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Sample records for alicante se spain

  1. Multicenter epidemiological and clinical study on imported Chagas diseases in Alicante, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, José M; Torrús, Diego; Amador, Concepción; Jover, Francisco; Pérez-Chacón, Fabiola; Ponce, Yamileth; Arjona, Francisco J; Caro, Elena; Martínez-Peinado, Concepción; Gallegos, Ingrid; Cuadrado, José M; Tello, Antonio; Gutiérrez, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in the number of patients with Chagas disease outside of areas that are generally considered endemic. The aim of this investigation is to describe the clinical profile of a series of patients with Chagas disease in Alicante, Spain, which is a province located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. This study was performed at four general hospitals in Alicante between January 2002 and May 2011. A total of 128 patients from seven countries were diagnosed with Trypanosoma cruzi. The main country of origin of these patients was Bolivia (n = 101; 78.9%), and the median of age of these patients was 35 years (range: 0–72 years). Four (3.3%) patients were children under 14 years of age, and 81 (63.3%) were female. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze 106 patients, 66.0% of whom demonstrated positive PCR results. Visceral involvement was diagnosed in 26.8%: 24.1% demonstrated cardiac involvement, 0.9% demonstrated gastrointestinal involvement, 0.9% demonstrated cardiac and gastrointestinal involvement, and 0.9% demonstrated involvement of the central nervous system. Syncope was found to be associated with cardiomyopathy (28.0% versus 5.2%) (odds ratio: 6.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–27.1). Seventy-six patients received treatment with benznidazole, of whom 57 (75.0%) completed the treatment course without significant adverse events and 17.1% discontinued benznidazole due to adverse events. In total, 50% of patients experienced documented adverse reactions. Among patients with positive PCR results before treatment, all demonstrated negative PCR results following treatment. In conclusion, majority of our patients were female Bolivians immigrants, one of four of our patients demonstrated cardiac involvement, and treatment tolerance was poor. It is important to improve the clinical and epidemiological knowledge of Chagas disease in nonendemic with additional multicenter studies in order to determine the magnitude of

  2. Using a simple decision support system to evaluate water saving strategies in Alicante, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzandvoort, Simone; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Morugán, Alicia; van den Elsen, Erik; Moore, Demie

    2010-05-01

    Advances in knowledge and technologies during the last decades have led to considerable water savings in many irrigated areas around the world. These have often been achieved through modern water supply methodologies involving, for example, advanced drip and sprinkler irrigation. These methods, however, are costly and socio-economically not always viable. The southern Mediterranean region is particularly susceptible to water shortage problems because of the increasing (potable) water demands for human consumption and agricultural use on the one hand, and decreasing water availability on the other hand. Conventional water resources are inefficiently used through incomplete wetting of soils due to water repellency, excessive evaporation due to ponding, and water loss due to runoff and throughflow. There is a scope for developing new and advancing existing sustainable water saving strategies in the Mediterranean area, by focusing on largely unexploited opportunities for water saving and the use of waste water as a non-conventional water resource on irrigated land. The performance of water saving strategies depends on economic, ecological and socio-cultural valuations of the techniques by stakeholders. This study was performed in the framework of the EU co-funded Water Reuse project, which aims at testing new and existing water saving strategies in the southern Mediterranean area and in NIS states. The objective of this study was to use a simple decision support system to evaluate the performance of water saving strategies for vine-growing areas in Alicante, Spain from an economic, ecological and socio-cultural point of view. Water saving strategies were selected with the aims to 1) to optimize the irrigation dose to crop requirements, 2) to improve the wetting properties of soils by preventing formation of water repellency, 3) to prevent water loss due to evaporation, and 4) to investigate the use of waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation

  3. Prospective cohort study of female sex workers and the risk of HIV infection in Alicante, Spain (1986-96)

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, J.; Hernandez-Aguado, I.; Fernandez, G; d Garcia; Alvarez-Dardet, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of HIV infection over a 10 year follow up in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Alicante (Spain), and to determine factors associated with high risk of infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried in an AIDS information and prevention centre in Alicante, Spain. Of the 1388 female sex workers who initially sought the services of the centre since September 1986, 657 completed at least one additional follow up visit before December 1996. Main outcome measures were infection with HIV-1 and reported risk behaviours. RESULTS: During 1815 person years of observation among 657 female sex workers who were free of HIV infection (negative test), 16 women developed of HIV infection (incidence rate of HIV infection = 8.8 cases/1000 woman years, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.4-14.4). Reported current use of injecting drugs at the first visit was associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (relative risk, RR = 12.87, 95% CI: 4.81-34.15) as well as having an usual partner with injecting drug addiction (RR = 20.89, 95% CI: 7.44-58.70). Infection also was associated with younger age (RR for 1 year = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.96). After multivariate adjustment using Poisson regression analysis, the factors that remained significantly associated with the risk of HIV infection were current use of injecting drugs (RR = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.37-15.46), and having a usual partner with injecting drug addiction (RR = 10.08, 95% CI: 2.94-34.57). There was also some evidence that a younger age could be related to infection. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the risk of HIV infection among this cohort of female sex workers in Alicante is predominately associated with the use of injecting drugs, and having a regular partner with injecting drug addiction. An increasing number of clients did not play a role in the risk of infection. 


 PMID:9924471

  4. Increase in the exposition to floods in the Alicante coast (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcina, J.; Rico, A. M.; Hernandez, M.; Martínez, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last two decades, Flood episodes along the Alicante coastline have caused important material losses and general disruptions of everyday life in the municipalities affected. We can speak of an increase in the vulnerability to floods chiefly as a result of an increase in exposition. In turn this increase is fundamentally linked to the nature of the recent urbanization process in this area and the corresponding occupation of flood prone land. The province of Alicante occupies one of the first positions in Europe regarding flood risk (ESPON 2006). Even counting with legislation that regulates land uses, processes leading to the occupation of flood risk areas have proven very difficult to manage. In this sense, the Valencia region has enacted legislation such as the Land Use Planning Law of 1989, the Law on Urban Growth Regulations of 1994, and the Planning Regulations of 1998. All these legal pieces attempted to prohibit development in flood prone land declaring this land as "non.urban". New laws such as the Law on Land Use Planning and Landscape protection of 2004, the Law on New Urban Land (2004), and the Decree on Landscape (2006) also consider the need to include the flood hazard in planning activities. Furthermore in 1997, the so-called "Cartography of the flood hazard at the regional level" was elaborated. This mapping exercise was the base for the "Territorial Plan for the Reduction of Flood Risks (PATRICOVA) approved in 2003 and currently the main planning tool for flood management in Valencia. On the other hand, the European Directive 60/2007 pointed towards the need to take into consideration the social perception of Flood risks in order to develop integrated actions of risk management. Accordingly we have undertaken 285 interviews in the coastal communities of Alicante, Calpe and Campello (95 interviews each). We have chosen these municipalities for two reasons: first their significance in population and economic activity terms, and second, their

  5. Evaluation of coastal management: Study case in the province of Alicante, Spain.

    PubMed

    Palazón, A; Aragonés, L; López, I

    2016-12-01

    The beaches are complex systems that can be studied from different points of view and meet more than a mission to protect the coast. Their management consists of assigning solutions to problems and for this to be correct all factors involved have to be taken into account. In order to understand how management is done on the coast of the province of Alicante, surveys have been conducted among the managers of the 19 coastal municipalities of Alicante coast, covering the 91 beaches. The aim of the surveys is to try to know the problems and situations relating to the management, depending on different factors such as the level of urbanization and type of sediment. In addition, it has been investigated whether this management is aimed to protect the coastline, maintain the flora and fauna or is just a recreational management since the main economic activity is tourism. The beaches are conceived of as products offered to the user, which is what most concerns its economic importance in an area where the sun and beach tourism has a special share of the GDP. The ignorance as to the major problems regarding their physical functioning and the inability to solve them is due to a complex administrative system with which the coastal system is regulated inefficiently. The integral approach is essential for a complete and effective management of the coastal environment.

  6. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    PubMed Central

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  7. [Influence of body composition and acceptance of physical education classes on self-esteem of children aged 14-16 years from Alicante, Spain].

    PubMed

    Estévez, Manuel; Muros, José Joaquín; Torres, Beatriz; Pradas, Francisco; Zurita, Félix; Cepero, Mar

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: La autoestima parece ser un importante predictor de síntomas depresivos entre los jóvenes, y sobre todo en el género femenino. Algunos autores sugieren que la existencia de sobrepeso y/o obesidad en jóvenes se relaciona con una menor autoestima así como la participación deportiva se ha asociado con unos valores más altos de la misma. Objetivos: Analizar las relaciones existentes entre el índice de masa corporal, sexo, aceptación a las clases de Educación Física y autoestima en una muestra representativa de escolares de 3º y 4º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de la ciudad de Alicante. Métodos: El estudio se llevó a cabo sobre una muestra representativa compuesta por 1.150 alumnos escolarizados en la ciudad de Alicante. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos, valores de autoestima y de aceptación por las clases de educación física. Resultados: Existe una correlación positiva entre la aceptación a las clases de educación física y el autoestima (r= ,319) y una correlación negativa entre esta y el sexo de los alumnos (r= -,289), siendo el grupo femenino el que muestra unas menores puntuaciones. Existe una correlación negativa entre el autoestima y los valores de índice de masa corporal (r= -,083), y el sexo (r= -,308), siendo el grupo femenino el que muestra unos valores menores de autoestima. Conclusiones: En vista de los resultados se hace necesario planificar actuaciones encaminadas a reforzar y aumentar la autoestima durante la adolescencia, centrándose en los grupos de riesgo formados por los jóvenes con sobrepeso/obesidad y sobre por el grupo de las chicas.

  8. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions-in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par excellence

  9. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions—in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par

  10. 3D geometry of growth strata in a fault-propagation fold: insights into space-time evolution of the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector), Betic Cordillera, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Rojas, I.; Alfaro, P.; Estévez, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a 3D geometric model of growth strata cropping out in a fault-propagation fold associated with the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector) from the Bajo Segura Basin (eastern Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). The analysis of this 3D model enables us to unravel the along-strike and along-section variations of the growth strata, providing constraints to assess the fold development, and hence, the fault kinematic evolution in space and time. We postulate that the observed along-strike dip variations are related to lateral variation in fault displacement. Along-section variations of the progressive unconformity opening angles indicate greater fault slip in the upper Tortonian-Messinian time span; from the Messinian on, quantitative analysis of the unconformity indicate a constant or lower tectonic activity of the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector); the minor abundance of striated pebbles in the Pliocene-Quaternary units could be interpreted as a decrease in the stress magnitude and consequently in the tectonic activity of the fault. At a regional scale, comparison of the growth successions cropping out in the northern and southern limits of the Bajo Segura Basin points to a southward migration of deformation in the basin. This means that the Bajo Segura Fault became active after the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector), for which activity on the latter was probably decreasing according to our data. Consequently, we propose that the seismic hazard at the northern limit of the Bajo Segura Basin should be lower than at the southern limit.

  11. Geomorphological impacts of an extreme flood in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Long-term field studies in semiarid ephemeral streams are rare. These geomorphic data are essential for understanding the nature of the processes in order to develop modelling for risk assessments and management. An extreme flood event on 28 September 2012 affected the Murcia region of SE Spain, including long-tem monitoring sites on two fluvial systems in the Guadalentín basin, the Nogalte and Torrealvilla. Detailed morphological data were collected before and immediately after the event; and the amount of morphological change, erosion, and deposition have been related to peak flow conditions at the sites. On the Nogalte channel, peak flow reached 2500 m3 s- 1 at the downstream end of the catchment in less than 1 h. The event had a recurrence interval of > 50 years based on rainfall records and damage to old irrigation structures. The major effect in the braided, gravel channel of the Nogalte was net aggradation, with massive deposition in large flat bars. The measured changes in bankfull capacity were highly correlated with most hydraulic variables. Net changes in cut-and-fill in cross sections on the Nogalte were highly related to peak discharge and stream power but much less so to measures of hydraulic force (velocity, shear stress, unit stream power). Relationships of amount of erosion to hydraulic variables were much weaker than for amount of deposition, which was largely scaled to channel size and flow energy. Changes on the Torrealvilla were much less than on the Nogalte, and net erosion occurred at all sites. Sites on the Nogalte channel in schist exhibited higher deposition than those of the Torrealvilla sites on marl for the same hydraulic values. Overall, less morphological change took place in the extreme event on the Nogalte than predicted from some published hydraulic relations, probably reflecting the high sediment supply and the hydrological characteristics of the event. The results demonstrate the high degree of adjustment of these channels to

  12. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to utilizing better-quality water, especially in semiarid regions where water shortage is a very serious problem. Wastewater use in agriculture is not a new practice, all over the world this reuse has been common practice for a long time, but the concept is of greater importance currently because of the global water crisis. Replacement of freshwater by treated wastewater is seen as an important conservation strategy contributing to agricultural production, substantial benefits can derive from using this nutrient-rich waste water but there can also be a negative impact. For this reason it is necessary to know precisely the composition of water before applying it to the soil in order to guarantee minimal impact in terms of contamination and salinization. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, different parameters in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater in an agricultural Mediterranean area located at Biar (Alicante, SE Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters were used for the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated wastewater from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type during the study period. A soil sampling was carried out every four months. We show the results of the evolution of basal soil respiration (BSR), and its relationship with other parameters. We observed a similar pattern of behavior for BSR between treatments, a decrease at the first eighteen months of irrigation and an increase at the end of study. In our study case, the variations of BSR obtained for all the treatments seem to be closely related to the dose and frequency of irrigation and the related soil wetting and drying cycles. However, the results showed a negative correlation between BSR and

  13. Authentication of Alicante's Mountain cherries protected designation of origin by their mineral profile.

    PubMed

    Matos-Reyes, M N; Simonot, J; López-Salazar, O; Cervera, M L; de la Guardia, M

    2013-12-01

    Chemometric analysis of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) data was employed to verify the origin of cherry samples of different areas of Spain: Aragón, Cáceres, Castellón, Huesca and Alicante's Mountain Protected Geographic Indication (PGI). The ability of multivariate analysis methods, such as discriminant analysis (DA), was used to achieve cherry classification from their mineral content. The study was performed using 22 variables (concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti and Te) and 23 variables (concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl and V), for cherry stone and edible part, respectively, and the best discrimination was found on using edible part mineral composition which permits a correct classification of 100% of the considered samples.

  14. [Population projection and its principal components: the future model of population in the province of Alicante].

    PubMed

    Norman Mora, E

    1994-01-01

    "In this article we analyze the different demographic patterns defining the population in the province of Alicante [Spain]. The behaviour of the demographic factors in the past and in the present is studied here, and a series of models are put into practice in order to foresee the future pattern of population.... The result shows either the effect of a possible ageing in an already aged population, as is the case of the province of Alicante, or what the job market would have to endure if the above mentioned ageing took place, increased by the possibility of an inmigration of an older population." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  15. New fossil teeth of Theropithecus oswaldi (Cercopithecoidea) from the Early Pleistocene at Cueva Victoria (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Ribot, Francesc; Gibert, Lluís

    2014-09-01

    The presence of Theropithecus oswaldi in Europe was first reported in 1995 from the Early Pleistocene site of Cueva Victoria (SE Spain), showing the dispersal of this genus above 30° north latitude and into Europe. Later claims of the presence in Italy of Theropithecus in the Early Pleistocene, based on vertebral remains, are controversial. Here we report four additional teeth of T. oswaldi from Cueva Victoria. These and the previously described tooth correspond to a minimum of two individuals. The presence of T. oswaldi in North Africa and SE Iberia during the Early Pleistocene suggests a possible faunal dispersal from Africa into Europe through the Straits of Gibraltar, which would have acted as a filter bridge.

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in...

  17. Does Alicante have the longest urban geometric illusion in the world?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve; Taylor, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Interest in geometric illusions in architectural design was restimulated in the 1970s by the publication of a paper by Gregory and Heard on the Café Wall illusion. Illusory patterns have been used in urban design for centuries. This brief note identifies two further examples of urban illusions found in Alicante, Spain and suggests that they may represent currently the longest examples of urban geometric illusion in the world.

  18. Spreading of pollutants from alkaline mine drainage. Rodalquilar mining district (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    González, V; García, I; del Moral, F; de Haro, S; Sánchez, J A; Simón, M

    2012-09-15

    In the Rodalquilar mining district of SE Spain, a total of 46 soil samples that were between 0 and 20 cm in depth were taken from the tailings dump, stream sediments, and surfaces that were presumably were unaffected by mining. In each soil sample, organic carbon content, pH, particle size distribution and total and soluble trace element content were analysed. Pollutants were scattered by runoff from two source areas: tailings from Au mining (Sn, Sb, As and Se) and wastes from Pb mining (Pb, Cu and Zn). Sn, Pb, and Sb were spread mostly in the solid phase of the runoff, while Cu, Zn, As and Se were spread in both the solid and soluble phases of the runoff. The pollutants with the highest soluble concentrations were As and Se, which were scattered at greater distances from the source. Some evidence suggests that tailings from Au mining could also be scattered by wind, but no farther than 1500 m from the source.

  19. [Aerobiological study of Alternaria and Cladosporium conidia in the atmosphere of Almeria (SE Spain)].

    PubMed

    Sabariego Ruiz, Silvia; Díaz de la Guardia Guerrero, Consuelo; Alba Sánchez, Francisca

    2004-09-01

    This study analysed the seasonal and intradiurnal behaviour of fungal spores from Alternaria and Cladosporium on air samples collected in the city of Almeria (SE Spain), as well as the influence that meteorological parameters have on the concentration of these type of spores. Aerobiological sampling was made during four years (1998-2001) using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. Spores of Alternaria and Cladosporium were detected throughout the year, reaching the highest concentrations from May to October. The diurnal patterns of these taxons reflected a presence similar of spores during a 24 h period, with values horary close to 4% of total sampling daily. The correlations show a positive association with temperature, hours of sunshine and accumulate rainfall, but negative with daily rainfall.

  20. Emplacement of the Cabezo María lamproite volcano (Miocene, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernon, Thomas M.; Spence, Samuel; Trueman, Clive N.; Taylor, Rex N.; Rohling, Eelco; J. Hatter, Stuart; Harding, Ian C.

    2015-06-01

    Lamproite volcanoes are uncommon in the geological record but are exceptionally well preserved in the Betic Cordilleras of SE Spain, where they erupted during the Late Miocene (Tortonian to Messinian stages). The parent melts are thought to have been channelled through major lithospheric faults to erupt at or near the faulted margins of Neogene sedimentary basins. Lamproite magmas are thought to be relatively CO2-poor (<1 wt %) and are typically characterised by an effusive eruption style and the development of lava lakes and scoria cones. Cabezo María is a relatively small (˜550 m diameter) lamproite volcano that was emplaced within the shallow-water marine-influenced Vera Basin. The lamproites are compositionally similar to those of the Roman Province and generally less potassic (K2O<5 wt%) than other (ultra-) potassic rocks in SE Spain (e.g. Cancarix, Fortuna). The initial eruption stages were dominated by explosive magma-water interactions and the formation of peperites. These are characterised by angular fragments of glassy lamproite lavas (and isolated lobes) incorporated in sediments, locally showing the effects of thermal metamorphism. Further, elutriation pipes and `jigsaw-fit' textures are observed in the peperites. The lavas and peperites are overlain by outward-dipping well-stratified scoria deposits defining part of a cinder cone, which is inferred to have emerged above sea level. Steep internal contacts with inward-dipping, structureless breccias likely represent the inner wall deposits of a central conduit. The deposits are cross-cut by late-stage dykes, which supplied fissure eruptions of geochemically similar lavas capping the scoria cone. The transition from explosive to effusive behaviour may reflect the decreased availability of water, possibly due to downward migration of the feeder conduit below the level of water-saturated sediments.

  1. Recent seismogenic fault activity in a Late Quaternary closed-lake graben basin (Albacete, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Pérez-López, R.; Calvo, J. P.; García del Cura, M. A.

    2008-11-01

    The Cordovilla basin, located within the frontal thrust belt of the Betic Cordillera, SE Spain, is an elongated NW-SE graben showing discrete surface rupture generated by Holocene paleoearthquake activity. A main and an antithetic normal, NW-SE trending, active faults bound the basin. Paleoseismological evidence is reported on upslope-facing scarps of the antithetic fault, acting as dams to runoff, which contributed to temporary lacustrine conditions, as well as sediment uplift. The fluvial network in the area shows a poor drainage activity, whereas a present lake is dammed by the antithetic fault. The modern landscape is controlled by Holocene faulting, modifying the geological environment according to earthquake occurrence, from flat alluvial plains to lacustrine local basins. The application of the diffusion dating technique to unconsolidated sediments for the antithetic fault scarp indicates an age between 1 and 2 ka. Various geometric parameters have been obtained in order to reconstruct the paleoseismic history of the Cordovilla graben basin. The surface rupture and fault-offset values are associated with discrete active morpholineaments, parallel to the Pozohondo Fault. The Tobarra-Cordovilla segment (the structural boundary of the Cordovilla Basin) was generated by earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 6.0, based on Wells and Coppersmith fault scarp relations.

  2. Origin and significance of spinel pyroxene symplectite in lherzolite xenoliths from Tallante, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yohei; Arai, Shoji; Morishita, Tomoaki; Ishida, Yoshito

    2008-09-01

    We found spinel pyroxene symplectites in lherzolite xenoliths from Tallante, SE Spain, and investigated their petrographical and geochemical signatures. The spinel pyroxene symplectites are divided into two types, a spinel-type (= opx + cpx + sp) and a plagioclase-type (= opx + cpx + sp + pl) symplectites. The symplectites are always surrounded by lenticular aggregates of coarser-grained spinel pyroxene. The petrography and major-element chemistry of bulk symplectites indicate an origin through subsolidus reaction between olivine and garnet like at Horoman (Japan; Morishita and Arai, Contrib Mineral Petrol 144:509 522, 2003). The spinel pyroxene symplectites at Tallante were of garnet origin. However, the bulk Tallante spinel pyroxene symplectites show a relatively flat rare earth element (REE) distribution with slight light REE (LREE) enrichment, i.e. there was no trace-element signature typical of mantle garnet. They also differ from the Horoman symplectites that occasionally preserve a garnet trace-element signature, i.e. depletion of LREE and enrichment of heavy REE. These conflicting results indicate that the symplectites record slight enrichment in pyroxene compositions during or after depletion by melt extraction and breakdown of garnet by decompression, and all the minerals including symplectite constituents have been homogenized in the stability field of spinel to plagioclase lherzolite, with the assistance of some melt (possibly an alkaline silicate melt; Downes, J Petrol 42:233 250, 2001). Moreover, some of the spinel-type symplectites experienced heating by injection of Si-rich melt, and consequently have been transformed to the plagioclase-type symplectite. The Tallante spinel pyroxene symplectites developed from garnet + olivine and were carried from the garnet lherzolite stability field to the spinel and to the plagioclase lherzolite stability fields. Our data indicates mantle upwelling (mantle diapirism) beneath the Betic Rif zone in southern Spain.

  3. Reconstruction of past climate variability in SE Spain between 14 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budsky, Alexander; Scholz, Denis; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Christoph, Spötl; Gibert, Luis; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    In comparison to the large climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene, Holocene climate only underwent minor changes. Nevertheless, cyclic climate changes also occurred during the Holocene. The Bond events, represented by the presence of cold, ice-bearing waters from the north of Iceland as far south as the latitude of Britain, occurred at a cyclicity of about 1500 a and were particularly pronounced during the Early Holocene. However, their climatic impact on the terrestrial realm was not consistent over Europe, in particular with respect to changes in precipitation. Here we present a precisely dated high-resolution flowstone record from Cueva Victoria, SE Spain, a site well suited to study the competing influence of the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea on the southern Iberian Peninsula. We sampled several flowstones with a thickness of up to 60 cm. 230Th/U-dating has shown that these deposits mainly formed during relatively warm climate intervals of the Middle and Late Pleistocene, i.e. interglacials and interstadials (Budsky et al., 2015; Gibert et al., 2016). Here we focus on a short (11 cm) flowstone sequence from the Holocene with a high temporal resolution (centennial for stable isotopes and annual for trace elements). The flowstone grew between 14 and ca. 8 ka b2k. The decreasing trend of the δ18O and δ13C values as well as of several trace elements between 12 and 11 ka b2k reflects an increase in temperature and precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene. In particular, Sr and Mg show a trend towards low and stable values. Subsequently, from 10.5 to 8 ka b2k, the δ13C values show a high variability (-11 to -4), whereas the δ18O values are rather stable (between -6 and -7). Maxima in δ13C are interpreted as drier conditions in response to Bond events. These events possibly led to a change of the atmospheric circulation, affecting the vegetation in SE Spain, which evolved towards an open C3 vegetation at ca. 8 ka b2k concomitant with drier conditions

  4. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Rut Aspizua; Lorite, Juan; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  5. Mesoscale climatic simulation of surface air temperature cooling by highly reflective greenhouses in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Campra, Pablo; Millstein, Dev

    2013-01-01

    A long-term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface air temperatures. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m(-2) of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum temperatures was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban temperature cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance.

  6. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Rut Aspizua; Lorite, Juan; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:24843285

  7. Mineralogical evidence for lamproite magma mixing and storage at mantle depths: Socovos fault lamproites, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambeses, A.; Garcia-Casco, A.; Scarrow, J. H.; Montero, P.; Pérez-Valera, L. A.; Bea, F.

    2016-12-01

    Detailed textural and mineral chemistry characterisation of lamproites from the Socovos fault zone, SE Spain Neogene Volcanic Province (NVP) combining X-ray element maps and LA-ICP-MS spot analyses has provided valuable information about mantle depth ultrapotassic magma mixing processes. Despite having similar whole-rock compositions, rocks emplaced in the Socovos fault are mineralogically varied: including type-A olivine-phlogopite lamproites; and type-B clinopyroxene-phlogopite lamproites. The Ol-lacking type-B predates Ol-bearing type-A by c. 2 million years. We propose that the mineralogical variations, which are representative of lamproites in the NVP as a whole, indicate mantle source heterogeneities. Major and trace element compositions of mineral phases suggest both metasomatised harzburgite and veined pyroxenite sources that were most likely closely spatially related. Thin section scale textural and compositional variations in mineral phases reveal heterogeneous mantle- and primitive magma-derived crystals. The variety of crystals points to interaction and mingling-mixing of ultrapotassic magma batches at mantle depths prior crustal emplacement. The mixing apparently occurred in a mantle melting zone with a channelised flow regime and localised magma chambers-reservoirs. Magma interaction was interrupted when the Socovos and other lithosphere-scale faults tore down to the mantle source region, triggering rapid ascent of the heterogeneous lamproite magma.

  8. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  9. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  10. Spain.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  11. Lithofacies and water-body record of Messinian evaporites in Nijar Basin, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Feng H.

    2006-06-01

    The depositional lithofacies and fabrics of Messinian evaporites have been studied to evaluate the palaeodepth of water body in Nijar Basin, SE Spain. The Nijar Messinian strata consist of three formations: Abad marls, Yesares evaporites, and Feos rocks. Gypsum deposits dominate the Yesares Formation and the basal Feos Formation. Six gypsum lithofacies have been identified including coarse twinned selenite, grass-like selenite, hemiradial to radial selenite, turbidite selenite in the Yesares Formation; and gypsum conglomerate, laminated gypsum, and hemiradial to radial selenite in the Feos Formation. The size of Yesares selenites decreases upward while carbonate content and trace-element abundance increase in each selenite bed and the whole formation, suggesting a shallowing-up sequence. These gypsum lithofacies were deposited in subaqueous environments commonly at 10-30 m and occasionally up to 100 m or deeper for the turbiditic selenites based on the interpretations of gypsum fabrics, marl intervals, basin configuration, and geochemistry. The sea level of Nijar Basin experienced two major drops with a magnitude of ˜ 40 m before and after the deposition of Yesares evaporites. However, the basin was never desiccated during the evaporite deposition and the change of sea level for the alternative deposition of gypsum beds and marl intervals was commonly around 50-80 m, probably resulting from the glacio-eustacy fluctuations. Feos gypsum reflects another evaporative event and is correlated to the "Upper Evaporite" while the Yesares selenite is correlated to the "Lower Evaporite" based on the interpretations of lithofacies, geochemistry, and sealevel change. As seawater in Nijar Basin was continuously supplied by the central Mediterranean basins and remained in subaqueous conditions during the Messinian salinity crisis, therefore, the desiccation theory needs to be reexamined.

  12. Processes and Geomorphological Impacts of an Extreme Flash Flood Event in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A major flash flood event took place on 28 September, 2012 in SE Spain, resulting in 10 fatalities and much damage to infrastructure regionally. The flood affected long-term monitoring sites in two catchments in which morphological changes and flow dynamics of these ephemeral channels were being measured. Thus detailed data on channel state prior to the flood were available. The flood event in the Nogalte catchment was extreme in its peak flow, rate of rise and unit runoff. The catchment has steep relief and much bare soil under almond groves, resulting in high sediment supply. The channel is confined in places, but mostly wide and braided, composed of loose gravel and occupying much of the valley floor. Flow was spatially continuous, with high connectivity throughout the catchment. The flood effects were net depositional in the monitored sites, with massive sedimentation on the channel bars. Vegetation was destroyed. Bank erosion and destruction of embankments took place in some locations. Hydraulic calculations indicate very high velocities, stream power and Froude numbers. Modelling and field evidence demonstrate extremely high sediment competence and sediment loadings. The influence of the event dynamics on processes and net outcomes is discussed. The impacts are compared with other events in this and neighbouring catchments. Overall, the event in the Nogalte did not alter the morphology markedly in spite of its extreme characteristics. It is suggested that these valley floors are adapted to this type of flash flood but that flows of such force and magnitude need to be allowed for in management in such an environment.

  13. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing

  14. Seismic transpressive basement faults and monocline development in a foreland basin (Eastern Guadalquivir, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera, A.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Marín-Lechado, C.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González, A.; Peláez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We examine the late Tortonian to present-day deformation of an active seismic sector of the eastern Iberian foreland basement of the Betic Cordillera, in southern Spain. Transpressive faults affecting Paleozoic basement offset up to Triassic rocks. Late Triassic clays and evaporites constitute a décollement level decoupling the basement rocks and a ~100 m thick cover of Jurassic carbonates. Monoclines trending NE-SW to ENE-WSW deform the Jurassic cover driven by the propagation of high-angle transpressive right-lateral basement faults. They favor the migration of clays and evaporites toward the propagated fault tip, i.e., the core of the anticline, resulting in fluid overpressure, fluid flow, and precipitation of fibrous gypsum parallel to a vertical σ3. The overall geometry of the studied monoclines, as well as the intense deformation within the clays and evaporites, reproduces three-layer discrete element models entailing a weak middle unit sandwiched between strong layers. Late Tortonian syn-folding sediments recorded the initial stages of the fault-propagation folding. Equivalent unexposed transpressive structures and associated monoclines reactivated under the present-day NW-SE convergence are recognized and analyzed in the Sabiote-Torreperogil region, using seismic reflection, gravity, and borehole data. A seismic series of more than 2100 low-magnitude earthquakes was recorded within a very limited area of the basement of this sector from October 2012 to May 2013. Seismic activity within a major NE-SW trending transpressive basement fault plane stimulated rupture along a subsidiary E-W (~N95°E) strike-slip relay fault. The biggest event (mbLg 3.9, MW 3.7) occurred at the junction between them in a transpressive relay sector.

  15. Diagenetic evolution of Tortonian temperate carbonates close to evaporites in the Granada Basin (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Quirós, A.; Barbier, M.; Martín, J. M.; Puga-Bernabéu, Á.; Guichet, X.

    2016-04-01

    The Granada Basin (SE Spain) is a small basin located in the central part of the Betic Cordillera, structured as such in the late Tortonian and initially connected to the Atlantic Ocean and to the Mediterranean Sea. During the late Tortonian, normal marine conditions prevailed, leading to the deposition of skeletal carbonate sediments on platforms around structural highs. The marine connections were later interrupted, first to the Atlantic Ocean and then to the Mediterranean Sea, and a thick evaporite sequence, marking the transition from marine to continental conditions, was deposited during the latest Tortonian. In this work, the diagenetic evolution of the Tortonian temperate carbonates (TTC), underlying and close to the evaporite bodies, is revealed and discussed. The diagenetic study includes petrographic analyses (conventional petrography, cathodoluminescence, and fluorescence), geochemical analyses (major, minor and trace elements, and δ13C and δ18O stable isotopes), and microthermometry of fluid inclusions. In the TTC, marine diagenetic processes such as micritization and fibrous calcite-cement precipitation and mechanical compaction took place during or just after deposition (Eogenesis). An initial burial event (Mesogenesis 1) is characterized by: 1) stabilization of the temperate-water carbonates by freshwater, and 2) porosity occlusion via precipitation of low-Mg bladed and syntaxial/mosaic calcite cements. The TTC were then subaerially exposed (or got close to the surface) during evaporite deposition and underwent pedogenesis, Mg-smectite infiltration, and pyrite formation (Telogenesis 1). Subsequent brine-related diagenetic alterations, such as dolomitization and silica, halite, and sylvite replacements of carbonate grains occurred during a second burial episode (Mesogenesis 2) concomitant with the Messinian lacustrine deposition, this being followed by chemical compaction (stylolite formation). Finally, the area was uplifted and the TTC exhumed

  16. Upper Pleistocene - Holocene activity of the Carrascoy Fault (Murcia, SE Spain): preliminary results from paleoseismological research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Banda, Raquel; Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Salazar, Angel; Rodriguez-Escudero, Emilio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Herrero, Maria J.; Medialdea, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    The Carrascoy Fault is located in the Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera (Southern Spain). In particular, the Carrascoy Fault is one of the major faults forming the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, the main structure accommodating the convergence between Nubian and Eurasian plates in the westernmost Mediterranean. So far, the Carrascoy Fault has been defined as a left-lateral strike-slip fault. It extends for at least 31 km in a NE-SW trend from the village of Zeneta (Murcia) at its northeastern tip, to the Cañaricos village, controlling the northern edge of the Carrascoy Range and its linkage to the Guadalentin Depression towards the southwest. This is an area of moderate seismic activity, but densely populated, the capital of the region, Murcia, being settled very close to the fault. Hence, the knowledge of the structure and kinematics of the Carrascoy Fault is essential for assessing reliably the seismic hazard of the region. We present a detailed-scale geological and geomorphological map along the fault zone created from a LIDAR DEM combined with fieldwork, and geological and geophysical information. Furthermore, a number of trenches have been dug across the fault at different locations providing insights in the fault most recent activity as well as paleoseismic data. Preliminary results suggest that the Cararscoy Fault has recently changed its kinematic showing a near pure reverse motion. According to this, the fault can be divided into two distinct segments, the eastern one: Zeneta - Fuensanta, and the western one: Fuensanta - Cañaricos, each one having its own characteristic style and geodynamics. Some new active strands of the fault locate at the foot of the very first relief towards the North of the older strand, forming the current southern border of the Guadalentin Depression. These new faults show an increasingly reverse component westwards, so that the Fuensanta - Cañaricos segment is constituted by thrusts, which are blind at its western end

  17. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue

  18. Palaeoflood estimates of Pleistocene coarse grained river terrace landforms (Río Almanzora, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin; Griffiths, James S.; Mather, Anne

    2012-05-01

    A series of palaeoflood estimation techniques are applied to an inset sequence of Middle to Late Pleistocene river terrace landforms associated with the Río Almanzora, SE Spain. The study area is a 7 km-long transverse reach, where 4 terrace levels (Level 1 = highest and oldest, Level 4 = lowest and youngest) document some 200 m of incision across an uplifted basement block during the Pleistocene. For the broader region, river terrace aggradation is attributed to increased sediment supply during glacial to interglacial transitions (Level 1 = Marine oxygen isotope stages [MOIS] 12/11, L2 = 10/9, L3 = 8/7 and L4 = 6/5). Within the transverse reach, terrace Levels 2, 3 and 4 are characterised by coarse boulder-rich gravels (Dmax = 2.5 m) organised into 3-5 m-high cross-beds. Level 4 is characterised by a series of km-scale abandoned meander loops, with Levels 2 and 3 showing evidence for similar degraded high sinuosity forms. The fluvial setting is interpreted as a braided river environment, with lateral and longitudinal gravel barforms. Using field-derived sedimentary (boulder size etc) and morphological (width, slope etc) features, flow competence- and regime-based methods were applied. Palaeoflood estimates varied from 40 to 2859 m3/s, with mean maximum discharges showing an increase through time (L2 = 278, L3 = 413, L4 = 1361 m3/s). Palaeoflood estimates were compared to flood events associated with the ephemeral modern Río Almanzora (catchment = 2500 km2) to establish whether palaeoflood values were reasonable estimations. A 46-year (1963-2009) modern flood gauge record shows infrequent flood events with discharges typically < 40 m3/s. A rare flood event in 1973 (5680 m3/s) provides an upper value for comparison with the palaeoflood estimates. Although estimates appear reasonable they should be considered as minimum values due to 1) some disparities between flow depths derived from the palaeoflood equations (0.7-4 m) and field-based evidence (3-5 m-high cross

  19. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by water run-off in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Unión (Murcia, SE Spain). This area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Studied area showed a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues. As a consequence of the long period of mining activity, large volumes of wastes were generated during the mineral concentration and smelting processes. Historically, these wastes were dumped into watercourses, filling riverbeds and contaminating their surroundings. 40 sediment samples were collected from the area affected by mining exploitations, and at increasing distances from the contamination sources in 4 zones In addition, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb and Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer and Al content was determined by ICP-MS. Mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis using Cu-Kα radiation with a PW3040 Philips Diffractometer. Zone A: Water

  20. Life expectancy in a western and immigrant receiving population (El Ejido, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Luna, Francisco; García-Moro, Clara; Alonso, Verónica

    2007-12-01

    This study deals with the mortality pattern of El Ejido population, an agricultural Spanish community with a sub-tropical climate, located on the western Mediterranean coast (Andalusia). Based on the incorporation of modern agrarian techniques, this region has experienced a great economic development. Its demographic consequences were relevant, such as the arrival of immigrants throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The analysis of several demographic parameters shown in the abridged life table has revealed a small but non-random decrease of mortality during the last two decades of the past century. Furthermore, from the low value reached by the current entropy coefficient (H = 0.131), and the comparison of El Ejido life-expectancy at birth (e0) with Spain and Andalusia, we concluded that: a) The current mortality of El Ejido has approached a theoretical situation, where all deaths tend to take place at the age of 78.09 (its e0), and the death probability is very low at earlier ages. b) Some peculiar characteristics of its immigration as well as the high influence of the great public health system reached currently in Spain, reveal that El Ejido mortality does not depend on its remarkable immigration.

  1. Use of Biomass Ash as a stabilization agent for expansive marly soils (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Caro, J. M.; Irigaray, C.; Corpas, F.; Ramirez, A.; Rivas, F.; Salazar, L. M.; Mochón, I.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, several biomass power plants have been installed in Southeastern Spain to reuse olive oil industry residues. This energy production tries to reduce the high costs associated with fossil fuels, but without entering into direct competition to traditional food crops. The waste management in these biomass energy plants is still an issue since there are non-flammable materials which remains after incineration in the form of ashes. In Southeastern Spain there is also a great amount of clayey and marly soils whose volume is very sensitive to changes in climate conditions, making them unsuitable for civil engineering. We propose the use of biomass ash (both fly ash and bottom ash) as a stabilization agent for expansive soils in order to improve the efficiency of construction processes by using locally available materials. In this work biomass ashes from a biomass power plant in Southeastern Spain have been used to stabilize 6 samples of local marly soil. Those 6 samples of expansive soil were mixed with different dosages of biomass ash (2%, 4% and 7%) to create 18 specimens of treated soil, which were submitted to Proctor, Atterberg Limits, pH and Free Swell Index tests, following Spanish Standards UNE by AENOR. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) tests by powder method were also carried out, using a diffractometer Philips X'Pert-MPD. The results obtained for the original untreated marly soil were: PI = 34.6; Free Swell = 12.5; pH = 8. By adding biomass ash the value of the plasticity index (PI) became slightly lower although it was not low enough as to obtain a non-plastic soil (PI under 25). However, there were dramatical decreases of free swell index (FSI) after the stabilization treatment: FSI < 8.18 (2% biomass); FSI < 6.15 (4% biomass); FSI < 4.18 (7% biomass); These results suggest that treated soil is quite less susceptible than the original soil to moisture changes. The pH of the mixes after adding biomass ash rose from 8 to 11±1 leading to an alkaline

  2. Identification of the origin of salts in an agricultural area of SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    In spite of soil salinity having been widely studied in many part of the world, origin of salinity has not been addresses in detail in some of the most productive agricultural areas of Europe (e.g. southeast of Spain). According to the European Commission, salinization affects about 1 to 3 million ha of the area of the European Union and Candidate Countries. In Europe, most of the salt-affected land surfaces are concentrated in the Mediterranean basin. In Spain, about 3% of the 3.5 million hectares of irrigated land are severely affected by salts and another 15% is at serious risk of imminent salinization. Due to the limited water resources in southeast of Spain, water with marginal quality is used for irrigation. The use of this water has led to degradation, reduction of the land's production capacity and soil salinization. The main aim of the present study was to identify the origin of the salts involved in such salinization, using classical and multivariable statistical techniques. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, ionic composition, total organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate, cation exchange capacity and particle size distribution were determined. The Pearson correlation coefficient, r, was used to measure the relationship between two quantitative variables and principal components analysis was used to study the correlations among anions and cations and their grouping into several factors. Results indicated that the high electrical conductivity found in the study area indeed comes from poor quality irrigation water used for agriculture. Anions and cations responsible of the salinity were chlorides, sulphates, calcium, magnesium and sodium. Mismanagement of water and traditional irrigation system resulted in salt build-up in the soil

  3. The role of desalinisation to address aquifer overdraft in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Granados, David; Calatrava, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Aquifer overdraft is a major environmental and water management problem in Southeast Spain. In some areas, availability of desalinised seawater resources is being expanding, which provides an opportunity to address this problem at a lower social and economic cost. We analyse the economic impact of using several instruments to address the problem of non-renewable groundwater pumping in the aquifers of the Guadalentín basin: an environmental tax on groundwater use, the buyback of groundwater rights and the subsidization of desalinised resources. Their impact is assessed using a mathematical programming model that maximises the farm net margin resulting from the use of the available water resources for irrigation in the area. Our results show that, in the current situation of water availability, all the alternatives have significant economic impacts. Moreover, the first two alternatives would be unfeasible from a political point of view. The existence of abundant, though expensive, desalinised water resources in the foreseen future would reduce, but not eliminate, the negative economic impact of such instruments. Furthermore, water demand is so high in this area that even strongly subsidising desalinised water in exchange for reducing the use of groundwater would not allow to eliminate aquifer overdraft.

  4. Heavy metals relationship in arable and greenhouse soils of SE Spain using a geostatistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Carlos; Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    This study compares heavy metals contents and the main edaphic parameters in greenhouse soils from the W Almería region one of the most productive agricultural systems in Europe, with agricultural soils (arable soils) in western Andalusia, SW Spain. Heavy metals input in agricultural soils mainly occur through pesticides and phytosanitary control products. The hazardousness of the studied elements (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd) is particularly relevant in soils used for intensive greenhouse farming where such agricultural practices, which centre on maximising production, end up with products that finally enter the human food chain directly. Here we explore a total of 199 greenhouse soils and 142 arable soils, representing two scales of variation in this Mediterranean area. Despite their similar edaphic characteristics, the main differences between arable soils and greenhouse soils lie in nutrients contents (P and K) and in certain heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn), which reflect widespread use of pesticides in greenhouse farming. One of the most toxic metals is Cd given its mobility, whose concentrations triple in greenhouse soils, although it does not exceed the limits set by Spanish legislation. We conclude that despite anthropic heavy metals input, the association patterns of these elements were similar on the two spatial variability scales. Cd, Pb and Zn contents, and partly those of Cu, are related with agricultural practices. On the short spatial scale, grouping these heavy metals shows very high contents in greenhouse soils in the central northern area of the W Almería region. On the other hand, the associations of Cr and Ni suggest a lithogenic influence combined with a pedogenic effect on spatial maps. This natural origin input becomes more marked on the long spatial scale (arable soils) where the main Cr and Ni contents are found in the vicinity of the Gádor Mountain Range.

  5. Pliocene Transgression in the Western Mediterranean Sea: Strontium Isotopes from Cuevas Del Almanzora (Se Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel W.

