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Sample records for alicante se spain

  1. Using a simple decision support system to evaluate water saving strategies in Alicante, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzandvoort, Simone; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Morugán, Alicia; van den Elsen, Erik; Moore, Demie

    2010-05-01

    Advances in knowledge and technologies during the last decades have led to considerable water savings in many irrigated areas around the world. These have often been achieved through modern water supply methodologies involving, for example, advanced drip and sprinkler irrigation. These methods, however, are costly and socio-economically not always viable. The southern Mediterranean region is particularly susceptible to water shortage problems because of the increasing (potable) water demands for human consumption and agricultural use on the one hand, and decreasing water availability on the other hand. Conventional water resources are inefficiently used through incomplete wetting of soils due to water repellency, excessive evaporation due to ponding, and water loss due to runoff and throughflow. There is a scope for developing new and advancing existing sustainable water saving strategies in the Mediterranean area, by focusing on largely unexploited opportunities for water saving and the use of waste water as a non-conventional water resource on irrigated land. The performance of water saving strategies depends on economic, ecological and socio-cultural valuations of the techniques by stakeholders. This study was performed in the framework of the EU co-funded Water Reuse project, which aims at testing new and existing water saving strategies in the southern Mediterranean area and in NIS states. The objective of this study was to use a simple decision support system to evaluate the performance of water saving strategies for vine-growing areas in Alicante, Spain from an economic, ecological and socio-cultural point of view. Water saving strategies were selected with the aims to 1) to optimize the irrigation dose to crop requirements, 2) to improve the wetting properties of soils by preventing formation of water repellency, 3) to prevent water loss due to evaporation, and 4) to investigate the use of waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation

  2. Prospective cohort study of female sex workers and the risk of HIV infection in Alicante, Spain (1986-96)

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, J.; Hernandez-Aguado, I.; Fernandez, G; d Garcia; Alvarez-Dardet, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of HIV infection over a 10 year follow up in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Alicante (Spain), and to determine factors associated with high risk of infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried in an AIDS information and prevention centre in Alicante, Spain. Of the 1388 female sex workers who initially sought the services of the centre since September 1986, 657 completed at least one additional follow up visit before December 1996. Main outcome measures were infection with HIV-1 and reported risk behaviours. RESULTS: During 1815 person years of observation among 657 female sex workers who were free of HIV infection (negative test), 16 women developed of HIV infection (incidence rate of HIV infection = 8.8 cases/1000 woman years, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.4-14.4). Reported current use of injecting drugs at the first visit was associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (relative risk, RR = 12.87, 95% CI: 4.81-34.15) as well as having an usual partner with injecting drug addiction (RR = 20.89, 95% CI: 7.44-58.70). Infection also was associated with younger age (RR for 1 year = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.96). After multivariate adjustment using Poisson regression analysis, the factors that remained significantly associated with the risk of HIV infection were current use of injecting drugs (RR = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.37-15.46), and having a usual partner with injecting drug addiction (RR = 10.08, 95% CI: 2.94-34.57). There was also some evidence that a younger age could be related to infection. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the risk of HIV infection among this cohort of female sex workers in Alicante is predominately associated with the use of injecting drugs, and having a regular partner with injecting drug addiction. An increasing number of clients did not play a role in the risk of infection. 


 PMID:9924471

  3. Increase in the exposition to floods in the Alicante coast (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcina, J.; Rico, A. M.; Hernandez, M.; Martínez, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last two decades, Flood episodes along the Alicante coastline have caused important material losses and general disruptions of everyday life in the municipalities affected. We can speak of an increase in the vulnerability to floods chiefly as a result of an increase in exposition. In turn this increase is fundamentally linked to the nature of the recent urbanization process in this area and the corresponding occupation of flood prone land. The province of Alicante occupies one of the first positions in Europe regarding flood risk (ESPON 2006). Even counting with legislation that regulates land uses, processes leading to the occupation of flood risk areas have proven very difficult to manage. In this sense, the Valencia region has enacted legislation such as the Land Use Planning Law of 1989, the Law on Urban Growth Regulations of 1994, and the Planning Regulations of 1998. All these legal pieces attempted to prohibit development in flood prone land declaring this land as "non.urban". New laws such as the Law on Land Use Planning and Landscape protection of 2004, the Law on New Urban Land (2004), and the Decree on Landscape (2006) also consider the need to include the flood hazard in planning activities. Furthermore in 1997, the so-called "Cartography of the flood hazard at the regional level" was elaborated. This mapping exercise was the base for the "Territorial Plan for the Reduction of Flood Risks (PATRICOVA) approved in 2003 and currently the main planning tool for flood management in Valencia. On the other hand, the European Directive 60/2007 pointed towards the need to take into consideration the social perception of Flood risks in order to develop integrated actions of risk management. Accordingly we have undertaken 285 interviews in the coastal communities of Alicante, Calpe and Campello (95 interviews each). We have chosen these municipalities for two reasons: first their significance in population and economic activity terms, and second, their

  4. Assessing domestic water use habits for more effective water awareness campaigns during drought periods: a case study in Alicante, eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, H.; Hernández, M.; Saurí, D.

    2015-05-01

    The design of water awareness campaigns could benefit from knowledge of the specific characteristics of domestic water use and the factors that may influence certain water consumption habits. This paper investigates water use in 450 households in 10 municipalities of drought-prone Alicante (Spain). We aim to increase knowledge about existing domestic water behaviors and therefore help to improve the design and implementation of future water awareness campaigns and even to consolidate reductions in water use after drought periods. The survey suggests that awareness campaigns should revise their scope and their channels of diffusion on a regular basis. In a more specific way, for the Alicante case we propose policy-oriented recommendations on the scope of action for further reductions.

  5. Assessing domestic water use habits for more effective water awareness campaigns during drought periods: a case study in Alicante, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, H.; Hernández, M.; Saurí, D.

    2014-11-01

    The design of water awareness campaigns could benefit from knowledge on the specific characteristics of domestic water use and of the factors that may influence certain water consumption habits. This paper investigates water use in 450 households of 10 municipalities of drought prone Alicante (Spain) with the objective of increasing knowledge about existing domestic water behavior and therefore help to improve the design and implementation of future water awareness campaigns. The survey results indicate that users already follow many of the conservation practices mentioned in messages. Moreover, campaigns need to take into account the differences in water use and habits derived from differences in urban models (concentrated or disperse).

  6. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    PubMed Central

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  7. [Influence of body composition and acceptance of physical education classes on self-esteem of children aged 14-16 years from Alicante, Spain].

    PubMed

    Estévez, Manuel; Muros, José Joaquín; Torres, Beatriz; Pradas, Francisco; Zurita, Félix; Cepero, Mar

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: La autoestima parece ser un importante predictor de síntomas depresivos entre los jóvenes, y sobre todo en el género femenino. Algunos autores sugieren que la existencia de sobrepeso y/o obesidad en jóvenes se relaciona con una menor autoestima así como la participación deportiva se ha asociado con unos valores más altos de la misma. Objetivos: Analizar las relaciones existentes entre el índice de masa corporal, sexo, aceptación a las clases de Educación Física y autoestima en una muestra representativa de escolares de 3º y 4º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de la ciudad de Alicante. Métodos: El estudio se llevó a cabo sobre una muestra representativa compuesta por 1.150 alumnos escolarizados en la ciudad de Alicante. Se obtuvieron datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos, valores de autoestima y de aceptación por las clases de educación física. Resultados: Existe una correlación positiva entre la aceptación a las clases de educación física y el autoestima (r= ,319) y una correlación negativa entre esta y el sexo de los alumnos (r= -,289), siendo el grupo femenino el que muestra unas menores puntuaciones. Existe una correlación negativa entre el autoestima y los valores de índice de masa corporal (r= -,083), y el sexo (r= -,308), siendo el grupo femenino el que muestra unos valores menores de autoestima. Conclusiones: En vista de los resultados se hace necesario planificar actuaciones encaminadas a reforzar y aumentar la autoestima durante la adolescencia, centrándose en los grupos de riesgo formados por los jóvenes con sobrepeso/obesidad y sobre por el grupo de las chicas.

  8. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions-in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par excellence

  9. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions-in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par excellence

  10. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions—in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par

  11. Hospital admissions in Alicante (Spain): a comparative analysis of foreign citizens from high-income countries, immigrants from low-income countries, and Spanish citizens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, the number of foreign citizens (FCs) in Spain has increased. There is no doubt that their health has become a relevant subject from the point of view of public healthcare. Our study aimed to describe hospital admission rates, diagnoses at hospital discharge, and mortality during hospital admissions in FCs from high-income countries (FCHICs), FCs from low-income countries (FCLICs), and autochthonous citizens (ACs). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed at two public hospitals in the city of Alicante (Spain) and its surrounding area. Utilization rates were estimated. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age and sex was performed on hospital admission rates, diagnoses at hospital discharge, service of admission, and mortality during hospital admission in FCHICs and FCLICs compared with ACs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] with 95% confidence intervals [CI]). Results 42,839 patients ≥15 years were discharged from the hospitals. The utilization rate was lower in FCs than ACs, whose crude rate ratio was 0.676 (95% CI: 0.656-0.696). FCHICs had more risk of being diagnosed at discharge in the categories of the circulatory system (AOR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.35-1.77), neoplasms (AOR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03-1.42), and injury and poisoning (AOR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.58). FCLICs had more risk of being diagnosed in the categories of pregnancy, childbirth & puerperium (AOR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.29-1.59), and injury and poisoning (AOR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.36), and less risk in the mental disorder category (AOR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.22-0.45). The length of hospitalization (in days) was lower in FCLICs (median: 3; IQR: 2–6) than both ACs (median: 4; IQR: 2–8) and FCHICs (median: 4; IQR: 2–8) (p < 0.001). The mortality rates on admission of ACs, FCHICs, and FCLICs were 4.2%, 3.3%, and 1.3%, respectively, but after adjusting for age and sex, the mortality rate risks were similar in FCHICs and FCLICs. Conclusion First, FCs utilized hospitalization less when

  12. 3D geometry of growth strata in a fault-propagation fold: insights into space-time evolution of the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector), Betic Cordillera, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Rojas, I.; Alfaro, P.; Estévez, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a 3D geometric model of growth strata cropping out in a fault-propagation fold associated with the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector) from the Bajo Segura Basin (eastern Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). The analysis of this 3D model enables us to unravel the along-strike and along-section variations of the growth strata, providing constraints to assess the fold development, and hence, the fault kinematic evolution in space and time. We postulate that the observed along-strike dip variations are related to lateral variation in fault displacement. Along-section variations of the progressive unconformity opening angles indicate greater fault slip in the upper Tortonian-Messinian time span; from the Messinian on, quantitative analysis of the unconformity indicate a constant or lower tectonic activity of the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector); the minor abundance of striated pebbles in the Pliocene-Quaternary units could be interpreted as a decrease in the stress magnitude and consequently in the tectonic activity of the fault. At a regional scale, comparison of the growth successions cropping out in the northern and southern limits of the Bajo Segura Basin points to a southward migration of deformation in the basin. This means that the Bajo Segura Fault became active after the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector), for which activity on the latter was probably decreasing according to our data. Consequently, we propose that the seismic hazard at the northern limit of the Bajo Segura Basin should be lower than at the southern limit.

  13. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to utilizing better-quality water, especially in semiarid regions where water shortage is a very serious problem. Wastewater use in agriculture is not a new practice, all over the world this reuse has been common practice for a long time, but the concept is of greater importance currently because of the global water crisis. Replacement of freshwater by treated wastewater is seen as an important conservation strategy contributing to agricultural production, substantial benefits can derive from using this nutrient-rich waste water but there can also be a negative impact. For this reason it is necessary to know precisely the composition of water before applying it to the soil in order to guarantee minimal impact in terms of contamination and salinization. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, different parameters in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater in an agricultural Mediterranean area located at Biar (Alicante, SE Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters were used for the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated wastewater from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type during the study period. A soil sampling was carried out every four months. We show the results of the evolution of basal soil respiration (BSR), and its relationship with other parameters. We observed a similar pattern of behavior for BSR between treatments, a decrease at the first eighteen months of irrigation and an increase at the end of study. In our study case, the variations of BSR obtained for all the treatments seem to be closely related to the dose and frequency of irrigation and the related soil wetting and drying cycles. However, the results showed a negative correlation between BSR and

  14. Geomorphological impacts of an extreme flood in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Long-term field studies in semiarid ephemeral streams are rare. These geomorphic data are essential for understanding the nature of the processes in order to develop modelling for risk assessments and management. An extreme flood event on 28 September 2012 affected the Murcia region of SE Spain, including long-tem monitoring sites on two fluvial systems in the Guadalentín basin, the Nogalte and Torrealvilla. Detailed morphological data were collected before and immediately after the event; and the amount of morphological change, erosion, and deposition have been related to peak flow conditions at the sites. On the Nogalte channel, peak flow reached 2500 m3 s- 1 at the downstream end of the catchment in less than 1 h. The event had a recurrence interval of > 50 years based on rainfall records and damage to old irrigation structures. The major effect in the braided, gravel channel of the Nogalte was net aggradation, with massive deposition in large flat bars. The measured changes in bankfull capacity were highly correlated with most hydraulic variables. Net changes in cut-and-fill in cross sections on the Nogalte were highly related to peak discharge and stream power but much less so to measures of hydraulic force (velocity, shear stress, unit stream power). Relationships of amount of erosion to hydraulic variables were much weaker than for amount of deposition, which was largely scaled to channel size and flow energy. Changes on the Torrealvilla were much less than on the Nogalte, and net erosion occurred at all sites. Sites on the Nogalte channel in schist exhibited higher deposition than those of the Torrealvilla sites on marl for the same hydraulic values. Overall, less morphological change took place in the extreme event on the Nogalte than predicted from some published hydraulic relations, probably reflecting the high sediment supply and the hydrological characteristics of the event. The results demonstrate the high degree of adjustment of these channels to

  15. [Population projection and its principal components: the future model of population in the province of Alicante].

    PubMed

    Norman Mora, E

    1994-01-01

    "In this article we analyze the different demographic patterns defining the population in the province of Alicante [Spain]. The behaviour of the demographic factors in the past and in the present is studied here, and a series of models are put into practice in order to foresee the future pattern of population.... The result shows either the effect of a possible ageing in an already aged population, as is the case of the province of Alicante, or what the job market would have to endure if the above mentioned ageing took place, increased by the possibility of an inmigration of an older population." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  16. Lithofacies, diagenetic spectra and sedimentary cycles of messinian (Late Miocene) evaporites in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, Dieter

    1996-11-01

    Messinian evaporites have been deposited within a number of connected basins that formed the so-called 'Betic Strait' in SE Spain during the Late Miocene. Pre-, syn- and postevaporitic sedimentary successions may well be compared with other strata of the same age surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. There is no evidence for a cataract-like connection of these basins with a strong unidirectional flow regime before and during the formation of Messinian evaporites as previously suggested. The most frequently occurring gypsum lithofacies presumably related to shallow-water depositional environments are crystalline selenitic gypsum ('grass-like gypsum'), laminated gypsum and cross-bedded gypsarenite. Only few real sabkha type chicken wire alabastrine gypsum have been identified. Evenly laminated gypsum together with graded gypsarenites (turbidites), gypsrudites (debrites) and slumps is restricted to basins or parts of basins with considerable paleoslopes. Evidence for diagenetic overprinting is abundant in all outcrop areas studied. This includes the formation of giant gypsum twin crystals, 'super cones' and alabastrine nodular gypsum. The formation of Messinian evaporites in SE Spain is thought to be controlled by a superimposed third-order sea-level lowstand. Smaller sedimentary units fall well into the range of fourth- to sixth-order cyclic and rhythmic successions. They are clearly related to basin dynamics or to autogenetic processes of the local facies zone (facies dynamics). None of the smaller-scale cycles (fourth and higher order), as observed in outcrops, are related to high-frequency eustasy.

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in...

  18. Spreading of pollutants from alkaline mine drainage. Rodalquilar mining district (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    González, V; García, I; del Moral, F; de Haro, S; Sánchez, J A; Simón, M

    2012-09-15

    In the Rodalquilar mining district of SE Spain, a total of 46 soil samples that were between 0 and 20 cm in depth were taken from the tailings dump, stream sediments, and surfaces that were presumably were unaffected by mining. In each soil sample, organic carbon content, pH, particle size distribution and total and soluble trace element content were analysed. Pollutants were scattered by runoff from two source areas: tailings from Au mining (Sn, Sb, As and Se) and wastes from Pb mining (Pb, Cu and Zn). Sn, Pb, and Sb were spread mostly in the solid phase of the runoff, while Cu, Zn, As and Se were spread in both the solid and soluble phases of the runoff. The pollutants with the highest soluble concentrations were As and Se, which were scattered at greater distances from the source. Some evidence suggests that tailings from Au mining could also be scattered by wind, but no farther than 1500 m from the source.

  19. Emplacement of the Cabezo María lamproite volcano (Miocene, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernon, Thomas M.; Spence, Samuel; Trueman, Clive N.; Taylor, Rex N.; Rohling, Eelco; J. Hatter, Stuart; Harding, Ian C.

    2015-06-01

    Lamproite volcanoes are uncommon in the geological record but are exceptionally well preserved in the Betic Cordilleras of SE Spain, where they erupted during the Late Miocene (Tortonian to Messinian stages). The parent melts are thought to have been channelled through major lithospheric faults to erupt at or near the faulted margins of Neogene sedimentary basins. Lamproite magmas are thought to be relatively CO2-poor (<1 wt %) and are typically characterised by an effusive eruption style and the development of lava lakes and scoria cones. Cabezo María is a relatively small (˜550 m diameter) lamproite volcano that was emplaced within the shallow-water marine-influenced Vera Basin. The lamproites are compositionally similar to those of the Roman Province and generally less potassic (K2O<5 wt%) than other (ultra-) potassic rocks in SE Spain (e.g. Cancarix, Fortuna). The initial eruption stages were dominated by explosive magma-water interactions and the formation of peperites. These are characterised by angular fragments of glassy lamproite lavas (and isolated lobes) incorporated in sediments, locally showing the effects of thermal metamorphism. Further, elutriation pipes and `jigsaw-fit' textures are observed in the peperites. The lavas and peperites are overlain by outward-dipping well-stratified scoria deposits defining part of a cinder cone, which is inferred to have emerged above sea level. Steep internal contacts with inward-dipping, structureless breccias likely represent the inner wall deposits of a central conduit. The deposits are cross-cut by late-stage dykes, which supplied fissure eruptions of geochemically similar lavas capping the scoria cone. The transition from explosive to effusive behaviour may reflect the decreased availability of water, possibly due to downward migration of the feeder conduit below the level of water-saturated sediments.

  20. Seismic local site effects characterization in the Andarax River Valley (SE Spain) from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Enrique; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José

    2014-05-01

    This work is focused on the characterization of seismic local effects in the Low Andarax River Valley (SE Spain). The Low Andarax River valley is located in an active seismic region, with the higher seismic hazard values in Spain. The landform is composed mainly by sedimentary materials which increase its seismic hazard due to the amplification of the seismic inputs and spectral resonances. We study seismic local effects in the Low Andarax River by analyzing the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) of ambient noise records. The noise data were recorded during two field campaigns in 2012 and 2013. There have been a total of 374 noise measurements with 15 and 30 minutes duration. The acquisition was performed with a Digital Broadband Seismometer Guralp CMG-6TD. The distance between measurements was about 200 meters, covering an area around 40 km2. There have been 6 significant peak frequencies between 0.3 Hz and 5 Hz. It was possible to find interesting areas with similar spectral peaks that coincide with zones with similar microgravimetric anomalies at the alluvial valley. It is also observed a decrease in the frequency peaks from West to East suggesting increased sediment layer. We also compute the soil models at those sites where geotechnical information is available, assuming that the seismic noise is diffuse. We invert the HVSR for these places using horizontally layered models and in the imaginary part the Green functions at the source. It is observed that the S wave velocity inverted models are consistent with the known geotechnical information obtained from drilled boreholes. We identify the elastodynamic properties of the limestone-dolomite materials with a formation of phyllites and quartzite that form the basement of the depression, and those properties of the Miocene and Pliocene detrital deposits (marls, sandy silts, sands and conglomerates) that fill the valley. These results together with the observed resonant frequencies along the Andarax

  1. Quantitative petrogenetic constraints on the Pliocene alkali basaltic volcanism of the SE Spain Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebriá, J. M.; López-Ruiz, J.; Carmona, J.; Doblas, M.

    2009-09-01

    Alkali basalts of Pliocene age are the last episode of volcanism in the SE Spain Volcanic Province, postdating a complex series of Miocene calc-alkaline to ultrapotassic rocks. This volcanism is represented by small outcrops and vents NW of Cartagena that has been interpreted as a volcanic episode similar to the contemporaneous monogenetic alkaline basaltic volcanism of the Iberian Peninsula and Western/Central Europe. However, their geochemical signature is characterised by relatively higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios as well as distinct trace element anomalies which, at different scale, are only found in the spatially related calc-alkaline to ultrapotassic volcanism. Quantitative modelling of these data demonstrate that the geochemical signature of the Pliocene alkali basalts of Cartagena can be explained by the interaction between primitive melts generated from a sublithospheric mantle source similar to that identified for other volcanic regions of Spain, and liquids derived from the overlying lithospheric mantle. This interaction implies that the alkali basalts show some geochemical features only observed in mantle lithosphere-derived melts (e.g. Sr isotope enrichment and Th-U-Pb positive anomalies), while retaining an overall geochemical signature similar to other Iberian basalts (e.g. Rb-K negative anomalies). This model also implies that beneath the SEVP, enriched (metasomatized) portions were still present within the lithospheric mantle after the Miocene magmatic episodes. Comparison of this model with those already developed for other alkaline basaltic volcanic regions of western/central Europe supports the idea that the interaction of primitive magmas derived from a common sublithospheric mantle source with liquids derived from the overlying regionally heterogeneous lithospheric mantle is a relatively frequent scenario in the European realm.

  2. Reconstruction of past climate variability in SE Spain between 14 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budsky, Alexander; Scholz, Denis; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Christoph, Spötl; Gibert, Luis; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    In comparison to the large climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene, Holocene climate only underwent minor changes. Nevertheless, cyclic climate changes also occurred during the Holocene. The Bond events, represented by the presence of cold, ice-bearing waters from the north of Iceland as far south as the latitude of Britain, occurred at a cyclicity of about 1500 a and were particularly pronounced during the Early Holocene. However, their climatic impact on the terrestrial realm was not consistent over Europe, in particular with respect to changes in precipitation. Here we present a precisely dated high-resolution flowstone record from Cueva Victoria, SE Spain, a site well suited to study the competing influence of the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea on the southern Iberian Peninsula. We sampled several flowstones with a thickness of up to 60 cm. 230Th/U-dating has shown that these deposits mainly formed during relatively warm climate intervals of the Middle and Late Pleistocene, i.e. interglacials and interstadials (Budsky et al., 2015; Gibert et al., 2016). Here we focus on a short (11 cm) flowstone sequence from the Holocene with a high temporal resolution (centennial for stable isotopes and annual for trace elements). The flowstone grew between 14 and ca. 8 ka b2k. The decreasing trend of the δ18O and δ13C values as well as of several trace elements between 12 and 11 ka b2k reflects an increase in temperature and precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene. In particular, Sr and Mg show a trend towards low and stable values. Subsequently, from 10.5 to 8 ka b2k, the δ13C values show a high variability (-11 to -4), whereas the δ18O values are rather stable (between -6 and -7). Maxima in δ13C are interpreted as drier conditions in response to Bond events. These events possibly led to a change of the atmospheric circulation, affecting the vegetation in SE Spain, which evolved towards an open C3 vegetation at ca. 8 ka b2k concomitant with drier conditions

  3. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications. PMID:26250818

  4. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Rut Aspizua; Lorite, Juan; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:24843285

  5. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  6. Mesoscale climatic simulation of surface air temperature cooling by highly reflective greenhouses in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Campra, Pablo; Millstein, Dev

    2013-01-01

    A long-term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface air temperatures. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m(-2) of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum temperatures was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban temperature cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance. PMID:24074145

  7. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Rut Aspizua; Lorite, Juan; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  8. Silicification of carbonate clasts in a marine environment (Upper Miocene, Vera Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín Penela, Antonio J.; Barragán, Guillermo

    1995-06-01

    Upper Miocene marine sediments in the Vera Basin (SE Spain) contain abundant silicified marble pebbles and bivalves. The silicification of these marble pebbles and bivalves represents one of the stages of their sedimentary history, associated with small fluctuations in relative sea level. During the late Tortonian alluvial fan deposits containing the marble pebbles were invaded by the sea, which caused reworking of the pebbles and the establishment of a marine biota in the environment. After shallow burial numerous marble pebbles and bivalve remains were silicified. Both types of clasts were partially replaced by opal-CT or quartz from opaline silica derived from dissolution of skeletal debris. The silicified zones (rinds) now consist of quartzine or quartz. Silicification of the clasts must have taken place under shallow burial conditions during early diagenesis, while pyrite formed in favourable anoxic sites. Iron oxides also precipitated during early diagenesis, but after silicification. Finally, part of the deposits containing the silicified clasts were transported by gravitational mass flows and redeposited in deeper areas of the basin. If the hypothesis proposed for the diagenetic process is correct, it indicates that the uncommon silicification of carbonate clasts does not only occur in continental environments, in which it has previously been described.

  9. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón; Rut Aspizua; Lorite, Juan; Zamora, Regino

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:24843285

  10. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  11. Spain.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  12. Spain.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  13. Seismic transpressive basement faults and monocline development in a foreland basin (Eastern Guadalquivir, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera, A.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Marín-Lechado, C.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González, A.; Peláez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We examine the late Tortonian to present-day deformation of an active seismic sector of the eastern Iberian foreland basement of the Betic Cordillera, in southern Spain. Transpressive faults affecting Paleozoic basement offset up to Triassic rocks. Late Triassic clays and evaporites constitute a décollement level decoupling the basement rocks and a ~100 m thick cover of Jurassic carbonates. Monoclines trending NE-SW to ENE-WSW deform the Jurassic cover driven by the propagation of high-angle transpressive right-lateral basement faults. They favor the migration of clays and evaporites toward the propagated fault tip, i.e., the core of the anticline, resulting in fluid overpressure, fluid flow, and precipitation of fibrous gypsum parallel to a vertical σ3. The overall geometry of the studied monoclines, as well as the intense deformation within the clays and evaporites, reproduces three-layer discrete element models entailing a weak middle unit sandwiched between strong layers. Late Tortonian syn-folding sediments recorded the initial stages of the fault-propagation folding. Equivalent unexposed transpressive structures and associated monoclines reactivated under the present-day NW-SE convergence are recognized and analyzed in the Sabiote-Torreperogil region, using seismic reflection, gravity, and borehole data. A seismic series of more than 2100 low-magnitude earthquakes was recorded within a very limited area of the basement of this sector from October 2012 to May 2013. Seismic activity within a major NE-SW trending transpressive basement fault plane stimulated rupture along a subsidiary E-W (~N95°E) strike-slip relay fault. The biggest event (mbLg 3.9, MW 3.7) occurred at the junction between them in a transpressive relay sector.

  14. Processes and Geomorphological Impacts of an Extreme Flash Flood Event in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A major flash flood event took place on 28 September, 2012 in SE Spain, resulting in 10 fatalities and much damage to infrastructure regionally. The flood affected long-term monitoring sites in two catchments in which morphological changes and flow dynamics of these ephemeral channels were being measured. Thus detailed data on channel state prior to the flood were available. The flood event in the Nogalte catchment was extreme in its peak flow, rate of rise and unit runoff. The catchment has steep relief and much bare soil under almond groves, resulting in high sediment supply. The channel is confined in places, but mostly wide and braided, composed of loose gravel and occupying much of the valley floor. Flow was spatially continuous, with high connectivity throughout the catchment. The flood effects were net depositional in the monitored sites, with massive sedimentation on the channel bars. Vegetation was destroyed. Bank erosion and destruction of embankments took place in some locations. Hydraulic calculations indicate very high velocities, stream power and Froude numbers. Modelling and field evidence demonstrate extremely high sediment competence and sediment loadings. The influence of the event dynamics on processes and net outcomes is discussed. The impacts are compared with other events in this and neighbouring catchments. Overall, the event in the Nogalte did not alter the morphology markedly in spite of its extreme characteristics. It is suggested that these valley floors are adapted to this type of flash flood but that flows of such force and magnitude need to be allowed for in management in such an environment.

  15. ERT studies on tailings ponds of the Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union, SE Spain (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Pagan, P.; Faz-Cano, A.; Rosales-Aranda, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Sierra Minera Cartagena - La Union (SE Spain) is a huge area that has been mined for centuries. That mining extraction activity was particularly enormous in the second half of the twentieth century. By the early 1980’s almost all mineral deposits of this area had been depleted and the mineral processing plants had left 80 tailings ponds of different shape and height as a result of their activity. At the present, these former mining areas are close to important urban and industrial centers, where the tailings ponds are potential points of environmental and geotechnical concerns among others. In the 1972, there was also an important collapse of a tailings pond after a strong stormy event. Because of that, nowadays, there are several researcher groups working on the area with the goal of improving the environmental, geotechnical, safety, and use conditions of the tailings ponds. In this framework, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method was used to obtain complementary information from the inner of the tailings ponds itself. Due to the high electrical resistivity contrast between the tailings and the hard-rock the geo-electrical methods became very useful in getting information about the bedrock geometry. In addition, where the tailing ponds have not been built up with a more complex interne structure (Figure 1) then it has been possible to obtain their construction history based on the grain distribution which is related in some extent to the electrical resistivity. In some cases, based on the fact of the presence of big cracks into the pond as pathways (Figure 2) where the mine acid waters are infiltrated easily, the use of ERT technique has proved its usefulness in highlighting them. Moreover, the ERT method can be an interesting tool in tailings ponds remediation works by delimiting the acid areas on the surface characterized by low electrical resistivity values.

  16. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing

  17. Zn mobility and geochemistry in surface sulfide mining soils from SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G; Peñas, J M; Manteca, J I

    2008-03-01

    The extraction of metallic minerals and the mineral dressing operations in concentrators produced a high impact in soils and sediments. Heavy metals in soils constitute a high risk of pollution, not only for mining areas, but also for agriculture and villages placed in subsidiary areas. This research has been focused on the assessment of the real environmental and health hazards of Zn in relation to geochemistry and metal mobility in surface soils from a mining area in SE Spain, under semiarid weather conditions. Mineralogy of the studied soils revealed major presence of quartz, but also of other silicates, sulfates, carbonates, and sulfides. Regarding Zn minerals, the presence of sphalerite as the main Zn sulfide, and of goslarite as Zn sulfate, and of smithsonite as Zn carbonate should be highlighted. Soil pH ranged between 4.4 and 4.9 and the electrical conductivity between 55 and 85 microS/cm. By using the sequential extraction procedure, the achieved results show that zinc is not only mainly associated to primary but also to secondary sulfides. Total concentration of the non-available fractions rises up to 98.45% of total Zn in the studied soils. On the other hand, available Zn fraction did not exceed more than 1.55% in percentage and less than 2000 ppm in absolute terms, and when referred to more easily available fraction (water-soluble and exchangeable fractions), these values are not more than 0.44% and then 800 ppm. Therefore, although there is a significant pollution level in this area, immediate hazard for the environment can be assessed as moderate. Finally it should be highlighted that these surface soils have undergone concentration processes of sphalerite, whose mechanisms should be related to the ascending flow of capillary water and the dragging of sphalerite crystals and Zn salts by electrokinetic and colloidal processes These processes seem to occur based on environmental pollution by wind and water erosion, and therefore directly associated to

  18. Plio-Pleistocene continental paleoclimate record from the Zújar section, Guadix-Baza Basin (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, S. D.; Gibert, L.; Scott, G. R.; Fox, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The intramontane Guadix-Baza Basin (SE Spain) preserves an extensive record of Neogene continental sedimentation during an interval of important global climatic and ecologic changes, including the onset Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the evolution of grassland biomes on several continents. Several localities within this basin represent mammal biostratigraphic reference sections for the Plio-Pleistocene of Western Europe, and have been the focus of much previous bio-, magneto-, and cyclostratigraphic work. Here we report new stratigraphic and geochemical results from one of these reference sections near the village of Zújar in the central part of the Guadix-Baza Basin. We interpret Plio-Pleistocene climatic history from lacustrine and pedogenic sediments at Zújar, based on new paleomagnetic results coupled with stable carbon and oxygen isotopic (δ13C and δ18O) analyses of carbonate and bulk organic matter, thin-section petrography, cathodoluminescence and scanning electron microscopy, and semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction. Paleoclimatic variability in the Zújar section is reflected in the highly variable composition of carbonate-rich beds, which fluctuate between nearly pure micritic calcite and dolomite but commonly display mixed carbonate phases. The δ18O values of these carbonates are also highly variable (-8.2 to +1.9‰ VPDB) and are strongly correlated with dolomite content (r2 = 0.79). The δ13C values are less variable (-8.8‰ to -4.2‰ VPDB) and are similar between calcite- and dolomite-rich samples. We interpret periods of wet climate and lake-level highstand from calcite-dominated beds with variable δ13C values and low (-7 to -8‰ VPDB), invariant δ18O values that likely represent equilibrium calcite precipitation from minimally evolved lake source waters. Several mixed-carbonate beds display covariant δ13C and δ18O, representing evaporative enrichment of lake waters during more arid periods. We interpret maximum aridity and lake

  19. Astrochronology for the Messinian Sorbas basin (SE Spain) and orbital (precessional) forcing for evaporite cyclicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, W.; Fortuin, A. R.; Hilgen, F. J.; Sierro, F. J.

    2001-04-01

    The Sorbas basin of SE Spain contains one of the most complete sedimentary successions of the Mediterranean reflecting the increasing salinity during the Messinian salinity crisis. A detailed cyclostratigraphic study of these successions allows a correlation of the sedimentary cycle patterns to astronomical target curves. Here, we present an astrochronological framework for the Messinian of the central part of the Sorbas basin. This framework will form a solid basis for high-resolution correlations to the marginal carbonate facies and to the Central Mediterranean area. The early Messinian Abad Member contains 55 precession induced sedimentary cycles marked by homogeneous marl-opal-rich bed alternations in the 'Lower Abad' and by homogeneous marl-sapropel alternations in the 'Upper Abad'. Astronomical tuning results in an age of 5.96 Ma for the transition to the Yesares evaporites and thus for the onset of the 'Messinian salinity crisis'. The marl-sapropel cycles of the 'Upper Abad' are replaced by gypsum-sapropel cycles (14) in the Yesares Member, indicating that the evaporite cyclicity is related to precession controlled oscillations in (circum) Mediterranean climate as well. As a consequence, gypsum beds correspond to precession maxima (insolation minima) and relatively dry climate, sapropelitic marls to precession minima (insolation maxima) and relatively wet climate. An alternative (glacio-eustatic) obliquity control for evaporite cyclicity can be excluded because the number of sedimentary cycles with a reversed polarity is too high. Sedimentation during the Abad, Yesares, and the overlying coastal sequences of the Sorbas Member, took place in a continuously marine environment, indicating that marine conditions in the Sorbas basin prevailed at least until 5.60-5.54 Ma. According to our scenario, deposition of the Yesares and Sorbas Member took place synchronously with deposition of the 'Lower Evaporites' in the Central Mediterranean. Finally, the continental

  20. Upper Pleistocene - Holocene activity of the Carrascoy Fault (Murcia, SE Spain): preliminary results from paleoseismological research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Banda, Raquel; Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Salazar, Angel; Rodriguez-Escudero, Emilio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Herrero, Maria J.; Medialdea, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    The Carrascoy Fault is located in the Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera (Southern Spain). In particular, the Carrascoy Fault is one of the major faults forming the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, the main structure accommodating the convergence between Nubian and Eurasian plates in the westernmost Mediterranean. So far, the Carrascoy Fault has been defined as a left-lateral strike-slip fault. It extends for at least 31 km in a NE-SW trend from the village of Zeneta (Murcia) at its northeastern tip, to the Cañaricos village, controlling the northern edge of the Carrascoy Range and its linkage to the Guadalentin Depression towards the southwest. This is an area of moderate seismic activity, but densely populated, the capital of the region, Murcia, being settled very close to the fault. Hence, the knowledge of the structure and kinematics of the Carrascoy Fault is essential for assessing reliably the seismic hazard of the region. We present a detailed-scale geological and geomorphological map along the fault zone created from a LIDAR DEM combined with fieldwork, and geological and geophysical information. Furthermore, a number of trenches have been dug across the fault at different locations providing insights in the fault most recent activity as well as paleoseismic data. Preliminary results suggest that the Cararscoy Fault has recently changed its kinematic showing a near pure reverse motion. According to this, the fault can be divided into two distinct segments, the eastern one: Zeneta - Fuensanta, and the western one: Fuensanta - Cañaricos, each one having its own characteristic style and geodynamics. Some new active strands of the fault locate at the foot of the very first relief towards the North of the older strand, forming the current southern border of the Guadalentin Depression. These new faults show an increasingly reverse component westwards, so that the Fuensanta - Cañaricos segment is constituted by thrusts, which are blind at its western end

  1. Diagenetic evolution of Tortonian temperate carbonates close to evaporites in the Granada Basin (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Quirós, A.; Barbier, M.; Martín, J. M.; Puga-Bernabéu, Á.; Guichet, X.

    2016-04-01

    The Granada Basin (SE Spain) is a small basin located in the central part of the Betic Cordillera, structured as such in the late Tortonian and initially connected to the Atlantic Ocean and to the Mediterranean Sea. During the late Tortonian, normal marine conditions prevailed, leading to the deposition of skeletal carbonate sediments on platforms around structural highs. The marine connections were later interrupted, first to the Atlantic Ocean and then to the Mediterranean Sea, and a thick evaporite sequence, marking the transition from marine to continental conditions, was deposited during the latest Tortonian. In this work, the diagenetic evolution of the Tortonian temperate carbonates (TTC), underlying and close to the evaporite bodies, is revealed and discussed. The diagenetic study includes petrographic analyses (conventional petrography, cathodoluminescence, and fluorescence), geochemical analyses (major, minor and trace elements, and δ13C and δ18O stable isotopes), and microthermometry of fluid inclusions. In the TTC, marine diagenetic processes such as micritization and fibrous calcite-cement precipitation and mechanical compaction took place during or just after deposition (Eogenesis). An initial burial event (Mesogenesis 1) is characterized by: 1) stabilization of the temperate-water carbonates by freshwater, and 2) porosity occlusion via precipitation of low-Mg bladed and syntaxial/mosaic calcite cements. The TTC were then subaerially exposed (or got close to the surface) during evaporite deposition and underwent pedogenesis, Mg-smectite infiltration, and pyrite formation (Telogenesis 1). Subsequent brine-related diagenetic alterations, such as dolomitization and silica, halite, and sylvite replacements of carbonate grains occurred during a second burial episode (Mesogenesis 2) concomitant with the Messinian lacustrine deposition, this being followed by chemical compaction (stylolite formation). Finally, the area was uplifted and the TTC exhumed

  2. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue

  3. Palaeoflood estimates of Pleistocene coarse grained river terrace landforms (Río Almanzora, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin; Griffiths, James S.; Mather, Anne

    2012-05-01

    A series of palaeoflood estimation techniques are applied to an inset sequence of Middle to Late Pleistocene river terrace landforms associated with the Río Almanzora, SE Spain. The study area is a 7 km-long transverse reach, where 4 terrace levels (Level 1 = highest and oldest, Level 4 = lowest and youngest) document some 200 m of incision across an uplifted basement block during the Pleistocene. For the broader region, river terrace aggradation is attributed to increased sediment supply during glacial to interglacial transitions (Level 1 = Marine oxygen isotope stages [MOIS] 12/11, L2 = 10/9, L3 = 8/7 and L4 = 6/5). Within the transverse reach, terrace Levels 2, 3 and 4 are characterised by coarse boulder-rich gravels (Dmax = 2.5 m) organised into 3-5 m-high cross-beds. Level 4 is characterised by a series of km-scale abandoned meander loops, with Levels 2 and 3 showing evidence for similar degraded high sinuosity forms. The fluvial setting is interpreted as a braided river environment, with lateral and longitudinal gravel barforms. Using field-derived sedimentary (boulder size etc) and morphological (width, slope etc) features, flow competence- and regime-based methods were applied. Palaeoflood estimates varied from 40 to 2859 m3/s, with mean maximum discharges showing an increase through time (L2 = 278, L3 = 413, L4 = 1361 m3/s). Palaeoflood estimates were compared to flood events associated with the ephemeral modern Río Almanzora (catchment = 2500 km2) to establish whether palaeoflood values were reasonable estimations. A 46-year (1963-2009) modern flood gauge record shows infrequent flood events with discharges typically < 40 m3/s. A rare flood event in 1973 (5680 m3/s) provides an upper value for comparison with the palaeoflood estimates. Although estimates appear reasonable they should be considered as minimum values due to 1) some disparities between flow depths derived from the palaeoflood equations (0.7-4 m) and field-based evidence (3-5 m-high cross

  4. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by water run-off in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Unión (Murcia, SE Spain). This area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Studied area showed a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues. As a consequence of the long period of mining activity, large volumes of wastes were generated during the mineral concentration and smelting processes. Historically, these wastes were dumped into watercourses, filling riverbeds and contaminating their surroundings. 40 sediment samples were collected from the area affected by mining exploitations, and at increasing distances from the contamination sources in 4 zones In addition, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb and Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer and Al content was determined by ICP-MS. Mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis using Cu-Kα radiation with a PW3040 Philips Diffractometer. Zone A: Water

  5. Use of Biomass Ash as a stabilization agent for expansive marly soils (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Caro, J. M.; Irigaray, C.; Corpas, F.; Ramirez, A.; Rivas, F.; Salazar, L. M.; Mochón, I.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, several biomass power plants have been installed in Southeastern Spain to reuse olive oil industry residues. This energy production tries to reduce the high costs associated with fossil fuels, but without entering into direct competition to traditional food crops. The waste management in these biomass energy plants is still an issue since there are non-flammable materials which remains after incineration in the form of ashes. In Southeastern Spain there is also a great amount of clayey and marly soils whose volume is very sensitive to changes in climate conditions, making them unsuitable for civil engineering. We propose the use of biomass ash (both fly ash and bottom ash) as a stabilization agent for expansive soils in order to improve the efficiency of construction processes by using locally available materials. In this work biomass ashes from a biomass power plant in Southeastern Spain have been used to stabilize 6 samples of local marly soil. Those 6 samples of expansive soil were mixed with different dosages of biomass ash (2%, 4% and 7%) to create 18 specimens of treated soil, which were submitted to Proctor, Atterberg Limits, pH and Free Swell Index tests, following Spanish Standards UNE by AENOR. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) tests by powder method were also carried out, using a diffractometer Philips X'Pert-MPD. The results obtained for the original untreated marly soil were: PI = 34.6; Free Swell = 12.5; pH = 8. By adding biomass ash the value of the plasticity index (PI) became slightly lower although it was not low enough as to obtain a non-plastic soil (PI under 25). However, there were dramatical decreases of free swell index (FSI) after the stabilization treatment: FSI < 8.18 (2% biomass); FSI < 6.15 (4% biomass); FSI < 4.18 (7% biomass); These results suggest that treated soil is quite less susceptible than the original soil to moisture changes. The pH of the mixes after adding biomass ash rose from 8 to 11±1 leading to an alkaline

  6. Identification of the origin of salts in an agricultural area of SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    In spite of soil salinity having been widely studied in many part of the world, origin of salinity has not been addresses in detail in some of the most productive agricultural areas of Europe (e.g. southeast of Spain). According to the European Commission, salinization affects about 1 to 3 million ha of the area of the European Union and Candidate Countries. In Europe, most of the salt-affected land surfaces are concentrated in the Mediterranean basin. In Spain, about 3% of the 3.5 million hectares of irrigated land are severely affected by salts and another 15% is at serious risk of imminent salinization. Due to the limited water resources in southeast of Spain, water with marginal quality is used for irrigation. The use of this water has led to degradation, reduction of the land's production capacity and soil salinization. The main aim of the present study was to identify the origin of the salts involved in such salinization, using classical and multivariable statistical techniques. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, ionic composition, total organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate, cation exchange capacity and particle size distribution were determined. The Pearson correlation coefficient, r, was used to measure the relationship between two quantitative variables and principal components analysis was used to study the correlations among anions and cations and their grouping into several factors. Results indicated that the high electrical conductivity found in the study area indeed comes from poor quality irrigation water used for agriculture. Anions and cations responsible of the salinity were chlorides, sulphates, calcium, magnesium and sodium. Mismanagement of water and traditional irrigation system resulted in salt build-up in the soil

  7. The role of desalinisation to address aquifer overdraft in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Granados, David; Calatrava, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Aquifer overdraft is a major environmental and water management problem in Southeast Spain. In some areas, availability of desalinised seawater resources is being expanding, which provides an opportunity to address this problem at a lower social and economic cost. We analyse the economic impact of using several instruments to address the problem of non-renewable groundwater pumping in the aquifers of the Guadalentín basin: an environmental tax on groundwater use, the buyback of groundwater rights and the subsidization of desalinised resources. Their impact is assessed using a mathematical programming model that maximises the farm net margin resulting from the use of the available water resources for irrigation in the area. Our results show that, in the current situation of water availability, all the alternatives have significant economic impacts. Moreover, the first two alternatives would be unfeasible from a political point of view. The existence of abundant, though expensive, desalinised water resources in the foreseen future would reduce, but not eliminate, the negative economic impact of such instruments. Furthermore, water demand is so high in this area that even strongly subsidising desalinised water in exchange for reducing the use of groundwater would not allow to eliminate aquifer overdraft.

