X-­ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Gates, D; Neilson, H; Reiman, A; Roquemore, A L; Morita, S; Goto, M; Yamada, H

    2010-05-19

    A high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose instrumental concept was thoroughly tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is presently being designed for LHD. The instrument will record spatially resolved spectra of helium-like Ar16+ and provide ion temperature profiles with spatial and temporal resolutions of 1 cm and > 10 ms which are obtained by a tomographic inversion of the spectral data, using the stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes, STELLOPT and PIES. Since the spectrometer will be equipped with radiation hardened, high count rate, PILATUS detectors,, it is expected to be operational for all experimental conditions on LHD, which include plasmas of high density and plasmas with auxiliary RF and neutral beam heating. The special design features required by the magnetic field structure at LHD will be described.

  18. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study. Volume 1: Testbed program objectives and priorities, drive system and aircraft design studies, evaluation and recommendations and wind tunnel test plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, E. S.; Little, B. H.; Warnock, W.; Jenness, C. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Powell, C. W.; Shoaf, L.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of propfan technology readiness was determined and candidate drive systems for propfan application were identified. Candidate testbed aircraft were investigated for testbed aircraft suitability and four aircraft selected as possible propfan testbed vehicles. An evaluation of the four candidates was performed and the Boeing KC-135A and the Gulfstream American Gulfstream II recommended as the most suitable aircraft for test application. Conceptual designs of the two recommended aircraft were performed and cost and schedule data for the entire testbed program were generated. The program total cost was estimated and a wind tunnel program cost and schedule is generated in support of the testbed program.

  19. An objective re-evaluation of adaptive sample size re-estimation: commentary on 'Twenty-five years of confirmatory adaptive designs'.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Cyrus; Liu, Lingyun

    2016-02-10

    Over the past 25 years, adaptive designs have gradually gained acceptance and are being used with increasing frequency in confirmatory clinical trials. Recent surveys of submissions to the regulatory agencies reveal that the most popular type of adaptation is unblinded sample size re-estimation. Concerns have nevertheless been raised that this type of adaptation is inefficient.We intend to show in our discussion that such concerns are greatly exaggerated in any practical setting and that the advantages of adaptive sample size re-estimation usually outweigh any minor loss of efficiency. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26757953

  20. Gross parameters prediction of a granular-attached biomass reactor by means of multi-objective genetic-designed artificial neural networks: touristic pressure management case.

    PubMed

    Del Moro, G; Barca, E; De Sanctis, M; Mascolo, G; Di Iaconi, C

    2016-03-01

    The Artificial Neural Networks by Multi-objective Genetic Algorithms (ANN-MOGA) model has been applied to gross parameters data of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) with the aim of providing an effective tool for predicting the fluctuations coming from touristic pressure. Six independent multivariate models, which were able to predict the dynamics of raw chemical oxygen demand (COD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODsol), total suspended solid (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH4 (+)) and total phosphorus (Ptot), were developed. The ANN-MOGA software application has shown to be suitable for addressing the SBBGR reactor modelling. The R (2) found are very good, with values equal to 0.94, 0.92, 0.88, 0.88, 0.98 and 0.91 for COD, CODsol, N-NH4 (+), TN, Ptot and TSS, respectively. A comparison was made between SBBGR and traditional activated sludge treatment plant modelling. The results showed the better performance of the ANN-MOGA application with respect to a wide selection of scientific literature cases. PMID:26573316

  1. General object-oriented software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, Edwin V.; Stark, Mike

    1986-01-01

    Object-oriented design techniques are gaining increasing popularity for use with the Ada programming language. A general approach to object-oriented design which synthesizes the principles of previous object-oriented methods into the overall software life-cycle, providing transitions from specification to design and from design to code. It therefore provides the basis for a general object-oriented development methodology.