    1993-02-01

    The deposition of marine sediments in the deep Mediterranean basins following the Messinian salinity crisis ("Zanclean Deluge") began at 4.9 Ma and continued until normal marine conditions prevailed at 4.6 Ma. The Betic Strait of southeast Spain, the Rif Strait of northern Morocco, and the Strait of Gibraltar have been postulated as possible entry ways for the marine waters into the Mediterranean. Two possible explanations have been offered for the timing of the deposition of marine hemipelagic marls in the Vera Basin (Cuevas del Almanzora section) within the Betic Strait: (1) early Pliocene, representing the "Zanclean Deluge" (Cita et al., 1980), (2) Messinian (˜5.7 Ma), representing the last marine stage before the Messinian salinity crisis (Benson and Rakic-El Bied, 1991; Benson et al., 1991). The strontium isotopic ratio on mixed assemblages of foraminifers from these marine marls was determined in order to assess their ages. The average 87Sr/86Sr (0.709033±24) of the seven measured samples is, compared to the base of the Miocene/Pliocene boundary stratotype at Capo Rossello, Sicily, higher by 38 × 10-6 and yields an age of 4.6±0.5 Ma when compared to the established open ocean Sr seawater curve. The determined age indicates that (1) the first 3.6 m of marine deposits of the Cuevas del Almanzora section sensu Cita et al. (1980) including the passage zone are Pliocene, (2) the earliest marine Pliocene might not be represented at Cuevas del Almanzora indicating that this marginal basin at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea, yet within the former Betic Strait, was filled progressively by a marine transgression originating from the Mediterranean Sea around 4.6 Ma. The absence of lowermost Pliocene sediments could suggest that the Betic Strait did not serve as a conduit for the water masses entering the Mediterranean basins during the early Pliocene; and (3) the presence of an early evolutionary stage of Globorotalia margaritae in the Moroccan Bou Regreg section

  6. Seismic microzonation and velocity models of El Ejido area (SE Spain) from the diffuse-field H/V method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Seivane, Helena; Navarro, Manuel; Piña-Flores, José; Luzón, Francisco; Vidal, Francisco; Posadas, Antonio M.; Aranda, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    El Ejido town is located in the Campo de Dalías coastal plain (Almería province, SE Spain), emplaced in one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. The municipality has 84000 inhabitants and presented a high growth rate during the last twenty years. The most recent intense seismic activity occurred close to this town was in 1993 and 1994, with events of Mb = 4.9 and Mb = 5.0, respectively. To provide a basis for site-specific hazard analysis, we first carried out a seismic microzonation of this town in terms of predominant periods and geotechnical properties. The predominant periods map was obtained from ambient noise observations on a grid of 250 x 250 m in the main urban area, and sparser measurements on the outskirts. These broad-band records, of about 20 minutes long each, were analyzed by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio technique (H/V). Dispersion curves obtained from two array measurements of ambient noise and borehole data provided additional geophysical information. All the surveyed points in the town were found to have relatively long predominant periods ranging from 0.8 to 2.3 s and growing towards the SE. Secondary high-frequency (> 2Hz) peaks were found at about the 10% of the points only. On the other hand, Vs30 values of 550 - 650 m/s were estimated from the array records, corresponding to cemented sediments and medium-hard rocks. The local S-wave velocity structure has been inverted from the H/V curves for a subset of the measurement sites. We used an innovative full-wavefield method based on the diffuse-wavefield approximation (Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011) combined with the simulated annealing algorithm. Shallow seismic velocities and deep boreholes data were used as constraints. The results show that the low-frequency resonances are related with the impedance contrast between several hundred meters of medium-hard sedimentary rocks (marls and calcarenites) with the stiffer basement of the basin, which dips to the SE. These

  7. Amino acid racemization dating of Upper Pleistocene - Holocene terrestrial gastropods from a Mediterranean region (Murcia, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Ortiz, Jose E.; Torres, Trinidad; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Altolaguirre, Yul; Canales-Fernandez, Maria L.; Martin-Banda, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    The amino acid racemization method has become a widely used geochronological tool for dating Quaternary deposits. The method is based on the fact that living organisms contain only L-amino acids which gradually racemize into D-amino acids after death. Thus, the D/L ratio increases with time after death until it is equal to 1, that is, when equilibrium is reached. Gastropod shells are particularly useful for amino acid racemization dating. Because the amino acid racemization method is not a numerical dating method in isolation, it needs to be calibrated, mainly with radiometric dating methods. The racemization process is genus- and temperature-dependent. In this work we present a preliminary analysis that compares the radiometric age estimated from different dating methods of a number of gastropods recovered in localities from Murcia (Southeastern Spain), with the age obtained through the amino acid racemization method. Taking advantage of recent paleoseismological research in the Murcia region (SE Spain), 28 gastropods specimens were collected from different trenches dug in young Quaternary alluvial deposits. The specimens were subsequently classified and then analyzed according to the standards protocols of the Biomolecular Stratigraphy Laboratory (UPM, Madrid School of Mines). The species found were Otala lactea, Iberus gualterianus, Sphincterochila candidissima and Theba pisana. The D/L ratios of aspartic acid, leucine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were determined, and the corresponding average age of each specimen was calculated introducing the D/L values in the age calculation algorithm of Torres et al. (1997) for gastropods of central and southern Spain. The racemization age for each locality was then compared to the radiometric age of the deposit where the specimens were collected. To this respect, the samples were classified in different groups considering the reliability on the age control method. The most reliable sample consists only on dates obtained

  8. Paleoseismic and geomorphologic evidence of recent tectonic activity of the Pozohondo Fault (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M.A.; Pérez-López, R.; Garduño-Monroy, V.H.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Silva, P.G.; Perucha-Atienza, M.A.; Hernández-Madrigal, V.M.; Bischoff, J.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental and historical seismicity in the Albacete province (External Prebetic Zone) has been scarcely recorded. However, major strike-slip faults showing NW-SE trending provide geomorphologic and paleoseismic evidence of recent tectonic activity (Late Pleistocene to Present). Moreover, these faults are consistently well oriented under the present stress tensor and therefore, they can trigger earthquakes of magnitude greater than M6, according to the lengths of surface ruptures and active segments recognized in fieldwork. Present landscape nearby the village of Hellin (SE of Albacete) is determined by the recent activity of the Pozohondo Fault (FPH), a NW-SE right-lateral fault with 90 km in length. In this study, we have calculated the Late Quaternary tectonic sliprate of the FPH from geomorphological, sedimentological, archaeoseimological, and paleoseismological approaches. All of these data suggest that the FPH runs with a minimum slip-rate of 0.1 mm/yr during the last 100 kyrs (Upper Pleistocene-Holocene). In addition, we have recognized the last two major paleoearthquakes associated to this fault. Magnitudes of these paleoearthquakes were gretarer than M6 and their recurrence intervals ranged from 6600 to 8600 yrs for the seismic cycle of FPH. The last earthquake was dated between the 1st and 6th centuries, though two earthquakes could be interpreted in this wide time interval, one at the FPH and other from a far field source. Results obtained here, suggest an increasing of the tectonic activity of the Pozohondo Fault during the last 10,000 yrs.

  9. Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in an inverted sedimentary basin: Vera basin, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin

    2008-08-01

    The Vera basin is one of a series of interconnected Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins located within the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (southeast Spain). Since the Pliocene the Vera basin has been subjected to low uplift rates (11-21 m Ma - 1 ) and inverted via compressive tectonics that are related to the ongoing oblique collision between the African and Iberian plates. Within this paper the sedimentary and geomorphic response to basin inversion is explored. Sedimentary processes and environments are established for key stratigraphic units of the Pliocene/Plio-Pleistocene basin fill and Pleistocene dissectional landscape. These data are subsequently utilised to reconstruct an evolving basin palaeogeography. Fault and uplift data are employed to discuss the role of tectonically driven basin inversion for controlling the resultant palaeogeographic changes and associated patterns of drainage development. During the Early-Mid Pliocene the Vera basin was characterised by shallow marine shelf conditions (Cuevas Formation). A major palaeogeographic reorganisation occurred during the Mid-Late Pliocene. Strike-slip movement along the eastern basin margin, coupled with uplift and basin emergence created a protected, partially enclosed marine embayment that was conducive for Gilbert-type fan-delta sedimentation from fluvial inputs along the northern and eastern basin margins (Espíritu Santo Formation). The Vera basin then became fully continental and internally drained through the development of a consequent drainage network that formed following the withdrawal of marine conditions during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Alluvial fans developed along the northern and western basin margins, grading to a bajada and terminating in a playa lake in central basin areas (Salmerón Formation). During the Early-Mid Pleistocene a switch from basin infilling to dissection took place, recorded by alluvial fan incision, a switch to braided river sedimentation and

  10. Estimation of the tectonic slip-rate from Quaternary lacustrine facies within the intraplate Albacete province (SE of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Bischoff, J.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Pérez-López, R.; Giner-Robles, J. L.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Calvo, J. P.; Williams, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Quaternary lacustrine basin of Cordovilla (CB) represents one of the most active tectonic areas of the Prebetic Zone (Albacete, SE of Spain). The Quaternary sedimentary deposits of this basin are mainly endoreic lacustrine carbonate and alluvial deposits, developed in a semi-arid climate (Pleistocene-present). The basin is a NW-SE-elongated graben bounded by a major right-lateral oblique-fault, the Pozohondo Fault. This fault trends NW-SE, with an approximate trace of 55 km, and is composed of various segments which are identified by fault scarps. In order to establish the slip-rate of the most active segment of the Pozohondo Fault, called the Cordovilla segment, we carried out a detailed study of the affected Quaternary lacustrine deposits. We found that the lacustrine facies could be related to episodic moderate paleoearthquakes. The slip-rate is calculated to be 0.05 and 0.09 mm/yr, using radiometric dating for the vertical offsets of the lacustrine facies. A trenching study at the northern part of the Cordovilla segment revealed two events caused by paleoearthquakes, with the most recent expressed as an oblique-fault off-setting a poorly-developed soil. The magnitude of the last event was greater than 6, using various empirical relationships for the fault displacement and the surface-length rupture. We estimate episodic activity across the Cordovilla segment, to be characterized by moderate-sized paleoearthquakes (M6), which is in agreement with the tectonic context of an intraplate zone of the Iberian plate.

  11. Estimation of the tectonic slip-rate from Quaternary lacustrine facies within the intraplate Albacete province (SE of Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez-Pascua, M. A.; Bischoff, J.; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Pérez-López, R.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Calvo, J.P.; Williams, Ross W.

    2009-01-01

    The Quaternary lacustrine basin of Cordovilla (CB) represents one of the most active tectonic areas of the Prebetic Zone (Albacete, SE of Spain). The Quaternary sedimentary deposits of this basin are mainly endoreic lacustrine carbonate and alluvial deposits, developed in a semi-arid climate (Pleistocene-present). The basin is a NW-SE-elongated graben bounded by a major right-lateral oblique-fault, the Pozohondo Fault. This fault trends NW-SE, with an approximate trace of 55 km, and is composed of various segments which are identified by fault scarps. In order to establish the slip-rate of the most active segment of the Pozohondo Fault, called the Cordovilla segment, we carried out a detailed study of the affected Quaternary lacustrine deposits. We found that the lacustrine facies could be related to episodic moderate paleoearthquakes. The slip-rate is calculated to be 0.05 and 0.09 mm/yr, using radiometric dating for the vertical offsets of the lacustrine facies. A trenching study at the northern part of the Cordovilla segment revealed two events caused by paleoearthquakes, with the most recent expressed as an oblique-fault off-setting a poorly-developed soil. The magnitude of the last event was greater than 6, using various empirical relationships for the fault displacement and the surface-length rupture. We estimate episodic activity across the Cordovilla segment, to be characterized by moderate-sized paleoearthquakes (M6), which is in agreement with the tectonic context of an intraplate zone of the Iberian plate. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of soil and water conservation measures. An evaluation of Sustainable Land Management in SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; López, J.; Boix-Fayos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In close collaboration with stakeholders promising soil and water conservation measures were selected as part of the EU funded DESIRE project. These measures were monitored for nearly three years at an experimental farm in the upper Guadalentin (SE-Spain). Four Sustainable Land Management (SLM) measures were implemented on rainfed almonds: a) reduced tillage, b) green manure, c) straw mulch, d) traditional water harvesting. A fifth measure (e) reduced tillage of cereals, was compared to conventional mouldboard tillage. Here, we present monitoring results according to biophysical and socioeconomic criteria. SLM measures a, b and e, aim to reduce soil and water loss through runoff. Therefore, for each measure three replica erosion-runoff plots and a control plot were installed to monitor soil and water loss and soil moisture content at two depths. SLM measures c and d aim to increase soil water content by preventing soil evaporation and adding additional water by water harvesting respectively. In these fields, the volume of harvested water was registered and soil water content was monitored. In all experiments, farm operation costs and crop harvest were monitored as well. In the almond fields, green manure and reduced tillage significantly reduced soil and water loss as compared to the control plot with normal tillage operations. Also for the cereal field, results show lower erosion rates under reduced tillage as compared to traditional tillage operation. In two successive years, the highest almond harvest was found in the field with water harvesting (d), followed by the green manure field (b), though no significant differences were found in soil water content with their control plots. Mulching did not show a significant effect on soil water content or harvest. Four of the selected SLM options showed a positive effect on the protection of soil and water resources, and were beneficial for crop yield. Whereas, reduced tillage also results in lower production costs, the

  13. Experimental studies of supercritical bedforms applied to coarse-grained turbidite deposits of the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain, late Miocene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Postma, George; Kleverlaan, Kick

    2014-05-01

    Modern submarine canyon floors are often covered with bedform patterns linked to supercritical turbidity currents, while recognition of sedimentary structures associated with such bedforms in outcrops are rare. On the basis of experimental work on bed morphodynamics and flow structure of high-density turbidity currents, a 3-dimensional bedform stability diagram and related sedimentary facies diagram have been constructed. To allow scaling of this diagram to natural flows, four non-dimensional parameters are used: 1) densimetric Froude number, 2) modified mobility parameter, 3) dimensionless grain size and 4) basal sediment concentration. Each bedform and basal sediment concentration is then linked to a characteristic facies type. Numerical and theoretical models from the literature and observations from modern turbidite depositional systems are used to estimate characteristic sizes of the bedforms for different flow types. The model is applied to the turbidite fan systems of the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain, late Miocene) and discussed along existing classical models of high density turbidity current deposits. It is concluded that the vertical sequence of supercritical bedforms have been described in these models, yet to date have never been recognized as bedforms in outcrop, presumably because of their large size that easily exceeds the dimensions of commonly available outcrop. On the basis both experimental work and outcrop studies in the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain) a conceptual three-dimensional bedform diagram for recognition of cyclic steps in outcrop is constructed. Experimental data indicates that depositional processes on the stoss-side of a cyclic step are controlled by hydraulic jump, which temporarily stalls the flow and by subsequent waxing of the flow up to supercritical again. The hydraulic jump produces large scours with soft sediment deformation (flames) preserved in Bouma Ta, while near horizontal, massive to stratified top-cut-out turbidite beds are

  14. Flow in the western Mediterranean shallow mantle: Insights from xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts from SE Iberia (eastern Betics, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidas, Károly; Konc, Zoltán.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Tommasi, Andréa.; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Marchesi, Claudio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Szabó, Csaba; Varas-Reus, María. Isabel; Gervilla, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts of the eastern Betics (SE Iberia, Spain) are spinel ± plagioclase lherzolite, with minor harzburgite and wehrlite, displaying porphyroclastic or equigranular textures. Equigranular peridotites have olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns similar to those of porphyroclastic xenoliths but slightly more dispersed. Olivine CPO shows [100]-fiber patterns characterized by strong alignment of [100]-axes subparallel to the stretching lineation and a girdle distribution of [010]-axes normal to it. This pattern is consistent with simple shear or transtensional deformation accommodated by dislocation creep. One xenolith provides evidence for synkinematic reactive percolation of subduction-related Si-rich melts/fluids that resulted in oriented crystallization of orthopyroxene. Despite a seemingly undeformed microstructure, the CPO in orthopyroxenite veins in composite xenoliths is identical to those of pyroxenes in the host peridotite, suggesting late-kinematic crystallization. Based on these observations, we propose that the annealing producing the equigranular microstructures was triggered by melt percolation in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle coeval to the late Neogene formation of veins in composite xenoliths. Calculated seismic properties are characterized by fast propagation of P waves and polarization of fast S waves parallel to olivine [100]-axis (stretching lineation). These data are compatible with present-day seismic anisotropy observations in SE Iberia if the foliations in the lithospheric mantle are steeply dipping and lineations are subhorizontal with ENE strike, implying dominantly horizontal mantle flow in the ENE-WSW direction within vertical planes, that is, subparallel to the paleo-Iberian margin. The measured anisotropy could thus reflect a lithospheric fabric due to strike-slip deformation in the late Miocene in the context of WSW tearing of the subducted south Iberian margin

  15. Pb, Cd, As, and Se concentrations in livers of dead wild birds from the Ebro Delta, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Guitart, R.; Mateo, R.; Cerradelo, S.; Puig-Casado, P. Autonomous Univ., Bellaterra ); Torra, M.; To-Figueras, J. )

    1994-08-01

    Wild bird populations are susceptible to the environmental presence of toxic elements and substances, especially those that are non-degradable and tend to concentrate through the food chain. Monitoring of such substances in selected bird species could be useful to evaluate the health condition of the species involved and to assess contamination in the ecosystem. One of the most important wild bird sanctuaries of Europe, the Ebro Delta, is situated in NE Spain. The Ebro Delta is an alluvial plain of about 32,000 ha. Because of its special hydrological conditions and geographical situation, the Ebro Delta supports an important and diverse bird population, estimated at 180,000 in the winter period, constituting 311 different species. Most of the Ebro Delta's surface is dedicated to agriculture, principally rice, also serving as an excellent wild bird habitat. Accordingly, agricultural pesticides could be a major problem for wildlife. But in the last few decades the Ebro River and the Tarragona coast have also undergone considerable industrial development. The area is now facing environmental threats by industrial activities, and the ecosystem is becoming contaminated with heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons and PCBS. Heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms have been reported, but metal and metalloid concentrations in birds have not been available. This study monitors lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) concentrations in bird livers from diverse trophic levels in the Ebro Delta. Pb, Cd and As are well recognized as toxic elements, while Se, although causing well known deleterious effects for humans and domestic animals, has only recently been recognized as toxic for aquatic birds. The determination of contaminant loads in several avian species would be useful to control and prevent, when possible, pathological conditions derived from toxic levels of these contaminants for wild bird populations living in the Ebro Delta. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Erosion and stabilisation sequences in relation to base level changes in the El Cautivo badlands, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, R. W.; Calvo-Cases, A.; Arnau-Rosalén, E.; Mather, A. E.; Lázaro-Suau, R.

    2008-08-01

    The complex multiple-age badlands at El Cautivo are cut in upper Miocene marls of the uplifted and dissected Tabernas Basin, Almería, in semi-arid SE Spain. Previous work identified six episodes of erosion and subsequent stabilisation, with ages ranging from the late Pleistocene to the present day. This paper uses newly-acquired digital elevation models, orthorectified aerial photographs, and field survey data to illustrate the development sequence of a series of gullies which drain into the Rambla de Tabernas. Changing drainage directions and phases of incision and stabilisation are related to the filling and subsequent dissection of the Tabernas lower lake sediments, differential material strengths, changing process mixes on hillslopes and, in more recent times, land-use changes. We propose that the erosional phases differed considerably in both time-span and depth of incision. A long period of stability during the existence of the lake led to extensive pediment development in the area. Subsequent incision into the lake sediments by the Rambla de Tabernas produced a limited amount of localised pediment incision in the tributary catchment. Subsequent aggradation occurred in the lower reaches of gullies when incision by the Rambla de Tabernas reached the underlying bedrock. Following incision through the lip of the lake the Rambla de Tabernas cut rapidly into the bedrock leading to an altered drainage direction in the tributary catchments and the major phase of badland development visible today. Stabilisation of the pediments and some of the north-facing slopes occurred subsequently. Increased sediment loads, caused by climatic shift, a change in land use, or both, gave rise to a later phase of valley fill in the gullies. The modern channels have reduced this fill to isolated terrace benches and there are also localised remnants of a lower, more recent fill. Whilst supporting the general interpretation of the site's development by Alexander et al. [Alexander, R

  17. Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; De Waele, Jo; Calaforra, José Maria; Forti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flow and hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr- 1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm - 1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr- 1 on carbonate flowstones. The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr- 1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation-corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation-corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an

  18. An assessment of the influence of sulfidic mine wastes on rainwater quality in a semiarid climate (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, A.; Fernández-López, C.; Vázquez, M.; Caparrós, A.; Ibarra, I.; García, C.; Zarroca, M.; Rodríguez, R.

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the influence of the Sierra Minera de Cartagena - La Unión mining wastes on the surrounding areas, due to the sediment transport in the atmosphere. Monitoring of 15 weather stations located in the Campo de Cartagena land (SE Spain) was performed in the period December, 2004-March, 2008. A total of 920 rainfall water samples were collected and analyzed in this study. The network of weather stations covered a wide range of soil use and human activities (industrial, urban, agricultural, and mining sites). The physicochemical characterization involved determination of pH, EC, major ions, and the metals of interest in the soluble fraction of rainwater. Precipitations had an alkaline pH (7.0-7.9) and, compared to World Health Organization guidelines for drinking-water quality, samples were characterized by low EC (76-930 μS/cm), Ni (0.1-8 μg/L), Cu (3-88 μg/L), As (0.04-2 μg/L), Na+ (3-16 mg/L), K+ (0.41-30 mg/L), Ca2+ (6-51 mg/L), Mg2+ (up to 5 mg/L), Cl- (4-23 mg/L), NO3- (1-30 mg/L), and SO42- (4-35 mg/L) values. In certain locations, Zn, Cd, and Pb exceeded the guideline limits. A downward trend of H+, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in total depositions was observed while the distance to the area affected by mining activities increased in the first 20 km. Rainwater quality was found to be just subtly affected by the metal-sulfide abandoned minesites, but without presenting a current threat to neither public health nor natural ecosystem. Nevertheless, greater attention should be paid in the future projections of climate change, where a significant increase in aridity may favor the atmospheric transport of pollutant particles.

  19. Do heavy metals existing in abandoned mining sites represent a real health risk? A study case in the SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz; Martínez-López, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Hernández-Cordoba, Manuel; Bech, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    Mining activities have been carried out for centuries in Sierra Minera (SE Spain) giving rise to a large number of sites distributed throughout the zone in which residues are accumulated. This communication reports studies as regards metal mobilization and analysis of the health risk that could be posed by inhalation, dermic contact or occasional ingestion of this type of sediments. Lead was used as the metal for the studies due to its particular abundance in the zone. A large number of samples were taken and general analytical determinations (pH, particle size, organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate content and mineralogical composition) were carried out in order its characterization. An in vitro method for obtaining formation on Pb bioaccessibility in these mine waste materials was also carried out. Our results prove that mineral associations, different alteration states and sorption/desorption processes play an important role in the bioavailability of lead. In addition, it is noteworthy that the metal fraction dissolved by the proposed in vitro methodology is lower than 100%, both in the stomach and intestinal phases. Finally an assessment of the risk posed by lead is achieved. To this respect it should be noted that the IRIS database provide cancer slope factor and reference dose, as a way to assess the risk caused by arsenic, cadmium and copper but no for lead, probably due to the wide variety of real situations, and the discrepancy of the sources. The way here suggested is a novelty in this sense, and the results could be extrapolated to other similar zones and be incorporated to the general protocol of risk assessment applied to contaminated sites.

  20. Total organic carbon and humus fractions in restored soils from limestone quarries in semiarid climate, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Ángel Domene Ruiz, Miguel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities generate erosion and loss of plant cover and soil organic matter (SOM), especially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem restoration in such highly disturbed areas is the development of functional soils with sufficient organic matter. But the SOM quality is also important to long-term C stabilization. The resistance to biodegradation of recalcitrant organic matter fractions has been reported to depend on some intrinsic structural factors of humic acid substances and formation of amorphous organo-mineral recalcitrant complexes. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, several combinations of organic amendments (sewage sludge and compost from domestic organic waste) and mulches (gravel and woodchip) were added in experimental plots using a factorial design. In each plot, 75 native plants (Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora and Macrochloa tenacissima) were planted and five years after the start of the experiment total organic carbon (TOC), physico-chemical soil properties and organic C fractions (particulate organic matter, H3PO4-fulvic fraction, fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humin) were analyzed. We observed significant differences between treatments related to the TOC content and the HA/FA ratio. Compost amendments increased the TOC, HA content and HA/FA ratio, even higher than in natural undisturbed soils, indicating an effective clay humus-complex pointing to progressively increasing organic matter quality. Soils with sewage sludge showed the lowest TOC and HA/FA ratio and accumulated a lower HA proportion indicating poorer organic matter quality and comparatively lower resilience than in natural soils and soils amended with compost.

  1. Categorical Indicator Kriging for assessing the risk of groundwater nitrate pollution: the case of Vega de Granada aquifer (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Chica-Olmo, Mario; Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution associated with agricultural activity is an important environmental problem in the management of this natural resource, as acknowledged by the European Water Framework Directive. Therefore, specific measures aimed to control the risk of water pollution by nitrates must be implemented to minimise its impact on the environment and potential risk to human health. The spatial probability distribution of nitrate contents exceeding a threshold or limit value, established within the quality standard, will be helpful to managers and decision-makers. A methodology based on non-parametric and non-linear methods of Indicator Kriging was used in the elaboration of a nitrate pollution categorical map for the aquifer of Vega de Granada (SE Spain). The map has been obtained from the local estimation of the probability that a nitrate content in an unsampled location belongs to one of the three categories established by the European Water Framework Directive: CL. 1 good quality [Min - 37.5 ppm], CL. 2 intermediate quality [37.5-50 ppm] and CL. 3 poor quality [50 ppm - Max]. The obtained results show that the areas exceeding nitrate concentrations of 50 ppm, poor quality waters, occupy more than 50% of the aquifer area. A great proportion of the area's municipalities are located in these poor quality water areas. The intermediate quality and good quality areas correspond to 21% and 28%, respectively, but with the highest population density. These results are coherent with the experimental data, which show an average nitrate concentration value of 72 ppm, significantly higher than the quality standard limit of 50 ppm. Consequently, the results suggest the importance of planning actions in order to control and monitor aquifer nitrate pollution.

  2. Extreme storms during the last 6500 years from lagoonal sedimentary archives in the Mar Menor (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezileau, Laurent; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Raji, Otmane; Martinez, Philippe; Marcos, Concepcion; Von Grafenstein, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Storms and tsunamis, which may seriously endanger human society, are amongst the most devastating marine catastrophes that can occur in coastal areas. Many such events are known and have been reported for the Mediterranean, a region where high-frequency occurrences of these extreme events coincides with some of the most densely populated coastal areas in the world. In a sediment core from the Mar Menor (SE Spain), we discovered eight coarse-grained layers which document marine incursions during periods of intense storm activity or tsunami events. Based on radiocarbon dating, these extreme events occurred around 5250, 4000, 3600, 3010, 2300, 1350, 650, and 80 years cal BP. No comparable events have been observed during the 20th and 21st centuries. The results indicate little likelihood of a tsunami origin for these coarse-grained layers, although historical tsunami events are recorded in this region. These periods of surge events seem to coincide with the coldest periods in Europe during the late Holocene, suggesting a control by a climatic mechanism for periods of increased storm activity. Spectral analyses performed on the sand percentage revealed four major periodicities of 1228 ± 327, 732 ± 80, 562 ± 58, and 319 ± 16 years. Amongst the well-known proxies that have revealed a millennial-scale climate variability during the Holocene, the ice-rafted debris (IRD) indices in the North Atlantic developed by Bond et al. (1997, 2001) present a cyclicity of 1470 ± 500 years, which matches the 1228 ± 327-year periodicity evidenced in the Mar Menor, considering the respective uncertainties in the periodicities. Thus, an in-phase storm activity in the western Mediterranean is found with the coldest periods in Europe and with the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. However, further investigations, such as additional coring and high-resolution coastal imagery, are needed to better constrain the main cause of these multiple events.

  3. Geochemical background of zinc, cadmium and mercury in anthropically influenced soils in a semi-arid zone (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-04-01

    This work seeks to establish the geochemical background for three potentially toxic trace elements (Zn, Cd and Hg) in a pilot zone included in the DesertNet project in the province of Murcia. The studied area, known as Campo de Cartagena, Murcia (SE Spain) is an area of intensive agriculture and has been much affected over the years by anthropic activity. The zone can be considered an experimental pilot zone for establishing background levels in agricultural soils. Sixty four samples were collected and corresponded to areas subjected to high and similar agricultural activity or soils with natural vegetation, which correspond to abandoned agricultural areas. The Zn content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry and mercury content was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Geostatistical analysis consisting of kriging and mapping was performed using the geostatistical analyst extension of ArcGIS 8.3. Zinc values ranged from 10 mg kg-1 to 151 mg kg-1, with an average value of 45 mg kg-1. Cadmium values ranged between 0.1 mg kg-1 and 0.9mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.3 mg kg-1 and mercury values ranged from 0.1 mg kg-1 to 2.3 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.5 mg kg-1. At a national level, the Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005 proposes toxicological and statistical approaches to establish background values. According to the statistical approach, background values consist of the median value for the selected element. The background values for Zn, Cd and Hg in the studied area were 40 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.3 mg kg-1 for Cd and 0.4 mg kg-1 for Hg.

  4. Thinning effects on litterfall remaining after 8 years and improved stand resilience in Aleppo pine afforestation (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M N; Navarro, F B

    2016-03-15

    Monthly litterfall was monitored over a 3-year period in afforested Aleppo pines in the Mediterranean semiarid SE Spain with the aim of determining the long-term response of pines to reductions in tree competition and how this forest practice might influence stand resilience. Three thinning intensities applied 5 years earlier were evaluated (T75 = 75% of the basal area removed, T60 = 60% and T48 = 48%), both at the stand and at the tree level. On average, the total annual litterfall varied between 1.30 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.24 SE) in T75 and 3.28 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.78 SE) in the unthinned control. At the stand level, monthly differences among the treatments were found over time in the needles (F = 11.09, df = 3, P = 0.0009) and woody fraction (F = 4.36, df = 3, P = 0.0269) following the thinning gradient: T0 (control)>T48 > T60 > T75, and for the total amount of needles (χ(2) = 9.33, P = 0.025) and twigs (χ(2) = 9.11, P = 0.027) recorded at the end of the study period. High amounts of twig and needle fall were recorded during summer and beginning of autumn, whereas the main miscellanea inputs were registered during the spring, coinciding with the fall of nests and frass from caterpillar outbreaks. At the tree level, the total litterfall fluctuated between 1.5 kg tree yr(-1) in T0 (2nd yr) and 7.0 kg tree yr(-1) in T75 (3rd yr), although mean annual statistical differences among the treatments were found only for the first year of monitoring. However, needle fall was higher for larger pines (T75) than for the smaller ones in control (T0) when the data were analysed over the 3-year-period (F = 3.64, df = 3, P = 0.0247), and the same happened for the woody fraction (F = 3.63, df = 3, P = 0.0250). By contrast, pine trees in the unthinned control registered needle-fall rates (measured as kg m(-2) tree(-1)) that were similar to or higher than those of pine trees in thinned stands, suggesting that defoliation

  5. Testing models for the Messinian salinity crisis: The Messinian record in Almería, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Juan C.; Martín, José M.; Riding, Robert; Aguirre, Julio; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel M.; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume

    2006-06-01

    Neogene intermontane basins in Almería Province, SE Spain, display excellent exposures of Messinian (Late Miocene) sequences. The Sorbas, Almería-Níjar and Vera basins maintained connection with the Mediterranean throughout the Messinian, except during the major desiccation phase leading to the formation of salt in the deep centre of the Western Mediterranean. These basins were part of the Western Mediterranean with no separate link to the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of normal marine sediments in these basins reflects the Western Mediterranean watermass. Messinian pre-evaporitic sediments in the basins of southeastern Almería do not show gradual change towards evaporite deposits. Instead they contain stenohaline invertebrates right up to a major erosion surface that separates them from overlying gypsum deposits. This contradicts suggestion of progressive salinity increase in this part of the Western Mediterranean prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC); it also indicates that initiation of evaporite precipitation was not synchronous throughout the Mediterranean Basin. There is no major erosion surface within or at the top of the evaporites in these Almería basins, and the gypsum beds exhibit upward transition to siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. This is inconsistent with a model of Messinian Mediterranean evaporite formation whereby deposition of marginal evaporites was followed by their erosion during drawdown that resulted in formation of evaporites in the centre of the Western Mediterranean. The presence of stenohaline biotas in siliciclastic deposits interbedded with the gypsum and in the Messinian post-evaporitic sediments, challenges the view that a long-standing large body of brackish water (the Lago Mare) filled the Western Mediterranean following the MSC and prior to Early Pliocene flooding. It also contradicts the concept of many relatively small brackish basins spread across an otherwise desiccated Western Mediterranean basin. The basins

  6. Effect of partial melting on Vp and Vs in crustal enclaves from Mazarrón (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Fabio; Burlini, Luigi; Cesare, Bernardo

    2016-03-01

    The combination of compressional and shear wave velocity is an important tool in discriminating rock types and identifying residing melts within the continental crust. Here we report the laboratory measurements for Vp and Vs obtained in varying conditions up to those exceeding the beginning of melting (950 °C at 500 MPa confining pressure) on two residual garnet-biotite-sillimanite-cordierite-spinel metapelitic enclaves recovered from the Neogene dacites of Mazarrón (SE Spain). The enclaves preserve widespread interstitial rhyolitic glass as evidence of primary melt extraction. At 500 MPa, the experimental Vp ranges from 7.21 ÷ 7.46 km s- 1 at room temperature to 5.44 km/s at 950 °C. The mean Vs is 4.5 km/s at room temperature with shear-wave splitting of 0.25 ÷ 0.3 km/s, measured along three mutually orthogonal directions. When temperature increases, the Vs evidences a reversible slope change at about 650 °C, and the shear-wave splitting reduces to zero (isotropic material) at 850-950 °C, where the sample Vs is ~ 3.0 km/s. The Vp anisotropy is 7-10% up to 700 °C increasing to ~ 20% at 950 °C, while the Vs anisotropy continuously decreases with temperature from 5% to 7% at room temperature to zero at 950 °C. No mineral reactions are observed up to 650-700 °C; however, microstructure equilibrates due to the relaxation of the primary glass at the glass transition temperature. Between 850 °C and 950 °C, a new melting reaction is observed producing biotite + spinel + ilmenite + plagioclase + melt. At melting, the rock becomes isotropic for Vs, and Poisson's ratio increases to 0.30. Our seismic data show that the seismic signature of high grade metapelitic rocks is similar to that of mafic materials. The evolution of Vp and Vs at melting conditions is compatible with the geophysical data of the area, supporting the hypothesis of the current existence of anatectic melts at intermediate depths of the Alborán domain.

  7. Geodetic slip rate estimates for the Alhama de Murcia and Carboneras faults in the SE Betics, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaradze, Giorgi; Echeverria, Anna; Masana, Eulàlia

    2016-04-01

    The Alhama de Murcia and the Carboneras faults are the most prominent geologic structures within the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), located in SE Spain. Using continuous and campaign GPS observations conducted during the last decade, we were able to confirm the continuing tectonic activity of these faults by quantifying their geodetic slip-rates and comparing the estimated values with the geological (including paleoseismological) observations. We find that the bulk of the observed deformation is concentrated around the Alhama de Murcia (AMF) and the Palomares (PF) faults. The geodetic horizontal slip rate (reverse-sinistral) of 1.5±0.3 mm/yr calculated for the AMF and PF fault system is in good agreement with geological observations at the AMF, as well as, the focal mechanism of the 2011 Lorca earthquake, suggesting a main role of the AMF. We also find that the geodetic slip rate of the Carboneras fault zone (CFZ) is almost purely sinistral strike-slip with a rate of 1.3±0.2 mm/yr along N48° direction, very similar to 1.1 mm/yr geologic slip-rate, estimated from recent onshore and offshore paleoseismic and geomorphologic studies. The fact the geodetic and the geologic slip-rates are similar at the AMF and CF faults, suggests that both faults have been tectonically active since Quaternary, slipping at approximately at constant rate of 1.1 to 1.8 mm/yr. Since the existing GPS data cannot discern whether the CFZ is slipping seismically or aseismically, we have intended to relate the on-going seismic activity to the slip-rates estimated using GPS. For this reason we compared seismic and geodetic strain rates, where the latter are larger than seismic strain rates, suggesting the presence of aseismic processes in the area. Nevertheless, due to the large earthquake recurrence intervals, we may be underestimating the seismic strain rates. The direction of the P and T average stress axes are in good agreement with geodetic principal strain rate axes. To summarize, in

  8. Transplant experiments to examine the habitat exclusivity of lichen dominated soil crust communities in the El Cautivo badlands, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, J.; Alexander, R.; Lazaro-Suau, R.

    2012-04-01

    Successive episodes of erosion into late Miocene marls have produced the complex, deeply incised topography of the El Cautivo badlands in Almería, SE Spain. Phanerogamic vegetation is sparse in this extreme semi-arid environment and biological soil crusts constitute the predominant cover on all surfaces except those with active erosion. The soil crusts comprise a diverse range of lichen-dominated communities, which previous work (Bevan, 2008) has indicated can be separated into four main types, each characterised by one or a small number of lichen species. Distribution patterns of these main crust types appear to reflect (micro)topographic and microclimatic variability at the site with each community type occupying a specific habitat. The main crust types are identified as BC, a brown crust typically containing Endocarpon pusillum, Collema spp, Fulgensia spp and Placynthium nigrum, and DC, SC, LC, three white crusts characterised respectively by Diploschistes diacapsis, Squamarina lentigera and Lepraria crassissima. Previous work at the site (Bevan, 2008) has revealed associations between the distribution of these four crust types and a number of microclimatic variables, in particular insolation and temperature. BC tends to occur in the most exposed parts of the site where insolation and surface temperatures reach their highest levels and humidity and soil moisture tends to be low. LC appears more restricted to shaded sites with lower insolation and temperature and higher humidity and soil moisture. DC and SC occupy intermediate ranges of these variables. In order to test the degree to which the apparent habitat preferences of the crust types are obligatory or preferential a series of transplant experiments were devised. Replicate samples representative of each of the four crust types were reciprocally transplanted into areas dominated by each of the other types and also into an area previously eroded and bare. Each location had the following groups of plots: a

  9. Interannual variability of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and its component fluxes in a subalpine Mediterranean ecosystem (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Domingo, Francisco; Arnau-Rosalén, Eva; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Pérez-Priego, Óscar; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent decades under climate change have seen increasing interest in quantifying the carbon (C) balance of different terrestrial ecosystems, and their behavior as sources or sinks of C. Both CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and identification of its drivers are key to understanding land-surface feedbacks to climate change. The eddy covariance (EC) technique allows measurements of net ecosystem C exchange (NEE) from short to long time scales. In addition, flux partitioning models can extract the components of net CO2 fluxes, including both biological processes of photosynthesis or gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (Reco), and also abiotic drivers like subsoil CO2 ventilation (VE), which is of particular relevance in semiarid environments. The importance of abiotic processes together with the strong interannual variability of precipitation, which strongly affects CO2 fluxes, complicates the accurate characterization of the C balance in semiarid landscapes. In this study, we examine 10 years of interannual variability of NEE and its components at a subalpine karstic plateau, El Llano de los Juanes, in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Results show annual NEE ranging from 55 g C m-2 (net emission) to -54 g C m-2 (net uptake). Among C flux components, GPP was the greatest contributing 42-57% of summed component magnitudes, while contributions by Reco and VE ranged from 27 to 46% and from 3 to 18%, respectively. Annual precipitation during the studied period exhibited high interannual variability, ranging from 210 mm to 1374 mm. Annual precipitation explained 50% of the variance in Reco, 59% of that in GPP, and 56% for VE. While Reco and GPP were positively correlated with annual precipitation (correlation coefficient, R, of 0.71 and 0.77, respectively), VE showed negative correlation with this driver (R = -0.74). During the driest year (2004-2005), annual GPP and Reco reached their lowest values, while contribution of

  10. Lichenometry dating of rock collapse related to the great Lisbon Earthquake (1755) at the SE part of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, Raul; Rodriguez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Silva, Pablo G.; Bischoff, James L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Giner-Robles, Jorge L.; Díez-Herrero, Andres

    2010-05-01

    "De una montaña, se desprendió una parte" (A large part of a mountain has fallen down). This sentence was extracted from an ancient text written at the end of the 18th Century, in relation with the great Earthquake of Lisbon in 1755 (Martínez-Solares, 2001), and describing the rock collapse recorded near the small town of Agramón, 50 km southeastward of Albacete city (SE of Spain). Up to now, archaeologists have suggested this rock collapse to the archaeological site of "El Tolmo de Minateda", a small butte (420 m long) of calcarenitic sandstone bedrock with a flat top and scarped cliffs (20m high) bordering the butte. This ancient city was habited by several civilizations from Bronze Ages to modern times (i.e. Iberians, Roman, Visigoths, Muslims, Medieval ages, etc.). The landscape of this area is characterized by a flat terrain with isolated relict structural buttes consisting of Late Neogene marine sandstones created by differential erosion. The site exhibits three different stages of massive rock collapse. The oldest is located at the north of the site while the younger is located at the south part of the site and affecting Visigothic stone carved tombs. Archaeologists have postulated that the youngest of these was triggered by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. We have carried out a lichenometric analysis over the free-faces of the rock blocks, with the aim of testing the postulate. For our purpose, we have calculated the calibrated growth curve for Aspicilia Radiosa (Hoff.), which yields a linear growth of 0.2425 mm per yr (R2 = 0.97, N=20). This growth rate was determined for the time interval from 800 BP yrs to the present by two different approaches: (1) rates obtained from cemetery measurements (200 yrs BP) and (2) rates determined from well-dated archaeological monuments (200-800 yrs BP). Our analysis revealed that the age of the rock-falling was in the year 1754 AD ±4. Thus, our results confirm that this collapse of ca. 5000 m3 of volume was triggered

  11. Constraining controls on carbonate sequences with high-resolution chronostratigraphy: Upper Miocene, Cabo de Gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, P.; Farr, M.R.; Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution chronostratigraphy has been developed for Miocene shallow-water carbonate strata in the Cabo de Gata region of SE Spain for evaluation of local, regional and global factors that controlled platform architecture prior to and during the Messinian salinity crisis. Paleomagnetic data were collected from strata at three localities. Mean natural remanent magnetization (NRM) ranges between 1.53 ?? 10-8 and 5.2 ?? 10-3 Am2/kg. Incremental thermal and alternating field demagnetization isolated the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Rock magnetic studies show that the dominant magnetic mineral is magnetite, but mixtures of magnetite and hematite occur. A composite chronostratigraphy was derived from five stratigraphic sections. Regional stratigraphic data, biostratigraphic data, and an 40Ar/39Ar date of 8.5 ?? 0.1 Ma, for an interbedded volcanic flow, place the strata in geomagnetic polarity Chrons C4r to C3r. Sequence-stratigraphic and diagenetic evidence indicate a major unconformity at the base of depositional sequence (DS)3 that contains a prograding reef complex, suggesting that approximately 250 000 yr of record (Subchrons C3Br.2r to 3Br.1r) are missing near the Messinian-Tortonian boundary. Correlation to the GPTS shows that the studied strata represent five third- to fourth-order DSs. Basal units are temperate to subtropical ramps (DS1A, DS1B, DS2); these are overlain by subtropical to tropical reefal platforms (DS3), which are capped by subtropical to tropical cyclic carbonates (Terminal Carbonate Complex, TCC). Correlation of the Cabo de Gata record to the Melilla area of Morocco, and the Sorbas basin of Spain indicate that early - Late Tortonian ramp strata from these areas are partially time-equivalent. Similar strata are extensively developed in the Western Mediterranean and likely were influenced by a cool climate or influx of nutrients during an overall rise in global sea-level. After ramp deposition, a sequence boundary (SB3) in

  12. Electrical conductivity in a partially molten lower crust from laboratory measurements on xenoliths (El Hoyazo, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, F.; Gibért, B.; Violay, M.; Schilling, F. R.; Cesare, B.

    2009-04-01

    The presence of High Conductive Zones (HCZs) within the lower crust is explained by several mechanisms involving phases as graphite, brines and partial melts, which enhance the conductivity when inteconnected over large distances. In the Internal Betics (Southern Spain) the anomalous HCZ imaged at the bottom of a thinned lower crust (Pous et al., 1999) is combined with low seismic velocities and high heat flow values (Carbonell et al., 1998) supporting the hypothesis that partial melts are present at depths. This is further confirmed by the recovery of restitic lower crustal xenoliths retaining evidence of partial melting (Zeck, 1968). The xenolith also contain up to 2 wt% of graphite which may contribute to the conductivity enhancement. The present study is focused on the electrical conductivity at high pressure and temperature of four garnet-biotite-sillimanite metapelitic xenoliths collected from the Neogene dacites of El Hoyazo (SE Spain). The paragenesis is represented by garnet + biotite + sillimanite + plagioclase ± cordierite coexisting with graphite and widespread rhyolitic melt as inclusions and interstitial glass (~10 wt%) (Cesare & Gómez-Pugnaire, 2001). The assemblage developed during regional anatexis at 850-900°C and 500 - 700 MPa (Cesare et al., 1997) and melt was frozen-in during fast uplift. In order to discriminate the contibution of graphite and melt, assess the effect of their geometrical distribution and infer the influence of the glass rheology to the electrical conductivity, experiments were performed in two gas apparata at sealed and unsealed conditions. In unsealed runs, in fact, the porosity remains open which prevents graphite reconnection. The sealed experiments were conducted in a Paterson Apparatus up to 680°C and 840°C at 100 MPa and to 900°C at 300 MPa, the unsealed ones in an internally heated gas apparatus (IHPV) with Ar as pressure medium up to 950°C and 400 MPa. For each sample three mutually orthogonal cores (X, Y, Z

  13. Lower Aptian Sequence at Madoz (SE Spain) in Relation to Cretaceous Anoxic Event-1a (OAE- 1a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona-Narvaez, T.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Lamolda, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Aptian stage at Madoz in the Sierra de Aralar, NE Spain, shows contrasting lithological succession of intercalated clastic-rich intervals and rudist-rich limestone beds varying between Medium Olive Gray (5Y 5/1) and Olive Gray (5Y 4/1). They are subdivided into different sub-units (Duvernois et al., 1972; Cherchi & Schroeder, 1998) with unit 1, as well as subunits 2a and 2b of "Madoz Limestone" are placed within the Lower Aptian Palorbitolina lenticularis Zone. Their stratigraphic level corresponds at least to the Deshayesites deshayesi ammonite zone, based on the presence of the nominate taxon in clastic Unit 1. Sub-unit 2b includes a distinct 180-cm thick black (Medium to Dark Gray, -N4 to N3) shale layer toward the close of the upper Lower Aptian. Detailed microfacies analysis was carried out on the Lower Aptian interval in order to characterize the different lithofacies and their possible relationship to Cretaceous OAE-1a. Subunit 2a is 20m thick and its microfacies consists of sparse and packed biomicrites, moderate to poorly sorted fine calcirudites and calcarenites composed of 40 - 50% remains of corals, predominantly non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, bryozoans, benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae indicative of well oxygenated conditions. Matrix and bioclasts are highly affected by neomorphism and growing of micritic envelopes is frequent. Superjacent subunit 2b is also 20m thick, but is lithologically very variable and consists of interbeds of indurated biomicrite with 30 - 50 % fossil fragments dominated by orbitolinids, and echinoids, non-rudist bivalves, benthic foraminifers, and algae as secondary components. These beds also contain 15 - 25 % mostly silt-size quartz grains, and clays. Other indurated biomicrite beds within subunit 2b contain 1 - 20 % fragments of non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, other benthic foraminifers, and algae, but orbitolinids are scarce. Terrigenous components make up 10 - 25 % of the matrix. Subunit 2b also includes soft

  14. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: Upper miocene, cabo de gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  15. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: upper miocene, cabo de gata region, se Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  16. Spectral detection of different types of soil crusts under intact and disturbance conditions in semiarid environments from SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, S.; Stevens, A.; Cantón, Y.; Domingo, F.; van Wesemael, B.

    2009-04-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) consist of an association of soil particles with cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, liverworts, bryophytes and lichens creating a cohesive thin horizontal layer on the soil surface. They have a widespread distribution in arid and semiarid regions, which comprise over 40% of the world's land surface. BSCs play an important role on hydrological and ecological functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems since they influence all components of hydrological balance (runoff, rainfall capture, infiltration, evaporation, water retention capacity) and erosion. It is well known that BSCs at local scale reduce water erosion by protecting soil against raindrop impact. However, their effects have to be evaluated at different spatial scales, because in many cases BSCs lead to an increase of runoff and downslope erosion or water harvesting from crusted areas to nourish adjacent vegetated areas. Moreover, BSCs are easily damaged by livestock or human activities and the disturbance usually has great significance for the coverage and the composition of the community of the BSCs, the developmental stage of the BSC and their effects on hydrology and erosion. So, to accurately predict runoff and erosion processes, the spatial distribution of soil crust types and their disturbance conditions should be included in models. To map soil crusting at large scales, the use of their spectral characteristics can be a useful method. The objectives of this work are i) to analyze the spectral characteristics of different crust types (physical and biological soil crusts), also corresponding to different crust development stages, in two semiarid areas in SE Spain, El Cautivo (in the Tabernas Desert) and Amoladeras (in the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Níjar), ii) to demonstrate the efficiency of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, especially in the visible part of the spectrum, for classifying different crust types and different crust disturbance conditions. Spectral

  17. [PELFI Project: Recruitment and Sociodemographic Characteristics of Immigrant and Autochthonous Families from Alicante and Barcelona City Subcohorts].