  8. The role of desalinisation to address aquifer overdraft in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Granados, David; Calatrava, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Aquifer overdraft is a major environmental and water management problem in Southeast Spain. In some areas, availability of desalinised seawater resources is being expanding, which provides an opportunity to address this problem at a lower social and economic cost. We analyse the economic impact of using several instruments to address the problem of non-renewable groundwater pumping in the aquifers of the Guadalentín basin: an environmental tax on groundwater use, the buyback of groundwater rights and the subsidization of desalinised resources. Their impact is assessed using a mathematical programming model that maximises the farm net margin resulting from the use of the available water resources for irrigation in the area. Our results show that, in the current situation of water availability, all the alternatives have significant economic impacts. Moreover, the first two alternatives would be unfeasible from a political point of view. The existence of abundant, though expensive, desalinised water resources in the foreseen future would reduce, but not eliminate, the negative economic impact of such instruments. Furthermore, water demand is so high in this area that even strongly subsidising desalinised water in exchange for reducing the use of groundwater would not allow to eliminate aquifer overdraft. PMID:24973613

  9. Heavy metals relationship in arable and greenhouse soils of SE Spain using a geostatistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Carlos; Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    This study compares heavy metals contents and the main edaphic parameters in greenhouse soils from the W Almería region one of the most productive agricultural systems in Europe, with agricultural soils (arable soils) in western Andalusia, SW Spain. Heavy metals input in agricultural soils mainly occur through pesticides and phytosanitary control products. The hazardousness of the studied elements (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd) is particularly relevant in soils used for intensive greenhouse farming where such agricultural practices, which centre on maximising production, end up with products that finally enter the human food chain directly. Here we explore a total of 199 greenhouse soils and 142 arable soils, representing two scales of variation in this Mediterranean area. Despite their similar edaphic characteristics, the main differences between arable soils and greenhouse soils lie in nutrients contents (P and K) and in certain heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn), which reflect widespread use of pesticides in greenhouse farming. One of the most toxic metals is Cd given its mobility, whose concentrations triple in greenhouse soils, although it does not exceed the limits set by Spanish legislation. We conclude that despite anthropic heavy metals input, the association patterns of these elements were similar on the two spatial variability scales. Cd, Pb and Zn contents, and partly those of Cu, are related with agricultural practices. On the short spatial scale, grouping these heavy metals shows very high contents in greenhouse soils in the central northern area of the W Almería region. On the other hand, the associations of Cr and Ni suggest a lithogenic influence combined with a pedogenic effect on spatial maps. This natural origin input becomes more marked on the long spatial scale (arable soils) where the main Cr and Ni contents are found in the vicinity of the Gádor Mountain Range.

  10. Seismic microzonation and velocity models of El Ejido area (SE Spain) from the diffuse-field H/V method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Seivane, Helena; Navarro, Manuel; Piña-Flores, José; Luzón, Francisco; Vidal, Francisco; Posadas, Antonio M.; Aranda, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    El Ejido town is located in the Campo de Dalías coastal plain (Almería province, SE Spain), emplaced in one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. The municipality has 84000 inhabitants and presented a high growth rate during the last twenty years. The most recent intense seismic activity occurred close to this town was in 1993 and 1994, with events of Mb = 4.9 and Mb = 5.0, respectively. To provide a basis for site-specific hazard analysis, we first carried out a seismic microzonation of this town in terms of predominant periods and geotechnical properties. The predominant periods map was obtained from ambient noise observations on a grid of 250 x 250 m in the main urban area, and sparser measurements on the outskirts. These broad-band records, of about 20 minutes long each, were analyzed by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio technique (H/V). Dispersion curves obtained from two array measurements of ambient noise and borehole data provided additional geophysical information. All the surveyed points in the town were found to have relatively long predominant periods ranging from 0.8 to 2.3 s and growing towards the SE. Secondary high-frequency (> 2Hz) peaks were found at about the 10% of the points only. On the other hand, Vs30 values of 550 - 650 m/s were estimated from the array records, corresponding to cemented sediments and medium-hard rocks. The local S-wave velocity structure has been inverted from the H/V curves for a subset of the measurement sites. We used an innovative full-wavefield method based on the diffuse-wavefield approximation (Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011) combined with the simulated annealing algorithm. Shallow seismic velocities and deep boreholes data were used as constraints. The results show that the low-frequency resonances are related with the impedance contrast between several hundred meters of medium-hard sedimentary rocks (marls and calcarenites) with the stiffer basement of the basin, which dips to the SE. These

  11. Arsenic background and baseline values in soils from Murcia Region (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, , M. J.; García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Mantilla, W.

    2009-04-01

    Arsenic is a strongly chalcophile, and is partitioned into a variety of sulphide and sulpharsenide minerals, notably arsenopyrite FeAsS, but also realgar and orpiment.It is also widely present as an accessory element in other sulphide minerals such as galena, pyrite and sphalerite. The objective of this study was to determine the arsenic background and baseline level in soils from the Region of Murcia (Southeast, Spain) and to study the possible relationship between mineralogical composition and arsenic concentration. Sampling sites were selected in areas subjected to high and similar agricultural activity or abandoned agricultural soils with natural vegetation, that are not subjected to particular point contamination sources. A total of 490 samples were collected, and the mineralogical composition and the arsenic content were determined. Samples were analysed for arsenic content by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Background and baseline values could be determined for each geological unit, because of its unique and differentiating geochemical pattern. For some samples, the soils were influenced by the erosion of surrounding mountains, which belong to different geologic units and, as a consequence, background and baseline value determination was more difficult. Four different groups were established based on significant relationship with the mineralogical composition in soil samples, using discriminant analysis. The results showed that the concentration of arsenic is correlated with the mineralogical composition. Thus, arsenic level is positively correlated with the phylosilicate content. In summary, the background level, showed as the median was 6.65 mg kg-1 and the baseline level, showed as mean+ 2*Std. deviation, was 21.14 mg kg-1. Since the As content varied as a function of the mineralogical group, baselines of arsenic could be established for the four mineralogical groups as follows: 49.59 mg kg-1 for group 1, 12.57 mg kg-1 for group 2, 11.14 mg kg-1

  12. Environmental impact from mountainous olive orchards under different soil-management systems (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Francia Martínez, José R; Durán Zuazo, Víctor H; Martínez Raya, Armando

    2006-04-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and nutrient-loss patterns over a two-year period (1999-2000) were monitored in erosion plots on a mountainside with olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual) trees under three different types of soil management: (1) non-tillage with barley (Hordeum vulgare) strips of 4 m width (BS); (2) conventional tillage (CT); (3) non-tillage without plant strips (NT). The erosion plots, located in Lanjaron (Alpujarras) on the southern flank of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in south-eastern Spain, had 30% slope at an altitude of 565 m and 192 m(2) (24x8 m) in area. The highest erosion and runoff values, ranging from 10.5 to 40.7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and from 26.5 to 51.5 mm yr(-1), respectively, over the entire study period, were measured under NT. In CT, erosion ranged from 1.0 to 10.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and runoff from 6.7 to 15.2 mm yr(-1), while under BS, erosion ranged from 1.7 to 2.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and runoff from 19.6 to 20.0 mm yr(-1). It is concluded that the BS and CT reduced the soil erosion by 92% and 78%, with respect to the NT, and the runoff by 49% and 72%, respectively. The total NPK losses (sediments and runoff) from BS averaged 0.87, 0.07 and 0.72 kg ha(-1), from CT 1.82, 0.11 and 0.97 kg ha(-1) and from NT 3.15, 0.29 and 2.45 kg ha(-1), respectively. In addition, nutrient concentrations in the surface runoff were higher than the recommended level for standard water quality for N-NO(3), N-NH(4) and soluble P, particularly from NT and CT. These results support the recommendation of non-tillage with barley strips for sloped agricultural land in order to reduce erosion and pollution.

  13. Pliocene Transgression in the Western Mediterranean Sea: Strontium Isotopes from Cuevas Del Almanzora (Se Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel W.

    1993-02-01

    The deposition of marine sediments in the deep Mediterranean basins following the Messinian salinity crisis ("Zanclean Deluge") began at 4.9 Ma and continued until normal marine conditions prevailed at 4.6 Ma. The Betic Strait of southeast Spain, the Rif Strait of northern Morocco, and the Strait of Gibraltar have been postulated as possible entry ways for the marine waters into the Mediterranean. Two possible explanations have been offered for the timing of the deposition of marine hemipelagic marls in the Vera Basin (Cuevas del Almanzora section) within the Betic Strait: (1) early Pliocene, representing the "Zanclean Deluge" (Cita et al., 1980), (2) Messinian (˜5.7 Ma), representing the last marine stage before the Messinian salinity crisis (Benson and Rakic-El Bied, 1991; Benson et al., 1991). The strontium isotopic ratio on mixed assemblages of foraminifers from these marine marls was determined in order to assess their ages. The average 87Sr/86Sr (0.709033±24) of the seven measured samples is, compared to the base of the Miocene/Pliocene boundary stratotype at Capo Rossello, Sicily, higher by 38 × 10-6 and yields an age of 4.6±0.5 Ma when compared to the established open ocean Sr seawater curve. The determined age indicates that (1) the first 3.6 m of marine deposits of the Cuevas del Almanzora section sensu Cita et al. (1980) including the passage zone are Pliocene, (2) the earliest marine Pliocene might not be represented at Cuevas del Almanzora indicating that this marginal basin at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea, yet within the former Betic Strait, was filled progressively by a marine transgression originating from the Mediterranean Sea around 4.6 Ma. The absence of lowermost Pliocene sediments could suggest that the Betic Strait did not serve as a conduit for the water masses entering the Mediterranean basins during the early Pliocene; and (3) the presence of an early evolutionary stage of Globorotalia margaritae in the Moroccan Bou Regreg section

  14. Amino acid racemization dating of Upper Pleistocene - Holocene terrestrial gastropods from a Mediterranean region (Murcia, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Ortiz, Jose E.; Torres, Trinidad; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Altolaguirre, Yul; Canales-Fernandez, Maria L.; Martin-Banda, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    The amino acid racemization method has become a widely used geochronological tool for dating Quaternary deposits. The method is based on the fact that living organisms contain only L-amino acids which gradually racemize into D-amino acids after death. Thus, the D/L ratio increases with time after death until it is equal to 1, that is, when equilibrium is reached. Gastropod shells are particularly useful for amino acid racemization dating. Because the amino acid racemization method is not a numerical dating method in isolation, it needs to be calibrated, mainly with radiometric dating methods. The racemization process is genus- and temperature-dependent. In this work we present a preliminary analysis that compares the radiometric age estimated from different dating methods of a number of gastropods recovered in localities from Murcia (Southeastern Spain), with the age obtained through the amino acid racemization method. Taking advantage of recent paleoseismological research in the Murcia region (SE Spain), 28 gastropods specimens were collected from different trenches dug in young Quaternary alluvial deposits. The specimens were subsequently classified and then analyzed according to the standards protocols of the Biomolecular Stratigraphy Laboratory (UPM, Madrid School of Mines). The species found were Otala lactea, Iberus gualterianus, Sphincterochila candidissima and Theba pisana. The D/L ratios of aspartic acid, leucine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were determined, and the corresponding average age of each specimen was calculated introducing the D/L values in the age calculation algorithm of Torres et al. (1997) for gastropods of central and southern Spain. The racemization age for each locality was then compared to the radiometric age of the deposit where the specimens were collected. To this respect, the samples were classified in different groups considering the reliability on the age control method. The most reliable sample consists only on dates obtained

  15. Paleoseismic and geomorphologic evidence of recent tectonic activity of the Pozohondo Fault (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M.A.; Pérez-López, R.; Garduño-Monroy, V.H.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Silva, P.G.; Perucha-Atienza, M.A.; Hernández-Madrigal, V.M.; Bischoff, J.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental and historical seismicity in the Albacete province (External Prebetic Zone) has been scarcely recorded. However, major strike-slip faults showing NW-SE trending provide geomorphologic and paleoseismic evidence of recent tectonic activity (Late Pleistocene to Present). Moreover, these faults are consistently well oriented under the present stress tensor and therefore, they can trigger earthquakes of magnitude greater than M6, according to the lengths of surface ruptures and active segments recognized in fieldwork. Present landscape nearby the village of Hellin (SE of Albacete) is determined by the recent activity of the Pozohondo Fault (FPH), a NW-SE right-lateral fault with 90 km in length. In this study, we have calculated the Late Quaternary tectonic sliprate of the FPH from geomorphological, sedimentological, archaeoseimological, and paleoseismological approaches. All of these data suggest that the FPH runs with a minimum slip-rate of 0.1 mm/yr during the last 100 kyrs (Upper Pleistocene-Holocene). In addition, we have recognized the last two major paleoearthquakes associated to this fault. Magnitudes of these paleoearthquakes were gretarer than M6 and their recurrence intervals ranged from 6600 to 8600 yrs for the seismic cycle of FPH. The last earthquake was dated between the 1st and 6th centuries, though two earthquakes could be interpreted in this wide time interval, one at the FPH and other from a far field source. Results obtained here, suggest an increasing of the tectonic activity of the Pozohondo Fault during the last 10,000 yrs.

  16. Estimation of the tectonic slip-rate from Quaternary lacustrine facies within the intraplate Albacete province (SE of Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez-Pascua, M. A.; Bischoff, J.; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Pérez-López, R.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Calvo, J.P.; Williams, Ross W.

    2009-01-01

    The Quaternary lacustrine basin of Cordovilla (CB) represents one of the most active tectonic areas of the Prebetic Zone (Albacete, SE of Spain). The Quaternary sedimentary deposits of this basin are mainly endoreic lacustrine carbonate and alluvial deposits, developed in a semi-arid climate (Pleistocene-present). The basin is a NW-SE-elongated graben bounded by a major right-lateral oblique-fault, the Pozohondo Fault. This fault trends NW-SE, with an approximate trace of 55 km, and is composed of various segments which are identified by fault scarps. In order to establish the slip-rate of the most active segment of the Pozohondo Fault, called the Cordovilla segment, we carried out a detailed study of the affected Quaternary lacustrine deposits. We found that the lacustrine facies could be related to episodic moderate paleoearthquakes. The slip-rate is calculated to be 0.05 and 0.09 mm/yr, using radiometric dating for the vertical offsets of the lacustrine facies. A trenching study at the northern part of the Cordovilla segment revealed two events caused by paleoearthquakes, with the most recent expressed as an oblique-fault off-setting a poorly-developed soil. The magnitude of the last event was greater than 6, using various empirical relationships for the fault displacement and the surface-length rupture. We estimate episodic activity across the Cordovilla segment, to be characterized by moderate-sized paleoearthquakes (M6), which is in agreement with the tectonic context of an intraplate zone of the Iberian plate. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Experimental studies of supercritical bedforms applied to coarse-grained turbidite deposits of the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain, late Miocene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Postma, George; Kleverlaan, Kick

    2014-05-01

    Modern submarine canyon floors are often covered with bedform patterns linked to supercritical turbidity currents, while recognition of sedimentary structures associated with such bedforms in outcrops are rare. On the basis of experimental work on bed morphodynamics and flow structure of high-density turbidity currents, a 3-dimensional bedform stability diagram and related sedimentary facies diagram have been constructed. To allow scaling of this diagram to natural flows, four non-dimensional parameters are used: 1) densimetric Froude number, 2) modified mobility parameter, 3) dimensionless grain size and 4) basal sediment concentration. Each bedform and basal sediment concentration is then linked to a characteristic facies type. Numerical and theoretical models from the literature and observations from modern turbidite depositional systems are used to estimate characteristic sizes of the bedforms for different flow types. The model is applied to the turbidite fan systems of the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain, late Miocene) and discussed along existing classical models of high density turbidity current deposits. It is concluded that the vertical sequence of supercritical bedforms have been described in these models, yet to date have never been recognized as bedforms in outcrop, presumably because of their large size that easily exceeds the dimensions of commonly available outcrop. On the basis both experimental work and outcrop studies in the Tabernas Basin (SE Spain) a conceptual three-dimensional bedform diagram for recognition of cyclic steps in outcrop is constructed. Experimental data indicates that depositional processes on the stoss-side of a cyclic step are controlled by hydraulic jump, which temporarily stalls the flow and by subsequent waxing of the flow up to supercritical again. The hydraulic jump produces large scours with soft sediment deformation (flames) preserved in Bouma Ta, while near horizontal, massive to stratified top-cut-out turbidite beds are

  18. Biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of soil and water conservation measures. An evaluation of Sustainable Land Management in SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; López, J.; Boix-Fayos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In close collaboration with stakeholders promising soil and water conservation measures were selected as part of the EU funded DESIRE project. These measures were monitored for nearly three years at an experimental farm in the upper Guadalentin (SE-Spain). Four Sustainable Land Management (SLM) measures were implemented on rainfed almonds: a) reduced tillage, b) green manure, c) straw mulch, d) traditional water harvesting. A fifth measure (e) reduced tillage of cereals, was compared to conventional mouldboard tillage. Here, we present monitoring results according to biophysical and socioeconomic criteria. SLM measures a, b and e, aim to reduce soil and water loss through runoff. Therefore, for each measure three replica erosion-runoff plots and a control plot were installed to monitor soil and water loss and soil moisture content at two depths. SLM measures c and d aim to increase soil water content by preventing soil evaporation and adding additional water by water harvesting respectively. In these fields, the volume of harvested water was registered and soil water content was monitored. In all experiments, farm operation costs and crop harvest were monitored as well. In the almond fields, green manure and reduced tillage significantly reduced soil and water loss as compared to the control plot with normal tillage operations. Also for the cereal field, results show lower erosion rates under reduced tillage as compared to traditional tillage operation. In two successive years, the highest almond harvest was found in the field with water harvesting (d), followed by the green manure field (b), though no significant differences were found in soil water content with their control plots. Mulching did not show a significant effect on soil water content or harvest. Four of the selected SLM options showed a positive effect on the protection of soil and water resources, and were beneficial for crop yield. Whereas, reduced tillage also results in lower production costs, the

  19. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  20. Evaporite sedimentation in a tectonically active basin: The lacustrine Las Minas Gypsum unit (Late Tortonian, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortí, Federico; Rosell, Laura; Gibert, Lluís; Moragas, Mar; Playà, Elisabet; Inglès, Montserrat; Rouchy, Jean Marie; Calvo, José Pedro; Gimeno, Domingo

    2014-08-01

    Evaporite successions may undergo significant lithostratigraphic changes laterally and vertically in tectonically-active basins. The Las Minas Gypsum, a lacustrine unit of Late Tortonian age and up to 160 m thick in the Las Minas-Camarillas basin (SE Spain), consists of a number of shallowing-upward cycles. Each cycle is made up of a lower interval with marl and carbonate, and an upper interval with gypsum. In the upper interval, the base displays carbonate-gypsum laminites (couplets, yearly microcycles) showing a large variability of textures and fabrics; gypsum textures are cumulates and bottom-grown crystals. Laminites are overlain by selenitic gypsum. The carbonate is a primary dolomite induced by sulphate-reducing bacterial activity. Native sulphur was formed in early diagenesis and during exhumation was partly transformed into late diagenetic gypsum. The isotopic compositions of gypsum suggest that the sulphate mainly derived from chemical recycling of Triassic evaporites; however, marine sulphate was probably supplied by episodic marine incursions. A perennial saline lake characterized by irregular bottom topography and depositional settings with variable subsidence ratios is interpreted. In addition to climate, saline diapirism, Neogene volcanism, synsedimentary faulting and seismicity influenced the evaporitic deposition. Las Minas-Camarillas basin is an example of how in tectonically active zones different factors interplay to produce significant variability of the evaporitic sedimentation and cyclicity.

  1. Boxwork and ferromanganese coatings in hypogenic caves: An example from Sima de la Higuera Cave (Murcia, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Rull, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    This paper examines the greyish-blue deposits that were recently discovered in the lower levels of the Sima de la Higuera Cave (Murcia, SE Spain) which occur as patinas over the walls and ceilings, as well as coating boxwork formations. Their mineralogy was determined using XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy, while EDX microanalysis was used to determine their elemental composition. The mineralogical analyses revealed the presence of Mn oxides (todorokite and pyrolusite) and Fe with a low degree of crystallinity, whereas EDX microprobe showed elevated concentrations of Mn (38.2 wt.%), Fe (15.2 wt.%) and Pb (8.1 wt.%). The ferromanganese oxyhydroxides occur as botryoidal aggregates overlying blades of calcite that have a visibly sugary texture. The speleogenetic model proposed describes (1) an initial phase of precipitation of hydrothermal calcite veins (of hypogenic origin) within the fissures of the host rock under phreatic conditions and (2) a subsequent vadose phase involving preferential corrosion of the carbonate host rock caused by lowering of the pH resulting from CO2 diffusion in condensed water and oxidation of Fe and Mn under aerobic conditions, probably mediated by microorganisms. It is this later phase that gave rise to the boxwork. The boxwork of the Sima de la Higuera Cave is a singular example of a formation that is generated by dissolution-corrosion of the rock due to acidification caused by oxidation of iron and manganese.

  2. Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; De Waele, Jo; Calaforra, José Maria; Forti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flow and hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr- 1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm - 1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr- 1 on carbonate flowstones. The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr- 1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation-corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation-corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an

  3. Extreme storms during the last 6500 years from lagoonal sedimentary archives in the Mar Menor (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezileau, Laurent; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Raji, Otmane; Martinez, Philippe; Marcos, Concepcion; Von Grafenstein, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Storms and tsunamis, which may seriously endanger human society, are amongst the most devastating marine catastrophes that can occur in coastal areas. Many such events are known and have been reported for the Mediterranean, a region where high-frequency occurrences of these extreme events coincides with some of the most densely populated coastal areas in the world. In a sediment core from the Mar Menor (SE Spain), we discovered eight coarse-grained layers which document marine incursions during periods of intense storm activity or tsunami events. Based on radiocarbon dating, these extreme events occurred around 5250, 4000, 3600, 3010, 2300, 1350, 650, and 80 years cal BP. No comparable events have been observed during the 20th and 21st centuries. The results indicate little likelihood of a tsunami origin for these coarse-grained layers, although historical tsunami events are recorded in this region. These periods of surge events seem to coincide with the coldest periods in Europe during the late Holocene, suggesting a control by a climatic mechanism for periods of increased storm activity. Spectral analyses performed on the sand percentage revealed four major periodicities of 1228 ± 327, 732 ± 80, 562 ± 58, and 319 ± 16 years. Amongst the well-known proxies that have revealed a millennial-scale climate variability during the Holocene, the ice-rafted debris (IRD) indices in the North Atlantic developed by Bond et al. (1997, 2001) present a cyclicity of 1470 ± 500 years, which matches the 1228 ± 327-year periodicity evidenced in the Mar Menor, considering the respective uncertainties in the periodicities. Thus, an in-phase storm activity in the western Mediterranean is found with the coldest periods in Europe and with the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. However, further investigations, such as additional coring and high-resolution coastal imagery, are needed to better constrain the main cause of these multiple events.

  4. Categorical Indicator Kriging for assessing the risk of groundwater nitrate pollution: the case of Vega de Granada aquifer (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Chica-Olmo, Mario; Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution associated with agricultural activity is an important environmental problem in the management of this natural resource, as acknowledged by the European Water Framework Directive. Therefore, specific measures aimed to control the risk of water pollution by nitrates must be implemented to minimise its impact on the environment and potential risk to human health. The spatial probability distribution of nitrate contents exceeding a threshold or limit value, established within the quality standard, will be helpful to managers and decision-makers. A methodology based on non-parametric and non-linear methods of Indicator Kriging was used in the elaboration of a nitrate pollution categorical map for the aquifer of Vega de Granada (SE Spain). The map has been obtained from the local estimation of the probability that a nitrate content in an unsampled location belongs to one of the three categories established by the European Water Framework Directive: CL. 1 good quality [Min - 37.5 ppm], CL. 2 intermediate quality [37.5-50 ppm] and CL. 3 poor quality [50 ppm - Max]. The obtained results show that the areas exceeding nitrate concentrations of 50 ppm, poor quality waters, occupy more than 50% of the aquifer area. A great proportion of the area's municipalities are located in these poor quality water areas. The intermediate quality and good quality areas correspond to 21% and 28%, respectively, but with the highest population density. These results are coherent with the experimental data, which show an average nitrate concentration value of 72 ppm, significantly higher than the quality standard limit of 50 ppm. Consequently, the results suggest the importance of planning actions in order to control and monitor aquifer nitrate pollution.

  5. An assessment of the influence of sulfidic mine wastes on rainwater quality in a semiarid climate (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, A.; Fernández-López, C.; Vázquez, M.; Caparrós, A.; Ibarra, I.; García, C.; Zarroca, M.; Rodríguez, R.

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the influence of the Sierra Minera de Cartagena - La Unión mining wastes on the surrounding areas, due to the sediment transport in the atmosphere. Monitoring of 15 weather stations located in the Campo de Cartagena land (SE Spain) was performed in the period December, 2004-March, 2008. A total of 920 rainfall water samples were collected and analyzed in this study. The network of weather stations covered a wide range of soil use and human activities (industrial, urban, agricultural, and mining sites). The physicochemical characterization involved determination of pH, EC, major ions, and the metals of interest in the soluble fraction of rainwater. Precipitations had an alkaline pH (7.0-7.9) and, compared to World Health Organization guidelines for drinking-water quality, samples were characterized by low EC (76-930 μS/cm), Ni (0.1-8 μg/L), Cu (3-88 μg/L), As (0.04-2 μg/L), Na+ (3-16 mg/L), K+ (0.41-30 mg/L), Ca2+ (6-51 mg/L), Mg2+ (up to 5 mg/L), Cl- (4-23 mg/L), NO3- (1-30 mg/L), and SO42- (4-35 mg/L) values. In certain locations, Zn, Cd, and Pb exceeded the guideline limits. A downward trend of H+, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in total depositions was observed while the distance to the area affected by mining activities increased in the first 20 km. Rainwater quality was found to be just subtly affected by the metal-sulfide abandoned minesites, but without presenting a current threat to neither public health nor natural ecosystem. Nevertheless, greater attention should be paid in the future projections of climate change, where a significant increase in aridity may favor the atmospheric transport of pollutant particles.

  6. Geochemical background of zinc, cadmium and mercury in anthropically influenced soils in a semi-arid zone (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-04-01

    This work seeks to establish the geochemical background for three potentially toxic trace elements (Zn, Cd and Hg) in a pilot zone included in the DesertNet project in the province of Murcia. The studied area, known as Campo de Cartagena, Murcia (SE Spain) is an area of intensive agriculture and has been much affected over the years by anthropic activity. The zone can be considered an experimental pilot zone for establishing background levels in agricultural soils. Sixty four samples were collected and corresponded to areas subjected to high and similar agricultural activity or soils with natural vegetation, which correspond to abandoned agricultural areas. The Zn content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry and mercury content was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Geostatistical analysis consisting of kriging and mapping was performed using the geostatistical analyst extension of ArcGIS 8.3. Zinc values ranged from 10 mg kg-1 to 151 mg kg-1, with an average value of 45 mg kg-1. Cadmium values ranged between 0.1 mg kg-1 and 0.9mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.3 mg kg-1 and mercury values ranged from 0.1 mg kg-1 to 2.3 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.5 mg kg-1. At a national level, the Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005 proposes toxicological and statistical approaches to establish background values. According to the statistical approach, background values consist of the median value for the selected element. The background values for Zn, Cd and Hg in the studied area were 40 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.3 mg kg-1 for Cd and 0.4 mg kg-1 for Hg.

  7. Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental changes during the continental Middle-Late Permian transition at the SE Iberian Ranges, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Horra, R.; Galán-Abellán, A. B.; López-Gómez, J.; Sheldon, N. D.; Barrenechea, J. F.; Luque, F. J.; Arche, A.; Benito, M. I.

    2012-08-01

    The Middle and Late Permian are characterized by a pair of mass-extinction events that are recorded in both marine and continental environments. Here, we present the first continental western peri-Tethyan record of an extinction event located in the Middle-Late interval. In the SE Iberian Ranges, Central Spain, the transition between the Lower and Middle subunits of the Middle Permian Alcotas Formation indicates a significant paleoclimatic change from arid and semiarid conditions towards more humid conditions. Coincident with the onset of humid conditions there were changes in the sedimentology, mineralogy, and geochemistry that indicate significant environmental changes including a shift in weathering intensity and a change of fluvial style from braided to meandering systems. Near the top of the Middle Subunit, a local biotic crisis is recorded by palynomorph assemblages. Following this crisis, there is a total absence of coal beds, plant remains, and microflora that defines a barren zone in the uppermost part of the Alcotas Formation which is recorded throughout the basin. The barren zone is accompanied by a shift back to braided stream systems, but not by a return to carbonate-bearing paleosols indicative of arid or semi-arid conditions. This combination of features is consistent with other Middle-Late continental basins related with mass extinctions, so the barren zone is interpreted as the extinction interval. The regional character of the extinction interval and its proximity with the Middle-Late Permian transition could be related with the global mid-Capitanian biotic turnover described in this period of time in other marine basins. However, the common difficulties of dating with precision non-marine rocks make this relationship difficult to probe in the Iberian Basin and in other Middle-Late Permian basins. Further work, including high resolution carbon-isotope analyses and complete studies of the magnetostratigraphy, should be desirable in order to obtain

  8. Do heavy metals existing in abandoned mining sites represent a real health risk? A study case in the SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz; Martínez-López, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Hernández-Cordoba, Manuel; Bech, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    Mining activities have been carried out for centuries in Sierra Minera (SE Spain) giving rise to a large number of sites distributed throughout the zone in which residues are accumulated. This communication reports studies as regards metal mobilization and analysis of the health risk that could be posed by inhalation, dermic contact or occasional ingestion of this type of sediments. Lead was used as the metal for the studies due to its particular abundance in the zone. A large number of samples were taken and general analytical determinations (pH, particle size, organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate content and mineralogical composition) were carried out in order its characterization. An in vitro method for obtaining formation on Pb bioaccessibility in these mine waste materials was also carried out. Our results prove that mineral associations, different alteration states and sorption/desorption processes play an important role in the bioavailability of lead. In addition, it is noteworthy that the metal fraction dissolved by the proposed in vitro methodology is lower than 100%, both in the stomach and intestinal phases. Finally an assessment of the risk posed by lead is achieved. To this respect it should be noted that the IRIS database provide cancer slope factor and reference dose, as a way to assess the risk caused by arsenic, cadmium and copper but no for lead, probably due to the wide variety of real situations, and the discrepancy of the sources. The way here suggested is a novelty in this sense, and the results could be extrapolated to other similar zones and be incorporated to the general protocol of risk assessment applied to contaminated sites.

  9. Total organic carbon and humus fractions in restored soils from limestone quarries in semiarid climate, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Ángel Domene Ruiz, Miguel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities generate erosion and loss of plant cover and soil organic matter (SOM), especially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem restoration in such highly disturbed areas is the development of functional soils with sufficient organic matter. But the SOM quality is also important to long-term C stabilization. The resistance to biodegradation of recalcitrant organic matter fractions has been reported to depend on some intrinsic structural factors of humic acid substances and formation of amorphous organo-mineral recalcitrant complexes. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, several combinations of organic amendments (sewage sludge and compost from domestic organic waste) and mulches (gravel and woodchip) were added in experimental plots using a factorial design. In each plot, 75 native plants (Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora and Macrochloa tenacissima) were planted and five years after the start of the experiment total organic carbon (TOC), physico-chemical soil properties and organic C fractions (particulate organic matter, H3PO4-fulvic fraction, fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humin) were analyzed. We observed significant differences between treatments related to the TOC content and the HA/FA ratio. Compost amendments increased the TOC, HA content and HA/FA ratio, even higher than in natural undisturbed soils, indicating an effective clay humus-complex pointing to progressively increasing organic matter quality. Soils with sewage sludge showed the lowest TOC and HA/FA ratio and accumulated a lower HA proportion indicating poorer organic matter quality and comparatively lower resilience than in natural soils and soils amended with compost.

  10. Thinning effects on litterfall remaining after 8 years and improved stand resilience in Aleppo pine afforestation (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M N; Navarro, F B

    2016-03-15

    Monthly litterfall was monitored over a 3-year period in afforested Aleppo pines in the Mediterranean semiarid SE Spain with the aim of determining the long-term response of pines to reductions in tree competition and how this forest practice might influence stand resilience. Three thinning intensities applied 5 years earlier were evaluated (T75 = 75% of the basal area removed, T60 = 60% and T48 = 48%), both at the stand and at the tree level. On average, the total annual litterfall varied between 1.30 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.24 SE) in T75 and 3.28 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.78 SE) in the unthinned control. At the stand level, monthly differences among the treatments were found over time in the needles (F = 11.09, df = 3, P = 0.0009) and woody fraction (F = 4.36, df = 3, P = 0.0269) following the thinning gradient: T0 (control)>T48 > T60 > T75, and for the total amount of needles (χ(2) = 9.33, P = 0.025) and twigs (χ(2) = 9.11, P = 0.027) recorded at the end of the study period. High amounts of twig and needle fall were recorded during summer and beginning of autumn, whereas the main miscellanea inputs were registered during the spring, coinciding with the fall of nests and frass from caterpillar outbreaks. At the tree level, the total litterfall fluctuated between 1.5 kg tree yr(-1) in T0 (2nd yr) and 7.0 kg tree yr(-1) in T75 (3rd yr), although mean annual statistical differences among the treatments were found only for the first year of monitoring. However, needle fall was higher for larger pines (T75) than for the smaller ones in control (T0) when the data were analysed over the 3-year-period (F = 3.64, df = 3, P = 0.0247), and the same happened for the woody fraction (F = 3.63, df = 3, P = 0.0250). By contrast, pine trees in the unthinned control registered needle-fall rates (measured as kg m(-2) tree(-1)) that were similar to or higher than those of pine trees in thinned stands, suggesting that defoliation

  11. Geodetic slip rate estimates for the Alhama de Murcia and Carboneras faults in the SE Betics, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaradze, Giorgi; Echeverria, Anna; Masana, Eulàlia

    2016-04-01

    The Alhama de Murcia and the Carboneras faults are the most prominent geologic structures within the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), located in SE Spain. Using continuous and campaign GPS observations conducted during the last decade, we were able to confirm the continuing tectonic activity of these faults by quantifying their geodetic slip-rates and comparing the estimated values with the geological (including paleoseismological) observations. We find that the bulk of the observed deformation is concentrated around the Alhama de Murcia (AMF) and the Palomares (PF) faults. The geodetic horizontal slip rate (reverse-sinistral) of 1.5±0.3 mm/yr calculated for the AMF and PF fault system is in good agreement with geological observations at the AMF, as well as, the focal mechanism of the 2011 Lorca earthquake, suggesting a main role of the AMF. We also find that the geodetic slip rate of the Carboneras fault zone (CFZ) is almost purely sinistral strike-slip with a rate of 1.3±0.2 mm/yr along N48° direction, very similar to 1.1 mm/yr geologic slip-rate, estimated from recent onshore and offshore paleoseismic and geomorphologic studies. The fact the geodetic and the geologic slip-rates are similar at the AMF and CF faults, suggests that both faults have been tectonically active since Quaternary, slipping at approximately at constant rate of 1.1 to 1.8 mm/yr. Since the existing GPS data cannot discern whether the CFZ is slipping seismically or aseismically, we have intended to relate the on-going seismic activity to the slip-rates estimated using GPS. For this reason we compared seismic and geodetic strain rates, where the latter are larger than seismic strain rates, suggesting the presence of aseismic processes in the area. Nevertheless, due to the large earthquake recurrence intervals, we may be underestimating the seismic strain rates. The direction of the P and T average stress axes are in good agreement with geodetic principal strain rate axes. To summarize, in

  12. Sedimentary and diagenetic markers of the restriction in a marine basin: the Lorca Basin (SE Spain) during the Messinian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchy, J. M.; Taberner, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M.-M.; Sprovieri, R.; Russell, M.; Pierre, C.; Di Stefano, E.; Pueyo, J. J.; Caruso, A.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Gomis-Coll, E.; Wolff, G. A.; Cespuglio, G.; Ditchfield, P.; Pestrea, S.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Santisteban, C.; Grimalt, J. O.

    1998-10-01

    The Lorca Basin (southeastern Spain) is part of a chain of small marginal Neogene basins located in the structurally active Betic area. The Upper Miocene (Messinian) sequence is composed of a thick diatomite-bearing series (Tripoli Unit) overlain by the Main Evaporites, analogous to the classical succession that records the main events during the Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean region. The shallow restricted conditions of this region amplified the sedimentary responses to local and global forcings. An integrated approach using sedimentology, micropalaeontology, stable isotope geochemistry and organic geochemistry has been applied to the Tortonian/Messinian succession of the Lorca Basin, in order to obtain a continuous record of the environmental changes. The sediments record two major events which affected the whole Mediterranean: (1) high levels of productivity that led to the formation of the diatomite-bearing deposits in the early Messinian (Tripoli); and (2) the Messinian Salinity Crisis with its two major stages, represented by the Halite and Gypsum Units, both mainly precipitated from marine-derived brines. The rapid reflooding of the Mediterranean by normal marine waters at the base of the Pliocene did not reach the Lorca Basin, nor other basins of this part of the Betic area. Instead, continental sediments were deposited as a consequence of the regional uplift of SE Iberia, which started close to the Messinian/Pliocene boundary. The most prominent feature of this basin concerns the record of its restriction by the time of the deposition of the Tripoli Unit, which led to intercalations of precursor evaporitic layers, consisting of Ca-sulphate deposited in sub-aqueous and sabkha conditions, interbedded with diatomites. This alternation of evaporites and diatomites proves that the Lorca Basin was periodically restricted and reflooded by marine waters, a possible cause for this being relative sea-level fluctuations in the Mediterranean. This strengthens

  13. Interannual variability of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and its component fluxes in a subalpine Mediterranean ecosystem (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Domingo, Francisco; Arnau-Rosalén, Eva; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Pérez-Priego, Óscar; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent decades under climate change have seen increasing interest in quantifying the carbon (C) balance of different terrestrial ecosystems, and their behavior as sources or sinks of C. Both CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and identification of its drivers are key to understanding land-surface feedbacks to climate change. The eddy covariance (EC) technique allows measurements of net ecosystem C exchange (NEE) from short to long time scales. In addition, flux partitioning models can extract the components of net CO2 fluxes, including both biological processes of photosynthesis or gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (Reco), and also abiotic drivers like subsoil CO2 ventilation (VE), which is of particular relevance in semiarid environments. The importance of abiotic processes together with the strong interannual variability of precipitation, which strongly affects CO2 fluxes, complicates the accurate characterization of the C balance in semiarid landscapes. In this study, we examine 10 years of interannual variability of NEE and its components at a subalpine karstic plateau, El Llano de los Juanes, in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Results show annual NEE ranging from 55 g C m-2 (net emission) to -54 g C m-2 (net uptake). Among C flux components, GPP was the greatest contributing 42-57% of summed component magnitudes, while contributions by Reco and VE ranged from 27 to 46% and from 3 to 18%, respectively. Annual precipitation during the studied period exhibited high interannual variability, ranging from 210 mm to 1374 mm. Annual precipitation explained 50% of the variance in Reco, 59% of that in GPP, and 56% for VE. While Reco and GPP were positively correlated with annual precipitation (correlation coefficient, R, of 0.71 and 0.77, respectively), VE showed negative correlation with this driver (R = -0.74). During the driest year (2004-2005), annual GPP and Reco reached their lowest values, while contribution of

  14. Late Quaternary large-scale rotational slides induced by river incision: The Arroyo de Gor area (Guadix basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azañón, José M.; Azor, Antonio; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Carrillo, José M.

    2005-07-01

    The Arroyo de Gor is a highly incised stream (up to 200 m) that has eroded into the Pliocene-Pleistocene infill of the Guadix basin in the Betic cordillera (SE Spain). This paper concentrates on a particular reach of this stream, namely the Cenascuras-Gorafe reach, where abundant inactive rotational slides can be recognized on both hillslopes of the canyon-shaped valley. The rotational slides have surface areas of 5-15 ha and volumes of mobilized material of 5-15 Hm 3. These rotational slides can be recognized by their main scarps, which are still well featured at both margins of the valley, as well as by the counter hillslope rotation of the strata in their bodies. The surfaces of rupture are concave, their width being greater than their length, i.e. the landslides are elongated in a direction perpendicular to the landsliding displacement and parallel to the stream. At depth, the surfaces of rupture developed on fine-grained sediments (mostly clays) underlying the conglomerates and sands affected by the rotational slides. The clays at the surface of rupture are smectite-rich and show several features produced by the landsliding, such as striations and sigmoidal-shaped structures. The Cenascuras-Gorafe canyon has been developed by a combination of entrenchment, fracturing and landsliding. Initial deep entrenchment of the stream is attributed to a base-level lowering related to the capture of the former endorheic basin by the Gualdalquivir river in the late Pleistocene. This river incision created a canyon with subvertical unstable walls, which due to gravitational instability would give way to vertical open tension cracks some distance from the canyon edge. The tension cracks would end at depths equal to the base of the canyon, which also coincides with the contact between the conglomerates and the underlying clays. The rotational slides are thought to have occurred during heavy rains by a combination of piping, which would have lengthened the tension cracks, and

  15. Transplant experiments to examine the habitat exclusivity of lichen dominated soil crust communities in the El Cautivo badlands, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, J.; Alexander, R.; Lazaro-Suau, R.