  2. Non-invasive cardiac assessment in high risk patients (The GROUND study): rationale, objectives and design of a multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Alexander M; Rutten, Annemarieke; van de Zaag-Loonen, Hester J; Bots, Michiel L; Dikkers, Riksta; Buiskool, Robert A; Mali, Willem P; Lubbers, Daniel D; Mosterd, Arend; Prokop, Mathias; Rensing, Benno J; Cramer, Maarten J; van Es, H Wouter; Moll, Frans L; van de Pavoordt, Eric D; Doevendans, Pieter A; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Mackaay, Albert J; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disease associated with a considerably increased risk of future cardiovascular events and most of these patients will die from coronary artery disease (CAD). Screening for silent CAD has become an option with recent non-invasive developments in CT (computed tomography)-angiography and MR (magnetic resonance) stress testing. Screening in combination with more aggressive treatment may improve prognosis. Therefore we propose to study whether a cardiac imaging algorithm, using non-invasive imaging techniques followed by treatment will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in PAD patients free from cardiac symptoms. Design The GROUND study is designed as a prospective, multi-center, randomized clinical trial. Patients with peripheral arterial disease, but without symptomatic cardiac disease will be asked to participate. All patients receive a proper risk factor management before randomization. Half of the recruited patients will enter the 'control group' and only undergo CT calcium scoring. The other half of the recruited patients (index group) will undergo the non invasive cardiac imaging algorithm followed by evidence-based treatment. First, patients are submitted to CT calcium scoring and CT angiography. Patients with a left main (or equivalent) coronary artery stenosis of > 50% on CT will be referred to a cardiologist without further imaging. All other patients in this group will undergo dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) testing. Patients with a DSMR positive for ischemia will also be referred to a cardiologist. These patients are candidates for conventional coronary angiography and cardiac interventions (coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous cardiac interventions (PCI)), if indicated. All participants of the trial will enter a 5 year follow up period for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Sequential interim analysis will take place. Based on sample size calculations about

  3. UK Back pain Exercise And Manipulation (UK BEAM) trial – national randomised trial of physical treatments for back pain in primary care: objectives, design and interventions [ISRCTN32683578

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Background Low back pain has major health and social implications. Although there have been many randomised controlled trials of manipulation and exercise for the management of low back pain, the role of these two treatments in its routine management remains unclear. A previous trial comparing private chiropractic treatment with National Health Service (NHS) outpatient treatment, which found a benefit from chiropractic treatment, has been criticised because it did not take treatment location into account. There are data to suggest that general exercise programmes may have beneficial effects on low back pain. The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) has funded this major trial of physical treatments for back pain, based in primary care. It aims to establish if, when added to best care in general practice, a defined package of spinal manipulation and a defined programme of exercise classes (Back to Fitness) improve participant-assessed outcomes. Additionally the trial compares outcomes between participants receiving the spinal manipulation in NHS premises and in private premises. Design Randomised controlled trial using a 3 × 2 factorial design. Methods We sought to randomise 1350 participants with simple low back pain of at least one month's duration. These came from 14 locations across the UK, each with a cluster of 10–15 general practices that were members of the MRC General Practice Research Framework (GPRF). All practices were trained in the active management of low back pain. Participants were randomised to this form of general practice care only, or this general practice care plus manipulation, or this general practice care plus exercise, or this general practice care plus manipulation followed by exercise. Those randomised to manipulation were further randomised to receive treatment in either NHS or private premises. Follow up was by postal questionnaire one, three and 12 months after randomisation. The primary analysis will consider the main treatment

  4. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  5. Object linking in repositories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  6. Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP): a health survey in an East German region. Objectives and design of the oral health section.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Elke; Gesch, Dietmar; Biffar, Reiner; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kocher, Thomas; Splieth, Christian; Born, Gabriele; John, Ulrich

    2003-05-01

    The goal of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) was to estimate the prevalence of diseases, identify potential risk factors in a defined region in northeast Germany, and examine the particular living situation of this population after the reunification of East and West Germany. One of the main concerns of the SHIP design is the analysis of the relationships between dental, medical, social, and environmentally and behaviorally determined health factors. SHIP is a cross-sectional study (clinical findings and sociologic interviews). The sample was drawn in two steps: Thirty-two communities in the region were selected, and within these communities, a simple random sample was drawn from residence registries, stratified by gender and age. The final sample included 4,310 males and females, aged 20 to 79 years. This is equivalent to a participation rate of 68.8%. Data collection was completed in May 2001. The data collection and items comprised four parts: oral health examination, medical examination, health-related interview, and a health- and risk-factor-related questionnaire. The oral health examination included the teeth, periodontium, oral mucosa, morphology and function of the craniomandibular system, and prosthodontics. The medical examination included blood pressure measurements; electrocardiography; echocardiography; carotid, thyroid, and liver ultrasound examinations; neurologic screening; and blood and urine sampling. The computer-assisted interview consisted of questions on symptoms of disease, utilization of medical and dental services, self-assessment of general and oral health, health behavior and knowledge, and socioeconomic variables. The self-administered questionnaire comprised housing conditions, social network, work conditions, subjective well-being, and individual consequences of the German reunification. PMID:12795357

  7. Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  8. A State Articulated Instructional Objectives Guide for Occupational Education Programs. State Pilot Model for Drafting (Graphic Communications). Part I--Basic. Part II--Specialty Programs. Section A (Mechanical Drafting and Design). Section B (Architectural Drafting and Design).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    A two-part articulation instructional objective guide for drafting (graphic communications) is provided. Part I contains summary information on seven blocks (courses) of instruction. They are as follow: introduction; basic technical drafting; problem solving in graphics; reproduction processes; freehand drawing and sketching; graphics composition;…