    PubMed

    Cayuela-Mateo, Ana; Martínez-Martínez, José Miguel; Ferrer Serret, Laia; Felt, Emily; Casabona I Barbarà, Jordi; Collazos Sanchez, Francisco; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2017-02-09

    This study is a part of the multi-centre project "Platform of Longitudinal Studies of Immigrant Families (PELFI)" of the Immigration and Health Subprogram of the CIBER-ESP. It describes the field work and data collection of two sub-cohorts of immigrant and native families, and their main socio-demographic characteristics. Prospective observational cohort study in carried out in Barcelona and Alicante, Spain. The study population is a a non-probabilistic sample of 180 families of Colombian, Ecuadorian and Moroccan origin and 50 families of Spanish origin. We interviewed adults aged 18-65 years and adolescents aged 12-17 years in each family, through two questionnaires (adolescent/adult). The cooperation rate was 82.0% with an average recruitment rate of 1.3 families per day. In total, 250 families have been recruited, 82 from Ecuador, 82 from Colombia, 29 from Morocco and 57 from Spain. A total of 473 adults (59.8% women and 68.5% employed) were surveyed. Immigrant adults have an average of 13 years living in Spain. A total of 304 adolescents (53.9% female, 27.1% born in Spain but with immigrant parents) were surveyed. The combination of non-probabilistic techniques promoted access and improved recruitment speed. This study provides key information for the design and improvement of cohort studies with immigrant families.

  18. Spreading of astronomy in big events: the case of The fira detots Sants of Cocentaina (Alicante)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantó, J.; Luna, R.; Satorre, M. A.; Millán, C.

    2011-11-01

    Year 2009 has been an intense year for astronomers. TheInternational Year of Astronomy (IYA-AIA) was a fantasticopportunity to show to the public the most beautiful discoveriesof the cosmos. It has also been a difficult year for looking forfunding, so it has been indispensable to unite efforts to optimizeresources. In this communication we try to expose the case of theexhibition "Un Univers per descobrir" organized and supported byCocentaina's Town hall (in Alicante's province). It was anexhibition made ex-professo for the 663 edition of theFira de Tots Sants de Cocentaina, based on the project with thesame title by doctors Guillermo Tenorio and Enrique Perez. Thisexhibition, with more than 50000 visitors, was the most visitedastronomic exhibition in Spain during the IYA.%J Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI, Proceedings of the IX Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA), held in Madrid, September 13 - 17, 2010, Eds.: M. R. Zapatero Osorio, J. Gorgas, J. Maíz Apellániz, J. R. Pardo, and A. Gil de Paz., p. 858-858

  19. Influence of an intensive agricultural drainage basin on the seasonal distribution of organic pollutants in seawater from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; Campillo, J A; León, V M

    2013-12-15

    The seasonal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, triazines and other organic pollutants in surface seawater from the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) was characterized from spring 2009 to winter 2010 by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption followed by capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). The most ubiquitous pollutants were chlorpyrifos, chlortal-dimethyl, terbuthylazine, naphthalene and propyzamide throughout the year. Insecticides and herbicides were predominant in summer and spring, and fungicides were more abundant in autumn and winter. Chlorpyrifos was predominant in autumn and spring; herbicides (propyzamide, terbuthylazine and terbuthylazine-desethyl) in autumn and fungicides (flutolanil, boscalid, cyprodinil) in autumn and winter. The highest concentrations for the majority of pollutants were detected in autumn as consequence of air and surface/ground water inputs, and above all of desorption from terrigenous materials deposited in sediments by two intense flash flood events (September 2009).

  20. Impact of mining activities on soils in a semi-arid environment: Sierra Almagrera district, SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andres; Collado, Diego; Carbonell, Montserrat; Sanchez, Juan A

    2004-12-01

    Field and laboratory-column studies were undertaken in order to investigate soil contamination derived from past mining activity in the Sierra Almagrera (SA) district in southeast Spain. The tailings, soil and sediment samples that were collected showed high concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn when analyzed. The mean concentrations of these elements in the tailings were 29.8, 285.4, 54000, 57.7, 2687.5, 179.0 and 2269.0 ppm, respectively. In the soil samples these decreased to 14.3, 96.9, 24700, 37.5, 1859.1, 168.5 and 815.7 ppm, respectively. Geochemical analyses demonstrated high levels of As, Pb and Zn which were above the intervention values set forth in the Andalusian Regulations for Contaminated Soils for As (>50 ppm), Pb (>500 ppm) and Zn (>2000 ppm). Column experiments and mineralogical studies suggest that the dissolution of sulfates and other secondary phases, accumulated in soils and waste-sites during the dry season, acts to control the mobility of metals. The elution curves obtained from column experiments showed a mobilization of Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn, while a low mobility was seen for Ag, As and Sb.

  1. Magnetostratigraphy of the Orce region (Baza Basin), SE Spain: New chronologies for Early Pleistocene faunas and hominid occupation sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, G. R.; Gibert, Ll.; Gibert, J.

    2007-02-01

    The Orce fossil quarries, in the Baza Basin of southeastern Spain, are a rich source of Early Pleistocene Palaeolithic tools and vertebrate remains. Geologic fieldwork during the last decade has placed these fossiliferous strata within the context of a thick Neogene continental sequence. Detailed lithostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic results indicate that at least the upper 60 m of this sequence are of Early Pleistocene age. The quarried strata (Venta Micena, Barranco León and Fuentenueva-3) are from a narrow time span (<100 ka) starting before 1.3 Ma. A new, lower excavation at ˜1.5 Ma (Fuentenueva-1 quarry) has a distinctly older fauna. These Orce strata provide a high resolution, Early Pleistocene record of grassland fauna that shows the end of Mammal Neogene fauna (MN17) in the Fuentenueva-1 site (with Gazella borbonica, Equus stenonis) and the beginning of more characteristic Pleistocene fauna in the Venta Micena site (with Hippopotamus antiquus, Equus granatensis, Homo sp.). Thus far, no evidence for human occupation has been found within the earlier Fuentenueva-1 quarry, although many of the same terminal MN17 species have been found with hominids on the other side of Europe at the Dmanisi site (earliest Pleistocene) in the Republic of Georgia.

  2. Habitat Fragmentation in Arid Zones: A Case Study of Linaria nigricans Under Land Use Changes (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  3. Geostatistical analysis to identify hydrogeochemical processes in complex aquifers: a case study (Aguadulce unit, Almeria, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Daniele, Linda; Pulido Bosch, Antonio; Vallejos, Angela; Molina, Luis

    2008-06-01

    The Aguadulce aquifer unit in southeastern Spain is a complex hydrogeological system because of the varied lithology of the aquifer strata and the variability of the processes that can take place within the unit. Factorial analysis of the data allowed the number of variables to be reduced to 3 factors, which were found to be related to such physico-chemical processes as marine intrusion and leaching of saline deposits. Variographic analysis was applied to these factors, culminating in a study of spatial distribution using ordinary kriging. Mapping of the factors allowed rapid differentiation of some of the processes that affect the waters of the Gador carbonate aquifer within the Aguadulce unit, without the need to recur to purely hydrogeochemical techniques. The results indicate the existence of several factors related to salinity: marine intrusion, paleowaters, and/or leaching of marls and evaporitic deposits. The techniques employed are effective, and the results conform to those obtained using hydrogeochemical methods (vertical records of conductivity and temperature, ion ratios, and others). The findings of this study confirm that the application of such analytical methods can provide a useful assessment of factors affecting groundwater composition.

  4. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-tertoctylphenol was found in all the WW samples at high concentration levels (up to 89.7 μg/L). Furthermore, it was observed that WW effluent samples were less contaminated in the second and third sampling periods, which corresponded to dry season. This evaluation revealed that despite the WW was treated in the WWTP, organic contaminants are still being detected in WW effluents and therefore they are released into the environment. Finally the risk of environmental threat due to the presence of some compounds in WWTP effluents, especially concerning 4-tertoctylphenol must be indicated.

  5. Amplitude of late Miocene sea-level fluctuations from karst development in reef-slope deposits (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reolid, Jesús; Betzler, Christian; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    A prograding late Miocene carbonate platform in southern Spain revealing different sea-level pinning points was analysed with the aim to increase the accuracy of reconstruction of past sea-level changes. These pinning points are distinct diagenetic zones (DZ) and the position of reef-framework deposits. DZ1 is defined by the dissolution of bioclastic components and DZ2 by calcitic cement precipitation in dissolution pores. Calcite cements are granular and radiaxial fibrous, and are of meteoric origin as deduced from cathodoluminescence, EDX spectroscopy, as well as from δ13C and δ18O isotope analyses. DZ3 has moldic porosity after aragonitic bioclasts with minor granular calcitic cements. DZ1 and DZ2 indicate karstification and the development of a coastal palaeoaquifer during a sea-level lowstand. DZ3 diagenetic features are related to the final subaerial exposure of the section during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Facies and diagenetic data reveal a complete cycle of sea-level fall (23 ± 1 m) and rise (31 ± 1 m). A robust age model based on magneto- and cyclostratigraphy for these deposits places this cycle between 5.89 and 5.87 Ma. Therefore, for the first time, this work allows a direct comparison of an outcrop with a pelagic marine proxy record of a specific Neogene sea-level fluctuation.

  6. Initial studies for the phytostabilization of a mine tailing from the Cartagena-La Union Mining District (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Conesa, Héctor M; Faz, Angel; Arnaldos, Raquel

    2007-01-01

    Mine tailings are one of the main environmental problems in post-mining landscapes and their removal is often complicated due to their high heavy metal content and dimensions. In this sense, using plant species for in situ stabilization may be an interesting and low cost option. Moreover, there are some plant species that have adapted to these conditions and are usually present at these contaminated sites. In this study, a mine tailing located in South-East Spain was investigated in order to establish lines for further phytostabilization research. A plot sampling design was carried out in order to characterize the soil properties. In addition, two plant species that have naturally colonized some parts of the tailing, Hyparrhenia hirta and Zygophyllum fabago, were sampled, including the analyses of their respective rhizospheric soils. The results of plot soil samples showed pH values from ultra acid to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity values were around 4dSm(-1) in plots with vegetation and 8dS m(-1) in the plot without vegetation. Total metal concentrations were high (4000 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 9000-15000 mg kg(-1) for Zn). DTPA- and water-extractable Zn were 5% and 3% of the total, respectively. H. hirta accumulated around 150 mg kg(-1) Pb in both shoots and roots. Zn concentration was 750 mg kg(-1) in Z. fabago shoots. DTPA-extractable Zn and Cu were positively correlated to plant uptake.

  7. Physico-chemical evolution of groundwater in tectonically active areas. Application to the Leana hot spring (Murcia Region, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M.; Hornero, J.; Trujillo, C.

    2016-09-01

    Seismic events can affect the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater. These anomalies are of a pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic nature and correspond to pulse variations, sudden increases and decreases without return to initial values and upward or downward changes in trend. Continuous and in situ conductivity and temperature monitoring and periodic water sampling at a hot spring associated with neotectonic activity are of great interest for establishing predictive methods. This method is limited to the seismic activity affecting the fracturing system with which the hot spring is associated. The Region of Murcia and surroundings (southeast Spain) was selected as the study area for exploring the nature of these influences on groundwater. A hot spring in the Leana spa (Murcia) was equipped and monitored during the period 2006-2008, allowing for the in situ determination of conductivity and temperature as well as of major and minor constituents at the laboratory. Due to its proximity and related with fault network, we suggest that 86 % of earthquakes located between 0 and 10 km may affect in situ parameters of groundwater, and 75 % may affect laboratory determinations. This percentage drops in more distant zones. Of all earthquakes that seem to influence groundwater, 55 % of the in situ parameter anomalies and 53 % of laboratory were of a pre-seismic nature.

  8. Mapping local microseismicity using short-term tripartite small array installations — Case study: Coy region (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häge, Martin; Joswig, Manfred

    2009-06-01

    One major tectonic feature in the southern part of Spain is the Crevillente Fault Zone (CFZ) which can be traced over 600 km. A short-term microseismic feasibility study was carried out in the area around Coy to investigate the seismic activity of the CFZ by mapping the local seismicity distribution. The area under investigation is of high interest because three moderate earthquakes have occurred nearby since 1999. The measurements were performed with two small arrays, whereas one array was relocated every day to increase the spatial resolution. In the measurement period of 14 nights, including 4 daytime records, 189 events in the magnitude range - 1.8 ≤ ML ≤ 1.3 were detected, of them 133 events could also be located. According to the bulletin of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, the local network recorded 1 event in the area under investigation in the same period. The results of this short-term measurement show an increased detectability by using small arrays for event recording and prove that there is a high rate of microseismicity below the detection threshold of the local network. For event location, the regional velocity model had to be adapted to our small scale, short epicentral distance application by reducing vP to 4 km/s using a homogenous half space model. The distribution of the events does not indicate a seismic activity along the CFZ. It is rather concentrated to the south around the epicentral zone of the La Paca earthquake that occurred 114 days before our measurement campaign. Some events show a high waveform similarity. They can be attributed to the same fault segment.

  9. Flash flood events recorded by air temperature changes in caves: A case study in Covadura Cave (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José María; Fernández-Cortés, Ángel

    2016-10-01

    On 28th September 2012, more than 150 mm rain fell in just two hours in some points of southeastern Spain, triggering intense flash floods that resulted in the death of ten people and widespread material damage. In the gypsum karst of Sorbas, rainfall intensity reached 33 mm/h. Air temperature monitoring in different levels of Covadura Cave, down to 85 m depth, enabled the effect of this extreme episode on the cave microclimate to be evaluated in real time. The cave air temperature increased by between 0.9 and 4.1 °C as a result of water flow into the cavity and intense mixing of air masses, in addition to the displacement of deeper air masses toward shallower levels produced by fast recharge of the surrounding karst aquifer. The lag between peak rainfall intensity and the highest cave air temperature was 5-6 h, indicating the response time of the karst to this rainfall event. No trends with depth were observed, suggesting that water not only flowed in through the main cave entrance but also through secondary accesses and fractures. Furthermore, the size of the cave passages and the intensity of air turbulence generated by waterfalls in the cave played an important role in producing these temperature differences. Even though the rainfall event lasted 10 h, cave air temperature did not return to pre-flash flood values until more than 20 days later. This indicates that, while waterflow through the cave might stop a few hours after the rainfall event, cave air temperature can be affected over a longer period. This can be explained by slow groundwater level decreasing of the surrounding karst aquifer and latent heat liberation produced by moisture condensation on the cave walls. Our results show how continuous monitoring of air temperature in caves can be a useful tool for evaluating the short-term effects of flash floods in subterranean karst systems.

  10. Late Neogene-Recent uplift of the Cabo de Gata volcanic province, Almerı´a, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José M.; Braga, Juan C.; Betzler, Christian

    2003-02-01

    Cabo de Gata is a Miocene volcanic province in the Betic Cordillera in southeastern Spain. The distribution of coastal deposits in the successive marine sedimentary units overlying the last volcanic episode (about 7.5 Ma old) has been used to reconstruct the post-volcanic palaeogeographic evolution of the region during the Late Neogene. The current elevation of well-dated shoreline marker rocks has been used to estimate uplift amount and rates. Since the late Tortonian, a N45°E-aligned (the strike of the Carboneras fault system) topographic relief was emergent in the Cabo de Gata region. The extension and height of this island increased throughout the late Neogene. Smaller, independent islands were emergent and finally became connected to the main island during the Messinian. The Carboneras and Agua Amarga Pliocene sub-basins were the last two marine basins prior to the final emergence of the region. Since the last volcanic eruption (ca. 7.5 Ma), maximum uplift of sedimentary rocks in Cabo de Gata has taken place on the western margin of the N45°E-aligned palaeorelief. The altitude of the shoreline marker rocks in the successive sedimentary units decreases eastwards to the present-day coast and northwards of the Rambla del Plomo. Uplift rates since deposition remain nearly constant for the successive Messinian rocks and decrease slightly for the lower Pliocene outcrops. Most of the uplift took place before the Pliocene while the main island enlarged. Uplift amounts and rates since deposition of the upper Neogene sedimentary units in the Cabo de Gata area are similar to the ones estimated for laterally equivalent units in the eastern Betic basins (approximately 50 m/Ma). Despite its volcanic nature and the occurrence of the Carboneras fault system, the Cabo de Gata probably became elevated as a consequence of regional uplift in connection with the rest of the Betic Cordillera.

  11. The stratigraphic record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the northern margin of the Bajo Segura Basin (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, J. M.; Caracuel, J. E.; Yébenes, A.; Fernández, J.; Viseras, C.

    2005-08-01

    The Bajo Segura Basin is a marginal basin of the Western Mediterranean located on the eastern end of the Betic Cordillera (southeastern Spain). Its Messinian and Pliocene stratigraphic record is divided into four allostratigraphic units, with bounding unconformities represented by erosional surfaces corresponding to palaeogeographic changes. The Messinian Unit I (MI) is composed of three depositional systems (fluvial, coastal lagoon, and shelf) which lateral facies changes, deposited in a context of sea level highstand. The upper boundary of the MI Unit corresponds to the intra-Messinian unconformity, a lowstand erosional surface with palaeovalleys of 30 m deep generated by a sea level fall. Messinian Unit II (MII) comprises five correlative depositional systems (from fluvial to coastal) deposited during a new sea level highstand after a reflooding that followed the preceding lowstand. The upper boundary of Unit MII corresponds to the end-Messinian unconformity, which is another lowstand erosional surface with similar palaeovalleys to those of the intra-Messinian unconformity. Messinian Unit MIII forms the fluvial fill of some small incised palaeovalleys, developed during the end-Messinian lowstand. Over the end-Messinian unconformity lies the Pliocene Unit (P), which consists of four depositional systems superimposed in continuity. The first two (littoral and open marine) form a transgressive assemblage that fill the palaeovalley carved over the end-Messinian unconformity. The latter two (shallow marine to coastal in the lower part, and fluvial in the upper part) form a regressive prograding assemblage deposited in a highstand context, when the sea level reached its height in the early Pliocene. In relation to the Messinian salinity crisis, we propose that Unit MII is correlative to the evaporites deposited in the centre of the Bajo Segura Basin (San Miguel Gypsum Formation), corresponding to the marginal evaporites of the Mediterranean. Evaporitic sedimentation

  12. [Fingolimod: effectiveness and safety in routine clinical practice. An observational, retrospective, multi-centre study in the province of Alicante].

    PubMed

    Mallada, J; Perez-Carmona, N; Berenguer-Ruiz, L; Sanchez-Perez, R; Martin-Gonzalez, R; Sola-Martinez, D; Mola, S; Lopez-Arlandis, J M; Vela-Yebra, R; Gabaldon-Torres, L; Freire-Alvarez, E; Garcia-Escriva, A; Sempere, A P

    2016-09-05

    Introduccion. Los estudios postautorizacion son importantes para confirmar si los resultados de los ensayos clinicos se reproducen en la practica clinica habitual. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del fingolimod en la practica clinica en la provincia de Alicante. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio multicentrico retrospectivo de pacientes con esclerosis multiple remitente tratados con fingolimod. Se recogen las caracteristicas demograficas, clinicas y farmacologicas. Se describe la efectividad del farmaco –tasa anualizada de brotes (TAB) y porcentaje de pacientes libres de brotes– al año y a los dos años de tratamiento en relacion con el año previo y datos de efectos secundarios. Resultados. Se incluyo a 89 pacientes. El tratamiento previo fue inmunomodulador (interferon beta o acetato de glatiramero) en 54 pacientes y natalizumab en 32. Cincuenta pacientes cambiaron por fracaso con el inmunomodulador y 31 por serologia positiva del virus JC (VJC+). La TAB global disminuyo el 67,3% el primer año (p < 0,0001) y el 84,1% el segundo (p = 0,0078). Disminuyo en los pacientes con fracaso del inmunomodulador (el 85,6% el primer año, p < 0,0001; el 88,9% el segundo año, p = 0,0039) y aumento de forma no significativa en los pacientes VJC+ en el primer año. El porcentaje de pacientes libres de brotes en la poblacion global aumento del 32,6 al 68,1% en el primer año (p < 0,0019) y al 82,6% en el segundo (p = 0,0215). Este aumento no se observo en los pacientes VJC+. Trece pacientes tuvieron efectos secundarios, que obligaron a la retirada del farmaco en dos de ellos. Conclusion. En la practica clinica de la provincia de Alicante, el fingolimod mostro una efectividad y una seguridad ligeramente superiores a las de los ensayos clinicos.

  13. Striated and pitted pebbles as paleostress markers: an example from the central transect of the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Patricia; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús

    2004-02-01

    Striated and pitted pebbles provide scarce structures that preserve information on the stresses that their host rocks have undergone. This information can be obtained by the measurement of a large number of microfaults with striae and solution marks within a small rock volume. For non-rotational deformation, the statistical procedures for microfault analysis provide a valid tool for determining the overprinting of successive stress ellipsoids, including their axial ratios and the orientations of the main axes. The trends of compressions obtained from striae can be compared with the determinations from the pole of pebble solution pits. However, in complex tectonics settings, the solution pits of several deformation phases are mixed and only striae analysis allows overprinted paleostresses to be accurately distinguished. The analysis of several pebbles from the same outcrop, including five from moderately complex settings, allows determination of the homogeneity of the paleostresses at outcrop scale, the detection of redeposited pebbles, and supports the results of microtectonic analysis for large areas. Solution mark distributions on pebbles depend on the burial and tectonic stresses. Conglomerates from shallow levels, such as those from Quaternary fluvial terraces, only record horizontal compressional solution marks because the minimum vertical stress needed to develop these structures are not reached by burial. In the central Betic Cordillera, striated and pitted pebbles are composed of carbonate surrounded by a matrix containing siliciclastic elements. The study of several outcrops located across a transect of the Cordillera shows a change in the recent stress field. While conglomerates near the Internal-External zone boundary show extensional stresses that may be related to the uplift of the Cordillera since Tortonian times, the outcrops located in the External Zone and up to the mountain front indicate the existence of horizontal NW-SE and NE-SW compressions

  14. Chronology for the Cueva Victoria fossil site (SE Spain): Evidence for Early Pleistocene Afro-Iberian dispersals.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Luis; Scott, Gary R; Scholz, Denis; Budsky, Alexander; Ferràndez, Carles; Ribot, Francesc; Martin, Robert A; Lería, María

    2016-01-01

    Cueva Victoria has provided remains of more than 90 species of fossil vertebrates, including a hominin phalanx, and the only specimens of the African cercopithecid Theropithecus oswaldi in Europe. To constrain the age of the vertebrate remains we used paleomagnetism, vertebrate biostratigraphy and (230)Th/U dating. Normal polarity was identified in the non-fossiliferous lowest and highest stratigraphic units (red clay and capping flowstones) while reverse polarity was found in the intermediate stratigraphic unit (fossiliferous breccia). A lower polarity change occurred during the deposition of the decalcification clay, when the cave was closed and karstification was active. A second polarity change occurred during the capping flowstone formation, when the upper galleries were filled with breccia. The mammal association indicates a post-Jaramillo age, which allows us to correlate this upper reversal with the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma). Consequently, the lower reversal (N-R) is interpreted as the end of the Jaramillo magnetochron (0.99 Ma). These ages bracket the age of the fossiliferous breccia between 0.99 and 0.78 Ma, suggesting that the capping flowstone was formed during the wet Marine Isotopic Stage 19, which includes the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. Fossil remains of Theropithecus have been only found in situ ∼1 m below the B/M boundary, which allows us to place the arrival of Theropithecus to Cueva Victoria at ∼0.9-0.85 Ma. The fauna of Cueva Victoria lived during a period of important climatic change, known as the Early-Middle Pleistocene Climatic Transition. The occurrence of the oldest European Acheulean tools at the contemporaneous nearby site of Cueva Negra suggest an African dispersal into SE Iberia through the Strait of Gibraltar during MIS 22, when sea-level was ∼100 m below its present position, allowing the passage into Europe of, at least, Theropithecus and Homo bearing Acheulean technology.

  15. Evaluation of the Olduvai subchron in the Orce ravine (SE Spain). Implications for Plio-Pleistocene mammal biostratigraphy and the age of Orce archeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, L.; Scott, G.; Ferràndez-Cañadell, C.

    2006-03-01

    The Barranco de Orce (BO) section in the Baza basin (SE Spain) exposes several fossiliferous layers (O-1 to O-7) with Plio-Pleistocene micro- and macromammals. Biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data from this and other sections in the basin have been extensively used to calibrate the Plio-Pleistocene chronology based on mammal biozonations. Because of its stratigraphic and geographic proximity, the BO section has also been used to date the paleontological and archeological sites of Barranco León, Fuentenueva-3 and Venta Micena. This study shows that the BO section crosses a mega-landslide that produces partial repetitions of the sedimentary sequence. The seven fossiliferous layers are actually the repetition of only two (O-6 and O-7) which are found in situ in the upper part of the ravine. New paleomagnetic results demonstrate the presence of Reverse magnetization throughout this section, contradicting the Normal event previously reported and assigned to the 'Olduvai' subchron (C2n). Published and new magnetostratigraphic data show that all archeological and paleontological sites in the Orce area are within a Reverse magnetochron, presumably C1r.2r (late Matuyama). The use of BO in the magnetobiostratigraphical calibration of the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary for western Europe is not advised.

  16. Combining radon, short-lived radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle

    2015-06-01

    In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and short-lived radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.

  17. [Incurable disease in Spain during the 19th century. The Hospital para Hombres Incurables Nuestra Señora del Carmen].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the State's assumption of medical care for patients with "permanent needs" in 19th century Spain. These patients were the incurably ill, the chronically ill and the elderly. This process is contextualized within the liberal reforms of the Spanish healthcare system in the reign of Isabel 11 (1833-1868). The goal of these reforms was the creation and consolidation of a national health system that would gradually replace the religious health charities. Healthcare reform became necessary due to the increase in migration that started in the 1830's and intensified in the 1850's. Traditional care networks formed by the family, local community and religious charities were no longer available to those who had left their village or town. In addition, many religious charities were bankrupted by the seizure of their properties in a programme of confiscation. Similar healthcare reform processes were taking place in the United Kingdom, France and Germany, among other European countries, and involved significant changes in the lives of patients, who became strictly controlled and medicalised. My aim was to identify changes in the patients' experience of illness through a case study of the living conditions of inmates at the Nuestra Señora del Carmen Hospital for Incurable Men, based in Madrid from 1852 to 1949. This was one of the institutions devoted to caring for patients with "permanent needs" and was under the direct control of the General State Administration.

  18. Regional subsidence modelling in Murcia city (SE Spain) using 1-D vertical finite element analysis and 2-D interpolation of ground surface displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.

    2015-11-01

    Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain) has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982-1984, 1992-1995 and 2004-2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.

  19. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  20. Mud volcanism and authigenic carbonates related to methane-rich fluids migration in the late Neogene marls of S.E. Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M. M.; Rouchy, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Methane-rich fluids that are generated at depth in organic-rich deposits migrate within the sediments to the seafloor where they are expelled to form mud volcanoes or pockmarks. Moreover, these migrating fluids are involved in diagenetic processes as authigenic carbonate formation and they may participate to gas hydrate formation. These features are well-known in the present-day continental margins but their fossil records are relatively scarce. The outcropping Tortonian and Messinian marls in S.E. Spain basins (Lorca, Fortuna, Columbares, Huercal Overa) contain abundant authigenic dolomite nodules. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of these dolomites exhibit wide ranges (-1.4 < δ18O < +5.6 ; -25.6 < δ13C < +9.3) indicating that carbonate precipitation occurred within the marly sediments due to circulation of fluids modified by gas hydrates formation/dissociation, where anaerobic oxidation of methane and methanogenesis were active. In the Huercal Overa basin, there is a well-preserved mud volcano intruding vertically the Messinian marls. These two features, methane derived authigenic dolomites and mud volcanism, are testifying of the intense methane-rich fluid migration in the marly deposits of the western Mediterranean basins during the late Neogene, which was the time of major paleoenvironmental changes in the Mediterranean sea climaxing during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  1. Chronological and environmental context of the first hominin dispersal into Western Europe: The case of Barranco León (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Agustí, Jordi; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Lozano-Fernández, Iván; Piñero, Pedro; Oms, Oriol; Furió, Marc; Blanco, Angel; López-García, Juan Manuel; Sala, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The early Pleistocene site of Barranco León (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain), dated to 1.4 Ma (millions of years ago), records the oldest hominin occurrence in Western Europe, as evidenced by the discovery of one tooth and thousands of Mode 1 stone tools. In this paper a detailed analysis of the microvertebrate content of the D1 and D2 units from this site is presented. The early Pleistocene in the Guadix-Baza Basin is characterized by a sharp climatic deterioration, which possibly impeded the settlement of this region by the early hominin population from the southern Caucasus. Shortly afterwards, when the climatic conditions were again favorable, a hominin presence is suddenly evidenced at the units D1 and D2 of Barranco León. According to the microvertebrate analysis of these units, the mean annual temperature at the time of deposition was significantly higher than 13 °C, with prevalent humid conditions. However, although most of the species were inhabitants of water edges, an open landscape was present in the vicinity of the lake. The data reported here clearly support the idea that the early hominin occupation of Europe was strongly constrained by climatic and environmental conditions, rather than by physiography or cultural factors.

  2. The beach placer iron deposit of Portman Bay, Murcia, SE Spain: the result of 33 years of tailings disposal (1957-1990) to the Mediterranean seaside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, José Ignacio; López García, José Ángel; Oyarzun, Roberto; Carmona, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Between 1957 and 1990, the Peñarroya Mining and Metallurgical Company (SMMPE) disposed about 60 million tonnes of tailings materials directly to the Mediterranean Sea. A substantial part of it (12.5 Mt) was dragged back by the sea currents progressively infilling the Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain), thus making the shoreline advance between 500 and 600 m seaward. The Roberto froth flotation plant processed mineral from manto-type deposits belonging to the Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión lead-zinc district. One of the mineral assemblages present in these deposits comprises greenalite, magnetite, sulfides, carbonates, and silica. Despite that magnetite recovery was undertaken by SMMPE between 1959 and 1967, we estimate that magnetite contained in the tailings hosts a substantial resource that could be as large as 2.3 Mt of iron ore. The ore contains magnetite ± hematite ± siderite. Tidal waves and sea currents led to gravimetric classification of the tailings material, with concentration of the dense iron oxides in the sandy fractions, eventually forming a coastal placer iron deposit. A major problem for magnetic separation is the intimate intergrowth between magnetite, hematite, and siderite. Besides, the sands contain large concentrations of Pb (0.27 %), Zn (0.72 %), and As (559 ppm).

  3. Environmental assessment of the arsenic-rich, Rodalquilar gold-(copper-lead-zinc) mining district, SE Spain: data from soils and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzun, Roberto; Cubas, Paloma; Higueras, Pablo; Lillo, Javier; Llanos, Willians

    2009-08-01

    The Rodalquilar mineral deposits (SE Spain) were formed in Miocene time in relation to caldera volcanic episodes and dome emplacement phenomena. Two types of ore deposits are recognized: (1) the El Cinto epithermal, Au-As high sulphidation vein and breccia type; and (2) peripheral low sulphidation epithermal Pb-Zn-Cu-(Au) veins. The first metallurgical plants for gold extraction were set up in the 1920s and used amalgamation. Cyanide leaching began in the 1930s and the operations lasted until the mid 1960s. The latter left a huge pile of ~900,000-1,250,000 m3 of abandoned As-rich tailings adjacent to the town of Rodalquilar. A frustrated initiative to reactivate the El Cinto mines took place in the late 1980s and left a heap leaching pile of ~120,000 m3. Adverse mineralogical and structural conditions favoured metal and metalloid dispersion from the ore bodies into soils and sediments, whereas mining and metallurgical operations considerably aggravated contamination. We present geochemical data for soils, tailings and wild plant species. Compared to world and local baselines, both the tailings and soils of Rodalquilar are highly enriched in As (mean concentrations of 950 and 180 μg g-1, respectively). Regarding plants, only the concentrations of As, Bi and Sb in Asparagus horridus, Launaea arborescens, Salsola genistoides, and Stipa tenacissima are above the local baselines. Bioaccumulation factors in these species are generally lower in the tailings, which may be related to an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance. The statistical analysis of geochemical data from soils and plants allows recognition of two well-differentiated clusters of elements (As-Bi-Sb-Se-Sn-Te and Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), which ultimately reflect the strong chemical influence of both El Cinto and peripheral deposits mineral assemblages.

  4. The Dúdar landslide: a huge slope instability associated to active tectonics in the NE border of the Granada Basin (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.; Pérez-Peña, J. V.; Azañón, J. M.; Ureña, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Dúdar landslide is located at the eastern border of the Granada Basin (South Spain), which is a Neogene-Quaternary intramontane depression located in the central part of the Betic Cordillera. The mean landslide area is about 380 ha and can be regarded as one of the largest landslides developed in this part of the cordillera. The landslide development was controlled by the great altitude differences between the Aguas Blancas and Darro rivers, which in turn are the consequence of the tectonic activity of the NW-SE striking normal faults of the northeast border of the Granada Basin and the related NE-SW directed-folds. This tectonic activity produces uplift of the footwall block developing unstable slopes. In the northwest margin of the Aguas Blancas River, slope instabilities are also determined by the relative bad geotechnical quality of the materials involved, which are mainly marls and silty sediments with gypsum interlayers. As for other large landslides located in the Granada Basin (e.g. Güevéjar landslide), the most likely triggering factor seems to be a great earthquake. Nevertheless, there are not historical data for such event but probably occurred prior to 1400, which is the date of the first historical records of the Dúdar village, located in one side of the landslide. In addition, the active faults in the NE border of the Granada Basin can potentially generate earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw=6.0, making the Granada Basin one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. In this work, we have carried out a geomorphologic description of the Dúdar landslide with the aid of a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) derived from LIDAR data. We have analysed the significant changes that the landslide caused in the drainage system of the Aguas Blancas and Darro rivers. These modifications comprise river diversions and active incision within the body of the landslide, making it susceptible to future reactivations. Finally, a

  5. A descriptive and quantitative approach regarding erosion and development of landforms on abandoned mine tailings: New insights and environmental implications from SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín Duque, J. F.; Zapico, I.; Oyarzun, R.; López García, J. A.; Cubas, P.

    2015-06-01

    - 1 y- 1, which matches well typical values for erosion of mined areas, commonly above 100 Mg (MT) ha- 1 y- 1. Abandoned mine tailing deposits are extremely common in the semiarid scenarios of the SW USA, Australia, Chile, and Peru. Given the similarities of these scenarios with SE Spain, the example from Mazarrón may provide useful new insights regarding the erosion and geomorphic evolution of such tailing deposits. These matters should be addressed in key environmental actions such as mine closure plans and land reclamation projects. A solution may come via restoration of these deposits through landform design involving the building up of stable mature landscapes, which in turn can withstand erosion much more easily.

  6. Preliminary results in larger benthic foraminifera assemblage in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate platform from the Upper Cretaceous of the External Prebetic Domain (Valencia province, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Salcedo, Raquel; Vicedo, Vicent

    2016-04-01

    In the External Prebetic Domain (Betic Mountain Range, Valencia province, SE Spain) it is difficult to find good outcrops to study larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), particularly in the Upper Cretaceous deposits, because of three main reasons. During the Upper Cretaceous, the complex paleogeography in the northern Prebetic Domain developed a complex system of shallow-water platforms. This is directly linked to the complexity in the distribution of the facies observed nowadays, which may change drastically in lateral, closely related outcrops having a special negative impact in the lateral extension of stratigraphical levels containing LBF. The second reason is the nature of the shallow water environments in which the larger foraminifera lived. The local continental influence derived in the establishment of very complex mixed platforms. Thus, there is not a complete register through carbonate rocks, but an alternation of microconglomerates, sandstones, calcarenites and carbonates that can be observed in the stratigraphic series of the Upper Cretaceous. This affects negatively in observing changes in the evolutionary trends of taxa. The third reason difficulting the study of LBF in northern localities of the Prebetic Domain is diagenetic. Dolomitization affects a huge part of the Mesozoic rocks deleting all fossil microfauna in the affected rocks. Such three reasons are behind the difficulty in developing correlations and having a comprehensive understanding of the biostratigraphy and phylogeny of the taxa involved. However, after several field trips developed in the northern Prebetic area, an excellent reference section for the study of the LBF in the Prebetic Domain has been identified in the surroundings of the Pinet village (Valencia province). Here, a relatively continuous section with scarce dolomitization and good conditions of accessibility exists. The larger foraminifera assemblages appering in the Pinet section will be compared with other paleobiogeographic

  7. Hydrothermal activity and its paleoecological implications in the latest Miocene to Middle Pleistocene lacustrine environments of the Baza Basin (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aguilar, José Manuel; Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Palmqvist, Paul; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2014-07-01

    The continental sedimentary record of the Baza Basin (Guadix-Baza Depression, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) shows six sedimentary units of lacustrine origin deposited from the latest Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene. Depending on the interval considered, the lacustrine deposits are mainly composed of marls, carbonates or gypsiferous evaporites, showing lithological, mineralogical and geochemical features (i.e., magnesium, strontium and sulfur contents, celestine deposits and travertine growths) that are evidence of intense, tectonically-induced hydrothermal activity. According to the high concentrations of strontium and sulfur as well as the abundance of travertines and magnesium clays, the supply of hot waters was greater during the Zanclean, the Gelasian and the Calabrian, as a result of tectonic activity. Hydrothermal activity has continued until the present time and is responsible of the hot springs that are nowadays active in the Guadix-Baza Depression. The paleoenvironmental consequences of these sublacustrine hot springs were that during some intervals the lakes maintained a relatively permanent water table, not subject to periodic desiccations in the dry season, and warmer temperatures throughout the year. This resulted in a high level of organic productivity, especially for the Calabrian, which allowed the development of a rich and well diversified mammalian community, similar to those of modern African savannas with tree patches. In this mild environment, the permanent water sheet favored the presence of drought intolerant megaherbivores such as the giant extinct hippo Hippopotamus antiquus. The high standing crop biomass of ungulates resulted in the availability of abundant carcasses for scavengers such as hyenas and hominins, which explains the very high densities of skeletal remains preserved in the sediments distributed along the lake surroundings.

  8. The dynamics of serpentinite dehydration reactions in subduction zones: Constrains from the Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilissen, Nicole; Garrido, Carlos J.; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Arc volcanism, earthquakes and subduction dynamics are controlled by fluids from downgoing slabs and their effect on the melting and rheology of the overlying mantle wedge. High pressure dehydration of serpentinite in the slab and the subduction channel is considered as one of the main sources of fluids in subduction zones. Even though this metamorphic reaction is essential in subduction activities, the behavior of the fluids, the kinetics and thermodynamics during the breakdown reaction are still poorly understood. The Cerro del Almirez (Nevado-Filábride Complex, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) uniquely preserves the dehydration front from antigorite serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite and constitutes a unique natural laboratory to investigate high-pressure dehydration of serpentinite. This reaction occurred in a subduction setting releasing up to 13 wt% of water, contributing significantly to the supply of fluids to the overlying mantle wedge. A key to the understanding of the metamorphic conditions prevailing during serpentinite dehydration is to study the two prominent textures -granofels and spinifex-like chlorite harzburgite- occurring in this reaction product. The detailed texture differences in the Chl-harzburgite can provide insights into diverse kinetic and thermodynamic conditions of this dehydration reaction due to variations in effective pressure and drainage conditions. It has been proposed that difference in overpressure (P') and deviation from growth equilibrium, i.e. overstepping, is responsible for these two types of textures [Padrón-Navarta et al., 2011]. The magnitude and duration of P' is highly dependent on dehydration kinetics [Connolly, 1997]. The fast pressure drop, with spinifex-texture as a product, can be linked to draining events expected after hydrofracturing, which are recorded in grain size reduction zones in this massif. According to this hypothesis, mapping of textural variation in Chl-harzburgite might be used as a proxy to

  9. Use of Bioassay test for the environmental evaluation of mining residues and their leachates: the singular case of the Portman Bay (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Molina, Jose; Tudela, Maria Luz; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments and their pore-water extracts from sites contaminated by mining activities using two assays: bacteria and plants. The acute toxicity in pore-waters was determined using the Microtox® bioassay, which uses the naturally luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Phytotoxicity in soil samples was tested by way of the seed germination and root elongation technique in three plant species, Sorghum saccharatum, Sinapis alba and Lepidium sativum. The aim of applying these assays is to establish a method for evaluating the real risks within a risk analysis process, considering both present and future risks, bearing in mind that the uses to which soil is put (urban, recreational or industrial) may change. In the zone studied, mining activities have led to heavy metal contamination with the risk of runoff and wind dispersion of the contaminated material. For this study, 6 sediment samples were collected from Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). The soil extract was prepared by saturation with distilled water and allowing it to stand for four hours. Then, the soil was subjected to a vacuum pressure to extract the soil solution through filter paper. The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb, Cd and Cu content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was analysed by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation (As-AFS) spectrometer. Total Pb concentration varied from 600 to 2500 ppm, with a mean value of 1200 ppm. The average content of Zn was 5300 ppm. The mean concentration of Cd and Cu was 23 and 59 ppm, respectively. Total As concentrations varied from 180 to 470 ppm, with an average value 280 ppm. Finally, the total Fe content ranged from 37% to 47%, with an average value of 40%. Pore-water samples showed neutral pH values and average electrical

  10. Subduction- and exhumation-related structures preserved in metaserpentinites and associated metasediments from the Nevado-Filábride Complex (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2015-03-01

    The Cerro del Almirez massif (Nevado-Filábride Complex, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) is composed of antigorite (Atg-) serpentinite and chlorite (Chl-) harzburgite separated by a thin reaction front formed in a palaeo-subduction setting. These ultramafic rocks preserve unique prograde structures related to the pre- and peak high-pressure event (1.6-1.9 GPa and 680-710 °C). The oldest subduction-related structures are preserved in Atg-serpentinites: a penetrative S1 foliation and associated L1 stretching lineation that formed in a non-coaxial regime with a top-to-the-W sense of shear. This planar-linear fabric is crosscut by olivine ± Ti-clinohumite veins, formed during the prograde breakdown of brucite and pre-metamorphic clinopyroxene, which form a system of veins decimetres long. They record embrittlement processes due to the release of 6 vol.% of H2O associated with brucite dehydration. The growth of prograde olivine and/or tremolite porphyroblasts is syn- to post-kinematic in relation to the S1 foliation. Further reactions at higher temperature related to the complete breakdown of the Atg (i.e. Atg-out) are post-kinematic to S1. Prograde Chl-harzburgite is crosscut by sets of conjugate zones associated with grain-size reduction of olivine grains. These grain-size reduction zones are interpreted as brittle structures generated by hydrofracturing due to overpressure fluids in a compressional setting at low-differential stresses. Structures related to the exhumation process are mainly preserved in the metasedimentary host rock, where an S2/L2 planar-linear fabric developed within a shear zone dominated by a non-coaxial regime with a top-to-the-W sense of movement in a transpressional regime. Peak metamorphic conditions deduced for the schists are similar in pressure (1.3-1.9 GPa) but lower in temperature (560-590 °C) compared to the ultramafic rocks in contact with them, suggesting a major shear zone at the base of the ultramafic massif during D2 deformation in

  11. Multifunctional greenway approach for landscape planning and reclamation of a post-mining district: Cartagena-La Unión, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Fragmented structures create metaphorical wounds in the landscape altering the ecological and cultural processes associated with it, as it can be seen in many mine areas. Therefore it is advisable to organize the reclamation plan in the beginning of mine operating to provide spatial and functional integration of the landscape based on scientific arguments and with all possible legal and administrative means, which is generally the case of the Strategic Environmental Assessment. However, there are many abandon mine areas where no reclamation plan has been carried out, such as the case of Mining District of Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Unión, SE Spain. In these cases it is vital to respond in a sustainable manner for healing the landscape wounds of post-mining activities. Reclamation activities of a post-mining district includes not only the mine soils also all land uses around them, for this reason on necessary create practical solutions for returning the functions of ecologic and cultural processes of the area. Greenway approach shows the main veins which are crucial for keeping alive and sustaining the mentioned processes of the area. Therefore the main objectives of this study are to 1) develop an integrated local greenway network to be able to preserve significant resources and values of the district, and to 2) develop this greenway network as a part of reclamation process for degraded areas. Landscape assessments revealed the most valuable and potential connectivity resources of the area. These clustering and linear patterns of resource concentrations include mountain range and valleys, natural drainage network, legally protected areas and cultural-historical resources. Conservation areas, cultural-educational resources of post-mining activities and the riverbeds have been the main building stones for the greenway corridor. The multifunctional greenway approach serves as landscape reclamation and planning tool in a degraded area by showing the priority zones for

  12. Bioavailability of metals in soils and sedimentes affected by old mining actitvities. The study case of the Portman bay (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Banegas, Ascension; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Gonzalez-Ciudad, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martinez, Lucia; Perz-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    A study on metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As) mobilization and analysis of the health risk represented by ingestion from contaminated sediments in Portman Bay (SE Spain) was carried out. This zone has suffered a great impact from mining activity, since million tons of mine tailings were dumped into the bay for a long period, giving as a result the filling of the bay with them. The long-term deposition of metals in soils and sediments can lead to their accumulation and transport, while their toxicity depends on the mobility and bioavailability of a significant fraction of the metals. The ingestion of contaminated soil particles by grazing animals or young children may well represent a special exposure pathway for Pb, Cd and other hazardous metals. The aim of this study was to determine the bioaccessibility of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As ,and the extent to which bioaccessibility is influenced by mineralogy in materials from this mining site as an indicator of the potential risk that metals pose to both environmental and human health. General analytical determinations (pH, particle size, organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate content and mineralogical composition) were carried out to characterize the samples. The mineralogical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using a Philips PW3040 diffractometer with Cu-Kα. To determine the total metal content, the samples were digested in a Milestone ETHOS PLUS microwave, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd contents were determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry, while As was analysed by HG- AFS using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer. To assess bioaccessibility, the gastric solution was prepared according to the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) developed by the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium (SBRC). The mineralogical composition, corresponds to materials which have suffered a supergenic oxidation process which has been influenced by the presence of sea water

  13. Multi-stage evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the westernmost Mediterranean: Geochemical constraints from peridotite xenoliths in the eastern Betic Cordillera (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Konc, Zoltán; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Spinel (± plagioclase) peridotite xenoliths from the Tallante and Los Perez volcanic centres in the eastern Betics (SE Spain) range from depleted (clinopyroxene-poor) harzburgites to fertile (clinopyroxene-rich) lherzolites and orthopyroxene-free wehrlites. Significantly, only one harzburgite, which is depleted in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), retains the imprint of ca. 20% ancient melting of an original garnet lherzolite source. In contrast, REE abundances of other harzburgites and lherzolites from the eastern Betics have been increased by melt-rock reaction. The whole-rock and mineral compositions of these mantle rocks are largely controlled by three types of modal metasomatism: 1) common clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene addition and olivine consumption which increased FeOt, SiO2 and Al2O3, and decreased MgO compared to the refractory melting products; 2) subordinate orthopyroxene dissolution and precipitation of clinopyroxene and olivine, which led to higher FeOt and MgO and lower SiO2 than in common (orthopyroxene-rich) lherzolites; and 3) rare orthopyroxene consumption and olivine addition that caused higher FeOt and lower SiO2 compared to the original melting residues. These mineral modal and major element variations have been produced mostly by interactions with relatively FeOt-rich/SiO2-poor melts, likely derived from a peridotite-pyroxenite lithospheric mantle with a highly heterogeneous isotopic composition. Melting of the lithospheric mantle in the western Mediterranean was triggered by upwelling of the asthenosphere induced by back-arc extension in the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. Trapping of small fractions of exotic melts in whole-rocks - likely the parental magmas of Miocene back-arc dykes that intruded the Betic crust - caused local disequilibrium between the trace element signatures and Pb isotopic compositions of clinopyroxene and whole-rock. Subsequent interaction with SiO2-undersaturated magmas, similar to the parental melts of the Pliocene

  14. [With human and divine means: the fight against disease and death in 18th century Alicante].