    2012-04-01

    Successive episodes of erosion into late Miocene marls have produced the complex, deeply incised topography of the El Cautivo badlands in Almería, SE Spain. Phanerogamic vegetation is sparse in this extreme semi-arid environment and biological soil crusts constitute the predominant cover on all surfaces except those with active erosion. The soil crusts comprise a diverse range of lichen-dominated communities, which previous work (Bevan, 2008) has indicated can be separated into four main types, each characterised by one or a small number of lichen species. Distribution patterns of these main crust types appear to reflect (micro)topographic and microclimatic variability at the site with each community type occupying a specific habitat. The main crust types are identified as BC, a brown crust typically containing Endocarpon pusillum, Collema spp, Fulgensia spp and Placynthium nigrum, and DC, SC, LC, three white crusts characterised respectively by Diploschistes diacapsis, Squamarina lentigera and Lepraria crassissima. Previous work at the site (Bevan, 2008) has revealed associations between the distribution of these four crust types and a number of microclimatic variables, in particular insolation and temperature. BC tends to occur in the most exposed parts of the site where insolation and surface temperatures reach their highest levels and humidity and soil moisture tends to be low. LC appears more restricted to shaded sites with lower insolation and temperature and higher humidity and soil moisture. DC and SC occupy intermediate ranges of these variables. In order to test the degree to which the apparent habitat preferences of the crust types are obligatory or preferential a series of transplant experiments were devised. Replicate samples representative of each of the four crust types were reciprocally transplanted into areas dominated by each of the other types and also into an area previously eroded and bare. Each location had the following groups of plots: a

  16. Effect of partial melting on Vp and Vs in crustal enclaves from Mazarrón (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Fabio; Burlini, Luigi; Cesare, Bernardo

    2016-03-01

    The combination of compressional and shear wave velocity is an important tool in discriminating rock types and identifying residing melts within the continental crust. Here we report the laboratory measurements for Vp and Vs obtained in varying conditions up to those exceeding the beginning of melting (950 °C at 500 MPa confining pressure) on two residual garnet-biotite-sillimanite-cordierite-spinel metapelitic enclaves recovered from the Neogene dacites of Mazarrón (SE Spain). The enclaves preserve widespread interstitial rhyolitic glass as evidence of primary melt extraction. At 500 MPa, the experimental Vp ranges from 7.21 ÷ 7.46 km s- 1 at room temperature to 5.44 km/s at 950 °C. The mean Vs is 4.5 km/s at room temperature with shear-wave splitting of 0.25 ÷ 0.3 km/s, measured along three mutually orthogonal directions. When temperature increases, the Vs evidences a reversible slope change at about 650 °C, and the shear-wave splitting reduces to zero (isotropic material) at 850-950 °C, where the sample Vs is ~ 3.0 km/s. The Vp anisotropy is 7-10% up to 700 °C increasing to ~ 20% at 950 °C, while the Vs anisotropy continuously decreases with temperature from 5% to 7% at room temperature to zero at 950 °C. No mineral reactions are observed up to 650-700 °C; however, microstructure equilibrates due to the relaxation of the primary glass at the glass transition temperature. Between 850 °C and 950 °C, a new melting reaction is observed producing biotite + spinel + ilmenite + plagioclase + melt. At melting, the rock becomes isotropic for Vs, and Poisson's ratio increases to 0.30. Our seismic data show that the seismic signature of high grade metapelitic rocks is similar to that of mafic materials. The evolution of Vp and Vs at melting conditions is compatible with the geophysical data of the area, supporting the hypothesis of the current existence of anatectic melts at intermediate depths of the Alborán domain.

  17. Spatial gradient of chemical weathering and its coupling with physical erosion in the soils of the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonejans, Jerome; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Kubik, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The production and denudation of soil material are controlled by chemical weathering and physical erosion which influence one another. Better understanding and quantification of this relationship is critical to understand biogeochemical cycles in the critical zone. The intense silicate weathering that is taking place in young mountain ranges is often cited to be a negative feedback that involves a long-term reduction of the atmospheric CO2 and the temperature cooling. However the possible (de)coupling between weathering and erosion is not fully understood for the moment and could reduce the effect of the feedback. This study is conducted in the eastern Betic Cordillera located in southeast Spain. The Betic Cordillera is composed by several mountains ranges or so-called Sierras that are oriented E-W to SE-NW and rise to 2000m.a.s.l. The Sierras differ in topographic setting, tectonic activity, and slightly in climate and vegetation. The mountain ranges located in the northwest, such as the Sierra Estancias, have the lowest uplift rates ( ~20-30 mm/kyr); while those in the southeast, such as the Sierra Cabrera, have the highest uplift rates ( >150mm/kyr). The sampling was realised into four small catchments located in three different Sierras. In each of them, two to three soil profiles were excavated on exposed ridgetops, and samples were taken by depth slices. The long-term denudation rate at the sites is inferred from in-situ 10Be CRN measurements. The chemical weathering intensity is constrained using a mass balance approach that is based on the concentration of immobile elements throughout the soil profile (CDF). Our results show that the soil depth decreases with an increase of the denudation rates. Chemical weathering accounts for 5 to 35% of the total mass lost due to denudation. Higher chemical weathering intensities (CDFs) are observed in sites with lower denudation rates (and vice versa). The data suggest that chemical weathering intensities are strongly

  18. Lichenometry dating of rock collapse related to the great Lisbon Earthquake (1755) at the SE part of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, Raul; Rodriguez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Silva, Pablo G.; Bischoff, James L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Giner-Robles, Jorge L.; Díez-Herrero, Andres

    2010-05-01

    "De una montaña, se desprendió una parte" (A large part of a mountain has fallen down). This sentence was extracted from an ancient text written at the end of the 18th Century, in relation with the great Earthquake of Lisbon in 1755 (Martínez-Solares, 2001), and describing the rock collapse recorded near the small town of Agramón, 50 km southeastward of Albacete city (SE of Spain). Up to now, archaeologists have suggested this rock collapse to the archaeological site of "El Tolmo de Minateda", a small butte (420 m long) of calcarenitic sandstone bedrock with a flat top and scarped cliffs (20m high) bordering the butte. This ancient city was habited by several civilizations from Bronze Ages to modern times (i.e. Iberians, Roman, Visigoths, Muslims, Medieval ages, etc.). The landscape of this area is characterized by a flat terrain with isolated relict structural buttes consisting of Late Neogene marine sandstones created by differential erosion. The site exhibits three different stages of massive rock collapse. The oldest is located at the north of the site while the younger is located at the south part of the site and affecting Visigothic stone carved tombs. Archaeologists have postulated that the youngest of these was triggered by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. We have carried out a lichenometric analysis over the free-faces of the rock blocks, with the aim of testing the postulate. For our purpose, we have calculated the calibrated growth curve for Aspicilia Radiosa (Hoff.), which yields a linear growth of 0.2425 mm per yr (R2 = 0.97, N=20). This growth rate was determined for the time interval from 800 BP yrs to the present by two different approaches: (1) rates obtained from cemetery measurements (200 yrs BP) and (2) rates determined from well-dated archaeological monuments (200-800 yrs BP). Our analysis revealed that the age of the rock-falling was in the year 1754 AD ±4. Thus, our results confirm that this collapse of ca. 5000 m3 of volume was triggered

  19. Constraining controls on carbonate sequences with high-resolution chronostratigraphy: Upper Miocene, Cabo de Gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, P.; Farr, M.R.; Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution chronostratigraphy has been developed for Miocene shallow-water carbonate strata in the Cabo de Gata region of SE Spain for evaluation of local, regional and global factors that controlled platform architecture prior to and during the Messinian salinity crisis. Paleomagnetic data were collected from strata at three localities. Mean natural remanent magnetization (NRM) ranges between 1.53 ?? 10-8 and 5.2 ?? 10-3 Am2/kg. Incremental thermal and alternating field demagnetization isolated the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Rock magnetic studies show that the dominant magnetic mineral is magnetite, but mixtures of magnetite and hematite occur. A composite chronostratigraphy was derived from five stratigraphic sections. Regional stratigraphic data, biostratigraphic data, and an 40Ar/39Ar date of 8.5 ?? 0.1 Ma, for an interbedded volcanic flow, place the strata in geomagnetic polarity Chrons C4r to C3r. Sequence-stratigraphic and diagenetic evidence indicate a major unconformity at the base of depositional sequence (DS)3 that contains a prograding reef complex, suggesting that approximately 250 000 yr of record (Subchrons C3Br.2r to 3Br.1r) are missing near the Messinian-Tortonian boundary. Correlation to the GPTS shows that the studied strata represent five third- to fourth-order DSs. Basal units are temperate to subtropical ramps (DS1A, DS1B, DS2); these are overlain by subtropical to tropical reefal platforms (DS3), which are capped by subtropical to tropical cyclic carbonates (Terminal Carbonate Complex, TCC). Correlation of the Cabo de Gata record to the Melilla area of Morocco, and the Sorbas basin of Spain indicate that early - Late Tortonian ramp strata from these areas are partially time-equivalent. Similar strata are extensively developed in the Western Mediterranean and likely were influenced by a cool climate or influx of nutrients during an overall rise in global sea-level. After ramp deposition, a sequence boundary (SB3) in

  20. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: upper miocene, cabo de gata region, se Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  1. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: Upper miocene, cabo de gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  2. Spectral detection of different types of soil crusts under intact and disturbance conditions in semiarid environments from SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, S.; Stevens, A.; Cantón, Y.; Domingo, F.; van Wesemael, B.

    2009-04-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) consist of an association of soil particles with cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, liverworts, bryophytes and lichens creating a cohesive thin horizontal layer on the soil surface. They have a widespread distribution in arid and semiarid regions, which comprise over 40% of the world's land surface. BSCs play an important role on hydrological and ecological functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems since they influence all components of hydrological balance (runoff, rainfall capture, infiltration, evaporation, water retention capacity) and erosion. It is well known that BSCs at local scale reduce water erosion by protecting soil against raindrop impact. However, their effects have to be evaluated at different spatial scales, because in many cases BSCs lead to an increase of runoff and downslope erosion or water harvesting from crusted areas to nourish adjacent vegetated areas. Moreover, BSCs are easily damaged by livestock or human activities and the disturbance usually has great significance for the coverage and the composition of the community of the BSCs, the developmental stage of the BSC and their effects on hydrology and erosion. So, to accurately predict runoff and erosion processes, the spatial distribution of soil crust types and their disturbance conditions should be included in models. To map soil crusting at large scales, the use of their spectral characteristics can be a useful method. The objectives of this work are i) to analyze the spectral characteristics of different crust types (physical and biological soil crusts), also corresponding to different crust development stages, in two semiarid areas in SE Spain, El Cautivo (in the Tabernas Desert) and Amoladeras (in the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Níjar), ii) to demonstrate the efficiency of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, especially in the visible part of the spectrum, for classifying different crust types and different crust disturbance conditions. Spectral

  3. Lower Aptian Sequence at Madoz (SE Spain) in Relation to Cretaceous Anoxic Event-1a (OAE- 1a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona-Narvaez, T.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Lamolda, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Aptian stage at Madoz in the Sierra de Aralar, NE Spain, shows contrasting lithological succession of intercalated clastic-rich intervals and rudist-rich limestone beds varying between Medium Olive Gray (5Y 5/1) and Olive Gray (5Y 4/1). They are subdivided into different sub-units (Duvernois et al., 1972; Cherchi & Schroeder, 1998) with unit 1, as well as subunits 2a and 2b of "Madoz Limestone" are placed within the Lower Aptian Palorbitolina lenticularis Zone. Their stratigraphic level corresponds at least to the Deshayesites deshayesi ammonite zone, based on the presence of the nominate taxon in clastic Unit 1. Sub-unit 2b includes a distinct 180-cm thick black (Medium to Dark Gray, -N4 to N3) shale layer toward the close of the upper Lower Aptian. Detailed microfacies analysis was carried out on the Lower Aptian interval in order to characterize the different lithofacies and their possible relationship to Cretaceous OAE-1a. Subunit 2a is 20m thick and its microfacies consists of sparse and packed biomicrites, moderate to poorly sorted fine calcirudites and calcarenites composed of 40 - 50% remains of corals, predominantly non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, bryozoans, benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae indicative of well oxygenated conditions. Matrix and bioclasts are highly affected by neomorphism and growing of micritic envelopes is frequent. Superjacent subunit 2b is also 20m thick, but is lithologically very variable and consists of interbeds of indurated biomicrite with 30 - 50 % fossil fragments dominated by orbitolinids, and echinoids, non-rudist bivalves, benthic foraminifers, and algae as secondary components. These beds also contain 15 - 25 % mostly silt-size quartz grains, and clays. Other indurated biomicrite beds within subunit 2b contain 1 - 20 % fragments of non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, other benthic foraminifers, and algae, but orbitolinids are scarce. Terrigenous components make up 10 - 25 % of the matrix. Subunit 2b also includes soft

  4. Spreading of astronomy in big events: the case of The fira detots Sants of Cocentaina (Alicante)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantó, J.; Luna, R.; Satorre, M. A.; Millán, C.

    2011-11-01

    Year 2009 has been an intense year for astronomers. TheInternational Year of Astronomy (IYA-AIA) was a fantasticopportunity to show to the public the most beautiful discoveriesof the cosmos. It has also been a difficult year for looking forfunding, so it has been indispensable to unite efforts to optimizeresources. In this communication we try to expose the case of theexhibition "Un Univers per descobrir" organized and supported byCocentaina's Town hall (in Alicante's province). It was anexhibition made ex-professo for the 663 edition of theFira de Tots Sants de Cocentaina, based on the project with thesame title by doctors Guillermo Tenorio and Enrique Perez. Thisexhibition, with more than 50000 visitors, was the most visitedastronomic exhibition in Spain during the IYA.%J Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI, Proceedings of the IX Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA), held in Madrid, September 13 - 17, 2010, Eds.: M. R. Zapatero Osorio, J. Gorgas, J. Maíz Apellániz, J. R. Pardo, and A. Gil de Paz., p. 858-858

  5. Climatology and remote sensing in Alicante Forest area. Application to burned area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda Esplugues, Fernando

    The objective of the present study is to examine the variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), using de Landsat-TM images (band 3 and 4) over an area located between XUTM 730400-760400 and YUTM 4274000- 4304000 in Alicante (Spain), during the period 1984-1994, and analyze its linear relationship with climatic parameters. We examine too, the influence of climatic parameters in the forest vegetation regeneration. To perform the analysis of these data, there are available hydric chips and monthly abstracts of twenty-five meteorological stations from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, which are available for this study, with chronological series long enough to make possible the analysis at long term. To establish this relations we have used Kriging method for their interpolation and to generate climate data grids, for several periods. To eliminate contour's problem, a climatic detailed study has been carried in a zone more great than Landsat's images. This zone is characterized by a great topographic complexity that lead to a diverse microclimatic conditions. The image processing consists of geometric and radiometric (atmospheric and topographic) corrections to make possible the superposition of all images and their multitemporal comparisons. To monitor forest regeneration processes and their relationship with climatic parameters (Rainfall and soil moisture) have been used a GIS, particularly IDRISI, where we have made up information of Remote Sensing and Ground data collection.

  6. Habitat Fragmentation in Arid Zones: A Case Study of Linaria nigricans Under Land Use Changes (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  7. Physico-chemical evolution of groundwater in tectonically active areas. Application to the Leana hot spring (Murcia Region, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M.; Hornero, J.; Trujillo, C.

    2016-09-01

    Seismic events can affect the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater. These anomalies are of a pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic nature and correspond to pulse variations, sudden increases and decreases without return to initial values and upward or downward changes in trend. Continuous and in situ conductivity and temperature monitoring and periodic water sampling at a hot spring associated with neotectonic activity are of great interest for establishing predictive methods. This method is limited to the seismic activity affecting the fracturing system with which the hot spring is associated. The Region of Murcia and surroundings (southeast Spain) was selected as the study area for exploring the nature of these influences on groundwater. A hot spring in the Leana spa (Murcia) was equipped and monitored during the period 2006-2008, allowing for the in situ determination of conductivity and temperature as well as of major and minor constituents at the laboratory. Due to its proximity and related with fault network, we suggest that 86 % of earthquakes located between 0 and 10 km may affect in situ parameters of groundwater, and 75 % may affect laboratory determinations. This percentage drops in more distant zones. Of all earthquakes that seem to influence groundwater, 55 % of the in situ parameter anomalies and 53 % of laboratory were of a pre-seismic nature.

  8. Magnetostratigraphy of the Orce region (Baza Basin), SE Spain: New chronologies for Early Pleistocene faunas and hominid occupation sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, G. R.; Gibert, Ll.; Gibert, J.

    2007-02-01

    The Orce fossil quarries, in the Baza Basin of southeastern Spain, are a rich source of Early Pleistocene Palaeolithic tools and vertebrate remains. Geologic fieldwork during the last decade has placed these fossiliferous strata within the context of a thick Neogene continental sequence. Detailed lithostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic results indicate that at least the upper 60 m of this sequence are of Early Pleistocene age. The quarried strata (Venta Micena, Barranco León and Fuentenueva-3) are from a narrow time span (<100 ka) starting before 1.3 Ma. A new, lower excavation at ˜1.5 Ma (Fuentenueva-1 quarry) has a distinctly older fauna. These Orce strata provide a high resolution, Early Pleistocene record of grassland fauna that shows the end of Mammal Neogene fauna (MN17) in the Fuentenueva-1 site (with Gazella borbonica, Equus stenonis) and the beginning of more characteristic Pleistocene fauna in the Venta Micena site (with Hippopotamus antiquus, Equus granatensis, Homo sp.). Thus far, no evidence for human occupation has been found within the earlier Fuentenueva-1 quarry, although many of the same terminal MN17 species have been found with hominids on the other side of Europe at the Dmanisi site (earliest Pleistocene) in the Republic of Georgia.

  9. Mapping local microseismicity using short-term tripartite small array installations — Case study: Coy region (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häge, Martin; Joswig, Manfred

    2009-06-01

    One major tectonic feature in the southern part of Spain is the Crevillente Fault Zone (CFZ) which can be traced over 600 km. A short-term microseismic feasibility study was carried out in the area around Coy to investigate the seismic activity of the CFZ by mapping the local seismicity distribution. The area under investigation is of high interest because three moderate earthquakes have occurred nearby since 1999. The measurements were performed with two small arrays, whereas one array was relocated every day to increase the spatial resolution. In the measurement period of 14 nights, including 4 daytime records, 189 events in the magnitude range - 1.8 ≤ ML ≤ 1.3 were detected, of them 133 events could also be located. According to the bulletin of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, the local network recorded 1 event in the area under investigation in the same period. The results of this short-term measurement show an increased detectability by using small arrays for event recording and prove that there is a high rate of microseismicity below the detection threshold of the local network. For event location, the regional velocity model had to be adapted to our small scale, short epicentral distance application by reducing vP to 4 km/s using a homogenous half space model. The distribution of the events does not indicate a seismic activity along the CFZ. It is rather concentrated to the south around the epicentral zone of the La Paca earthquake that occurred 114 days before our measurement campaign. Some events show a high waveform similarity. They can be attributed to the same fault segment.

  10. Late Neogene-Recent uplift of the Cabo de Gata volcanic province, Almerı´a, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José M.; Braga, Juan C.; Betzler, Christian

    2003-02-01

    Cabo de Gata is a Miocene volcanic province in the Betic Cordillera in southeastern Spain. The distribution of coastal deposits in the successive marine sedimentary units overlying the last volcanic episode (about 7.5 Ma old) has been used to reconstruct the post-volcanic palaeogeographic evolution of the region during the Late Neogene. The current elevation of well-dated shoreline marker rocks has been used to estimate uplift amount and rates. Since the late Tortonian, a N45°E-aligned (the strike of the Carboneras fault system) topographic relief was emergent in the Cabo de Gata region. The extension and height of this island increased throughout the late Neogene. Smaller, independent islands were emergent and finally became connected to the main island during the Messinian. The Carboneras and Agua Amarga Pliocene sub-basins were the last two marine basins prior to the final emergence of the region. Since the last volcanic eruption (ca. 7.5 Ma), maximum uplift of sedimentary rocks in Cabo de Gata has taken place on the western margin of the N45°E-aligned palaeorelief. The altitude of the shoreline marker rocks in the successive sedimentary units decreases eastwards to the present-day coast and northwards of the Rambla del Plomo. Uplift rates since deposition remain nearly constant for the successive Messinian rocks and decrease slightly for the lower Pliocene outcrops. Most of the uplift took place before the Pliocene while the main island enlarged. Uplift amounts and rates since deposition of the upper Neogene sedimentary units in the Cabo de Gata area are similar to the ones estimated for laterally equivalent units in the eastern Betic basins (approximately 50 m/Ma). Despite its volcanic nature and the occurrence of the Carboneras fault system, the Cabo de Gata probably became elevated as a consequence of regional uplift in connection with the rest of the Betic Cordillera.

  11. Assessment of African and local wind-blown dust contributions at three rural sites in SE Spain: aerosol size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Lidón, V.; Martínez, J.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol number size distribution and meteorological parameters were measured at three rural sites in semiarid southeastern Spain. Number concentrations of suspended particles in 31 size bins between 0.25 and 32 m diameter were continuosly recorded with a GRIMM 190 aerosol spectrometer at: (i) a rural background (RB) location in a perennial tussock grassland, from July to October 2006; (ii) a rural site surrounded by abandoned croplands, and influenced by mineral industries and by a small paved road having a small traffic load located 30 m to the East (RA), from June to December 2007; and (iii) a rural (R) location in an agricultural plot previously cleared and then lightly leveled and compacted for future lemon-tree cultivation, from February to June 2008. Events of long range transport from North Africa to the study area (African dust outbreaks, ADOs) were identified by aerosol transport models, back-trajectories and satellite imagery. There is an increase in the concentration of particles larger than 2 m with increasing wind speed while the concentrations decrease for smaller particles at the RB and R sites. At the RA location, that increase is observed for particles in the range 1.6 - 3.5 m (the precise value depends on the wind speed) when there are West winds. Particulate resuspension is found to occur at all wind speeds, although wind threshold values can be identified by a sharp increase in particle concentrations for a range of particle sizes. Light winds entrain large particles while stronger winds additionally entrain particles of smaller size (down to 2.5 m for the highest winds). The size distributions present maxima at 1.6 and 3 m on days with ADO. Concentration for almost every particle size is higher on ADOs than on days without such events, due in part to the associated meteorological situation. This work was partially supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia under grant CGL2004-04419 (RESUSPENSE Project).

  12. A cross section of the eastern Betic Cordillera (SE Spain) according field data and a seismic reflection profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabaloy-Sánchez, A.; Fernández-Fernández, E. M.; González-Lodeiro, F.

    2007-04-01

    The BT3 multichannel seismic profile was acquired by the C.G.G. (Compagnie General de Géophysique) in 1977 for hydrocarbon exploration in the eastern Betic Cordillera. REXIMseis Ltd scanned and vectorized a paper copy and then performed post-stack processing, including coherence filtering and deconvolution. The receiver functions of a broad-band seismic station located near the village of Vélez Rubio, at the SE end of the profile, were analysed by Julia et al. [Julia, J., Mancilla, F., Morales, J., 2005. Seismic signature of intracrustal magmatic intrusions in the Eastern Betics (Internal Zone), SE Iberia, Geophysical Research Letters 32, L16304, doi:10.1029/2005GL023274.] to determine the structure of the underlying crust. We have used these Vp data to convert the profile to depth. The profile has a mean SE-NW trend, with a SE-Section 44 km in length followed by a NW-Section 20 km in length. The record includes the first 4 s (twtt), which corresponds to 11 km. Two main areas can be seen in the profile. At the SE-end, a band of high-amplitude discontinuous reflectors dips towards the north. The band is 100 to 200 ms thick, increasing even more northwards. This band reaches the surface at the top of the Maláguide Complex (the upper complex of the Internal Zones). Above these reflectors, an area with chaotic seismic facies and no reflectors corresponds to the outcrops of the olistostromes and turbidites of the Solana Formation, and it is in turn overlain by discontinuous reflectors of the Subbetic rocks. At the NW-end of the profile, a set of high-amplitude continuous reflectors with SE dips point to the location of the Prebetic. Below this section, oblique reflectors of intermediate amplitude indicate the Variscan basement. Over the Prebetic, we have marked the basal thrusts of the Intermediate Units and the Subbetic. Using this seismic data, as well as field observations, we propose a geological cross-section of the upper crust of the eastern Betic Cordillera

  13. [Fingolimod: effectiveness and safety in routine clinical practice. An observational, retrospective, multi-centre study in the province of Alicante].

    PubMed

    Mallada, J; Perez-Carmona, N; Berenguer-Ruiz, L; Sanchez-Perez, R; Martin-Gonzalez, R; Sola-Martinez, D; Mola, S; Lopez-Arlandis, J M; Vela-Yebra, R; Gabaldon-Torres, L; Freire-Alvarez, E; Garcia-Escriva, A; Sempere, A P

    2016-09-01

    Introduccion. Los estudios postautorizacion son importantes para confirmar si los resultados de los ensayos clinicos se reproducen en la practica clinica habitual. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del fingolimod en la practica clinica en la provincia de Alicante. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio multicentrico retrospectivo de pacientes con esclerosis multiple remitente tratados con fingolimod. Se recogen las caracteristicas demograficas, clinicas y farmacologicas. Se describe la efectividad del farmaco –tasa anualizada de brotes (TAB) y porcentaje de pacientes libres de brotes– al año y a los dos años de tratamiento en relacion con el año previo y datos de efectos secundarios. Resultados. Se incluyo a 89 pacientes. El tratamiento previo fue inmunomodulador (interferon beta o acetato de glatiramero) en 54 pacientes y natalizumab en 32. Cincuenta pacientes cambiaron por fracaso con el inmunomodulador y 31 por serologia positiva del virus JC (VJC+). La TAB global disminuyo el 67,3% el primer año (p < 0,0001) y el 84,1% el segundo (p = 0,0078). Disminuyo en los pacientes con fracaso del inmunomodulador (el 85,6% el primer año, p < 0,0001; el 88,9% el segundo año, p = 0,0039) y aumento de forma no significativa en los pacientes VJC+ en el primer año. El porcentaje de pacientes libres de brotes en la poblacion global aumento del 32,6 al 68,1% en el primer año (p < 0,0019) y al 82,6% en el segundo (p = 0,0215). Este aumento no se observo en los pacientes VJC+. Trece pacientes tuvieron efectos secundarios, que obligaron a la retirada del farmaco en dos de ellos. Conclusion. En la practica clinica de la provincia de Alicante, el fingolimod mostro una efectividad y una seguridad ligeramente superiores a las de los ensayos clinicos.

  14. Heterogeneous extension and the role of transfer faults in the development of the southeastern Betic basins (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaconia, F.; Booth-Rea, G.; Martínez-Martínez, J. M.; Azañón, J. M.; Storti, F.; Artoni, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large strike-slip faults in the eastern Betics are interpreted to have developed in a transcurrent setting in response to 4-6 mm/yr of Africa-Iberia NW-SE convergence. However, here we show that some of these faults are transfer faults accommodating heterogeneous late Miocene extension. The North Cabrera dextral fault and other E-W to NE-SW strike-slip faults in the Sorbas basin were transfer faults produced under SW-NE extension. These faults together with related normal faults form the main boundaries of two sedimentary depocenters active between the Serravallian and the Tortonian. The older North Cabrera depocenter extended between the Serravallian and the early Tortonian (approximately 13.8 to 9 Ma), while the younger Gacía depocenter formed in response to late Tortonian extension (approximately 9 to 7.5 Ma). The latter formed to the west of the North Cabrera depocenter by a listric fan of normal faults with SW directed transport that are linked by dextral and sinistral transfer fault segments. These faults root on a low-angle detachment cutting into the exhumed high-pressure Nevado-Filabride complex rocks at ~0.8 km depth. The present work reveals that (1) this extension was partially coeval with and kinematically linked to sinistral displacement along the Carboneras fault farther south in the Níjar basin; (2) this westward directed extension produced elongated core complexes and tilted blocks to the north of the Carboneras fault and magmatic accretion upon thinned continental crust to the south, probably in response to slab tearing or detachment and associated edge delamination of the Iberian continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Betics.

  15. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  16. Combining radon, short-lived radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle

    2015-06-01

    In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and short-lived radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.

  17. The beach placer iron deposit of Portman Bay, Murcia, SE Spain: the result of 33 years of tailings disposal (1957-1990) to the Mediterranean seaside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, José Ignacio; López García, José Ángel; Oyarzun, Roberto; Carmona, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Between 1957 and 1990, the Peñarroya Mining and Metallurgical Company (SMMPE) disposed about 60 million tonnes of tailings materials directly to the Mediterranean Sea. A substantial part of it (12.5 Mt) was dragged back by the sea currents progressively infilling the Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain), thus making the shoreline advance between 500 and 600 m seaward. The Roberto froth flotation plant processed mineral from manto-type deposits belonging to the Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión lead-zinc district. One of the mineral assemblages present in these deposits comprises greenalite, magnetite, sulfides, carbonates, and silica. Despite that magnetite recovery was undertaken by SMMPE between 1959 and 1967, we estimate that magnetite contained in the tailings hosts a substantial resource that could be as large as 2.3 Mt of iron ore. The ore contains magnetite ± hematite ± siderite. Tidal waves and sea currents led to gravimetric classification of the tailings material, with concentration of the dense iron oxides in the sandy fractions, eventually forming a coastal placer iron deposit. A major problem for magnetic separation is the intimate intergrowth between magnetite, hematite, and siderite. Besides, the sands contain large concentrations of Pb (0.27 %), Zn (0.72 %), and As (559 ppm).

  18. Sulphide-mining impacts in the physical environment: Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Arenas, V. M.; Rodríguez, R.; García, C.; Manteca, J. I.; Candela, L.

    2006-10-01

    The environmental impact and potential-risk assessment of an abandoned sulphide-mining site in a semiarid climate is presented here, by the study case of Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain), a 2,500-year-old mining district extending over an area of 100 km2. The regional map illustrates the existence of 12 open-pits, 1,902 mining wells, 2,351 waste deposits, including 89 tailing dams and waste rock derived from mining processes. Mine wastes occupy an area of 9 km2 and have an approximate volume of 200 Mm3. Mineralogical, physical and chemical data distinguish nine different types of mine and metallurgical waste. According to the concentration of sulphate and heavy metals in sediment, soil, rainwater, surface water and groundwater samples, it is possible to conclude that the impact of mine activities occurs not only in the immediate mining area (100 km2), but also in the surrounding areas (an affected area of 1,000 km2 approximately). The hydrochemical data show that groundwater, runoff water and some rainwater samples exceed Spanish and European water quality guideline values for water supply. The main geochemical process recognised is sulphide-mineral oxidation and later-generated sulphate dissolution by groundwater and runoff. Runoff and wind are the major mechanisms of metals and sulphate transport in the study area and adjacent zones.

  19. Regional subsidence modelling in Murcia city (SE Spain) using 1-D vertical finite element analysis and 2-D interpolation of ground surface displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.

    2015-11-01

    Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain) has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982-1984, 1992-1995 and 2004-2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.

  20. Mud volcanism and authigenic carbonates related to methane-rich fluids migration in the late Neogene marls of S.E. Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M. M.; Rouchy, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Methane-rich fluids that are generated at depth in organic-rich deposits migrate within the sediments to the seafloor where they are expelled to form mud volcanoes or pockmarks. Moreover, these migrating fluids are involved in diagenetic processes as authigenic carbonate formation and they may participate to gas hydrate formation. These features are well-known in the present-day continental margins but their fossil records are relatively scarce. The outcropping Tortonian and Messinian marls in S.E. Spain basins (Lorca, Fortuna, Columbares, Huercal Overa) contain abundant authigenic dolomite nodules. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of these dolomites exhibit wide ranges (-1.4 < δ18O < +5.6 ; -25.6 < δ13C < +9.3) indicating that carbonate precipitation occurred within the marly sediments due to circulation of fluids modified by gas hydrates formation/dissociation, where anaerobic oxidation of methane and methanogenesis were active. In the Huercal Overa basin, there is a well-preserved mud volcano intruding vertically the Messinian marls. These two features, methane derived authigenic dolomites and mud volcanism, are testifying of the intense methane-rich fluid migration in the marly deposits of the western Mediterranean basins during the late Neogene, which was the time of major paleoenvironmental changes in the Mediterranean sea climaxing during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  1. Chronology for the Cueva Victoria fossil site (SE Spain): Evidence for Early Pleistocene Afro-Iberian dispersals.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Luis; Scott, Gary R; Scholz, Denis; Budsky, Alexander; Ferràndez, Carles; Ribot, Francesc; Martin, Robert A; Lería, María

    2016-01-01

    Cueva Victoria has provided remains of more than 90 species of fossil vertebrates, including a hominin phalanx, and the only specimens of the African cercopithecid Theropithecus oswaldi in Europe. To constrain the age of the vertebrate remains we used paleomagnetism, vertebrate biostratigraphy and (230)Th/U dating. Normal polarity was identified in the non-fossiliferous lowest and highest stratigraphic units (red clay and capping flowstones) while reverse polarity was found in the intermediate stratigraphic unit (fossiliferous breccia). A lower polarity change occurred during the deposition of the decalcification clay, when the cave was closed and karstification was active. A second polarity change occurred during the capping flowstone formation, when the upper galleries were filled with breccia. The mammal association indicates a post-Jaramillo age, which allows us to correlate this upper reversal with the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma). Consequently, the lower reversal (N-R) is interpreted as the end of the Jaramillo magnetochron (0.99 Ma). These ages bracket the age of the fossiliferous breccia between 0.99 and 0.78 Ma, suggesting that the capping flowstone was formed during the wet Marine Isotopic Stage 19, which includes the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. Fossil remains of Theropithecus have been only found in situ ∼1 m below the B/M boundary, which allows us to place the arrival of Theropithecus to Cueva Victoria at ∼0.9-0.85 Ma. The fauna of Cueva Victoria lived during a period of important climatic change, known as the Early-Middle Pleistocene Climatic Transition. The occurrence of the oldest European Acheulean tools at the contemporaneous nearby site of Cueva Negra suggest an African dispersal into SE Iberia through the Strait of Gibraltar during MIS 22, when sea-level was ∼100 m below its present position, allowing the passage into Europe of, at least, Theropithecus and Homo bearing Acheulean technology. PMID:26581114

  2. Environmental assessment of the arsenic-rich, Rodalquilar gold-(copper-lead-zinc) mining district, SE Spain: data from soils and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzun, Roberto; Cubas, Paloma; Higueras, Pablo; Lillo, Javier; Llanos, Willians

    2009-08-01

    The Rodalquilar mineral deposits (SE Spain) were formed in Miocene time in relation to caldera volcanic episodes and dome emplacement phenomena. Two types of ore deposits are recognized: (1) the El Cinto epithermal, Au-As high sulphidation vein and breccia type; and (2) peripheral low sulphidation epithermal Pb-Zn-Cu-(Au) veins. The first metallurgical plants for gold extraction were set up in the 1920s and used amalgamation. Cyanide leaching began in the 1930s and the operations lasted until the mid 1960s. The latter left a huge pile of ~900,000-1,250,000 m3 of abandoned As-rich tailings adjacent to the town of Rodalquilar. A frustrated initiative to reactivate the El Cinto mines took place in the late 1980s and left a heap leaching pile of ~120,000 m3. Adverse mineralogical and structural conditions favoured metal and metalloid dispersion from the ore bodies into soils and sediments, whereas mining and metallurgical operations considerably aggravated contamination. We present geochemical data for soils, tailings and wild plant species. Compared to world and local baselines, both the tailings and soils of Rodalquilar are highly enriched in As (mean concentrations of 950 and 180 μg g-1, respectively). Regarding plants, only the concentrations of As, Bi and Sb in Asparagus horridus, Launaea arborescens, Salsola genistoides, and Stipa tenacissima are above the local baselines. Bioaccumulation factors in these species are generally lower in the tailings, which may be related to an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance. The statistical analysis of geochemical data from soils and plants allows recognition of two well-differentiated clusters of elements (As-Bi-Sb-Se-Sn-Te and Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), which ultimately reflect the strong chemical influence of both El Cinto and peripheral deposits mineral assemblages.

  3. A descriptive and quantitative approach regarding erosion and development of landforms on abandoned mine tailings: New insights and environmental implications from SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín Duque, J. F.; Zapico, I.; Oyarzun, R.; López García, J. A.; Cubas, P.

    2015-06-01

    - 1 y- 1, which matches well typical values for erosion of mined areas, commonly above 100 Mg (MT) ha- 1 y- 1. Abandoned mine tailing deposits are extremely common in the semiarid scenarios of the SW USA, Australia, Chile, and Peru. Given the similarities of these scenarios with SE Spain, the example from Mazarrón may provide useful new insights regarding the erosion and geomorphic evolution of such tailing deposits. These matters should be addressed in key environmental actions such as mine closure plans and land reclamation projects. A solution may come via restoration of these deposits through landform design involving the building up of stable mature landscapes, which in turn can withstand erosion much more easily.

  4. Preliminary results in larger benthic foraminifera assemblage in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate platform from the Upper Cretaceous of the External Prebetic Domain (Valencia province, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Salcedo, Raquel; Vicedo, Vicent

    2016-04-01

    In the External Prebetic Domain (Betic Mountain Range, Valencia province, SE Spain) it is difficult to find good outcrops to study larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), particularly in the Upper Cretaceous deposits, because of three main reasons. During the Upper Cretaceous, the complex paleogeography in the northern Prebetic Domain developed a complex system of shallow-water platforms. This is directly linked to the complexity in the distribution of the facies observed nowadays, which may change drastically in lateral, closely related outcrops having a special negative impact in the lateral extension of stratigraphical levels containing LBF. The second reason is the nature of the shallow water environments in which the larger foraminifera lived. The local continental influence derived in the establishment of very complex mixed platforms. Thus, there is not a complete register through carbonate rocks, but an alternation of microconglomerates, sandstones, calcarenites and carbonates that can be observed in the stratigraphic series of the Upper Cretaceous. This affects negatively in observing changes in the evolutionary trends of taxa. The third reason difficulting the study of LBF in northern localities of the Prebetic Domain is diagenetic. Dolomitization affects a huge part of the Mesozoic rocks deleting all fossil microfauna in the affected rocks. Such three reasons are behind the difficulty in developing correlations and having a comprehensive understanding of the biostratigraphy and phylogeny of the taxa involved. However, after several field trips developed in the northern Prebetic area, an excellent reference section for the study of the LBF in the Prebetic Domain has been identified in the surroundings of the Pinet village (Valencia province). Here, a relatively continuous section with scarce dolomitization and good conditions of accessibility exists. The larger foraminifera assemblages appering in the Pinet section will be compared with other paleobiogeographic

  5. Hydrothermal activity and its paleoecological implications in the latest Miocene to Middle Pleistocene lacustrine environments of the Baza Basin (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aguilar, José Manuel; Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Palmqvist, Paul; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2014-07-01

    The continental sedimentary record of the Baza Basin (Guadix-Baza Depression, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) shows six sedimentary units of lacustrine origin deposited from the latest Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene. Depending on the interval considered, the lacustrine deposits are mainly composed of marls, carbonates or gypsiferous evaporites, showing lithological, mineralogical and geochemical features (i.e., magnesium, strontium and sulfur contents, celestine deposits and travertine growths) that are evidence of intense, tectonically-induced hydrothermal activity. According to the high concentrations of strontium and sulfur as well as the abundance of travertines and magnesium clays, the supply of hot waters was greater during the Zanclean, the Gelasian and the Calabrian, as a result of tectonic activity. Hydrothermal activity has continued until the present time and is responsible of the hot springs that are nowadays active in the Guadix-Baza Depression. The paleoenvironmental consequences of these sublacustrine hot springs were that during some intervals the lakes maintained a relatively permanent water table, not subject to periodic desiccations in the dry season, and warmer temperatures throughout the year. This resulted in a high level of organic productivity, especially for the Calabrian, which allowed the development of a rich and well diversified mammalian community, similar to those of modern African savannas with tree patches. In this mild environment, the permanent water sheet favored the presence of drought intolerant megaherbivores such as the giant extinct hippo Hippopotamus antiquus. The high standing crop biomass of ungulates resulted in the availability of abundant carcasses for scavengers such as hyenas and hominins, which explains the very high densities of skeletal remains preserved in the sediments distributed along the lake surroundings.

  6. Fan-surface dynamics and biogenic calcrete development: Interactions during ultimate phases of fan evolution in the semiarid SE Spain (Murcia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Silva, Pablo G.; Goy, José L.; Zazo, Cari

    1998-08-01

    Pleistocene alluvial fan surfaces of the Campo de Cartagena-Mar Menor Basin (Murcia, SE Spain) are capped by thick mature calcretes. Calcrete profiles consist mainly of six different horizons: prismatic, chalky, nodular, massive, laminar and coated-gravels. Petrographic study of the calcretes has shown the occurrence of features such as alveolar septal structures, calcified filaments, coated grains, spherulites, calcified root cells and calcispheres that indicate the biogenic origin of the calcretes, mainly induced by plant root related microbial activity. The calcretes studied were formed initially in the soil and represented the K horizon. Development of the calcrete profiles took place in six main stages and was driven by multiple phases of soil formation, erosion and reworking. The relationships between these processes caused the formation of different calcrete profiles in proximal and distal fan areas. In the distal areas, which are controlled by limited distal fan aggradation, episodic sediment input, buried previously developed calcretes and generated new space for calcrete growth by plants growing in the overlying unconsolidated materials. This allowed the renewal of calcrete formation and it led to the development of complex composite profiles which are thicker than in proximal areas, where surface stabilisation and/or dissection enabled calcrete reworking and brecciation. These processes of erosion, sedimentation, reworking and renewed calcrete formation initiated by vegetation were repeated through time. They explain the complex macro- and microstructures of these calcretes and indicate that calcrete development, even reaching mature stages, can start before the fan surface is completely abandoned, but it requires episodic sedimentation. Eventually, distal fan aggradation and continuous calcrete development throughout the entire fan surface, led to the ultimate fan surface induration, controlling subsequent landscape evolution. So, fan surface calcretes

  7. The Cartagena-La Unión mining district (SE Spain): a review of environmental problems and emerging phytoremediation solutions after fifteen years research.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Héctor M; Schulin, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    After mining in the Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) was discontinued in 1992, various studies have shown that large amounts of toxic metals continue to be transferred with the spread of unstabilized mining wastes to the nearby ecosystems. Local creeks seem to be important pathways carrying eroded materials from the headwaters to the nearby coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Studies have shown the presence of high metal concentrations in the sediments of riverbeds and in river mouths and adjacent coastal marshes (e.g. 500 mg kg(-1) As; 12 000 mg kg(-1) Pb). Also, some nearby agricultural areas are affected (up to 10 mg kg(-1) Pb in lettuce leaves). Metal transfer into biota has been demonstrated in creek sediments in relation to benthic organisms (up to 222 mg kg(-1) Pb in molluscs). The mining wastes in the area are spontaneously colonized by native plant species. On the tailings, most of the plant species are grasses (e.g. Lygeum spartum, Piptatherum miliaceum); in polluted salt marshes, halophytic species dominate (e.g. Arthrocnemum macrostachyum). Metal uptake by plants is in general low (10 mg kg(-1) for Cu; <200 mg kg(-1) Pb; <500 mg kg(-1) Zn). Preliminary tests have shown the suitability of amendments (e.g. lime, fertilizer, pig manure) to improve the establishment of certain vegetation on the tailings. Phytostabilization appears to be a promising technology to decrease erosion in the tailings. However, tailings must be individually analysed in order to determine their geostructural stability, as in addition, mechanical stabilization will be needed in some cases to prevent collapse.