  9. Masonry. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Moses

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate masonry course. These materials, developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course, are designed to provide the student with the skills and knowledge necessary for entry level employment in the field…

  10. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  11. Drafting. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Charles

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 12 terminal objectives for a basic drafting course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 hours daily). The organized classroom and shop experiences are designed to enable the student to develop general competencies in the…

  12. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  13. Carpentry. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, C. L.; Adcox, John W., Jr.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 12 terminal objectives in this course guide in basic carpentry. The guide is designed to prepare persons for initial employment, or to upgrade or retrain persons already employed, or to provide the apprenticeship related course work necessary to…

  14. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  15. Making CORBA objects persistent: The object database adapter approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reverbel, F.C.R.

    1997-05-01

    In spite of its remarkable successes in promoting standards for distributed object systems, the Object Management Group (OMG) has not yet settled the issue of object persistence in the Object Request Broker (ORB) environment. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification briefly mentions an Object-Oriented Database Adapter that makes objects stored in an object-oriented database accessible through the ORB. This idea is pursued in the Appendix B of the ODMG standard, which identifies a number of issues involved in using an Object Database Management System (ODBMS) in a CORBA environment, and proposes an Object Database Adapter (ODA) to realize the integration of the ORB with the ODBMS. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an ODA that integrates an ORB and an ODBMS with C++ bindings. For the author`s purposes, an ODBMS is a system with programming interfaces. It may be a pure object-oriented DBMS (an OODBMS), or a combination of a relational DBMS and an object-relational mapper.

  16. Writing Behavioral Objectives. Learning Package No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monasmith, James

    This learning package is designed to enable the learner to: (a) define behavioral objectives and list characteristics of those objectives; (b) distinguish between objectives which are behaviorally stated and those not so stated; (c) identify action verbs useful to constructing behavioral objectives; (d) write objectives for a field of cognitive…

  17. Object Manipulation Facilitates Kind-Based Object Individuation of Shape-Similar Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were…

  18. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Designing Artificial Selection Experiments for Specific Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Bohren, B. B.

    1975-01-01

    The observed genetic gain (ΔP) from selection in a finite population is the possible expected genetic gain E(Δ G) minus the difference in inbreeding depression effects in the selected and control lines. The inbreeding depression can be avoided by crossing the control and selected ♂ and ♀ parents to unrelated mates and summing the observed gains. The possible expected gain will be reduced by an amount D from the predicted gain because of the effects of the genetic limit and random genetic drift, the magnitude of which is a function of effective population size, N. The expected value of D is zero in unselected control populations and in the first generation for selected populations. Therefore, this source of bias can be reduced by increasing N in the selected populations and can be avoided by selecting for a single generation. To obtain observed responses which are unbiased estimates of the predicted response from which to estimate the realized heritability (or regression) in the zero generation, or to test genetic theory based on infinite population size, single-generation selection with many replications would be most efficient. To measure the "total" effect or genetic efficiency of a selection criterion or method, including the effect of different selection intensities, effective population sizes, and space requirements, more than one generation of selection is required to estimate the expected response in breeding values. The efficiency, in the sense of minimum variance, of estimating the expected breeding values at any generation t will decline as the number of generations t increases. The variance of either the estimated mean gain or the regression of gain on selection differential can be reduced more by increasing the number of replicates K than by increasing the number of generations t. Also the general pattern of the response over t can be estimated if the N's are known. Therefore, two- or not more than three-generation selection experiments with many replications would be most efficient. PMID:17248682

  20. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  1. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  2. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  3. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  4. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  5. GRIPPING DEVICE FOR CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS

    DOEpatents

    Pilger, J.P.

    1964-01-21

    A gripping device is designed for fragile cylindrical objects such as for drawing thin-walled tubes. The gripping is done by multiple jaw members held in position by two sets of slots, one defined by keystone-shaped extensions of the outer shell of the device and the other in a movable sleeve held slidably by the extensions. Forward movement oi the sleeve advances the jaws, thereby exerting a controlled, radial pressure on the object being gripped. (AEC)

  6. The analysis of selected orientation methods of architectural objects' scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, Jakub S.; Kajdewicz, Irmina; Zawieska, Dorota

    2015-05-01

    The terrestrial laser scanning is commonly used in different areas, inter alia in modelling architectural objects. One of the most important part of TLS data processing is scans registration. It significantly affects the accuracy of generation of high resolution photogrammetric documentation. This process is time consuming, especially in case of a large number of scans. It is mostly based on an automatic detection and a semi-automatic measurement of control points placed on the object. In case of the complicated historical buildings, sometimes it is forbidden to place survey targets on an object or it may be difficult to distribute survey targets in the optimal way. Such problems encourage the search for the new methods of scan registration which enable to eliminate the step of placing survey targets on the object. In this paper the results of target-based registration method are presented The survey targets placed on the walls of historical chambers of the Museum of King Jan III's Palace at Wilanów and on the walls of ruins of the Bishops Castle in Iłża were used for scan orientation. Several variants of orientation were performed, taking into account different placement and different number of survey marks. Afterwards, during next research works, raster images were generated from scans and the SIFT and SURF algorithms for image processing were used to automatically search for corresponding natural points. The case of utilisation of automatically identified points for TLS data orientation was analysed. The results of both methods for TLS data registration were summarized and presented in numerical and graphical forms.