    PubMed

    Perdiguero Gil, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus of this work is the wide spectrum of means available to the inhabitants of the city of Alicante in the 18th century to fight against disease. Alongside healthcare professionals properly trained as physicians, surgeons, barbers or midwives, there were both other healers of heterogeneous types and religious resources. The study considers, in a comprehensive and articulated way, the whole repertoire of therapeutic and healthcare alternatives provided to the inhabitants of Alicante. The interpretation of the results is carried out taking into account the historiographical framework developed in recent years that considers the medical marketplace as an economic and cultural concept.

  15. Geoestatistical analysis of soil properties in the South of Alicante: soil salinity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez-Pastor, I.; Ayguadé, H.; Lag, A.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gomez, I.

    2010-05-01

    The southern coast of Alicante province (southeast of Spain) was largely occupied by a large lagoon until the eighteenth century when drainage infrastructures were built to turn much of the wetlands into irrigated farmlands. This area has a semiarid Mediterranean climate and the shortage of sufficient quality water for irrigation is a serious problem for agriculture and wetland maintenance. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of soil properties and their relationship with land-covers by the use of geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool for land-reclamation and management. A field campaign was conducted and 98 soil samples were collected and spatially referenced with a GPS. Soils of the study area are Calcic Fluvisols according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB, 2006). Soil samples were air dried at room temperature and sieve at 2mm (soil fraction to be analysed). Four soil properties were analysed: 1) electrical conductivity (EC) (1:5 w/v water extraction), 2) pH, 3) equivalent carbonates (Porta et al., 1986), and 4) soil organic matter (SOM) by wet chemical oxidation (Walkley and Black, 1934) with potassium dichromate oxidation (Nelson and Sommers, 1982). Geostatistics was used to model the spatial distribution of soil properties. The convex hull of soil samples was used to delimit the area to map. Semivariograms were applied to study the spatial pattern of the four soil properties and ordinary Kriging was used to predict their spatial distribution. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation) showed that in general terms the soils studied was moderately saline (2.44 ± 0.32 dS×m-1), with a basic pH (8.22 ± 0.32), low soil organic matter content (1.41 ± 0.37 %) and abundant equivalent carbonates (46.1 ± 4.3 %). Electrical conductivity, pH and SOM properties were significantly correlated according with the Pearson bivariate correlation test (with P4 dS×m-1) or non-saline (EC

  16. Evaluation of the Olduvai Sub-Chron in the Orce Ravine (SE Spain), Implications for the Plio-Pleistocene Mammal Biostratigraphy and the Age of Orce Archaeological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, L.; Scott, G. R.; Ferrandez, C.

    2002-12-01

    The 4,000km2 Guadix-Baza basin (Betic ranges, SE Spain) exposes a thick and continuous sequence of Plio-Pleistocene continental deposits, represented by cycles of fluviatile-lacustrine sediments. The basin is rich in fossil micro- and macro-mammal sites, which includes the archaeological sites of Venta Micena (VM), Barranco Leon (BL-5) and Fuentenueva-3 (FN-3), that have produced anthropogenic lithic artifacts and human remains. Studies of the micro-mammal associations in this basin have generated a large body of literature on systematics, biostratigraphy, and Neogene faunal replacements. The well known Barranco de Orce (BO) section in the NE sector of the Baza basin exposes seven fossiliferous layers (O-1 to O-7) with Plio-Pleistocene micro- and macro-mammals. Biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data from the BO and nearby sections have been extensively used to calibrate the late Neogene chronology of Western European mammal biozones. In Barranco de Orce, a previously identified normal event assigned to the 'Olduvai' subchron (C2n) has been used to calibrate the first appearance datum (FAD) of the arvicolid Allophaiomys pliocaenicus and to discuss the use of this species in recognizing the Plio-Pleistocene boundary. The FAD of Mimomys ostramosensis in the BO section has been used to calibrate the boundary of biozones MN17/MmQ1 (latest Neogene of Western Europe). This section has also been used to explore the timing of first human colonization of Europe, owing to the stratigraphic and geographic proximity of the BO section to the major paleontological and archaeological sites. There are numerous weaknesses in the continued use of the BO section as a magnetobiostratigraphically calibrated boundary section, including the scarcity of fossil specimens, landslide repeated stratigraphy, and modern (normal) overprinting of the paleomagnetic record. For example, in the successive published magnetostratigraphical and biostratigraphical interpretations, the faunal

  17. The role of water in the formation of clay-rich layers at the slip surface of slope instabilities (Diezma landslide, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azañón, J. M.; Castro, J.; Ureña, C.; Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Slope instabilities with a low basal slope (<15°) are lately researched in order to evaluate triggering and conditioning factors. In these landslides, mechanical properties of the rupture surface are exceptionally low. The increase of the pore pressure has been commonly postulated to explain the drastic reduction of strength properties. Low-permeability layers could be preferred candidates to concentrate the largest increase of pore pressure. These clay layers are usually found in sedimentary sequences and colluvial formations. However, in some landslides around the world, a clay-bearing layer of extraordinary purity, have been detected in the rupture surface. Mechanical properties of this layer are lower than the rest of the sliced mass conditioning the slope stability. In the Diezma landslide (SE Spain), a complex movement affecting an area of 6.2 ha, a centimetre layer of smectite clay (montmorillonite-beidellite) controls the strength properties of the whole sliced mass. The triggering factor of this landslide is linked to the infiltration of water from a karstic aquifer located in the head area. Based on the geophysical surveys performed, we have been able to determine the 3D geometry of the main sliding surface, which was in part known from previous borehole data. Electrical resistivity profiles have also revealed to be an excellent tool to detect the degree of moisture in the marly clay materials of the landslide body. Subterranean water stream produces an active hydrolysis of marls fragment and the follow-up of their argillation, typical of chemical and physical interactions between the slip-zone materials and the slip-zone groundwater, when it was chronically saturated. In this study, thermodynamic stability of clay minerals (smectite and kaolinite) and water chemistry (Ca+2 ions) along the slip surface of the Diezma landslide were evaluated. Calcium hydro-carbonate groundwater, as subterranean water percolating the Diezma landslide, induces the formation

  18. Subduction- vs- Intraplate-Type Melt Migration in the Alboran Lithospheric Mantle: Insights From the Tallante Xenoliths (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, E.; Vissers, R. L.; Poggio, M.; Scambelluri, M.; Zanetti, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Alboran Sea region has been affected since the late Oligocene by widespread eruption of tholeiitic to calc-alkaline magmas followed by Late Neogene alkaline basalts. These magmatic episodes are related to Neogene lithospheric extension beneath the Alboran domain, as a consequence of slab roll-back. According to recent models, subduction of oceanic lithosphere caused continental-edge delamination of subcontinental lithosphere, associated with upwelling of plume-type mantle sources. The Alboran lithospheric mantle thus constitutes a unique setting to investigate the effects of subduction- and intraplate-type metasomatism. Here we present a microstructural and geochemical study of mantle xenoliths from the Cabezo Tallante Late Neogene alkaline volcanic center (SE Spain). These xenoliths record multiple episodes of reactive porous melt percolation, and melt entrapment, tracking their progressive extension-related uplift from P > 20 Kb to 7-10 Kb. This is documented by i) crystallization of undeformed olivine replacing pyroxene porphyroclasts, and unstrained opx overgrowing undeformed olivine and pyroxene porphyroclasts, in porphyroclastic spinel peridotites, ii) development of annealed equigranular structure, likely enhanced by heating during melt percolation, iii) crystallization of interstitial (plag±ol±opx) aggregates between mantle minerals in porphyroclastic and equigranular xenoliths. Cpx in equigranular peridotites have smooth trace element spectra characterized by slight LREE depletion; computed equilibrium liquids have a tholeiitic-transitional affinity. Diffuse melt percolation was followed by intrusion of melts with distinct chemical affinity. The first event is documented by the intrusion of cm-sized gabbronoritic veins, showing a fine-grained opx reaction rim against the host peridotite. Similar gabbronoritic lithotypes were previously documented and ascribed to slab-derived melts. A quite remarkable textural feature in these veins is the occurrence

  19. Fluid-rock interaction controlling clay-mineral crystallization in quartz-rich rocks and its influence on the seismicity of the Carboneras fault area (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Espinosa, R.; Abad, I.; Jimenez-Millan, J.; Lorite-Herrera, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Carboneras Fault zone is one of the longest fault in the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain) and it would be a good candidate to generate large magnitude earthquakes (Gracia et al., 2006). Seismicity in the region is characterised by low to moderate magnitude events, although large destructive earthquakes have occurred, which reveals significant earthquake and tsunami hazards (Masana et al., 2004). Due to the internal architecture of the fault zone, shear lenses of post-orogenic sediments of Miocene and Pliocene age including marls and sandstones sequences are juxtaposed to the predominant slaty gouges of the Alpine basement. Microcataclasites and gouges of the quartz-rich post-orogenic sediments are also developed as cm- to m-scale bands, allowing the comparison between the deformed materials and their protoliths. Red, yellow and white sandstones and their respective cataclasites can be identified. This communication is concerned with the clay mineral crystallization events in these materials and its possible influence on the seismicity model of the region. The presence of phyllosilicates in fault zones as either neoformed or inherited clays is commonly related with fluid circulation and a mechanically weak fault behaviour (e.g., Wang, 1984). A critical factor for the understanding of the mechanical role of clays in fault rocks is to determine the timing of formation of mineral assemblages and microstructure of fault rocks and protolith. The effects of post-faulting alteration limit inferences about fault behaviour that can be made from exhumed rocks. The Carboneras fault zone provides good opportunities to study mineral processes enhanced by deformation, given that it is located in a region of arid climate and shows outcroppings of quartzitic rocks included in slaty rocks. Combined XRD, optical microscopy and SEM analyses reveal that deformed quartzitic rocks are enriched in phyllosilicates, increasing especially the amount of chlorite. The samples strongly damaged

  20. Changing environmental conditions during a geomagnetic reversal: Evidence from trace element and isotope variations on Pleistocene flowstone sequences from Cueva Victoria (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz-Kraus, R.; Kocot, Y.; Gibert, L.; Scott, G. R.; Jochum, K. P.

    2011-12-01

    The weakening or non-existence of the Earth's magnetic field during a polarity transition is supposed to influence climatic conditions causing variations in, e.g., rainfall, weathering, or the amount of meteoric water infiltrating soils and rocks. Such variations can be monitored by the proxy record (stable and radiogenic isotope or elemental variations) of laminated carbonate sequences precipitated in caves (flowstones). In this study, a multiproxy approach is applied to flowstone samples from Cueva Victoria (SE Spain) recording the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal at 0.78 Ma (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 19) or less likely the lower Jaramillo polarity transition at 1.075 Ma (MIS 31). Cueva Victoria is paleontologically important because of the large number of fossilized fauna found (55 species). The flowstone forms a characteristic layer in the cave system allowing multiple sampling at different locations within the system to test the reproducablity of the analytically derived proxies. Element concentrations were determined on two flowstone samples, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) along transects covering the geomagnetic change from reverse to normal. Most of the monitored elements show distinctive variations with the highest concentrations in the interval related to the polarity transition: U concentrations are up to factor of 5 higher in the interval of the transition. Increased U concentrations can be explained by (UO2)2+-enriched percolating waters enhancing the weathering during wetter conditions. About four times higher P concentrations indicate changes in vegetation and soil productivity influencing the supply of P to the cave system. Similar concentration maxima are found for the rare earth elements, but also for other elements such as Fe, Na, Al, and Si. Most of these elements are transported bound on colloids and particles. Higher particle supply to the cave environment points to higher infiltration rates caused by

  1. Columbus's Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Jose Manuel Nieto

    1991-01-01

    Describes fifteenth-century Spain's tendencies that proved central to the Columbian enterprise: experience as a conquering and colonizing kingdom, interest in Atlantic expansion, and missionary inclination. Argues that Columbus's arrival in Spain came at the perfect time in Spanish history. Stresses Spain's long history of religious war, conquest,…

  2. A principal component regression model to forecast airborne concentration of Cupressaceae pollen in the city of Granada (SE Spain), during 1995-2006.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Peinado, Francisco M; Valderrama, Mariano J; Bouzas, Paula R

    2013-05-01

    The problem of developing a 2-week-on ahead forecast of atmospheric cypress pollen levels is tackled in this paper by developing a principal component multiple regression model involving several climatic variables. The efficacy of the proposed model is validated by means of an application to real data of Cupressaceae pollen concentration in the city of Granada (southeast of Spain). The model was applied to data from 11 consecutive years (1995-2005), with 2006 being used to validate the forecasts. Based on the work of different authors, factors as temperature, humidity, hours of sun and wind speed were incorporated in the model. This methodology explains approximately 75-80% of the variability in the airborne Cupressaceae pollen concentration.

  3. Comparison of water-level, extensometric, DInSAR and simulation data for quantification of subsidence in Murcia City (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation has been recognized in the metropolitan area of Murcia (25 km2) in south-eastern Spain since the early 1990s. Previous published works have focused their attention on land subsidence that occurred during the drought period between 1995 and 2008. This work first analyzes the groundwater recovery that has occurred since 2008 and then determines the kind of associated ground deformation detected by the new extensometric data. Subsequently, subsidence time series are computed on 24 geotechnical boreholes scattered throughout the study area by means of a hydro-mechanical finite element code and a linear-elastic constitutive law. A spatio-temporal interpolation of the numerically modeled surface displacements is performed over the whole domain and compared with extensometers and DInSAR-derived displacement maps in two different periods: the drought period from 2004 to 2008, and the recovery period from 2008 to 2012. In spite of the limited information on the geomechanical parameters characterizing the modelled geological formations, the proposed approach is able to discriminate areas where the soils have an elastic behavior (small differences in the comparisons) or an elasto-plastic behavior (large differences in the comparisons). This zonation enhances the understanding of the subsidence phenomenon in Murcia City and could prevent, from a quantitatively point of view, future severe subsidence due to aquifer overexploitation.

  4. High-resolution clay mineralogy as a proxy for orbital tuning: Example of the Hauterivian-Barremian transition in the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiroud, Mathieu; Martinez, Mathieu; Deconinck, Jean-François; Monna, Fabrice; Pellenard, Pierre; Riquier, Laurent; Company, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    The response of clay mineral assemblages to potential orbital forcing is tested in Mesozoic hemipelagic marl-limestone rhythmites of the Río Argos section (Betic Cordillera, Southeastern Spain). Along the section, marls are pervasively enriched in kaolinite and illite, whereas limestones are enriched in smectite-rich illite/smectite mixed-layers, suggesting that marl-limestone alternations are produced by cyclic high-frequency fluctuations of continental runoff. Spectral analyses show that clay mineral assemblages evolve accordingly to precession, obliquity and eccentricity cycles. Durations of ammonite zones are assessed at 535 kyr for the Late Hauterivian Pseudothurmannia ohmi Zone and at 645 kyr and for the Early Barremian Taveraidiscus hugii Zone. These durations are in agreement with other cyclostratigraphic estimates but significantly differ from the Geologic Time Scale 2004 and 2008. Clay minerals display enhanced amplitude of the eccentricity cycles during the Faraoni Oceanic Anoxic Event due to enhanced continental weathering conditions prevailing at that time. Sedimentary expression of the 405-kyr eccentricity is disturbed by palaeoclimate changes during the Faraoni OAE, challenging the hypothesis of Cretaceous OAE triggered by eccentricity cycles. Although palaeoceanographic events (e.g. Faraoni OAE) may induce disturbances in the clay mineral record, this study demonstrates the potential of these minerals to be used as a proxy for orbital calibration in Mesozoic times.

  5. On the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin basin (SE-Spain): Towards comprehensive understanding for effective remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.

    2009-04-01

    During the last two decades, the Guadalentin basin in south-eastern Spain has been the study area for many national- and international studies dealing with land degradation and desertification. One of the reasons for such a broad interest in the Guadalentin basin is that land degradation is generally considered severe in large parts of the basin due to a combination of the Mediterranean climate characterised by dry summers followed by intense autumn rainfall, steep topography that marks most parts of the landscape, and fragile soils on erodible lithologies. The main types of degradation are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. Moreover, triggered by various political and socioeconomic drivers, important land use and management changes have taken place over the last centuries, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. Examples of such changes are large-scale land abandonment, a shift from dryland cereals production to large almond plantations, large scale land levelling for irrigated horticulture and urban expansions, and several types of agricultural subsidies. Numerous publications have been produced based on works done to address land degradation in the Guadalentin. However, until now there is no concise and integrated overview of what has been done and what is still missing regarding the study of the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation and conservation. This is in fact crucial to assist policy makers in making decisions that would effectively navigate land management in the area to a sustainable way. Here, we aim to provide such an overview by listing and discussing the main studies performed in this area, and by providing an integrated synthesis of the main physical- and socioeconomic factors identified in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. In overall, there has been a strong

  6. Groundwater temperature patterns in the freshwater-saltwater contact zone in coastal aquifers. The Motril-Salobreña Aquifer (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvache, Maria Luisa; Duque, Carlos; Lopez-Chicano, Manuel; Martin-Rosales, Wenceslao; Sanchez-Ubeda, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The groundwater temperature in the freshwater-saltwater contact zones shows a characteristic pattern completely different from that monitored in other parts of the coastal aquifers. The temperature-depth profiles of seven wells in the Motril-Salobreña aquifer (southern Spain) were used as a basis for a comparative analysis involving various parameters to determine their relations and factors influencing the different trends. The temperature profiles show a shallow belt of variable temperature (up to 5 °C) that can reach depths in the groundwater ranging from 15 m to 45 m. There is an influence of ambient temperature on all the profiles, with a lag time of two to five months. Furthermore, there is a clear influence of the Guadalfeo River (the main source of recharge to the aquifer) reflected in a decrease in temperature coinciding with peak flow rates in the river and the highest water tables in the aquifer during the springtime when the river flow derives mainly from snowmelt from Sierra Nevada. In the autumn, there are secondary peaks in river flow rates due to rainfall, and the river temperature is higher than in spring. In this case, the groundwater temperature rises. This influence fades with distance from the river. In the summer, when the river is dry, the temperature profiles are straight, with no effect on groundwater temperature. Three of the wells, the closest ones to the coastal line, are exception. However, as there is no clear coincidence between temperature valleys and peaks in the river flow rate, making it difficult to establish a relation between the groundwater temperatures and the river recharge in these two cases. Instead, we must recur to a discharge-zone flow pattern, typical of the freshwater-saltwater contact in a coastal aquifer (Glover, 1959), that generates vertical upward fluxes due to the density contrast when is reaching the saline wedge. In this case is even more pronounced due to the fact that the Motril-Salobreña aquifer has

  7. A multidisciplinary study for mining landscape reclamation: A study case on two tailing ponds in the Region of Murcia (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pagán, P.; Faz, A.; Acosta, J. A.; Carmona, D. M.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the mobility of Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in two tailing ponds (Brunita and San Cristobal) from mine activity in the Southeast of Spain before applying reclamation measures for reducing the risk for human and environment. To achieve this objective, five profiles of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in Brunita, three profiles in San Cristobal, a drill-hole in each pond and undisturbed columns amended with marble waste for leaching experiments were taken. Results showed that all layers of the two ponds exceed the maximum Pb and Zn concentrations allowed by the selected European legislations. In both ponds, the mixture of tailings with natural soil is the main process involved in soil pollution under the ponds. However, due to high pH in the substrate the metals are precipitated and their solubility reduced, therefore there is not a risk of leaching to groundwater. At Brunita tailing pond electrical resistivity sections displayed some lower electrical resistivity region into the bedrock which has been described as some fault occurrence due to breaking events suffered by the tailing pond. At San Cristobal tailing pond geochemical results were consistent with data obtained by the electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) method where no evidence of faults or cracks into the bedrock and the ponds were observed. Therefore, no preferential pathways of acid mine drainages containing heavy metals were reported. Leaching experiments indicated that, after 11 weeks of leaching, amended and control columns showed comparable values of pH (∼2.3) and similar trends for Cu, Cd and Zn, with a very drastic decrease up to week 3 and thereafter the tendency was to reach near steady-state conditions. In contrast, the evolution of Pb showed that marble amended reduces significantly its concentration over time compared with the control. In accordance with the results, future reclamation action should be based on the reduction of heavy metal mobility by means of

  8. On the ecological context of the earliest human settlements in Europe: Resource availability and competition intensity in the carnivore guild of Barranco León-D and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Palmqvist, Paul; Rodríguez, Jesús; Mateos, Ana; Martín-González, Jesús A.; Espigares, M. Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2016-07-01

    With an age of ∼1.4 Ma, the Early Pleistocene archaeopaleontological sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain) provide the oldest evidence on human presence in Western Europe, including the finding of a deciduous tooth of Homo sp., huge lithic assemblages of Oldowan tradition and abundant cut-marks on large mammal bones. Here we use a mathematical approach based on Leslie matrices to quantify for the large mammal species preserved at the sites the biomass of primary consumers available, the distribution of meat resources among the secondary consumers and the competition intensity within the carnivore guild. The results obtained show a community of large mammals with a high diversity of secondary consumers that would satisfy slightly less than half of their dietary requirements under optimal ecological conditions. In the case of Homo sp., and considering that flesh resources were obtained through the scavenging of ungulate carcasses, the model indicates that the ecosystems of the basin could hold 10-14 individuals per 100 km2 during a year, a value that is close to the mean population density of recent hunter-gatherers. These density estimates decrease slightly when a mixed hunting-scavenging strategy is considered and even more in the case of a strict hunting behavior. In addition, the value of the species competition index obtained for Homo sp. is among the lowest of the carnivore guild. These results suggest that the hominin populations that inhabited Southeast Spain during the Early Pleistocene behaved more as opportunistic scavengers than as active predators.

  9. Mountain front migration and drainage captures related to fault segment linkage and growth: The Polopos transpressive fault zone (southeastern Betics, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, José Miguel; Azañón, José Miguel; Pérez-Romero, Joaquín; Villegas, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The Polopos E-W- to ESE-WNW-oriented dextral-reverse fault zone is formed by the North Alhamilla reverse fault and the North and South Gafarillos dextral faults. It is a conjugate fault system of the sinistral NNE-SSW Palomares fault zone, active from the late most Tortonian (≈7 Ma) up to the late Pleistocene (≥70 ky) in the southeastern Betics. The helicoidal geometry of the fault zone permits to shift SE-directed movement along the South Cabrera reverse fault to NW-directed shortening along the North Alhamilla reverse fault via vertical Gafarillos fault segments, in between. Since the Messinian, fault activity migrated southwards forming the South Gafarillos fault and displacing the active fault-related mountain-front from the north to the south of Sierra de Polopos; whilst recent activity of the North Alhamilla reverse fault migrated westwards. The Polopos fault zone determined the differential uplift between the Sierra Alhamilla and the Tabernas-Sorbas basin promoting the middle Pleistocene capture that occurred in the southern margin of the Sorbas basin. Continued tectonic uplift of the Sierra Alhamilla-Polopos and Cabrera anticlinoria and local subsidence associated to the Palomares fault zone in the Vera basin promoted the headward erosion of the Aguas river drainage that captured the Sorbas basin during the late Pleistocene.

  10. Two-dimensional P-T-t modelling and the dynamics of extension and inversion in the Betic Zone (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wees, J. D.; De Jong, K.; Cloetingh, S.

    1992-03-01

    The Internal Zone of the Betic Cordilleras offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of lithospheric processes at mid crustal levels, which controlled the formation and evolution of the southeastern margin of Iberia. In this paper we present the result of two-dimensional numerical modelling of P-T-t paths related to latest Oligocene and Early Miocene extension and inversion in the Betic Zone. The ages of P-T-t loops are constrained by an extensive data set of geothermo-barometric and geochronological data, including 40Ar/ 39Ar laser probe data. We investigate the thermo-mechanical evolution of the Betic Zone using numerical models for simple shear, pure shear and combined shear. The Wernicke simple shear model fails to explain the observed temperatures in excess of 500°C and is not consistent with the occurrence of intrusions of ultramafic rocks in the western Betics. However, the delaminated simple shear model with low-angle faults located only at lower crustal levels, is found to be consistent with the P-T-t data. After a heating phase, associated with a finite extension of 80 km, rapid cooling occurred reflecting inversion of the extensional structure by NW-SE to N-S directed compression. Palaeo-rheological models for the latest Oligocene-Early Miocene times demonstrate the important role of the detachments produced during crustal extension for the dynamics of the subsequent inversion phase. The modelling strongly suggest that inversion locked after 60 km of finite convergence. After locking of the inversion, overthrusting in a northward direction occurred, which is compensated by pure shear deformation in the lower crust in the southeastern part of the Betic Zone.

  11. Integrating soil water and tracer balances, numerical modelling and GIS tools to estimate regional groundwater recharge: Application to the Alcadozo Aquifer System (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Hornero, Jorge; Manzano, Marisol; Ortega, Lucía; Custodio, Emilio

    2016-10-15

    Groundwater recharge is one of the key variables for aquifer management and also one of the most difficult to be evaluated with acceptable accuracy. This is especially relevant in semiarid areas, where the processes involved in recharge are widely variable. Uncertainty should be estimated to know how reliable recharge estimations are. Groundwater recharge has been calculated in the Alcadozo Aquifer System, under steady state conditions, at regional (aquifer) and sub-regional (spring catchment) scales applying different methods. The regional distribution of long-term average recharge values has been estimated with the chloride mass balance method using data from four rain stations and 40 groundwater samples covering almost the whole aquifer surface. A remarkable spatial variability has been found. Average annual recharge rates ranges from 20 to 243mmyear(-1) across the aquifer, with an estimated coefficient of variation between 0.16 and 0.38. The average recharge/precipitation ratio decreases from 34% in the NW to 6% in the SE, following the topographic slope. At spring-catchment scale, recharge has been estimated by modelling the soil water balance with the code Visual Balan 2.0. The results, calibrated with discharge data of the two main springs Liétor and Ayna, are 35.5 and 50mmyear(-1) respectively, with estimated coefficients of variation of 0.49 and 0.36. A sensitivity analysis showed that soil parameters influence the most the uncertainty of recharge estimations. Recharge values estimated with both methods and at two temporal and spatial scales are consistent, considering the regional variability obtained with the chloride method and the respective confidence intervals. Evaluating the uncertainties of each method eased to compare their relative results and to check their agreement, which provided confidence to the values obtained. Thus, the use of independent methods together with their uncertainties is strongly recommended to constrain the magnitude and to

  12. Triclinic Transpression in brittle shear zones evaluated via combined numerical and analogue modeling: the case of The Torcal de Antequera Massif, SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos, Leticia; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Faccenna, Claudio; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Expósito, Inmaculada; Giménez-Bonilla, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Numerical kinematic models have been widely used to understand the parameters controlling the generation and evolution of ductile transpression zones. However, these models are based on continuum mechanics and therefore, are not as useful to analyse deformation partitioning and strain within brittle-ductile transpression zones. The combination of numerical and analogue models will potentially provide an effective approach for a better understanding of these processes and, to a broader extent, of high strain zones in general. In the present work, we follow a combined numerical and analogue approach to analyse a brittle dextral transpressive shear zone. The Torcal de Antequera Massif (TAM) is part of a roughly E-W oriented shear zone at the NE end of the Western Gibraltar Arc (Betic Cordillera). This shear zone presents, according to their structural and kinematic features, two types of domains i) Domain type 1 is located at both TAM margins, and is characterized by strike-slip structures subparallel to the main TAM boundaries (E-W). ii) Domain type 2 corresponds to the TAM inner part, and it presents SE-vergent open folds and reverse shear zones, as well as normal faults accommodating fold axis parallel extension. Both domains have been studied separately applying a model of triclinic transpression with inclined extrusion. The kinematic parameters obtained in this study (?, ? and Wk) allows us to constrain geometrical transpression parameters. As such, the angle of oblique convergence (α, the horizontal angle between the displacement vector and the strike of the shear zone) ranges between 10-17° (simple shear dominated) for domain type 1 and between 31-35° (coaxial dominated) for domain type 2. According to the results obtained from the numerical model and in order to validate its possible utility in brittle shear zones we develop two analogue models with α values representative of both domains defined in the TAM: 15° for type 1 and 30° for type 2. In the

  13. Comprehensive Characterisation of n-Alkylresorcinols and Other Lipid Constituents of Mercurialis tomentosa L. from Alicante, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Peter; Heinrich, Miriam; Conrad, Jürgen; Heller, Annerose; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2017-02-01

    Mercurialis tomentosa L. has been used in Spanish ethnomedicine. In the present study the first phytochemical characterisation of a lipid fraction from M. tomentosa was performed. The CHCl3 extraction of aerial parts from M. tomentosa and GC/MS investigations revealed the occurrence of cuticular lipid and wax constituents, like long chain n-alcohols and n-aldehydes (C22  - C30 ), besides several aromatic constituents, i.e., phenylpropanoids and n-alkylresorcinols. The latter were further purified by CC and analysed by LC/MS(n) . In contrast to other Mercurialis species, i.e., M. annua, M. perennis, which exclusively contain 5-n-alkylresorcinols (1a - j, Cn ), mainly 5-n-alkyl-2-methylresorcinols (2a - j, Cn *) with side chain lengths of C15  - C25 were found in M. tomentosa, in addition to 1a - j. Thus, the latter compounds may be utilised for analytical characterisation and authentication of M. tomentosa based on fingerprinting methods. For structure elucidation a novel facile total synthesis of one representative 5-n-alkyl-2-methylresorcinol homologue (2d, C19 *) was developed, starting with a Grignard reaction from a substituted benzoic acid chloride (19). The compound obtained by synthesis was identical to the natural product 2d in terms of its chromatographic and spectroscopic features. Futhermore, 2d exhibited satisfactory DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50  = 37.8 μm) when compared to trolox (IC50  = 21.0 μm), corroborating the antioxidant features of these amphipathic molecules.

  14. Evolution of near-surface ramp-flat-ramp normal faults and implication during intramontane basin formation in the eastern Betic Cordillera (the Huércal-Overa Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera, Antonio; Galindo-ZaldíVar, Jesús; Lamas, Francisco; Ruiz-ConstáN, Ana

    2012-08-01

    The nucleation, propagation, and associated folding of ramp-flat-ramp normal faults were analyzed from field examples developed in a brittle/ductile multilayer sequence of the Huércal-Overa Basin (SE Spain). Gently dipping sandy silt layers, which display a low cohesive strength (C0 = 7 kPa, μ= 34°), favor the development of extensional detachments. A tectonic origin instead of a possible gravitational origin is supported by the perpendicularity between the paleoslope direction of the fluvial-deltaic environment inferred from imbricated pebbles, and the senses of movement deduced from fault slicken-lines. The link between high-angle normal faults (HANFs) —formed at different levels in the layered sequence— with horizontal fault segments comes to develop ramp-flat-ramp normal faults with associated roll-over in the hanging wall. Observed extensional duplexes are formed by parallel detachments connected through synthetic Riedel faults. These Riedel faults would produce the back-rotation of the individual blocks (horses), i.e., extensional folding of the originally subhorizontal layers. There is no correlation between the analyzed ramp-flat-ramp normal faults, accommodating south-southeastward extension during Serravallian-lower Tortonian, and either the regional Alpujarride/Nevado-Filabride west-directed extensional shear zone or the top-to-the-north detachments within Alpujarride units, which are clearly sealed by Serravallian-lower Tortonian sediments. Therefore, the studied normal faults are restricted to the brittle/ductile multilayer fluvio/deltaic sequence and accommodate moderate late extension instead of belonging to a large crustal extensional system connected with a regional detachment at depth. Therefore, the basin formed in a moderate crustal thickness context where small and medium-scale extensional systems were subordinate structures. These natural examples support the development of low-angle normal faults at very shallow crustal levels in

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents’ academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends’ alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents’ alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567

  16. Refining upon the climatic background of the Early Pleistocene hominid settlement in western Europe: Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Lozano-Fernández, Iván; Agustí, Jordi; Bailon, Salvador; Menéndez Granda, Leticia; Espígares Ortiz, Maria Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergios; Jiménez Arenas, Juan Manuel; Toro-Moyano, Isidro; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Sala, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Early Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain) have yielded thousands of Mode 1 or Oldowan lithic artifacts (both sites) and one tooth (in layer D, formerly 5 of Barranco León), today considered to be some of the earliest evidence of humans in western Europe at ca. 1.2-1.5 Ma. Previous quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions based on herpetile assemblages indicated that, during the formation of these two sites, the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were higher than they are now in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, with lower continentality. Here, we propose new climatic reconstructions where the mean monthly temperature and precipitation and the difference between the four driest months and the four rainiest months are estimated. Climatograms are built in order to specify the distribution and variation of temperature and precipitation during the year, and the Aridity Indices of Gaussen, Lautensach-Mayer, Dantin-Revenga and De Martonne are used to characterize ombroclimatic differences. According to these new climatic parameters, rainfall distribution through the year shows considerably higher precipitation in every season except summer and early autumn, which remain drier and thus consistent with a Mediterranean climate pattern. No change is observed in the duration of the aridity period, which remains four months long. However, the value of the Aridity Index of De Martonne is higher than 20 (subhumid climate) in Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3, whereas today it is lower than 20 (semi-arid climate), suggesting major changes in the ombroclimatic type. These results yield a more precise scenario for the paleoclimatic conditions that prevailed during the late Early Pleistocene in the Guadix-Baza Basin and permit us to contrast the ages obtained from numerical dating and biochronology. The very warm and humid climate reconstructed for both Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 suggests that, in

  17. [Technology, specialization and the public. The creation of a "Leukaemia Clinic" at the Provincial Hospital in Alicante (1953-1960)].

    PubMed

    Ballester Añón, Rosa; Perdiguero Gil, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The mid-20th century opening of a public specialized Clinic for the treatment of patients affected by Leukaemia was a significant event in Alicante. It represented both the beginning of specialization in the field of blood diseases and an opportunity for the Provincial Hospital to enter the world of laboratory research. The social prestige of medical technologies, the introduction of a blood transfusion service and the figure of Dr. Mas Magro were the fundamental reasons behind the birth of this project in spite of its high cost. The aim of the paper is to analyze a case of the development of medical technologies at a local level.

  18. [An epidemiological analysis of the trends in laryngeal cancer mortality and morbidity in Spain and the Commune of Valencia (1977-1985)].

    PubMed

    Morales Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis González, A; Moreno Guillén, E; Megía Sanz, M J

    1992-01-01

    An epidemiological study is made of the evolution of cancer of the larynx in the Valencia Community (Spain) in comparison with the nationwide situation, during the period 1977-1985. Both morbidity and mortality are evaluated based on the data published by the National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística INE). Indirect data standardization was decided on, given the lack of information by age groups. The results reveal an increase in the incidence during the study period in all provinces--both morbidity and mortality standing out in the province of Castellón; in Alicante the figures were lower in comparison with the national values.

  19. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  20. Helminths in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis xgiraffa) from a zoo in Spain.

    PubMed

    Garijo, M M; Ortiz, J M; Ruiz de Ibáñez, M R

    2004-06-01

    A pregnant female Cape giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) died from an unknown cause in the Aitana Zoo, Alicante, Spain. Neither clinical signs nor macroscopic lesions were observed at necropsy. The alimentary tract was removed and examined for parasites. A total of 2 724 nematodes were found, including Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Trichostrongylus axei, Ostertagia ostertagi, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Marshallagia marshalli, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Spiculopteragia asymmetrica and Trichuris giraffae. Only T. giraffae and C. mentulatus have been previously reported from giraffes. The other nematodes are common in mouflons, fallow and red deer, which can usually be found in the same paddock as the giraffes in Aitana Zoo. Although its occurrence is unusual in this host, C. mentulatus was the most abundant nematode in our giraffe. This parasite has been related to disease, and even death, in several wild ruminants.

  1. Beginnings of Olive Cultivation in Eastern Spain in Relation to Holocene Bioclimatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terral, Jean-Frederic; Arnold-Simard, Genevieve

    1996-09-01

    Morphometric analyses show quantitative differences in anatomical characters of wood and charcoal between wild and cultivated olive. Samples from modern olive wood in eastern Spain (Levante) provide five distinctive anatomical criteria: growth width ring, vessel surface, number of vessels per group, vessel density, and vulnerability ratio. Multivariate analysis shows that growth ring width and number of vessels per group are both significant criteria for discriminating between wild and cultivated olive. Moreover, bioclimatic environments of wild olive (thermomediterranean and mesomediterranean stages) are distinguished by vessel density. Ancient olive charcoal from archaeological sites at Valencia and Alicante implies increasing aridification from the Cardial Neolithic to the Roman Period. This pattern may reflect the onset of a Mediterranean climate and human deforestation. Charcoal from cultivated specimens of early Neolithic age shows that the olive tree is the earliest cultivated temperate fruit.

  2. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is

  3. Structure and present-day compression in the offshore area between Alicante and Ibiza Island (Eastern Iberian Margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Agnès; Mauffret, Alain

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the structure and recent deformation of the Eastern Iberian margin, extending from basement to seafloor and including the south-western margin of the Valencia Basin, the Alicante Shelf, the Ibiza Channel and its southern margin descending into the Algerian Basin. This area underwent a complex tectonic evolution linked to the back-arc opening of the North-western Mediterranean and the concomitant contraction of the Betic belt due to the collision with blocks located between Africa and Europe. This Oligo-Miocene structural heritage gave rise to a complex and continuous deformation through times including Late Miocene post-orogenic extension and Pliocene to Quaternary compression in the western Balearic area and coeval extension in the Valencia basin. This study presents maps of the depth to basement and Base of the Pliocene, as well as bathymetry data and seismic lines, which provide a precise integrated 3D study of the offshore domain. It reveals a major reactivation of the area, represented by the N80 to N60 trending structures, small discontinuous folds and thrusts in the Ibiza Channel and a large flexure on the Alicante shelf. The structures are picked out by erosion surfaces or deposits linked to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). These markers are ubiquitous in the seismic sedimentary sequences and record the lateral and vertical deformation active from the Messinian Salinity Crisis to the Present. The contraction in the western Iberian margin and concomitant extension in the southern Valencia Basin are consistent with the regional stress field as determined from the focal mechanisms of offshore earthquakes or recent GPS measurements. The tectonic compression of the studied area casts doubt on the eventual propagation of the present-day compressive stress from the Algerian margin to the Western Balearic Promontory.

  4. Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain.

    PubMed

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall "recuperating" trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  5. Badlands: Regolith, Forms and Processes. A review of the scientific research in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Badlands are usually defined as 'intensely dissected natural landscapes where vegetation is sparse or absent and which are useless for agriculture' (Bryan and Yair, 1982). Badlands are widerspread around the world (Nadal-Romero, 2007; Dickie and Parsons, 2012; Haregeweyn et al., 2012). In Spain due to the climatic and geological conditions badlands are widespread. Badlands research has national and foreign pioneers (Harvey, 1982; Clotet et al., 1988; Alexander and Calvo, 1990; Calvo et al., 1991; Alexander et al., 1994). Almería, Granada, Murcia, Alicante, the Ebro Valley, and the Pyrenees are good examples of the variety and diversity of badlands in Spain (García-Ruiz and López-Bermúdez, 2009). The research on badlands paid attention to the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1999a), piping (Romero-Diaz et al., 2011), the role of parent material on the regolith morphology (Regués, 1995; Cerdà, 1998b) and the soil development (Regués, 1993), and the interaction of the vegetation and soil erosion (Cerdà and García Fayos, 1997; Solé et al., 1997) vegetation varied, whereas the percentage of studies on erosion rates increased steadily over time. During the 90s badlands research was flowering and research on badlands developments, forms and soil physical properties influence was done. The 00's were a period with research focused on processes (infiltration, runoff and erosion) but in general the interest on badland decreased. However, badlands are intensively researched in the Ebro Valley (Nadal-Romero et al., 2007; 2008; Nadal-Romero and Regués; 2009; 2010) and new research is being developed on degraded soils following the knowledge found on badlands (Cerdà, 2007; García Fayos et al., 2010). The future is moving to study vegetation dynamics and badlands reclamation, the effect of climatic change in badland areas, and erosion processes and rates (Nadal-Romero et al., 2013). The use of new non-invasive technologies (remote sensing, Terrestrial Laser

  6. Estimation of the Proportion of Underachieving Students in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain: An Application of the Rasch Model

    PubMed Central

    Veas, Alejandro; Gilar, Raquel; Miñano, Pablo; Castejón, Juan-Luis

    2016-01-01

    There are very few studies in Spain that treat underachievement rigorously, and those that do are typically related to gifted students. The present study examined the proportion of underachieving students using the Rasch measurement model. A sample of 643 first-year high school students (mean age = 12.09; SD = 0.47) from 8 schools in the province of Alicante (Spain) completed the Battery of Differential and General Skills (Badyg), and these students' General Points Average (GPAs) were recovered by teachers. Dichotomous and Partial credit Rasch models were performed. After adjusting the measurement instruments, the individual underachievement index provided a total sample of 181 underachieving students, or 28.14% of the total sample across the ability levels. This study confirms that the Rasch measurement model can accurately estimate the construct validity of both the intelligence test and the academic grades for the calculation of underachieving students. Furthermore, the present study constitutes a pioneer framework for the estimation of the prevalence of underachievement in Spain. PMID:26973586

  7. Primary medical care in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, J T

    1990-01-01

    The extremely complex and rapidly but unevenly developing system of primary care in Spain is described. The health centre movement in Spain merits close attention, and could be a useful model for our own service. PMID:2117951

  8. Spain to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  9. Blood delta-ALAD, lead and cadmium concentrations in spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) from Southeastern Spain and Northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, E; Sousa, A R; María-Mojica, P; Gómez-Ramírez, P; Guilhermino, L; García-Fernández, A J

    2010-04-01

    Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) is actually included in the IUCN as vulnerable species. Its main European population is located in southeastern Spain. Although a great deal of information has been acquired on the internal medicine and survey and even parasitological fauna on these animals, there are no references about contaminants levels in this species. The objectives of this study were to compare the levels of two metals (cadmium and lead) in the blood of spur-thighed tortoises from two different populations, one from Southeastern of Spain (n = 22) and the other from North of Africa (n = 39), kept in captivity at the Santa Faz Recuperation Centre (Alicante, Spain) and to investigate the relationship between their blood levels of lead and their blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity. Blood lead and cadmium concentrations were higher in tortoises from African than in those from Spain. Moreover, a negative and significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between delta-ALAD activity and blood lead levels, indicating the suitability of this enzyme as biomarker for lead in this species.

  10. [El Laboratorio Foster de la Residencia de Señoritas. Las relaciones de la JAE con el International Institute for Girls in Spain, y la formación de las jóvenes científicas españolas].

    PubMed

    Portolés, Carmen Magallón

    2007-01-01

    In the first third of the twentieth century, relations among American and Spanish university women began; particularly the relationship between the JAE and the International Institute for Girls in Spain had a positive influence in the education of women scientists in Spain. An interchange of students and teachers came out from this relationship, and Spanish women received scholarships to stay in American universities. The history of the Foster Laboratory and some biographical notes of her founder are included in the paper.

  11. Career Development in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Moreno, Luisa Rodriguez; Romeo, Javier; Malik, Beatriz

    In Spain, the term "career development" refers to vocational or career guidance services. The 1983 Law on University Reform conferred on universities the freedom of teaching, endowing them with legal status and administrative powers. Thus, there are no regulations regarding guidance at this educational level. Guidance departments in…

  12. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    PubMed

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  13. Vocational Training in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovard, Candido; And Others

    Vocational training in Spain suffers from a fundamental initial disadvantage, namely the subsidiary position that it occupies in the general structure of the country's educational system. The situation has been aggravated by the sector's relative neglect by the government, which has been forced to concentrate its efforts on secondary and…

  14. Test Reviewing in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  15. [Fertility decline in Spain].

    PubMed

    Arango, J

    1987-01-01

    The historical processes of secular fertility decline in Spain and Portugal are not well understood. Very few microdemographic studies of small geographic regions or particular social strata have been done. A contribution by David Reher to the First Spanish-Portuguese-Italian Historical Demography Conference on the fertility decline in the interior province of Cuenca, Spain, uses the own-children method to analyze changes in marital fertility in the 19th and 20th centuries. Reher discovered a slight fertility decline of perhaps 15% which occurred between the end of the 18th century and 1860-75. The fertility decline did not resume until after the Spanish Civil War, and then it was a very gradual and continuous process. When instead of the total female population, women aged 35-39 were studied, unequivocal signs of fertility control appeared. Conscious fertility control thus appears to have begun among older women limiting rather than spacing births. Reher's analysis by social groups demonstrates that fertility declined first and more rapidly in the nonagricultural and urban populations and among the higher income groups. The fertility decline in Cuenca was certainly not identical to that in most of Spain, but may have been fairly typical of a large part of the interior. Another contribution to the Historical Demography Conference, by Anna Cabre and Isabel Pujadas, analyzes fertility trends and cyclical fluctuations in 20th century Cataluna, arguing that they must be placed in historical perspective if recent changes are to be understood and plausible projections made. Their work demonstrates the value of selecting a relatively homogeneous geographic unit for analysis. The contribution of Margarita Delgado to the conference analyzed interregional fertility differences in contemporary Spain. The high legitimate fertility of the south of Spain is accentuated by high nuptiality rates. In central Spain, the combination of high legitimate fertility rates and low

  16. Water quality changes in a naturalized historical reservoir: the Pantano de Elche, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Amorós, Irene; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    The "Pantano de Elche" is an historical XVII century reservoir located in the lower course of the Vinalopó River (SE Spain). The watershed of the Vinalopó River is the largest one of the province of Alicante, a highly urbanized area with intensive agriculture, severe processes of land degradation and poor-quality coastal rivers and streams. The original reservoir basin (71 ha) was clogged by sediment in few decades and the current area is a protected wetland with extensive reed marshes and a recently drained water body next to the dam. We are studying the influence of this naturalized historical reservoir in water quality parameters of the Vinalopó River. A long-term water quality monitoring approach is being developed and we present an initial quantification of the mass balance for suspended solids and nitrates (winter to summer). Monthly water samples have been taken at the upper point of the reservoir basin, intermediate areas of the reed marsh, the boundary between reed marsh-water body, and the outlet of the dam. Physical-chemical parameters (e.g., temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total suspended solids, and nitrates) have been analysed in situ or within 12 hours after the field sampling. Water flow was estimated by measuring water speed in cross-sections of the river bed at the inlet to the basin. The study area was mapped with QGIS and aerial ortophotographies in order to delineate the extent of the marshes and the water body. Statistical analyses (e.g., descriptive, ANOVA) were performed with SPSS. The water quality of the study area is greatly affected by diffuse agriculture pollution and the addition of soluble salts from saline and gypsiferous soils. Electrical conductivity of water samples was high (~18.5 mS/cm) for all locations. The pH ranged from 8.0 to 7.7 in the marsh and increased up to 8.3 at the outlet of the dam. The values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and nitrates exhibited a similar pattern, with a

  17. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  18. [Suicide in Spain today].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  19. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    PubMed

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  1. Multifunctional "Se": Course of Development in Spanish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Virginia C.