  8. Technosols designed for rehabilitation of extractive activities in Alicante province (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Manuel; García-Sánchez, Ernesto; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Pardo, Francisco; Belén Vicente, Ana; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Restoration technologies in areas degraded by extractive activities require the use of their own mine spoils. Reducing deficiencies in physical properties, organic matter, and nutrients with a contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was done with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcite. Two biosolids doses were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge) in addition to a different mine spoils used as substrates. The water contribution was provided by a device that simulated short duration rain. The leached water was collected 24 hours after the last application. Nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, sulfate, and chloride ions were determined, as well as the pH and electrical conductivity. The experiment saw the bulk density decrease and the aggregate stability increase, thereby improving the structure. The electrical conductivity limit value is <1000 µS/cm. These values will be met from the fourth irrigation application onward, while the values up to that point were far superior. Significant nitrate concentrations appeared that may pose an environmental contamination risk. The resulting values for each irrigation application, the relationship between parameters, and the environmental risk are discussed.

  9. Use of Bioassay test for the environmental evaluation of mining residues and their leachates: the singular case of the Portman Bay (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Molina, Jose; Tudela, Maria Luz; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments and their pore-water extracts from sites contaminated by mining activities using two assays: bacteria and plants. The acute toxicity in pore-waters was determined using the Microtox® bioassay, which uses the naturally luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Phytotoxicity in soil samples was tested by way of the seed germination and root elongation technique in three plant species, Sorghum saccharatum, Sinapis alba and Lepidium sativum. The aim of applying these assays is to establish a method for evaluating the real risks within a risk analysis process, considering both present and future risks, bearing in mind that the uses to which soil is put (urban, recreational or industrial) may change. In the zone studied, mining activities have led to heavy metal contamination with the risk of runoff and wind dispersion of the contaminated material. For this study, 6 sediment samples were collected from Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). The soil extract was prepared by saturation with distilled water and allowing it to stand for four hours. Then, the soil was subjected to a vacuum pressure to extract the soil solution through filter paper. The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb, Cd and Cu content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was analysed by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation (As-AFS) spectrometer. Total Pb concentration varied from 600 to 2500 ppm, with a mean value of 1200 ppm. The average content of Zn was 5300 ppm. The mean concentration of Cd and Cu was 23 and 59 ppm, respectively. Total As concentrations varied from 180 to 470 ppm, with an average value 280 ppm. Finally, the total Fe content ranged from 37% to 47%, with an average value of 40%. Pore-water samples showed neutral pH values and average electrical

  10. Bioavailability of metals in soils and sedimentes affected by old mining actitvities. The study case of the Portman bay (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Banegas, Ascension; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Gonzalez-Ciudad, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martinez, Lucia; Perz-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    A study on metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As) mobilization and analysis of the health risk represented by ingestion from contaminated sediments in Portman Bay (SE Spain) was carried out. This zone has suffered a great impact from mining activity, since million tons of mine tailings were dumped into the bay for a long period, giving as a result the filling of the bay with them. The long-term deposition of metals in soils and sediments can lead to their accumulation and transport, while their toxicity depends on the mobility and bioavailability of a significant fraction of the metals. The ingestion of contaminated soil particles by grazing animals or young children may well represent a special exposure pathway for Pb, Cd and other hazardous metals. The aim of this study was to determine the bioaccessibility of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As ,and the extent to which bioaccessibility is influenced by mineralogy in materials from this mining site as an indicator of the potential risk that metals pose to both environmental and human health. General analytical determinations (pH, particle size, organic matter, equivalent calcium carbonate content and mineralogical composition) were carried out to characterize the samples. The mineralogical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using a Philips PW3040 diffractometer with Cu-Kα. To determine the total metal content, the samples were digested in a Milestone ETHOS PLUS microwave, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd contents were determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry, while As was analysed by HG- AFS using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer. To assess bioaccessibility, the gastric solution was prepared according to the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) developed by the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium (SBRC). The mineralogical composition, corresponds to materials which have suffered a supergenic oxidation process which has been influenced by the presence of sea water

  11. Flow in the shallow mantle in the westernmost Mediterranean: insights from xenoliths in Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts from the eastern Betic Cordillera (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konc, Zoltán; Hidas, Károly; Garrido, Carlos J.; Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón Navarta, José Alberto; Marchesi, Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Szabó, Csaba; Varas-Reus, Maria Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Peridotite mantle xenoliths in Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts of the eastern Betic Cordillera (Cartagena area, Murcia, SE Spain) provide a snapshot of the structure and composition of the lithospheric mantle at the northern limb of the Alpine Betic-Rif arched belt in the westernmost Mediterranean. The xenoliths are spinel and plagioclase lherzolite with minor harzburgite and wehrlite, displaying porphyroclastic to equigranular textures. Regardless of composition and texture, the Crystal Preferred Orientation (CPO) of olivine shows an axial-[100] pattern characterized by a strong alignment of [100]-axes near or parallel to the peridotite lineation and a girdle distribution of [010]-axes with a maximum normal to the peridotite foliation. This CPO pattern is consistent with ductile deformation accommodated by dislocation creep with dominant activation of the high temperature {0kl}[100] olivine slip system, indicative of deformation by simple shear or combinations of simple shear and pure shear with a transtensional component. Calculated seismic properties are characterized by fast propagation of P-waves and polarization of fast S-waves parallel to olivine [100]-axis, indicating the flow direction. SKS and Pn anisotropy in the eastern Betics can be explained by a lithospheric mantle peridotite with similar fabric to the one displayed by the studied mantle xenoliths. Considering the limited thickness of the mantle lithosphere in the Betics (40-80 km), the measured azimuths and delays of SKS waves in the eastern Betics are consistent with a steeply dipping mantle foliation and a subhorizontal lineation with ENE strike. This geometry of the lithospheric fabrics implies active or frozen mantle flow with a dominantly strike-slip component subparallel to the paleo-Iberian margin. Synkinematic overprinting of mineral assemblages from the garnet-spinel to the plagioclase facies demonstrates 36-40 km uplift continuously accommodated by ductile shear thinning of the

  12. Multifunctional greenway approach for landscape planning and reclamation of a post-mining district: Cartagena-La Unión, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Fragmented structures create metaphorical wounds in the landscape altering the ecological and cultural processes associated with it, as it can be seen in many mine areas. Therefore it is advisable to organize the reclamation plan in the beginning of mine operating to provide spatial and functional integration of the landscape based on scientific arguments and with all possible legal and administrative means, which is generally the case of the Strategic Environmental Assessment. However, there are many abandon mine areas where no reclamation plan has been carried out, such as the case of Mining District of Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Unión, SE Spain. In these cases it is vital to respond in a sustainable manner for healing the landscape wounds of post-mining activities. Reclamation activities of a post-mining district includes not only the mine soils also all land uses around them, for this reason on necessary create practical solutions for returning the functions of ecologic and cultural processes of the area. Greenway approach shows the main veins which are crucial for keeping alive and sustaining the mentioned processes of the area. Therefore the main objectives of this study are to 1) develop an integrated local greenway network to be able to preserve significant resources and values of the district, and to 2) develop this greenway network as a part of reclamation process for degraded areas. Landscape assessments revealed the most valuable and potential connectivity resources of the area. These clustering and linear patterns of resource concentrations include mountain range and valleys, natural drainage network, legally protected areas and cultural-historical resources. Conservation areas, cultural-educational resources of post-mining activities and the riverbeds have been the main building stones for the greenway corridor. The multifunctional greenway approach serves as landscape reclamation and planning tool in a degraded area by showing the priority zones for

  13. Geoestatistical analysis of soil properties in the South of Alicante: soil salinity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez-Pastor, I.; Ayguadé, H.; Lag, A.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gomez, I.

    2010-05-01

    The southern coast of Alicante province (southeast of Spain) was largely occupied by a large lagoon until the eighteenth century when drainage infrastructures were built to turn much of the wetlands into irrigated farmlands. This area has a semiarid Mediterranean climate and the shortage of sufficient quality water for irrigation is a serious problem for agriculture and wetland maintenance. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of soil properties and their relationship with land-covers by the use of geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool for land-reclamation and management. A field campaign was conducted and 98 soil samples were collected and spatially referenced with a GPS. Soils of the study area are Calcic Fluvisols according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB, 2006). Soil samples were air dried at room temperature and sieve at 2mm (soil fraction to be analysed). Four soil properties were analysed: 1) electrical conductivity (EC) (1:5 w/v water extraction), 2) pH, 3) equivalent carbonates (Porta et al., 1986), and 4) soil organic matter (SOM) by wet chemical oxidation (Walkley and Black, 1934) with potassium dichromate oxidation (Nelson and Sommers, 1982). Geostatistics was used to model the spatial distribution of soil properties. The convex hull of soil samples was used to delimit the area to map. Semivariograms were applied to study the spatial pattern of the four soil properties and ordinary Kriging was used to predict their spatial distribution. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation) showed that in general terms the soils studied was moderately saline (2.44 ± 0.32 dS×m-1), with a basic pH (8.22 ± 0.32), low soil organic matter content (1.41 ± 0.37 %) and abundant equivalent carbonates (46.1 ± 4.3 %). Electrical conductivity, pH and SOM properties were significantly correlated according with the Pearson bivariate correlation test (with P4 dS×m-1) or non-saline (EC

  14. The influence of competition between lichen colonization and erosion on the evolution of soil surfaces in the Tabernas badlands (SE Spain) and its landscape effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro, R.; Cantón, Y.; Solé-Benet, A.; Bevan, J.; Alexander, R.; Sancho, L. G.; Puigdefábregas, J.

    2008-12-01

    Badlands often contain a mosaic of soil surface types with contrasting hydrological behaviour which drives their short term geomorphic evolution. The Tabernas badlands, in semiarid SE Spain, show a complex mosaic of bare ground, biological soil crusts and plant covered patches, and high variability of covers and morphologies. Previous work has identified the surfaces that act as sources of runoff and sediments and those that act as sinks; the pathways of runoff between surfaces, and the runoff and erosion at catchment scale. However, surfaces without vascular plants, can be quite dynamic, with important effects on geomorphic processes. This work aims to generate hypotheses about the dynamics of both bare soil (34% of the area) and biological soil crusts (33%), and to provide a first estimation of the growth rate of terricolous lichens (as increase of coverage) and their geomorphological implications. The dynamics of ten representative soil surfaces were photographically monitored over 13 years, recording the cover and pattern of bare soil and of the two main kinds of biological soil crust: 'brown crust' and 'white crust'. Erosion/deposition were measured by erosion pins in unbounded plots, and the hydrological and erosional behaviour monitored in bounded plots under natural and simulated rainfall. Biological colonization and crust growth were studied from 2004 within cleared plots in four crust communities. Microclimate was continuously monitored in each community. After 13 years, net erosion was recorded only in previously eroded slopes and divides. Vegetated sites and those covered by biological soil crust remained more or less invariant or recorded sedimentation. In all white crust surfaces, whole crust cover increased by 3% on average, while macrolichen cover increased by nearly 30%. Within the driest brown crust, macrolichen cover increased by 7%, while the whole crust decreased by 3%. According to previous work, lichen cover, particularly of white crust, is

  15. A reassessment of the evidence for hydrothermal activity in the Neogene-Quaternary lacustrine environments of the Baza basin (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) and its paleoecological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aguilar, José Manuel; Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Espigares, M. Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Palmqvist, Paul

    2015-03-01

    In a recent paper, García-Aguilar et al. (2014) reported on lithological, mineralogical and geochemical evidence of intense, tectonically-induced hydrothermal activity during the continental sedimentary infilling of the Baza basin, a postorogenic, intramontane area developed on the boundary between the Internal and External Zones of the Betic Cordillera, Southeast Spain (Fig. 1). This evidence includes the finding of sulfur contents, magnesium clays, fluorspar and celestine deposits, thermogene stromatolites and travertine growths in the latest Miocene (Turolian) to Middle Pleistocene lacustrine sediments and is particularly concentrated at certain stages and places (e.g. at Calabrian times in the Orce area).

  16. Columbus's Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Jose Manuel Nieto

    1991-01-01

    Describes fifteenth-century Spain's tendencies that proved central to the Columbian enterprise: experience as a conquering and colonizing kingdom, interest in Atlantic expansion, and missionary inclination. Argues that Columbus's arrival in Spain came at the perfect time in Spanish history. Stresses Spain's long history of religious war, conquest,…

  17. Comparison of water-level, extensometric, DInSAR and simulation data for quantification of subsidence in Murcia City (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation has been recognized in the metropolitan area of Murcia (25 km2) in south-eastern Spain since the early 1990s. Previous published works have focused their attention on land subsidence that occurred during the drought period between 1995 and 2008. This work first analyzes the groundwater recovery that has occurred since 2008 and then determines the kind of associated ground deformation detected by the new extensometric data. Subsequently, subsidence time series are computed on 24 geotechnical boreholes scattered throughout the study area by means of a hydro-mechanical finite element code and a linear-elastic constitutive law. A spatio-temporal interpolation of the numerically modeled surface displacements is performed over the whole domain and compared with extensometers and DInSAR-derived displacement maps in two different periods: the drought period from 2004 to 2008, and the recovery period from 2008 to 2012. In spite of the limited information on the geomechanical parameters characterizing the modelled geological formations, the proposed approach is able to discriminate areas where the soils have an elastic behavior (small differences in the comparisons) or an elasto-plastic behavior (large differences in the comparisons). This zonation enhances the understanding of the subsidence phenomenon in Murcia City and could prevent, from a quantitatively point of view, future severe subsidence due to aquifer overexploitation.

  18. Groundwater temperature patterns in the freshwater-saltwater contact zone in coastal aquifers. The Motril-Salobreña Aquifer (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvache, Maria Luisa; Duque, Carlos; Lopez-Chicano, Manuel; Martin-Rosales, Wenceslao; Sanchez-Ubeda, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    The groundwater temperature in the freshwater-saltwater contact zones shows a characteristic pattern completely different from that monitored in other parts of the coastal aquifers. The temperature-depth profiles of seven wells in the Motril-Salobreña aquifer (southern Spain) were used as a basis for a comparative analysis involving various parameters to determine their relations and factors influencing the different trends. The temperature profiles show a shallow belt of variable temperature (up to 5 °C) that can reach depths in the groundwater ranging from 15 m to 45 m. There is an influence of ambient temperature on all the profiles, with a lag time of two to five months. Furthermore, there is a clear influence of the Guadalfeo River (the main source of recharge to the aquifer) reflected in a decrease in temperature coinciding with peak flow rates in the river and the highest water tables in the aquifer during the springtime when the river flow derives mainly from snowmelt from Sierra Nevada. In the autumn, there are secondary peaks in river flow rates due to rainfall, and the river temperature is higher than in spring. In this case, the groundwater temperature rises. This influence fades with distance from the river. In the summer, when the river is dry, the temperature profiles are straight, with no effect on groundwater temperature. Three of the wells, the closest ones to the coastal line, are exception. However, as there is no clear coincidence between temperature valleys and peaks in the river flow rate, making it difficult to establish a relation between the groundwater temperatures and the river recharge in these two cases. Instead, we must recur to a discharge-zone flow pattern, typical of the freshwater-saltwater contact in a coastal aquifer (Glover, 1959), that generates vertical upward fluxes due to the density contrast when is reaching the saline wedge. In this case is even more pronounced due to the fact that the Motril-Salobreña aquifer has

  19. On the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin basin (SE-Spain): Towards comprehensive understanding for effective remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.

    2009-04-01

    During the last two decades, the Guadalentin basin in south-eastern Spain has been the study area for many national- and international studies dealing with land degradation and desertification. One of the reasons for such a broad interest in the Guadalentin basin is that land degradation is generally considered severe in large parts of the basin due to a combination of the Mediterranean climate characterised by dry summers followed by intense autumn rainfall, steep topography that marks most parts of the landscape, and fragile soils on erodible lithologies. The main types of degradation are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. Moreover, triggered by various political and socioeconomic drivers, important land use and management changes have taken place over the last centuries, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. Examples of such changes are large-scale land abandonment, a shift from dryland cereals production to large almond plantations, large scale land levelling for irrigated horticulture and urban expansions, and several types of agricultural subsidies. Numerous publications have been produced based on works done to address land degradation in the Guadalentin. However, until now there is no concise and integrated overview of what has been done and what is still missing regarding the study of the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation and conservation. This is in fact crucial to assist policy makers in making decisions that would effectively navigate land management in the area to a sustainable way. Here, we aim to provide such an overview by listing and discussing the main studies performed in this area, and by providing an integrated synthesis of the main physical- and socioeconomic factors identified in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. In overall, there has been a strong

  20. A multidisciplinary study for mining landscape reclamation: A study case on two tailing ponds in the Region of Murcia (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pagán, P.; Faz, A.; Acosta, J. A.; Carmona, D. M.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the mobility of Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in two tailing ponds (Brunita and San Cristobal) from mine activity in the Southeast of Spain before applying reclamation measures for reducing the risk for human and environment. To achieve this objective, five profiles of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in Brunita, three profiles in San Cristobal, a drill-hole in each pond and undisturbed columns amended with marble waste for leaching experiments were taken. Results showed that all layers of the two ponds exceed the maximum Pb and Zn concentrations allowed by the selected European legislations. In both ponds, the mixture of tailings with natural soil is the main process involved in soil pollution under the ponds. However, due to high pH in the substrate the metals are precipitated and their solubility reduced, therefore there is not a risk of leaching to groundwater. At Brunita tailing pond electrical resistivity sections displayed some lower electrical resistivity region into the bedrock which has been described as some fault occurrence due to breaking events suffered by the tailing pond. At San Cristobal tailing pond geochemical results were consistent with data obtained by the electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) method where no evidence of faults or cracks into the bedrock and the ponds were observed. Therefore, no preferential pathways of acid mine drainages containing heavy metals were reported. Leaching experiments indicated that, after 11 weeks of leaching, amended and control columns showed comparable values of pH (∼2.3) and similar trends for Cu, Cd and Zn, with a very drastic decrease up to week 3 and thereafter the tendency was to reach near steady-state conditions. In contrast, the evolution of Pb showed that marble amended reduces significantly its concentration over time compared with the control. In accordance with the results, future reclamation action should be based on the reduction of heavy metal mobility by means of

  1. On the ecological context of the earliest human settlements in Europe: Resource availability and competition intensity in the carnivore guild of Barranco León-D and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Palmqvist, Paul; Rodríguez, Jesús; Mateos, Ana; Martín-González, Jesús A.; Espigares, M. Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2016-07-01

    With an age of ∼1.4 Ma, the Early Pleistocene archaeopaleontological sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Orce, Baza Basin, SE Spain) provide the oldest evidence on human presence in Western Europe, including the finding of a deciduous tooth of Homo sp., huge lithic assemblages of Oldowan tradition and abundant cut-marks on large mammal bones. Here we use a mathematical approach based on Leslie matrices to quantify for the large mammal species preserved at the sites the biomass of primary consumers available, the distribution of meat resources among the secondary consumers and the competition intensity within the carnivore guild. The results obtained show a community of large mammals with a high diversity of secondary consumers that would satisfy slightly less than half of their dietary requirements under optimal ecological conditions. In the case of Homo sp., and considering that flesh resources were obtained through the scavenging of ungulate carcasses, the model indicates that the ecosystems of the basin could hold 10-14 individuals per 100 km2 during a year, a value that is close to the mean population density of recent hunter-gatherers. These density estimates decrease slightly when a mixed hunting-scavenging strategy is considered and even more in the case of a strict hunting behavior. In addition, the value of the species competition index obtained for Homo sp. is among the lowest of the carnivore guild. These results suggest that the hominin populations that inhabited Southeast Spain during the Early Pleistocene behaved more as opportunistic scavengers than as active predators.

  2. Late Miocene extensional tectonics in the evolution of the eastern Betics and Neogene-Quaternary basins, an example from the Sorbas basin (SE Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, José Miguel; Azañón, José Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Neogene to Quaternary basins in the eastern Betics occur in synclines among near E/W-elongated antiformal ridges where the metamorphic basement crops out. These antiforms are related to or cut by large-scale strike-slip faults, both developed in response of the NW-SE Africa-Iberia convergence. Most literature associated the origin and evolution of the Neogene-Quaternary eastern Betics basins with this transpressional strike-slip regime. However, recent work showed the great importance of extensional tectonics in the development and evolution of these basins during the middle to late Miocene. In order to define the role of Miocene extensional tectonics in the origin and evolution of Neogene - Quaternary basins, we have carefully mapped a key area in the southeastern Betics, the western termination of Sierra Cabrera. We analyzed the age and linking relationships between brittle fault segments, and finally we constructed a balanced cross section. We identified a NW-SE listric normal fault system that was active during the Tortonian producing southwestward hanging-wall displacement. These normal faults show hard linkage relationships with E-W to N70E vertical strike-slip and oblique-slip extensional transfer faults that show both dextral and sinistral kinematics. The balanced cross section shows that listric faults probably join together into a basal detachment (about 1 km depth) inside the metamorphic basement (Nevado-Filabride complex). The fault system influenced the Tortonian sedimentary evolution of the Sorbas Basin controlling the sediments thickness. The early Tortonian sedimentary unit is missed in the hangingwall of the fault system, meanwhile the thickness of late Tortonian sediments deposited between 11 and 8 Ma change across the main faults from approximately 200 m thick in the footwall of the system to up to 800 m in the main depocentre. Furthermore, the fault system controlled the Tortonian sedimentary facies shifting from continental and deltaic

  3. Mountain front migration and drainage captures related to fault segment linkage and growth: The Polopos transpressive fault zone (southeastern Betics, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, José Miguel; Azañón, José Miguel; Pérez-Romero, Joaquín; Villegas, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The Polopos E-W- to ESE-WNW-oriented dextral-reverse fault zone is formed by the North Alhamilla reverse fault and the North and South Gafarillos dextral faults. It is a conjugate fault system of the sinistral NNE-SSW Palomares fault zone, active from the late most Tortonian (≈7 Ma) up to the late Pleistocene (≥70 ky) in the southeastern Betics. The helicoidal geometry of the fault zone permits to shift SE-directed movement along the South Cabrera reverse fault to NW-directed shortening along the North Alhamilla reverse fault via vertical Gafarillos fault segments, in between. Since the Messinian, fault activity migrated southwards forming the South Gafarillos fault and displacing the active fault-related mountain-front from the north to the south of Sierra de Polopos; whilst recent activity of the North Alhamilla reverse fault migrated westwards. The Polopos fault zone determined the differential uplift between the Sierra Alhamilla and the Tabernas-Sorbas basin promoting the middle Pleistocene capture that occurred in the southern margin of the Sorbas basin. Continued tectonic uplift of the Sierra Alhamilla-Polopos and Cabrera anticlinoria and local subsidence associated to the Palomares fault zone in the Vera basin promoted the headward erosion of the Aguas river drainage that captured the Sorbas basin during the late Pleistocene.

  4. Integrating soil water and tracer balances, numerical modelling and GIS tools to estimate regional groundwater recharge: Application to the Alcadozo Aquifer System (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Hornero, Jorge; Manzano, Marisol; Ortega, Lucía; Custodio, Emilio

    2016-10-15

    Groundwater recharge is one of the key variables for aquifer management and also one of the most difficult to be evaluated with acceptable accuracy. This is especially relevant in semiarid areas, where the processes involved in recharge are widely variable. Uncertainty should be estimated to know how reliable recharge estimations are. Groundwater recharge has been calculated in the Alcadozo Aquifer System, under steady state conditions, at regional (aquifer) and sub-regional (spring catchment) scales applying different methods. The regional distribution of long-term average recharge values has been estimated with the chloride mass balance method using data from four rain stations and 40 groundwater samples covering almost the whole aquifer surface. A remarkable spatial variability has been found. Average annual recharge rates ranges from 20 to 243mmyear(-1) across the aquifer, with an estimated coefficient of variation between 0.16 and 0.38. The average recharge/precipitation ratio decreases from 34% in the NW to 6% in the SE, following the topographic slope. At spring-catchment scale, recharge has been estimated by modelling the soil water balance with the code Visual Balan 2.0. The results, calibrated with discharge data of the two main springs Liétor and Ayna, are 35.5 and 50mmyear(-1) respectively, with estimated coefficients of variation of 0.49 and 0.36. A sensitivity analysis showed that soil parameters influence the most the uncertainty of recharge estimations. Recharge values estimated with both methods and at two temporal and spatial scales are consistent, considering the regional variability obtained with the chloride method and the respective confidence intervals. Evaluating the uncertainties of each method eased to compare their relative results and to check their agreement, which provided confidence to the values obtained. Thus, the use of independent methods together with their uncertainties is strongly recommended to constrain the magnitude and to

  5. Integrating soil water and tracer balances, numerical modelling and GIS tools to estimate regional groundwater recharge: Application to the Alcadozo Aquifer System (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Hornero, Jorge; Manzano, Marisol; Ortega, Lucía; Custodio, Emilio

    2016-10-15

    Groundwater recharge is one of the key variables for aquifer management and also one of the most difficult to be evaluated with acceptable accuracy. This is especially relevant in semiarid areas, where the processes involved in recharge are widely variable. Uncertainty should be estimated to know how reliable recharge estimations are. Groundwater recharge has been calculated in the Alcadozo Aquifer System, under steady state conditions, at regional (aquifer) and sub-regional (spring catchment) scales applying different methods. The regional distribution of long-term average recharge values has been estimated with the chloride mass balance method using data from four rain stations and 40 groundwater samples covering almost the whole aquifer surface. A remarkable spatial variability has been found. Average annual recharge rates ranges from 20 to 243mmyear(-1) across the aquifer, with an estimated coefficient of variation between 0.16 and 0.38. The average recharge/precipitation ratio decreases from 34% in the NW to 6% in the SE, following the topographic slope. At spring-catchment scale, recharge has been estimated by modelling the soil water balance with the code Visual Balan 2.0. The results, calibrated with discharge data of the two main springs Liétor and Ayna, are 35.5 and 50mmyear(-1) respectively, with estimated coefficients of variation of 0.49 and 0.36. A sensitivity analysis showed that soil parameters influence the most the uncertainty of recharge estimations. Recharge values estimated with both methods and at two temporal and spatial scales are consistent, considering the regional variability obtained with the chloride method and the respective confidence intervals. Evaluating the uncertainties of each method eased to compare their relative results and to check their agreement, which provided confidence to the values obtained. Thus, the use of independent methods together with their uncertainties is strongly recommended to constrain the magnitude and to

  6. An integrated multiscale paleoseismic and neotectonic approach of the Carboneras Fault Zone, SE Spain, and its marine continuation in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, X.; Masana, E.; Gracia, E.; Bartolome, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Rodés, A.; Pallàs, R.

    2009-12-01

    . The N45 segment overlaps with the southern N60 segment in a 14 km long intersection zone characterized by prominent pressure ridges and narrow flower structures. The N60 segment links to the south with an 8 km long N45 segment showing a transtensive graben-type structure. The southern end of the CFZ is characterized by smooth strain transference through folds and pervasive subvertical NW-SE faults. Geometry and structure of the marine segments are similar to onshore structures indicating a main left-lateral movement with a reverse component. The infill of the sedimentary basins on both sides of the basement high produced by the CFZ suggests that the activity of the fault started before the Messinian (Upper Miocene). Sediment rates obtained from 14C dating of marine cores allow us to calculate dip-slip rates of the CFZ. As observed on seismic profiles, these values range from 0.14 mm/a for the last 165 ka to 0.06 mm/a if considering the whole Quaternary. A forthcoming study better controlling the age of key horizons as well as detailed study of horizontally displaced morphological features will allow us to propose more accurate vertical and horizontal slip rates.

  7. Triclinic Transpression in brittle shear zones evaluated via combined numerical and analogue modeling: the case of The Torcal de Antequera Massif, SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos, Leticia; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Faccenna, Claudio; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Expósito, Inmaculada; Giménez-Bonilla, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Numerical kinematic models have been widely used to understand the parameters controlling the generation and evolution of ductile transpression zones. However, these models are based on continuum mechanics and therefore, are not as useful to analyse deformation partitioning and strain within brittle-ductile transpression zones. The combination of numerical and analogue models will potentially provide an effective approach for a better understanding of these processes and, to a broader extent, of high strain zones in general. In the present work, we follow a combined numerical and analogue approach to analyse a brittle dextral transpressive shear zone. The Torcal de Antequera Massif (TAM) is part of a roughly E-W oriented shear zone at the NE end of the Western Gibraltar Arc (Betic Cordillera). This shear zone presents, according to their structural and kinematic features, two types of domains i) Domain type 1 is located at both TAM margins, and is characterized by strike-slip structures subparallel to the main TAM boundaries (E-W). ii) Domain type 2 corresponds to the TAM inner part, and it presents SE-vergent open folds and reverse shear zones, as well as normal faults accommodating fold axis parallel extension. Both domains have been studied separately applying a model of triclinic transpression with inclined extrusion. The kinematic parameters obtained in this study (?, ? and Wk) allows us to constrain geometrical transpression parameters. As such, the angle of oblique convergence (α, the horizontal angle between the displacement vector and the strike of the shear zone) ranges between 10-17° (simple shear dominated) for domain type 1 and between 31-35° (coaxial dominated) for domain type 2. According to the results obtained from the numerical model and in order to validate its possible utility in brittle shear zones we develop two analogue models with α values representative of both domains defined in the TAM: 15° for type 1 and 30° for type 2. In the

  8. Evolution of near-surface ramp-flat-ramp normal faults and implication during intramontane basin formation in the eastern Betic Cordillera (the Huércal-Overa Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera, Antonio; Galindo-ZaldíVar, Jesús; Lamas, Francisco; Ruiz-ConstáN, Ana

    2012-08-01

    The nucleation, propagation, and associated folding of ramp-flat-ramp normal faults were analyzed from field examples developed in a brittle/ductile multilayer sequence of the Huércal-Overa Basin (SE Spain). Gently dipping sandy silt layers, which display a low cohesive strength (C0 = 7 kPa, μ= 34°), favor the development of extensional detachments. A tectonic origin instead of a possible gravitational origin is supported by the perpendicularity between the paleoslope direction of the fluvial-deltaic environment inferred from imbricated pebbles, and the senses of movement deduced from fault slicken-lines. The link between high-angle normal faults (HANFs) —formed at different levels in the layered sequence— with horizontal fault segments comes to develop ramp-flat-ramp normal faults with associated roll-over in the hanging wall. Observed extensional duplexes are formed by parallel detachments connected through synthetic Riedel faults. These Riedel faults would produce the back-rotation of the individual blocks (horses), i.e., extensional folding of the originally subhorizontal layers. There is no correlation between the analyzed ramp-flat-ramp normal faults, accommodating south-southeastward extension during Serravallian-lower Tortonian, and either the regional Alpujarride/Nevado-Filabride west-directed extensional shear zone or the top-to-the-north detachments within Alpujarride units, which are clearly sealed by Serravallian-lower Tortonian sediments. Therefore, the studied normal faults are restricted to the brittle/ductile multilayer fluvio/deltaic sequence and accommodate moderate late extension instead of belonging to a large crustal extensional system connected with a regional detachment at depth. Therefore, the basin formed in a moderate crustal thickness context where small and medium-scale extensional systems were subordinate structures. These natural examples support the development of low-angle normal faults at very shallow crustal levels in

  9. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents’ academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends’ alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents’ alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567

  10. Refining upon the climatic background of the Early Pleistocene hominid settlement in western Europe: Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Lozano-Fernández, Iván; Agustí, Jordi; Bailon, Salvador; Menéndez Granda, Leticia; Espígares Ortiz, Maria Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergios; Jiménez Arenas, Juan Manuel; Toro-Moyano, Isidro; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Sala, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Early Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain) have yielded thousands of Mode 1 or Oldowan lithic artifacts (both sites) and one tooth (in layer D, formerly 5 of Barranco León), today considered to be some of the earliest evidence of humans in western Europe at ca. 1.2-1.5 Ma. Previous quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions based on herpetile assemblages indicated that, during the formation of these two sites, the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were higher than they are now in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, with lower continentality. Here, we propose new climatic reconstructions where the mean monthly temperature and precipitation and the difference between the four driest months and the four rainiest months are estimated. Climatograms are built in order to specify the distribution and variation of temperature and precipitation during the year, and the Aridity Indices of Gaussen, Lautensach-Mayer, Dantin-Revenga and De Martonne are used to characterize ombroclimatic differences. According to these new climatic parameters, rainfall distribution through the year shows considerably higher precipitation in every season except summer and early autumn, which remain drier and thus consistent with a Mediterranean climate pattern. No change is observed in the duration of the aridity period, which remains four months long. However, the value of the Aridity Index of De Martonne is higher than 20 (subhumid climate) in Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3, whereas today it is lower than 20 (semi-arid climate), suggesting major changes in the ombroclimatic type. These results yield a more precise scenario for the paleoclimatic conditions that prevailed during the late Early Pleistocene in the Guadix-Baza Basin and permit us to contrast the ages obtained from numerical dating and biochronology. The very warm and humid climate reconstructed for both Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 suggests that, in

  11. The Messinian post-evaporitic deposits of the Gafares area (Almerı´a-Nı´jar basin, SE Spain). A new view of the "Lago-Mare" facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Julio; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel M.

    2004-06-01

    The exceptional exposures of the evaporitic and post-evaporitic Messinian deposits in the Gafares area (NE Almerı´a-Nı´jar basin, SE Spain) make it possible to elucidate those processes affecting this region during the critical period of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The contact between the pre-evaporitic and the evaporitic units is an erosional unconformity. The transition from the evaporitic to the post-evaporitic units is gradual, since the gypsum beds of the evaporitic unit thin upward and the siliciclastic interbeds concomitantly thicken, thus passing gradually to the overlaying post-evaporitic unit. The presence of Globorotalia miotumida group in the last pelitic intercalation of the evaporitic unit as well as throughout the post-evaporitic one indicates a Messinian age. The post-evaporitic unit consists of a variety of sediments formed in continental and marine settings. Continental facies are characterised by fluvial channel-filled conglomerates and alluvial-plain sands and silts. Marine sediments are represented by silty marls with foraminifers. A river-dominated delta developed in the transitional zone at the NW edge of the Gafares area. Localised fan-delta deposits coming from the ESE also occur in the southeastern part of the study area. Microbial carbonates locally colonised the fan-delta conglomerates. During the deposition of the lower half of the post-evaporitic unit, sedimentation took place in a sheltered embayment, with restricted water circulation and relatively isolated from the Mediterranean Sea by an E-W-trending sill located at the south of the study area. In this palaeogeographic context, freshwater influx from the delta exerted a certain influence on the distribution of microorganisms. Thus, brackish settings developed close to the river outflows that were occupied by caspibrackish ostracod assemblages. The presence of gastropods of the family Cerithiidae as well as fishes attributable to the genus Aphanius, organisms that

  12. [An epidemiological analysis of the trends in laryngeal cancer mortality and morbidity in Spain and the Commune of Valencia (1977-1985)].

    PubMed

    Morales Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis González, A; Moreno Guillén, E; Megía Sanz, M J

    1992-01-01

    An epidemiological study is made of the evolution of cancer of the larynx in the Valencia Community (Spain) in comparison with the nationwide situation, during the period 1977-1985. Both morbidity and mortality are evaluated based on the data published by the National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística INE). Indirect data standardization was decided on, given the lack of information by age groups. The results reveal an increase in the incidence during the study period in all provinces--both morbidity and mortality standing out in the province of Castellón; in Alicante the figures were lower in comparison with the national values.

  13. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  14. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  15. Beginnings of Olive Cultivation in Eastern Spain in Relation to Holocene Bioclimatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terral, Jean-Frederic; Arnold-Simard, Genevieve

    1996-09-01

    Morphometric analyses show quantitative differences in anatomical characters of wood and charcoal between wild and cultivated olive. Samples from modern olive wood in eastern Spain (Levante) provide five distinctive anatomical criteria: growth width ring, vessel surface, number of vessels per group, vessel density, and vulnerability ratio. Multivariate analysis shows that growth ring width and number of vessels per group are both significant criteria for discriminating between wild and cultivated olive. Moreover, bioclimatic environments of wild olive (thermomediterranean and mesomediterranean stages) are distinguished by vessel density. Ancient olive charcoal from archaeological sites at Valencia and Alicante implies increasing aridification from the Cardial Neolithic to the Roman Period. This pattern may reflect the onset of a Mediterranean climate and human deforestation. Charcoal from cultivated specimens of early Neolithic age shows that the olive tree is the earliest cultivated temperate fruit.

  16. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is

  17. Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain.

    PubMed

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall "recuperating" trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  18. Coupled measurements of δ18O and δD of hydration water and salinity of fluid inclusions in gypsum from the Messinian Yesares Member, Sorbas Basin (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Gázquez, Fernando; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Hodell, David A.

    2015-11-01

    We studied one cycle (Cycle 6) of gypsum-marl deposition from the Messinian Yesares Member in Sorbas Basin, Spain. The objective was to reconstruct the changing environment of deposition and its relation to astronomically-forced climate change. The δ18O and δD of gypsum hydration water (CaSO4 • 2H2O) and salinity of fluid inclusions were measured in the same samples to test if they record the composition of the mother fluid from which gypsum was precipitated. Water isotopes are highly correlated with fluid inclusion salinity suggesting the hydration water has not exchanged after formation. The relatively low water isotope values and fluid inclusion salinities indicate a significant influence of meteoric water, whereas δ34S, δ18OSO4 and 87Sr/86Sr support a dominant marine origin for the gypsum deposits. The discrepancy between water and elemental isotope signatures can be reconciled if meteoric water dissolved previously deposited marine sulfates supplying calcium and sulfate ions to the basin which maintained gypsum saturation. This recycling process accounts for the marine δ34S, δ18OSO4 and 87Sr/86Sr signatures, whereas the low δ18O and δD values of gypsum hydration water and fluid inclusion salinities reflect the influence of freshwater. The cyclic deposition of gypsum and marl in the Yesares Member has previously been interpreted to reflect changing climate related to Earth's precession cycle. We demonstrate that the δ18O, δD and salinity of the parent brine increased from low values at the base of the cycle to a maximum in the massive gypsum palisade, and decreased again to lower values in the supercones at the top of the cycle. This pattern, together with changes in mineralogy (calcite-dolomite-gypsum), is consistent with a precession-driven change in climate with wettest conditions (summer insolation maxima) associated with the base of the calcium carbonate marls and driest conditions (summer insolation minima) during formation of the gypsum

  19. Late Variscan magmatism in the Nevado-Filábride Complex: U-Pb geochronologic evidence for the pre-Mesozoic nature of the deepest Betic complex (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Pugnaire, M. T.; Rubatto, D.; Fernández-Soler, J. M.; Jabaloy, A.; López-Sánchez-Vizcaíno, V.; González-Lodeiro, F.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Padrón-Navarta, J. A.

    2012-08-01

    Orthogneisses crop out in different lithostratigraphic positions throughout the Nevado-Filábride metamorphic Complex (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). Their abundance offers the opportunity to establish its origin and to date the ages of acid magmatism and of early deposition ages of metasedimentary host rocks of the orthogneisses, in this complex metamorphosed and deformed during the Alpine Orogeny. Petrography and bulk-rock chemistry indicate that the orthoderivates samples are peraluminous tourmaline leucogranites and strongly peraluminous biotite gneisses. Compositional similarity in different outcrops points to common genetic relationships. Although the studied gneisses are affected by metamorphic and deformational processes their compositional variations may be explained by differing degrees of crustal melting, source heterogeneity or minor feldspar fractionation. Variation in REE contents is attributed to accessory minerals fractionation. The geochemical data show that the protoliths originated by low degree of partial melting of biotite-rich, muscovite-plagioclase-bearing metasediments. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of magmatic zircons from six samples yielded ages between ~ 282 ± 5 and 295 ± 3 Ma. Their ages and chemical composition indicate that these intrusive bodies strongly resemble the peraluminous, post-tectonic, leucogranites widespread in the Variscan Orogen, particularly those produced by crustal partial melting of the Central Iberian Zone. Zircons in host pelitic metasediments provide older ages ranging from ~ 336 to 2.050 Ma. They testify to the recycling of Early Carboniferous and older granites, which are found in the Central Iberian zones of the Iberian Massif. The new geochronological data combined with detailed field observations allow drafting a new chronostratigraphy of the Nevado-Filábride Complex. Traditionally proposed Triassic ages for the metasedimentary upper series of the complex are not consistent with the ages reported here, which

  20. Tertiary Basins of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Peter F.; Dabrio, Cristino J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Tertiary, Spain suffered compressional collision between France and Africa, and its Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts have been further modified by extensional rifting. Because it includes sectors of two separate foreland basins, and an intervening craton with basins that have been influenced by extensional and strikeSHslip deformation, Spain provides excellent material for the development and testing of theories on the study of sedimentary basin formation and filling. This book is one of the few studies available in English of the important Tertiary geology of Spain.

  1. Badlands: Regolith, Forms and Processes. A review of the scientific research in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Badlands are usually defined as 'intensely dissected natural landscapes where vegetation is sparse or absent and which are useless for agriculture' (Bryan and Yair, 1982). Badlands are widerspread around the world (Nadal-Romero, 2007; Dickie and Parsons, 2012; Haregeweyn et al., 2012). In Spain due to the climatic and geological conditions badlands are widespread. Badlands research has national and foreign pioneers (Harvey, 1982; Clotet et al., 1988; Alexander and Calvo, 1990; Calvo et al., 1991; Alexander et al., 1994). Almería, Granada, Murcia, Alicante, the Ebro Valley, and the Pyrenees are good examples of the variety and diversity of badlands in Spain (García-Ruiz and López-Bermúdez, 2009). The research on badlands paid attention to the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1999a), piping (Romero-Diaz et al., 2011), the role of parent material on the regolith morphology (Regués, 1995; Cerdà, 1998b) and the soil development (Regués, 1993), and the interaction of the vegetation and soil erosion (Cerdà and García Fayos, 1997; Solé et al., 1997) vegetation varied, whereas the percentage of studies on erosion rates increased steadily over time. During the 90s badlands research was flowering and research on badlands developments, forms and soil physical properties influence was done. The 00's were a period with research focused on processes (infiltration, runoff and erosion) but in general the interest on badland decreased. However, badlands are intensively researched in the Ebro Valley (Nadal-Romero et al., 2007; 2008; Nadal-Romero and Regués; 2009; 2010) and new research is being developed on degraded soils following the knowledge found on badlands (Cerdà, 2007; García Fayos et al., 2010). The future is moving to study vegetation dynamics and badlands reclamation, the effect of climatic change in badland areas, and erosion processes and rates (Nadal-Romero et al., 2013). The use of new non-invasive technologies (remote sensing, Terrestrial Laser

  2. Industrial development versus environmental conservation at local scale: a case study from southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Maestre Gil, F T

    2001-08-01

    Local scale has an important role in environmental management. In Spain, rapid industrialization has occurred in the last three decades, leading to substantial changes in socioeconomic relations and resulting in significant environmental degradation. This paper describes the environmental status of the township of Sax (Alicante, in southeast Spain), which has passed from agriculture to industrial manufacturing in 50 years. The human population has grown exponentially during the second half of the 20th century, with a 91% increase from 1955 to 1995, coinciding with strong growth in manufacturing (factories increased fivefold in the period 1955-1976) and important changes in the working population and land use. Illegal rubbish dumps, water pollution, forest fires, erosion, and degradation of wildlife habitats are the main outcomes of these dramatic socioeconomic and demographic changes. The administration has focused on the control of water pollution and waste management, while nongovernmental organizations have concentrated on the prevention of forest fires and the development of environmental education programs. These measures are insufficient to manage current environmental degradation, and an environmental management plan for the study area is discussed. Increasing effort in waste management and industrial wastewater control, changes in land-use policy, and the creation of an advisory committee to increase public participation in decision-making have been identified as environmental target objectives for the coming years.