  7. Behavioral Objectives?-No!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Bill L.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses his reasons for objecting to the use of behavioral objectives in education. Article is in response to Robert Blake's article on Behavioral Objectives and the Teaching of English" in English Education, Winter 1971. (RB)

  8. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  9. Operator Localization of Virtual Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects'age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are also influenced by their relative position when superimposed. Design implications are discussed.

  10. Research directions in object-oriented programming

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, B.; Wegner, P.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions in this book provide the most complete survey available in programming languages, databases, and programming semantics. The contents include: The Beta Programming Language: Common Objects: An Object-Oriented Programming Language with Encapsulation and Inheritance: Actors: A Conceptual Foundation for Object-Oriented Programmming: Vulcan; A model for Object-Based Inheritance; Definition Groups; Block-Structure and Object-Oriented Languages; A Mechanism for Specifying the Structure of Large Layered Programs; Classification in Object-Oriented Systems; Extensions and Foundations of Object-Oriented Programming; Object-Oriented Specification; Object-Oriented Databases; Development and Implementation of an Object-Oriented Database Management System; Maintaining Consistency in Databases with Changing Types; Object-Oriented Environments; An Object-Oriented Framework for Graphical Programming; A Substrate for Object-Oriented Interface Design.

  11. A P300-based Brain-Computer Interface with Stimuli on Moving Objects: Four-Session Single-Trial and Triple-Trial Tests with a Game-Like Task Design

    PubMed Central

    Ganin, Ilya P.; Shishkin, Sergei L.; Kaplan, Alexander Y.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are tools for controlling computers and other devices without using muscular activity, employing user-controlled variations in signals recorded from the user’s brain. One of the most efficient noninvasive BCIs is based on the P300 wave of the brain’s response to stimuli and is therefore referred to as the P300 BCI. Many modifications of this BCI have been proposed to further improve the BCI’s characteristics or to better adapt the BCI to various applications. However, in the original P300 BCI and in all of its modifications, the spatial positions of stimuli were fixed relative to each other, which can impose constraints on designing applications controlled by this BCI. We designed and tested a P300 BCI with stimuli presented on objects that were freely moving on a screen at a speed of 5.4°/s. Healthy participants practiced a game-like task with this BCI in either single-trial or triple-trial mode within four sessions. At each step, the participants were required to select one of nine moving objects. The mean online accuracy of BCI-based selection was 81% in the triple-trial mode and 65% in the single-trial mode. A relatively high P300 amplitude was observed in response to targets in most participants. Self-rated interest in the task was high and stable over the four sessions (the medians in the 1st/4th sessions were 79/84% and 76/71% in the groups practicing in the single-trial and triple-trial modes, respectively). We conclude that the movement of stimulus positions relative to each other may not prevent the efficient use of the P300 BCI by people controlling their gaze, e.g., in robotic devices and in video games. PMID:24302977

  12. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  13. Early object rule acquisition.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D E

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a grounded theory of early object rule acquisition. The grounded theory approach and computer coding were used to analyze videotaped samples of an infant's and a toddler's independent object play, which produced the categories descriptive of three primary types of object rules; rules of object properties, rules of object action, and rules of object affect. This occupational science theory offers potential for understanding the role of objects in human occupations, for development of instruments, and for applications in occupational therapy early intervention. PMID:2048625

  14. The Trouble with Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Patrick E.

    2004-01-01

    Object-oriented instructional design (OOID) offers the promise of universal access to online instructional materials, increased productivity among trainers and educators, and solutions for individualizing learning. However, it is unclear whether it can fulfill these promises to the degree many envision. As with every new instructional technology,…

  15. Object-Oriented Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ian; Schaffer, Scott P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a framework to support an object-oriented approach to performance analysis and instructional design that includes collaboration, automation, visual modeling, and reusable Web-based repositories of analysis knowledge. Relates the need for a new framework to the increasing concern with the cost effectiveness of student and employee…

  16. Michael Beitz: Objects of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoefferle, Mary

    2014-01-01

    For this Instructional Resource, the author interviewed contemporary sculptor Michael Beitz, who uses art to explore the role of designed objects in human communication and emotional experience. This column was written in response to calls for using Enduring Understandings/Big Ideas (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013; Stewart &…

  17. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  18. Matrix evaluation of science objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.