    A study explored the acquisition of "se" by Spanish-speaking children in Madrid, Spain, looking at: (1) acquisition of multifunctional forms; and (2) the course of acquisition for a linguistic expression that has both anaphoric and non-anaphoric functions, and its relevance to Binding Theory approaches to the acquisition of reflexives.…

  2. [Allergenic pollens in Spain].

    PubMed

    Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J

    2004-01-01

    Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).

  3. Soil characterization in urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin (Southeast Spain) using H/V, F-K and ESAC methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa-Cintas, S.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Molina-Palacios, S.; Rosa-Herranz, J.; García-Fernández, M.; Jiménez, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Bajo Segura Basin, placed in the south of Alicante province (southeast Spain), is a region of moderate seismicity, which presents frequent seismic episodes. This region, as the rest of south-eastern part of Spain, is growing both economically and demographically. Hence, the presence of soft soils in a seismic region where many towns and villages are placed shows the importance of an adequate characterization of the site effects study in this area. The present work investigates the use of noise measurements for soil characterization by the application of H/V method and array techniques: extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) and frequency-wave number (F-K) in three urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin. The application of these methods will help us to estimate the resonance frequencies, as well as shear-wave velocity profiles, having a better understanding of the sediment depth and site effects phenomena at the studied places. The estimated velocity profiles are used to model the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave ellipticity curves and the S-wave site transfer functions. Finally, the correlation between this curves and the experimental H/V analysis has allowed us a better assessment of the site response in the studied areas.

  4. Targeted screening and health education for Chagas disease tailored to at-risk migrants in Spain, 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M; Perez-Ayala, A; Guionnet, A; Perez-Molina, J A; Navaza, B; Estevez, L; Norman, F; Flores-Chavez, M; Lopez-Velez, R

    2011-09-22

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, but migration has expanded the disease's geographical limits. Spain is the most affected country in Europe. From 2007, a specific Chagas disease programme aimed at at-risk migrants was developed in three Spanish cities (Madrid, Jerez de la Frontera and Alicante). The objectives of the programme were to increase participants' knowledge and decrease their fears about the disease and to encourage them to undergo screening for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The programme was specially focused on migrants from Bolivia and Latin American women of childbearing age. Culturally tailored interventions were carried out in non-clinical settings. A total of 276 migrants were screened using a rapid immunochromatographic test following talks on the disease: the results were then later confirmed by standard serological tests. Of those tested, 44 (15.9%) were confirmed cases of Chagas disease. All of them came from Bolivia and a quarter were pregnant women. Of the 44 cases, 31 were later followed up at a specialised Chagas disease clinic. We consider that the adaptation of the programme to the target population's needs and collaboration with non-governmental organisations and migrants' associations contributed to the acceptance of the programme and the increasing number of patients seen at a specialised clinic.

  5. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge.

  6. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. PMID:22611428

  7. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    PubMed

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed.

  8. World Support Base: Spain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Aeronauticas, S.A.) Management Mr. Javier Alvarez Vara (President and General Manager), Mr. CaI OS Marin (Vice President), Mr. Juan Alonso Castro (Director of...In i se1 (Empresa Nacional de Electronoca y Sistemas, S.A.) Management Mr. Juan Vizoso (POC) , Mr Luis Ferreiro Centenaria, Director industriai...Operations, Mr. Antonio Sanchez, Telecommuni- cations Engineer, and Mr. Enrique Deiz Soto, Chief Programs, Projects Department. Genera I IniseI

  9. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally.

  10. Increasing microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling potential of burnt forest soil in Spain through post-fire management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; McMillan, Mary; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are increasingly assessed by the application of molecular methods such as sequencing and PCR technology. We applied these techniques to study microbial recovery in post-fire forest soils. The recovery of forest ecosystems following severe fire is influenced by post-fire management. The removal of burnt tree stumps (salvage logging) is a common practice in Spain following fire. In some cases, the use of heavy machinery in addition to the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially damaging to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. We hypothesized that tree removal slows down the recovery of soil biological communities including microbial and plant communities and contributes to soil degradation in the burnt affected area. The study area is located in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment, with a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery, was applied to a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring the effects of SL were installed in this area and in a similar nearby control (C) area, where no SL treatment was done. The recovery of soil bacterial and fungal communities post-fire with and without tree removal was analysed by using Next-Generation sequencing and the abundance of functional genes, related to nitrogen cycling, in the soil was estimated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We will present the methods used and the results of our study in this PICO presentation.

  11. In Spain, Inbreeding Threatens Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    With 25 years of teaching experience at Spain's top-ranked veterinary school, 58 articles in prestigious international journals, and numerous patents to her name, Victoria Lopez Rodas would be a strong candidate for any academic job in her field. So when she took a national qualifying examination for a full professorship in animal science last…

  12. English Language Teaching Profile: Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English in Spain is discussed, with attention directed to (1) English within the educational system, (2) inspection of teachers and teaching methods, (3) commercial English, (4) adult education, (5) radio and television instruction in English, (6) English teachers, (7) English outside the educational system, and (8) British and…

  13. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Methods Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel ® 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. Results We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Conclusions Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health. PMID:23688245

  14. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years.

  15. [Foreigners in Spain in 1991].

    PubMed

    Lora-tamayo D'ocon, G

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the characteristics of the foreign population living in Spain in 1991 is presented using data from two sources, the 1991 census and the system for regularization of the status of foreign workers, which was brought up to date the same year. The characteristics analyzed include country of origin, current province of residence, and occupation. The differences between the data obtained from the two sources are discussed. (ANNOTATION)

  16. Education in the Spain of Autonomous Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jose Luis Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Describes change in education in Spain since the break with socialism in terms of new structural bases, democratic center's decentralization policy, and socialist government's educational program. (AH)

  17. Precipitation concentration changes in Spain 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luis, M.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Brunetti, M.; Longares, L. A.

    2011-05-01

    An analysis was made of the Precipitation Concentration Index using the new MOPREDAS database of monthly precipitation in Spain (Monthly Precipitation Data base of Spain). The database was compiled after exhaustive quality control of the complete digitalized Spanish Meterological Agency (AEMet) archives and contains a total set of 2670 complete and homogeneous monthly precipitation series from 1946 to 2005. Thus, MOPREDAS currently holds the densest information available for the 1946-2005 period for Spain and ensures a high resolution of results. The Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) is a powerful indicator of the temporal distribution of precipitation, traditionally applied at annual scales; as the value increases, the more concentrated the precipitation. Furthermore PCI is a part of the well-known Fournier index, with a long tradition on natural system analyses, as for example soil erosion. In this paper, the mean values of annual, seasonal and wet and dry periods of PCI in the conterminous Spain and for two normal periods (1946-1975 and 1976-2005) were studied. Precipitation in Spain follows a general NW-SE spatial pattern during the wet (months) period due to the Atlantic storm track, while during the dry (months) period, it follows a predominantly N-S spatial pattern. As a result, the annual values of PCI combine the two patterns and show a SW-NE PCI gradient. The analyses of the two sub-periods show significant changes in the precipitation occurred in conterminous Spain from 1946 to 2005, and precipitation concentration increased across most of the IP. At an annual scale, PCI increases mostly due to an increase in precipitation concentration during the wet season. At a seasonal scale significant changes were detected between 1945-1975 and 1976-2005, particularly in autumn (increase of PCI values), while changes in winter, spring and summer were mostly localized and not generalized (both increase and decrease). Changes in PCI seem to be complex and

  18. Biodiversity of Archaea and floral of two inland saltern ecosystems in the Alto Vinalopó Valley, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The extraction of salt from seawater by means of coastal solar salterns is a very well-described process. Moreover, the characterization of these environments from ecological, biochemical and microbiological perspectives has become a key focus for many research groups all over the world over the last 20 years. In countries such as Spain, there are several examples of coastal solar salterns (mainly on the Mediterranean coast) and inland solar salterns, from which sodium chloride is obtained for human consumption. However, studies focused on the characterization of inland solar salterns are scarce and both the archaeal diversity and the plant communities inhabiting these environments remain poorly described. Results Two of the inland solar salterns (termed Redonda and Penalva), located in the Alto Vinalopó Valley (Alicante, Spain), were characterized regarding their geological and physico-chemical characteristics and their archaeal and botanical biodiversity. A preliminary eukaryotic diversity survey was also performed using saline water. The chemical characterization of the brine has revealed that the salted groundwater extracted to fill these inland solar salterns is thalassohaline. The plant communities living in this environment are dominated by Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A.J. Scott, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moris) K. Koch, Suaeda vera Forsk. ex Gmelin (Amaranthaceae) and several species of Limonium (Mill) and Tamarix (L). Archaeal diversity was analyzed and compared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular phylogenetic techniques. Most of the sequences recovered from environmental DNA samples are affiliated with haloarchaeal genera such as Haloarcula, Halorubrum, Haloquadratum and Halobacterium, and with an unclassified member of the Halobacteriaceae. The eukaryote Dunaliella was also present in the samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first analysis centered on inland solar salterns located in the

  19. The opinions of injecting drug user (IDUs) HIV patients and health professionals on access to antiretroviral treatment and health services in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcia de la Hera, Manuela; Davo, Maria Carmen; Ballester-Añón, Rosa; Vioque, Jesus

    2011-09-01

    The benefits of HIV treatment (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy [HAART]) have been less apparent in injecting drug users (IDUs), most probably as a result of poor adherence to treatment. We explored factors related to HIV treatment adherence as reported by 23 IDU-HIV patients and nine health professionals from healthcare services in Alicante and Valencia, Spain. We carried out a qualitative study based on personal interviews. Health professionals reported the lack of coordination among hospital services and difficulties in accessibility to nonspecialized services for IDU-HIV patients as relevant factors for treatment adherence. Their perception of a patient's likelihood of treatment adherence was also considered to influence the decision to prescribe HAART. A better treatment adherence was reported by those IDU-HIV patients with a good doctor-patient relationship and by women with family responsibilities. Patients considered the side effects of HIV treatment, the lack of social support, and the active use of recreational drugs as relevant factors to explain incompliance. Interventions and training of health providers should be aimed at the reduction of barriers in patient-provider communication and the overcoming of stereotypes, thus avoiding discriminatory attitudes in treatment in this vulnerable population.

  20. Neanderthals from El Salt (Alcoy, Spain) in the context of the latest Middle Palaeolithic populations from the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Gómez, José A; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    We present a bioanthropological study of dental remains recovered from El Salt Middle Palaeolithic site (Alcoy, Alicante, Spain). The dental remains were found in a sedimentary layer representing a calm depositional environment within a freshwater spring system. The corresponding archaeological context comprises a Middle Palaeolithic faunal and lithic assemblage that represents the last documented evidence of human occupation at the site, dating to between 47.2 ± 4.4 and 45.2 ± 3.4 ka (thousands of years ago). This evidence is overlain by an archaeologically sterile deposit dated to 44.7 ± 3.2 ka. Results show that the teeth belong to a single juvenile or young adult individual with morphological and metric features falling within the Neanderthal range of variability, although the considered traits are not taxonomically highly discriminant. The reported fossils are representative of the latest Middle Palaeolithic groups in the region and may be considered in the ongoing debate on the disappearance of Neanderthals and the end of the Middle Palaeolithic.

  1. Teaching for democracy in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Isabel Cárdenas; Sanchez, Concepción Martin

    1995-05-01

    As part of the process of re-establishing democracy, Spain is reforming its educational system to promote democratic values. This article describes an experiment in education for democracy that was carried out among 86 pupils, between 12 and 14 years old, in the Spanish region of Murcia. A teaching programme was developed, in which students were encouraged to study how power is exercised in the home, the school, the community, the nation and the world. Results have been generally positive in arousing pupils' interest in democracy and helping them to understand democratic processes.

  2. [Marseille fever imported from Spain].

    PubMed

    Freibergerová, Michaela; Parízková, Radana; Husa, Petr; Burget, Ivo; Chalupa, Pavel

    2004-08-01

    The authors are presenting a case of young female with Marseille fever contracted in Spain. The clinical manifestation of the illness was characterized by fevers, exanthema, headache and a typical skin rash ("the black spot") and prompted the authors to strongly consider the diagnosis of Marseille fever and to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed later by serology. The article introduces new taxonomy of Rickettsial species and presents an overview and epidemiological aspects of specific diseases caused by them. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of Marseille fever are discussed in greater detail.

  3. SE-FIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  4. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  5. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  6. The Politics of Language: Spain's Minority Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic and legal framework in Spain and its attempts to define nationhood and a collective identity that encompasses its three major linguistic minority groups. The four major language groups of Spain are discussed with regard to official language policy and legislation. Article 3 of the 1978 Spanish constitution was…

  7. Photosensitive anisotype n-ZnSe/ p-InSe and n-ZnSe/ p-GaSe heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.

    2014-08-01

    Anisotype n-ZnSe/ p-InSe and n-ZnSe/ p-GaSe heterojunctions are obtained for the first time. They are grown on layered crystalline GaSe and InSe substrates by annealing in Zn vapor. It is found that these heterojunctions are sensitive to light in the near-infrared and visible spectral ranges.

  8. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  9. The New Science Policy in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio R.

    1987-01-01

    Spain has begun a serious effort to increase its scientific and technological research efforts and to develop a large body of qualified researchers to participate in areas of science important to the European Economic Community. (MSE)

  10. Recent migrations from Morocco to Spain.

    PubMed

    Bodega, I; Cebrian, J A; Franchini, T; Lora-tamayo, G; Martin-lou, A

    1995-01-01

    "This study addressed the problem of the Moroccan immigration into Spain within the context of South-North movements, focusing on analyzing provisional data from the last immigrant regularization in the country completed during the end months of 1991."

  11. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain; Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cortes Castell, E; Rizo-Baeza, M M; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Rizo-Baeza, J; Gil Guillén, V

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: La edad materna es una variable preponderante en el análisis epidemiológico del nacimiento prematuro. Los estudios muestran que en las edades extremas de la vida materna hay un riesgo de nacimiento prematuro que genera una tasa elevada de morbilidad neonatal. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de las edades extremas de mujeres residentes en la provincia de Albacete sobre de nacimientos prematuros. Método: Se realizó un estudio explicativo, retrospectivo de casos-control durante el periodo de 1 de enero de 2008 a 31 de diciembre de 2011. El estudio se basó en la revisión de los registros de recién nacidos del Centro de Cribado Neonatal de la provincia de Alicante. Se incluyeron todos los recién nacidos pretérmino, es decir, entre las semanas 22 y 36 de gestación (5.295 de 78.391 recién nacidos, lo que representa un 6,75% de prematuridad), y una muestra aleatoria de los nacimientos con más de 37 semanas de gestación (grupo control). Se estudió la edad materna como variable independiente y la prematuridad como variable dependiente. Resultados: El estudio muestra claramente un mayor riesgo de prematuridad entre las madres adolescentes en comparación con el siguiente grupo más cercano en edad, lo que se confirmó por una distribución significativamente distinta con el test Chi cuadrado (p < 0,0001) con una OD para los grandes prematuros de 2,41 (1,51-3,24) y de 1,71 (1,32-2,19) para los prematuros. Esta probabilidad también fue mayor en madres con edades de más de 40 años con una OD de 1,86 (1,39-2,48) y de 1,66 (1,44- 1,91) para recién nacidos grandes prematuros y prematuros, respectivamente. Discusión: Los resultados muestran claramente que las madres adolescentes y las más mayores tienen mayor riesgo de hijos prematuros o con bajo peso al nacimiento, lo que motiva la necesidad de establecer intervenciones educacionales para disminuir el problema, a partir de los resultados de esta investigación.

  12. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  13. Absorption and optical conduction in InSe/ZnSe/InSe thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Garni, S. E.; Qasrawi, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, (n)InSe/(p)ZnSe and (n)InSe/(p)ZnSe/(n)InSe heterojunction thin film transistor (TFT) devices are produced by the thermal evaporation technique. They are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques. While the InSe films are found to be amorphous, the ZnSe and InSe/ZnSe films exhibited polycrystalline nature of crystallization. The optical analysis has shown that these devices exhibit a conduction band offsets of 0.47 and valence band offsets of 0.67 and 0.74eV, respectively. In addition, while the dielectric spectra of the InSe and ZnSe displayed resonance peaks at 416 and 528THz, the dielectric spectra of InSe/ZnSe and InSe/ZnSe/InSe layers indicated two additional peaks at 305 and 350THz, respectively. On the other hand, the optical conductivity analysis and modeling in the light of free carrier absorption theory reflected low values of drift mobilities associated with incident alternating electric fields at terahertz frequencies. The drift mobility of the charge carrier particles at femtoseconds scattering times increased as a result of the ZnSe sandwiching between two InSe layers. The valence band offsets, the dielectric resonance at 305 and 350THz and the optical conductivity values nominate TFT devices for use in optoelectronics.

  14. Seepage carbonate mounds in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, M.; Calvo, J. P.; Scopelliti, G.; González-Acebrón, L.

    2016-04-01

    A number of carbonate mounds composed of indurate, strongly folded and/or brecciated calcite and dolomite beds occur interstratified in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin. Part of the fabric of the rock forming the carbonate mounds is composed of laminated to banded dolostone similar to the host rock but showing contrasted lithification. Moreover, the carbonate deposits of the mounds display aggrading neomorphism of dolomite, partial replacement of dolomite by calcite, calcite cementation, and extensive silicification, locally resulting in box-work fabric. Eight main lithofacies were distinguished in the carbonate mound deposits. In some lithofacies, chert is present as both microcrystalline to fibro-radial quartz and opal, the latter occurring mainly as cement whereas the former replace the carbonate and infill voids. Yet one of the carbonate mounds shows distinctive petrography and geochemical features thus suggesting a distinctive growth pattern. The carbon isotope compositions of calcite from the mound samples range from - 11.56 to - 5.15 δ‰ whilst dolomite is depleted in 13C, with values of - 12.38 to 3.02 δ‰. Oxygen isotopic compositions vary from - 9.42 to - 4.64 δ‰ for calcite and between - 6.68 and 8.19 δ‰ for dolomite. Carbonate in the mounds shows significant enrichment in Co, Cr, Ni and Pb content, especially in the strongly deformed (F-2-2 lithofacies) and brecciated carbonate (F-4). The carbonate deposits show depletion in REE and Y in contrast to that determined in lutite. The formation of the carbonate mounds was related to local artesian seepage thermal water flows of moderate to relative high temperatures. Pressure differences between the low permeability host rock and the circulating fluids accounted for dilational fracturing and brecciation of the host sediment packages, which combined with precipitation of new carbonate and silica mineral phases. Locally, some carbonate mounds developed where groundwater intersected the lake floor, this resulting in bedded carbonate deposits composed of organic constituents.

  15. Isotope geochemistry of waters affected by acid mine drainage in old labour sites (SE, Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Agudo, Ines; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel; Recio, Clemente

    2015-04-01

    The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Iron is present in oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonates, and silicates; lead and zinc occur in sulfides (galena and sphalerite, respectively), carbonates, sulfates, and lead or zinc-bearing (manganese, iron) oxides. Mining started with the Romans and activity peaked in the second half of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century until the 1980's. From 1940 to 1957, mineral concentration was made by froth flotation and, prior to this, by gravimetric techniques. The mining wastes, or tailings, with a very fine particle size were deposited inland (tailings dams) and, since 1957, huge releases were made in directly the sea coast. The objective of this work was to evaluate processes affecting waters from abandoned mine sites by way of stable isotopic analysis, particularly H and O stable isotopes from water and S and O from dissolved sulfates. Several common chemical and physical processes, such as evaporation, water-rock interaction and mixing could alter water isotopic composition. Evaporation, which causes an enrichment in δD and δ18O in the residual water, is an important process in semiarid areas. The results obtained indicate that, for sites near the coast, waters are meteoric, and marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers near the shore or if water remains stagnated in sediments with low permeability. The main source of sulfate was the oxidation of sulfides, resulting in the liberation of acid, sulfate and metals. In order to assess the mechanism responsible for sulfide oxidation, the stoichiometric isotope balance model and the general isotope balance model were tested, suggesting that the oxidation via Fe3+ was predominant in the surface, and controlled by A. ferrooxidans, while at depth, sulfate reduction occurred.

  16. Landslide susceptibility in the Sierra Nevada National Park (SE Spain) using a multivariate statistics method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azañón, J. M.; Pérez-Peña, V.; Yesares, J. M.; Roldán, F. J.; Mateos, R. M.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.; Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.; Ureña, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we have evaluated the landslide susceptibility of the Sierra Nevada National Park area. In order to assess the landslide susceptibility, as well as the traditional factors extracted from the Digital Elevation Model and the lithology, we analyzed many important variables that had not been taken into account in previous studies such as; normalized vegetation index (NDVI), distance to active tectonic structures (folds and faults), snow melting cycles, snow duration, and runoff coefficient (P0). We have differentiated three types of slope instabilities; rotational landslides, fluxes, and rocks failures. For each landslide type we carried out a field inventory using aerial photographs and field work. We used a multivariate statistic approach to obtain those factors that better explain the variance of the landslide distribution through a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In order to produce the different susceptibility maps for each landslide type, we performed a discrimination analysis to weigh the different factors. The three resulting susceptibility maps have been combined to obtain a general susceptibility map for slope movements in the Sierra Nevada National Park area. This study indicates that some of the new analyzed factors as NVDI index, tectonic activity, and runoff coefficient have a strong influence in the landslide susceptibility in the Sierra Nevada National Park.

  17. Pesticide contamination in groundwater bodies in the Júcar River European Union Pilot Basin (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Menchen, Alfonso; Heras, Jorge De Las; Alday, Juan José Gómez

    2017-04-01

    The change from a traditional agricultural model to a modern, more productive one, coupled with population growth, has entailed an increased consumption of water, fertilizers and pesticides. This transformation has led to a greater risk of groundwater contamination. This study has analysed for this purpose a total of 314 samples (period 2010-2013). In addition, 332 samples from the Mancha Oriental groundwater body (period 2001-2003) were also examined in order to gain a better perspective on the temporal evolution of pesticides in groundwater bodies. Using this database, this study aims to characterize pesticide pollution and to examine possible processes. Triazine herbicides are the most common pesticides found and also appear in the highest concentrations, with terbuthylazine having a noteworthy concentration of 900 ng/L. The irrigated agriculture and the physicochemical properties of pesticides are the most important factors influencing the concentration and type of pesticides that can reach groundwater. The spatial distribution of nitrate and pesticides do not correspond as they would if the two behaved similarly. Pesticides can completely biodegrade before reaching the saturated zone, but it is also possible that their degradation products have not been analysed and, therefore, their concentrations are underestimated.

  18. Fertilization and connectivity in the Garrucha Canyon (SE-Spain) implications for Marine Spatial Planning.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Reul, A; Vargas-Yáñez, M; Plaza, F; Bautista, B; García-Martínez, M C; Moya, F; Gómez-Moreno, M-L; Fernandes, J A; Rodríguez, V

    2017-05-01

    Marine Spatial Planning is usually based on benthic georeferenced information or GPS tracked human activities, whereas the pelagic ecosystem is often ignored because of scarce and limited surface information. However, the 3-D pelagic ecosystem plays a key role connecting all the other ecosystems by physical (currents) and biological (migration) processes. According to remote sensing the Garrucha Canyon is oligotrophic, but 3-D sampling reveals subsurface upwelling, and converts it into the richest area around the Cape of Gata. Vertical connectivity by means of zooplankton migration, measured at two sampling stations, is 40 and 220 times faster than microphytoplankton settling and vertical water velocities respectively. Thus coupled physical-biological connectivity models are necessary to estimate the ecosystem connection and the fate of carbon, but also other substances (e.g. radioactivity), that might accumulate throughout the food-web. This is especially important in the Garrucha Canyon and the Coastal Areas Management Programme Levante de Almería where natural heritage and extractive fishery are important for the local economy.

  19. Reproductive pattern in agrarian and immigrant receptor populations: a survey of El Ejido (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Verónica; Luna, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    This paper deals with the fertility pattern of the El Ejido population, an agricultural Spanish community characterised by the rapid development of its modern agrarian economy. Consequently, the arrival of immigrants has sharply increased throughout the second half of the twentieth century, with important demographic consequences as well as reproductive changes. The analyses of the age-specific fertility rate (fx) and the total fertility rate (TFR) were used in order to describe the reproductive pattern of this population in 2000. The main characteristics were the following: a) Regarding the temporal change, an important decrease of fx has been observed in all age groups for the last twenty years, as a consequence of progressive birth control. However, the reproductive pattern has kept almost invariable and has been characterised by a maximum fertility at age group of 25-29 years old. b) Regarding the general Spanish fertility, the comparison of fx in both populations suggests a younger maternity in the agricultural population than in the national, the maximum fertility delayed to the 30-34 age group. c) Moreover, the El Ejido population showed a clear higher offspring per woman (TFR = 1.42) than the national (TFR = 1.24), according to the agrarian character of the El Ejido population. d) Finally, this greater reproductive level of El Ejido is also due to the arrival of women at fertile age, who come mainly from Africa, and above all from Morocco.

  20. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is influenced by tailing dumps and also by waters from gully watercourses, transporting materials from Sierra Minera. The MINTEQ simulation showed that Pb and Ca could precipitate as sulphates (anglesite and gypsum). Waters affected by secondary contamination have been mixed with carbonate materials, present in the zone increasing the pH. Some elements have precipitated, such as Cu and Pb, while Cd, Zn and As are soluble. The MINTEQ model results showed that in A10 and A14, Al could precipitate as diaspore but also carbonates could be formed, particularly dolomite. These model in A12 sample showed that soluble Zn could precipitate as carbonate and Al as oxyhydroxide, similarly than in A13. A2 and A6 waters are affected by tertiary contamination and showed basic pH, soluble carbonates and lower trace element content. Only Zn, Cd and Al are present. The speciation model showed that in A2, Cd and Zn could precipitate as carbonates while Al as oxihydroxide. In A6, the model suggested that soluble Pb could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocerusite and cerusite) or as hydroxide; Al as diaspore, Ca as calcite and Fe as hematite. Zone B: All waters are strongly affected by mining activities and showed acid pH, high trace element content and high content of soluble sulphates. The MINTEQ results showed that in B8, Fe could precipitate as hydroxychloride and in B12 could form alunite. In B9, B10, B13 y B14, the model estimates the precipitation of anglesite, gypsum and Fe hydroxichloride (B9 and B10), diaspore in B13 and B14, and gypsum and Fe hydroxychloride in B13. All the sampling points collected in Zone C are affected by primary contamination, because there are a lot of tailing dumps. C1 showed high trace element content because is a reception point of a lot of tailing dumps. Water samples from C3 to C8 also had acid pH and high trace element content, particularly As, Zn and Cd. In addition, they showed high soluble sulphates. C2 water showed neutral pH, soluble carbonate and low trace element content because is influenced by a stabilised tailing dump. In all samples, except C2, the MINTEQ model showed that a lot of efflorescences could be formed, mainly sulphates. Zone D: All waters collected in this zone showed acid pH and high trace element content, mainly Zn, Cd and As. MINTEQ model results showed that elements could precipitate as jarosite but also anglesite in D8 and gypsum in D9, D11 and D12. D1 is affected by secondary contamination, which showed higher pH (still acid) and lower content in soluble salts and trace elements. The MINTEQ model suggested that Al could precipitate as diaspore, gibbsite and alunite. The applied model is an appropriate tool for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities. The obtained simulations confirm natural attenuation processes.

  1. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    PubMed

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  2. Electronic states of InSe/GaSe superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkoç, Ş.; Allahverdi, K.; Ibrahim, Z.

    1994-06-01

    Analysis of recent publications revealed an increasing interest in epitaxial growth of InSe/GaSe superlattice. Within the effective mass theory we carried out self-consistent calculations of the confined and itinerant electronic states, potential profile and charge density distribution of InSe/GaSe superlattice, where the InSe layers are the well and the GaSe layers the barrier. Calculations were performed for three types of doping: uniform, modulated in the well, and modulated in the barrier. It has been found that the Coulomb interaction in the well and barrier forces the formation of localized states in the barrier region. The possibility of an insulator-metal transition in InSe/GaSe superlattice is predicted for modulation doping in the barrier and for a doping level n = 10 19cm-3. A decrease of the barrier height has been found for modulation doping in the well.

  3. Mathematics education and learning disabilities in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving.

  4. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  5. The costs of schizophrenia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2006-09-01

    This study estimated the economic impact of schizophrenia-related direct costs (medical and nonmedical costs) in Spain. Direct medical costs (hospitalizations, outpatient consultations, drug costs) and direct nonmedical costs (costs of informal care) were estimated based on prevalence costs for 2002. The total costs of schizophrenia were estimated at euro 1,970.8 million; direct medical costs accounted for 53% and informal care costs 47%. Despite having implemented a conservative approach, the health care costs associated with schizophrenia account for 2.7% of total public health care expenditure in Spain. The sum of medical and nonmedical costs give us a better definition of the magnitude of the problem in Spain as well as contributing to helping make the debate on this issue more transparent.

  6. Leaving home in Spain: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper compares regional patterns of leaving home in Spain during the 1970s and 1980s based on analysis of the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic Survey. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate that while nationally Spain is representative of a southern European pattern of leaving home, (i.e. relatively late and closely associated with partnership formation), there is considerable regional variation in timing, incidence and initial destinations on leaving home. These differences are explored using hazard rates of leaving home by destination and birth cohort for 11 Spanish regions."

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-64 - Avocados from continental Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avocados from continental Spain. 319.56-64 Section 319... Avocados from continental Spain. Fresh avocados (Persea americana P. Mill.) may be imported into the United... accordance with § 319.56-6. (2) The avocados must be grown at places of production in continental Spain...

  11. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  12. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  13. 75 FR 61772 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely to lead to... antidumping duty order on chlorinated isocyanurates from Spain would not be likely to lead to continuation...

  14. Intraband Spectroscopy of GaSe Nanoparticles and InSe/GaSe Nanoparticle Heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, David F.; Tu, Haohua; Chen, Xiang-Bai

    The spectroscopic and dynamical characteristics of electron and hole intraband transitions in several sizes of GaSe nanoparticles have been studied using polarized femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Assignments of the observed absorptions are made in terms of the known GaSe band structure and a model in which the electron and hole states are described by particle-in-a-cylinder states. The results indicate that the transient absorption spectrum is due to a size-independent, z-polarized hole intraband transition, and in the smaller particles, an x,y-polarized electron transition. In InSe/GaSe mixed aggregates, direct electron transfer from InSe to GaSe nanoparticles occurs upon photoexcitation of a charge transfer band. An exciton on GaSe nanoparticles can undergo diffusion and charge separation the an InSe/GaSe heterojunction.

  15. Study of the heterointerfaces InSe on GaSe and GaSe on InSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargues, D.; Brahim-Otsmane, L.; Eddrief, M.; Sébenne, C.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-03-01

    InSe and GaSe thin films are grown on freshly cleaved (00.1) substrates of GaSe and InSe, respectively, by molecular beam epitaxy. They are studied in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). From the attenuation curves of the XPS substrate core level peaks, the quasi layer-by-layer growth is shown during the first stages of deposition in agreement with RHEED results. But both interfaces are not totally symmetrical. For InSe on GaSe(00.1), the sharpness of the interface is shown and the conditions of growth are well established. For GaSe on InSe(00.1), the sharpness of the interface can also be suggested although it is less clear; this is related to the growth conditions.

  16. TEST CELLS SE-5 - SE-8 - SE-10 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB AND 117 HIGH ENERGY FUELS LABORAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    TEST CELLS SE-5 - SE-8 - SE-10 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB AND 117 HIGH ENERGY FUELS LABORATORY HEFL - TRANSDUCER INSTRUMENTATION CONSOLE SE-10 - TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTATION CONSOLE SE-10 - MODULE FUEL CELL EXPERIMENT SE-8 -

  17. TEST CELLS SE-5 - SE-8 - SE-10 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB AND 117 HIGH ENERGY FUELS LABORAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    TEST CELLS SE-5 - SE-8 - SE-10 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB AND 117 HIGH ENERGY FUELS LABORATORY HEFL - TRANSDUCER INSTRUMENTATION CONSOLE SE-10 - TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTATION CONSOLE SE-10 - MODULE FUEL CELL EXPERIMENT SE-8

  18. TEST CELLS SE-5 - SE-8 - SE-10 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB AND 117 HIGH ENERGY FUELS LABORAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    TEST CELLS SE-5 - SE-8 - SE-10 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB AND 117 HIGH ENERGY FUELS LABORATORY HEFL - TRANSDUCER INSTRUMENTATION CONSOLE SE-10 - TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTATION CONSOLE SE-10 - MODUEL FUEL CELL EXPERIMENT SE-8

  19. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  20. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  1. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit…

  2. Foundations of Laic Moral Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Juan Manuel Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    This article studies the foundations of laic moral education in Spain. Some aspects of laic moral education can also be found in other nations, including the emergence of the laic man or the need for an educating State; other aspects of laic moral education, however, are peculiar to the Spanish case, such as the influence of Krausoinstitutionism…

  3. Spain: Restructuring, Reform and Research Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio

    1984-01-01

    Scientific and technological research in Spain has been hindered more by lack of organization than by lack of funds. The 1983 Universty Reform Act to restructure the curriculum and improve research quality represents a major step in bringing Spanish research up to the levels of other modern university systems and to promote economic development.…

  4. Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain

    PubMed Central

    Quereda, Carmen; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro; Núñez-Murga, María; Cantón, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions. PMID:24047798

  5. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  6. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    PubMed

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  7. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  8. Spain's Linguistic Normalization Laws: The Catalan Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Earl L.

    1996-01-01

    The 1983 Catalonian Linguistic Normalization Law made Spanish and Catalan co-official languages in that region. The law's constitutionality was challenged and after more than a decade of litigation was upheld by Spain's Supreme Court, producing a polemic in Catalonia and, tangentially, an impact in the Basque region and Galicia. (21 references)…

  9. [Intake of trans fats; situation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too.

  10. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  11. [Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994)].

    PubMed

    Gozalvez Perez, V

    1996-01-01

    "During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society.... The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  12. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  13. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  14. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    PubMed

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  15. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    approach to the country’s economic ills. Renovative structural policies-such as the closing of large, unprof- itable state enterprises-helped to...maintain employment. Of particular note in INI’s renovation was its partial privatiza- tion. In the mid-1980s, INI sold a 51 percent interest in SEAT to...13,000 kilometers, half of which were electrified. A major thirteen-year renovation program was announced in 1986. Spain made little use of inland

  16. Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  17. Sociological profile of astronomers in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ussel, J. I.; Trinidad, A.; Ruíz, D.; Battaner, E.; Delgado, A. J.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Torrelles, J. M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  18. Photophysics of GaSe/InSe nanoparticle heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Bai; Kelley, David F

    2006-12-21

    The photophysics of mixed aggregates of GaSe/InSe nanoparticles have been studied using static and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies. The results indicate that the GaSe/InSe interfaces form heterojunctions and exhibit photoinduced direct charge transfer from the GaSe valence band to the InSe conduction band. This results in the electrons and holes being localized separately in these two types of nanoparticles. The energy diagram of the nanoparticle heterojunction can be constructed from the static spectra, known bulk band offsets, and quantum confinement effects. These considerations accurately predict the energy of the observed charge-transfer band. Photoexcitation also produces excitons in the aggregates, away from the heterojunctions. These excitons can undergo diffusion and quench upon reaching a heterojunction. Time-resolved fluorescence kinetics can be modeled to extract an exciton diffusion coefficient. A value of 2.0 nm2/ns is obtained, which is in good agreement with values obtained from previous fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements.

  19. [Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions].

    PubMed

    Cazorla, J

    1995-01-01

    "In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so... Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. 78 FR 72633 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... chlorinated isocyanurates (chlorinated isos) from Spain.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is June 1, 2011... notice. \\1\\ See Chlorinated Isocyanurates from Spain: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping...

  1. Management of postoperative pain in abdominal surgery in Spain. A multicentre drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Vallano, Antonio; Aguilera, Cristina; Arnau, Josep Maria; Baños, Josep-Eladi; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    1999-01-01

    Participating centres: Hospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante: Maria Jesús Olaso, Javier Agulló, Clara Faura. Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería: Carmen Fernández Sánchez, Miguel Lorenzo Campos, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Alonso. Hospital Quirúrgic Adriano, Barcelona: Carmen Alerany Pardo, Paquita Alvarez González, Teresa Martín Benito. Hospital Universitari del Mar-IMIM, Barcelona: Magí Farré, Maite Terán. Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell: Montserrat Cañellas, Sergio Zavala, Josep Planell. Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau: Gonzalo Calvo, Rosa Morros, Silvia Mateo. Hospital General Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona: Carmen Bosch, María José Martínez. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga: Maribel Lucena, José Antonio González, Gabriel Carranque. Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, Madrid: Emilio Vargas, Amparo Gil López-Oliva, Míriam García Mateos. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander: Mario González, Antonio Cuadrado. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Macarena, Sevilla: Juan Antonio Durán, Pilar Máyquez, María Isabel Serrano. Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla: Jaume Torelló, Juan Ramón Castillo, María de las Nieves Merino. Aims Postoperative pain is common in hospital-admitted patients. Its management is determined by different therapeutic traditions and by the attitudes of health professionals in each hospital. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of prescription and administration of analgesic drugs used for postoperative pain after abdominal surgery in Spanish hospitals, to know the prevalence and the severity of postoperative pain, and to determine the extent of variability in the management of postoperative pain among the participating centres. Methods The study was a multicentre descriptive cross-sectional drug utilization study in 12 Spanish hospitals. The subjects were an unselected sample of consecutive patients undergoing abdominal

  2. Spin-polarized transport through ZnMnSe/ZnSe/ZnBeSe heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Y.; Gong, J.; Zhang, R. Q.

    2011-11-01

    Using the transfer matrix method and Airy function, the spin-dependent tunneling through the ZnMnSe/ZnSe/ZnBeSe structure was investigated theoretically. The electron tunneling determined by the applied bias, external magnetic field, and spin orientations exhibited some interesting and complex features. It was found that the magnetic field could suppress the spin-up current, but enhance the spin-down current. Furthermore the spin-flip of current could be realized by changing the applied bias slightly. Therefore, it can be believed that our structure could behave as a good spin-filter.

  3. Social Inclusion and Multicultural Perspectives in Spain: Three Case Studies in Northern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufiaurre, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Immigration is the challenge that faces European countries in the immediate future. Spain, a former exporter of migrants, has recently become a host country, which must be taken into account if we wish to promote a multicultural, integrative school system. The aim in this article is to reach some conclusions about the integration of immigrants,…

  4. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  5. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  6. Quality of death certificates in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, F G; Bolumar, F; Peris, R

    1989-01-01

    Certificates of 1,454 deaths occurring over 11 months were retrieved from the Civil Register in Valencia, Spain. Relevant medical information was systematically gathered from hospital records, questionnaires, and Coroner reports. We compared the underlying cause of death (UCD) from the original death certificate, and a reference cause of death (RCD) determined by a panel of experts based on all available information. Overall, 80.2 percent of the certificates were concordant for disease category, but there was a great disparity among some specific disease categories. PMID:2782500

  7. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter.

  8. Evaporation and reference evapotranspiration trends in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Wild, Martin; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Calbó, Josep; Revuelto, Jesús; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Moran-Tejeda, Enrique; Martín-Hernández, Natalia; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-04-01

    Interest is growing in the trends of atmospheric evaporation demand, increasing the need for long-term time series. In this study, we first describe the development of a dataset on evaporation in Spain based on long-term series of Piché and pan measurement records. Piché measurements have been reported for >50 stations since the 1960s. Measurements of pan evaporation, which is a much more widely studied variable in the literature, are also available, but only since 1984 for 21 stations. Particular emphasis was placed on the homogenization of this dataset (for more details, we refer to Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2014, Clim Res, 61: 269-280). Both the mean annual Piché and pan series over Spain showed evaporative increases during the common study period (1985-2011). Furthermore, using the annual Piché records since the 1960s, an evaporation decline was detected from the 1960s to the mid-1980s, which resulted in a non-significant trend over the entire 1961-2011 period. Our results indicate agreement between the decadal variability of reference evapotranspiration (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014, Glob Planet Chang, 121: 26-40) and surface solar radiation (Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2013, Glob Planet Chang, 100: 343-352) and the evaporation from Piché and pan measurements since the mid-1980s, especially during summer. Nevertheless, this agreement needs attention, as Piché evaporimeters are inside meteorological screens and not directly exposed to radiation. Thus, as Piché readings are mainly affected by the aerodynamic term in Penman's evaporation equation and pan records are affected by both the heat balance and aerodynamic terms, the results suggest that both terms must be highly and positively correlated in Spain. In order to check this hypothesis, the radiative and aerodynamic components were estimated using the Penman's equation. The results show that the relationship with the radiative components is weaker than that with the aerodynamic component for both pan and

  9. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis.

  10. Major tanker spill off Spain under control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports that a 23 sq mile oil slick along Spain's northwest coast, spreading form the wreckage of the Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, was for the most part under control as of Dec. 10, Spanish authorities reported. Various press reports put the total spill volume at 490,000 bbl, about double that leaked by the Exxon Valdez supertanker off Alaska in 1989. If initial reports of the spill volume are borne out, the Aegean Sea spill would rank at least as one of the 10 biggest tanker spills.

  11. Oestrid myiasis in European mouflon from Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno, V; Pérez, J M; Moreno, P A; Granados, J E; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C; de Simon, M A

    1999-01-01

    From February 1992 to March 1997, 245 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) from Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park (southern Spain) were surveyed for oestrid larvae in order to estimate prevalence and mean intensity of parasitism by Oestrus ovis. Over 46 percent of the animals surveyed were infected, with a mean intensity of 9.6 larvae/host parasitized. No significant differences in prevalence rates between host sexes were observed, but older mouflons were infected with more larvae than younger ones.

  12. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  13. Validation of NOViSE.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowski, Przemyslaw; Brown, Daniel C; Sodergren, Mikael H; Barrow, Alastair; Bello, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish face, content, and construct validity of NOViSE-the first force-feedback enabled virtual reality (VR) simulator for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Fourteen surgeons and surgical trainees performed 3 simulated hybrid transgastric cholecystectomies using a flexible endoscope on NOViSE. Four of them were classified as "NOTES experts" who had independently performed 10 or more simulated or human NOTES procedures. Seven participants were classified as "Novices" and 3 as "Gastroenterologists" with no or minimal NOTES experience. A standardized 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to assess the face and content validity. NOViSE showed good overall face and content validity. In 14 out of 15 statements pertaining to face validity (graphical appearance, endoscope and tissue behavior, overall realism), ≥50% of responses were "agree" or "strongly agree." In terms of content validity, 85.7% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that NOViSE is a useful training tool for NOTES and 71.4% that they would recommend it to others. Construct validity was established by comparing a number of performance metrics such as task completion times, path lengths, applied forces, and so on. NOViSE demonstrated early signs of construct validity. Experts were faster and used a shorter endoscopic path length than novices in all but one task. The results indicate that NOViSE authentically recreates a transgastric hybrid cholecystectomy and sets promising foundations for the further development of a VR training curriculum for NOTES without compromising patient safety or requiring expensive animal facilities.

  14. Espana: Building Bridges of Understanding with the People of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Spain by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Spain is given, which covers the following: geography, weather, history, ethnic roots, regional…

  15. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  16. Educational Conditions in Spain. Bulletin, 1919, No. 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1919-01-01

    Though Spain maintained her neutrality throughout the World War, her educational, economic, and political conditions--in all countries inextricably bound up with each other--were affected nearly as much as those of the nations participating in it. The educational conditions of Spain are discussed in this bulletin. The following contents are…

  17. Intergenerational Educational and Occupational Mobility in Spain: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pablos Escobar, Laura; Gil Izquierdo, María

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changes in intergenerational mobility seen in Spain during the last century. It examines educational and occupational mobility, paying particular attention to the existence of a differentiated gender effect. The magnitude of the historical changes that have taken place in Spain during the twentieth century and the scarcity…

  18. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  19. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  20. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary... vegetables regulations to allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the...

  1. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  2. Why Did the United States Fight Spain in 1898?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, John

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the United States fought the Spanish-American War because of longstanding foreign affairs interests as well as immediate domestic political events. Considers such contributing factors as the Cuban War of Independence from Spain, United States property claims against Spain, and the extensive and biased coverage in the press. (MJP)

  3. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  4. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  5. Bond dissociation energies of diatomic transition metal selenides: TiSe, ZrSe, HfSe, VSe, NbSe, and TaSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Jason J.; Persinger, Thomas D.; Sevy, Andrew; Franchina, Jordan A.; Johnson, Eric L.; Morse, Michael D.

    2016-12-01

    Predissociation thresholds have been observed in the resonant two-photon ionization spectra of TiSe, ZrSe, HfSe, VSe, NbSe, and TaSe. It is argued that the sharp onset of predissociation corresponds to the bond dissociation energy in each of these molecules due to their high density of states as the ground separated atom limit is approached. The bond dissociation energies obtained are D0(TiSe) = 3.998(6) eV, D0(ZrSe) = 4.902(3) eV, D0(HfSe) = 5.154(4) eV, D0(VSe) = 3.884(3) eV, D0(NbSe) = 4.834(3) eV, and D0(TaSe) = 4.705(3) eV. Using these dissociation energies, the enthalpies of formation were found to be Δf,0 KHo(TiSe(g)) = 320.6 ± 16.8 kJ mol-1, Δf,0 KHo(ZrSe(g)) = 371.1 ± 8.5 kJ mol-1, Δf,0 KHo(HfSe(g)) = 356.1 ± 6.5 kJ mol-1, Δf,0 KHo(VSe(g)) = 372.9 ± 8.1 kJ mol-1, Δf,0 KHo(NbSe(g)) = 498.9 ± 8.1 kJ mol-1, and Δf,0 KHo(TaSe(g) ) = 562.9 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1. Comparisons are made to previous work, when available. Also reported are calculated ground state electronic configurations and terms, dipole moments, vibrational frequencies, bond lengths, and bond dissociation energies for each molecule. A strong correlation of the measured bond dissociation energy with the radial expectation value, ⟨r⟩nd, for the metal atom is found.

  6. [Present status of psychosurgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Barcia, J A; Bertolín-Guillén, J M; Barcia-González, J; Campos, J; Hernández, M E

    2007-08-01

    In order to know the present activity of psychosurgery in Spain, and the opinion of neurosurgeons relative to it, a survey was designed and applied to all active neurosurgeons in our country. We obtained data from at least one neurosurgeon from the 74 neurosurgical centers in Spain (response rate= 100%). Only 6 neurosurgeons performed psychosurgical interventions. In total, 121 psychosurgeries were performed between 1999 and 2003, 75.7% of them in private centers. The most frequent indication is obsessive-compulsive disorder and the most frequent technique is anterior capsulotomy, although techniques and indications differ among the practising neurosurgeons. Those not performing them cite lack of patient referral (54.4%) or unexperience (36.8%) as the causes. A suspected lack of efficacy or the possible adverse effects are seldom expressed. The possibility of using deep brain stimulation for psychiatric indications, as well as the experience of some neurosurgeons and the favorable opinion of the rest, might increase the number of operations in our country.