  3. Estimation of the Proportion of Underachieving Students in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain: An Application of the Rasch Model.

    PubMed

    Veas, Alejandro; Gilar, Raquel; Miñano, Pablo; Castejón, Juan-Luis

    2016-01-01

    There are very few studies in Spain that treat underachievement rigorously, and those that do are typically related to gifted students. The present study examined the proportion of underachieving students using the Rasch measurement model. A sample of 643 first-year high school students (mean age = 12.09; SD = 0.47) from 8 schools in the province of Alicante (Spain) completed the Battery of Differential and General Skills (Badyg), and these students' General Points Average (GPAs) were recovered by teachers. Dichotomous and Partial credit Rasch models were performed. After adjusting the measurement instruments, the individual underachievement index provided a total sample of 181 underachieving students, or 28.14% of the total sample across the ability levels. This study confirms that the Rasch measurement model can accurately estimate the construct validity of both the intelligence test and the academic grades for the calculation of underachieving students. Furthermore, the present study constitutes a pioneer framework for the estimation of the prevalence of underachievement in Spain. PMID:26973586

  4. Estimation of the Proportion of Underachieving Students in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain: An Application of the Rasch Model

    PubMed Central

    Veas, Alejandro; Gilar, Raquel; Miñano, Pablo; Castejón, Juan-Luis

    2016-01-01

    There are very few studies in Spain that treat underachievement rigorously, and those that do are typically related to gifted students. The present study examined the proportion of underachieving students using the Rasch measurement model. A sample of 643 first-year high school students (mean age = 12.09; SD = 0.47) from 8 schools in the province of Alicante (Spain) completed the Battery of Differential and General Skills (Badyg), and these students' General Points Average (GPAs) were recovered by teachers. Dichotomous and Partial credit Rasch models were performed. After adjusting the measurement instruments, the individual underachievement index provided a total sample of 181 underachieving students, or 28.14% of the total sample across the ability levels. This study confirms that the Rasch measurement model can accurately estimate the construct validity of both the intelligence test and the academic grades for the calculation of underachieving students. Furthermore, the present study constitutes a pioneer framework for the estimation of the prevalence of underachievement in Spain. PMID:26973586

  5. Spain to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  6. [El Laboratorio Foster de la Residencia de Señoritas. Las relaciones de la JAE con el International Institute for Girls in Spain, y la formación de las jóvenes científicas españolas].

    PubMed

    Portolés, Carmen Magallón

    2007-01-01

    In the first third of the twentieth century, relations among American and Spanish university women began; particularly the relationship between the JAE and the International Institute for Girls in Spain had a positive influence in the education of women scientists in Spain. An interchange of students and teachers came out from this relationship, and Spanish women received scholarships to stay in American universities. The history of the Foster Laboratory and some biographical notes of her founder are included in the paper. PMID:19845046

  7. [El Laboratorio Foster de la Residencia de Señoritas. Las relaciones de la JAE con el International Institute for Girls in Spain, y la formación de las jóvenes científicas españolas].

    PubMed

    Portolés, Carmen Magallón

    2007-01-01

    In the first third of the twentieth century, relations among American and Spanish university women began; particularly the relationship between the JAE and the International Institute for Girls in Spain had a positive influence in the education of women scientists in Spain. An interchange of students and teachers came out from this relationship, and Spanish women received scholarships to stay in American universities. The history of the Foster Laboratory and some biographical notes of her founder are included in the paper.

  8. Water quality changes in a naturalized historical reservoir: the Pantano de Elche, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Amorós, Irene; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    The "Pantano de Elche" is an historical XVII century reservoir located in the lower course of the Vinalopó River (SE Spain). The watershed of the Vinalopó River is the largest one of the province of Alicante, a highly urbanized area with intensive agriculture, severe processes of land degradation and poor-quality coastal rivers and streams. The original reservoir basin (71 ha) was clogged by sediment in few decades and the current area is a protected wetland with extensive reed marshes and a recently drained water body next to the dam. We are studying the influence of this naturalized historical reservoir in water quality parameters of the Vinalopó River. A long-term water quality monitoring approach is being developed and we present an initial quantification of the mass balance for suspended solids and nitrates (winter to summer). Monthly water samples have been taken at the upper point of the reservoir basin, intermediate areas of the reed marsh, the boundary between reed marsh-water body, and the outlet of the dam. Physical-chemical parameters (e.g., temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total suspended solids, and nitrates) have been analysed in situ or within 12 hours after the field sampling. Water flow was estimated by measuring water speed in cross-sections of the river bed at the inlet to the basin. The study area was mapped with QGIS and aerial ortophotographies in order to delineate the extent of the marshes and the water body. Statistical analyses (e.g., descriptive, ANOVA) were performed with SPSS. The water quality of the study area is greatly affected by diffuse agriculture pollution and the addition of soluble salts from saline and gypsiferous soils. Electrical conductivity of water samples was high (~18.5 mS/cm) for all locations. The pH ranged from 8.0 to 7.7 in the marsh and increased up to 8.3 at the outlet of the dam. The values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and nitrates exhibited a similar pattern, with a

  9. Test Reviewing in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  10. Supported Employment in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  11. Career Development in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Moreno, Luisa Rodriguez; Romeo, Javier; Malik, Beatriz

    In Spain, the term "career development" refers to vocational or career guidance services. The 1983 Law on University Reform conferred on universities the freedom of teaching, endowing them with legal status and administrative powers. Thus, there are no regulations regarding guidance at this educational level. Guidance departments in secondary…

  12. [Fertility decline in Spain].

    PubMed

    Arango, J

    1987-01-01

    The historical processes of secular fertility decline in Spain and Portugal are not well understood. Very few microdemographic studies of small geographic regions or particular social strata have been done. A contribution by David Reher to the First Spanish-Portuguese-Italian Historical Demography Conference on the fertility decline in the interior province of Cuenca, Spain, uses the own-children method to analyze changes in marital fertility in the 19th and 20th centuries. Reher discovered a slight fertility decline of perhaps 15% which occurred between the end of the 18th century and 1860-75. The fertility decline did not resume until after the Spanish Civil War, and then it was a very gradual and continuous process. When instead of the total female population, women aged 35-39 were studied, unequivocal signs of fertility control appeared. Conscious fertility control thus appears to have begun among older women limiting rather than spacing births. Reher's analysis by social groups demonstrates that fertility declined first and more rapidly in the nonagricultural and urban populations and among the higher income groups. The fertility decline in Cuenca was certainly not identical to that in most of Spain, but may have been fairly typical of a large part of the interior. Another contribution to the Historical Demography Conference, by Anna Cabre and Isabel Pujadas, analyzes fertility trends and cyclical fluctuations in 20th century Cataluna, arguing that they must be placed in historical perspective if recent changes are to be understood and plausible projections made. Their work demonstrates the value of selecting a relatively homogeneous geographic unit for analysis. The contribution of Margarita Delgado to the conference analyzed interregional fertility differences in contemporary Spain. The high legitimate fertility of the south of Spain is accentuated by high nuptiality rates. In central Spain, the combination of high legitimate fertility rates and low

  13. El uso periodistico de las formas -ra y -se del imperfecto de subjunctivo. (The Use and Frequency of the -ra and -se Forms of the Imperfect Subjunctive.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ford, Pilar; Georgalas, Sotiri

    1983-01-01

    Results of a statistical study of the two imperfect subjunctive endings in Spanish and Latin American journalism show the use of "-se" to be decreasing, although usage is slightly higher in Spain. Use of the imperfect subjuntive with an indicative meaning is also slightly more common in Spain. (MSE)

  14. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  15. Children as agents of their own health: exploratory analysis of child discourse in Spain.

    PubMed

    Davó-Blanes, María Carmen; La Parra, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The promotion of children's decision-making is one of the principles of health-promoting schools, and the empowerment of children means that they are enabled to influence their lifestyles and living conditions. The aim of this study was to find out the suggestions of Spanish school pupils in Year 3 and Year 6 of primary education to promote their own health and the health of the people closer to them, through their ideas about health. We analyse the discourse on health in the school environment from focus groups of primary school pupils aged around 8 and 12 of five schools in the town of Alicante (Spain). The groups were organized according to the type of school (public, private), the socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood (residential, working-class) and gender (single-sex, mixed groups) to ensure both the highest intergroup diversity and intra-group homogeneity. The findings show that primary school pupils have a wide and diverse notion of health. The application of the focus group technique has proved useful in eliciting information from groups of primary school pupils, and involving students in health-promoting programmes because it allows them to identify the social and interpersonal determinants of health. There is a firm basis to consider school pupils as health agents, particularly regarding interventions within the school environment itself. With the support of teachers, it is possible to train school pupils as community health agents, and increase their control over their own health. PMID:22669915

  16. Liver transplantation in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Gloria; Fondevila, Constantino; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) activity started in Spain in 1984 and has exceeded 23,700 interventions, with more than 1000 transplants performed yearly. Every hospital needs official authorization to perform a LT, which implies the obligation to register all patients on the national waiting list. The Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT) provides essential support for organ procurement, allocation, and management of the waiting list at a national level. Liver allocation is center-oriented as all available organs are referred to the ONT for the whole country. The allocation rules for LT are made according to disease severity after consensus among professionals from every transplant center and ratified by representatives of the regional health authorities. Authorization and location/distribution of transplant centers are regulated by the country (Spain) and by the different regions according to the Real Decreto 1723/2012. For a total population of 47,850,795 inhabitants, there are 24 centers for LT for adults (1 team/2 million people) and 5 for LT for children (1 team/9.5 million people). Nonbiliary cirrhosis, particularly alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis (60%), and tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), are the most common indications for LT in Spain. Unusual causes of LT include metabolic diseases like Wilson's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and hyperoxaluria type I, polycystic kidney and liver disease, and some tumors (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and neuroendocrine tumors). Important efforts are now being undertaken to improve the quality and transplantability of extended criteria livers, in particular those arising from DCD, which represent the greatest opportunity to expand the donor pool. These efforts have to be addressed to adapt the organ preservation procedures, be it through the application of regional perfusion in situ or the use of machine perfusion preservation ex situ. Liver Transplantation 22 1259-1264 2016

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  18. Pavlov in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael

    2003-11-01

    Reflexology has been present throughout Spanish science since the last third of the nineteenth century and its importance can be seen in the works of authors such as Martín Salazar, Ramón y Cajal, Gómez Ocaña, Simarro and Turró. The most important research in Reflexology in Spain takes place a) at the Schools of Neurophysiology and Psychology in Barcelona and Madrid, b) with a group of authors specializing in pathological medicine and c) in the Military's Health Department, Pavlov's work was received in Spain with special interest. Fernández-España, who could be considered the "first Spanish Pavlovian," emphasized Pavlov's work in a series dedicated to the study of objective psychology which was published between 1914 and 1924. Planelles was the first investigator to develop a program in pavlovian experimentation, presenting his results in 1935. The Civil War (1936-1939) ended these and many other Spanish projects in psychology. After the war, interest in Reflexology and Pavlov's theories slowly rose again, first through psychosomatic medicine and then in the 60's because of the works of such authors as Monserrat-Esteve, Rof Carballo and Colodrón. The progressive inclusion of psychology in the Schools of Philosophy and Arts after 1968 marked the beginning of a new era.

  19. Human Gongylonema infection in Spain.

    PubMed

    Illescas-Gómez, M P; Rodriguez Osorio, M; Gómez Garcia, V; Gómez Morales, M A

    1988-03-01

    A case of gongylonemiasis in a 31-year-old woman of Granada, Spain, is reported. The worm, clearly belonging to Gongylonema genus, could not be identified definitively as Gongylonema pulchrum, the species usually described in humans.

  20. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. PMID:22611428

  1. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. PMID:22611428

  2. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    PubMed

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed.

  3. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  4. Increasing microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling potential of burnt forest soil in Spain through post-fire management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; McMillan, Mary; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are increasingly assessed by the application of molecular methods such as sequencing and PCR technology. We applied these techniques to study microbial recovery in post-fire forest soils. The recovery of forest ecosystems following severe fire is influenced by post-fire management. The removal of burnt tree stumps (salvage logging) is a common practice in Spain following fire. In some cases, the use of heavy machinery in addition to the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially damaging to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. We hypothesized that tree removal slows down the recovery of soil biological communities including microbial and plant communities and contributes to soil degradation in the burnt affected area. The study area is located in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment, with a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery, was applied to a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring the effects of SL were installed in this area and in a similar nearby control (C) area, where no SL treatment was done. The recovery of soil bacterial and fungal communities post-fire with and without tree removal was analysed by using Next-Generation sequencing and the abundance of functional genes, related to nitrogen cycling, in the soil was estimated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We will present the methods used and the results of our study in this PICO presentation.

  5. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Methods Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel ® 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. Results We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Conclusions Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health. PMID:23688245

  6. In Spain, Inbreeding Threatens Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    With 25 years of teaching experience at Spain's top-ranked veterinary school, 58 articles in prestigious international journals, and numerous patents to her name, Victoria Lopez Rodas would be a strong candidate for any academic job in her field. So when she took a national qualifying examination for a full professorship in animal science last…

  7. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Sonia Vázquez; Berciano, José M.; Nicolás, Olga; López, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodríguez; Setién, Álvaro Aguilar; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus. PMID:23648051

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its...

  9. [History of microscopy in Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Galiano, D

    1994-12-01

    Nowadays, many Spanish research centers have excellent electronic microscopy services. The current situation, however, should not allow us to forget that the initial steps of microscopy in Spain were very difficult. The construction of excellent optical microscopies in the late XIX century, and their almost immediate introduction in Spain, coincides with a period of thriving scientific activity in our country. Both micrography and histology saw the highlights of their development in Spain, with scientists such as Ramón y Cajal, Río Hortega, Ferrán, Simarro, among others, all of them widely known at present. This article evokes briefly the vicissitudes of Spanish microscopy, from its very beginning in 1843, when the Allgemeine Anatomie by Jacob Henle was translated into Spanish, to present. Scientific historical facts in this article are often accompanied with anecdotes, which show the human aspect of those great scientists. The persevering task carried out by researchers whose names have been recorded in the history of Spanish science and technology, have established the grounds in which our current development is based.

  10. Biodiversity of Archaea and floral of two inland saltern ecosystems in the Alto Vinalopó Valley, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The extraction of salt from seawater by means of coastal solar salterns is a very well-described process. Moreover, the characterization of these environments from ecological, biochemical and microbiological perspectives has become a key focus for many research groups all over the world over the last 20 years. In countries such as Spain, there are several examples of coastal solar salterns (mainly on the Mediterranean coast) and inland solar salterns, from which sodium chloride is obtained for human consumption. However, studies focused on the characterization of inland solar salterns are scarce and both the archaeal diversity and the plant communities inhabiting these environments remain poorly described. Results Two of the inland solar salterns (termed Redonda and Penalva), located in the Alto Vinalopó Valley (Alicante, Spain), were characterized regarding their geological and physico-chemical characteristics and their archaeal and botanical biodiversity. A preliminary eukaryotic diversity survey was also performed using saline water. The chemical characterization of the brine has revealed that the salted groundwater extracted to fill these inland solar salterns is thalassohaline. The plant communities living in this environment are dominated by Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A.J. Scott, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moris) K. Koch, Suaeda vera Forsk. ex Gmelin (Amaranthaceae) and several species of Limonium (Mill) and Tamarix (L). Archaeal diversity was analyzed and compared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular phylogenetic techniques. Most of the sequences recovered from environmental DNA samples are affiliated with haloarchaeal genera such as Haloarcula, Halorubrum, Haloquadratum and Halobacterium, and with an unclassified member of the Halobacteriaceae. The eukaryote Dunaliella was also present in the samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first analysis centered on inland solar salterns located in the

  11. SE-FIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  12. Neanderthals from El Salt (Alcoy, Spain) in the context of the latest Middle Palaeolithic populations from the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Gómez, José A; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    We present a bioanthropological study of dental remains recovered from El Salt Middle Palaeolithic site (Alcoy, Alicante, Spain). The dental remains were found in a sedimentary layer representing a calm depositional environment within a freshwater spring system. The corresponding archaeological context comprises a Middle Palaeolithic faunal and lithic assemblage that represents the last documented evidence of human occupation at the site, dating to between 47.2 ± 4.4 and 45.2 ± 3.4 ka (thousands of years ago). This evidence is overlain by an archaeologically sterile deposit dated to 44.7 ± 3.2 ka. Results show that the teeth belong to a single juvenile or young adult individual with morphological and metric features falling within the Neanderthal range of variability, although the considered traits are not taxonomically highly discriminant. The reported fossils are representative of the latest Middle Palaeolithic groups in the region and may be considered in the ongoing debate on the disappearance of Neanderthals and the end of the Middle Palaeolithic. PMID:25063566

  13. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  14. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…

  15. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  16. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    PubMed

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  17. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  18. [Viper bite treatment in Spain].

    PubMed

    Estefanía Díez, M; Alonso Peña, D; García Cano, P; López Gamo, A

    2016-01-01

    Viper snake bite is, by far, the most common ophidian accident in Spain. It is responsible for between 100 and 150 hospitalizations per year in this country, although it is difficult to determine the frequency of emergency admissions due to this cause. The cornerstone to their approach rests on the correct evaluation of the possible effects derived from envenomation and the use of anti-venoms. In spite of all the controversies surrounding the use of anti-venoms, they have become a powerful therapeutic weapon ever since the serum has been highly purified and the great decrease of related anaphylactic reactions. The aim of this article is to update the emergency room procedures when viper bites are suspected, and to clarify the main therapeutic recommendations. PMID:25440968

  19. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain; Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cortes Castell, E; Rizo-Baeza, M M; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Rizo-Baeza, J; Gil Guillén, V

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: La edad materna es una variable preponderante en el análisis epidemiológico del nacimiento prematuro. Los estudios muestran que en las edades extremas de la vida materna hay un riesgo de nacimiento prematuro que genera una tasa elevada de morbilidad neonatal. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de las edades extremas de mujeres residentes en la provincia de Albacete sobre de nacimientos prematuros. Método: Se realizó un estudio explicativo, retrospectivo de casos-control durante el periodo de 1 de enero de 2008 a 31 de diciembre de 2011. El estudio se basó en la revisión de los registros de recién nacidos del Centro de Cribado Neonatal de la provincia de Alicante. Se incluyeron todos los recién nacidos pretérmino, es decir, entre las semanas 22 y 36 de gestación (5.295 de 78.391 recién nacidos, lo que representa un 6,75% de prematuridad), y una muestra aleatoria de los nacimientos con más de 37 semanas de gestación (grupo control). Se estudió la edad materna como variable independiente y la prematuridad como variable dependiente. Resultados: El estudio muestra claramente un mayor riesgo de prematuridad entre las madres adolescentes en comparación con el siguiente grupo más cercano en edad, lo que se confirmó por una distribución significativamente distinta con el test Chi cuadrado (p < 0,0001) con una OD para los grandes prematuros de 2,41 (1,51-3,24) y de 1,71 (1,32-2,19) para los prematuros. Esta probabilidad también fue mayor en madres con edades de más de 40 años con una OD de 1,86 (1,39-2,48) y de 1,66 (1,44- 1,91) para recién nacidos grandes prematuros y prematuros, respectivamente. Discusión: Los resultados muestran claramente que las madres adolescentes y las más mayores tienen mayor riesgo de hijos prematuros o con bajo peso al nacimiento, lo que motiva la necesidad de establecer intervenciones educacionales para disminuir el problema, a partir de los resultados de esta investigación.

  20. Absorption and optical conduction in InSe/ZnSe/InSe thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Garni, S. E.; Qasrawi, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, (n)InSe/(p)ZnSe and (n)InSe/(p)ZnSe/(n)InSe heterojunction thin film transistor (TFT) devices are produced by the thermal evaporation technique. They are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques. While the InSe films are found to be amorphous, the ZnSe and InSe/ZnSe films exhibited polycrystalline nature of crystallization. The optical analysis has shown that these devices exhibit a conduction band offsets of 0.47 and valence band offsets of 0.67 and 0.74eV, respectively. In addition, while the dielectric spectra of the InSe and ZnSe displayed resonance peaks at 416 and 528THz, the dielectric spectra of InSe/ZnSe and InSe/ZnSe/InSe layers indicated two additional peaks at 305 and 350THz, respectively. On the other hand, the optical conductivity analysis and modeling in the light of free carrier absorption theory reflected low values of drift mobilities associated with incident alternating electric fields at terahertz frequencies. The drift mobility of the charge carrier particles at femtoseconds scattering times increased as a result of the ZnSe sandwiching between two InSe layers. The valence band offsets, the dielectric resonance at 305 and 350THz and the optical conductivity values nominate TFT devices for use in optoelectronics.

  1. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  2. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  3. Properties of Se/InSe Thin-Film Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasrawi, A. F.; Kayed, T. S.; Elsayed, Khaled A.

    2016-06-01

    Se, InSe, and Se/InSe thin films have been prepared by the physical vapor deposition technique at pressure of ˜10-5 torr. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films and Se/InSe interface were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics. XRD analysis indicated that the prepared InSe films were amorphous while the Se films were polycrystalline having hexagonal structure with unit cell parameters of a = 4.3544 Å and c = 4.9494 Å. Spectral reflectance and transmittance analysis showed that both Se and InSe films exhibited indirect allowed transitions with energy bandgaps of 1.92 eV and 1.34 eV, respectively. The Se/InSe interface exhibited two energy bandgaps of 0.98 eV and 1.73 eV above and below 2.2 eV, respectively. Dielectric constant values were also calculated from reflectance spectra for the three layers in the frequency range of 500 THz to 272 THz. The dielectric constant exhibited a promising feature suggesting use of the Se/InSe interface as an optical resonator. Moreover, the Au/Se/InSe/Ag heterojunction showed some rectifying properties that could be used in standard optoelectronic devices. The ideality factor and height of the energy barrier to charge carrier motion in this device were found to be 1.72 and 0.66 eV, respectively.

  4. Heavy metal pollution in soils of abandoned mining areas (SE, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Navarro, M. C.; García-Lorenzo, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Elevated levels of heavy metals can be found in and around disused metalliferous mines due to discharge and dispersion of mine wastes into nearby agricultural soils, food crops and stream systems. Heavy metals contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by wind and water runoff in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. The present study was carried out in the Cabezo Rajao (La Uni

  5. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is influenced by tailing dumps and also by waters from gully watercourses, transporting materials from Sierra Minera. The MINTEQ simulation showed that Pb and Ca could precipitate as sulphates (anglesite and gypsum). Waters affected by secondary contamination have been mixed with carbonate materials, present in the zone increasing the pH. Some elements have precipitated, such as Cu and Pb, while Cd, Zn and As are soluble. The MINTEQ model results showed that in A10 and A14, Al could precipitate as diaspore but also carbonates could be formed, particularly dolomite. These model in A12 sample showed that soluble Zn could precipitate as carbonate and Al as oxyhydroxide, similarly than in A13. A2 and A6 waters are affected by tertiary contamination and showed basic pH, soluble carbonates and lower trace element content. Only Zn, Cd and Al are present. The speciation model showed that in A2, Cd and Zn could precipitate as carbonates while Al as oxihydroxide. In A6, the model suggested that soluble Pb could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocerusite and cerusite) or as hydroxide; Al as diaspore, Ca as calcite and Fe as hematite. Zone B: All waters are strongly affected by mining activities and showed acid pH, high trace element content and high content of soluble sulphates. The MINTEQ results showed that in B8, Fe could precipitate as hydroxychloride and in B12 could form alunite. In B9, B10, B13 y B14, the model estimates the precipitation of anglesite, gypsum and Fe hydroxichloride (B9 and B10), diaspore in B13 and B14, and gypsum and Fe hydroxychloride in B13. All the sampling points collected in Zone C are affected by primary contamination, because there are a lot of tailing dumps. C1 showed high trace element content because is a reception point of a lot of tailing dumps. Water samples from C3 to C8 also had acid pH and high trace element content, particularly As, Zn and Cd. In addition, they showed high soluble sulphates. C2 water showed neutral pH, soluble carbonate and low trace element content because is influenced by a stabilised tailing dump. In all samples, except C2, the MINTEQ model showed that a lot of efflorescences could be formed, mainly sulphates. Zone D: All waters collected in this zone showed acid pH and high trace element content, mainly Zn, Cd and As. MINTEQ model results showed that elements could precipitate as jarosite but also anglesite in D8 and gypsum in D9, D11 and D12. D1 is affected by secondary contamination, which showed higher pH (still acid) and lower content in soluble salts and trace elements. The MINTEQ model suggested that Al could precipitate as diaspore, gibbsite and alunite. The applied model is an appropriate tool for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities. The obtained simulations confirm natural attenuation processes.

  6. Highly ordered antigorite from Cerro del Almirez HP-HT serpentinites, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón-Navarta, J. A.; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, V.; Garrido, C. J.; Gómez-Pugnaire, M. T.; Jabaloy, A.; Capitani, G. C.; Mellini, M.

    2008-11-01

    The Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif offers an example of high pressure and high temperature antigorite serpentinites. A sharp antigorite-out isograd separates them from Chl-harzburgites, consisting of olivine + enstatite + chlorite. Antigorite is characterized by aluminium contents as high as 4 wt.% Al2O3. The microstructural study shows that, prior to the transformation, antigorite is exceptionally ordered and consists of the polysome m = 17. No polysomatic defect occurs in antigorite forming most of the Cerro del Almirez serpentinites. Close to the antigorite-out isograd, limited disorder features may occur, mainly as (001) twins, reaction rims and reduction of m down to 14-15. Here, local recrystallization phenomena lead to sporadic growth of large antigorite and chlorite crystals.

  7. Significance of organic matter in Eocene turbidite sediments (SE Pyrenees, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caja, M. A.; Permanyer, A.

    2008-11-01

    Although turbidite deposits are classically considered to be good reservoir rocks for oil and gas, there are no reports concerning their source rock potential in the literature. The sediments from the Vallfogona Formation in the South-Eastern Pyrenees present numerous organic matter-rich levels interbedded in sandstones and coarse turbidite deposits. Two types of organic matter deposits were differentiated on the basis of organic geochemistry and petrography: type A and type B. Type A was deposited in a carbonate marine environment under hypersaline conditions as indicated mainly by even/odd n-alkane predominance, pristane and phytane ratio (Pr/Ph) < 1, presence of gammacerane, and trisnorneohopane over trisnorhopane ratio (Ts/Tm) > 1. Type B was deposited in a more mud-rich marine environment evidenced by the predominance of odd n-alkane, Pr/Ph ≥ 1, Ts/Tm < 1, the absence of gammacerane, similar concentrations of the C27 and C29 regular steranes, and the greater abundance of C27 diasteranes. Turbidite facies can be regarded as an environment where organic matter sedimentation is heterogeneous in type and amount. This study suggests that turbidite deposits with interbedded organic matter-rich levels may act as a combined source reservoir system.

  8. Significance of organic matter in Eocene turbidite sediments (SE Pyrenees, Spain).

    PubMed

    Caja, M A; Permanyer, A

    2008-11-01

    Although turbidite deposits are classically considered to be good reservoir rocks for oil and gas, there are no reports concerning their source rock potential in the literature. The sediments from the Vallfogona Formation in the South-Eastern Pyrenees present numerous organic matter-rich levels interbedded in sandstones and coarse turbidite deposits. Two types of organic matter deposits were differentiated on the basis of organic geochemistry and petrography: type A and type B. Type A was deposited in a carbonate marine environment under hypersaline conditions as indicated mainly by even/odd n-alkane predominance, pristane and phytane ratio (Pr/Ph) < 1, presence of gammacerane, and trisnorneohopane over trisnorhopane ratio (Ts/Tm) > 1. Type B was deposited in a more mud-rich marine environment evidenced by the predominance of odd n-alkane, Pr/Ph > or = 1, Ts/Tm < 1, the absence of gammacerane, similar concentrations of the C(27) and C(29) regular steranes, and the greater abundance of C(27) diasteranes. Turbidite facies can be regarded as an environment where organic matter sedimentation is heterogeneous in type and amount. This study suggests that turbidite deposits with interbedded organic matter-rich levels may act as a combined source-reservoir system.

  9. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment, whereas, black and soluble C was decreased with PS addition. There may have been a transient positive effect of the RPS treatments on the soil biochemical parameters. However, the effect could not be detected because of less labile C content during the experiment. The beneficial effects of the PS additions were less pronounced in the 0-30 cm. soil layer. In this monoculture barley production system and under these Mediterranean climate conditions, applications of TPS should be avoided, so they were associated with a decline in microbial counts and a leveling of almost all the enzymatic activities and microbial biomass C. Keywords: Pig slurry, Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C, β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzyme activities.

  10. Isotope geochemistry of waters affected by acid mine drainage in old labour sites (SE, Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Agudo, Ines; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel; Recio, Clemente

    2015-04-01

    The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Iron is present in oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonates, and silicates; lead and zinc occur in sulfides (galena and sphalerite, respectively), carbonates, sulfates, and lead or zinc-bearing (manganese, iron) oxides. Mining started with the Romans and activity peaked in the second half of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century until the 1980's. From 1940 to 1957, mineral concentration was made by froth flotation and, prior to this, by gravimetric techniques. The mining wastes, or tailings, with a very fine particle size were deposited inland (tailings dams) and, since 1957, huge releases were made in directly the sea coast. The objective of this work was to evaluate processes affecting waters from abandoned mine sites by way of stable isotopic analysis, particularly H and O stable isotopes from water and S and O from dissolved sulfates. Several common chemical and physical processes, such as evaporation, water-rock interaction and mixing could alter water isotopic composition. Evaporation, which causes an enrichment in δD and δ18O in the residual water, is an important process in semiarid areas. The results obtained indicate that, for sites near the coast, waters are meteoric, and marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers near the shore or if water remains stagnated in sediments with low permeability. The main source of sulfate was the oxidation of sulfides, resulting in the liberation of acid, sulfate and metals. In order to assess the mechanism responsible for sulfide oxidation, the stoichiometric isotope balance model and the general isotope balance model were tested, suggesting that the oxidation via Fe3+ was predominant in the surface, and controlled by A. ferrooxidans, while at depth, sulfate reduction occurred.

  11. Seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia (SE Spain): analysis of source contribution to hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Mayordomo, J.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2007-10-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations [SA( T)] is presented in this paper. In contrast to most of the previous studies in the region, which were performed for PGA making use of intensity-to-PGA relationships, hazard is here calculated in terms of magnitude and using European spectral ground-motion models. Moreover, we have considered the most important faults in the region as specific seismic sources, and also comprehensively reviewed the earthquake catalogue. Hazard calculations are performed following the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology using a logic tree, which accounts for three different seismic source zonings and three different ground-motion models. Hazard maps in terms of PGA and SA(0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s) and coefficient of variation (COV) for the 475-year return period are shown. Subsequent analysis is focused on three sites of the province, namely, the cities of Murcia, Lorca and Cartagena, which are important industrial and tourism centres. Results at these sites have been analysed to evaluate the influence of the different input options. The most important factor affecting the results is the choice of the attenuation relationship, whereas the influence of the selected seismic source zonings appears strongly site dependant. Finally, we have performed an analysis of source contribution to hazard at each of these cities to provide preliminary guidance in devising specific risk scenarios. We have found that local source zones control the hazard for PGA and SA( T ≤ 1.0 s), although contribution from specific fault sources and long-distance north Algerian sources becomes significant from SA(0.5 s) onwards.

  12. Seepage carbonate mounds in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, M.; Calvo, J. P.; Scopelliti, G.; González-Acebrón, L.

    2016-04-01

    A number of carbonate mounds composed of indurate, strongly folded and/or brecciated calcite and dolomite beds occur interstratified in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin. Part of the fabric of the rock forming the carbonate mounds is composed of laminated to banded dolostone similar to the host rock but showing contrasted lithification. Moreover, the carbonate deposits of the mounds display aggrading neomorphism of dolomite, partial replacement of dolomite by calcite, calcite cementation, and extensive silicification, locally resulting in box-work fabric. Eight main lithofacies were distinguished in the carbonate mound deposits. In some lithofacies, chert is present as both microcrystalline to fibro-radial quartz and opal, the latter occurring mainly as cement whereas the former replace the carbonate and infill voids. Yet one of the carbonate mounds shows distinctive petrography and geochemical features thus suggesting a distinctive growth pattern. The carbon isotope compositions of calcite from the mound samples range from - 11.56 to - 5.15 δ‰ whilst dolomite is depleted in 13C, with values of - 12.38 to 3.02 δ‰. Oxygen isotopic compositions vary from - 9.42 to - 4.64 δ‰ for calcite and between - 6.68 and 8.19 δ‰ for dolomite. Carbonate in the mounds shows significant enrichment in Co, Cr, Ni and Pb content, especially in the strongly deformed (F-2-2 lithofacies) and brecciated carbonate (F-4). The carbonate deposits show depletion in REE and Y in contrast to that determined in lutite. The formation of the carbonate mounds was related to local artesian seepage thermal water flows of moderate to relative high temperatures. Pressure differences between the low permeability host rock and the circulating fluids accounted for dilational fracturing and brecciation of the host sediment packages, which combined with precipitation of new carbonate and silica mineral phases. Locally, some carbonate mounds developed where groundwater intersected the lake floor, this resulting in bedded carbonate deposits composed of organic constituents.

  13. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    PubMed

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present. PMID:18417402

  14. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    PubMed

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  15. Nursing Education in Spain--Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnoz, Adelaida Zabalegui

    2002-01-01

    In Spain, the nursing diploma is inadequate for current health care needs. To meet the demand, Spain is developing baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral programs using European Union guidelines to ensure the preparation of a professional nursing work force. (SK)

  16. Mathematics education and learning disabilities in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving. PMID:15493468

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  18. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  19. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  20. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  1. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  2. Border disease virus among chamois, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-03-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005-2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001.

  3. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  4. Mesocriconema kirjanovae (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Southeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, P.; Vovlas, N.

    1992-01-01

    An abundant female population of a criconematid species identified as Mesocriconema kirjanovae (Andr ssy, 1962) Loof &De Grisse, 1989 is reported from a natural habitat in southeastern Spain. Measurements and morpho-anatomy obtained with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are included and compared with previous data on this species. PMID:19283203

  5. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  6. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  7. Good Effective School Improvement Practices in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murillo, F. Javier

    2002-01-01

    Presents case studies of five effective school improvement (ESI) programs developed in Spain. Identified characteristics of the Spanish education system that affect the way ESI programs are carried out and developed descriptions of the five programs and lessons learned from them. (SLD)

  8. Pressure stabilized Se-Se dimer formation in PbSe 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremholm, M.; Hor, Y. S.; Cava, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of PbSe 2 through the reaction of PbSe with excess Se at 4.5 GPa and 650 °C is reported. The crystal structure, determined from X-ray powder diffraction data (CuAl 2 structure type, I4/mcm (#140), a = 6.42695(11) Å, c = 7.70254(13) Å, Z = 4), consists of layers of [Se 2] 2- dimers with Pb 2+ in square antiprismatic coordination with Se. This is a rare crystal structure for divalent metal chalcogenides, previously only identified for SrS 2 and BaTe 2. Undoped PbSe 2 as well as Bi 3+- and Ag +-doped samples (10% Pb substitution) show semi-metallic resistivity down to 0.4 K. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of PbSe 2 shows no magnetic ordering above 1.8 K. The Seebeck coefficients show nearly linear behavior from 35 to 400 K and the largest numerical values are found in the case of undoped PbSe 2, + 99 μVK -1, and Bi 3+-doped PbSe 2, - 146 μVK -1, at the highest temperature measured, 400 K.

  9. [Intake of trans fats; situation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too.

  10. Young people's heroes in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Gash, Hugh; Domínguez Rodríguez, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Heroes play collectivist or individualist roles in imagination and self-development. Representations of heroic figures in questionnaires given to French (n = 241) and Spanish (n = 227) samples of 10 and 15-year-olds were examined to assess the extent that heroes originated in digital media, and whether they were proximal or distal personalities. There is strong evidence that heroes in this sample were largely learned about in digital media (France 45%, Spain 50%): family and community heroes were a minority (France 11%, Spain 9%). Male heroes were more important to Spanish participants compared to their French peers. The acquisition sequence for hero type reported in the pre-television era, proximal (family and community) to distal (beyond the neighbourhood), is reversed in this study. Generally, 10-year-olds preferred heroes with collectivist qualities and 15-year-olds with individualised qualities. Findings are discussed in terms of the emergence of social capital. PMID:19476237

  11. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  12. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship. PMID:26054209

  13. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  14. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area. PMID:27059252

  15. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  16. Young people's heroes in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Gash, Hugh; Domínguez Rodríguez, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Heroes play collectivist or individualist roles in imagination and self-development. Representations of heroic figures in questionnaires given to French (n = 241) and Spanish (n = 227) samples of 10 and 15-year-olds were examined to assess the extent that heroes originated in digital media, and whether they were proximal or distal personalities. There is strong evidence that heroes in this sample were largely learned about in digital media (France 45%, Spain 50%): family and community heroes were a minority (France 11%, Spain 9%). Male heroes were more important to Spanish participants compared to their French peers. The acquisition sequence for hero type reported in the pre-television era, proximal (family and community) to distal (beyond the neighbourhood), is reversed in this study. Generally, 10-year-olds preferred heroes with collectivist qualities and 15-year-olds with individualised qualities. Findings are discussed in terms of the emergence of social capital.

  17. Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  18. Sociological profile of astronomers in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ussel, J. I.; Trinidad, A.; Ruíz, D.; Battaner, E.; Delgado, A. J.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Torrelles, J. M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  19. [Medicine and enlightenment in New Spain].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A

    1998-01-01

    Fundamental ideas of the cultural movement of Enlightenment were drawn up and encouraged in England by John Locke and introduced into continental Europe by Voltaire. The essence of this movement was defined by I. Kant in 1784. These new ideas were projected into the field of medicine initially with the systematization of anatomical studies by Winslow, Vicq d' Azyr and Sénac in France, by S. Th. Sömmerring and von Haller in Germany, and by Paolo Mascagni and other anatomists in Italy. This movement settled in Spain toward the middle of the XVIII century, due to Father Feijóo and his pupils such as Piquer and Casal. In New Spain, which maintained cultural and scientific relationship with the Old World, the leaders of the movement were José Antonio Alzate in the field of biology and José Ignacio Bartolache in that of medicine. These were the founders of the first scientific journals: the "Diario Literario" (Literary Journal) by Alzate (1768) and the "Mercurio Volante" (Flying Mercury) by Bartolache (1772). Latter this physician had to face the great epidemic outbreak of smallpox in 1779. Due to that, he attributed great importance to the psychological aspect of the problem and supported the variolization proceeding introduced into Mexico by Doctor Henri Morel. Moreover, two scientific expeditions, which reached New Spain at the end of the XVIII century, allowed to systematize the study of the American vegetables and to acknowledge the usefulness of botany and chemistry as auxiliary sciences of medicine.

  20. [Could malaria and dengue reappear in Spain?].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in immigration to Spain has facilitated the importation of many tropical diseases. Among these diseases, those of vectorial origin are among the most difficult to study. Some of the reasons for this difficulty are the complexity due to the variety of hosts involved in the transmission cycles and the need to know all the physiological, bioecological and biogeographic parameters related to the vector in order to infer the actual possibilities of the emergence or reemergence of these diseases. This article provides information on imported diseases of unquestionable epidemiological interest for the population in Spain due to the presence of several species of culicid mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) capable of transmitting these diseases in our country. Parasitic diseases such as malaria, which was highly endemic in Spain until 50 years ago, and other arboviral infections such as dengue and yellow fever, are analyzed in these terms. Various aspects related to the health system, as well as the different ways of tackling these issues, are also discussed.

  1. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two-thirds of all such

  2. [Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions].

    PubMed

    Cazorla, J

    1995-01-01

    "In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so... Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  3. Management of postoperative pain in abdominal surgery in Spain. A multicentre drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Vallano, Antonio; Aguilera, Cristina; Arnau, Josep Maria; Baños, Josep-Eladi; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    1999-01-01

    Participating centres: Hospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante: Maria Jesús Olaso, Javier Agulló, Clara Faura. Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería: Carmen Fernández Sánchez, Miguel Lorenzo Campos, Juan Manuel Rodríguez Alonso. Hospital Quirúrgic Adriano, Barcelona: Carmen Alerany Pardo, Paquita Alvarez González, Teresa Martín Benito. Hospital Universitari del Mar-IMIM, Barcelona: Magí Farré, Maite Terán. Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell: Montserrat Cañellas, Sergio Zavala, Josep Planell. Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau: Gonzalo Calvo, Rosa Morros, Silvia Mateo. Hospital General Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona: Carmen Bosch, María José Martínez. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga: Maribel Lucena, José Antonio González, Gabriel Carranque. Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, Madrid: Emilio Vargas, Amparo Gil López-Oliva, Míriam García Mateos. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander: Mario González, Antonio Cuadrado. Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Macarena, Sevilla: Juan Antonio Durán, Pilar Máyquez, María Isabel Serrano. Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla: Jaume Torelló, Juan Ramón Castillo, María de las Nieves Merino. Aims Postoperative pain is common in hospital-admitted patients. Its management is determined by different therapeutic traditions and by the attitudes of health professionals in each hospital. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of prescription and administration of analgesic drugs used for postoperative pain after abdominal surgery in Spanish hospitals, to know the prevalence and the severity of postoperative pain, and to determine the extent of variability in the management of postoperative pain among the participating centres. Methods The study was a multicentre descriptive cross-sectional drug utilization study in 12 Spanish hospitals. The subjects were an unselected sample of consecutive patients undergoing abdominal

  4. Erosion surfaces and Neogene landscape evolution in the NE Duero Basin (north-central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2007-08-01

    We present a chronological model of erosion surface development in the Iberian and Cantabrian Ranges of north-central Spain. We map four erosion surfaces and interpret these to be related to Duero basin continental sediments and tectonic activity from Upper Oligocene to Plio-Pleistocene. The oldest erosion surface, SE1, formed across Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene synorogenic deposits; while surface SE2 was contemporaneous with the Middle Miocene alluvial systems, ending with an uplift stage in the Astaracian. The two most recent erosion surfaces, SE3 and SE4, developed during extensional tectonic episodes and are associated with the deposition of Upper Páramo sedimentary units at the end of the Miocene (Upper Turolian) and alluvial fan deposits, known as rañas (Plio-Pleistocene). With the exception of SE1, which seems to be associated with a relatively wet climate, the surfaces formed during periods of marked aridity and generally warm temperatures. Through geostatistical reconstruction of the best preserved surface (SE2), applying ordinary kriging method to the topography (DEM) of the erosion surface and its correlating sedimentary plains, we identify the deformation processes which occurred on this surface after its formation.