    1994-01-01

    The most fundamental objective of all robotic planetary spacecraft is to return science data. To accomplish this, a spacecraft is fabricated and built, software is planned and coded, and a ground system is designed and implemented. However, the quantitative analysis required to determine how the collection of science data drives ground system capabilities has received very little attention. This paper defines a process by which science objectives can be quantitatively evaluated. By applying it to the Cassini Mission to Saturn, this paper further illustrates the power of this technique. The results show which science objectives drive specific ground system capabilities. In addition, this process can assist system engineers and scientists in the selection of the science payload during pre-project mission planning; ground system designers during ground system development and implementation; and operations personnel during mission operations.

  19. Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.

  20. Object-oriented productivity metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John L.; Eller, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Software productivity metrics are useful for sizing and costing proposed software and for measuring development productivity. Estimating and measuring source lines of code (SLOC) has proven to be a bad idea because it encourages writing more lines of code and using lower level languages. Function Point Analysis is an improved software metric system, but it is not compatible with newer rapid prototyping and object-oriented approaches to software development. A process is presented here for counting object-oriented effort points, based on a preliminary object-oriented analysis. It is proposed that this approach is compatible with object-oriented analysis, design, programming, and rapid prototyping. Statistics gathered on actual projects are presented to validate the approach.

  1. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  2. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002084.htm Eye - foreign object in To use the sharing features on this ... Blinking The eye will often flush out small objects, like eyelashes and sand, through blinking and tearing. ...

  3. The Problem of Form in Objects under Redevelopment (On the Basis of Bytom Market Square Redevelopment Design) / Problem Formy W Obiektach Przebudowywanych (Na Przykładzie Projektu Realizacyjnego Przebudowy Bytomskiego Rynku)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryńczuk, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    The author believes that if a designer has performed many design or research works entailing solutions to various problems, it is recommendable to consider and become aware of previously used methods whose application might have been unwitting or instinctive. The outcome of such reflection can be worth describing and recording in order to formulate a set of guidelines useful in the future. Such methods, being intuitive in nature, are often tied to the designer's subconsciousness, thus are rarely expressed in a clear manner. By using own methods a designer can prove that space should be composed in a given way in order to address specific needs and defined objectives. All this is aimed at preventing accidental formation of space. An example of reasoning serving the aforementioned purpose can be found in a method referred to as CQC or Composition Quality Control, the application of which facilitates intentional shaping of an architectural piece of work. Autor uważa uważa, że jeśli projektant ma za sobą wiele prac projektowych lub też prac badawczych, które połączone były z rozwiązywaniem różnych problemów, to warto zastanowić się i uświadomić sobie sposoby, które dotychczas - może nieświadomie lub odruchowo - były stosowane. Wynik refleksji warto opisać i zapisać po to, żeby ująć go w układ wskazań na przyszłość. Metody te, mając charakter intuicyjny, często związane są z podświadomością projektanta, w związku z tym rzadko można spotkać je jako wyrażone w sposób wyraźny. Stosując metody własne można dowieść, że przestrzeń winna być komponowana tak, a nie inaczej dla określonych potrzeb i wytyczonych celów tak, aby jej forma nie była przypadkowa. Przykładem takiego rozumowania jest przyjeta metoda KJK, której zastosowanie pomaga w swiadomym kształtowaniu dzieła architektonicznego.

  4. The core legion object model

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.; Grimshaw, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Legion project at the University of Virginia is an architecture for designing and building system services that provide the illusion of a single virtual machine to users, a virtual machine that provides secure shared object and shared name spaces, application adjustable fault-tolerance, improved response time, and greater throughput. Legion targets wide area assemblies of workstations, supercomputers, and parallel supercomputers, Legion tackles problems not solved by existing workstation based parallel processing tools; the system will enable fault-tolerance, wide area parallel processing, inter-operability, heterogeneity, a single global name space, protection, security, efficient scheduling, and comprehensive resource management. This paper describes the core Legion object model, which specifies the composition and functionality of Legion`s core objects-those objects that cooperate to create, locate, manage, and remove objects in the Legion system. The object model facilitates a flexible extensible implementation, provides a single global name space, grants site autonomy to participating organizations, and scales to millions of sites and trillions of objects.