  7. Biology curriculum in twentieth-century Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberá, Óscar; Zanón, Beatriz; Pérez-Pl, José Francisco

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years of history of Spanish biology curricula are reviewed in this article. The aim of this analysis is focused on the relationship between socially controversial biological issues and the decisionmaking procedures in the construction of the national curricula published under the different regimes that have governed Spain over the last 100 years. The study covers the secondary level of schooling (age 10 up to university), and is based mainly on the data afforded by the official publications of the nine national curricula in twentieth-century Spain, and some of the main textbooks used for this schooling level. Special attention is given to the teaching of evolution, the most sensitive issue in biology education, and some parallelisms are traced and compared with similar phenomena occurring in other countries. The new trends in biology education from the last reform of the Spanish education system are briefly discussed. This study provides a perspective of the pressures affecting socially controversial issues included in education. These pressures have been identified mainly as political, social, and religious beliefs held by powerful and influential social groups, the same kinds of forces that have existed in other countries worldwide. Studies such as this one, about the real forces that have shaped curriculum development in the past, are vital for understanding the present circumstances in biology education and, therefore, unavoidable in order to enhance future standards in biology education.

  8. Validation of NOViSE

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniowski, Przemyslaw; Brown, Daniel C.; Sodergren, Mikael H.; Barrow, Alastair; Bello, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish face, content, and construct validity of NOViSE—the first force-feedback enabled virtual reality (VR) simulator for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Fourteen surgeons and surgical trainees performed 3 simulated hybrid transgastric cholecystectomies using a flexible endoscope on NOViSE. Four of them were classified as “NOTES experts” who had independently performed 10 or more simulated or human NOTES procedures. Seven participants were classified as “Novices” and 3 as “Gastroenterologists” with no or minimal NOTES experience. A standardized 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to assess the face and content validity. NOViSE showed good overall face and content validity. In 14 out of 15 statements pertaining to face validity (graphical appearance, endoscope and tissue behavior, overall realism), ≥50% of responses were “agree” or “strongly agree.” In terms of content validity, 85.7% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that NOViSE is a useful training tool for NOTES and 71.4% that they would recommend it to others. Construct validity was established by comparing a number of performance metrics such as task completion times, path lengths, applied forces, and so on. NOViSE demonstrated early signs of construct validity. Experts were faster and used a shorter endoscopic path length than novices in all but one task. The results indicate that NOViSE authentically recreates a transgastric hybrid cholecystectomy and sets promising foundations for the further development of a VR training curriculum for NOTES without compromising patient safety or requiring expensive animal facilities. PMID:27671036

  9. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  10. State of emergency medicine in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Spain has universal public health care coverage. Emergency care provisions are offered to patients in different modalities and levels according to the characteristics of the medical complaint: at primary care centers (PCC), in an extrahospital setting by emergency medical services (EMS) and at hospital emergency departments (ED). We have more than 3,000 PCCs, which are run by family doctors (general practitioners) and pediatricians. On average, there is 1 PCC for every 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, and every family doctor is in charge of 1,500 to 2,000 citizens, although less populated zones tend to have lower ratios. Doctors spend part of their duty time in providing emergency care to their own patients. While not fully devoted to emergency medicine (EM) practice, they do manage minor emergencies. However, Spanish EMSs contribute hugely to guarantee population coverage in all situations. These EMS are run by EM technicians (EMT), nurses and doctors, who usually work exclusively in the emergency arena. EDs dealt with more than 25 million consultations in 2008, which implies, on average, that one out of two Spaniards visited an ED during this time. They are usually equipped with a wide range of diagnostic tools, most including ultrasonography and computerized tomography scans. The academic and training background of doctors working in the ED varies: nearly half lack any structured specialty residence training, but many have done specific master or postgraduate studies within the EM field. The demand for emergency care has grown at an annual rate of over 4% during the last decade. This percentage, which was greater than the 2% population increase during the same period, has outpaced the growth in ED capacity. Therefore, Spanish EDs become overcrowded when the system exerts minimal stress. Despite the high EM caseload and the potential severity of the conditions, training in EM is still unregulated in Spain. However, in April 2009 the Spanish Minister of Health

  11. [Epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lazaro, P M

    2003-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in research of epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain. This report summarizes recent studies. This review suggests that the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in Spanish clinical and non-clinical populations is not markedly different from that already reported for other developed countries. The wide range of variation in published prevalence rates for eating disorders in adults and adolescents can be understood in the face of the many methodological problems inherent to this type of research. Anorexia nervosa and related eating disorders are most commonly investigated in adolescent girls and young women and a number of researchers have investigated prevalence rates in this group. No good epidemiological research has been carried out with child populations and male populations.

  12. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  13. Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Molliè. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

  14. Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak in Murcia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Carmen; Fenoll, Daniel; García, José; González-Diego, Paulino; Jiménez-Buñuales, Teresa; Rodriguez, Miguel; Lopez, Rosa; Pacheco, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquín; Segovia, Manuel; Baladrón, Beatriz; Pelaz, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred in Murcia, Spain, in July 2001. More than 800 suspected cases were reported; 449 of these cases were confirmed, which made this the world’s largest outbreak of the disease reported to date. Dates of onset for confirmed cases ranged from June 26 to July 19 , with a case-fatality rate of 1%. The epidemic curve and geographic pattern from the 600 completed epidemiologic questionnaires indicated an outdoor point-source exposure in the northern part of the city. A case-control study matching 85 patients living outside the city of Murcia with two controls each was undertaken to identify the outbreak source; the epidemiologic investigation implicated the cooling towers at a city hospital. An environmental isolate from these towers with an identical molecular pattern as the clinical isolates was subsequently identified and supported that epidemiologic conclusion. PMID:12967487

  15. Phenolic profile of Asturian (Spain) natural cider.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Madrera, Roberto; Picinelli Lobo, Anna; Suárez Valles, Belén

    2006-01-11

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2'-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, avicularin, and quercitrin) were identified and quantified. A fourth quercetin derivative, one dihydrochalcone-related compound, two unknown procyanidins, three hydroxycinnamic derivatives, and two unknown compounds were also found. Among the low-molecular-mass polyphenols analyzed, hydrocaffeic acid was the most abundant compound, representing more than 80% of the total polyphenolic acids. Procyanidins were the most important family among the flavonoid compounds. Discriminant analysis was allowed to correctly classify more than 93% of the ciders, according to the harvest year; the most discriminant variables were an unknown procyanidin and quercitrin.

  16. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    PubMed

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD.

  17. Raptor ecotoxicology in Spain: a review on persistent environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Calvo, José F; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez, José E

    2008-09-01

    Initial studies on the pressure from environmental contaminants on raptor populations in Spain date back to the 1980s, and they have been carried out from a range of viewpoints using a range of sentinel raptor species. However, there is no national monitoring scheme, and therefore the research carried out has been sporadic both spatially and temporally. The exposure to metals has not varied over time, except in the case of lead, whose concentration in eggs and tissues has diminished. In general, the concentrations of metals detected in raptor samples from Spain are generally low and not sufficient to produce toxic effects. Excepting DDT and DDE, most organochlorine-based pesticides in raptors from Spain have diminished over the last 2 decades. The concentrations of DDE found in the eggs of various species could in part explain problems in the reproductive success of raptors in Spain.

  18. Outbound Near-Earth Asteroid, as Seen from Spain

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of images from the La Sagra Sky Survey, operated by theAstronomical Observatory of Mallorca in Spain, shows the passage ofasteroid 2012 DA14 shortly after its closest – and safe -- app...

  19. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  20. The Other Women: Students of Literature in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puigvert, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Provides an account of engaging women in Spain who come from uneducated backgrounds in literacy circles through which Freirean radicalization approaches are being effectively pursued. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  1. [Italy and Spain in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Alotta, S

    1997-01-01

    "Spain and Italy share a common heritage as far as emigration is concerned. Their country men went abroad looking for jobs for a long period of their history. At present this is the fate of the extra community immigrants. Scholars maintain that Spain and Italy face this new situation with a fear greater than necessary. An attempt is made to explain immigration in a more rational way. At the same time...the debate about racism and antiracism [is examined]." (EXCERPT)

  2. Lemon juice as a solvent for heroin in Spain.

    PubMed

    Page, J B; Fraile, J S

    1999-06-01

    Preliminary observations and responses to interviews in Valencia, Spain reveal that injecting drug users (IDUs) dissolve heroin before injection with two or three drops of lemon juice. Solution in lemon juice makes heating of heroin in water unnecessary. This pattern apparently developed spontaneously in Spain, but is almost unknown elsewhere in the world. Its implications for IDUs' health remain speculative, but use of lemon juice to dissolve heroin for injection deserves further scientific study.

  3. Tracing cytotoxic effects of small organic Se species in human liver cells back to total cellular Se and Se metabolites.

    PubMed

    Marschall, T A; Kroepfl, N; Jensen, K B; Bornhorst, J; Meermann, B; Kuehnelt, D; Schwerdtle, T

    2017-02-10

    Small selenium (Se) species play a major role in the metabolism, excretion and dietary supply of the essential trace element selenium. Human cells provide a valuable tool for investigating currently unresolved issues on the cellular mechanisms of Se toxicity and metabolism. In this study, we developed two isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma tandem-mass spectrometry based methods and applied them to human hepatoma cells (HepG2) in order to quantitatively elucidate total cellular Se concentrations and cellular Se species transformations in relation to the cytotoxic effects of four small organic Se species. Species- and incubation time-dependent results were obtained: the two major urinary excretion metabolites trimethylselenonium (TMSe) and methyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-galactopyranoside (SeSugar 1) were taken up by the HepG2 cells in an unmodified manner and did not considerably contribute to the Se pool. In contrast, Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) and selenomethionine (SeMet) were taken up in higher amounts, they were largely incorporated by the cells (most likely into proteins) and metabolized to other small Se species. Two new metabolites of MeSeCys, namely γ-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine and Se-methylselenoglutathione, were identified by means of HPLC-electrospray-ionization-Orbitrap-MS. They are certainly involved in the (de-)toxification modes of Se metabolism and require further investigation.

  4. Se metallomics during lactic fermentation of Se-enriched yogurt.

    PubMed

    Palomo, María; Gutiérrez, Ana M; Pérez-Conde, M Concepción; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2014-12-01

    Selenium biotransformation by lactic acid bacteria during the preparation of Se-enriched yogurt was evaluated. The study focused on the distribution of selenium in the aqueous soluble protein fraction and the detection of selenoamino acids. Screening of selenium in Tris-buffer-urea soluble fraction was carried out by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after pre-fractionating with asymmetric field flow fractionation using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as the detector. Selenium-containing fractions were identified by peptide mapping using nano LC-ESI/LTQMS. Proteins such as thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, albumin, β-lactoglobulin, and lactoperoxidase were identified in the selenium-containing fraction. All these proteins were detected in both the control and the selenium-enriched yogurt except chaperones, which were only detected in the control samples. Chaperones are heat-shock proteins expressed in response to elevated temperature or other cellular stresses. Selenium may have an effect on chaperones expression in Lactobacillus. For the amino acids analysis, selenocysteine was the primary seleno-containing species.

  5. Overview and prospects of Se phytoremediation approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence is lacking on whether selenium (Se) is essential for vegetation growth, but plants can absorb, assimilate, and accumulate Se in leaves and roots. The capability of plants to take up substantial amount of Se is now being utilized to remove excess Se from contaminated soils. This process has ...

  6. The regulation of biobanks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nys, Herman; Fobelets, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    On 3 July 2007 the Spanish parliament approved the Biomedical Research Act. This article discusses the provisions of the Biomedical Research Act that are directly relevant for the regulatory framework of biobanks in Spain. This means that we are not only interested in the procedural and administrative dispositions governing biobanks. Our main preoccupation relates to the substantial provisions governing the collection, the research use and the conservation of biological samples. Our contribution starts in the second part with a brief description of the definition of "biobank" in the Spanish Act. Subsequently, in the third part, we deal extensively with the legal conditions for the collection, use and conservation of biological samples and accompanying data for biomedical research purposes. In the fourth part we examine the specific legal framework of research biobanks in Spain, with a special focus on the source's right to know or not to know, his right to privacy and his right to non-discrimination. A discussion of the main characteristics of the Act and some conclusions finalise this article. In stead of summarising these conclusions in our own words, we prefer to cite the legislator who stated in the preamble to the Act the following: "The regulation on the obtaining, conservation, use and assignment of biological samples is likewise object of a detailed regulation. As is logical, the legal framework turns once again on the consent of the source of the samples and on the previous information that must be provided to this respect. In so far as the disjunctive on the possibility to grant a completely generic or a specific consent on the use or latter uses of the sample, the Law has chosen an intermediate and flexible regulation, in that the initial consent may provide coverage, if in the information previously provided to the subject source there has been a provision about later researches related with the initial, including the researches that may be undertaken

  7. [Criminologic problems of political change in Spain].

    PubMed

    Gómez, A S

    1981-01-01

    In this article the Author considers the modern-day and historical situation as regards the administration of justice in Spain, pausing to make a particularly careful analysis of those crimes whose rate of increase, over the past few years, has been the greatest. He runs back over the various stages of Spain's recent history: from the period preceding Franco's regime, during which a multiplicity of criminological theories were developed by Spanish authors, leading to the creation of a school of jurisprudence, in which theory and practice tended toward seeking a balance between freedom and security; through the period of the dictatorship, in which there was a tightening-up of the preceding trend, with a definite predisposition towards security, whether within the State or external to it (to be noted--the Author observes--is that this security in reality is not a guarantee of the lives and liberties of the citizens, but rather only a safeguarding of the State from attacks on its supremacy and power); to the successive period of the democracy, which came about without cruel and revolutionary upsets, but nonetheless has felt for many years the effects of the preceding political climate; criminality is increasing considerably, but the administration of justice is not able to soundly and accurately evaluate it, it having functioned at only 45% efficiency--or so says the Author--up until 1978: the imbalances in the society that can be seen in its passage through the various political regimes are, therefore, present too in the field of criminality; this, in fact, is apparently decreasing (since crimes against the external and internal security of the State are decreasing, as the number of convictions are decreasing); but in reality this criminality is undergoing a strong evolutionary movement, due more than anything else to the fact that the tendency is to give priority to liberty, and no longer to security, as is true in fact of every democratic regime. Even in 1978, when

  8. Risk assessment from exposure to arsenic, antimony, and selenium in urban gardens (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Izquierdo, Miguel; Gómez, Amaia; Mingot, Juan; Barrio-Parra, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The authors discuss the geochemical behavior of arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and selenium (Se) in urban gardens and the human health implications associated with urban agriculture. A total of 42 samples from 7 urban gardens in Madrid, Spain, were collected from the top 20 cm of soil. Concentrations of As, Sb, and Se and the main soil properties (i.e., total iron, pH, texture, calcium carbonate, and organic matter) were determined. A significant correlation was found between As and Sb and calcium carbonate, indicating the possibility of surface adsorption or ligand exchange with the carbonate group. Also, Sb seemed to form stable chelates with soil organic matter. On the other hand, Se showed a significant association with clay and iron content. The concentration of Sb in soil exceeded the recommended value for agricultural use in 70% of the urban gardens. A human health risk assessment resulted in acceptable levels of both noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks (although with elevated values of the latter), with As as the main risk driver and soil and food ingestion as the main exposure pathways. The numerical results of the risk assessment should be interpreted with caution given the considerable uncertainties in some exposure variables and the lack of quantitative values for the suspected carcinogenicity of Sb and Se. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:544-550. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  10. Fish viral infections in northwest of Spain.

    PubMed

    Ledo, A; Lupiani, B; Dopazo, C P; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-06-01

    During a three years survey, a total of 149 samples from 20 farms of rainbow trout, salmon and turbot were examined for the presence of virus with the purpose to study the viral infections affecting cultured fish and their incidence in the fishfarms of Northwestern Spain. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was the only viral agent isolated from salmonid fish. Fry and fingerlings of trout showed the highest infection rate (24%). This virus was not detected in broodstock or embryonated eggs, although it was isolated from ovaric and seminal fluids and from juvenile carriers. From 24 samples of salmon analyzed, IPNV was only detected in one sample of juveniles. Examination of turbot led the isolation of a new virus belonging to the reoviridae family, which affected to the ongrowing population. All of the IPNV tested belonged to serotype Sp regardless of the origin of the trout stocks. During the monitorization of imported embryonated eggs, no virus was detected from any of the samples. However, in some case, IPNV was isolated when testing the fry obtained in our laboratory from those samples of imported eggs. Our findings indicate that: i) the analysis of fingerlings increase the probability to detect viral infections allowing us an optimal control of importations, and ii) most of the viral infections of fish take place in the own fish farms. The detection of mixed viral and bacterial infections emphasize the importance of carrying out an integral microbiological analysis to determine the causal agent(s) of fish mortalities.

  11. [Charles II of Spain, the bewitched].

    PubMed

    Cerda L, Jaime

    2008-02-01

    The death of King Charles II, the Bewitched, ended two centuries of sovereignity of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain. Since his birth in 1661, he presented a peculiar set of physical, psychiatric and behavioral signs, such as respiratory and diarrheal diseases, recurrent seizures and deep developmental delay. It was not until his adulthood when his infertility became evident, being incapable of conceiving a heir, even though he married twice. Such a constellation of ominous signs motivated a curious investigation, which concluded that the king was hexed at the age of 14 years in order to take away his throne, his health and his capacity to procreate. Based on contemporary medical knowledge, it is possible that Charles IIhad a rare autosomal recessive inherited genopathy asa consequence of the frequent inbreeding among his ancestors. On the other hand, its is also possible that Charles II presented Klinefelter Syndrome, the most frequent sex chromosome disorder in humans and the most common cause of hypogonadism and infertility in males. The hypothesis that Charles II was bewitched reflects a deep belief in supernatural phenomena among the Castilian society at the beginning of the 18th century, an idea transmitted across generations, currently present in many societies worldwide.

  12. [Health and the media in Spain].

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences.

  13. [Ageing: research in Spain and Europe].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Vicente; Rodríguez Mañas, Leocadio; Sancho Castiello, Mayte; Díaz Martín, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, stakeholders and policy makers agree about the importance of the population ageing in modern societies, so a broad analysis of current research strategies is in progress, such as FUTURAGE, a network for drawing a map for future research on ageing. This document presents the Spanish contribution to this map following FUTURAGE guidelines, drawn from the debates held in the 'Ageing. Research in Spain and Europe' Workshop. The first part consists of general ideas seeking to define future challenges on research using a multidisciplinary approach, in which the theoretical and methodological debate, the comparative and multilevel perspective, the transfer of knowledge and involvement of the older people would be essential to consider. Some of the main issues according to FUTURAGE structure are, the bio-gerontology of ageing, healthy and active ageing, and the socioeconomic and environmental resources of ageing. The interaction between these contents is pivotal to understand the research on ageing. Finally, the document provides some methodological and instrumental ideas to reinforce the need for cross-sectional research initiatives, integrating different data and combining methods in order to develop assessment and intervention strategies. Other aspects look into the mechanisms to coordinate research within a European context. The map on ageing research has been published after the consultation process in Europe (http://futurage.group.shef.ac.uk/road-map.html) and is now ready to be considered for integration into future European and Spanish research programs.

  14. Integration in Spain: national and regional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alberte Castiñeiras, J R

    1999-03-01

    At the present moment Spanish psychopedagogical researchers are evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of integration on both a national and a regional level. As a result of two important pieces of legislation, physically and mentally handicapped people are gradually becoming more integrated in education, social life, and the work place. Consequently, both ordinary pupils and those with permanent or temporary special education needs can achieve the same objectives within the same system. Individual strategies are designed to cope with each pupil's specific needs, and each case is followed closely by a multidisciplinary team. The basic concept behind integration in Spain is a global relationship with the educational environment, which includes school, home, vocational training and ultimately work. It is not so much a case of identifying what a pupil is, but rather deciding what education can do for that particular pupil. There are, however, certain difficulties which require adaptation of the curriculum: access to educational opportunities and experiences may be affected by deficient visual, auditory or motor skills; there may be an absence of specific learning skills in certain areas of the curriculum; pupils with serious mental handicaps may lack basic cognitive skills. Spanish educational reform considers the classroom teacher as the central axis in the quality of education. For this reason, new programmes and diplomas in infant and primary teacher education include training for adaptation and integration.

  15. Epidemiology of osteoporotic hip fractures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Angel Antonio; Ferrandez, Luis; Gil, Enrique; Moreno, Alonso

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a multicentre study, divided into a retrospective and a prospective portion. The retrospective study evaluated osteoporotic hip fractures that occurred during 2002. The prospective study evaluated osteoporotic hip fractures that occurred during May 2003. The study was conducted in 77 hospitals in Spain and comprised patients 60 years of age and over. In the retrospective study we registered 13,195 hip fractures. Of the patients, 74% were women and 26% were men. The mean age was 80.7±8.4 years. The average incidence was 6.94±0.44 hip fractures per 1,000 inhabitants/year (95% CI, 6.07–7.82). In the prospective study, we registered 1,399 hip fractures. This represents a monthly incidence of 0.60±0.04 hip fractures per 1,000 inhabitants/year (95% CI, 0.51–0.69). Of the subjects, 74% were women and 26% were men. The mean age was 81.4±8.1 years. Using these data, we calculated the average annual prevalence in 2003 to be 7.20 fractures per 1,000 inhabitants. Thirty-three percent had previously suffered a hip fracture. Prior to the fracture, only 18% had received medical treatment for osteoporosis. After discharge from the hospital, only 26% were receiving pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:16328387

  16. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped p-GaSe/n-InSe heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigetomi, S.; Ikari, T.

    2000-08-01

    GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions have been formed by bringing the cleavage surface of undoped n-InSe and Cu-doped p-GaSe into direct contact. Transport and phototransport properties are studied by the measurements of capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, and the spectral response of short-circuit current. Moreover, the efficiency parameters under illumination are estimated by using the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. These characteristics of GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions are compared with those of GaSe(Un)/InSe heterojunctions fabricated by undoped p-GaSe and n-InSe. The series resistance of GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions is found, the value of which is about 103 times lower than the corresponding value of GaSe(Un)/InSe heterojunctions. A short-circuit current density of 9.0 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage of 0.42 V on GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions are obtained under illumination of 120 mW/cm2 of a halogen lamp. The short-circuit current of GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions is about one order of magnitude lager than that of GaSe(Un)/InSe heterojunctions. These experimental results indicate that the low-resistivity of Cu-doped GaSe is effective for the electrical and photovoltaic properties of GaSe/InSe heterojunctions.

  17. Particle size characterisation of Holocene back-barrier sequences from North Atlantic coasts (SW Spain and SE England)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, J.; Spencer, C.; Plater, A. J.; Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Dabrio, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of bivariate plots of grain size parameters (mean against sorting) in the reconstruction of Holocene environmental change in coastal environments where barrier formation has had an important control on sedimentation. Sites on the North Atlantic coast with differing histories of climate, sediment flux, sea-level change and barrier integrity are investigated to determine the general efficacy of this bivariate parameter model in distinguishing between open- and closed-basin conditions, and in reviewing the significance of aperiodic high-energy geomorphic events in controlling late stage back-barrier sedimentation.

  18. Presence and distribution of current-use pesticides in surface marine sediments from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; León, V M

    2017-01-29

    The spatial and seasonal distributions of current-use pesticides (CUPs), including triazines, organophosphorus pesticides, and tributylphosphate, were characterized in surface sediments from the Mar Menor lagoon during 2009 and 2010. The impact of two flash flood events on the input of CUPs and their distribution in the lagoon were also assessed. The total (dissolved + sorbed phase) input of CUPs in the two flash floods through the El Albujón watercourse into the lagoon was estimated at 38.9 kg, of which 9.9 kg corresponded to organophosphorus pesticides and 5.5 kg to triazines. CUP distribution onto sediments was not homogeneous in the lagoon due to the different contaminant sources, sediment types, and the physicochemical and hydrodynamic conditions of the Mar Menor lagoon. Thirteen CUPs were detected in 2009 and 19 in 2010, including mainly herbicides, insecticides, and the additive tributylphosphate. Mean CUP concentrations in the lagoon were generally below 20 ng g(-1), except for chlorpyrifos and tributylphosphate in 2010. The highest concentrations were detected in depositional areas of the lagoon, in the area of influence of the El Albujón watercourse and other wadis with groundwater contributions such as El Mirador (north) and Los Alcázares (east) and that of marine water from El Estacio channel. In fact, the maximum concentration was detected close to El Albujón watercourse (chlorpyrifos, 102.8 ng g(-1) dry weight). Four herbicides, two insecticides, two fungicides, and tributylphosphate showed a risk quotient higher than 1, with that for chlorpyrifos ranging from 96 to 35,200 after flash flood events.

  19. GPS deformation rates in the Bajo Segura Basin (NE of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesús Borque, María; Sánchez-Alzola, Alberto; Estévez, Antonio; García-Tortosa, Francisco J.; Martín-Rojas, Iván; Molina, Sergio; Alfaro, Pedro; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; de Lacy, Clara; García-Armenteros, Juan Antonio; Avilés, Manuel; Herrera, Antonio; Rosa-Cintas, Sergio; Gil, Antonio J.

    2014-05-01

    The Bajo Segura Basin, located in the NE end of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, is one of the areas with highest seismic activity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bounded by the Crevillente Fault to the north and the Bajo Segura Fault to the south, and it is characterized by a Late Miocene to Quaternary folded cover. We estimate the present-day deformation of the study area from a GPS network with 11 sites. Observation campaigns were carried out four times (June 1999, September 2001, September 2002 and September 2013). We used the 6.2 version of GIPSY-OASIS software to process GPS data in Precise Point Positioning mode (PPP). In order to obtain the position time series in the whole period of these episodic campaigns, all the GPS observations from 1999 to 2013 campaigns were processed with an identical standard procedure. We compared our velocity field estimation with respect to GEODVEL tectonic model to obtain the residual velocity field of the Bajo Segura Basin. We estimated a ~N-S shortening with deformation rates varying between 0.2 and 0.6 mm/yr. These results are consistent with local geological deformation rates although slightly higher. They also fit well with regional geodetic data estimated for the Western Mediterranean.

  20. A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies.

  1. Input of pharmaceuticals through coastal surface watercourses into a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain): sources and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Gros, M; Pérez-Cánovas, E; Barceló, D; León, V M

    2014-08-15

    The seasonal occurrence and distribution of 69 pharmaceuticals along coastal watercourses during 6 sampling campaigns and their input through El Albujón watercourse to the Mar Menor lagoon were determined by UPLC-MS-MS, considering a total of 115 water samples. The major source of pharmaceuticals running into this watercourse was an effluent from the Los Alcazares WWTP, although other sources were also present (runoffs, excess water from irrigation, etc.). In this urban and agriculturally influenced watercourse different pharmaceutical distribution profiles were detected according to their attenuation, which depended on physicochemical water conditions, pollutant input variation, biodegradation and photodegradation rates of pollutants, etc. The less recalcitrant compounds in this study (macrolides, β-blockers, etc.) showed a relevant seasonal variability as a consequence of dissipation processes (degradation, sorption, etc.). Attenuation was lower, however, for diclofenac, carbamazepine, lorazepam, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole among others, due to their known lower degradability and sorption onto particulate matter, according to previous studies. The maximum concentrations detected were higher than 1000 ng L(-1) for azithromycin, clarithromycin, valsartan, acetaminophen and ibuprofen. These high concentration levels were favored by the limited dilution in this low flow system, and consequently some of them could pose an acute risk to the biota of this watercourse. Considering data from 2009 to 2010, it has been estimated that a total of 11.3 kg of pharmaceuticals access the Mar Menor lagoon annually through the El Albujón watercourse. The highest proportion of this input corresponded to antibiotics (46%), followed by antihypertensives (20%) and diuretics (18%).

  2. Impact of unconfined sulphur-mine waste on a semi-arid environment (Almería, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    González, V; García, I; del Moral, F; de Haro, S; Sánchez, J A; Simón, M

    2011-06-01

    Thirty-five soil samples were taken from unconfined mine waste, stream sediments, and surfaces unoccupied by mining and presumably unaffected by it, in a sulphur-mining zone surrounded by carbonate material and characterized by a semi-arid climate with short torrential storms. These samples were analysed and the results compared to estimate the spread of pollution in the landscape and to assess potential environmental risk. The mean concentrations of S, Zn, Cd, Pb, and As in mine waste were between 3.5-fold (As) and 50-fold (S) greater than unaffected soils. Oxidation of S led to a sharp drop in pH, strong weathering of minerals, and solubilisation of the constituent elements, forming a toxic acidic mine drainage with highly concentrated pollutants that were discharged into the drainage channels. Successive acid mine drainage into the soil on the valley floor spreads acidification and pollution downstream. The high carbonate content in surrounding soils played an important role in the increase of the pH and precipitation of S, Pb, and Al of the affected soils. Meanwhile, high mobility of Zn, Cd and As under basic conditions and a low Fe concentration explain the broad spread of these elements, as high concentrations were detected in soil more than 2000 m from the source. Only the soil solutions from near the waste dump (first 500 m) were highly phytotoxic, and moderately phytotoxic from 500 to 1500 m away. The concentration of pollutants in the leachates was clearly higher than in soil solutions, even in the soils located over 2000 m from the source, implying that the size of the polluted area will increase with time.

  3. Patterns of trace element bioaccumulation in jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon from SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; Peñas Castejón, Jose Matías; García, Gregorio

    2016-09-15

    The effects of an abandoned mining area, exploited for centuries in the mining district of Cartagena-La Union, result in a continuous supply of heavy metals into the Mar Menor coastal lagoon after rain episodes. As a consequence, concentration of trace elements in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, this study assessed the ability of Rhizostoma pulmo to bioaccumulate trace elements. A total of 57 individuals were sampled at eight different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentrations of different analyzed elements (Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were moderate, bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content, because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  4. Spain: A Study of the Educational System of Spain and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Spain in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toven, J. Richard

    The educational system of Spain is described, and guidelines concerning students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. After describing primary and secondary education, attention is directed to vocational education, industrial or technical secondary schools, professional trade schools, university education, military education, and…

  5. Heteroepitaxy of Layered Compound InSe and InSe/GaSe onto GaAs Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, Maman; Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Makoto

    1998-07-01

    The van der Waals epitaxy of InSe films was performed on (111)GaAs surface at the growth temperature of 350°C. A spiral trigonal structure was observed on the surface of the InSe films. To improve crystal quality of the InSe films, their orientation control was investigated. The growth rate decreased rapidly as the growth temperature increased and no InSe films were obtained at growth temperatures higher than 480°C. At growth temperatures of 450°C and higher, a double-domain structure was observed, probably due to the coexistence of In4Se3 phase in the films. Therefore, the InSe film was directly grown on c-axis inclined GaSe, and it was revealed that InSe films were more easily grown on GaSe than on (001)GaAs surface, due to the same crystal structure. Furthermore, for fabrication of the quantum well structure, heteroepitaxial growth of GaSe/InSe/GaSe films on (001)GaAs substrate was investigated.

  6. Comparison and validation of gridded precipitation datasets for Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two gridded precipitation datasets are compared and validated in Spain: the recently developed SAFRAN dataset and the Spain02 dataset. These are validated using rain gauges and they are also compared to the low resolution ERA-Interim reanalysis. The SAFRAN precipitation dataset has been recently produced, using the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, which is extensively used in France (Durand et al. 1993, 1999; Quintana-Seguí et al. 2008; Vidal et al., 2010) and which has recently been applied to Spain (Quintana-Seguí et al., 2015). SAFRAN uses an optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm and uses all available rain gauges from the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET). The product has a spatial resolution of 5 km and it spans from September 1979 to August 2014. This dataset has been produced mainly to be used in large scale hydrological applications. Spain02 (Herrera et al. 2012, 2015) is another high quality precipitation dataset for Spain based on a dense network of quality-controlled stations and it has different versions at different resolutions. In this study we used the version with a resolution of 0.11°. The product spans from 1971 to 2010. Spain02 is well tested and widely used, mainly, but not exclusively, for RCM model validation and statistical downscliang. ERA-Interim is a well known global reanalysis with a spatial resolution of ˜79 km. It has been included in the comparison because it is a widely used product for continental and global scale studies and also in smaller scale studies in data poor countries. Thus, its comparison with higher resolution products of a data rich country, such as Spain, allows us to quantify the errors made when using such datasets for national scale studies, in line with some of the objectives of the EU-FP7 eartH2Observe project. The comparison shows that SAFRAN and Spain02 perform similarly, even though their underlying principles are different. Both products are largely

  7. A hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate from playa lake sediments, Salines Lake, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Queralt, I.; Julia, R.; Plana, F.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Sediments of playa Lake Salines, SE, Spain, contain a carbonate mineral characterized by X-ray diffraction peaks very similar to, but systematically shifted from those of pure magnesite. Analyses (SEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy, DTA, TGA, and ICP) indicate the mineral is a hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate with the chemical formula (Mg0.92,Ca0.08)CO3??3H2O. Thermal characteristics of the mineral are similar to those of other known hydrated magnesium carbonates. X-ray and electron diffraction data suggests a monoclinic system (P21/n space group) with unit-cell parameters of a = 6.063(6), b = 10.668(5), and c = 6.014(4) A?? and ?? = 107.28??.

  8. Liquefaction and fluidization structures in Messinian storm deposits (Bajo Segura Basin, Betic Cordillera, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, P.; Delgado, J.; Estévez, A.; Molina, J. M.; Moretti, M.; Soria, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    Synsedimentary deformation structures are recognized in Upper Miocene deposits of the eastern Betic Cordillera (SE Spain). A singular stratigraphic section in these deposits shows several levels with soft-sediment deformation structures (load casts, ball-and-pillows and pipes) induced by liquidization (liquefaction and/or fluidization) of sandy sediments. The morphologic analysis of these structures reveals a liquidized sediment thickness ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 m. Although they have been previously interpreted as a result of seismic shocks, their origin was most likely related to the action of storm waves as the structures are always associated with tempestites. Facies analysis, geometrical features of the deformed beds and appraisal of geotechnical properties for shelf and coastal sediments allow the soft-sediment deformation structures to be interpreted as a result of the cyclic effect of storm waves on unconsolidated sediments, and excludes other processes such as overloading, tsunamis or the impact of breaking waves.

  9. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals.

  10. The State of the Art of Group Psychotherapy in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara

    2015-10-01

    (1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction.

  11. Liquidus Projections of Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te Ternary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-han; Chen, Sinn-wen; Hwang, Jenn-dong; Chu, Hsu-shen

    2016-12-01

    This study determines the liquidus projections of both Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te ternary systems which are constituent ternary systems of promising Bi-Se-Te-Ga thermoelectric materials. Ternary Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te alloys are prepared. Their primary solidification phases are experimentally determined, and thermal analysis experiments are carried out. The liquidus projections are determined based on the ternary experimental results and phase diagrams of constituent binary systems. The Bi-Se-Ga system includes seven primary solidification phases, Bi, Ga, GaSe, Ga2Se3, Se, Bi2Se3, and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m. In the Bi-Se-Te system, there are five primary solidification phases, Bi, (Bi2)n(Bi2Te3)m, Bi2(Se,Te)3, (Se,Te), and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m. Both the (Bi2)n(Bi2Te3)m and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m phases are not a single phase, but a collection of series undetermined phases. Large miscibility gaps are observed in the Bi-Se-Ga system. The temperatures of the invariant reactions, Liquid + Bi + GaSe = Ga and Liquid + Ga2Se3 = Bi + GaSe, are at 495 K (222 °C) and 533 K (260 °C), respectively.

  12. Electron and hole dynamics in GaSe nanoparticles and GaSe-InSe nanoparticle heterojunctions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, David F.; Tu, Haohua; Mogyorosi, Karoly; Chen, Xiang-Bai

    2006-08-01

    Femtosecond polarized transient absorption results are obtained for InSe and GaSe nanoparticles. The results indicate that the transient absorption spectrum of large GaSe particles is dominated by a size-independent, z-polarized hole intraband transition. The small particle spectra exhibit the same z-polarized hole transition and a much more intense x,y-polarized absorption that is assigned to a charge transfer transition from the conduction band to particle surface (edge) states. The intensity of this transition depends on the momentum state (Γ or M) of the electron, and Γ to M electron momentum relaxation results in a 15 ps absorption decay. These results are used to interpret analogous results obtained for mixed GaSe-InSe nanoparticle aggregates, also in the solution phase. The static absorption spectrum of the mixed aggregates exhibits a strong interparticle charge transfer absorption band at an energy slightly higher than the InSe bandgap. Photoexcitation of this band results in a polarized transient absorption spectrum and transient absorption kinetics characteristic of InSe valence band holes and GaSe conduction band electrons. This result indicates that with small GaSe particles, direct InSe to GaSe electron transfer occurs upon photoexcitation.

  13. First serosurvey of Besnoitia spp. infection in wild European ruminants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Marco, Ignasi; Boadella, Mariana; Gortázar, Christian; San Miguel-Ayanz, José María; García-Lunar, Paula; Lavín, Santiago; Alvarez-García, Gema

    2013-11-08

    Besnoitia besnoiti has been reported to affect cattle, wildebeest, kudu and impala, and B. tarandi other wild ruminants (caribou, reindeer, mule deer and musk ox), causing similar characteristic clinical signs and lesions. However, both Besnoitia species have been reported in different geographical areas and the link between the sylvatic and domestic life cycles of Besnoita spp. in wild ruminants and cattle remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies against Besnoitia spp. in wild ruminants in Spain. A wide panel of sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) (n=734), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (n=124), chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) (n=170) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) (n=20) collected from different locations of Spain was analyzed. Beef cattle were present in all sampled areas and, interestingly, bovine besnoitiosis has been widely reported in some of them (e.g., Pyrenees and Central Spain). Sera samples were first examined with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). For red deer and roe deer, the ELISA was standardized with positive and negative control sera from several Cervidae species (100% Se and 98% Sp). Chamois and mouflon sera samples were tested with a previously reported ELISA validated for bovine sera (97% Se and 95% Sp) using protein G as a conjugate. Positive results by ELISA were confirmed a posteriori with a tachyzoite-based Western blot. Sixty-one sera samples from red deer and 17 sera samples from roe-deer were seropositive or doubtful by ELISA. All samples from mouflon were seronegative and 15 sera samples from chamois were considered doubtful. B. besnoiti exposure was only confirmed clearly by Western blot in one red deer and one roe deer from the Spanish Pyrenees where the disease is traditionally endemic. This is the first serological report of Besnoitia spp. infection carried out in European wild ruminants and the results show that specific antibodies are present at least in red deer and roe

  14. Influence of Different Factors on Relative Air Humidity in Zaragoza, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrat, José M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the spatial patterns of relative air humidity and its relation to urban, geographical and meteorological factors in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) is discussed. We created a relative humidity database by means of 32 urban transects. Data were taken on different days and with different weather types. This data set was used to map the mean spatial distribution of urban dry island (UDI). Using stepwise multiple regression analysis and Landsat ETM+ images the relationships between mean UDI and the main geographic-urban factors: topography, land cover and surface reflectivity, have been analyzed. Different spatial patterns of UDI were determined using Principal Component Analysis (Varimax rotation). The three components extracted accounted for 91% of the total variance. PC1 accounted for the most general patterns (similar to mean UDI); PC2 showed a shift of dry areas to the SE and PC3 a shift to NW. Using data on wind direction in Zaragoza, we have found that the displacement of dry areas to the SE (PC 2) was greater during NW winds while the shift to the NW (PC 3) was produced mainly by SE winds.

  15. The white book of radiation oncology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Ismael; Romero, Jesús; Palacios, Amalia; Mañas, Ana; Samper, Pilar; Bayo, Eloísa; Guedea, Ferran

    2011-06-01

    The White Book of Radiation Oncology provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the speciality of radiation oncology in Spain and is intended to be used as a reference for physicians, health care administrators and hospital managers. The present paper summarises the most relevant aspects of the book's 13 chapters in order to bring the message to a wider audience. Among the topics discussed are the epidemiology of cancer in Spain, the role of the radiation oncologist in cancer care, human and material resource needs, new technologies, training of specialists, clinical and cost management, clinical practice, quality control, radiological protection, ethics, relevant legislation, research & development, the history of radiation oncology in Spain and the origins of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR).

  16. [Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Rubella in Spain].

    PubMed

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The current Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella is made of the Plan for the elimination of measles in Spain, set up in 2001, and the Surveillance protocol of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the phase of elimination, established in 2007. The monitoring of the elimination of both diseases conducted from the European Region of World Health Organization (WHO) has been reinforced since 2010. An annual report with information on the situation of measles and rubella in The Member Estates is being requested since 2013. The Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality nominated a National Committee for Verification of Measles and Rubella Elimination in 2013, for the review and delivery of the requested information. The strategies and activities currently recommended from the WHO European Region, the verification process in Spain, and the steps to follow for the updating of the Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella in Spain are mentioned in this article.

  17. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective.

  18. Multiple sclerosis in Gijon health district, Asturias, northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Uria, D F; Abad, P; Calatayud, M T; Virgala, P; Diaz, A; Chamizo, C; Dean, G

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and incidence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in a population of 33,775 in two primary health care centres in the sanitary district of Gijon, Asturias, northern Spain. Many information sources were used but the unique advantage of Gijon was that the city has a centralized computerized register of all diagnoses made for all consultations in the clinics and hospitals in the area. The HLA distribution in the population was already known and the Poser classification of MS was used. The crude MS prevalence was 65/100,000, a similar prevalence to that found in southern and eastern Spain, Sicily and Greek-speaking Cyprus. The mean incidence was 3.7/100,000 per year. The study demonstrated the advantage of a centralized and computerized medical recording system and demonstrates that northern Spain is a moderately high or medium MS risk zone.

  19. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  20. Bluetongue in Spain: from the first outbreak to 2012.

    PubMed

    de Diego, A C Pérez; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of bluetongue disease have occurred in Spain six times and have been caused by the following serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), in chronological order: BTV10, BTV2, BTV4, BTV1 and BTV8. Serotypes BTV1, BTV2 and BTV4 may have entered the country in Culicoides transported by wind; BTV8 via infected animal movements; and BTV10 across the Portuguese border. The evolution of each serotype has been different: BTV1, BTV4 and BTV10 spread throughout mainland Spain; BTV2 did not spread from the Balearic Islands to the Iberian Peninsula; and BTV8 has proven very poor at spreading throughout mainland Spain. The significant economic impact of the disease has led authorities to adopt control and eradication measures, which have evolved as new diagnostic tools and vaccines have become available. This review describes BTV infection in Spain, and it focuses on the clinical disease produced by each serotype, the Culicoides species which were present at what time, the origin of the virus and the control measures adopted. In the field, it has proven necessary to vaccinate livestock against each new BTV serotype as it arrived. Therefore, future eradication strategies should focus on developing polyvalent vaccines and vaccines that allow the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. As of 1 January 2013, the Iberian Peninsula is considered a restricted area for BTV1, and a small zone in southern Spain is a restricted area for BTV4, which includes the little BTV8 restricted area. Serotypes BTV1 and BTV4 were detected in sentinel animals in January and November and in March 2012, respectively. The last BTV8 positive animal was detected in November 2010, which implies that in the coming months, Spain may be declared free of BTV8.

  1. [Latin Americans in Spain (1981-1994). Estimation of a recent migratory phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Palazon Ferrando, S

    1996-04-01

    The author analyzes characteristics of Latin American migration to Spain during the period 1981-1994. Aspects considered include causes of the increase of Latin American migration to Spain; policies limiting migration to Spain; spatial distribution and sex of immigrants; labor force activity; and country of origin.

  2. [An economic interpretation of some contemporary migrations. The case of Spain].

    PubMed

    Bodega Fernandez, M I; Cebrian De Miguel, J A

    1995-01-01

    Current international migration flows affecting Spain are analyzed from an economic perspective. The main economic causes of international migration in general are first outlined. Trends in Spain over the past 20 years are then analyzed, with particular reference to the problems of regularizing immigrant laborers. The extent of remittances from Spain to Morocco is assessed. The study concludes by summarizing Spanish immigration policies. (ANNOTATION)

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  5. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  6. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  11. Natural history of Sanfilippo syndrome in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is caused by a deficiency in one of the four enzymes involved in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulphate. Four MPS III types have been recognized, characterized by a large phenotypic heterogeneity. This is the first Spanish study describing the natural history of Sanfilippo patients (MPSIIIA, MPSIIIB and MPSIIIC), representing an essential step for understanding patient prognosis and for the establishment and application of future therapies. Methods This retrospective study aimed to establish the natural history of MPS III in Spain based on an extensive chronological data survey involving physicians and parents of 55 Spanish MPSIII patients. In addition to clinical description we report biochemical and molecular analysis already performed in the majority of cases. Results The most frequent subtype was MPS IIIA (62%). Symptoms before diagnosis were speech delay in 85%, followed by coarse facial features in 78%, and hyperactivity in 65% of cases at a mean age of 3 years old. The median age at clinical and biochemical diagnosis for each MPS III subtype were as follows: IIIA 4.4 years (1.2 – 16 years), IIIB 3.1 years (1–29 years), and IIIC 6.3 years (3.4-22 years). 45% of patients developed epilepsy at a median age of 8.7 (2.5 – 37) years old. Age of death for MPS IIIA patients was 15 years (11.5 – 26 years). Molecular analysis of our cohort reveals, as alluded to above, a great allelic heterogeneity in the three subtypes without clear genotype-phenotype correlations in most cases. Conclusion MPS IIIA is the most frequent subtype in Spanish Sanfilippo patients. Diagnosing physicians should consider Sanfilippo syndrome in children with non-specific speech delay, behavioural abnormalities, and/or mild dysmorphic features. We stress the importance of establishing early diagnosis procedures as soon as possible so as to be able to determine future short-term enzymatic or gene

  12. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  13. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  14. Low temperature solution-phase growth of ZnSe and ZnSe/CdSe core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Petchsang, Nattasamon; Shapoval, Liubov; Vietmeyer, Felix; Yu, Yanghai; Hodak, Jose H; Tang, I-Ming; Kosel, Thomas H; Kuno, Masaru

    2011-08-01

    High quality ZnSe nanowires (NWs) and complementary ZnSe/CdSe core/shell species have been synthesized using a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth technique. In particular, bismuth salts as opposed to pre-synthesized Bi or Au/Bi nanoparticles have been used to grow NWs at low temperatures in solution. Resulting wires are characterized using transmission electron microscopy and possess mean ensemble diameters between 15 and 28 nm with accompanying lengths ranging from 4-10 μm. Subsequent solution-based overcoating chemistry results in ZnSe wires covered with CdSe nanocrystals. By varying the shell's growth time, different thicknesses can be obtained and range from 8 to 21 nm. More interestingly, the mean constituent CdSe nanocrystal diameter can be varied and results in size-dependent shell emission spectra.

  15. Estimation of Se(VI)/Se(IV) ratio in water by the ratio recorded in barite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Kohei; Yokoyama, Yuka; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2013-11-01

    It is possible that the distribution behaviors of redox-sensitive elements such as selenium (Se) between authigenic minerals and water can provide information on the oxidation state of the element in the coexistent water during mineral deposition. Considering the similar chemical characteristics of Se(IV) and Se(VI) oxyanions, we propose that the Se(VI)/Se(IV) ratio in a particular precipitate, such as barite, may enable us to estimate the Se(VI)/Se(IV) ratio in the coexistent water. The coprecipitation experiments of Se with barite coupled with the determination of the oxidation state of Se both in the aqueous phase and in barite were conducted by Se K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure and high-performance liquid chromatography connected to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, respectively, to investigate the influence of the oxidation state of Se on its immobilization into barite at pH 4.0 and 8.0. The results showed that the Se(VI)/Se(IV) ratio in barite was correlated with the Se(VI)/Se(IV) ratio in water, which in turn can provide physicochemical and biogeochemical information related to the Se(VI)/Se(IV) ratio in water in the environment where barite precipitated.