  5. [Medicine and enlightenment in New Spain].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A

    1998-01-01

    Fundamental ideas of the cultural movement of Enlightenment were drawn up and encouraged in England by John Locke and introduced into continental Europe by Voltaire. The essence of this movement was defined by I. Kant in 1784. These new ideas were projected into the field of medicine initially with the systematization of anatomical studies by Winslow, Vicq d' Azyr and Sénac in France, by S. Th. Sömmerring and von Haller in Germany, and by Paolo Mascagni and other anatomists in Italy. This movement settled in Spain toward the middle of the XVIII century, due to Father Feijóo and his pupils such as Piquer and Casal. In New Spain, which maintained cultural and scientific relationship with the Old World, the leaders of the movement were José Antonio Alzate in the field of biology and José Ignacio Bartolache in that of medicine. These were the founders of the first scientific journals: the "Diario Literario" (Literary Journal) by Alzate (1768) and the "Mercurio Volante" (Flying Mercury) by Bartolache (1772). Latter this physician had to face the great epidemic outbreak of smallpox in 1779. Due to that, he attributed great importance to the psychological aspect of the problem and supported the variolization proceeding introduced into Mexico by Doctor Henri Morel. Moreover, two scientific expeditions, which reached New Spain at the end of the XVIII century, allowed to systematize the study of the American vegetables and to acknowledge the usefulness of botany and chemistry as auxiliary sciences of medicine. PMID:9780494

  6. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  7. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  8. Quality of death certificates in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, F G; Bolumar, F; Peris, R

    1989-01-01

    Certificates of 1,454 deaths occurring over 11 months were retrieved from the Civil Register in Valencia, Spain. Relevant medical information was systematically gathered from hospital records, questionnaires, and Coroner reports. We compared the underlying cause of death (UCD) from the original death certificate, and a reference cause of death (RCD) determined by a panel of experts based on all available information. Overall, 80.2 percent of the certificates were concordant for disease category, but there was a great disparity among some specific disease categories. PMID:2782500

  9. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter.

  10. Major tanker spill off Spain under control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports that a 23 sq mile oil slick along Spain's northwest coast, spreading form the wreckage of the Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, was for the most part under control as of Dec. 10, Spanish authorities reported. Various press reports put the total spill volume at 490,000 bbl, about double that leaked by the Exxon Valdez supertanker off Alaska in 1989. If initial reports of the spill volume are borne out, the Aegean Sea spill would rank at least as one of the 10 biggest tanker spills.

  11. The epidemiology of cocaine use in Spain.

    PubMed

    Barrio Anta, G; Vicente Orta, J; Bravo Portela, M J; de la Fuente de Hoz, L

    1993-12-01

    Trends and patterns of cocaine use in Spain are described with the aid of different information sources such as population surveys, the State Information System on Drug Abuse, and anthropological studies. In recent years the magnitude of cocaine supply indicators has increased greatly. High levels of last-month prevalence of cocaine use have been detected among the general population--consistently higher than those for heroin-- and cocaine consumption among heroin users has increased. Although the frequency of some health problems related to cocaine use--treatment admissions, hospital emergency admissions--has increased, it is still 30 times less than for heroin. Various hypotheses to explain these discrepancies are discussed.

  12. Nuptiality patterns in Spain in the eighties.

    PubMed

    Miret-gamundi, P

    1997-01-01

    "The marriage patterns in Spain are analysed, highlighting some associated socio-economic, political and cultural factors.... It seems there is a quite clear match between economic and nuptiality trends; as accompanying the rise of unemployment and the general economic crisis, there was undoubtedly a decrease in the levels of adult nuptiality. But this is not enough to fully explain the nuptiality age patterns, and we need to refer to other possible reasons for the trends in nuptiality, as we do here with the evolution of the housing market." (EXCERPT)

  13. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mediterranean fruit fly management program established by the Government of Spain. (c) Management program for Mediterranean fruit fly; monitoring. The Government of Spain's Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) management program must be approved by APHIS, and must contain the fruit fly trapping and...

  15. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... October 1, and continuing through April 30, MAFF must set and maintain Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis... transit other fruit fly-supporting areas unless shipping containers are sealed by MAFF with an official... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain...

  17. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  18. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  19. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  20. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  1. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Marimón, José Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism.

  2. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  3. Intergenerational Educational and Occupational Mobility in Spain: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pablos Escobar, Laura; Gil Izquierdo, María

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changes in intergenerational mobility seen in Spain during the last century. It examines educational and occupational mobility, paying particular attention to the existence of a differentiated gender effect. The magnitude of the historical changes that have taken place in Spain during the twentieth century and the scarcity…

  4. 78 FR 6222 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... described in a notice we published on May 10, 2006, in the Federal Register (71 FR 27221-27224, Docket No... of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balaeric Islands and Canary Islands) into...

  5. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Federal Register (78 FR 6222-6227, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0002), a proposal \\1\\ to amend the fruits and... Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and...

  6. Espana: Building Bridges of Understanding with the People of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Spain by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Spain is given, which covers the following: geography, weather, history, ethnic roots, regional…

  7. [Present and future of neurology in Spain].

    PubMed

    Illa Sendra, I; García De Yébenes Prous, J; Ramo Tello, C; Polo Esteban, J M; Molinuevo Guix, J L; Robles Bayón, A; Mulas Delgado, F; Alvarez Sabín, J; Aguilar Barbera, M; Berciano Blanco JA, J A; Blesa González, R; Carnero Pardo, C; Castillo Sánchez, J; Del Ser Quijano, T; Ferrer Abizanda, I; García-Albea Ristol, E; Gómez Isla, T; Graus Ribas, F; Jiménez Hernández, M D; Liaño Martínez, H; Matías Guiu-Guia, J; Zarranz Imirizaldu, J J; Paradas López, C; Elena Martínez, G; Maltas Pérez, G; Ponce Rodríguez, M T

    2001-11-01

    This is a document prepared by the Spanish Society of Neurology (SEN), which was given to the President of Spain (Mr. José María Aznar) last September with the main aim of examining the current situation of Neurology in our country. It analyses the present and future of Neurology in clinical assistance, teaching and research. To prepare this document the criteria of patients' associations has been considered, including the Declaration of Madrid which has been subscribed by thirty of these associations. In spite of its relevant development in the previous decades, the current situation of Neurology in Spain is far from the ideal. To reach the recommendable menber of 3 or 4 neurologists per 100,000 inhabitants it is necessary to duplicate the present number of neurologists which has been estimated around 2/100,000; this situation is especially urgent in some Autonomous Communities. The most important problems in neurological assistance are: inadequate follow-up of the chronic outpatients, low numbers of neurological beds and of duties of Neurology, as well as of neurological case of patients with urgent neurological disorders. It is also necessary to increase the number of professors of Neurology to adequately cover pregraduate teaching; again there are important differences in teaching positions among Autonomous Communities. Neurology residence should be prolonged from 4 to 5 years. Finally, it is necessary to support the appearance of superespecialised units and to promote a coordinated research with other close specialities including basic neuroscience. PMID:11742621

  8. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  9. The state of psychiatry in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Julio; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Parellada, Mara; Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bousoño, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2012-08-01

    The 1986 General Health Act and the so-called 'psychiatric reform' were key issues in the development of the mental healthcare system (MHCS) in Spain. The World Health Organization Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health in 2005 gave it a revitalizing impetus and resulted in the first National Health System (NHS) Mental Health Strategy in 2006. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents to describe the current state of the MHCS in Spain. The main results were: (1) existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care; (2) lack of national epidemiological information on mental disorders with the exception of substance use disorders and suicide, which comprise powerful longitudinal national data, (3) training in psychiatry is well established, although there is no specialism of child and adolescent psychiatry, and (4) a dramatic increase in scientific productivity in the last decade among research groups, in part due to the creation of the Spanish Mental Health Network, the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM). Quantifiable and reliable indicators are needed to provide efficient monitoring and analysis of epidemiological events and subsequently to understand the status of the Spanish MHCS.

  10. Tornadoes and severe storms in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayà, Miquel

    2011-06-01

    A climatology of tornadoes, waterspouts, and straight winds linked to convection in Spain is presented. The database is divided into three periods according to the main source of information. The three distributions of severe weather are very sensitive to the sources of information, much more than to a possible change in climate. The early period, up to 1825, comprises cases that contain the real facts together with spurious inputs such as religion, myths, beliefs, etc, mixed in an unknown proportion. The period between 1826 and 1975, and the most recent one, up to 2009, enable us to observe geographical and temporal variations as a function of societal changes. The analysis of temporal and geographical distributions allows us to frame the risk in the face of severe storms, and the changes in their perception and management that have come about over time. Although the most recent tornadoes have been weak or strong, the Cádiz tornado of 1671 demonstrates that an extremely rare and violent event can occur in Spain. The large number of victims claimed by this tornado makes it one of the most important in the world.

  11. Publication output in telemedicine in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Francisco; Castro, Adrian F

    2005-01-01

    We searched the MEDLINE database for publications about telemedicine from 1966 to 2003. Only publications with a first institutional address in Spain and from journals listed in the JCR Science Edition 2002 were included in the study. A total of 118 publications were found. The first publication appeared in 1988 and publication output showed a sudden increase starting in 1995, reaching a maximum in 2002 with 21 publications. The number of authors per publication in non-multicentre studies ranged from 1 to 14 (median 6.5). Most authors (79%) contributed to only a single publication; 10% of authors participated in three or more publications. Most publications were full papers (88%). The most active Autonomous Community in the number of publications relative to inhabitants was Galicia (0.91 publications per 100,000 inhabitants). The Community that produced the highest absolute number of publications was Madrid (29% of the total). The mean impact factor of the journals in which the publications appeared was 0.961. Production of telemedicine publications in Spain has followed the same temporal course as has been observed worldwide. There is an unequal geographical and institutional distribution of publications. The highest production is concentrated in a few institutions and only a small number of authors show steady research activity.

  12. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  13. State of emergency medicine in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Spain has universal public health care coverage. Emergency care provisions are offered to patients in different modalities and levels according to the characteristics of the medical complaint: at primary care centers (PCC), in an extrahospital setting by emergency medical services (EMS) and at hospital emergency departments (ED). We have more than 3,000 PCCs, which are run by family doctors (general practitioners) and pediatricians. On average, there is 1 PCC for every 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, and every family doctor is in charge of 1,500 to 2,000 citizens, although less populated zones tend to have lower ratios. Doctors spend part of their duty time in providing emergency care to their own patients. While not fully devoted to emergency medicine (EM) practice, they do manage minor emergencies. However, Spanish EMSs contribute hugely to guarantee population coverage in all situations. These EMS are run by EM technicians (EMT), nurses and doctors, who usually work exclusively in the emergency arena. EDs dealt with more than 25 million consultations in 2008, which implies, on average, that one out of two Spaniards visited an ED during this time. They are usually equipped with a wide range of diagnostic tools, most including ultrasonography and computerized tomography scans. The academic and training background of doctors working in the ED varies: nearly half lack any structured specialty residence training, but many have done specific master or postgraduate studies within the EM field. The demand for emergency care has grown at an annual rate of over 4% during the last decade. This percentage, which was greater than the 2% population increase during the same period, has outpaced the growth in ED capacity. Therefore, Spanish EDs become overcrowded when the system exerts minimal stress. Despite the high EM caseload and the potential severity of the conditions, training in EM is still unregulated in Spain. However, in April 2009 the Spanish Minister of Health

  14. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  15. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  16. Constitutional guarantees to health care in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, E M; Henderson, B J

    1995-07-01

    This analysis of the Spanish health care system is one in a series of such studies undertaken by the author, following a grid of factors that influence the delivery and financing of health care. The purpose of the national analyses is to facilitate a comparison of the United States' and other health care systems in terms of anticipated reform of the U.S. system. Analyses of the U.S. and nine other national systems are included in a book that has just been published by the College. Spain and nine additional countries will be studied in a book due for publication later this year. A final book with ten additional national analyses will appear in 1996.

  17. Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Molliè. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

  18. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  19. Oestrosis in red deer from Spain.

    PubMed

    Bueno-de la Fuente, M L; Moreno, V; Peréz, J M; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C

    1998-10-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were low densities of C. auribarbis while P. picta was the species most frequently observed, although both oestrids were located in the same host cavities. The earlier larviposition by C. auribarbis, and its faster larval development may reflect asynchronous life-cycles of both oestrids; this may decrease inter-specific competition between these sympatric species. PMID:9813856

  20. Phenolic profile of Asturian (Spain) natural cider.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Madrera, Roberto; Picinelli Lobo, Anna; Suárez Valles, Belén

    2006-01-11

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2'-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, avicularin, and quercitrin) were identified and quantified. A fourth quercetin derivative, one dihydrochalcone-related compound, two unknown procyanidins, three hydroxycinnamic derivatives, and two unknown compounds were also found. Among the low-molecular-mass polyphenols analyzed, hydrocaffeic acid was the most abundant compound, representing more than 80% of the total polyphenolic acids. Procyanidins were the most important family among the flavonoid compounds. Discriminant analysis was allowed to correctly classify more than 93% of the ciders, according to the harvest year; the most discriminant variables were an unknown procyanidin and quercitrin. PMID:16390187

  1. Oestrosis in red deer from Spain.

    PubMed

    Bueno-de la Fuente, M L; Moreno, V; Peréz, J M; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C

    1998-10-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were low densities of C. auribarbis while P. picta was the species most frequently observed, although both oestrids were located in the same host cavities. The earlier larviposition by C. auribarbis, and its faster larval development may reflect asynchronous life-cycles of both oestrids; this may decrease inter-specific competition between these sympatric species.

  2. Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M

    2008-03-01

    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated. PMID:18217916

  3. Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak in Murcia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Carmen; Fenoll, Daniel; García, José; González-Diego, Paulino; Jiménez-Buñuales, Teresa; Rodriguez, Miguel; Lopez, Rosa; Pacheco, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquín; Segovia, Manuel; Baladrón, Beatriz; Pelaz, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred in Murcia, Spain, in July 2001. More than 800 suspected cases were reported; 449 of these cases were confirmed, which made this the world’s largest outbreak of the disease reported to date. Dates of onset for confirmed cases ranged from June 26 to July 19 , with a case-fatality rate of 1%. The epidemic curve and geographic pattern from the 600 completed epidemiologic questionnaires indicated an outdoor point-source exposure in the northern part of the city. A case-control study matching 85 patients living outside the city of Murcia with two controls each was undertaken to identify the outbreak source; the epidemiologic investigation implicated the cooling towers at a city hospital. An environmental isolate from these towers with an identical molecular pattern as the clinical isolates was subsequently identified and supported that epidemiologic conclusion. PMID:12967487

  4. Spain: from the decree to the proposal.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Diego

    1987-06-01

    This is one in a series of four country reports published together in the Hastings Center Report. Gracia, a bioethicist, compares health care policy before and after Franco's dictatorship. Under Franco, compulsory health insurance was enacted, and modern hospitals were built at the expense of primary services. Patient care was governed by the principle of beneficence "in its extreme and paternalistic sense." Medicine in the democratic post-Franco period has reflected changes in Spanish society as political freedom has led to an increased moral pluralism and the formation of public policy through debate and compromise. Gracia identifies three bioethical issues where changes in attitudes and policies have been the greatest: resource allocation, abortion, and organ transplantation. He concludes his report by briefly describing the role bioethics plays in public policy formation in Spain today. PMID:11644028

  5. Reactivation of coccidioidomycosis: a prosthetic joint infection in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arbeloa-Gutierrez, L; Kuberski, T; Johnson, S M; Sagastibelza, I; Alaez, J I; Pappagianis, D

    2016-02-01

    A resident of Spain was found to have a prosthetic knee infection due to coccidioidomycosis. He had a history of having pneumonia which resolved while living in an area of California endemic for Coccidioides in 1957-1961. The patient left California in 1961 returned to Spain and never left Spain thereafter. In 2006, a total knee replacement was done. In 2013, a prosthetic knee infection was documented due to coccidioidomycosis. By molecular DNA analysis, Coccidioides immitis was identified from the knee tissue, a species most commonly found in California. This represents reactivation of a Coccidioides infection 56 years after leaving the endemic area.

  6. Raptor ecotoxicology in Spain: a review on persistent environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Calvo, José F; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez, José E

    2008-09-01

    Initial studies on the pressure from environmental contaminants on raptor populations in Spain date back to the 1980s, and they have been carried out from a range of viewpoints using a range of sentinel raptor species. However, there is no national monitoring scheme, and therefore the research carried out has been sporadic both spatially and temporally. The exposure to metals has not varied over time, except in the case of lead, whose concentration in eggs and tissues has diminished. In general, the concentrations of metals detected in raptor samples from Spain are generally low and not sufficient to produce toxic effects. Excepting DDT and DDE, most organochlorine-based pesticides in raptors from Spain have diminished over the last 2 decades. The concentrations of DDE found in the eggs of various species could in part explain problems in the reproductive success of raptors in Spain.

  7. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  8. The Other Women: Students of Literature in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puigvert, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Provides an account of engaging women in Spain who come from uneducated backgrounds in literacy circles through which Freirean radicalization approaches are being effectively pursued. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  9. Raptor ecotoxicology in Spain: a review on persistent environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Calvo, José F; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez, José E

    2008-09-01

    Initial studies on the pressure from environmental contaminants on raptor populations in Spain date back to the 1980s, and they have been carried out from a range of viewpoints using a range of sentinel raptor species. However, there is no national monitoring scheme, and therefore the research carried out has been sporadic both spatially and temporally. The exposure to metals has not varied over time, except in the case of lead, whose concentration in eggs and tissues has diminished. In general, the concentrations of metals detected in raptor samples from Spain are generally low and not sufficient to produce toxic effects. Excepting DDT and DDE, most organochlorine-based pesticides in raptors from Spain have diminished over the last 2 decades. The concentrations of DDE found in the eggs of various species could in part explain problems in the reproductive success of raptors in Spain. PMID:18833796

  10. Outbound Near-Earth Asteroid, as Seen from Spain

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of images from the La Sagra Sky Survey, operated by theAstronomical Observatory of Mallorca in Spain, shows the passage ofasteroid 2012 DA14 shortly after its closest – and safe -- app...

  11. History of Information Science in Spain: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Felix Sagredo; Moreno, Antonia Garcia

    1997-01-01

    Presents a selected annotated bibliography of 18 works on historical periods of information science in Spain. It is classified into five areas: bibliographies, databases, history of information science, information policy, and training of information scientists. (Author/LRW)

  12. [Italy and Spain in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Alotta, S

    1997-01-01

    "Spain and Italy share a common heritage as far as emigration is concerned. Their country men went abroad looking for jobs for a long period of their history. At present this is the fate of the extra community immigrants. Scholars maintain that Spain and Italy face this new situation with a fear greater than necessary. An attempt is made to explain immigration in a more rational way. At the same time...the debate about racism and antiracism [is examined]." (EXCERPT)

  13. Se metallomics during lactic fermentation of Se-enriched yogurt.

    PubMed

    Palomo, María; Gutiérrez, Ana M; Pérez-Conde, M Concepción; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2014-12-01

    Selenium biotransformation by lactic acid bacteria during the preparation of Se-enriched yogurt was evaluated. The study focused on the distribution of selenium in the aqueous soluble protein fraction and the detection of selenoamino acids. Screening of selenium in Tris-buffer-urea soluble fraction was carried out by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after pre-fractionating with asymmetric field flow fractionation using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as the detector. Selenium-containing fractions were identified by peptide mapping using nano LC-ESI/LTQMS. Proteins such as thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, albumin, β-lactoglobulin, and lactoperoxidase were identified in the selenium-containing fraction. All these proteins were detected in both the control and the selenium-enriched yogurt except chaperones, which were only detected in the control samples. Chaperones are heat-shock proteins expressed in response to elevated temperature or other cellular stresses. Selenium may have an effect on chaperones expression in Lactobacillus. For the amino acids analysis, selenocysteine was the primary seleno-containing species.

  14. Fish viral infections in northwest of Spain.

    PubMed

    Ledo, A; Lupiani, B; Dopazo, C P; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-06-01

    During a three years survey, a total of 149 samples from 20 farms of rainbow trout, salmon and turbot were examined for the presence of virus with the purpose to study the viral infections affecting cultured fish and their incidence in the fishfarms of Northwestern Spain. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was the only viral agent isolated from salmonid fish. Fry and fingerlings of trout showed the highest infection rate (24%). This virus was not detected in broodstock or embryonated eggs, although it was isolated from ovaric and seminal fluids and from juvenile carriers. From 24 samples of salmon analyzed, IPNV was only detected in one sample of juveniles. Examination of turbot led the isolation of a new virus belonging to the reoviridae family, which affected to the ongrowing population. All of the IPNV tested belonged to serotype Sp regardless of the origin of the trout stocks. During the monitorization of imported embryonated eggs, no virus was detected from any of the samples. However, in some case, IPNV was isolated when testing the fry obtained in our laboratory from those samples of imported eggs. Our findings indicate that: i) the analysis of fingerlings increase the probability to detect viral infections allowing us an optimal control of importations, and ii) most of the viral infections of fish take place in the own fish farms. The detection of mixed viral and bacterial infections emphasize the importance of carrying out an integral microbiological analysis to determine the causal agent(s) of fish mortalities.

  15. Pesticide residues in oranges from Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Fernández, M; Picó, Y; Mañes, J

    2001-07-01

    One hundred and fifty citrus samples from an agricultural co-operative of the Valencian Community (Spain) were analysed for pre- and post-harvest pesticide residues using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Among the residues from post-harvest treatments, imazalil was detected in 112 (74.7%) samples at a mean level of 1.2 mg/kg, thiabendazole in 21 (14.0%) samples at a mean level of 0.47 mg/kg and carbendazim in 5 (3.3%) samples at a mean level of 1.05 mg/kg. Among the residues from pre-harvest treatment, dicofol was detected in 28 (18.7%) samples at a mean level of .28 mg/kg chlorpyriphos in 19 (12.7% samples at a mean level of 0.16 mg/kg and endosulfan in 11 (7.3%) at a mean level of 0.27 mg/kg. Most of the samples contained residues of various pesticides and six samples (4.0%) exceeded the European Union Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). The pesticides that surpassed the MRLs were chlorpyriphos in five samples and dicofol in one.

  16. Terrorism in Spain: emergency medical aspects.

    PubMed

    García-Castrillo Riesgo, Luis; García Merino, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    A terrorism movement has been active in Spain during the last 20 years, with a painful number of victims. Civil Defense is in charge of the coordination of all the structures that are implicated in a terrorist incident. There are three typical patterns of attacks: (1) individual attacks; (2) group attacks; and (3) mass attacks. The individual attacks are done with guns, usually 9 mm, fired from a short distance; victims die from serious intracranial damage. Collective attacks are done using explosives under vehicles, tramp bombs, or "bomb vehicles;" victims are of different severity with wounds, burns, and blast injuries. With mass attacks with "bomb vehicles" in buildings or crowded public places, the numbers of victims are elevated and produce brutal social consequences. Emergency Medical Services integrated in to "Civil Defense" try to minimize the damage by initializing treatment on-scene and with the rapid provision of definitive care. During the last year, post-traumatic stress disorder treatment groups have been providing care to the victims and personnel. Chemical or biological weapons have not been used, although this is a great concern to the authorities. PMID:15074498

  17. Integration in Spain: national and regional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alberte Castiñeiras, J R

    1999-03-01

    At the present moment Spanish psychopedagogical researchers are evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of integration on both a national and a regional level. As a result of two important pieces of legislation, physically and mentally handicapped people are gradually becoming more integrated in education, social life, and the work place. Consequently, both ordinary pupils and those with permanent or temporary special education needs can achieve the same objectives within the same system. Individual strategies are designed to cope with each pupil's specific needs, and each case is followed closely by a multidisciplinary team. The basic concept behind integration in Spain is a global relationship with the educational environment, which includes school, home, vocational training and ultimately work. It is not so much a case of identifying what a pupil is, but rather deciding what education can do for that particular pupil. There are, however, certain difficulties which require adaptation of the curriculum: access to educational opportunities and experiences may be affected by deficient visual, auditory or motor skills; there may be an absence of specific learning skills in certain areas of the curriculum; pupils with serious mental handicaps may lack basic cognitive skills. Spanish educational reform considers the classroom teacher as the central axis in the quality of education. For this reason, new programmes and diplomas in infant and primary teacher education include training for adaptation and integration. PMID:10207750

  18. Epidemiology of osteoporotic hip fractures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Angel Antonio; Ferrandez, Luis; Gil, Enrique; Moreno, Alonso

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a multicentre study, divided into a retrospective and a prospective portion. The retrospective study evaluated osteoporotic hip fractures that occurred during 2002. The prospective study evaluated osteoporotic hip fractures that occurred during May 2003. The study was conducted in 77 hospitals in Spain and comprised patients 60 years of age and over. In the retrospective study we registered 13,195 hip fractures. Of the patients, 74% were women and 26% were men. The mean age was 80.7±8.4 years. The average incidence was 6.94±0.44 hip fractures per 1,000 inhabitants/year (95% CI, 6.07–7.82). In the prospective study, we registered 1,399 hip fractures. This represents a monthly incidence of 0.60±0.04 hip fractures per 1,000 inhabitants/year (95% CI, 0.51–0.69). Of the subjects, 74% were women and 26% were men. The mean age was 81.4±8.1 years. Using these data, we calculated the average annual prevalence in 2003 to be 7.20 fractures per 1,000 inhabitants. Thirty-three percent had previously suffered a hip fracture. Prior to the fracture, only 18% had received medical treatment for osteoporosis. After discharge from the hospital, only 26% were receiving pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:16328387

  19. Safety management of nuclear waste in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Echavarri, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, Spain has been consolidating a nuclear program that in the last 3 years has provided between 35 and 40% of the electricity consumed in that country. This program includes nine operating reactor units, eight of them based on US technology and one from Germany, a total of 7,356 MW(electric). There is also a 480-MW(electric) French gas-cooled reactor whose operation recently ceased and which will be decommissioned in the coming years. Spanish industry has participated significantly in this program, and material produced locally has reached 85% of the total. Once the construction program has been completed and operation is proceeding normally, the capacity factor will be {approximately} 80%. It will be very important to complete the nuclear program with the establishment of conditions for safe management and disposal of the nuclear waste generated during the years in which these reactors are in operation and for subsequent decommissioning. To establish the guidelines for the disposal of nuclear waste, the Spanish government approved in october 1987, with a revision in January 1989, the General Plan of Radioactive Wastes proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Energy and prepared by the national company for radioactive waste management, ENRESA.

  20. [Health and the media in Spain].

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences. PMID:16539983

  1. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  2. [Ageing: research in Spain and Europe].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Vicente; Rodríguez Mañas, Leocadio; Sancho Castiello, Mayte; Díaz Martín, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, stakeholders and policy makers agree about the importance of the population ageing in modern societies, so a broad analysis of current research strategies is in progress, such as FUTURAGE, a network for drawing a map for future research on ageing. This document presents the Spanish contribution to this map following FUTURAGE guidelines, drawn from the debates held in the 'Ageing. Research in Spain and Europe' Workshop. The first part consists of general ideas seeking to define future challenges on research using a multidisciplinary approach, in which the theoretical and methodological debate, the comparative and multilevel perspective, the transfer of knowledge and involvement of the older people would be essential to consider. Some of the main issues according to FUTURAGE structure are, the bio-gerontology of ageing, healthy and active ageing, and the socioeconomic and environmental resources of ageing. The interaction between these contents is pivotal to understand the research on ageing. Finally, the document provides some methodological and instrumental ideas to reinforce the need for cross-sectional research initiatives, integrating different data and combining methods in order to develop assessment and intervention strategies. Other aspects look into the mechanisms to coordinate research within a European context. The map on ageing research has been published after the consultation process in Europe (http://futurage.group.shef.ac.uk/road-map.html) and is now ready to be considered for integration into future European and Spanish research programs.

  3. Liquidus Projections of Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te Ternary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-han; Chen, Sinn-wen; Hwang, Jenn-dong; Chu, Hsu-shen

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the liquidus projections of both Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te ternary systems which are constituent ternary systems of promising Bi-Se-Te-Ga thermoelectric materials. Ternary Bi-Se-Ga and Bi-Se-Te alloys are prepared. Their primary solidification phases are experimentally determined, and thermal analysis experiments are carried out. The liquidus projections are determined based on the ternary experimental results and phase diagrams of constituent binary systems. The Bi-Se-Ga system includes seven primary solidification phases, Bi, Ga, GaSe, Ga2Se3, Se, Bi2Se3, and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m. In the Bi-Se-Te system, there are five primary solidification phases, Bi, (Bi2)n(Bi2Te3)m, Bi2(Se,Te)3, (Se,Te), and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m. Both the (Bi2)n(Bi2Te3)m and (Bi2)n(Bi2Se3)m phases are not a single phase, but a collection of series undetermined phases. Large miscibility gaps are observed in the Bi-Se-Ga system. The temperatures of the invariant reactions, Liquid + Bi + GaSe = Ga and Liquid + Ga2Se3 = Bi + GaSe, are at 495 K (222 °C) and 533 K (260 °C), respectively.

  4. A hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate from playa lake sediments, Salines Lake, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Queralt, I.; Julia, R.; Plana, F.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Sediments of playa Lake Salines, SE, Spain, contain a carbonate mineral characterized by X-ray diffraction peaks very similar to, but systematically shifted from those of pure magnesite. Analyses (SEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy, DTA, TGA, and ICP) indicate the mineral is a hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate with the chemical formula (Mg0.92,Ca0.08)CO3??3H2O. Thermal characteristics of the mineral are similar to those of other known hydrated magnesium carbonates. X-ray and electron diffraction data suggests a monoclinic system (P21/n space group) with unit-cell parameters of a = 6.063(6), b = 10.668(5), and c = 6.014(4) A?? and ?? = 107.28??.

  5. Patterns of trace element bioaccumulation in jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon from SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; Peñas Castejón, Jose Matías; García, Gregorio

    2016-09-15

    The effects of an abandoned mining area, exploited for centuries in the mining district of Cartagena-La Union, result in a continuous supply of heavy metals into the Mar Menor coastal lagoon after rain episodes. As a consequence, concentration of trace elements in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, this study assessed the ability of Rhizostoma pulmo to bioaccumulate trace elements. A total of 57 individuals were sampled at eight different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentrations of different analyzed elements (Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were moderate, bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content, because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  6. Patterns of trace element bioaccumulation in jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon from SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; Peñas Castejón, Jose Matías; García, Gregorio

    2016-09-15

    The effects of an abandoned mining area, exploited for centuries in the mining district of Cartagena-La Union, result in a continuous supply of heavy metals into the Mar Menor coastal lagoon after rain episodes. As a consequence, concentration of trace elements in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, this study assessed the ability of Rhizostoma pulmo to bioaccumulate trace elements. A total of 57 individuals were sampled at eight different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentrations of different analyzed elements (Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were moderate, bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content, because of their potential environmental and health implications. PMID:27376999

  7. GPS deformation rates in the Bajo Segura Basin (NE of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesús Borque, María; Sánchez-Alzola, Alberto; Estévez, Antonio; García-Tortosa, Francisco J.; Martín-Rojas, Iván; Molina, Sergio; Alfaro, Pedro; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; de Lacy, Clara; García-Armenteros, Juan Antonio; Avilés, Manuel; Herrera, Antonio; Rosa-Cintas, Sergio; Gil, Antonio J.

    2014-05-01

    The Bajo Segura Basin, located in the NE end of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, is one of the areas with highest seismic activity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bounded by the Crevillente Fault to the north and the Bajo Segura Fault to the south, and it is characterized by a Late Miocene to Quaternary folded cover. We estimate the present-day deformation of the study area from a GPS network with 11 sites. Observation campaigns were carried out four times (June 1999, September 2001, September 2002 and September 2013). We used the 6.2 version of GIPSY-OASIS software to process GPS data in Precise Point Positioning mode (PPP). In order to obtain the position time series in the whole period of these episodic campaigns, all the GPS observations from 1999 to 2013 campaigns were processed with an identical standard procedure. We compared our velocity field estimation with respect to GEODVEL tectonic model to obtain the residual velocity field of the Bajo Segura Basin. We estimated a ~N-S shortening with deformation rates varying between 0.2 and 0.6 mm/yr. These results are consistent with local geological deformation rates although slightly higher. They also fit well with regional geodetic data estimated for the Western Mediterranean.

  8. Architecture analysis of a river flood-dominated delta during an overall sea-level rise (early Pliocene, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, F.; Corbí, H.; Soria, J. M.; Viseras, C.

    2011-05-01

    The sedimentary record of delta-front to prodelta transition that developed during the early Pliocene (Bajo Segura Basin, peri-Mediterranean Betic Cordillera Basin) represents an unusual infilling of an incised valley cutting downwards into late Messinian pelagic marls. The complete delta succession, less than 65 m thick, consists of four upwardly fining and thinning sequences several metres thick. Each sequence consists of basal conglomeratic and coarse-grained sandstone beds (delta-front deposits) evolving upwards to alternating sandstones and silty-marl beds (prodelta deposits). The retrogradational stratal succession pattern is interpreted as having been deposited during an overall sea-level rise. Facies association is characterised by quasi- to planar-laminated sandstones and pebbly sandstones alternating with clast-supported boulders to pebbles, sheet-like climbing cross-laminated sandstones with abundant plant remains, and epsilon cross-stratified and channelized gravels and sandstones. These are interpreted as having been deposited by highly concentrated flows interpreted as hyperpycnal turbidity flows from high (cohesionless debris flows and sinuous submarine channels) to moderate (sheet-like climbing cross-laminated sandstones) discharge river-flood events. Slabs of sediment from unstable banks, outsized clasts which roll onto thin beds from channel mouths, slumps and intraformational breccias in delta front are other signatures (including a lack of bored clasts) which indicate high-energy and rapid deposition at the river mouth, encouraging the delta-front gravitational instability failures. Major changes in the discharge of the river-fed delta could have been caused by brief catastrophic, heavy-precipitation events coupled with quasi-stationary convective orographic rainfall typical of the modern Mediterranean.

  9. Soil water repellency patterns following long-term irrigation with waste water in a sandy calcareous soil, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, J.; García-Irles, L.; Morugán, A.; Doerr, S. H.; García-Orenes, F.; Atanassova, I.; Navarro, M. A.; Ayguadé, H.

    2009-04-01

    One of the consequences of long-term irrigation with waste water can be the development of soil water repellency (WR). Its emergence can affect soil-water balance, irrigation efficiency and crop yield. Water repellency development has been suggested to be controlled by parameters such as organic matter quantity and type present in the waste water, soil properties (particularly the texture), and the overall time period of irrigation. Here we examine the effect of long-term (~20 years) irrigation with low quality waste-water on soil wettability under a Populus alba tree stand used as a "green filter". The plot exhibited considerable micro-topography (ridges and furrows) and consisted of sandy calcareous soil (Xerofluvent). Water repellency and organic carbon content (OC) were studied in 160 samples taken from the plot and from an adjacent area used as control (no irrigated). From the control area 40 samples were taken from the first 5 cm of mineral soil (C samples). From the irrigated plot a total of 120 samples were collected. To account for the micro-topography of the terrain, 40 samples each were taken from ridges (R samples; 0-5 cm depth), furrows (F samples; 0-5 cm depth), and from furrows at depth (FD samples, 5-10 cm depth). Soil WR was assessed in the laboratory for all air dry samples using the water drop penetration time test (WDPT Test). Samples with WDPT ? 5 seconds were classified as non-repellent. Organic carbon content (OC) was analyzed in all samples by potassium dichromate oxidation method. We also carried out a detailed chemical characterisation of the organic matter in two furrow samples that exhibited contrasting wettability, but no major difference in OC content (F10: WDPT 9960s, OC 6.7%; F31: WDPT 10s, OC 7.5%). Following accelerated solvent extraction with Dichloro-methane/MeOH (95:5), the extract was analysed by GC-MS. All samples from the control area (C) were wettable (mean WDPT=1s). In the irrigated plot, water repellency was present for 48% of R samples (mean WDPT=135s), 95% of F samples (mean WDPT=802s), and 93% of FD samples (mean WDPT=267s). A good correlation between WR and OC was found by pooling all groups of samples (r=0.830***), and in some cases separately per group: R samples (r=0.885***), FD samples (r=0.651***). However, the correlation within group of F samples was low (r=0.269ns). This sample group had the highest frequency occurrence and the highest mean values of WR, indicating that not only quantity of OC is controlling the development of WR. This notion is supported by the results from samples F10 and F31. Despite their exposure to the same waste water, the organic material extracted from the highly repellent sample F10 exhibited more than twice the content of n-alkanols (~C26) and alkanoic acids (C18-24) compared to sample F31. Based on these results we speculate that for the study plot, the combination of the following factors allowed high levels of water repellency to develop: (1) sandy soil texture, (2) long-term use of waste water, (3) low quality of waste water treatments, and (4) potentially also organic matter inputs from the vegetation have. The results suggest that rather than total OC content, a specific fraction of the organic matter pool controls repellency development, with n-alkanols and alkanoic acids playing a key role. It is conceivable that water repellency-induced preferential flow has led to an increased accumulation of these compounds at the flow path margins, leading to a self-enhancement of water repellency in sample F10.

  10. Quantifying soil erosion with GIS-based RUSLE in La Baells Reservoir (Llobregat River Basin), SE Pyrenees, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catari, G.; Gallart, F.; Josa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Sediment yield in mountain areas is a matter of concern not only because of the loss of the fertile topsoil but also due to its off-site effects such as sediment deposition in reservoirs and damage to aquatic life. There are few soil erosion estimates at the river basin for non agricultural areas, and the uncertainty of estimates is scarcely assessed. This research was conducted in the Llobregat river basin at the headwaters of La Baells Reservoir which supplies water to Barcelona city. This basin (504km2) is located in the South Eastern Pyrenees, land cover is mainly coniferous forest and pastures with some intensely eroded areas (bad lands). Annual average soil erosion was quantitatively estimated with an integration of geographic information system (IDRISI) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Maps for each of the factors involved where obtained with a 20 m resolution. Rainfall dataset from eight weather stations and spanning 14 years, soil properties, land cover inventory, land management features and digital elevation model were used as resource datasets to generate each of the RUSLE factor maps. Annual average sediment yield was computed by applying a sediment delivery ratio to the results obtained by RUSLE, and this result was compared with existing bathymetric survey results for the same reservoir. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were undertaken for each of the RUSLE factors, in order to assess its magnitude and determine which of the factors influences the most the soil loss estimate. Results show that the annual average sediment yield was 2.9 Mg km-2y-1 and its confidence interval lied between 1.1 Mg km-2y-1 and 7.5 Mg km-2y-1 with 90% confidence. These results are in agreement with results from reservoir bathymetric survey (4.3 Mg km-2y-1). Additional comparisons of estimated sediment yield were done with empirical methods such as PSIAC, Factorial Scoring Model and Drainage Area; the results of these methods are within the confidence interval estimated for results obtained by RUSLE. Erosion risk maps were obtained and showed that there are spots were erosion is very high because 5% of the area generated 50% of soil loss. These areas are located in steep slopes and coincide in many cases with bad lands which are near the streams.

  11. A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies.

  12. Spain: A Study of the Educational System of Spain and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Spain in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toven, J. Richard

    The educational system of Spain is described, and guidelines concerning students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. After describing primary and secondary education, attention is directed to vocational education, industrial or technical secondary schools, professional trade schools, university education, military education, and…

  13. ZnSe/CdSe Superlattice Nanowires by Catalyst-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Karczewski, G.; Dluzewski, P.; Kret, S.; Klopotowski, L.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2007-04-10

    We report on Au catalyst-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth and properties of pure ZnSe and ZnSe/CdSe superlattice nanowires. In particular, we concentrate our attention on the morphological characterization by transmission and scanning electron microscopy of pure ZnSe NWs and we compare their optical properties with those of ZnSe/CdSe superlattice NWs fabricated at the same technological conditions.

  14. Comparison and validation of gridded precipitation datasets for Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two gridded precipitation datasets are compared and validated in Spain: the recently developed SAFRAN dataset and the Spain02 dataset. These are validated using rain gauges and they are also compared to the low resolution ERA-Interim reanalysis. The SAFRAN precipitation dataset has been recently produced, using the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, which is extensively used in France (Durand et al. 1993, 1999; Quintana-Seguí et al. 2008; Vidal et al., 2010) and which has recently been applied to Spain (Quintana-Seguí et al., 2015). SAFRAN uses an optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm and uses all available rain gauges from the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET). The product has a spatial resolution of 5 km and it spans from September 1979 to August 2014. This dataset has been produced mainly to be used in large scale hydrological applications. Spain02 (Herrera et al. 2012, 2015) is another high quality precipitation dataset for Spain based on a dense network of quality-controlled stations and it has different versions at different resolutions. In this study we used the version with a resolution of 0.11°. The product spans from 1971 to 2010. Spain02 is well tested and widely used, mainly, but not exclusively, for RCM model validation and statistical downscliang. ERA-Interim is a well known global reanalysis with a spatial resolution of ˜79 km. It has been included in the comparison because it is a widely used product for continental and global scale studies and also in smaller scale studies in data poor countries. Thus, its comparison with higher resolution products of a data rich country, such as Spain, allows us to quantify the errors made when using such datasets for national scale studies, in line with some of the objectives of the EU-FP7 eartH2Observe project. The comparison shows that SAFRAN and Spain02 perform similarly, even though their underlying principles are different. Both products are largely

  15. First serosurvey of Besnoitia spp. infection in wild European ruminants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Marco, Ignasi; Boadella, Mariana; Gortázar, Christian; San Miguel-Ayanz, José María; García-Lunar, Paula; Lavín, Santiago; Alvarez-García, Gema

    2013-11-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti has been reported to affect cattle, wildebeest, kudu and impala, and B. tarandi other wild ruminants (caribou, reindeer, mule deer and musk ox), causing similar characteristic clinical signs and lesions. However, both Besnoitia species have been reported in different geographical areas and the link between the sylvatic and domestic life cycles of Besnoita spp. in wild ruminants and cattle remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies against Besnoitia spp. in wild ruminants in Spain. A wide panel of sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) (n=734), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (n=124), chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) (n=170) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) (n=20) collected from different locations of Spain was analyzed. Beef cattle were present in all sampled areas and, interestingly, bovine besnoitiosis has been widely reported in some of them (e.g., Pyrenees and Central Spain). Sera samples were first examined with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). For red deer and roe deer, the ELISA was standardized with positive and negative control sera from several Cervidae species (100% Se and 98% Sp). Chamois and mouflon sera samples were tested with a previously reported ELISA validated for bovine sera (97% Se and 95% Sp) using protein G as a conjugate. Positive results by ELISA were confirmed a posteriori with a tachyzoite-based Western blot. Sixty-one sera samples from red deer and 17 sera samples from roe-deer were seropositive or doubtful by ELISA. All samples from mouflon were seronegative and 15 sera samples from chamois were considered doubtful. B. besnoiti exposure was only confirmed clearly by Western blot in one red deer and one roe deer from the Spanish Pyrenees where the disease is traditionally endemic. This is the first serological report of Besnoitia spp. infection carried out in European wild ruminants and the results show that specific antibodies are present at least in red deer and roe

  16. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  17. Formation of highly luminescent Zn1-xCdxSe nanocrystals using CdSe and ZnSe seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruili; Yang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    High-quality colloidal Zn1-xCdxSe nanocrystals (NCs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) from blue to orange were synthesized using oleic acid as a capping agent. The Zn1-xCdxSe NCs were prepared through two approaches: using CdSe or ZnSe seeds. In the case of CdSe NCs as seeds, Zn1-xCdxSe NCs were fabricated by the reaction of Zn, Cd, and Se precursors in the coordinating solvent system at high temperature. The Zn1-xCdxSe NCs revealed orange emitting. A significant blue-shift of absorption and PL spectra were observed with time, indicating the formation of ternary NCs. In contrast, Zn1-xCdxSe NCs revealed blue to green PL for ZnSe NCs as seeds. This is ascribed to an embryonic nuclei-induced alloying process. With increasing time, the Zn1-xCdxSe NCs exhibited a red-shift both in their absorption and PL spectra. This is attributed to the engineering in band gap energy via the control of NC composition. The PL properties of as-prepared alloyed NCs are comparable or even better than those for the parent binary systems. The PL peak wavelength of the Zn1-xCdxSe NCs depended strongly on reaction time and the molar ratio of Cd/Zn. The Zn1-xCdxSe NCs revealed a spherical morphology and exhibited a wurtzite structure according to transmission electron microscopy observation and an X-ray diffraction analysis.