  5. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  6. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

  7. Behavioral Objectives for English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Robert

    1972-01-01

    A review-critique of On Writing Behavioral Objectives for English, by John Maxwell and Anthony Lovat, in which behavioral objectives theory is dominated by a stimulus-response rather than a stimulus-response-reinforcement psychology. The reviewer questions whether behavioral objectives can be applied accurately and without distortion of meanings,…

  8. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  9. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  10. Music Objectives: Second Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The document describes the development of objectives and presents objectives formulated by music educators, lay individuals, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) staff in 1973. Objectives from the first music assessment were reappraised, reviewed, and revised to include greater breadth of application, greater emphasis on the…

  11. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  12. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  13. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  14. Law Enforcement Careers. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.S.

    Intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of nine terminal objectives for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course designed to provide high school students with basic introductory law enforcement skills and knowledge. Titles of the nine terminal objectives are Orientation, Law Enforcement Ethics,…

  15. 10 CFR 436.2 - General objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General objectives. 436.2 Section 436.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS § 436.2 General objectives. The objectives of Federal energy management and planning programs are: (a) To apply energy conservation measures to, and improve the design...

  16. Data-Driven Objectness.

    PubMed

    Hongwen Kang; Hebert, Martial; Efros, Alexei A; Kanade, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a data-driven approach to estimate the likelihood that an image segment corresponds to a scene object (its "objectness") by comparing it to a large collection of example object regions. We demonstrate that when the application domain is known, for example, in our case activity of daily living (ADL), we can capture the regularity of the domain specific objects using millions of exemplar object regions. Our approach to estimating the objectness of an image region proceeds in two steps: 1) finding the exemplar regions that are the most similar to the input image segment; 2) calculating the objectness of the image segment by combining segment properties, mutual consistency across the nearest exemplar regions, and the prior probability of each exemplar region. In previous work, parametric objectness models were built from a small number of manually annotated objects regions, instead, our data-driven approach uses 5 million object regions along with their metadata information. Results on multiple data sets demonstrates our data-driven approach compared to the existing model based techniques. We also show the application of our approach in improving the performance of object discovery algorithms. PMID:26353218

  17. Object Function Facilitates Infants' Object Individuation in a Manual Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of object function (action-object-outcome relations) on object individuation in infancy. Five experiments examined the ability of 9.5- and 12-month-old infants to individuate simple geometric objects in a manual search design. Experiments 1 through 4 (12-month-olds, N = 128) provided several combinations of…

  18. Health effects of environmental exposure to cadmium: objectives, design and organization of the cadmibel study: a cross-sectional morbidity study carried out in Belgium from 1985 to 1989

    PubMed Central

    Lauwerys, Robert; Amery, Antoon; Bernard, Alfred; Bruaux, Pierre; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Claeys, Françoise; De Plaen, Pierre; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Fagard, Robert; Lijnen, Paul; Nick, Laurence; Roels, Harry; Rondia, Désiré; Saint-Remy, Annie; Sartor, Francis; Staessen, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative environmental pollutant. For the general population mainly exposed by the oral route and through tobacco smoke inhalation, the kidney is the critical organ. Belgium is the principal producer of cadmium in Europe, and certain areas of the country are polluted by cadmium mainly because of past emissions from nonferrous industries. Preliminary studies carried out in one polluted area have suggested that environmental pollution might lead to an increased uptake of cadmium by the human body and possibly to health effects. Thus, a large-scale morbidity study has been initiated to assess the validity of this hypothesis. The present paper describes the protocol of this study. Its main objectives are to determine to what extent environmental exposure to cadmium resulting from industrial emissions may lead to accumulation of the metal in the human organism; to establish whether or not environmental exposure may induce renal changes and/or influence blood pressure; and to assess the acceptable internal dose of cadmium for the general population. The study design takes advantage of the fact that biological indicators of exposure, body burden, and early nephrotoxic effects of cadmium are available, which increase the likelihood of detecting a cause-effect relationship. PMID:2269233

  19. SMOS Measurements Preliminary Validation: Objectives and Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabia, Roberto; Gourrion, Jerome; Gabarró, Carolina; Talone, Marco; Portabella, Marcos; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Lopez de Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Camps, Adriano; Monerris, Alessandra; Font, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The Earth Explorer Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was successfully launched on November 2nd, 2009, in the framework of the European Space Agency Living Planet programme. It will provide long-awaited remotely-sensed Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) maps over the oceans with a 3-day revisiting time [1]. The SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre (SMOS-BEC) in Barcelona, Spain, will be involved in several activities at different levels of the salinity retrieval processing chain, which are classified according to the objectives/issues being addressed. In particular, those described hereafter refer to the validation of the products and the consolidation/improvement of the salinity retrieval procedure itself [2]. This will be carried out by performing specific comparisons against modelled brightness temperatures (TB) or external salinity data sources. Due to start at the beginning of the Commissioning Phase, the post-launch 6-month checkout and calibration period, these studies will continue through the nominal satellite operation phase. They will support the choice of an optimal data selection strategy in regard to the existing trade-off, for instance the Ascending/Descending tracks selection, the AF-FOV/EAF-FOV (Alias-Free Field Of View/Extended Alias-Free Field Of View) selection, and some possible across-track data filtering. Moreover, they will help in the definition of an optimal processing configuration (separated polarization retrieval versus first Stokes parameter retrieval). Concerning the TB, the approach is to perform inter-comparisons of the TB departures (SMOS TB minus modelled TB, assuming knowledge of auxiliary information and proper TB direct modelling). The TB departures statistics analysis will be performed at both Antenna and Earth-surface levels. In order to obtain the latter product, a surface TB module is being derived taking into account the various TB perturbing sources. The comparison with forward-modelled TB will help to devise an optimum