  16. The reactivity of [PhP(Se)(mu-Se)]2 and (PhP)3Se2 towards acetylenes and cyanamides: X-ray crystal structures of some P-Se-C and P-Se-C-N heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Pravat; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2002-06-17

    Several unusual P-Se-C and P-Se-C-N heterocycles are formed by the reaction of [PhP(Se)(mu-Se)]2 or (PhP)3Se2 with alkynes or cyanamides, generated by the fragmentation of the organophosphorus-selenium compound and addition across the C identical to C or C identical to N triple bond of the organic substrate. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals an unexpected diversity of structural motifs within these heterocyclic systems, including P2SeCN, P2C2Se and PC2Se2 rings.

  17. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  18. Deaths from pesticide poisoning in Spain from 1991 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Repetto, R; Soria, M L; Gimenez, M P; Menendez, M; Repetto, M

    1998-06-01

    Data on 184 deaths from pesticide poisonings that occurred in Spain from 1991 to 1996 have been collated via a survey from the National Institute of Toxicology, Sevilla. Organophosphates and carbamates accounted for the majority of the cases. Other substances involved were organochlorines such as endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat.

  19. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  20. The social crisis of the Eurozone: the case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the consequences of the austerity policies promoted by the European Central Bank, the European Commission, and the International Monetary Fund and applied to the peripheral countries of the Eurozone, including Spain. In addition to deteriorating the economic conditions of these countries, these policies are hurting the social well-being of their populations.

  1. Education and Social Change in Spain: From Crisis to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortés-González, Pablo; Rivas-Flores, J.Ignacio; Leite-Méndez, Analía E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses a particular socio-educational experience in a marginalised neighbourhood in Malaga, Spain. This initiative came about as an institutional proposal to combat neoliberal austerity policies and is known as the "Casa de la Buena Vida". It aims to generate new educational practices based on solidarity, dignity and…

  2. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  3. Vocational Education and Training in Spain. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Carlos Otero; Machado, Andres Munoz; Sanchez, Aitor Marcos

    This monograph on the vocational education and training (VET) system in Spain is one of a series on VET systems in the European Union Member States. Chapter 1 provides this background information: political and administrative structures, population, Spanish economy, and employment. Chapter 2 describes the current education system. Chapter 3 covers…

  4. The Evolution of the University Teaching Staff in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of university faculty in Spain and the changes brought about by the University Reform Act of 1983 are discussed, including the faculty status as civil servants, faculty hiring, provisions for research opportunities, age distribution, women faculty, and faculty development opportunities. (MSE)

  5. A survey of Rocketry and astronautics in Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluquer, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The entire field of rocketry and astronautics in Spain was studied. Congreve war rockets in military actions were emphasized in the African war, the Cuban campaign and the Spanish Civil War. Rockets in space travel were also summarized along with space science fiction.

  6. Integrating Art Education Models: Contemporary Controversies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belver, Manuel; Ulln, Ana; Acaso, Mara

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a basic controversy for art education in Spain is analysed, and its antecedents in thought and social and artistic practices are reviewed. The controversy refers to the question whether school art education should be oriented towards the fine arts or towards the manual arts. Consequently, which should be the cultural model of…

  7. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M; Lobo, Cheryl A; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M; Azcárate, Isabel G; Puente, Sabino; Montero, Estrella

    2016-10-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient.

  8. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Vidal, Enrique; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier; Cabanes, Anna; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale. PMID:18789142

  9. Spain: government orders distribution of clean needles in prisons.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    In a previous issue of the Review we published an article about the positive results of the evaluation of the first needle exchange programs in Spanish prisons. Recently it was reported that Spain's Ministry of the Interior has ordered that sterile needles be distributed in prisons.

  10. The Development of Learning to Learn in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amparo; Martin, Elena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the concept of "learning to learn" has developed in Spain, and give you an overview of relevant Spanish projects. First, we sketch out how this approach has developed in Spanish educational laws. We then give examples of research projects, assessment instruments and instructional programmes pertinent to…

  11. Potentially Zoonotic Bartonella in Bats from France and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Matthew J.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We detected Bartonella in 11 of 109 insectivorous bats from France and 1 of 26 bats from Spain. These genetic variants are closely related to bat-associated Bartonella described in Finland and the United Kingdom and to B. mayotimonensis, the agent of a human endocarditis case in the United States. PMID:28221109

  12. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  13. From Dictatorship to Democracy: History of Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viñao, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In a book published in 1995 providing an overview on the state of the art in European educational historiography in Europe, Marie-Madeleine Compère referring to post-Franco Spain, emphasised the "dynamism" and "the capacity to mobilise" that had arisen among Spanish researchers by "any collective initiative." Moving…

  14. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  15. Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

  16. Mycobacterium caprae Infection in Livestock and Wildlife, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Sabrina; Bezos, Javier; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Álvarez, Julio; Castellanos, Elena; Moya, Nuria; Lozano, Francisco; Javed, M. Tariq; Sáez-Llorente, José L.; Liébana, Ernesto; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; Tuberculosis, Monitoring of Animal

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium caprae is a pathogen that can infect animals and humans. To better understand the epidemiology of M. caprae, we spoligotyped 791 animal isolates. Results suggest infection is widespread in Spain, affecting 6 domestic and wild animal species. The epidemiology is driven by infections in caprids, although the organism has emerged in cattle. PMID:21392452

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

  18. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus–associated Meningitis, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Marí, José-María; Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Gegúndez, María-Isabel; Palacios, Gustavo; Savji, Nazir; Lipkin, W. Ian; Fedele, Giovanni; de Ory-Manchón, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was detected in 2 patients with acute meningitis in southern Spain within a 3-year period. Although the prevalence of LCMV infection was low (2 [1.3%] of 159 meningitis patients), it represents 2.9% of all pathogens detected. LCMV is a noteworthy agent of neurologic illness in immunocompetent persons. PMID:22515986

  19. International Briefing 34: Training and Development in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Mike; Ponce Sanz, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This article locates training and development in Spain within the country's socio-economic context. It maps the major changes which have been introduced into the training and development system since the briefing by Escardíbul and Llinas-Audet published in this journal in 2010. It relates those changes to the ongoing economic crisis which began in…

  20. The Creative Class and the Creative Economy in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Báez, Juan Miguel; Bergua, José Angel; Pac, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an application in Spain of Florida's model (2002/2010, 2005) about creativity, economy and growth. Creativity is an indicator that measures and combines technology, talent, and tolerance. Each of these is composed of three subindices. The most important conclusion from the data reported here is that creativity in particular,…

  1. Family Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Misuse in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain family factors in Spanish adolescent substance abuse. A representative sample of 1,680 students of both sexes from all over Spain took part in the study. The results show that the variables associated with drug consumption are: male,…

  2. Faith in School: Immigrant Families' Attitudes towards Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terren, Eduardo; Carrasco, Concha

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a preliminary exploration of the in-depth interviews and focus groups that are part of a more extensive research project on the education of children of immigrants in Spain. In the process of migration, families undergo profound transformations that are often complicated by extended periods of separation--not only from…

  3. University Reform in Spain: New Structures for Autonomy and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, James B.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, Spain's Socialist government enacted the Law for University Reform (LRU), which decentralized university administration and strengthened institutional autonomy as a means of encouraging reform and greater accountability to social needs. Discusses the legacy of the Franco regime, LRU provisions for university organization and governance,…

  4. Evaluation of Hybrid and Distance Education Learning Environments in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernandez-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the "Distance Education Learning Environments Survey" (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education,…

  5. The Culture of Discourse on Educational Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Cathryn

    2004-01-01

    Where the education of subaltern multicultural student collectives is concerned, the case of contemporary developments in the discourse of reform in Spain is particularly poignant. A critical engagement with that discourse and its greater sociocultural context reveals some of the subtle ways in which cultural alterity comes to be represented. And…

  6. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  10. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  11. Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre, Luz; Ardanuy, Carmen; Fenoll, Asunción; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Liñares, Josefina

    2004-01-01

    Among 2,882 Streptococcus pneumoniae sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory during 2002, 75 (2.6%) were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Resistance was associated with older patients (3.9% in adults and 7.2% in patients >65 years of age), with isolation from noninvasive sites (4.3% vs. 1.0%), and with penicillin and macrolide resistance. Among 14 low-level resistant (MIC 4–8 µg/mL) strains, 1 had a fluoroquinolone efflux phenotype, and 13 showed single ParC changes. The 61 high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC >16 µg/mL) strains showed either two or three changes at ParC, ParE, and GyrA. Resistance was acquired either by point mutation (70 strains) or by recombination with viridans streptococci (4 strains) at the topoisomerase II genes. Although 36 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed, 5 international multiresistant clones (Spain23F-1, Spain6B-2, Spain9V-3, Spain14-5 and Sweden15A-25) accounted for 35 (46.7%) of the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Continuous surveillance is needed to prevent the dissemination of these clones. PMID:15504260

  12. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  13. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M.; Lobo, Cheryl A.; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M.; Azcárate, Isabel G.; Puente, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:27560451

  14. Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Agüero, Montserrat; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Buitrago, Dolores; Sánchez, Azucena; Elizalde, Maia; San Miguel, Elena; Villalba, Ruben; Llorente, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, an unusually high number of wild birds (partridges and pheasants) died in Cádiz in southwestern Spain. Reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified Bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution that includes sub-Saharan Africa and India, as the causative agent. PMID:21801633

  15. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  16. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  17. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  18. CuInSe2 phase formation during Cu2Se/In2Se3 interdiffusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Dong, Z.; Kim, Sungtae; Perepezko, J. H.

    2000-04-01

    Diffusion couples based upon Cu2Se/In2Se3 pairings have been examined in order to identify the kinetics of intermediate phase development and the associated phase equilibria. For the diffusion couples annealed at 550 °C for 1.5 h, all phases included in the Cu2Se-In2Se3 pseudobinary phase diagram section developed including the CuInSe2 (CIS) phase. Also, the In6Se7 phase formed for annealing times in excess of 1.5 h at 550 °C, indicating a modification of the diffusion pathway outside the pseudobinary phase diagram section. The growth of the CIS phase formed by reactive diffusion follows parabolic kinetics (x2=kt) with the k value of 3.3×10-8 cm2/s. CIS phase precipitates with a dendritic morphology are also produced within the Cu2Se side of the diffusion couple far from the initial interface, indicating that In is the fast component during interdiffusion. Based upon electron diffraction analysis and simulation of electron diffraction patterns, the dendritic shaped CIS precipitate structure was uniquely determined to be the metastable zinc blende type rather than the stable chalcopyrite-type structure. The structure and orientation relationship between the metastable CIS phase and the Cu2Se matrix satisfy the conditions established for the development of a solid state dendritic morphology.

  19. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect

    Beechem, Thomas E. Brumbach, Michael T.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Howell, Stephen W.; Ohta, Taisuke; Kowalski, Brian M.; Pask, Jesse A.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Spataru, Catalin D.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and amorphous Se. Photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  20. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; ...

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  1. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  2. Strain Compensation in Single ZnSe/CdSe Quantum Wells: Analytical Model and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Torsten; Riedl, Thomas; Neumann, Elmar; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lindner, Jörg K N; Pawlis, Alexander

    2017-03-08

    The lattice mismatch between CdSe and ZnSe is known to limit the thickness of ZnSe/CdSe quantum wells on GaAs (001) substrates to about 2-3 monolayers. We demonstrate that this thickness can be enhanced significantly by using In0.12Ga0.88As pseudo substrates, which generate alternating tensile and compressive strains in the ZnSe/CdSe/ZnSe layers resulting in an efficient strain compensation. This method enables to design CdSe/ZnSe quantum wells with CdSe thicknesses ranging from 1 to 6 monolayers, covering the whole visible spectrum. The strain compensation effect is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and supported by molecular statics simulations. The model approach with the supporting experimental measurements is sufficiently general to be also applied to other highly mismatched material combinations for the design of advanced strained heterostructures.

  3. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  4. On a Lecture Trip to Spain: The Scientific Relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal…

  5. Kinematics of an oblique deformation front using paleomagnetic data; the Altomira-Loranca structures (Iberian Chain, Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcarcel, M.

    2013-05-01

    Manoel Valcárcel1, 5, Ruth Soto2, Elisabet Beamud3, Belén Oliva-Urcia4 and Josep Anton Muñoz5 1 IGME, Departamento de Investigación y Prospección Geocientífica. C/ La Calera, 1, 28760 Tres Cantos; m.valcarcel@igme.es 2 IGME, Unidad de Zaragoza, C/ Manuel Lasala 44, 9 B, 50006 Zaragoza, Spain 3 Lab. Paleomagnetisme (CCiT UB-CSIC). ICT "Jaume Almera", Solé i Sabarís, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. 4 IPE-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain 5 Grup Geodinàmica i Anàlisi de Conques, Universitat de Barcelona, Zona Universitària Pedralbes, 08028 Barcelona, Spain The Altomira and Loranca structures consist of a fold-and-thrust system detached on Triassic evaporites. They are oriented N-S to NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE at its northern and southern end, respectively, forming a subtle arc, oblique with respect to the general NW-SE trend of the Iberian Chain. The aim of this work is to characterize with paleomagnetic data the kinematic evolution of the the Altomira Range, located at the southwestern deformation front of the Iberian Chain, and of the structures within its associated piggy-back basin, the Loranca basin. This approach will also give clues regarding the primary and/or secondary origin of these structures to better characterize them in further studies (3D reconstruction and restoration, fault pattern). A total of 180 samples were obtained from 19 sites in Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene rocks (including clays, fine sandstones and limestones). They were analyzed by means of stepwise thermal demagnetization and subsequent measurement of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Although fold tests are not statistically significant, a primary origin of the magnetization is deduced by samples showing either normal or reverse polarity after bedding correction of the calculated characteristic components. Declinations of the site mean directions appear scattered after bedding correction suggesting differential vertical-axis rotations. Sites located at the

  6. Cs(3)Sm(7)Se(12).

    PubMed

    Schneck, Christof; Elbe, Andreas; Schurz, Christian M; Schleid, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, tricaesium hepta-samarium(III) dodeca-selenide, is setting a new starting point for realization of the channel structure of the Cs(3)M(7)Se(12) series, now with M = Sm, Gd-Er. This Cs(3)Y(7)Se(12)-type arrangement is structurally based on the Z-type sesquiselenides M(2)Se(3) adopting the Sc(2)S(3) structure. Thus, the structural set-up of Cs(3)Sm(7)Se(12) consists of edge- and vertex-connected [SmSe(6)](9-) octa-hedra [d(Ø)(Sm(3+) - Se(2-)) = 2.931 Å], forming a rock-salt-related network [Sm(7)Se(12)](3-) with channels along [001] that are apt to take up monovalent cations (here Cs(+)) with coordination numbers of 7 + 1 for one and of 6 for the second cation. The latter cation has a trigonal-prismatic coordination and shows half-occupancy, resulting in an impossible short distance [2.394 (4) Å] between symmetrically coupled Cs(+) cations of the same kind. While one Sm atom occupies Wyckoff position 2b with site symmetry ..2/m, all other 11 crystallographically different atoms (namely 2 × Cs, 3 × Sm and 6 × Se) are located at Wyckoff positions 4g with site symmetry ..m.

  7. Unrecognized hemoglobin SE disease as microcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Barry; Guileyardo, Joseph; Mora, Adan

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin SE disease was first described during the 1950s as a relatively benign microcytosis, but increasing prevalence has revealed a predisposition towards vasoocclusive sickling. Recognition of SE hemoglobinopathies’ potential complications is crucial so medical measures can be utilized to avoid multiorgan injury. PMID:27365881

  8. Essential and toxic elements in infant foods from Spain, UK, China and USA.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Ramírez-Gandolfo, Amanda; Wu, Xiangchun; Norton, Gareth J; Burló, Francisco; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A

    2012-09-01

    Spanish gluten-free rice, cereals with gluten, and pureed baby foods were analysed for essential macro-elements (Ca and Na), essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Cr, Co and Ni) and non-essential trace elements (As, Pb, Cd and Hg) using ICP-MS and AAS. Baby cereals were an excellent source of most of the essential elements (Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn). Sodium content was high in pureed foods to improve their flavour; fish products were also rich in Se. USA pure baby rice samples had the highest contents of all studied essential elements, showing a different nutrient pattern compared to those of other countries. Mineral fortification was not always properly stated in the labelling of infant foods. Complementary infant foods may also contain significant amounts of contaminants. The contents of Hg and Cd were low enough to guarantee the safety of these infant foods. However, it will be necessary to identify the source and reduce the levels of Pb, Cr and As in Spanish foods. Pure baby rice samples contained too much: Pb in Spain; As in UK; As, Cr and Ni in USA; and Cr and Cd in China.

  9. Transfer of metals to plants and red deer in an old lead mining area in Spain.

    PubMed

    Reglero, M M; Monsalve-González, L; Taggart, M A; Mateo, R

    2008-11-15

    Lead mining in the Sierra Madrona mountains and the valley of Alcudia in Southern Spain began in the 1st millennium B.C., and the area was intermittently exploited up until the end of the 20th century. The degree of contamination by Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, As and Se of soil, water and sediment, and the transfer to 13 species of plants, and then to red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been studied. Mined areas had higher concentrations in stream sediments than control areas. The highest concentrations were observed for Pb (1481 microg g(-1) d.w.) and As (1880 microg g(-1)) in the sediment of a stream flowing beside the spoil dump at Mina de Horcajo. Plants from mining sites contained consistently higher levels of Pb and As, and their concentrations in plants were correlated. The highest concentrations of Pb were in Gramineae (Pb: 97.5, As: 2.4 microg g(-1) d.w.), and the lowest in elmleaf blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius). The highest mean liver concentrations were found in red deer from the mining sites for Pb (0.805 microg g(-1) d. w.), Cd (0.554 microg g(-1)), Se (0.327 microg g(-1)), and As (0.061 microg g(-1)), although these were well below the levels associated with clinical poisoning.

  10. Outbreak of swine erysipelas in a semi-intensive wild boar farm in Spain.

    PubMed

    Risco, D; Llario, P F; Velarde, R; García, W L; Benítez, J M; García, A; Bermejo, F; Cortés, M; Rey, J; de Mendoza, J H; Gómez, L

    2011-10-01

    Swine erysipelas (SE) is a disease caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and is one of the best-known and most serious diseases affecting domestic pigs. However, few studies exist concerning the susceptibility of wild boars to this disease and the role of this species as a reservoir. This study investigates and describes an outbreak of SE that occurred on a semi-intensive wild boar breeding farm housing 40 boars in Extremadura (SW Spain) on 11-18 February 2010. Seven animals died, of which four were examined post-mortem. Of these, three (two females and one male) were approximately 3 months old, and one was 1 year old (male). Lesions were consistent with acute septicaemia, consisting of cutaneous erythema/cyanosis and petechial haemorrhages in kidneys, urinary bladder, lungs and meninges. The 1-year-old male also had proliferative polyarthritis. Histopathology confirmed the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and vasculitis. Additionally, a bilateral acute panuveitis with concurrent necrotizing vasculitis and diffuse corneal oedema, neither of which have been described before in this disease, were found in the 3-month-old male boar. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from all four animals in pure cultures from several tissues. Of these four animals, antibodies against E. rhusiopathiae, using an indirect ELISA test, were only detected in the 1-year-old male boar with polyarthritis. Posteriorly, of nine live adults tested for antibodies, four (including an adult male with polyarthritis) were positive.

  11. Re-emergence of leishmaniasis in Spain: community outbreak in Madrid, Spain, 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Arce, A; Estirado, A; Ordobas, M; Sevilla, S; García, N; Moratilla, L; de la Fuente, S; Martínez, A M; Pérez, A M; Aránguez, E; Iriso, A; Sevillano, O; Bernal, J; Vilas, F

    2013-07-25

    Since July 2009, there has been a community outbreak of leishmaniasis in the south-west area of the Madrid autonomous community, Spain, affecting residents from four towns that are geographically close together and share extensive park areas. As of December 2012, 446 cases were reported (6 in 2009, 97 in 2010, 196 in 2011 and 147 in 2012), a mean incidence rate of 22.2 per 100,000 inhabitants during July 2009 and December 2012. The mean age was 44 years (range: 2 months to 95 years); 61.0% were male. A total of 68 (15.2%) had immunosuppressive conditions; 160 (35.9%) had visceral leishmaniasis and 286 (64.1%) cutaneous. A total of 421 (94.4%) cases were confirmed. Leishmania infantum was identified as the agent. Monitoring revealed high densities of the vector Phlebotomus perniciosus. The surveillance system for canine leishmaniasis did not detect any increase in prevalence during the period. Environmental control measures have been taken, such as improvements in sanitation and disinsection in the risk areas and control of the overpopulation of Leporidae, as xenodiagnosis studies have shown that hares play a role as active reservoirs. This is the largest reported community outbreak of leishmaniasis in Europe. The discovery of the new reservoir stands out in the multifactorial aetiology of the outbreak. Epidemiological research and environmental intervention measures are continuing.

  12. Properties and Bibliography of GaSe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    covered by (Nitsche 1961), (Boelsterli 1962), (Terhell 1972,1975), (van Egmond 1974) and (Wiedemeier 1992). Crystals grown by the Bridgman method have...8217 ± 10’ 9(•.=5.31gm) = 10010’ ± 20’ e(0(=10.6gm) = 12040’ ± 20’. Also for SHG of 10.61m, they measured d22(GaSe)/d 3l ( CdSe ) = 3 ± 0.6, taking d31( CdSe ...proustite) = 4.9 ± 0.7 which yields d22(GaSe) = 180 x 10-9 esu when taking d-(proustite) = 37 x 10-9 esu and d31 ( CdSe ) = 53 x 10-9 esu. Also, they summed YAG

  13. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST). Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4), 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20) and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21) were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several European countries, but

  14. Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain) is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA) server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE). The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas) (SIGPAC) enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images) of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms) were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Results Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality) according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data). The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100% of EPER-Spain

  15. Glass formation and the third harmonic generation of Cu2Se-GeSe2-As2Se3 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Klymovych, O. S.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Zamuruyeva, O. V.; Zmiy, O. F.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Chyský, J.; Bila, Jiri; Kamarudin, H.

    2014-10-01

    We have performed the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties namely the third harmonic generation (THG) of the glass-formation region in the Cu2Se-GeSe2-As2Se3 system. The samples were synthesized by direct single-temperature method from high-purity elementary substances. We have found that the value of disorder parameter Δ depends on the composition of the glassy alloys. The measurements show that increasing the Cu2Se concentration leads to increased slope of the absorption edge, which may be explained by the decrease of the height of random potential relief for the electrons in the tails of the state density which border the band edges. A very sharp increase in the THG at low temperature was observed. Significant enhancement in THG was obtained with decreasing the energy gap, which agreed well with the nonlinear optical susceptibilities obtained from other glasses.

  16. Al/CdSe/GaSe/C resonant tunneling thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasrawi, A. F.; Kayed, T. S.; Elsayed, Khaled A.

    2017-02-01

    An Al/CdSe/GaSe/C thin film transistor device was prepared by the physical vapor deposition technique at a vacuum pressure of 10-5 mbar. The x-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated the polycrystalline nature of the surface of the device. The dc current-voltage characteristics recorded for the Al/CdSe/C and Al/CdSe/GaSe/C channels displayed a resonant tunneling diode features during the forward and reverse voltage biasing, respectively. In addition, the switching current ratio of the Al/CdSe/C increased from 18.6 to 9.62×103 as a result of the GaSe deposition on the CdSe surface. Moreover, the alternating electrical signal analyses in the frequency range of 1.0 MHz to 1.8 GHz, showed some remarkable properties of negative resistance and negative capacitance spectra of the Al/CdSe/GaSe/C thin film transistors. Two distinct resonance-antiresonance phenomena in the resistance spectra and one in the capacitance spectra were observed at 0.53, 1.04 and 1.40 GHz for the Al/CdSe/C channel, respectively. The respective resonating peak positions of the resistance spectra shift to 0.38 and 0.95 GHz when GaSe is interfaced with CdSe. These features of the thin film transistors are promising for use in high quality microwave filtering circuits and also for use as ultrafast switches.

  17. Reaction kinetics of CuInSe2 thin films grown from bilayer InSe/CuSe precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Kim, W. K.; Kaczynski, R. M.; Acher, R. D.; Yoon, S.; Anderson, T. J.; Crisalle, O. D.; Payzant, E. A.; Li, S. S.

    2005-03-01

    The reaction kinetics for the formation of CuInSe2 thin films from a stacked bilayer precursor consisting of InSe and CuSe was studied by means of in situ high-temperature x-ray diffraction. In particular, the isothermal phase evolution of the glass/InSe/CuSe precursor was observed at different temperatures. The pathway produces a CuInSe2 diffusion barrier layer that also functions as a nucleation barrier. Hence, amorphous and crystalline phases simultaneously grow during isothermal processing. The shape of the time-resolved fractional reaction curve exhibits a deceleratory behavior, consistent with the presence of a diffusion-controlled reaction mechanism. Analyses based on Avrami and parabolic-rate laws were conducted. The Avrami exponent for each isothermal reaction is in the range 0.5-0.8, which indicates that the growth reaction is dominantly one-dimensional diffusion controlled. The estimated apparent activation energy for this reaction is 66.0 kJ/mol. The results based on the parabolic rate model are consistent with the Avrami analysis, yielding a similar apparent activation energy value, and thus supporting the conclusion that the process is one-dimensional diffusion controlled.

  18. Lattice dynamics of a simple GaSe-InSe superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarcz, R.; Kanehisa, M. A.

    1994-11-01

    A simple linear chain model is used to calculate the phonon dispersion curves for a superlattice composed of one layer of GaSe and one layer of InSe alternatively stacked along the c-axis. The resultant acoustic modes are essentially averages of the two constituents. Most optical modes are found to be confined in either GaSe layers of InSe layers. However, some low energy-optical modes have contributions from the two constituents.

  19. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  20. Explaining social discrimination: racism in Brazil and xenophobia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camino, Leoncio; Álvaro, José Luis; Torres, Ana Raquel R; Garrido, Alicia; Morais, Thiago; Barbosa, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.

  1. Nuclear fission technology in Spain: History and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Aliende Urtasun, Ana; Luquin, Asunción; Garrido, Julián J

    2017-04-01

    This research examines the evolution of nuclear technology in Spain from the early years of the Franco dictatorship to the global financial crisis and technology's influence on Spanish culture. To this end, we take a sociological perspective, with science culture and social perceptions of risk in knowledge societies serving as the two elements of focus in this work. In this sense, this article analyses the transformation of social relationships in light of technological changes. We propose technology as a strategic place to observe the institutional and organisational dynamics of technologic-scientific risks, the expert role and Spain's science culture. In addition, more specifically, within the language of co-production, we 'follow the actor' and favour new forms of citizen participation that promote ethics to discuss technological issues.

  2. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels.

  3. Bacteremia by Streptobacillus moniliformis: first case described in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torres, L; López, A I; Escobar, S; Marne, C; Marco, M L; Pérez, M; Verhaegen, J

    2003-04-01

    Described here is the case of an 87-year-old man who developed fever, chills and discomfort caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. This pathogen is one of the causes of rat-bite fever, an uncommon bacterial illness transmitted through a bite or scratch from a rodent or the ingestion of food or water contaminated with rat faeces. Cases of rat-bite fever are rarely reported in Spain. The patient reported no history of rat bite or rodent contact, and the only known risk factor was contact with a dog and a cat that were kept as pets. Streptobacillus moniliformis was isolated in two sets of blood cultures. This case represents what is believed to be the first report of bacteremia due to Streptobacillus moniliformis in Spain.

  4. [Why are pediatric empyemas on the increase in Spain?].

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, F; Bernaola Iturbe, E; Giménez Sánchez, F; Baca Cots, M; de Juan Martín, F; Díez Domingo, J; Garcés Sánchez, M; Gómez Campderá, J A; Picazo, J J; Pineda Solas, V

    2008-02-01

    There is a widespread perception among Spanish pediatricians that the incidence of empyema has significantly increased in the last few years, even though the objective information available is limited, and there is no specific active epidemiological surveillance system for this condition. In the present article, we review the situation of empyema in Spain, and discuss the main hypotheses put forward in the international literature to explain this increase, as well as the limitations of the sources available. Despite the scarcity of information, we draw the following conclusions: 1) the incidence of pediatric empyema is increasing in Spain, both generally and when caused by pneumococcus in particular; 2) the reason for this increase remains unknown, and to date no firm link has been established between this phenomenon and the heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine; and 3) this situation justifies the establishment of prospective systems for the surveillance and control of empyema and, once again, highlights the importance of developing active surveillance systems for pneumococcal disease.

  5. Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Johansson, Anders; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Martínez-Nistal, Carmen; Orduña, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F.; Hernández, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks occurred in northwestern Spain in 1997–1998 and 2007–2008 and affected >1,000 persons. We assessed isolates involved in these outbreaks by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with 2 restriction enzymes and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 genomic loci of Francisella tularensis, the cause of this disease. Isolates were divided into 3 pulsotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 8 allelic profiles by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. Isolates obtained from the second tularemia outbreak had the same genotypes as isolates obtained from the first outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by genotypes of genetic subclade B.Br:FTNF002–00, which is widely distributed in countries in central and western Europe. Thus, reemergence of tularemia in Spain was not caused by the reintroduction of exotic strains, but probably by persistence of local reservoirs of infection. PMID:24750848

  6. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    PubMed

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  7. [Current epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of endemic mycoses in Spain].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, María J; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are emerging infections in Spain associated with immigration and travelling. In last three decades a total of 128 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Spain, 59 in travellers, 63 in immigrants, three associated to drug abuse, two in laboratory workers, and one in a solid organ transplant receptor. In 1969 the first Spanish case of paracoccidioidomycosis was published and a total of 21 cases have been reported so far. Those patients suffered from the chronic form of the disease with period of latency as long as 50 years. Other endemic mycoses such as blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, pythiosis and sporotrichosis have not increased in frequency. Microbiological cultures of endemic fungi must be handled in facilities which comply with international biosafety regulations and must also be taken into account for cultures from patients with suspected endemic mycosis.

  8. [Scientific training and professional practice in Vicente Cervantes Mendo's Spain.].

    PubMed

    Villegas, José Pastor

    2010-01-01

    Vicente Cervantes Mendo (Ledrada, Salamanca, 1758 - México, 1829) was a famous Spanish Mexican scientists; he is today heritage of Spain and Mexico. As a continuation of two recent articles on his life at Spain, the present study deals with his scientific formation at madrid, as pharmacist and as botanist, as well as on his professional activity. Two documents of Casimiro Gómez Ortega, principal professor of the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, dated in 1786 and related with the "Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva España (1787-1803)," have served to establish conclusions which clarify the subjects studied and correct mistakes.

  9. Nanoindentation of GaSe thin films

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The structural and nanomechanical properties of GaSe thin films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nanoindentation techniques. The GaSe thin films were deposited on Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. XRD patterns reveal only the pure (000 l)-oriented reflections originating from the hexagonal GaSe phase and no trace of any impurity or additional phases. Nanoindentation results exhibit discontinuities (so-called multiple ‘pop-in’ events) in the loading segments of the load–displacement curves, and the continuous stiffness measurements indicate that the hardness and Young’s modulus of the hexagonal GaSe films are 1.8 ± 0.2 and 65.8 ± 5.6 GPa, respectively. PMID:22804961

  10. HTLV infection in HCV-antibody positive patients in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel A; Hernandez, Araceli; Benito, Rafael; Roc, Lourdes; Ramos, José Manuel; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Poveda, Eva; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Calderon, Enrique; García, Juan; Requena, Silvia; Soriano, Vincent; de Mendoza, Carmen

    2017-03-07

    Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) share transmission routes, dual infection could be frequent. In Spain, HTLV underdiagnosis is highlighted by the high proportion of patients presenting either with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) at first diagnosis. We examined whether the renewed efforts for expanding HCV testing may provide a sentinel population that might selectively be targeted to unveil asymptomatic HTLV carriers. The presence of anti-HTLV antibodies was examined in 3,838 consecutive individuals with reactive HCV serology attended during the last three years at 13 hospitals distributed across the Spanish geography. Overall 71% were male and the median age was 41-years old. Foreigners represented 9% of the study population. A total of 50 individuals (1.3%) were seroreactive for HTLV, being 30 confirmed as HTLV-2 and two as HTLV-1 (0.12%). The remaining 18 had indeterminate Western blot patterns. Most individuals with HTLV-2 and HTLV indeterminate serology were HIV-positive, former injection drug users and native Spaniards. In contrast, the two HTLV-1 infections were found in men coming from Brazil and the Dominican Republic, respectively. In summary, the overall prevalence of HTLV infection in individuals living in Spain seropositive for HCV is 1.3%, more than 10-fold greater than in general outclinics in Spain. However, immigrants from HTLV-1 endemic regions and former injection drug users with HTLV-2 infection are by far the major contributory groups in HCV patients. Therefore, testing for HTLV in newly diagnosed HCV individuals would not contribute much to improve late HTLV diagnosis in Spain.

  11. Confirmed case of Zika virus congenital infection, Spain, March 2016.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sonia; Tato, Ruben; Cabrera, Jorge Julio; Lopez, Alberto; Robles, Olga; Paz, Eugenio; Coira, Amparo; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Vazquez, Ana; Carballo, Raquel; Quintas, Carlos; Pousa, Anxela

    2016-06-16

    We describe Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission in an imported case in Spain, in a 17-week pregnant woman. ZIKV IgG, IgM and RNA were detected in serum in week 17. At 19 weeks, ultrasound scan revealed fetal malformations and ZIKV was detected in the amniotic fluid. Pregnancy was terminated at week 21; autopsy of the fetus revealed bilateral hydrocephalus, brain microcalcifications and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. ZIKV was detected in the umbilical cord and brain tissue.

  12. [The journal of A.V. Humboldt in Spain].

    PubMed

    Leitner, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish diary can surprisingly not be found in his bounded diaries from his American travels, but in a separate folder of his legacy in Berlin, where Humboldt collected material which he wanted to use for his publication about Spain. So it remained undiscovered until recently. Humboldt's notes contain geognostic descriptions as well as his observations about climate, vegetation, electricity of the atmosphere, etc. The comparison with Humboldt's publication of 1825 facilitates to gain insight into his scientific methods.

  13. Penzigomyces catalonicus, a new species of hyphomycetes from Spain.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Sierra, Angel; Gené, Josepa; Calduch, Misericordia; Guarro, Josep

    2004-01-01

    Penzigomyces catalonicus sp. nov., collected on dead branches of an unknown tree species in Spain, is described and illustrated. This fungus is characterized by short, dark brown, percurrent conidiophores, usually doliiform conidiogenous cells and ellipsoidal or slightly obclavate, (2-)3-4(-6) euseptate, thin-walled conidia. The new taxon is compared with species from other morphologically similar genera, and a key to the known species of Penzigomyces is provided.

  14. Transferrin gene frequencies in Cádiz (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Gamero, J J; Romero, J L; Vizcaya, M A; Arufe, I

    1990-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism of transferrin (Tf) was studied in a sample of 385 healthy unrelated subjects of both sexes resident in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). Isoelectric focusing was carried out in polyacrylamide gels, followed by staining with Coomassie Blue R250. The gene frequencies obtained were as follows: Tf C1, 0.7922; Tf C2, 0.1883; Tf C3, 0.0195.

  15. The system SnTe-InSe

    SciTech Connect

    Gurshumov, A.P.; Alidzhanov, M.A.; Aliev, A.S.; Gadzhiev, T.G.; Mamedov, N.A.

    1986-03-01

    This paper discusses the nature of the interaction and physicochemical properties of the alloys of the system SnTe-InSe. The DTA was performed on an NTR-74 pyrometer, XPA on a Dron-2.0 diffractometer and MSA on an MIM-7 metallographic microscope. The microhardness of the samples was determined on a PMT-3 microhardness tester. The congruently melting compound SnInTeSe and solid solutions based on the starting components are formed in the system.

  16. Lustre filesystem for CMS storage element (SE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Kim, B.; Avery, P.; Fu, Y.; Bourilkov, D.; Taylor, C.; Prescott, C.; Rodriguez, J.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents our effort to integrate the Lustre filesystem with BeStMan, GridFTP and Ganglia to make it a fully functional WLCG SE (Storage Element). We first describe the configuration of our Lustre filesystem at the University of Florida and our integration process. We then present benchmark performance figures and IO rates from the CMS analysis jobs and the WAN data transfer performance that are conducted on the Lustre SE.

  17. Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2010-11-15

    To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

  18. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna) and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor. PMID:17173668

  19. Anophelism in a Former Malaria Area of Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: A field study on diversity and distribution of anophelines currently present in a past endemic malaria area of Spain was carried out in order to identify possible risk areas of local disease transmission. Methods: Multiple larval sites were sampled from June to October of 2011 in the Region of Somontano de Barbastro (Northeastern Spain). The sampling effort was fixed at 10 minutes which included the active search for larvae in each biotope visited. Results: A total of 237 larval specimens belonging to four Anopheles species (Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, An. maculipennis and An. petragnani) were collected and identified. Conclusions: Malaria receptivity in the study area is high, especially in the area of Cinca river valley, due to the abundance of breeding sites of An. atroparvus very close to human settlements. Although current socio-economic conditions in Spain reduce possibilities of re-emergence of malaria transmission, it is evident that certain entomological and epidemiological vigilance must be maintained and even increased in the context of current processes of climate change and globalization. PMID:24409440

  20. Psychological adaptation of Moroccan and Ecuadorean immigrant adolescents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Briones, Elena; Verkuyten, Maykel; Cosano, Juan; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In adapting to the host society, immigrant adolescents may have problems negotiating the challenges of acculturation. The factors that promote and those that hamper psychological adaptation may not play the same role in all ethnic groups. Our study focuses on psychological adaptation of two main immigrant groups in Spain that differ in cultural distance to the host society and level of societal acceptance: adolescents of Moroccan and Ecuadorean origin. Our findings show, first, that mainstream cultural orientation is positively related to psychological adaptation, whereas perceived ethnic discrimination is negatively associated with adaptation. Second, the relationship between ethnic cultural orientation and psychological adaptation and between length of residence in Spain and adaptation is stronger for the Moroccan youth than for their Ecuadorean peers. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. This manuscript was prepared and written while the first author was affiliated to the University of Cordoba in Spain and financially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation within the framework of a National Program of Human Recourses' Mobility (I+D+I 2008-2011). Data collection was financially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology (I+D BSO2003-09222).

  1. Charging systems and PAYT experiences for waste management in Spain.

    PubMed

    Puig-Ventosa, I

    2008-12-01

    Municipal waste charges in Spain are very widespread, although their application varies significantly among different municipalities. Most commonly, waste charges are implemented as a flat rate, but some of them depend on indicators such as household water consumption, the land area of the property or the value of the real estate. Only one residential pay-as-you-throw scheme has been applied so far. It was a pay-per-bag scheme implemented in Torrelles de Llobregat, Barcelona. A number of other systems focussing only on commercial waste have been implemented in Spain. Several factors suggest that new pay-as-you-throw schemes will be adopted in the near future. In 2000 no municipalities had door-to-door collection schemes; since then over 70 municipalities have implemented them. In addition to this, some regions encourage the separate collection of commercial waste, by means of doorstep schemes. In all of these areas, variable charging systems could be easily adopted. Additionally, regarding waste charges, the National Waste Plan (2000-2006) advocated for the implementation of "pilot experiences for the quantitative application of the polluter-pays-principle". The tendency towards these variable charging systems in Europe will also favour their introduction in Spain.

  2. Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad A

    2008-06-25

    The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.

  3. Compression of klockmannite, CuSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Suhithi M.; Pearson, Tania T.; Heinz, Dion L.

    1998-07-01

    Copper selenide (CuSe) was compressed in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature up to a pressure of 52 GPa and studied using energy dispersive x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. CuSe is nearly isostructural with copper sulfide (CuS), and a previous study indicates that copper sulfide undergoes reversible pressure-induced amorphization at 18 GPa. The intensity of the x-ray diffraction peaks for CuSe decrease slowly, however, they never completely disappear up to a pressure of 52 GPa. The third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state fit to the data yields K0=96.9±5.3 GPa and K0'=4.1±0.5. Vinet's universal equation of state yields essentially identical parameters. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that upon compression, the S-S bond in CuS compresses differently than the Se-Se bond in CuSe, possibly accounting for the different high pressure behavior of these two very similar compounds.

  4. Preventable avoidable mortality: evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in urban areas in Spain, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, Andreu; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pina, José A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Moncho, Joaquin; Tamayo, Nayara; García-Senchermes, Carmen; Zurriaga, Oscar; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A

    2009-09-01

    This study describes the inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality in relation to socioeconomic levels and analyses their evolution during the period 1996-2003 in the cities of Alicante, Castellon and Valencia. Four causes of preventable avoidable mortality were analysed according to sex: malignant tumour of the trachea, bronchus and lung, cirrhosis and other chronic diseases of the liver, motor vehicle accidents and AIDS, which had caused the death of non-institutionalised residents in the three cities during the period 1996-2003. The different census tracts were grouped into three socioeconomic levels. In general, socioeconomic inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality remain constant in time, except the ones caused by AIDS in Valencia, where they increase for men. Some census tracts in the three cities where the study was carried out were found to have significantly higher preventable mortality rates, and therefore require intervention.

  5. Photoinduced direct electron transfer from InSe to GaSe semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tu, Haohua; Kelley, David F

    2006-01-01

    Direct electron transfer from InSe nanoparticles to GaSe nanoparticles in mixed solution-phase aggregates has been found to occur upon photoexcitation. Mixed aggregates exhibit a strong charge-transfer absorption band at an energy slightly higher than the InSe band gap. Photoexcitation of this band results in a polarized transient absorption spectrum and transient absorption kinetics characteristic of InSe valence-band holes and GaSe conduction-band electrons. The kinetics indicate that charge separation persists for at least several hundred picoseconds.

  6. Atomistic Model of Physical Ageing in Se-rich As-Se Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Golovchak,R.; Shpotyuk, O.; Kozdras, A.; Bureau, B.; Vlcek, M.; Ganjoo, A.; Jain, H.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal, optical, X-ray excited and magnetic methods were used to develop a microstructural model of physical ageing in Se-rich glasses. The glass composition As10Se90, possessing a typical cross-linked chain structure, was chosen as a model object for the investigations. The effect of physical ageing in this glass was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry, whereas the corresponding changes in its atomic arrangement were studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman and solid-state 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Straightening-shrinkage processes are shown to be responsible for the physical ageing in this Se-rich As-Se glass.

  7. Water and gas geochemistry of the Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) hydrothermal system (Ciudad Real, central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Tassi, Franco; Giannini, Luciano; Grandia, Fidel; Darrah, Tom; Capecchiacci, Francesco; del Villar, Pèrez

    2013-04-01

    An extensive geochemical and isotopic investigation was carried out in the water and gas discharges of the Late Miocene-Quaternary Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) (Ciudad Real, Spain) with the aim reconstruct the fluid circulation in the area. CVP consists of a series of scattered (monogenetic) vents from where alkaline lava flows and pyroclastic deposits formed in two different periods. The first stage (8.7-6.4 Ma) mainly included ultra-potassic mafic extrusives, whilst the second stage (4.7-1.75 Ma) prevalently originated alkaline and ultra-alkaline volcanics. Both stages were followed by a volcanic activity that extended up to 1.3 and 0.7 Ma, respectively. This area can likely be regarded as one of the most important emitting zones of CO2 in the whole Peninsular Spain along with that of Selva-Emporda in northeastern Spain (Cataluña) and it can be assumed as one of the best examples of natural analogues of CO2 leakages in Spain. This latter aspect is further evidenced by the relatively common water-gas blast events that characterize the CCVF. In the last few years the presence of a CO2-pressurized reservoir at a relatively shallow level as indeed caused several small-sized explosion particularly during the drilling of domestic wells. The fluid discharging sites are apparently aligned along well-defined directions: NW-SE and NNW-SSE and subordinately, ENE-WSW, indicating a clear relationship between the thermal discharges and the volcanic centers that also distribute along these lineaments. The CVP waters are mostly hypothermal (up to 33 °C) and are generally Mg(Ca)-HCO3 in composition and occasionally show relatively high concentrations of Fe and Mn, with pH and electrical conductivity down to 5.5 and up to 6.5 mS/cm, respectively. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest a meteoric origin for these waters. The mantle source of these volcanic products is apparently preserved in the many CO2-rich (up to 990,000 mmol/mol) gas discharges that characterize CVP

  8. Structural Characterization Of CdSe and ZnSe Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Kalita, P. K.; Datta, P.

    2010-10-01

    Chemically bath deposited CdSe and ZnSe powder possesses mixed type structures whereas it is hexagonal wurtzite type in thin film form. SEM images of CdSe symmetrically exhibit the growth of spherical, rod and the rose(flower) type microstructures. ZnSe shows fine grain structures. The growth of microstructures in these selenides according to the growth direction along c-axis of hexagonal wurtzite crystal. Photoluminescence shows strong blue luminescence at 414 and 437 nm in CdSe nanoparticles. ZnSe shows strong PL at 650 nm that is attributed to the strong d-native traps. The blue shifted band gap luminescence at 392 nm shows the quantum confinement in ZnSe nanoparticles.

  9. {sup 80}Se({gamma},n){sup 79}Se cross section and s-process branching at {sup 79}Se

    SciTech Connect

    Makinaga, A.; Utsunomiya, H.; Kaihori, T.; Yamagata, T.; Akimune, H.; Goriely, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Harano, H.; Harada, H.; Goko, S.; Kitatani, F.; Hara, K. Y.; Hohara, S.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2008-05-21

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 80}Se near the neutron separation energy with laser Compton-backscattered {gamma}-ray beams at AIST. Neutron capture rates are evaluated for {sup 79}Se with the photoreaction data as experimental constraints on the El {gamma}-strength function, a key parameter in the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculation. Solving the set of differential equations under a single neutron exposure, we analyzed the solar abundance ratio of the weak components of {sup 80}Kr and {sup 82}Kr in terms of the s-process branching at {sup 79}Se. We discuss the region of temperature and neutron density allowed for the weak s-process nucleosynthesis.

  10. Changes in soil microbial community structure following the abandonment of agricultural terraces in mountainous areas of Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Zornoza, R.; Guerrero, C.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Scow, K.M.; Arcenegui, V.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.