  18. Se atoms and Se6 molecules as guests in Se-carbons - prepared by reduction of a SeCl4-graphite precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Shioyama, H.

    2000-01-01

    A SeCl4 -graphite intercalation compound precursor was reduced by a solution of lithium diphenylide in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements gave two distinguishable stages. One stage represented a Se-atom intercalation the other represented an intercalation of Se6 molecules. The in-plane diffraction patterns were estimated by selected-area electron diffraction, the existence of two different guest species (atoms and molecules) could be proved. The Se6 -molecule phase shows an incommensurate lattice with regard to the host lattice, but they are in the same orientation. The lattice parameter of intercalated Se6 is a Se 6-guest = 1158+/-36 pm, c Se 6-guest = 483+/-38 pm, which fits with the lattice parameter of non-intercalated Se6 molecules. Se atom domains show a 2 × agraphite superlattice with respect to the host lattice, which is a commensurate superstructure. Raman scattering data showed the occurrence of an acceptor-type graphite intercalation compound. Three different types of spectra could be obtained, two kinds of spectra consists of doublets at 1588 cm-1 and 1608 cm-1 , with different intensity ratios. These two kinds of spectra are certainly attributed to Se-atom domains, with different stages. A third type of spectrum show bands at higher wavenumbers (1646 cm-1 and 1653 cm-1 ). These bands are probably correlated to Se6 -molecule domains. They represent maybe very early stages of nanoparticle formation.

  19. Low temperature solution-phase growth of ZnSe and ZnSe/CdSe core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Petchsang, Nattasamon; Shapoval, Liubov; Vietmeyer, Felix; Yu, Yanghai; Hodak, Jose H; Tang, I-Ming; Kosel, Thomas H; Kuno, Masaru

    2011-08-01

    High quality ZnSe nanowires (NWs) and complementary ZnSe/CdSe core/shell species have been synthesized using a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth technique. In particular, bismuth salts as opposed to pre-synthesized Bi or Au/Bi nanoparticles have been used to grow NWs at low temperatures in solution. Resulting wires are characterized using transmission electron microscopy and possess mean ensemble diameters between 15 and 28 nm with accompanying lengths ranging from 4-10 μm. Subsequent solution-based overcoating chemistry results in ZnSe wires covered with CdSe nanocrystals. By varying the shell's growth time, different thicknesses can be obtained and range from 8 to 21 nm. More interestingly, the mean constituent CdSe nanocrystal diameter can be varied and results in size-dependent shell emission spectra.

  20. Turnover of Se in adequately fed chickens using Se-75 as a tracer.

    PubMed

    Brandt-Kjelsen, A; Govasmark, E; Haug, A; Salbu, B

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic selenium (Se) in the form of selenite is applied to livestock to avoid Se deficiency. Selenite is, however, an artificial Se source in diets of unsupplemented chickens. It is therefore hypothesized that organic Se sources, such as Se-enriched yeast and wheat, could be a more suitable Se supply in animal nutrition, although information on the transition of Se from organic Se sources in fast-growing chickens is scarce. In this work, chickens were fed a low Se diet (0.27 ± 0.01 mg Se/kg, Se-enriched yeast) until 20 days of age, after which the Se concentration was increased to maximum concentration allowed by the poultry industry in Europe (0.5 p.p.m. Se). At the same time, a daily contribution of carrier-free (75)Se tracer from labelled wheat was administered from day 20 to 27. The chickens showed S and Se homeostasis, as the concentration of S and Se in liver, blood or kidney remained about constant, and steady state of S and Se in the other organs was reached 1 day after the diet shift. The uptake of (75)Se was readily seen in all organs. After 1 week, the depuration of the (75)Se tracer was followed, and biological half-lives and retention in individual organs were determined. The shortest biological half-lives were observed in major metabolic organs, the liver, kidney and pancreas with half-lives close to 4 days. There was a significant (p < 0.05) uptake in lung, brain and muscle that reached steady state when the administration of (75)Se was terminated. The half-life of (75)Se in heart was 9 days and 7 days in blood. The longest half-lives were observed in muscle (12 days), brain and lungs (13 days). All half-lives were shorter than in Se deplete animals.

  1. [Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Rubella in Spain].

    PubMed

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The current Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella is made of the Plan for the elimination of measles in Spain, set up in 2001, and the Surveillance protocol of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the phase of elimination, established in 2007. The monitoring of the elimination of both diseases conducted from the European Region of World Health Organization (WHO) has been reinforced since 2010. An annual report with information on the situation of measles and rubella in The Member Estates is being requested since 2013. The Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality nominated a National Committee for Verification of Measles and Rubella Elimination in 2013, for the review and delivery of the requested information. The strategies and activities currently recommended from the WHO European Region, the verification process in Spain, and the steps to follow for the updating of the Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella in Spain are mentioned in this article.

  2. Increase in cervical cancer mortality in Spain, 1951-1991

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, J.; Prieto, M. D.; Delgado-Rodriguez, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The trend in cervical cancer mortality in Spain from 1951 to 1991 is examined. METHODS: Analysis of national mortality statistics calculating age standardised mortality rates and an age-period cohort analysis. A fit to the Gompertz function was made to estimate the influence of the environmental factors on the mortality rates evolution. MAIN RESULTS: The age standardised mortality rate in Spain is lower than in other developed countries (USA or Estonia) and equal to Norwegian and Finland rates; but whereas in these countries the trend is to decrease, the Spanish rate has increased during this period, because of a cohort effect. A misclassification bias could be responsible for the trend in women aged 40 and older but the increasing trend in younger women could not be interpreted as espurious. The Gompertzian analysis suggests an increase in environmental factors causing cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer mortality rates are increasing in Spain because of environmental factors.   PMID:10492733

  3. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain. PMID:22332464

  4. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective.

  5. The white book of radiation oncology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Ismael; Romero, Jesús; Palacios, Amalia; Mañas, Ana; Samper, Pilar; Bayo, Eloísa; Guedea, Ferran

    2011-06-01

    The White Book of Radiation Oncology provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the speciality of radiation oncology in Spain and is intended to be used as a reference for physicians, health care administrators and hospital managers. The present paper summarises the most relevant aspects of the book's 13 chapters in order to bring the message to a wider audience. Among the topics discussed are the epidemiology of cancer in Spain, the role of the radiation oncologist in cancer care, human and material resource needs, new technologies, training of specialists, clinical and cost management, clinical practice, quality control, radiological protection, ethics, relevant legislation, research & development, the history of radiation oncology in Spain and the origins of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR). PMID:21680299

  6. The white book of radiation oncology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Ismael; Romero, Jesús; Palacios, Amalia; Mañas, Ana; Samper, Pilar; Bayo, Eloísa; Guedea, Ferran

    2011-06-01

    The White Book of Radiation Oncology provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the speciality of radiation oncology in Spain and is intended to be used as a reference for physicians, health care administrators and hospital managers. The present paper summarises the most relevant aspects of the book's 13 chapters in order to bring the message to a wider audience. Among the topics discussed are the epidemiology of cancer in Spain, the role of the radiation oncologist in cancer care, human and material resource needs, new technologies, training of specialists, clinical and cost management, clinical practice, quality control, radiological protection, ethics, relevant legislation, research & development, the history of radiation oncology in Spain and the origins of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR).

  7. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective. PMID:19031056

  8. Low temperature solution-phase growth of ZnSe and ZnSe/CdSe core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petchsang, Nattasamon; Shapoval, Liubov; Vietmeyer, Felix; Yu, Yanghai; Hodak, Jose H.; Tang, I.-Ming; Kosel, Thomas H.; Kuno, Masaru

    2011-08-01

    High quality ZnSe nanowires (NWs) and complementary ZnSe/CdSe core/shell species have been synthesized using a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth technique. In particular, bismuth salts as opposed to pre-synthesized Bi or Au/Bi nanoparticles have been used to grow NWs at low temperatures in solution. Resulting wires are characterized using transmission electron microscopy and possess mean ensemble diameters between 15 and 28 nm with accompanying lengths ranging from 4-10 μm. Subsequent solution-based overcoating chemistry results in ZnSe wires covered with CdSe nanocrystals. By varying the shell's growth time, different thicknesses can be obtained and range from 8 to 21 nm. More interestingly, the mean constituent CdSe nanocrystal diameter can be varied and results in size-dependent shell emission spectra.High quality ZnSe nanowires (NWs) and complementary ZnSe/CdSe core/shell species have been synthesized using a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth technique. In particular, bismuth salts as opposed to pre-synthesized Bi or Au/Bi nanoparticles have been used to grow NWs at low temperatures in solution. Resulting wires are characterized using transmission electron microscopy and possess mean ensemble diameters between 15 and 28 nm with accompanying lengths ranging from 4-10 μm. Subsequent solution-based overcoating chemistry results in ZnSe wires covered with CdSe nanocrystals. By varying the shell's growth time, different thicknesses can be obtained and range from 8 to 21 nm. More interestingly, the mean constituent CdSe nanocrystal diameter can be varied and results in size-dependent shell emission spectra. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10176e

  9. The reactivity of [PhP(Se)(mu-Se)]2 and (PhP)3Se2 towards acetylenes and cyanamides: X-ray crystal structures of some P-Se-C and P-Se-C-N heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Pravat; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2002-06-17

    Several unusual P-Se-C and P-Se-C-N heterocycles are formed by the reaction of [PhP(Se)(mu-Se)]2 or (PhP)3Se2 with alkynes or cyanamides, generated by the fragmentation of the organophosphorus-selenium compound and addition across the C identical to C or C identical to N triple bond of the organic substrate. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals an unexpected diversity of structural motifs within these heterocyclic systems, including P2SeCN, P2C2Se and PC2Se2 rings.

  10. West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Mosquitoes in Spain, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz, Santiago; Herrero, Laura; Moreno, Juana; Molero, Francisca; Magallanes, Antonio; Sánchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Figuerola, Jordi; Tenorio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus lineage 1 (similar to the strains obtained from golden eagles in Spain, 2007) and Usutu virus (similar to the strains obtained from Culex pipiens in Spain, 2006) were detected in pools from Culex perexiguus collected in southern Spain in 2008 and 2009, respectively. This is the first detection and isolation of West Nile virus lineage 1 from mosquitoes in Spain. PMID:21734145

  11. West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes in Spain, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz, Santiago; Herrero, Laura; Moreno, Juana; Molero, Francisca; Magallanes, Antonio; Sánchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Figuerola, Jordi; Tenorio, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    West Nile virus lineage 1 (similar to the strains obtained from golden eagles in Spain, 2007) and Usutu virus (similar to the strains obtained from Culex pipiens in Spain, 2006) were detected in pools from Culex perexiguus collected in southern Spain in 2008 and 2009, respectively. This is the first detection and isolation of West Nile virus lineage 1 from mosquitoes in Spain. PMID:21734145

  12. Bluetongue in Spain: from the first outbreak to 2012.

    PubMed

    de Diego, A C Pérez; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of bluetongue disease have occurred in Spain six times and have been caused by the following serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), in chronological order: BTV10, BTV2, BTV4, BTV1 and BTV8. Serotypes BTV1, BTV2 and BTV4 may have entered the country in Culicoides transported by wind; BTV8 via infected animal movements; and BTV10 across the Portuguese border. The evolution of each serotype has been different: BTV1, BTV4 and BTV10 spread throughout mainland Spain; BTV2 did not spread from the Balearic Islands to the Iberian Peninsula; and BTV8 has proven very poor at spreading throughout mainland Spain. The significant economic impact of the disease has led authorities to adopt control and eradication measures, which have evolved as new diagnostic tools and vaccines have become available. This review describes BTV infection in Spain, and it focuses on the clinical disease produced by each serotype, the Culicoides species which were present at what time, the origin of the virus and the control measures adopted. In the field, it has proven necessary to vaccinate livestock against each new BTV serotype as it arrived. Therefore, future eradication strategies should focus on developing polyvalent vaccines and vaccines that allow the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. As of 1 January 2013, the Iberian Peninsula is considered a restricted area for BTV1, and a small zone in southern Spain is a restricted area for BTV4, which includes the little BTV8 restricted area. Serotypes BTV1 and BTV4 were detected in sentinel animals in January and November and in March 2012, respectively. The last BTV8 positive animal was detected in November 2010, which implies that in the coming months, Spain may be declared free of BTV8.

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Spain, the contract will be exempt from the excise, luxury, and transaction taxes listed in paragraph (b... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in...

  14. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  16. 75 FR 81942 - Importation of Clementines From Spain; Amendment to Inspection Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... of Clementines From Spain; Amendment to Inspection Provisions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... the importation of clementines from Spain by removing from the regulations the number of clementines... regulations the number of clementines per consignment from Spain to be sampled, APHIS would have...

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  19. Natural history of Sanfilippo syndrome in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is caused by a deficiency in one of the four enzymes involved in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulphate. Four MPS III types have been recognized, characterized by a large phenotypic heterogeneity. This is the first Spanish study describing the natural history of Sanfilippo patients (MPSIIIA, MPSIIIB and MPSIIIC), representing an essential step for understanding patient prognosis and for the establishment and application of future therapies. Methods This retrospective study aimed to establish the natural history of MPS III in Spain based on an extensive chronological data survey involving physicians and parents of 55 Spanish MPSIII patients. In addition to clinical description we report biochemical and molecular analysis already performed in the majority of cases. Results The most frequent subtype was MPS IIIA (62%). Symptoms before diagnosis were speech delay in 85%, followed by coarse facial features in 78%, and hyperactivity in 65% of cases at a mean age of 3 years old. The median age at clinical and biochemical diagnosis for each MPS III subtype were as follows: IIIA 4.4 years (1.2 – 16 years), IIIB 3.1 years (1–29 years), and IIIC 6.3 years (3.4-22 years). 45% of patients developed epilepsy at a median age of 8.7 (2.5 – 37) years old. Age of death for MPS IIIA patients was 15 years (11.5 – 26 years). Molecular analysis of our cohort reveals, as alluded to above, a great allelic heterogeneity in the three subtypes without clear genotype-phenotype correlations in most cases. Conclusion MPS IIIA is the most frequent subtype in Spanish Sanfilippo patients. Diagnosing physicians should consider Sanfilippo syndrome in children with non-specific speech delay, behavioural abnormalities, and/or mild dysmorphic features. We stress the importance of establishing early diagnosis procedures as soon as possible so as to be able to determine future short-term enzymatic or gene

  20. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  1. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  2. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  3. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  4. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect

    Beechem, Thomas E. Brumbach, Michael T.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Howell, Stephen W.; Ohta, Taisuke; Kowalski, Brian M.; Pask, Jesse A.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Spataru, Catalin D.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and amorphous Se. Photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  5. Metabolism of sup 75 Se from ( sup 75 Se) selenate into selenoproteins in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, J.K.; Thompson, K.M.; Weiss, S.L.; Sunde, R.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Since the metabolism and nutritional biochemistry of selenate has not been studied extensively, the authors used our SDS/PAGE procedure to study ({sup 75}Se) selenate distribution, retention and incorporation into selenoproteins. The authors hypothesis was that the distribution of ({sup 75}Se) selenate among tissues would differ compared to selenite, but that {sup 75}Se incorporation into selenoproteins would follow the same pattern as selenite. To test this hypothesis, male weanling rats were fed a torula yeast-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, or 2 {mu}g Se/g diet for 7 wk. Rats were injected iv with 50 {mu}Ci ({sup 75}Se) selenate, and killed 1, 3, 24, and 72 h later. Total {sup 75}Se retention decreased with increasing dietary Se, and was less than previously observed for ({sup 75}Se) selenite at each level of Se. Tissue {sup 75}Se recoveries for ({sup 75}Se) selenite were 22-88% of the values previously measured for ({sup 75}Se) selenite. {sup 75}Se incorporation profiles for selenate were virtually identical to those observed for selenite in all tissues, except in Se-deficient kidney cytosol where the 60 kDa {sup 75}Se selenoprotein was not the major selenoprotein. This study shows that the chemical form of selenium can affect distribution and retention, but that the form of selenium has little effect on incorporation into selenoproteins.

  6. The Structure and Electrical Properties of the Ag2Se + Ga2Se3 + GeSe2 Glass System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marple, Maxwell Adam Thomas

    Silver containing homogeneous chalcogenide glasses in the ternary system Ag2Se-Ga2Se3-GeSe2 (AGGS) are synthesized and their atomic structure-property relationships are investigated. Structural studies are carried out using Raman, 77Se, 71Ga, 69Ga, and 109Ag nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure of these glasses consists primarily of a network of corner sharing (Ga/Ge)Se4/2 tetrahedra with a small fraction of homopolar Se-Se bonds. Compositional modification of the atomic structure follows the charge compensated network model developed in the literature for aluminosilicate glasses. Ag2Se acts as a network modifier, forming non-bridging Se in glasses with Ag/Ga >1, while Ga 2Se3 plays the role of a network intermediate similar to Al2O3 in oxide glasses. The network favors the formation of homopolar Ge-Ge bonding in glasses with Ag/Ga <1, to accommodate the Se deficiency brought by the incorporation of Ga2Se3 with Ga being tetrahedrally coordinated to Se. This structural model is consistent with the variation in the glass transition temperatures and molar volume. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) reveals the ionic conductivity of the AGGS glasses to be quite high at ambient temperature, reaching up to 10 --4 S/cm for glasses with the highest Ag content. Increasing Se deficiency with respect to stoichiometry can enhance the conductivity further to ˜3x10--4 S/cm . Transference number measurements using the electromotive force (EMF) method as well as variable temperature 109Ag NMR line shape studies indicate that the conductivity is predominantly ionic in nature and results from fast hopping dynamics of Ag ions. The high ionic conductivity can be related to a heavily modified structural network that results in a potential energy landscape with many suitable hopping sites for the Ag ions. These structural characteristics and electrical properties of the glasses in the AGGS system may guide in the development of next generation fast ion

  7. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  8. Why Do Higher Education Students Drop Out? Evidence from Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard; Gomez, Lucia Navarro

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to advance our understanding of the drop-out behavior of students in higher education. Our results are based on longitudinal data for 7000 students who embarked on short and long programs from one university in Spain and who were observed over an eight-year period ending in 2004. The statistical analysis is carried out in a…

  9. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-associated meningitis, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Navarro-Marí, José-María; Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Gegúndez, María-Isabel; Palacios, Gustavo; Savji, Nazir; Lipkin, W Ian; Fedele, Giovanni; de Ory-Manchón, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was detected in 2 patients with acute meningitis in southern Spain within a 3-year period. Although the prevalence of LCMV infection was low (2 [1.3%] of 159 meningitis patients), it represents 2.9% of all pathogens detected. LCMV is a noteworthy agent of neurologic illness in immunocompetent persons.

  10. Increasing Contact with Hepatitis E Virus in Red Deer, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Martín, Marga; Vicente, Joaquín; Segalés, Joaquim; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in red deer in mainland Spain, we tested red deer for HEV RNA and antibodies. Overall, 10.4% and 13.6% of serum samples were positive by ELISA and reverse transcription–PCR, respectively. The increasing prevalence suggests a potential risk for humans. PMID:21122241

  11. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M.; Lobo, Cheryl A.; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M.; Azcárate, Isabel G.; Puente, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:27560451

  12. From Dictatorship to Democracy: History of Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viñao, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In a book published in 1995 providing an overview on the state of the art in European educational historiography in Europe, Marie-Madeleine Compère referring to post-Franco Spain, emphasised the "dynamism" and "the capacity to mobilise" that had arisen among Spanish researchers by "any collective initiative." Moving…

  13. Education and Social Change in Spain: From Crisis to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortés-González, Pablo; Rivas-Flores, J.Ignacio; Leite-Méndez, Analía E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses a particular socio-educational experience in a marginalised neighbourhood in Malaga, Spain. This initiative came about as an institutional proposal to combat neoliberal austerity policies and is known as the "Casa de la Buena Vida". It aims to generate new educational practices based on solidarity, dignity and…

  14. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  15. 75 FR 23303 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain (70 FR 36561-36563). The Commission is conducting reviews to..., subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  16. The Creative Class and the Creative Economy in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Báez, Juan Miguel; Bergua, José Angel; Pac, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an application in Spain of Florida's model (2002/2010, 2005) about creativity, economy and growth. Creativity is an indicator that measures and combines technology, talent, and tolerance. Each of these is composed of three subindices. The most important conclusion from the data reported here is that creativity in particular,…

  17. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... the proposed rule published January 30, 2013 (78 FR 6227) is reopened. We will consider all comments..., 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 6227-6232, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0132) a proposal \\1... From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed...

  18. Deaths from pesticide poisoning in Spain from 1991 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Repetto, R; Soria, M L; Gimenez, M P; Menendez, M; Repetto, M

    1998-06-01

    Data on 184 deaths from pesticide poisonings that occurred in Spain from 1991 to 1996 have been collated via a survey from the National Institute of Toxicology, Sevilla. Organophosphates and carbamates accounted for the majority of the cases. Other substances involved were organochlorines such as endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat.

  19. Bagaza virus in partridges and pheasants, Spain, 2010.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Montserrat; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Buitrago, Dolores; Sánchez, Azucena; Elizalde, Maia; San Miguel, Elena; Villalba, Ruben; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2011-08-01

    In September 2010, an unusually high number of wild birds (partridges and pheasants) died in Cádiz in southwestern Spain. Reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified Bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution that includes sub-Saharan Africa and India, as the causative agent.

  20. Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Agüero, Montserrat; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Buitrago, Dolores; Sánchez, Azucena; Elizalde, Maia; San Miguel, Elena; Villalba, Ruben; Llorente, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, an unusually high number of wild birds (partridges and pheasants) died in Cádiz in southwestern Spain. Reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified Bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution that includes sub-Saharan Africa and India, as the causative agent. PMID:21801633

  1. The Development of Learning to Learn in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amparo; Martin, Elena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the concept of "learning to learn" has developed in Spain, and give you an overview of relevant Spanish projects. First, we sketch out how this approach has developed in Spanish educational laws. We then give examples of research projects, assessment instruments and instructional programmes pertinent to each of the…

  2. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M; Lobo, Cheryl A; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M; Azcárate, Isabel G; Puente, Sabino; Montero, Estrella

    2016-10-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient.

  3. Thelaziosis in humans, a zoonotic infection, Spain, 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Isabel; Montes, Isaías; Saugar, Jose M; Latrofa, Stefania; Gárate, Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-12-01

    After Thelazia callipaeda infection in dogs and cats were reported in Spain, a human case of thelaziosis in this country was reported, suggesting zoonotic transmission. The active reproductive status of this nematode in situ indicates that humans are competent hosts for this parasite.

  4. Structure of Primary Mathematics Teacher Education Programs in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cañadas, María C.; Gómez, Pedro; Rico, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Spain was 1 of the 17 countries that participated in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M 2008). In this paper, we explore and describe the structure of Spanish primary mathematics teacher education programs. We analyzed the documents…

  5. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools. "A_Tempo" includes a…

  6. The social crisis of the Eurozone: the case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the consequences of the austerity policies promoted by the European Central Bank, the European Commission, and the International Monetary Fund and applied to the peripheral countries of the Eurozone, including Spain. In addition to deteriorating the economic conditions of these countries, these policies are hurting the social well-being of their populations. PMID:23821901

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-64 - Avocados from continental Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... States from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) only under the... openings of not more than 1.6 mm or by some other barrier that prevents pests from entering. The... treatment for C. capitata prior to export in accordance with 7 CFR part 305, the additional declaration...

  8. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  9. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  13. A survey of Rocketry and astronautics in Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluquer, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The entire field of rocketry and astronautics in Spain was studied. Congreve war rockets in military actions were emphasized in the African war, the Cuban campaign and the Spanish Civil War. Rockets in space travel were also summarized along with space science fiction.

  14. Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Jado, Isabel; Padilla, Sergio; Masiá, Mar; Anda, Pedro; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Human infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was initially reported in 1996, and reports of a total of 18 cases have been published. We describe 6 additional cases that occurred in the Mediterranean coast region of Spain during 2007–2011. Clinicians should consider this infection in patients who have traveled to this area. PMID:23343524

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... taxes from which the United States Government is exempt. (b) In accordance with tax relief agreements between the United States Government and the Spanish Government, and because the incumbent contract arises from the activities of the United States Forces in Spain, the contract will be exempt from...

  16. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  17. Reasons for Older Adult Participation in University Programs in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme; Pinazo, Sacramento; Celdran, Montserrat; Sole, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reasons expressed by older adults for attending a university program in Barcelona (Spain). Results were based on the responses of 36 elders to questions from a semistructured interview. These were (a) reasons for joining a university course and (b) factors that prevent enrolling in that course. Participants mentioned more…

  18. Integrating Art Education Models: Contemporary Controversies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belver, Manuel; Ulln, Ana; Acaso, Mara

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a basic controversy for art education in Spain is analysed, and its antecedents in thought and social and artistic practices are reviewed. The controversy refers to the question whether school art education should be oriented towards the fine arts or towards the manual arts. Consequently, which should be the cultural model of…

  19. Beginning Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions of Pupil Misbehaviour in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriacou, Chris; Ortega Martin, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    This study used a questionnaire to identify the perceptions of pupil misbehaviour held by a sample of 176 secondary school student teachers attending a one-year initial teacher training course in Spain. The main factor accounting for secondary school pupils' misbehaviour in lessons was reported to be "parents who do not instil pro-school values in…

  20. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  1. Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre, Luz; Ardanuy, Carmen; Fenoll, Asunción; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Liñares, Josefina

    2004-01-01

    Among 2,882 Streptococcus pneumoniae sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory during 2002, 75 (2.6%) were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Resistance was associated with older patients (3.9% in adults and 7.2% in patients >65 years of age), with isolation from noninvasive sites (4.3% vs. 1.0%), and with penicillin and macrolide resistance. Among 14 low-level resistant (MIC 4–8 µg/mL) strains, 1 had a fluoroquinolone efflux phenotype, and 13 showed single ParC changes. The 61 high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC >16 µg/mL) strains showed either two or three changes at ParC, ParE, and GyrA. Resistance was acquired either by point mutation (70 strains) or by recombination with viridans streptococci (4 strains) at the topoisomerase II genes. Although 36 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed, 5 international multiresistant clones (Spain23F-1, Spain6B-2, Spain9V-3, Spain14-5 and Sweden15A-25) accounted for 35 (46.7%) of the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Continuous surveillance is needed to prevent the dissemination of these clones. PMID:15504260

  2. Evaluation of Hybrid and Distance Education Learning Environments in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernandez-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the "Distance Education Learning Environments Survey" (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education, and more…

  3. 75 FR 61772 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    .... Background The Commission instituted these reviews on May 3, 2010 (75 FR 23303) and determined on August 6, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR 51113, August 18, 2010). The Commission transmitted... Isocyanurates from China and Spain: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1082 and 1083 (Review). By order of the...

  4. Guidance for Older Workers in Denmark and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Peter; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Guidance has a role to play in helping older workers to lead meaningful and fruitful lives; inside, outside, on the edge of the labour market, or in voluntary work with examples from two very different European countries: Denmark and Spain. This paper aims to draw attention to older workers guidance from an economic policy approach. It will be…

  5. An Overview of ELT Formative Ways in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2005-01-01

    Spain is currently a hot spot for English language teaching due not only to the legal educational changes and publisher's efforts to improve the Spanish students' competence but also because of the increasing interest of educational authorities and general teachers in action research and optimizing the teaching standards. To achieve these…

  6. Family Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Misuse in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain family factors in Spanish adolescent substance abuse. A representative sample of 1,680 students of both sexes from all over Spain took part in the study. The results show that the variables associated with drug consumption are: male,…

  7. Regionalism, Cultural Diversity and the State in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecours, Andre

    2001-01-01

    Uses historical institutionalism to explain Spain's contemporary regional-cultural identities. Shows how these identities were molded by various historical forms of the Spanish state. Discusses four such forms in light of their impact on the country's identity landscape. (Author/VWL)

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in equids from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, I; Cabezón, O; Arenas-Montes, A; Carbonero, A; Dubey, J P; Perea, A; Almería, S

    2012-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in serum samples from 616 equids (454 horses, 80 mules and 82 donkeys) in a cross-sectional study of 420 herds in Andalusia (Southern Spain), the region with the highest number of equids in Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 10.8% horses, 15.0% mules and 25.6% donkeys by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) at a cut-off of 1:25. Herd seroprevalence for horses, mules and donkeys was 14.7% (48/327), 23.9% (11/46) and 34.0% (16/47), respectively, and 75 herds (17.8%) had at least one seropositive animal. Significant differences in T. gondii seroprevalence were observed among species, with donkeys having the highest seroprevalence and horses the lowest (P=0.04). Seroprevalence was significantly higher in herds with presence of domestic ruminants. This study is the first report of the presence of T. gondii antibodies in equine species in Spain and the first reporting T. gondii infection in donkeys in Europe. The presence of antibodies is indication of contact with the parasite and therefore, consumption of equine meat could be a potential source of human infection in Spain.

  9. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  10. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  11. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

  13. Minority Languages and Curriculum: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Angel

    2007-01-01

    From a legal and institutional point of view, the current situation of the different languages in Spain has a double basis: the fact that the Spanish Constitution acknowledges the country's multilingual and multicultural character, and the country's organisation into Autonomous Communities. Such a constitutional framework has made it possible for…

  14. Vocational Education and Training in Spain. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Carlos Otero; Machado, Andres Munoz; Sanchez, Aitor Marcos

    This monograph on the vocational education and training (VET) system in Spain is one of a series on VET systems in the European Union Member States. Chapter 1 provides this background information: political and administrative structures, population, Spanish economy, and employment. Chapter 2 describes the current education system. Chapter 3 covers…

  15. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Vidal, Enrique; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier; Cabanes, Anna; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale. PMID:18789142

  16. Unrecognized hemoglobin SE disease as microcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Barry; Guileyardo, Joseph; Mora, Adan

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin SE disease was first described during the 1950s as a relatively benign microcytosis, but increasing prevalence has revealed a predisposition towards vasoocclusive sickling. Recognition of SE hemoglobinopathies’ potential complications is crucial so medical measures can be utilized to avoid multiorgan injury. PMID:27365881

  17. Relocation and seismotectonic interpretation of the 2015 Ossa de Montiel (Albacete, Spain) seismic series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantavella, Juan V.; Gaite, Beatriz; Ruiz, Mario; Romero, Paula; Gómez-García, Clara; Cerdeño, Roberto; Villaseñor, Antonio; Díaz, Jordi; Lozano, Lucía

    2016-04-01

    A moderate earthquake with magnitude Mw 4.7 occurred on February 23, 2015 to the NE of Ossa de Montiel (SE central Spain), in a region with very low seismic activity and poorly monitored by permanent seismic stations. Two days after the event a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 13 stations was deployed in this area until April 6, 2015, allowing to detect more than 500 events inside the network limits. The data gathered from this network along with the data from more distant seismic stations has allowed us to perform a precise hypocentral location of the Ossa de Montiel seismic series. For this location we have manually read the arrival times for all the stations and used relative location techniques based on waveform cross-correlations and a double-difference algorithm. In addition, we have studied the focal mechanism of the main shock and the largest aftershocks using first motion polarities and full waveform inversion. We have found that the mechanism and aftershock distribution is consistent with a NW-SE normal fault with a dip of 40 degrees to the NE at a depth of about 12 km. With these results we analyze the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and propose a seismotectonic interpretation of a series developed in an area with scarce seismic information to this date.

  18. Essential and toxic elements in infant foods from Spain, UK, China and USA.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Ramírez-Gandolfo, Amanda; Wu, Xiangchun; Norton, Gareth J; Burló, Francisco; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A

    2012-09-01

    Spanish gluten-free rice, cereals with gluten, and pureed baby foods were analysed for essential macro-elements (Ca and Na), essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Cr, Co and Ni) and non-essential trace elements (As, Pb, Cd and Hg) using ICP-MS and AAS. Baby cereals were an excellent source of most of the essential elements (Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn). Sodium content was high in pureed foods to improve their flavour; fish products were also rich in Se. USA pure baby rice samples had the highest contents of all studied essential elements, showing a different nutrient pattern compared to those of other countries. Mineral fortification was not always properly stated in the labelling of infant foods. Complementary infant foods may also contain significant amounts of contaminants. The contents of Hg and Cd were low enough to guarantee the safety of these infant foods. However, it will be necessary to identify the source and reduce the levels of Pb, Cr and As in Spanish foods. Pure baby rice samples contained too much: Pb in Spain; As in UK; As, Cr and Ni in USA; and Cr and Cd in China. PMID:22836349

  19. Essential and toxic elements in infant foods from Spain, UK, China and USA.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Ramírez-Gandolfo, Amanda; Wu, Xiangchun; Norton, Gareth J; Burló, Francisco; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A

    2012-09-01

    Spanish gluten-free rice, cereals with gluten, and pureed baby foods were analysed for essential macro-elements (Ca and Na), essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Cr, Co and Ni) and non-essential trace elements (As, Pb, Cd and Hg) using ICP-MS and AAS. Baby cereals were an excellent source of most of the essential elements (Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn). Sodium content was high in pureed foods to improve their flavour; fish products were also rich in Se. USA pure baby rice samples had the highest contents of all studied essential elements, showing a different nutrient pattern compared to those of other countries. Mineral fortification was not always properly stated in the labelling of infant foods. Complementary infant foods may also contain significant amounts of contaminants. The contents of Hg and Cd were low enough to guarantee the safety of these infant foods. However, it will be necessary to identify the source and reduce the levels of Pb, Cr and As in Spanish foods. Pure baby rice samples contained too much: Pb in Spain; As in UK; As, Cr and Ni in USA; and Cr and Cd in China.

  20. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  1. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  2. Se passivation and re-growth on ZnSe and (Zn,Mn)Se (001) epilayer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, B. T.; Krebs, J. J.; Prinz, G. A.

    1988-09-01

    We report the use of a thin Se coating to passivate and protect the surface of ZnSe and Zn1-xMnxSe (001) epilayers on GaAs(001) prior to removal from the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system and exposure to atmosphere. After prolonged exposure to the laboratory ambient, the samples are returned to the MBE system and the Se is thermally desorbed. The resultant surface is clean and well-ordered as demonstrated by Auger electron spectroscopy and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and either homo- or hetero-epitaxial growth is continued. For ZnSe epilayers grown in two equal stages of a total thickness of 1 μm with an intervening passivation and 24 hour air exposure, the (004) x-ray double crystal rocking curve exhibits no increase in linewidth relative to continuously grown reference samples of the same thickness. In the case of heteroepitaxial growth of Fe films on Zn0.8Mn0.2Se, RHEED shows well-ordered single crystal growth of α-Fe(001) even at very low coverages. Ferromagnetic resonances and vibrating sample magnetometry data show these films to be of excellent magnetic quality. This Se passivation technique thus offers a ready means of transferring these II-VI epilayers from the growth system to other facilities.

  3. Kinematics of an oblique deformation front using paleomagnetic data; the Altomira-Loranca structures (Iberian Chain, Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcarcel, M.

    2013-05-01

    Manoel Valcárcel1, 5, Ruth Soto2, Elisabet Beamud3, Belén Oliva-Urcia4 and Josep Anton Muñoz5 1 IGME, Departamento de Investigación y Prospección Geocientífica. C/ La Calera, 1, 28760 Tres Cantos; m.valcarcel@igme.es 2 IGME, Unidad de Zaragoza, C/ Manuel Lasala 44, 9 B, 50006 Zaragoza, Spain 3 Lab. Paleomagnetisme (CCiT UB-CSIC). ICT "Jaume Almera", Solé i Sabarís, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. 4 IPE-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain 5 Grup Geodinàmica i Anàlisi de Conques, Universitat de Barcelona, Zona Universitària Pedralbes, 08028 Barcelona, Spain The Altomira and Loranca structures consist of a fold-and-thrust system detached on Triassic evaporites. They are oriented N-S to NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE at its northern and southern end, respectively, forming a subtle arc, oblique with respect to the general NW-SE trend of the Iberian Chain. The aim of this work is to characterize with paleomagnetic data the kinematic evolution of the the Altomira Range, located at the southwestern deformation front of the Iberian Chain, and of the structures within its associated piggy-back basin, the Loranca basin. This approach will also give clues regarding the primary and/or secondary origin of these structures to better characterize them in further studies (3D reconstruction and restoration, fault pattern). A total of 180 samples were obtained from 19 sites in Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene rocks (including clays, fine sandstones and limestones). They were analyzed by means of stepwise thermal demagnetization and subsequent measurement of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Although fold tests are not statistically significant, a primary origin of the magnetization is deduced by samples showing either normal or reverse polarity after bedding correction of the calculated characteristic components. Declinations of the site mean directions appear scattered after bedding correction suggesting differential vertical-axis rotations. Sites located at the

  4. Cs(2)UPd(3)Se(6).

    PubMed

    Oh, George N; Ibers, James A

    2011-01-12

    Dicaesium uranium(IV) tripalladium(II) hexa-selenide, Cs(2)UPd(3)Se(6), crystallizes in the space group Fmmm in the Ba(2)NaCu(3)O(6) structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises the following atoms with site symmetries as shown: U1 (mm2), Cs1 (222), Cs2 (m2m), Pd1 (.m.), Pd2 (2mm), Se1 (m..), and Se2 (1). This layered structure contains six edge-sharing square-planar [PdSe(4)] units that form a hexa-gon. These, in turn, edge-share with [USe(6)] trigonal-prismatic units, forming an extended layer parallel to (010). The layers are stacked along [010]. They are staggered, and are separated by the Cs atoms. The Cs atoms are either coordinated in a square anti-prism of Se atoms or are ten-coordinate, with one square face and the opposite face hexa-gonal.

  5. Detection and attribution of flood trends in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillan, David; Garrote, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Flood frequency analyses usually assume stationarity in observed series. However, non-stationarity assumptions question the results of traditional flood frequency analyses. Several factors can cause either trends or abrupt changes in flood time series, such as climate change, wildfires, volcanic eruptions, land-use changes, anthropogenic actions or relocation of gauging stations. Most of trend studies in Spain have been focused on annual, seasonal and monthly flows, which can be applied to water resources and droughts management. Nevertheless, a few local studies have analysed trends in floods in Spain at instantaneous or daily scales. A study to detect flood trends regarding magnitude, frequency and timing is carried out in Spain at a larger spatial scale. A representative hydrological network of gauging stations where near-natural flow regimes can be considered was obtained. Both annual maximum and peak over threshold series were extracted. Three periods of time were selected: 1942-2009, 1949-2009 and 1959-2009, to account for a smaller data set with a longer temporal scale and vice versa. The Mann-Kendall test was used to detect trends in flood series. An attempt to relate detected flood trends to precipitation trends was conducted. As result, a general decreasing trend in magnitude and frequency of floods was detected throughout Spain. Regarding flood timing, floods tend to occur later in the northwest of Spain. Most of flood trends in magnitude could be related to decreasing trends in precipitation and changes that modify rainfall-runoff processes at the catchment scale. Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge support from the MODEX project (CGL2011-22868) "Physically-based modelling for characterisation of extreme hydrologic response under a probabilistic approach. Application to dam safety analysis and optimisation of reservoir operation during floods", funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

  6. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  7. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  8. On a Lecture Trip to Spain: The Scientific Relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal…

  9. Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain) is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA) server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE). The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas) (SIGPAC) enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images) of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms) were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Results Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality) according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data). The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100% of EPER-Spain

  10. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST). Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4), 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20) and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21) were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several European countries, but

  11. Neutron-capture resonances for 82Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; Berman, B. L.

    1982-09-01

    Strong neturon-capture resonances for 82Se have been found at 3.63, 7.1, and 9.51 keV and weaker ones have been found at 0.58, 1.15, and possibly 13.54 and 16.5 keV. None was found at lower neutron energies; this absence of strong epithermal capture resonances invalidates the hypothesis that the depth dependence of the abundance ratio of 78Kr to 83Kr found in meteoritic studies owes its origin to anomalous 83Kr production by neutron capture on 82Se. Precise energies have been assigned to neutron-capture resonances up to 40 keV for all the other selenium isotopes as well. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 82Se, natSe(n, γ) neutron time of flight; resonance energies; abundance ratio of 78Kr to 83Kr.

  12. Double electron capture searches in 74Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, B.; Wester, T.; Degering, D.; Sommer, D.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2016-08-01

    A search for various double electron capture modes of 74Se has been performed using an ultralow background Ge-detector in the Felsenkeller laboratory, Germany. Especially for the potentially resonant transition into the 1204.2 keV excited state of 74Ge a lower half-life limit of 0.70× {10}19 yr (90% credibility) has been obtained. Serious concerns are raised about the validity of obtained 74Se limits in some recent publications.

  13. Synthesis of (/sup 75/Se)trimethylselenonium iodide from (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, S.J.; Ganther, H.E.

    1984-02-15

    The synthesis of (/sup 75/Se)trimethylselenonium iodide from (/sup 75/)selenocystine is described. The starting compound is reduced to (/sup 75/Se)selenocysteine with borohydride and reacted with methyl iodide to form (/sup 75/Se)Se-methyl-selenocysteine, then treated with methyl iodide in formic acid solution to form Se-dimethyl-selenocysteine selenonium iodide. Over a period of days, the selenonium intermediate undergoes spontaneous elimination to form alanine and dimethyl selenide, which reacts with methyl iodide to give the trimethylselenonium product in over 90% yield. 15 references.

  14. Atomistic Model of Physical Ageing in Se-rich As-Se Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Golovchak,R.; Shpotyuk, O.; Kozdras, A.; Bureau, B.; Vlcek, M.; Ganjoo, A.; Jain, H.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal, optical, X-ray excited and magnetic methods were used to develop a microstructural model of physical ageing in Se-rich glasses. The glass composition As10Se90, possessing a typical cross-linked chain structure, was chosen as a model object for the investigations. The effect of physical ageing in this glass was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry, whereas the corresponding changes in its atomic arrangement were studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman and solid-state 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Straightening-shrinkage processes are shown to be responsible for the physical ageing in this Se-rich As-Se glass.

  15. Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad A

    2008-06-25

    The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.