  20. From Visions to Practical Policy: The Universal Design Journey in Norway. What Did We Learn? What Did We Gain? What Now?

    PubMed

    Lund, Einar; Bringa, Olav Rand

    2016-01-01

    The national policy in Norway have since the last part of the 1990-ies been organized in programs that erected actions including national authorities, municipalities, regional authorities and private enterprises. What have we gained by our national activities to mainstream inclusive and accessibility policy for persons with reduced capability through the principles of Universal Design? Have we made society accessible to everyone and prevented discrimination. Are the results visible? We can measure results on several sectors, inter alia public buildings, outdoor areas, central communication hubs, public transport and the occurrence plans for Universal Design in municipalities and regions. Through several programs and action plans the Norwegian government has developed a sectoral approach for including persons with disabilities in the society. The majority of ministries have participated in these plans. Local initiatives, local councils for disabled people, and later on municipalities and county administrations were supported by national authorities as complements to regulations and laws. In addition, guidelines and assisting funds were used. The main objective was to redefine the national policy, using better defined national goals and introducing Universal Design to replace accessibility as the basic tool. The mainstreaming of the accessibility policy, where Universal Design was included in relevant sectors and activities, was a crucial part of the strategy. The national policy was organized in programs that erected actions focusing on how to reach, inspire and include municipalities and regional authorities in their own struggle for Universal Design. Through the mainstream approach ministries have both earmarked economic transfers to their own agencies and used steering documents guide to these agencies how to implement Universal Design in their advisory services, in practicing laws and regulations and in their own planning and building activities. PMID:27534285

  1. Reasoning about Function Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  2. Herbig-Haro objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    The IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) spectra of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects and their relation to the very detailed optical spectra available for these objects are studied. Useful information about the physics of HH objects in general and especially about their hydrodynamic models which are contained in these IUE observations is outlined. The merged spectra of high excitation, low excitation HH objects (like HH43 and HH47), and peculiar HH objects are discussed. Results of the spatial variation of lines and continua in HH objects are discussed. Their compatibility with predictions for aerodynamic and especially bow shock models is discussed. The problems arising in the interpretation of the continuous energy distribution in the short wavelength range are discussed. They require the presence of other emission mechanisms in addition to the collisionally enhanced two photon continuum. In HH43 the fluorescent H2 line emission comes from a surprisingly small spatial region. Implications of these results are discussed.

  3. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  4. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  5. Object-oriented models of cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Mather, G

    2001-05-01

    Information-processing models of vision and cognition are inspired by procedural programming languages. Models that emphasize object-based representations are closely related to object-oriented programming languages. The concepts underlying object-oriented languages provide a theoretical framework for cognitive processing that differs markedly from that offered by procedural languages. This framework is well-suited to a system designed to deal flexibly with discrete objects and unpredictable events in the world. PMID:11323249

  6. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  7. Perceptual objects capture attention.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Yaffa; Kimchi, Ruth; Sha'shoua, Guy; Carmel, Tomer

    2009-06-01

    A recent study has demonstrated that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field into an object attracts attention automatically [Kimchi, R., Yeshurun, Y., & Cohen-Savransky, A. (2007). Automatic, stimulus-driven attentional capture by objecthood. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(1), 166-172]. We tested whether similar results will emerge when the target is not a part of the object and with simplified task demands. A matrix of 16 black L elements in various orientations preceded the presentation of a Vernier target. The target was either added to the matrix (Experiment 1), or appeared after its offset (Experiment 2). On some trials four elements formed a square-like object, and on some of these trials the target appeared in the center of the object. No featural uniqueness or abrupt onset was associated with the object and it did not predict the target location or the direction of the target's horizontal offset. Performance was better when the target appeared in the center of the object than in a different location than the object, even when the target appeared after the matrix offset. These findings support the hypothesis that a perceptual object captures attention (Kimchi et al., 2007), and demonstrate that this automatic deployment of attention to the object is robust and involves a spatial component. PMID:18299141

  8. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  9. Object technology: A white paper

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Cain, W.D.; Stephens, W.M.; Vickers, B.D.