    2012-01-01

    In Eastern Spain, almond trees have been cultivated in terraced orchards for centuries, forming an integral part of the Mediterranean forest scene. In the last decades, orchards have been abandoned due to changes in society. This study investigates effects of changes in land use from forest to agricultural land and the posterior land abandonment on soil microbial community, and the influence of soil physico-chemical properties on the microbial community composition (assessed as abundances of phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA). For this purpose, three land uses (forest, agricultural and abandoned agricultural) at four locations in SE Spain were selected. Multivariate analysis showed a substantial level of differentiation in microbial community structure according to land use. The microbial communities of forest soils were highly associated with soil organic matter content. However, we have not found any physical or chemical soil property capable of explaining the differences between agricultural and abandoned agricultural soils. Thus, it was suggested that the cessation of the perturbation caused by agriculture and shifts in vegetation may have led to changes in the microbial community structure. PLFAs indicative of fungi and ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs were higher in abandoned agricultural soils, whereas the relative abundance of bacteria was higher in agricultural soils. Actinomycetes were generally lower in abandoned agricultural soils, while the proportions of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi were, as a general trend, higher in agricultural and abandoned agricultural soils than in forests. Total microbial biomass and richness increased as agricultural < abandoned agricultural < forest soils. PMID:22291451

  11. Changes in soil microbial community structure following the abandonment of agricultural terraces in mountainous areas of Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Zornoza, R; Guerrero, C; Mataix-Solera, J; Scow, K M; Arcenegui, V; Mataix-Beneyto, J

    2009-07-01

    In Eastern Spain, almond trees have been cultivated in terraced orchards for centuries, forming an integral part of the Mediterranean forest scene. In the last decades, orchards have been abandoned due to changes in society. This study investigates effects of changes in land use from forest to agricultural land and the posterior land abandonment on soil microbial community, and the influence of soil physico-chemical properties on the microbial community composition (assessed as abundances of phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA). For this purpose, three land uses (forest, agricultural and abandoned agricultural) at four locations in SE Spain were selected. Multivariate analysis showed a substantial level of differentiation in microbial community structure according to land use. The microbial communities of forest soils were highly associated with soil organic matter content. However, we have not found any physical or chemical soil property capable of explaining the differences between agricultural and abandoned agricultural soils. Thus, it was suggested that the cessation of the perturbation caused by agriculture and shifts in vegetation may have led to changes in the microbial community structure. PLFAs indicative of fungi and ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs were higher in abandoned agricultural soils, whereas the relative abundance of bacteria was higher in agricultural soils. Actinomycetes were generally lower in abandoned agricultural soils, while the proportions of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi were, as a general trend, higher in agricultural and abandoned agricultural soils than in forests. Total microbial biomass and richness increased as agricultural < abandoned agricultural < forest soils.

  12. Molecular analysis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rickettsia in Hyalomma marginatum ticks removed from patients (Spain) and birds (Spain and Morocco), 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mazuelas, David; Roncero, Lidia; Arizaga, Juan; Crespo, Ariñe; Gutiérrez, Óscar; Márquez, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Juan F; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    2016-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected in Spain in 2010. The presence of CCHFV in Hyalomma marginatum ticks from migratory birds passing through Morocco during the spring migration strengthened the hypothesis of the arrival of infected ticks transported by birds to the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, Hyalomma species are vectors of bacterial infections such as spotted fever rickettsioses. CCHFV and Rickettsia were screened in Hyalomma ticks from Spain attached to patients (n=12) and birds (n=149). In addition, Rickettsia was investigated in 52 Hyalomma ticks from Morocco (previously reported as CCHFV-infected). No sample collected in Spain showed an infection with CCHFV. Two ticks removed from patients (16.7%), as well as 47 (31.5%) and 4 (7.7%) from birds, collected in Spain and Morocco respectively, were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae was also found in 2 ticks from birds collected in Spain (1.3%). The risk of CCHFV-infected ticks attached to migratory birds to reach the North of Spain is low. This study corroborates the presence of R. aeschlimannii in Spain and Morocco, and supports that H. marginatum can be a potential vector of R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae in the Iberian Peninsula.

  13. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming; Huis, Marijn A. van; Wang, Shuaiwei; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.

    2014-12-28

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., “Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth,” Nano Lett. 14, 3661–3667 (2014)]. In this work, we extend this force field by including another two important binary semiconductors, PbS and CdS, and provide detailed information on the validation of this force field. The parameterization combines Bader charge analysis, empirical fitting, and ab initio energy surface fitting. When compared with experimental data and density functional theory calculations, it is shown that a wide range of physical properties of bulk PbS, PbSe, CdS, CdSe, and their mixed phases can be accurately reproduced using this force field. The choice of functional forms and parameterization strategy is demonstrated to be rational and effective. This transferable force field can be used in various studies on II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials consisting of CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the force field model by molecular dynamics simulations whereby transformations are initiated by cation exchange.

  14. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Koster, Rik S.; Wang, Shuaiwei; Fang, Changming; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; van Huis, Marijn A.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., "Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth," Nano Lett. 14, 3661-3667 (2014)]. In this work, we extend this force field by including another two important binary semiconductors, PbS and CdS, and provide detailed information on the validation of this force field. The parameterization combines Bader charge analysis, empirical fitting, and ab initio energy surface fitting. When compared with experimental data and density functional theory calculations, it is shown that a wide range of physical properties of bulk PbS, PbSe, CdS, CdSe, and their mixed phases can be accurately reproduced using this force field. The choice of functional forms and parameterization strategy is demonstrated to be rational and effective. This transferable force field can be used in various studies on II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials consisting of CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the force field model by molecular dynamics simulations whereby transformations are initiated by cation exchange.

  15. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Koster, Rik S; Wang, Shuaiwei; Fang, Changming; Yalcin, Anil O; Tichelaar, Frans D; Zandbergen, Henny W; van Huis, Marijn A; Vlugt, Thijs J H

    2014-12-28

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., "Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth," Nano Lett. 14, 3661-3667 (2014)]. In this work, we extend this force field by including another two important binary semiconductors, PbS and CdS, and provide detailed information on the validation of this force field. The parameterization combines Bader charge analysis, empirical fitting, and ab initio energy surface fitting. When compared with experimental data and density functional theory calculations, it is shown that a wide range of physical properties of bulk PbS, PbSe, CdS, CdSe, and their mixed phases can be accurately reproduced using this force field. The choice of functional forms and parameterization strategy is demonstrated to be rational and effective. This transferable force field can be used in various studies on II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials consisting of CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the force field model by molecular dynamics simulations whereby transformations are initiated by cation exchange.

  16. Maternal selenium (Se) nutrition affects both milk Se and lipid patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, K.D.; Picciano, M.F.; Perrel, J.P.; Perkins, E.G. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana )

    1991-03-15

    In this study relationships between patterns of Se and lipid secretion in milk of women on self-selected diets were assessed. Milk samples were collected from 10 women at 4, 6 and 8 wks postpartum and blood samples at 4 to 8 wks. Milk samples were extracted and analyzed for tiacylglycerols and fatty acids. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and contents of Se in milk, plasma and erythrocytes were also measured. Two groups were found: one displaying an increase in plasma Se and the other, a decrease from 4 to 8 wks. Milk Se significantly decreased only in women whose plasma Se also decreased. Milk Se was negatively correlated with myristic and stearic acids in women whose plasma Se increased and with arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in women whose plasma Se decreased. Results of this study show that maternal Se nutrition relates not only to the quantity of Se secreted in milk but also to the quantities of individual fatty acids.

  17. Superparamagnetism of Cu2Se nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Whan; Lee, Kyu Joon; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Li, Yan; Seo, Won Seek

    2012-07-01

    Cu2Se nanoparticles were synthesized using the standard Schlenk line and glove box techniques, with the hot-injection method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the initial nanoparticles were formed in a stoichiometric Cu2Se phase with a cubic structure. When the nanoparticles are exposed to air, the diffraction peaks shift to higher angles. This suggests that the nanoparticles are changed to a nonstoichiometric Cu2-deltaSe phase with copper vacancies. The mean size of the nanoparticles was about 7 nm. The magnetic results show that the initial nanoparticles were diamagnetic, and after 1-week air exposure, they became paramagnetic. This dramatic change from diamagnetic to paramagnetic can be explained by the oxidation of Cu+ into Cu2+ at the nanoparticle surface. In addition, the superparamagnetic properties were observed to have a blocking temperature of 150 K. The coercive field decreased as the temperature approached the blocking temperature, and eventually vanished above the blocking temperature.

  18. {InSe}/{GaSe} heterointerfaces prepared by Van der Waals epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, O.; Klein, A.; Schlaf, R.; Löher, T.; Pettenkofer, C.; Jaegermann, W.; Chevy, A.

    1995-01-01

    Epitaxial films of layered substrates can be prepared onto layered substrates even for large lattice mismatch, when the growth is attempted with the Van der Waals surfaces opposing each other (Van der Waals epitaxy). Thin epitaxial InSe(GaSe) films are prepared onto ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) cleaved GaSe(InSe) Van der Waals (0001) surfaces. The films and the heterointerface are characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy, electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). High quality and stoichiometric films are obtained by direct InSe(GaSe) evaporation from a Knudsen cell at sample temperatures between 520 and 620 K. Despite a 6% lattice mismatch the deposited films are oriented with their c- and α-axis to the hexagonal substrate. The growth mostly follows the Frank-Van der Merwe mode. This rather ideal growth behaviour is related to the specific properties of the Van der Waals plane which contains no dangling bonds.

  19. Current transport characteristics of pSe-nMoSe2 heterojunction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumesh, C. K.; Patel, K. D.; Pathak, V. M.; Srivastava, R.

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of heterojunction diode pSe-nMoSe2 fabricated from thermally evaporated p-Se films on n-type Molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique have been examined by using current-voltage measurements. To investigate the dark current transport mechanism in pSe-nMoSe2 heterojunctions the current-voltage characteristics were measured in the temperature range 100-300 K. The prepared diode shows a rectification ratio of the order of 103 within the range -2 to 2 V. A multi-step tunnelling model was used to analyze the I-V-T characteristics of the prepared device. The activation energy determined from the saturation current was about 1.16 eV.

  20. Growth and structural characterizations of GaSe and GaSe:Cd single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkhasi, Afsoun; Gürbulak, Bekir; Şata, Mehmet; Turgut, Güven; Duman, Songül

    2017-02-01

    GaSe and GaSe:Cd single crystals used in this research were grown by using the Bridgman/Stockbarger method. All of the samples were freshly and gently cleaved with a razor blade from the grown ingots and no further polishing and cleaning treatments were required because of the natural mirror-like cleavage faces. The Samples were cleaved along the cleavage planes (001). The structure and lattice parameters of the undoped GaSe and GaSe:Cd semiconductors have been analyzed using a X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) techniques. It is found that GaSe and GaSe:Cd crystals have hexagonal structure, quite close 2θ peak values. XRD measurements indicate that there is an increase in peak intensities at specific annealing temperatures (500°C). Cd doping causes a significant decrease in the XRD peak intensity.

  1. Microstructure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films Deposited in Low Se Vapor Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiwaki, Shiro; Kohara, Naoki; Negami, Takayuki; Miyake, Hideo; Wada, Takahiro

    1999-05-01

    The microstructure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films deposited under low Se flux was studied using scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger electron spectroscopy and high resolution and analytical electron microscopy. CIGS films were deposited on Mo coated soda-lime glass substrate using the “3-stage” process in which the Se flux used during the third stage was restricted to a forth of standard value. In the as-grown CIGS films, voids were observed along the grain boundaries and a Cu2Se phase was identified at the surface and the grain boundaries. The voids and Cu2Se layer were produced by vaporization of an In Se compound from the films during the third stage of deposition. A reaction model on the CIGS grain surface is proposed based on the microstructure observations.

  2. High voltage ZnSe/CuInSe[sub 2] solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, L.C.; Addis, F.W. )

    1994-06-30

    This paper describes investigations of CIS solar cells based on ZnSe window layers deposited by MOCVD. Investigations of ZnSe/CIS solar cells are being carried out to determine if ZnSe is a viable alternative to CdS as a window material. MOCVD growth of ZnSe is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor and conductive n-type ZnSe is grown by using iodine as a dopant. ZnSe films have been grown on CIS substrates at 200 [degree]C to 250 [degree]C. ZnO is also being deposited by MOCVD by reacting tetrahydrofuran (THF) with a zinc adduct. ZnSe/CIS heterojunctions have been studied by growing n-ZnSe films onto 2 cm [times] 2 cm CIS substrates diced from materials supplied by Siemens. Test cells are fabricated by depositing thin, transparent Al contacts 2.8 mm in diameter on top of the ZnSe to serve as contacts. These test devices typically exhibit open circuit voltages [gt]500 mV and estimated active area efficiencies [gt]13%. Efforts to deposit ZnO onto ZnSe/CIS structures for top contact layers have usually resulted in photocurrent suppression, apparently due to interaction of the ZnO deposition process with the ZnSe layer. One approach used for cell fabrication involves the use of a protective layer between ZnO and ZnSe. A cell with a total area efficiency of 9.3% and a Voc of 509 mV has been fabricated.

  3. One-pot synthesis of hollow NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles with improved performance for hybrid supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haichao; Fan, Meiqiang; Li, Chao; Tian, Guanglei; Lv, Chunju; Chen, Da; Shu, Kangying; Jiang, Jianjun

    2016-10-01

    Hollow NiSe-CoSe samples have been synthesized for the first time via a one-pot solvothermal approach. The strategy is robust enough to synthesize NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles with different NiSe to CoSe ratios but with a similar hollow structure. Co ions in the NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles play decisive role for formation of the hollow structure; otherwise, the nanoparticles become solid for the NiSe sample. When used as the positive electroactive materials for energy storage, the NiSe-CoSe samples show excellent electrochemical activity in alkaline electrolyte. Using the synergistic effect between NiSe and CoSe, the electrochemical performance of NiSe-CoSe can be tuned by varying the NiSe to CoSe ratios. The NiSe-CoSe sample with a NiSe to CoSe ratio of 4:2 shows the best electrochemical performance in terms of superior specific capacity, improved rate capability and excellent cycling stability. In addition, the electrochemical performance of NiSe-CoSe sample with a NiSe to CoSe ratio of 4:2 is also evaluated via assembling hybrid supercapacitors with RGO, and the hybrid supercapacitor delivers both high power and energy densities (41.8 Wh kg-1 at 750 W kg-1 and 20.3 Wh kg-1 at 30 kW kg-1).

  4. Inverse-photoemission spectroscopy of GaSe and InSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporken, R.; Hafsi, R.; Coletti, F.; Debever, J. M.; Thiry, P. A.; Chevy, A.

    1994-04-01

    The lamellar semiconductors GaSe and InSe have been studied with k-resolved inverse-photoemission spectroscopy along two major symmetry directions (Γ¯ K¯ and Γ¯ M¯) of the surface Brillouin zone. Three bands with well-resolved features are observed from which the dispersion of the conduction bands can be determined with good precision. The minimum of the conduction band is found at M¯ in GaSe and at Γ¯ in InSe. These results are compared with theoretical studies using pseudopotential and tight-binding calculations.

  5. Se status in normal and pathological human individuals before and after Se supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisola, G.; Cinque, G.; Galassini, S.; Guidi, G. C.; Liu, N. Q.; Moschini, G.

    1996-04-01

    The determination of selenium in plasma and in urine samples has been suggested for the assessment of Se status in human individuals. The kidney is of fundamental importance in Se homeostasis: with low Se intake its excretion will be decreased and with high Se intake it will be increased. In 21 patients with kidney disease (8 with normal kidney function and 13 with moderate renal failure) Se was measured in 1 ml of urine by PIXE after preconcentration of the sample. The total urine volume was measured to calculate total daily Se excretion. The same procedure was applied to 14 normal individuals for comparison. All individuals were then supplemented orally with selenite for 8 weeks (Se = 600 μg/day) and the procedure was repeated. The behaviour of the major selenoproteins was also investigated by measuring glutathione peroxidase activities in plasma, in platelets and in erythrocyte samples. For renal function, serum and urine creatinine concentrations were utilised and creatinine clearances were calculated. Results obtained were compared before and after Se treatment and between groups. Some correlation studies were carried out between Se and kidney functions and/or selenoperoxidase activities.

  6. Atomic scale microstructure and properties of Se-deficient two-dimensional MoSe2.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Ossi; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Pulkin, Artem; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Chen, Ming-Wei; Lehnert, Tibor; Mohn, Michael J; Yazyev, Oleg V; Kis, Andras; Kaiser, Ute; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2015-03-24

    We study the atomic scale microstructure of nonstoichiometric two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide MoSe2-x by employing aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. We show that a Se-deficit in single layers of MoSe2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy gives rise to a dense network of mirror-twin-boundaries (MTBs) decorating the 2D-grains. With the use of density functional theory calculations, we further demonstrate that MTBs are thermodynamically stable structures in Se-deficient sheets. These line defects host spatially localized states with energies close to the valence band minimum, thus giving rise to enhanced conductance along straight MTBs. However, electronic transport calculations show that the transmission of hole charge carriers across MTBs is strongly suppressed due to band bending effects. We further observe formation of MTBs during in situ removal of Se atoms by the electron beam of the microscope, thus confirming that MTBs appear due to Se-deficit, and not coalescence of individual grains during growth. At a very high local Se-deficit, the 2D sheet becomes unstable and transforms to a nanowire. Our results on Se-deficient MoSe2 suggest routes toward engineering the properties of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides by deviations from the stoichiometric composition.

  7. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  8. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Within this submission are multiple .tif images with accompanying metadata of magnetotelluric conductor occurrence, fault critical stress composite risk segment (CRS), permeability CRS, Quaternary mafic extrusions, Quaternary fault density, and Quaternary rhyolite maps. Each of these contributed to a final play fairway analysis (PFA) for the SE Great Basin study area.

  9. Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in Spain.

    PubMed

    Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki; Miguel, Lucía García-San; Ayala-Morillas, L Eduardo; García-Pérez, Lidia; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Martín-Águeda, María Belén; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Although Spain is the European country with the highest Chagas disease burden, the country does not have a national control program of the disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of several strategies for Chagas disease screening among Latin American residents living in Spain. The following screening strategies were evaluated: (1) non-screening; (2) screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns; (3) screening also the relatives of the positive pregnant women; (4) screening also the relatives of the negative pregnant women. A cost-utility analysis was carried out to compare the four strategies from two perspectives, the societal and the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). A decision tree representing the clinical evolution of Chagas disease throughout patient's life was built. The strategies were compared through the incremental cost-utility ratio, using euros as cost measurement and quality-adjusted life years as utility measurement. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the model parameters and their influence on the results. We found the "Non-screening" as the most expensive and less effective of the evaluated strategies, from both the societal and the SNHS perspectives. Among the screening evaluated strategies the most efficient was, from both perspectives, to extent the antenatal screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns up to the relatives of the positive women. Several parameters influenced significantly on the sensitivity analyses, particularly the chronic treatment efficacy or the prevalence of Chagas disease. In conclusion, for the general Latin American immigrants living in Spain the most efficient would be to screen the Latin American mothers, their newborns and the close relatives of the mothers with a positive serology. However for higher prevalence immigrant population the most efficient intervention would be to extend the program to the close relatives of the negative

  10. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain.

  11. Costs, outcomes and challenges for diabetes care in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming of increasing concern in Spain due to rising incidence and prevalence, although little information is known with regards to costs and outcomes. The information on cost of diabetes in Spain is fragmented and outdated. Our objective is to update diabetes costs, and to identify outcomes and quality of care of diabetes in Spain. Methods We performed systematic searches from secondary sources, including scientific literature and government data and reports. Results Diabetes Type II prevalence is estimated at 7.8%, and an additional 6% of the population is estimated to be undiagnosed. Four Spanish diabetes cost studies were analyzed to create a projection of direct costs in the NHS and productivity losses, estimating €5.1 billion for direct costs along with €1.5 billion for diabetes-related complications (2009) and labour productivity losses represented €2.8 billion. Glycemic control (glycolysated hemoglobin) is considered acceptable in 59% of adult Type II cases, in addition to 85% with HDL cholesterol ≥40mg/dl and 65% with blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, pointing to good intermediate outcomes. However, annual figures indicate that over half of the Type II diabetics are obese (BMI >30), 15% have diabetic retinopathy, 16% with microalbuminuria, and 15% with cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The direct health care costs (8% of the total National Health System expenditure) and the loss of labour productivity are high. The importance of a multi-sectoral approach in prevention and improvements in management of diabetes are discussed, along with policy considerations to help modify the disease course. PMID:23635075

  12. Burden of disease due to cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Gil, Ángel; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Burden of disease is a joint measure of mortality and morbidity which makes it easier to compare health problems in which these two components enjoy different degrees of relative importance. The objective of this study is ascertaining the burden of disease due to cancer in Spain via the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to premature mortality and years lost due to disability. World Health Organization methodology and the following sources of data were used: the Mortality Register and Princeton Model Life Table for Years of life lost due to premature mortality and population, incidence estimates (Spanish tumour registries and fitting of generalized linear mixed models), duration (from data of survival in Spain from the EUROCARE-3 study and fitting of Weibull distribution function) and disability (weights published in the literature) for Years lost due to disability. Results There were 828,997 DALYs due to cancer (20.5 DALYs/1,000 population), 61% in men. Of the total, 51% corresponded to lung, colorectal, breast, stomach and prostate cancers. Mortality (84% of DALYs) predominated over disability. Subjects aged under 20 years accounted for 1.6% and those aged over 70 years accounted for 30.1% of DALYs. Conclusion Lung, colorectal and breast cancers are responsible for the highest number of DALYs in Spain. Even if the burden of disease due to cancer is predominantly caused by mortality, some cancers have a significant weight of disability. Information on 2000 burden of disease due to cancer can be useful to assess how it has evolved over time and the impact of medical advances on it in terms of mortality and disability. PMID:19183440

  13. Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Parés-Badell, Oleguer; Barbaglia, Gabriela; Jerinic, Petra; Gustavsson, Anders; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain disorders represent a high burden in Europe and worldwide. The objective of this study was to provide specific estimates of the economic costs of brain disorders in Spain, based on published epidemiological and economic evidence. Methods A cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective of 19 brain disorders was carried out. Cost data published between 2004 and 2012 was obtained from a systematic literature review. Direct healthcare, direct non-medical and indirect costs were considered, prioritizing bottom-up information. All costs were converted to Euro and to year 2010. The missing values were imputed with European estimates. Sensitivity analyses based on qualitative assessment of the literature and on a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Results The review identified 33 articles with information on costs for 11 disorders (8 neurological, 3 mental). The average per–patient cost ranged from 36,946 € for multiple sclerosis to 402 € for headache. The societal cost of the 19 brain disorders in Spain in 2010 was estimated in 84 € billion. Societal costs ranged from 15 € billion for dementia to 65 € million for eating disorders. Mental disorders societal cost were 46 € billions (55% of the total), while neurological disorder added up to 38 € billion. Healthcare costs represented 37% of the societal costs of brain disorders, whereas direct non-medical constituted 29% and indirect costs 33%. Conclusion Brain disorders have a substantial economic impact in Spain (equivalent to almost 8% of the country's GDP). Economic data on several important brain disorders, specially mental disorders, is still sparse. PMID:25133395

  14. Preparing CAM-SE for Multi-Tracer Applications: CAM-SE-Cslam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauritzen, P. H.; Taylor, M.; Goldhaber, S.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR-DOE spectral element (SE) dynamical core comes from the HOMME (High-Order Modeling Environment; Dennis et al., 2012) and it is available in CAM. The CAM-SE dynamical core is designed with intrinsic mimetic properties guaranteeing total energy conservation (to time-truncation errors) and mass-conservation, and has demonstrated excellent scalability on massively parallel compute platforms (Taylor, 2011). For applications involving many tracers such as chemistry and biochemistry modeling, CAM-SE has been found to be significantly more computationally costly than the current "workhorse" model CAM-FV (Finite-Volume; Lin 2004). Hence a multi-tracer efficient scheme, called the CSLAM (Conservative Semi-Lagrangian Multi-tracer; Lauritzen et al., 2011) scheme, has been implemented in the HOMME (Erath et al., 2012). The CSLAM scheme has recently been cast in flux-form in HOMME so that it can be coupled to the SE dynamical core through conventional flux-coupling methods where the SE dynamical core provides background air mass fluxes to CSLAM. Since the CSLAM scheme makes use of a finite-volume gnomonic cubed-sphere grid and hence does not operate on the SE quadrature grid, the capability of running tracer advection, the physical parameterization suite and dynamics on separate grids has been implemented in CAM-SE. The default CAM-SE-CSLAM setup is to run physics on the quasi-equal area CSLAM grid. The capability of running physics on a different grid than the SE dynamical core may provide a more consistent coupling since the physics grid option operates with quasi-equal-area cell average values rather than non-equi-distant grid-point (SE quadrature point) values. Preliminary results on the performance of CAM-SE-CSLAM will be presented.

  15. The population genetics of maize dwarf mosaic virus in Spain.

    PubMed

    Achon, M A; Larrañaga, A; Alonso-Dueñas, N

    2012-12-01

    The population genetics of maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in Spain was assessed by analysis of the P1-HC region. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 363 isolates revealed that the MDMV population consisted of 69 haplotypes. Sequence analysis of 112 isolates confirmed a high degree of nucleotide sequence diversity (0.143), which was higher for P1 than for the HC. Twelve sequences showed a single different recombination event. Selection pressure analysis revealed that the P1-HC region was under strong negative selection. The MDMV population was spatially structured but not structured temporally or by host. Phylogenetic analysis split the sequences into five major groups.

  16. South-North migration. The case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Bodega Fernandez, I; Cebrian De Miguel, J A; Franchini Alonso, T; Lora-tamayo D'ocon, G; Martin Lou, A

    1995-01-01

    "International migrations caused by socio-economic and demographic reasons, especially from underdeveloped countries to the rich and prosperous areas of the globe are discussed with the focus on Western Europe and particularly on Maghrebi immigration to Spain. Emigration of the people from a backward region even increases the deterioration of [the] local economy, provoking stagnation and inflation. Therefore emigration only can not be seen as an economic take-off for sustained economic development over the frontier areas between developed and depressed territories. Related social questions as well as economic, religious and political may add factors affecting the structural balance of the societies concerned."

  17. [Toward healthy offspring: early prenatal testing in Spain].

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with prenatal diagnosis practices in Spain. For pursuing this aim it reviews both literature on the origins of these practices in foreign countries as well as some of the early publications by Spanish practitioners. Those publications appeared to be connected to previous genetic testing in children such as the case of Down syndrome. Socio-political norms and values of Franco's regime together with clinicians' interests on introducing new testing techniques resulted in the stabilization of these practices associated to a reconceptualisation of pregnancy. Although prenatal diagnosis techniques made the body of pregnant women invisible, women's bodies remained at the core of the technicalisation of contemporary reproductive options.

  18. Pulmonary vascular lesions in the toxic oil syndrome in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Segoviano, P; Esteban, A; Martínez-Cabruja, R

    1983-01-01

    A histological study was made of pulmonary arteries at the necropsies of nine patients who died after the ingestion of denatured rapeseed oil during the epidemic which occurred in Spain in May 1981. Lesions found in the elastic pulmonary arteries were characterised by pronounced intimal proliferation of an oedematous nature, accumulation of large vacuolated cells within the media, and loss of vascular smooth muscle. In muscular pulmonary arteries there was pronounced medial hypertrophy and intimal proliferation, which was so severe in one case that it completely occluded the arterial lumen. Foamy cells were found in the intima. Muscularisation was seen in the walls of pulmonary arterioles. Images PMID:6648850

  19. Ideal men: masculinity and decline in seventeenth-century Spain.

    PubMed

    Lehfeldt, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how the experience and critique of their country's decline led Spaniards to craft a distinct discourse of masculinity in the seventeenth century. As they self-consciously examined Spain's crisis and offered political and economic solutions, these same writers also offered a scathing critique of standards of masculinity. Using the figure of the ideal nobleman as a case study, the article examines how moralists, arbitristas, and hagiographers constructed a dynamic code of manhood linked to questions of productivity, male chastity, and military performance. Further, it argues that this discourse was ultimately nostalgic and failed to adapt itself to the circumstances of the seventeenth century.

  20. Orally ingestion of krokodil in Spain: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Baquero Escribano, Abel; Beltrán Negre, María Teresa; Calvo Orenga, Gema; Carratalá Monfort, Sonia; Arnau Peiró, Francisco; Meca Zapatero, Sara; Haro Cortés, Gonzalo

    2016-06-14

    The krokodil use disorder is an addictive pathology with quite severe organic effects, especially at the skin level, that causes severe and degenerative necrosis of blood and muscle tissue. Though this disorder has a low prevalence in Spain, compared to the large number of consumers in other countries such as Ukraine or Russia, its consumption is slowly but gradually expanding in countries of the European Union and America. The simplicity of the process of obtaining the substance from desomorphine, together with its high availability and low cost, contribute toward consumers' self-sufficiency. This article presents the case of a user of krokodil and reviews the clinical symptoms of oral ingestion.

  1. [The beginnings of public health studies in Renaissance Spain].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn.

  2. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 2)].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio; Taboada-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Limia-Sánchez, Aurora

    2016-03-08

    Immunization schedules are intrinsically dynamic in order to embed the immunologic and epidemiologic changes in any specific geographic Region. According to this, the current study addresses a proposal to modify the Childhood Immunization Schedule in Spain. In order to move from a three plus one schema to a two plus one, we undertake a review of the available literature to explore the immunological and clinical rationale behind this change, including an overview of the potential impact on this schedule of premature infants. Additionally, some recommendations are made regarding those Spanish regions which start hepatitis B vaccination at the newborn period.

  3. [Shigella sonnei outbreak in a school in Northern Spain].

    PubMed

    Artieda, Juncal; Manterola, Jose Maria; Tolosa, Elena; Moreno, Belen; Alustiza, Jesus; Astigarraga, Uxue; Botello, Rene; Arostegui, Nerea; Basterrechea, Mikel

    2015-03-01

    In October 2012, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by Shigella sonnei was detected in a nursery and primary school in the north of Spain affecting 112 people: 63.7% were pupils and teachers and 35.7% their co-habitants. The source was a sick child who had travelled to an endemic country, and the key trigger factor was inadequate hygiene in one of the toilets of the school. The enforcement of strict hygiene measures was essential for controlling the outbreak.

  4. [Aging at home with telecare in Spain. A dicourse analysis].

    PubMed

    Aceros, Juan C; Cavalcante, Maria Tereza Leal; Domènech, Miquel

    2016-08-01

    Caring for the elderly is turning to forms of community care and home care. Telecare is one of those emergent modalities of caring. This article will explore the meanings that older people give to the experience of staying at home in later life by using telecare. Discourse analysis is used to examine a set of focus groups and interviews with telecare users from different cities of Catalonia (Spain). The outcomes include three interpretative repertoires that we called: "Aging at home", "normal aging" and "unsafe aging". For each repertoire we examine how the permanence of older people in their homes is accounted, and which role telecare plays in such experience.

  5. [Multi-resistant strains of Salmonella typhi in Spain].

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Aladueña, A; Jaime, M L; Raya, C; Fuster, C; Planes, A; Bartolomé, R M

    1992-11-01

    Most Salmonella typhi isolated in Spain are susceptible to antibiotics commonly used in its treatment as chloramphenicol, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Three multiresistant strains have been isolated from different patients the last two years. Two phage type M1, biotype xylose tetrationate + strains were isolated from blood of two patients in Bembibre (León). One phage type E1a biotype xylose + tetrationate reductase + strain was isolated from blood and faeces of one patient in Barcelona. All strains harboured a 79 Mdal plasmid responsible for multiresistance, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase production and conjugative.

  6. Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Gil, J. I.; Inza, A.; Ortega, L. A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Zabalza, J.

    Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995-2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn-Ba and Cu-Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.

  7. The 2013 seismic sequence close to gas injection platform of the Castor project, offshore Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Grigoli, Francesco; Heimann, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Buforn, Elisa; Maghsoudi, Samira; Blanch, Estefania; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    A spatially localized seismic sequence has originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, starting on September 5, 2013, and lasting at least until October 2013. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on October 1, 2013. The epicentral region is located near the offshore platform of the Castor project, where gas is conducted through a pipeline from mainland and where it was recently injected in a depleted oil reservoir, at about 2 km depth. We analyse the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and use full waveform techniques to derive absolute and relative locations, estimate depths and focal mechanisms for the largest events in the sequence (with magnitude mbLg larger than 3), and compare them to a previous event (April 8, 2012, mbLg 3.3) taking place in the same region prior to the gas injection. Moment tensor inversion results show that the overall seismicity in this sequence is characterized by oblique mechanisms with a normal fault component, with a 30° low-dip angle plane oriented NNE-SSW and a sub- vertical plane oriented NW-SE. The combined analysis of hypocentral location and focal mechanisms could indicate that the seismic sequence corresponds to rupture processes along sub- horizontal shallow surfaces, which could have been triggered by the gas injection in the reservoir,. An alternative scenario includes the iterated triggering of a system of steep faults oriented NW-SE, which were identified by prior marine seismics investigations. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE-SW orientation, roughly parallel to the coastline. No significant known historical seismicity has involved this fault in the past. Our both scenarios exclude its activation, as its known orientation is inconsistent with focal mechanism results.

  8. Validation of an Instructional Observation Instrument for Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garcia, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The design and validation of a classroom observation instrument to provide formative feedback for teachers of EFL in Spain is the overarching purpose of this study. This study proposes that a valid and reliable classroom observation instrument, based on effective practice in teaching EFL, can be developed and used in Spain to enable teachers to…

  9. Global Citizenship and National (Re)formations: Analysis of Citizenship Education Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many European education systems have embarked on a process of education policy and curriculum reform related to citizenship education. This article explores citizenship education reform in the context of Spain. It considers how and to what extent Spain's 2006 citizenship education addressed issues of national and global…

  10. Moroccan Immigrant Children in a Time of Surveillance: Navigating Sameness and Difference in Contemporary Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Sanchez, Inmaculada Maria

    2009-01-01

    Moroccan Immigrant Children in a Time of Surveillance: Navigating Sameness and Rooted in twenty months of ethnographic fieldwork in Southwestern Spain, this dissertation analyzes the socio-cultural and linguistic lifeworlds of 8-11 year-old Moroccan immigrant children as they navigate family, school institutions, and peer groups in Spain. To…

  11. School Choice in Spain and the United States: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umpstead, Regina; Jankens, Benjamin; Ortega Gil, Pablo; Weiss, Linda; Umpstead, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article explores issues of school choice in Spain and the United States by examining the roles and functions of "centros concertados," publicly funded private schools in Spain, and public charter schools in the United States, to provide key insights into the similarities and differences between them. After making a national…

  12. Pedagogical Innovation and Music Education in Spain: Introducing the Dalcroze Method in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comas Rubí, Francesca; Motilla-Salas, Xavier; Sureda-Garcia, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse how the Dalcroze method was introduced to Spain and became known there, more specifically in the Catalonia of the "Noucentisme" movement, and why it made the greatest impact and was more widely disseminated in this particular region of Spain. Following a summary of Dalcroze's contributions to music…

  13. An Induction Programme for Bologna First-Year Bachelor's Degree Students in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del-Arco Bravo, Isabel; Camats, Ramon; Flores, Oscar; Alaminos, Francisco; Blazquez, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The current study describes the planning process and aims of the university reforms in Spain and suggests an innovative proposal, namely the design and evaluation of a week-long induction programme for first-year bachelor's degree students at the University of Lleida (Spain), organised within the European higher education framework.…

  14. 77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel bar from Brazil... (July 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Investigation Nos....

  15. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...

  16. The Situation of Open Access Institutional Repositories in Spain: 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Remedios; Abadal, Ernest; Abad, Francisca; Rodriguez-Gairin, Josep Manel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The DRIVER I project drew up a detailed report of European repositories based on data gathered in a survey in which Spain's participation was very low. This created a highly distorted image of the implementation of repositories in Spain. This study aims to analyse the current state of Spanish open-access institutional repositories…

  17. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  18. The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

  19. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  20. From Student Associations to CEUNE: The Development of Student Representation in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parejo, José Luis; Lorente, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The forms of students' political participation in the administration of higher education in Spain have evolved throughout history. Spain has developed from a period characterised by the corporatist model of Sindicato Espanõl Universitario--as a single syndicate of students controlled by the Franco Regime--towards the emergence of a student…

  1. School Development and Professional Development in the New Educational Reform in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estebaranz, Araceli; Mingorance, Pilar

    Components of the sociocultural, professional, and institutional contexts of teacher professional development in Spain are explored. Teacher training changes in Spain arise from the sociocultural context, with the increasing democratization of the nation since the 1980s, the recognition that areas and elements of society have been underserved, the…

  2. Review of Doctoral Research on Second Language Teaching and Learning in Spain (2008-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Raquel; Miralpeix, Imma

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of doctoral theses on language learning and teaching completed in Spain between 2008 and 2010. A total of 16 theses have been identified as representative--in terms of the topics under investigation and the methodology employed--of the doctoral research undertaken in Spain. Current topics include the development of…

  3. Education of Deaf Students in Spain: Legal and Educational Politics Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Fuentes, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the legal instruments and educational politics affecting deaf persons' educational rights in Spain. We present a historical view of deaf education in Spain before and after the Congress of Milan (1880) and then introduce educational legislation and practices in recent decades. At present, Spanish legislation is moving toward…

  4. Ultra-Fast Synthesis for Ag2Se and CuAgSe Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DUAN, H. Z.; LI, Y. L.; ZHAO, K. P.; QIU, P. F.; SHI, X.; CHEN, L. D.

    2016-10-01

    Ag2Se and CuAgSe have been recently reported as promising thermoelectric materials at room temperature. The traditional melting-annealing-sintering processes are used to grow Ag2Se and CuAgSe materials with the disadvantages of high costs of energy and time. In this work, phase-pure polycrystalline Ag2Se and CuAgSe compounds were synthesized from raw elemental powders directly by manual mixing followed by spark plasma sintering (MM-SPS) in a few minutes. The influence of SPS heating rate on the phase composition, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties, including Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated. The zTs of 0.8 at 390 K and 0.6 at 450 K are obtained for Ag2Se and CuAgSe, respectively, which is comparable with the values in the materials prepared by the traditional method. Furthermore, this ultrafast sample synthesis can significantly save material synthesis time and thus has the obvious advantage for large-scale production.

  5. Optical detectors on GaSe and InSe layered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyazym-Zade, A. G.; Agaeva, A. A.; Salmanov, V. M.; Mokhtari, A. G.

    2007-12-01

    Fast uncooled GaSe and InSe detectors that can record ultrashort (10-12 10-9 s) laser pulses in the visual and near-IR ranges are developed. The quick response of the detectors is due to rapid recombination channels with a high capture cross section present in the crystals.

  6. Ba4Ga2Se8: A ternary selenide containing chains and discrete Se22- units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenlong; Iyer, Abishek K.; Lin, Xinsong; Mar, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    The ternary selenide Ba4Ga2Se8 has been synthesized by reaction of BaSe, Ga2Se3, and Se at 1023 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a monoclinic structure (space group P21/c, Z=4, a=13.2393(5) Å, b=6.4305(2) Å, c=20.6432(8) Å, β=104.3148(6)°) featuring one-dimensional chains of corner-sharing Ga-centered tetrahedra and discrete Se22- anionic units, with charge-compensating Ba2+ cations located between them. The UV/vis/NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum reveals an optical band gap of 1.63(2) eV, which is consistent with the black color of the crystals and agrees with a calculated gap of 1.51 eV obtained from band structure calculations. The presence of the Se22- units narrows the band gap in Ba4Ga2Se8 relative to other Ba-Ga-Se phases.

  7. 31P to 77Se cross polarization in beta-P4Se3.

    PubMed

    Pietrass, T; Seydoux, R; Roth, R E; Eckert, H; Pines, A

    1997-08-01

    Cross polarization from 31P to 77Se is demonstrated in beta-P4Se3. This material, an inorganic glass, is readily synthesized from the elements and serves as a convenient sample for setting the Hartmann-Hahn condition.

  8. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-shi

    2003-01-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  9. Ab initio calculations of optical constants of GaSe and InSe layered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, S. Yu.; Kosobutsky, A. V.; Brudnyi, V. N.; Zhuravlev, Yu. N.

    2015-09-01

    The dielectric functions, refractive indices, and extinction coefficients of GaSe and InSe layered crystals have been calculated within the density functional theory. The calculations have been performed for the values of theoretical structural parameters optimized using the exchange-correlation functional, which allows one to take into account the dispersion interactions. It has been found that optical functions are characterized by the most pronounced polarization anisotropy in the range of photon energies of ˜4-7 eV. The frequency dependences for InSe compound in the range up to 4 eV demonstrate the more pronounced anisotropy as compared to GaSe. The results obtained for GaSe crystal agree better with the experimental data as compared to the previous calculations.

  10. Morphology of ultrathin CdSe quantum confinement layers in ZnSe matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, K. G.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Rosenauer, A.; Gerthsen, D.

    1999-06-01

    Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), digital analysis of lattice images (DALI), and correspondence analysis (CA) we present at near-atomic resolution the morphology of a nominal 2 monolayer (ML) cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum well (QW) between ZnSe barriers. We reveal the presence of ˜10 ML zinc cadmium selenide (Zn xCd 1- xSe) alloy insertion layer of varying composition in a ZnSe matrix. A spotty pattern in the plane of the layer indicates the presence of self-assembled clusters or islands similar to the structures commonly referred to as quantum dots. Further analysis indicates that these clusters, of less than 10 nm in lateral extent, themselves contain sites highly saturated with CdSe. Analysis of photoluminescence (PL) spectra suggests that the emission originates predominantly from excitons trapped in these islands.

  11. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and... orders on stainless steel wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and... Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan: Final Results of...

  12. Community and the Myth of the Ideal School: Circulation and Appropriation of the Hamburg Gemeinschaftsschulen in Spain (1922-1933)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Pozo Andrés, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    The progressive education movement was known in Spain from its very inception, and in fact many of its pedagogical theories and practices reached Spain before reaching other European countries. Yet traditional historiography has always maintained that Spain was never integrated in the progressive education movement, a misconception that helps…

  13. 77 FR 16207 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Final Results of the Expedited Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Final Results of... steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (the... the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain\\1\\ pursuant...

  14. Effect of alcohol consumption on selenium (Se) bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.; Snook, J.T.; Yang, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol ingestion on Se bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient (0.012 mg/kg) basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/kg or at 0.085 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at 3 levels: 0%, 10%, and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly (P < .0001) affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance, whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and liver Se. In rats fed the higher Se diet total liver Se increased 50% when 20% rather than 0% alcohol was given. In rats fed the lower Se diet total liver Se decreased 12% as dietary alcohol increased from 0 to 20%. There was a significant (P < .0015) interaction between alcohol and Se level. All the other parameters for Se bioavailability were not affected by alcohol consumption. However, alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  15. Superconducting gap structure of FeSe.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lin; Huang, Chien-Lung; Rößler, Sahana; Koz, Cevriye; Rößler, Ulrich K; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wirth, Steffen

    2017-03-07

    The microscopic mechanism governing the zero-resistance flow of current in some iron-based, high-temperature superconducting materials is not well understood up to now. A central issue concerning the investigation of these materials is their superconducting gap symmetry and structure. Here we present a combined study of low-temperature specific heat and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements on single crystalline FeSe. The results reveal the existence of at least two superconducting gaps which can be represented by a phenomenological two-band model. The analysis of the specific heat suggests significant anisotropy in the gap magnitude with deep gap minima. The tunneling spectra display an overall "U"-shaped gap close to the Fermi level away as well as on top of twin boundaries. These results are compatible with the anisotropic nodeless models describing superconductivity in FeSe.

  16. Superconducting gap structure of FeSe

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Lin; Huang, Chien-Lung; Rößler, Sahana; Koz, Cevriye; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wirth, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The microscopic mechanism governing the zero-resistance flow of current in some iron-based, high-temperature superconducting materials is not well understood up to now. A central issue concerning the investigation of these materials is their superconducting gap symmetry and structure. Here we present a combined study of low-temperature specific heat and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements on single crystalline FeSe. The results reveal the existence of at least two superconducting gaps which can be represented by a phenomenological two-band model. The analysis of the specific heat suggests significant anisotropy in the gap magnitude with deep gap minima. The tunneling spectra display an overall “U”-shaped gap close to the Fermi level away as well as on top of twin boundaries. These results are compatible with the anisotropic nodeless models describing superconductivity in FeSe. PMID:28266654

  17. Superconducting gap structure of FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lin; Huang, Chien-Lung; Rößler, Sahana; Koz, Cevriye; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wirth, Steffen

    2017-03-01

    The microscopic mechanism governing the zero-resistance flow of current in some iron-based, high-temperature superconducting materials is not well understood up to now. A central issue concerning the investigation of these materials is their superconducting gap symmetry and structure. Here we present a combined study of low-temperature specific heat and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements on single crystalline FeSe. The results reveal the existence of at least two superconducting gaps which can be represented by a phenomenological two-band model. The analysis of the specific heat suggests significant anisotropy in the gap magnitude with deep gap minima. The tunneling spectra display an overall “U”-shaped gap close to the Fermi level away as well as on top of twin boundaries. These results are compatible with the anisotropic nodeless models describing superconductivity in FeSe.

  18. The GeTe-PbSe system

    SciTech Connect

    Abrikosov, N.Kh.; Avilov, E.S.; Karpinskii, O.G.; Radkevich, O.V.; Shelimova, L.E.

    1986-03-01

    Phase equilibria are investigated in the GeTe-PbSe system and also the effect of cation-anion substitution in the structural state, phase-transformation temperatures, and electrophysical properties of the solution alloys based on alpha-GeTe are studied. After annealing at 570 K, the alloys were investigated by thermal, microstructural, x-ray-phase, and dilatometric analyses. Electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient were measured at 300 K by an R 56/2 ac potentiometer with precision of 3 and 10% respectively. The precision in the thermo-emf-coefficient measurements was 3% and in thermal-conductivity measurements was 10%. It was established that the Ge /SUB 0.9/ Te-PbSe section is quasibinary only at temperatures near th solidus, where a continuous series of solid solutions exist.

  19. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    preliminary data already suggests differences in salinity between insolation maxima's and minima's, which is not expressed in this low resolution signal. In addition we are backing up the ACE proxy data by deuterium values as an independent comparison. Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilson, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature 400, 652-655. Sierro, F.J., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Flores, J.A., 2001. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 168, 141-169. Turich, C., Freeman, K.H., 2011. Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1147-1157.

  20. Mineralogical composition of African dust delivered by red rains over northeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Anna; Queralt-Mitjans, Ignasi; Alarcón, Marta

    1997-09-01

    The African dust deposition, mineralogy, source regions, and influence on rain chemistry were analyzed for a site in the Montseny mountains (Catalonia, northeastern Spain) for the period August 1, 1983, through August 1, 1994. Dust deposition was highly variable: two events (collected on November 9-11, 1984, and March 22-25, 1991) accounted for 62% of the total dust input in the 38 red rain events recorded in the period. The average annual dust deposition was 5.3 g m-2 (SE 2.6). Three source regions in the African continent were identified with back trajectory analysis: (1) Western Sahara, (2) Moroccan Atlas, and (3) Central Algeria. Events from the Moroccan Atlas predominated in terms of number of events, amount of rainfall, and dust deposition. The meteorological situations during red rains were identified: Western Sahara events occurred principally with a depression at high latitudes (50°N) forming a trough in the North Atlantic, Moroccan Atlas events occurred with a depression in front of Portugal, and events from central Algeria were associated with a depression over Spain or North Africa. By order of abundance (median of n=13) the minerals identified in the dust by X ray diffraction were as follows: illite > quartz > smectite > palygorskite > kaolinite > calcite > dolomite > feldspars. Differences in mineralogy between source regions were significant for smectite, kaolinite, quartz, and dolomite. Smectite and kaolinite content was highest in the Algerian events, while quartz and dolomite content was lowest. Events from the Moroccan Atlas had the lowest smectite and kaolinite. The red rain soluble chemistry was clearly influenced by the dissolution of calcite (high alkalinity, calcium concentration and basic pH) and by marine components (high Na+, Cl- arid Mg+2 concentrations). Because of the very alkaline character of red rains they had a strong weight on the annual mean pH of rainwater. This was reflected by the significant relationship (r=0.71, p<0