    1992-05-11

    Object-Oriented Technology (OOT), although not a new paradigm, has recently been prominently featured in the trade press and even general business publications. Indeed, the promises of object technology are alluring: the ability to handle complex design and engineering information through the full manufacturing production life cycle or to manipulate multimedia information, and the ability to improve programmer productivity in creating and maintaining high quality software. Groups at a number of the DOE facilities have been exploring the use of object technology for engineering, business, and other applications. In this white paper, the technology is explored thoroughly and compared with previous means of developing software and storing databases of information. Several specific projects within the DOE Complex are described, and the state of the commercial marketplace is indicated.

  10. Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, R. J.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Angel, J. R. P.; Bartko, F.; Mccoy, J.; Ripp, L.; Bohlin, R.; Davidsen, A. F.; Ford, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) designed for use with The Space Telescope (ST), is currently preparing for instrument assembly, integration, alignment, and calibration. Nearly all optical and detector elements have been completed and calibrated, and selection of flight detectors and all but a few optical elements has been made. Calibration results for the flight detectors and optics are presented, and plans for forthcoming system calibration are briefly described.

  11. Solid-object digitizing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunthankar, S.

    1990-08-01

    This paper describes a method concerned with the design and construction of a systeL to measure and record discrete surface locations from actual physical objects. It also investigates different image processing techniques, compaction of graphical data algorithms and 3-D object reconstruction and manipulation, from a laser scanner for the reconstruction of the human soft tissue of the face out of the skull. It is a robotic laser ranging system that automatically generates three dimensional surface co-ordinates starting from homemorphic surfaced objects. The principle of the digitising process is based on triangulation between a laser point, illuminated on the surface of the object and two custom-built light sensors. Given the geometry of the system, one of the light sensors detects the small spot on the object and then calculates a representative point in Euclidean three space. A two degree-offreedom electro-mechanical system translates the laser and rotates the object in order to discretise the entire object. Representations of complex real objects have been generated in a relatively short time with very good resolution. For example, a human skull can be digitised, representing over 5000 surface points, in a little over one hour. The data representations can then be viewed and manipulated in real time on high performance graphics devices or viewed and then animated as a realistic image on raster graphics. The principal aim of this project is to develop Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge based system techniques to infer the depth of the soft tissue and its associated relationship with the skull.

  12. Carpentry Performance Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Gerald F.; Tucker, John

    The guidelines for carpentry performance objectives were written for vocational educators in order to insure that their programs are fulfilling the training requirements of today's job market. The document outlines eight uses of performance objectives and provides sample employability profiles, training achievement records, and a carpentry…

  13. Science Objectives. 1990 Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    This booklet describes the assessment objectives of the sixth national assessment of science by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Chapters included are: (1) "Introduction" (describing the development process for the objectives and the purpose and elements of school science); (2) "The Assessment Framework" (discussing major…

  14. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  15. Images of Axial Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabal, Hector; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of three-dimensional objects by lenses and mirrors is sometimes poorly indicated in textbooks and can be incorrectly drawn. We stress a need to clarify the concept of longitudinal magnification, with simulated images illustrating distortions introduced along the optical axis. We consider all possible positions of the object for both a…

  16. Moving Objects Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng

    In moving objects applications, large numbers of locations can be sampled by sensors or GPS periodically, then sent from moving clients to the server and stored in a database. Therefore, continuously maintaining in a database the current locations of moving objects by using a tracking technique becomes very important. The key issue is minimizing the number of updates, while providing precise locations for query results. In this chapter, we will introduce some underlying location update methods. Then, we describe two location update strategies in detail, which can improve the performance. One is the proactive location update strategy, which predicts the movement of moving objects to lower the update frequency; the other is the group location update strategy, which groups the objects to minimize the total number of objects reporting their locations.

  17. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  18. Infrared-based object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Jon; Youngblood, Austin; Delashmit, Walter H.

    2009-05-01

    Often it is necessary to track moving objects on horizontal paths. Human error and the associated cost and dangers of using humans lead to a requirement to automate this task. The system presented here was designed, built and tested. The system uses an IR beacon and a microcontroller receiver/controller module. The design consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based IR transmitter and a microcontroller based IR receiver/controller. The design consisted of two main parts, the transmitter (beacon) and the receiver/controller module. The receiver was implemented with a FPGA so that the characteristics of the beacon signal could be adjusted more quickly and with greater precision. The controller module was integrated with the receivers and detailed system integration tests were performed. Measurements were collected, recorded and analyzed.

  19. Auditory object cognition in dementia.

    PubMed

    Goll, Johanna C; Kim, Lois G; Hailstone, Julia C; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2011-07-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n=7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n=1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n=20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as 'auditory objects', we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  20. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543