  16. [Current epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of endemic mycoses in Spain].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, María J; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are emerging infections in Spain associated with immigration and travelling. In last three decades a total of 128 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Spain, 59 in travellers, 63 in immigrants, three associated to drug abuse, two in laboratory workers, and one in a solid organ transplant receptor. In 1969 the first Spanish case of paracoccidioidomycosis was published and a total of 21 cases have been reported so far. Those patients suffered from the chronic form of the disease with period of latency as long as 50 years. Other endemic mycoses such as blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, pythiosis and sporotrichosis have not increased in frequency. Microbiological cultures of endemic fungi must be handled in facilities which comply with international biosafety regulations and must also be taken into account for cultures from patients with suspected endemic mycosis. PMID:22130575

  17. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  18. Explaining social discrimination: racism in Brazil and xenophobia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camino, Leoncio; Álvaro, José Luis; Torres, Ana Raquel R; Garrido, Alicia; Morais, Thiago; Barbosa, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.

  19. Marital fertility and religion in Spain, 1985 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Adsera, Alicia

    2006-07-01

    Since the transition to democracy in Spain in 1975, both total fertility and rates of church attendance of Catholics have dropped dramatically. In this study the 1985 and 1999 Spanish Fertility Surveys were used to investigate whether the significance of religion for fertility behaviour -- current family size and the spacing of births -- changed between the survey dates. In the 1985 survey, family size was similar for those Catholics who actively participated in religious activities and those who, though nominally Catholic, were not active participants. By 1999, the family size of the latter was lower and comparable to the family size of those without religious affiliation. These findings accord with the declines in both church attendance and fertility in Spain. The small groups of Protestants and Muslims had the highest fertility. Women in inter-faith unions had relatively low fertility. PMID:16754252

  20. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels.

  1. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Spain in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Saez, David; Bautista, Verónica; Fernández-Romero, Sara; Hernández-Molina, Juan Manuel; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Aracil, Belén; Campos, José

    2013-01-01

    We report the epidemiological impact of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in Spain in 2012. Of the 237 carbapenemases detected, 163 were from the OXA-48 group, 60 were from VIM-1, 8 were from KPC-2, 5 were from IMP, and 1 was from NDM-1. Interhospital spread of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was due to a limited number of multilocus sequence types (MLST) and carbapenemase types, including ST15–VIM-1, ST11–OXA-48, ST405–OXA-48, ST101–KPC-2, and ST11–VIM-1. The number of CPE cases in Spain has increased sharply in recent years, due mainly to the emergence of OXA-48. PMID:24041898

  2. [Scientific training and professional practice in Vicente Cervantes Mendo's Spain.].

    PubMed

    Villegas, José Pastor

    2010-01-01

    Vicente Cervantes Mendo (Ledrada, Salamanca, 1758 - México, 1829) was a famous Spanish Mexican scientists; he is today heritage of Spain and Mexico. As a continuation of two recent articles on his life at Spain, the present study deals with his scientific formation at madrid, as pharmacist and as botanist, as well as on his professional activity. Two documents of Casimiro Gómez Ortega, principal professor of the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, dated in 1786 and related with the "Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva España (1787-1803)," have served to establish conclusions which clarify the subjects studied and correct mistakes.

  3. The combined cycle power plant in Puertollano/Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Schellberg, W.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes the efficient and environmentally friendly electric power generation from coal. The new IGCC technology with PRENFLO gasification is the basis for the first European plant in Spain. The IGCC plant in Puertollano/Spain will be the largest unit of this century with a capacity of 300 MWe (net). A special fuel, a 50/50 mixture of high ash raw coal and high sulphur petroleum coke will be gasified in the PRENFLO gasification unit. PRENFLO is an entrained-flow gasification system with dry fuel dust feeding. The development was partly funded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology and the European Commission. Development trends in IGCC power plants will be discussed. The main equipment of the PRENFLO process as foreseen for the Spanish IGCC project is shown in the flow diagram.

  4. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    PubMed

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  5. Molecular investigation of tularemia outbreaks, Spain, 1997-2008.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Johansson, Anders; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Martínez-Nistal, Carmen; Orduña, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2014-05-01

    Tularemia outbreaks occurred in northwestern Spain in 1997-1998 and 2007-2008 and affected >1,000 persons. We assessed isolates involved in these outbreaks by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with 2 restriction enzymes and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 genomic loci of Francisella tularensis, the cause of this disease. Isolates were divided into 3 pulsotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 8 allelic profiles by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. Isolates obtained from the second tularemia outbreak had the same genotypes as isolates obtained from the first outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by genotypes of genetic subclade B.Br:FTNF002-00, which is widely distributed in countries in central and western Europe. Thus, reemergence of tularemia in Spain was not caused by the reintroduction of exotic strains, but probably by persistence of local reservoirs of infection.

  6. Two Outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Zigorraga, Carmen; Artieda, Junkal; Alkorta, Miriam; Marimón, José M.

    2014-01-01

    In the province of Gipuzkoa, Spain (≈700,000 inhabitants), 7–12 episodes of human listeriosis were recorded annually during 2009–2012. However, during January 2013–February 2014, 27 episodes were detected, including 11 pregnancy-associated cases. Fifteen cases in 2 epidemiologically unrelated outbreaks were caused by a rare type of Listeria monocytogenes, sequence type 87 serotype 1/2b. PMID:25418800

  7. Thelazia callipaeda: infection in dogs: a new parasite for Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), eyeworms, are known as the causative agents of thelaziosis, initially described in Asia and, later on, over the last decade, also in some European countries (e.g., Italy, France, Germany and Switzerland). In June 2010, the first case of canine thelaziosis was observed in central western Spain (La Vera region, Cáceres) and subsequent epidemiological investigation is reported in the present study. Results This study describes the first autochthonous cases of infection by T. callipaeda in dogs from central western Spain where the first case of eyeworm infection was reported. A total of 456 dogs was examined in this geographical area. Thelazia callipaeda eyeworms were observed in 182 (39.9%) animals, of which 28 showed apparent clinical signs (i.e., conjunctivitis, oedema, epiphora and petechiae). A total of 762 adult nematodes (214 males, 548 females; mean infection rate of 4.18; SD 4.74) were collected with cotton swabs or by flushing of the conjunctival sac of infected animals using physiological saline solution. Nematodes were identified as T. callipaeda according to the morphological keys and molecular analysis of sequences of a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The sequences were identical to those representing T. callipaeda haplotype 1, previously reported in Europe. Conclusions The high infection rate of canine thelaziosis herein reported suggests that practitioners should include this eye infection amongst differential diagnoses of ocular diseases in dogs from this area of Spain or those moving across this area of Spain. Based on the high infection prevalence recorded, the potential public health risk to humans from this region is also discussed. PMID:21791108

  8. Confirmed case of Zika virus congenital infection, Spain, March 2016.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sonia; Tato, Ruben; Cabrera, Jorge Julio; Lopez, Alberto; Robles, Olga; Paz, Eugenio; Coira, Amparo; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Vazquez, Ana; Carballo, Raquel; Quintas, Carlos; Pousa, Anxela

    2016-06-16

    We describe Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission in an imported case in Spain, in a 17-week pregnant woman. ZIKV IgG, IgM and RNA were detected in serum in week 17. At 19 weeks, ultrasound scan revealed fetal malformations and ZIKV was detected in the amniotic fluid. Pregnancy was terminated at week 21; autopsy of the fetus revealed bilateral hydrocephalus, brain microcalcifications and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. ZIKV was detected in the umbilical cord and brain tissue. PMID:27336620

  9. Confirmed case of Zika virus congenital infection, Spain, March 2016.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sonia; Tato, Ruben; Cabrera, Jorge Julio; Lopez, Alberto; Robles, Olga; Paz, Eugenio; Coira, Amparo; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Vazquez, Ana; Carballo, Raquel; Quintas, Carlos; Pousa, Anxela

    2016-06-16

    We describe Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission in an imported case in Spain, in a 17-week pregnant woman. ZIKV IgG, IgM and RNA were detected in serum in week 17. At 19 weeks, ultrasound scan revealed fetal malformations and ZIKV was detected in the amniotic fluid. Pregnancy was terminated at week 21; autopsy of the fetus revealed bilateral hydrocephalus, brain microcalcifications and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. ZIKV was detected in the umbilical cord and brain tissue.

  10. Epidemiological surveillance of congenital syphilis in Spain, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Lopez, Natalia; Diez, Mercedes; Diaz, Oliva; Simon, Fernando; Diaz, Asuncion

    2012-09-01

    The characteristics of 67 confirmed congenital syphilis cases reported to the surveillance system in Spain (2000-2010) were analyzed. The incidence rates ranged from 0.00 to 2.23 per 100,000 live births. Median age at diagnosis was 4 days. Hepatosplenomegaly was the most common clinical finding, although almost 60% of the cases were asymptomatic. Missed opportunities for congenital syphilis prevention through antenatal care were identified.

  11. An American scientist visits the Altamira cave in northern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, M.

    1981-12-01

    The Altamira Cave is internationally known for its remarkable Stone Age paintings. It is located in the brow of a hill overlooking the village of Santillana del Mar which is nestled among green rolling hills near the coast of northern Spain. This report gives a brief description of the Cave and its paintings, the nature of the deterioration that has resulted in the closing of the cave to tourists, and the scientific studies being undertaken to help preserve the paintings.

  12. BTX in urban areas of eastern Spain: a focus on time variations and sources.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Nuria; Varea, Montse; Gil-Moltó, Juan; Yubero, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Seasonal and daily cycles of BTX were studied in a non-industrialized city (Alicante) and an urban area near an oil refinery plant (Castellón) in order to evaluate the influence of different sources on time variations. Lower levels were observed in summer than in winter at both locations due to higher dispersion conditions and photochemical removal of BTX during the summer season. Daily patterns showed seasonal differences and were controlled by traffic emissions and the evolution of the mixing layer height, with no influence of the petroleum refinery plant in the city of Castellón. The results of the conditional bivariate probability function suggest that the influence of this source on BTX concentrations was limited to point impacts. At both sites, benzene exhibited a different behavior from toluene and xylenes, most likely due to its significantly lower chemical reactivity. PMID:27272924

  13. Changes in soil microbial community structure following the abandonment of agricultural terraces in mountainous areas of Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Zornoza, R.; Guerrero, C.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Scow, K.M.; Arcenegui, V.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.

    2012-01-01

    In Eastern Spain, almond trees have been cultivated in terraced orchards for centuries, forming an integral part of the Mediterranean forest scene. In the last decades, orchards have been abandoned due to changes in society. This study investigates effects of changes in land use from forest to agricultural land and the posterior land abandonment on soil microbial community, and the influence of soil physico-chemical properties on the microbial community composition (assessed as abundances of phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA). For this purpose, three land uses (forest, agricultural and abandoned agricultural) at four locations in SE Spain were selected. Multivariate analysis showed a substantial level of differentiation in microbial community structure according to land use. The microbial communities of forest soils were highly associated with soil organic matter content. However, we have not found any physical or chemical soil property capable of explaining the differences between agricultural and abandoned agricultural soils. Thus, it was suggested that the cessation of the perturbation caused by agriculture and shifts in vegetation may have led to changes in the microbial community structure. PLFAs indicative of fungi and ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs were higher in abandoned agricultural soils, whereas the relative abundance of bacteria was higher in agricultural soils. Actinomycetes were generally lower in abandoned agricultural soils, while the proportions of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi were, as a general trend, higher in agricultural and abandoned agricultural soils than in forests. Total microbial biomass and richness increased as agricultural < abandoned agricultural < forest soils. PMID:22291451

  14. Water and gas geochemistry of the Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) hydrothermal system (Ciudad Real, central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Tassi, Franco; Giannini, Luciano; Grandia, Fidel; Darrah, Tom; Capecchiacci, Francesco; del Villar, Pèrez

    2013-04-01

    An extensive geochemical and isotopic investigation was carried out in the water and gas discharges of the Late Miocene-Quaternary Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) (Ciudad Real, Spain) with the aim reconstruct the fluid circulation in the area. CVP consists of a series of scattered (monogenetic) vents from where alkaline lava flows and pyroclastic deposits formed in two different periods. The first stage (8.7-6.4 Ma) mainly included ultra-potassic mafic extrusives, whilst the second stage (4.7-1.75 Ma) prevalently originated alkaline and ultra-alkaline volcanics. Both stages were followed by a volcanic activity that extended up to 1.3 and 0.7 Ma, respectively. This area can likely be regarded as one of the most important emitting zones of CO2 in the whole Peninsular Spain along with that of Selva-Emporda in northeastern Spain (Cataluña) and it can be assumed as one of the best examples of natural analogues of CO2 leakages in Spain. This latter aspect is further evidenced by the relatively common water-gas blast events that characterize the CCVF. In the last few years the presence of a CO2-pressurized reservoir at a relatively shallow level as indeed caused several small-sized explosion particularly during the drilling of domestic wells. The fluid discharging sites are apparently aligned along well-defined directions: NW-SE and NNW-SSE and subordinately, ENE-WSW, indicating a clear relationship between the thermal discharges and the volcanic centers that also distribute along these lineaments. The CVP waters are mostly hypothermal (up to 33 °C) and are generally Mg(Ca)-HCO3 in composition and occasionally show relatively high concentrations of Fe and Mn, with pH and electrical conductivity down to 5.5 and up to 6.5 mS/cm, respectively. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest a meteoric origin for these waters. The mantle source of these volcanic products is apparently preserved in the many CO2-rich (up to 990,000 mmol/mol) gas discharges that characterize CVP

  15. Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2010-11-15

    To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

  16. Approach to the epidemiology of venomous bites in Spain.

    PubMed

    Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; del Pino Luengo, Miguel; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Andújar, Dionisio; Carmona-Alférez, Rocío; Flores, Ricardo Martín; Amate, José María

    2012-09-15

    This review presents a geographic distribution of the three autochthonous venomous snake species, which are the only viperids present in Spain, among the Iberian fauna: Vipera aspid; Vipera seoianei and Vipera latasti. This is followed by a detailed descriptive analysis of hospital care provided to patients admitted into hospital due to venomous bites, in the period from 1997 to 2009, using the data from the Spanish hospital discharge registry database. This analysis reveals that in Spain, during this period, 1649 cases were recorded, which means that hospital care was required for more than one hundred cases per year, of which nearly 1% of the cases resulted in death. Cases were recorded in all the Autonomous communities, but more than half (54, 14%) were concentrated in the following four regions: Cataluña, Castilla and León, Galicia and Andalucía. It is notable that this concentration of cases is not associated only with the population demographics of the community, but is also the result of the concurrence of very diverse factors of exposure including: habitat of venomous fauna, volume of rural population, farming activities, and practice of outdoor leisure activities. We also carried out a gross economic calculation for the use of hospital resources by each snakebite case requiring hospital care in Spain, which provided us with an approximate figure of 2000€ per case. PMID:22484223

  17. Anophelism in a Former Malaria Area of Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: A field study on diversity and distribution of anophelines currently present in a past endemic malaria area of Spain was carried out in order to identify possible risk areas of local disease transmission. Methods: Multiple larval sites were sampled from June to October of 2011 in the Region of Somontano de Barbastro (Northeastern Spain). The sampling effort was fixed at 10 minutes which included the active search for larvae in each biotope visited. Results: A total of 237 larval specimens belonging to four Anopheles species (Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, An. maculipennis and An. petragnani) were collected and identified. Conclusions: Malaria receptivity in the study area is high, especially in the area of Cinca river valley, due to the abundance of breeding sites of An. atroparvus very close to human settlements. Although current socio-economic conditions in Spain reduce possibilities of re-emergence of malaria transmission, it is evident that certain entomological and epidemiological vigilance must be maintained and even increased in the context of current processes of climate change and globalization. PMID:24409440

  18. [Consensus on health assistance for smoking control in Spain].

    PubMed

    Camarelles Guillem, Francisco; Salvador Llivina, Teresa; Ramón Torell, Josep M; Córdoba García, Rodrigo; Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos; López García-Aranda, Víctor; Villalbí Hereter, Joan Ramón; Planchuelo Santos, M Angeles; Sánchez Monfort, Josep; López de Santiago, Asensio

    2009-01-01

    The Consensus on Health Assistance for Smoking Cessation in Spain, is a document reviewing the treatment evidence, as well as policy needs in relation to smoking cessation in Spain. It has been developed by technical representatives of public health administrations, at a national and autonomous level, together with representatives of the scientific societies and professional bodies which are members of the Spanish coalition on smoking prevention National Committee on Tobacco Prevention (CNPT). After approval of a new national tobacco control law 28/2005, several tobacco control policies are being developed, especially by the autonomous governments, including treatment policies. Within this framework, and as part of the requirements of the law, all parties have considered the need to review effectiveness, experimentally validated tobacco dependence treatments and practices. An initial draft written by an expert committee was presented to all parties and discussed at three meetings over a period of a year and a half. The initial draft did review primary and secondary scientific literature from 1987 to 2007 on efficacy and effectiveness of different smoking cessation interventions, including: medical advice and brief smoking cessation interventions; pharmacological aids for treating nicotine dependence; behavioral interventions; specialized intensive treatment; community interventions; and treatment for groups with special needs. Considering the available evidence; current treatment needs; policy gaps; and the criteria of risk, accessibility, efficiency, sustainability and equity; the consensus document recommends the minimal requirements which should be taken into account when developing a policy on smoking cessation in Spain.

  19. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna) and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor. PMID:17173668

  20. Approach to the epidemiology of venomous bites in Spain.

    PubMed

    Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; del Pino Luengo, Miguel; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Andújar, Dionisio; Carmona-Alférez, Rocío; Flores, Ricardo Martín; Amate, José María

    2012-09-15

    This review presents a geographic distribution of the three autochthonous venomous snake species, which are the only viperids present in Spain, among the Iberian fauna: Vipera aspid; Vipera seoianei and Vipera latasti. This is followed by a detailed descriptive analysis of hospital care provided to patients admitted into hospital due to venomous bites, in the period from 1997 to 2009, using the data from the Spanish hospital discharge registry database. This analysis reveals that in Spain, during this period, 1649 cases were recorded, which means that hospital care was required for more than one hundred cases per year, of which nearly 1% of the cases resulted in death. Cases were recorded in all the Autonomous communities, but more than half (54, 14%) were concentrated in the following four regions: Cataluña, Castilla and León, Galicia and Andalucía. It is notable that this concentration of cases is not associated only with the population demographics of the community, but is also the result of the concurrence of very diverse factors of exposure including: habitat of venomous fauna, volume of rural population, farming activities, and practice of outdoor leisure activities. We also carried out a gross economic calculation for the use of hospital resources by each snakebite case requiring hospital care in Spain, which provided us with an approximate figure of 2000€ per case.

  1. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming; Huis, Marijn A. van; Wang, Shuaiwei; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.

    2014-12-28

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., “Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth,” Nano Lett. 14, 3661–3667 (2014)]. In this work, we extend this force field by including another two important binary semiconductors, PbS and CdS, and provide detailed information on the validation of this force field. The parameterization combines Bader charge analysis, empirical fitting, and ab initio energy surface fitting. When compared with experimental data and density functional theory calculations, it is shown that a wide range of physical properties of bulk PbS, PbSe, CdS, CdSe, and their mixed phases can be accurately reproduced using this force field. The choice of functional forms and parameterization strategy is demonstrated to be rational and effective. This transferable force field can be used in various studies on II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials consisting of CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the force field model by molecular dynamics simulations whereby transformations are initiated by cation exchange.

  2. One-pot synthesis of hollow NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles with improved performance for hybrid supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haichao; Fan, Meiqiang; Li, Chao; Tian, Guanglei; Lv, Chunju; Chen, Da; Shu, Kangying; Jiang, Jianjun

    2016-10-01

    Hollow NiSe-CoSe samples have been synthesized for the first time via a one-pot solvothermal approach. The strategy is robust enough to synthesize NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles with different NiSe to CoSe ratios but with a similar hollow structure. Co ions in the NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles play decisive role for formation of the hollow structure; otherwise, the nanoparticles become solid for the NiSe sample. When used as the positive electroactive materials for energy storage, the NiSe-CoSe samples show excellent electrochemical activity in alkaline electrolyte. Using the synergistic effect between NiSe and CoSe, the electrochemical performance of NiSe-CoSe can be tuned by varying the NiSe to CoSe ratios. The NiSe-CoSe sample with a NiSe to CoSe ratio of 4:2 shows the best electrochemical performance in terms of superior specific capacity, improved rate capability and excellent cycling stability. In addition, the electrochemical performance of NiSe-CoSe sample with a NiSe to CoSe ratio of 4:2 is also evaluated via assembling hybrid supercapacitors with RGO, and the hybrid supercapacitor delivers both high power and energy densities (41.8 Wh kg-1 at 750 W kg-1 and 20.3 Wh kg-1 at 30 kW kg-1).

  3. Improved photoluminescence quantum yield and stability of CdSe-TOP, CdSe-ODA-TOPO, CdSe/CdS and CdSe/EP nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shutian; Zhu, Zhilin; Wang, Zhixiao; Wei, Gugangfen; Wang, Pingjian; Li, Hai; Hua, Zhen; Lin, Zhonghai

    2016-07-01

    Size-controllable monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals with different organic capping were prepared based on the hot-injection method. The effective separation of nucleation and growth was achieved by rapidly mixing two highly reactive precursors. As a contrast, we prepared CdSe/CdS nanocrystals (NCs) successfully based on the selective ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. This inorganic capping obtained higher photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 59.3% compared with organic capping of 40.8%. Furthermore, the CdSe-epoxy resin (EP) composites were prepared by adopting a flexible ex situ method, and showed excellent stability in the ambient environment for one year. So the composites with both high PLQY of nanocrystals and excellent stability are very promising to device application.

  4. Se status in normal and pathological human individuals before and after Se supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellisola, G.; Cinque, G.; Galassini, S.; Guidi, G. C.; Liu, N. Q.; Moschini, G.

    1996-04-01

    The determination of selenium in plasma and in urine samples has been suggested for the assessment of Se status in human individuals. The kidney is of fundamental importance in Se homeostasis: with low Se intake its excretion will be decreased and with high Se intake it will be increased. In 21 patients with kidney disease (8 with normal kidney function and 13 with moderate renal failure) Se was measured in 1 ml of urine by PIXE after preconcentration of the sample. The total urine volume was measured to calculate total daily Se excretion. The same procedure was applied to 14 normal individuals for comparison. All individuals were then supplemented orally with selenite for 8 weeks (Se = 600 μg/day) and the procedure was repeated. The behaviour of the major selenoproteins was also investigated by measuring glutathione peroxidase activities in plasma, in platelets and in erythrocyte samples. For renal function, serum and urine creatinine concentrations were utilised and creatinine clearances were calculated. Results obtained were compared before and after Se treatment and between groups. Some correlation studies were carried out between Se and kidney functions and/or selenoperoxidase activities.

  5. Molecular analysis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rickettsia in Hyalomma marginatum ticks removed from patients (Spain) and birds (Spain and Morocco), 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mazuelas, David; Roncero, Lidia; Arizaga, Juan; Crespo, Ariñe; Gutiérrez, Óscar; Márquez, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Juan F; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    2016-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected in Spain in 2010. The presence of CCHFV in Hyalomma marginatum ticks from migratory birds passing through Morocco during the spring migration strengthened the hypothesis of the arrival of infected ticks transported by birds to the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, Hyalomma species are vectors of bacterial infections such as spotted fever rickettsioses. CCHFV and Rickettsia were screened in Hyalomma ticks from Spain attached to patients (n=12) and birds (n=149). In addition, Rickettsia was investigated in 52 Hyalomma ticks from Morocco (previously reported as CCHFV-infected). No sample collected in Spain showed an infection with CCHFV. Two ticks removed from patients (16.7%), as well as 47 (31.5%) and 4 (7.7%) from birds, collected in Spain and Morocco respectively, were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae was also found in 2 ticks from birds collected in Spain (1.3%). The risk of CCHFV-infected ticks attached to migratory birds to reach the North of Spain is low. This study corroborates the presence of R. aeschlimannii in Spain and Morocco, and supports that H. marginatum can be a potential vector of R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae in the Iberian Peninsula.

  6. Geochemical characterization of Cu-smelter emission plumes with impact in an urban area of SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Camacho, R.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; González-Castanedo, Y.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Rodríguez, S.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we present the levels and chemical composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from an urban background monitoring station to assess the impact of Cu-smelter emission plumes on the city of Huelva (south-western Spain). High concentrations of arsenic were measured in PM 10 in 2005 (10.59 ng m - 3 ), compared to 2004 (4.67 ng m - 3 ), which was higher than the target value proposed by the EU as a recommended average value (6 ng m - 3 in PM 10, European Commission, 2004). The PM 2.5 arsenic fraction made up 85% of the total PM 10 arsenic fraction. The increase in As concentration is synchronic with other metals such as Cu, Zn, Se and Bi, and is around 3-5 times higher than at other sites in Spain. The source relating to Cu-smelter emissions accounted for 8% of the bulk mass (3.2 µg PM 10 m - 3 ). Although this source is one of the minor contributions to total PM 10, most heavy metals of environmental interest (As, Se, Bi, Cu, Zn...) are included in it. Three meteorological scenarios were differentiated during episodes of Cu-smelter emission plumes impacting the city of Huelva, coinciding with third-quadrant wind directions. High concentrations of SO 2 and metals in the urban environment air are tracers of the impact of Cu-smelter emission plumes. The methodology used in this study can help in air quality management, and can be used to support strategic plans to reduce the metal emissions from Cu-smelters in order to meet European Directives (e.g. EU, 1999; EU, 2004).

  7. Electroreflectance study of RuSe 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. S.; Lin, S. S.; Sheu, J. S.; Shen, W. M.; Pollak, Fred H.

    1990-12-01

    We report the first electrolyte-electroreflectance (EER) study of a RuSe 2 single crystal in the photon energy region of 0.9-5.5 eV. The EER spectrum exhibits differential like structure in the vicinity of interband transitions. The transition energies are determined accurately. A probable energy-band structure is constructed.

  8. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  9. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Within this submission are multiple .tif images with accompanying metadata of magnetotelluric conductor occurrence, fault critical stress composite risk segment (CRS), permeability CRS, Quaternary mafic extrusions, Quaternary fault density, and Quaternary rhyolite maps. Each of these contributed to a final play fairway analysis (PFA) for the SE Great Basin study area.

  10. Effect of alcohol consumption on selenium (Se) bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.; Snook, J.T.; Yang, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol ingestion on Se bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient (0.012 mg/kg) basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/kg or at 0.085 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at 3 levels: 0%, 10%, and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly (P < .0001) affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance, whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and liver Se. In rats fed the higher Se diet total liver Se increased 50% when 20% rather than 0% alcohol was given. In rats fed the lower Se diet total liver Se decreased 12% as dietary alcohol increased from 0 to 20%. There was a significant (P < .0015) interaction between alcohol and Se level. All the other parameters for Se bioavailability were not affected by alcohol consumption. However, alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  11. Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Gil, J. I.; Inza, A.; Ortega, L. A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Zabalza, J.

    Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995-2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn-Ba and Cu-Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.

  12. The 2013 seismic sequence close to gas injection platform of the Castor project, offshore Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Grigoli, Francesco; Heimann, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Buforn, Elisa; Maghsoudi, Samira; Blanch, Estefania; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    A spatially localized seismic sequence has originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, starting on September 5, 2013, and lasting at least until October 2013. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on October 1, 2013. The epicentral region is located near the offshore platform of the Castor project, where gas is conducted through a pipeline from mainland and where it was recently injected in a depleted oil reservoir, at about 2 km depth. We analyse the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and use full waveform techniques to derive absolute and relative locations, estimate depths and focal mechanisms for the largest events in the sequence (with magnitude mbLg larger than 3), and compare them to a previous event (April 8, 2012, mbLg 3.3) taking place in the same region prior to the gas injection. Moment tensor inversion results show that the overall seismicity in this sequence is characterized by oblique mechanisms with a normal fault component, with a 30° low-dip angle plane oriented NNE-SSW and a sub- vertical plane oriented NW-SE. The combined analysis of hypocentral location and focal mechanisms could indicate that the seismic sequence corresponds to rupture processes along sub- horizontal shallow surfaces, which could have been triggered by the gas injection in the reservoir,. An alternative scenario includes the iterated triggering of a system of steep faults oriented NW-SE, which were identified by prior marine seismics investigations. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE-SW orientation, roughly parallel to the coastline. No significant known historical seismicity has involved this fault in the past. Our both scenarios exclude its activation, as its known orientation is inconsistent with focal mechanism results.

  13. Surface wind direction influence on spatial patterns of urban heat island in Zaragoza (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrat, J. M.; Saz, M. A.; Vicente, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    We analyse the effects of surface wind direction on the spatial urban heat island in Zaragoza (Spain). The general spatial patterns are determined using a sample of 29 daily thermal maps of the city at a resolution of 30 m. Principal Component Analysis (VARIMAX rotation) is used to determine the main thermal spatial patterns in the city. Three components have been extracted. The first represents the most general spatial patterns of urban heat island in Zaragoza. The second one indicates a displacement of the warmest areas to the Southwest of the city, and the third shows another displacement to the Northeast. Rotated component matrix is used to identify the similarities between the daily maps and the general spatial patterns represented by the three components. The dominant direction of surface winds is daily classified according to the dominant direction flows in the city. Winds from 45o to 225o were classified as SE, and the others as NW. Analysis of Variance was used to determine wether there have been significant differences in component matrix values for the three principal components related to the wind direction (SE and NW). No significant differences in the spatial configuration of component 1 are obtained by dominant direction of winds. Nevertheless, the analysis indicates that the matrix values of the second and third components show significant differences in relation to the surface wind direction. Displacement of urban heat island to the Southeast (Component 2) is greater during NW winds, while the displacement to the Northwest (Component 3) is produced mainly by Southeast winds.

  14. Constraining the deformation and exhumation history of the Ronda Massif, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myall, Jack; Donaldson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Ronda peridotite, southern Spain is comprised of four peridotite units hosted within metasedimentary units of the Betic Cordillera, Western Alps. These four areas of differing mineral facies are termed: the Garnet Mylonite , the Foliated Spinel Peridotite, the Granular Spinel Peridotite and the Foliated Plagioclase Peridotite. Whilst two of these units show a strong NE-SW foliation, the granular unit has no foliation and the Plagioclase facies shows a NW-SE foliation. The massif is separated from the metasedimentary host through a mylonite shear zone to the NW and thrust faults to the SE. The Garnets contain rims of Kelyphite which when combined with the rims of Spinel on the Plagioclase crystals illustrate the complicated exhumation of this massif. The Kelyphite shows the breakdown of garnet back to spinel and pyroxene showing the deeper high pressure high temperature mineral is under shallowing conditions whereas in contrast to this the low pressure low temperature plagioclase crystals have spinel rims showing that they have been moved into deeper conditions. The P-T-t pathway of the massif suggests slow exhumation to allow for partial recrystallisation of not only the garnets and plagioclases but of a 100m band of peridotite between the Foliated Spinel Peridotite and the Granular Spinel Peridotite facies. The tectonic model for the Ronda Peridotite that best describes the field data and subsequent lab work of this study is Mantle Core complex and slab roll back models. These models support mantle uprising during an extensional event that whereby slab roll back of the subducting lithosphere provides uplift into a void and emplacement into the crust. Further extension and final exhumation causes rotation of a mantle wedge into its present day position.

  15. Ba4Ga2Se8: A ternary selenide containing chains and discrete Se22- units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenlong; Iyer, Abishek K.; Lin, Xinsong; Mar, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    The ternary selenide Ba4Ga2Se8 has been synthesized by reaction of BaSe, Ga2Se3, and Se at 1023 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a monoclinic structure (space group P21/c, Z=4, a=13.2393(5) Å, b=6.4305(2) Å, c=20.6432(8) Å, β=104.3148(6)°) featuring one-dimensional chains of corner-sharing Ga-centered tetrahedra and discrete Se22- anionic units, with charge-compensating Ba2+ cations located between them. The UV/vis/NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum reveals an optical band gap of 1.63(2) eV, which is consistent with the black color of the crystals and agrees with a calculated gap of 1.51 eV obtained from band structure calculations. The presence of the Se22- units narrows the band gap in Ba4Ga2Se8 relative to other Ba-Ga-Se phases.

  16. Ultra-Fast Synthesis for Ag2Se and CuAgSe Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DUAN, H. Z.; LI, Y. L.; ZHAO, K. P.; QIU, P. F.; SHI, X.; CHEN, L. D.

    2016-10-01

    Ag2Se and CuAgSe have been recently reported as promising thermoelectric materials at room temperature. The traditional melting-annealing-sintering processes are used to grow Ag2Se and CuAgSe materials with the disadvantages of high costs of energy and time. In this work, phase-pure polycrystalline Ag2Se and CuAgSe compounds were synthesized from raw elemental powders directly by manual mixing followed by spark plasma sintering (MM-SPS) in a few minutes. The influence of SPS heating rate on the phase composition, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties, including Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated. The zTs of 0.8 at 390 K and 0.6 at 450 K are obtained for Ag2Se and CuAgSe, respectively, which is comparable with the values in the materials prepared by the traditional method. Furthermore, this ultrafast sample synthesis can significantly save material synthesis time and thus has the obvious advantage for large-scale production.

  17. Ultra-Fast Synthesis for Ag2Se and CuAgSe Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DUAN, H. Z.; LI, Y. L.; ZHAO, K. P.; QIU, P. F.; SHI, X.; CHEN, L. D.

    2016-06-01

    Ag2Se and CuAgSe have been recently reported as promising thermoelectric materials at room temperature. The traditional melting-annealing-sintering processes are used to grow Ag2Se and CuAgSe materials with the disadvantages of high costs of energy and time. In this work, phase-pure polycrystalline Ag2Se and CuAgSe compounds were synthesized from raw elemental powders directly by manual mixing followed by spark plasma sintering (MM-SPS) in a few minutes. The influence of SPS heating rate on the phase composition, microstructure, and thermoelectric properties, including Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated. The zTs of 0.8 at 390 K and 0.6 at 450 K are obtained for Ag2Se and CuAgSe, respectively, which is comparable with the values in the materials prepared by the traditional method. Furthermore, this ultrafast sample synthesis can significantly save material synthesis time and thus has the obvious advantage for large-scale production.

  18. Epitaxial 2D MoSe2 (HfSe2) Semiconductor/2D TaSe2 Metal van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Aretouli, Kleopatra E; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Xenogiannopoulou, Evangelia; Kelaidis, Nikolaos; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-01-27

    Molecular beam epitaxy of 2D metal TaSe2/2D MoSe2 (HfSe2) semiconductor heterostructures on epi-AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates is reported. Electron diffraction reveals an in-plane orientation indicative of van der Waals epitaxy, whereas electronic band imaging supported by first-principles calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the presence of a dominant trigonal prismatic 2H-TaSe2 phase and a minor contribution from octahedrally coordinated TaSe2, which is present in TaSe2/AlN and TaSe2/HfSe2/AlN but notably absent in the TaSe2/MoSe2/AlN, indicating superior structural quality of TaSe2 grown on MoSe2. Apart from its structural and chemical compatibility with the selenide semiconductors, TaSe2 has a workfunction of 5.5 eV as measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, which matches very well with the semiconductor workfunctions, implying that epi-TaSe2 can be used for low-resistivity contacts to MoSe2 and HfSe2. PMID:26727305

  19. 'Cold' crystallization in nanostructurized 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 glass.

    PubMed

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Calvez, Laurent; Petracovschi, Elena; Kulyk, Bohdan; Serkiz, Roman; Szatanik, Roman

    2015-01-01

    'Cold' crystallization in 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 chalcogenide glass nanostructurized due to thermal annealing at 380°C for 10, 25, 50, 80, and 100 h are probed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy, as well as positron annihilation spectroscopy performed in positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line modes. It is shown that changes in defect-related component in the fit of experimental positron lifetime spectra for nanocrystallized glasses testify in favor of structural fragmentation of larger free-volume entities into smaller ones. Nanocrystallites of Ga2Se3 and/or GeGa4Se8 phases and prevalent GeSe2 phase extracted mainly at the surface of thermally treated samples with preceding nucleation and void agglomeration in the initial stage of annealing are characteristic features of cold crystallization.

  20. Superconductivity enhanced by Se doping in Eu3Bi2(S,Se)4F4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Zhai, H. F.; Tang, Z. J.; Li, L.; Li, Y. K.; Chen, Q.; Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Feng, C. M.; Cao, G. H.; Xu, Z. A.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the negative-chemical-pressure effect of Eu3Bi2S4-x Se x F4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.0) by the partial substitution of S with Se. The crystalline lattice substantially expands as Se is doped, suggesting an effective negative chemical pressure. With Se/S doping, the charge-density-wave-like anomaly is suppressed, and meanwhile the superconducting transition temperature (T_c) is enhanced. For x = 2.0 , T c reaches 3.35 K and bulk superconductivity is confirmed by the strong diamagnetic signal, with shielding volume fraction over 90%. Magnetic-susceptibility, specific-heat and Hall-effect measurements reveal that the Se/S doping increases the carrier density, corresponding to the increase of the average Eu valence. Our work provides a rare paradigm of negative-chemical-pressure effect.

  1. 'Cold' crystallization in nanostructurized 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Calvez, Laurent; Petracovschi, Elena; Kulyk, Bohdan; Serkiz, Roman; Szatanik, Roman

    2015-02-01

    'Cold' crystallization in 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 chalcogenide glass nanostructurized due to thermal annealing at 380°C for 10, 25, 50, 80, and 100 h are probed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy, as well as positron annihilation spectroscopy performed in positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line modes. It is shown that changes in defect-related component in the fit of experimental positron lifetime spectra for nanocrystallized glasses testify in favor of structural fragmentation of larger free-volume entities into smaller ones. Nanocrystallites of Ga2Se3 and/or GeGa4Se8 phases and prevalent GeSe2 phase extracted mainly at the surface of thermally treated samples with preceding nucleation and void agglomeration in the initial stage of annealing are characteristic features of cold crystallization.

  2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wombwell, Claire; Caputo, Christine A; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-11-17

    The development of technology for the inexpensive generation of the renewable energy vector H2 through water splitting is of immediate economic, ecological, and humanitarian interest. Recent interest in hydrogenases has been fueled by their exceptionally high catalytic rates for H2 production at a marginal overpotential, which is presently only matched by the nonscalable noble metal platinum. The mechanistic understanding of hydrogenase function guides the design of synthetic catalysts, and selection of a suitable hydrogenase enables direct applications in electro- and photocatalysis. [FeFe]-hydrogenases display excellent H2 evolution activity, but they are irreversibly damaged upon exposure to O2, which currently prevents their use in full water splitting systems. O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases are known, but they are typically strongly biased toward H2 oxidation, while H2 production by [NiFe]-hydrogenases is often product (H2) inhibited. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are a subclass of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with a selenocysteine residue coordinated to the active site nickel center in place of a cysteine. They exhibit a combination of unique properties that are highly advantageous for applications in water splitting compared with other hydrogenases. They display a high H2 evolution rate with marginal inhibition by H2 and tolerance to O2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are therefore one of the most active molecular H2 evolution catalysts applicable in water splitting. Herein, we summarize our recent progress in exploring the unique chemistry of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases through biomimetic model chemistry and the chemistry with [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases in semiartificial photosynthetic systems. We gain perspective from the structural, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of the [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases and compare them with the chemistry of synthetic models of this hydrogenase active site. Our synthetic models give insight into the effects on the electronic properties and reactivity of

  3. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wombwell, Claire; Caputo, Christine A; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-11-17

    The development of technology for the inexpensive generation of the renewable energy vector H2 through water splitting is of immediate economic, ecological, and humanitarian interest. Recent interest in hydrogenases has been fueled by their exceptionally high catalytic rates for H2 production at a marginal overpotential, which is presently only matched by the nonscalable noble metal platinum. The mechanistic understanding of hydrogenase function guides the design of synthetic catalysts, and selection of a suitable hydrogenase enables direct applications in electro- and photocatalysis. [FeFe]-hydrogenases display excellent H2 evolution activity, but they are irreversibly damaged upon exposure to O2, which currently prevents their use in full water splitting systems. O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases are known, but they are typically strongly biased toward H2 oxidation, while H2 production by [NiFe]-hydrogenases is often product (H2) inhibited. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are a subclass of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with a selenocysteine residue coordinated to the active site nickel center in place of a cysteine. They exhibit a combination of unique properties that are highly advantageous for applications in water splitting compared with other hydrogenases. They display a high H2 evolution rate with marginal inhibition by H2 and tolerance to O2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are therefore one of the most active molecular H2 evolution catalysts applicable in water splitting. Herein, we summarize our recent progress in exploring the unique chemistry of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases through biomimetic model chemistry and the chemistry with [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases in semiartificial photosynthetic systems. We gain perspective from the structural, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of the [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases and compare them with the chemistry of synthetic models of this hydrogenase active site. Our synthetic models give insight into the effects on the electronic properties and reactivity of

  4. Two-dimensional semiconductor HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} van der Waals heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Aretouli, K. E.; Tsipas, P.; Tsoutsou, D.; Marquez-Velasco, J.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Giamini, S. A.; Vassalou, E.; Kelaidis, N.; Dimoulas, A.

    2015-04-06

    Using molecular beam epitaxy, atomically thin 2D semiconductor HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} van der Waals heterostructures are grown on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates. Details of the electronic band structure of HfSe{sub 2} are imaged by in-situ angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy indicating a high quality epitaxial layer. High-resolution surface tunneling microscopy supported by first principles calculations provides evidence of an ordered Se adlayer, which may be responsible for a reduction of the measured workfunction of HfSe{sub 2} compared to theoretical predictions. The latter reduction minimizes the workfunction difference between the HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2} layers resulting in a small valence band offset of only 0.13 eV at the MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} heterointerface and a weak type II band alignment.

  5. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-shi

    2003-09-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  6. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain.

  7. Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in Spain.

    PubMed

    Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki; Miguel, Lucía García-San; Ayala-Morillas, L Eduardo; García-Pérez, Lidia; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Martín-Águeda, María Belén; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Although Spain is the European country with the highest Chagas disease burden, the country does not have a national control program of the disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of several strategies for Chagas disease screening among Latin American residents living in Spain. The following screening strategies were evaluated: (1) non-screening; (2) screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns; (3) screening also the relatives of the positive pregnant women; (4) screening also the relatives of the negative pregnant women. A cost-utility analysis was carried out to compare the four strategies from two perspectives, the societal and the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). A decision tree representing the clinical evolution of Chagas disease throughout patient's life was built. The strategies were compared through the incremental cost-utility ratio, using euros as cost measurement and quality-adjusted life years as utility measurement. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the model parameters and their influence on the results. We found the "Non-screening" as the most expensive and less effective of the evaluated strategies, from both the societal and the SNHS perspectives. Among the screening evaluated strategies the most efficient was, from both perspectives, to extent the antenatal screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns up to the relatives of the positive women. Several parameters influenced significantly on the sensitivity analyses, particularly the chronic treatment efficacy or the prevalence of Chagas disease. In conclusion, for the general Latin American immigrants living in Spain the most efficient would be to screen the Latin American mothers, their newborns and the close relatives of the mothers with a positive serology. However for higher prevalence immigrant population the most efficient intervention would be to extend the program to the close relatives of the negative

  8. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain. PMID:25217752

  9. Costs, outcomes and challenges for diabetes care in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming of increasing concern in Spain due to rising incidence and prevalence, although little information is known with regards to costs and outcomes. The information on cost of diabetes in Spain is fragmented and outdated. Our objective is to update diabetes costs, and to identify outcomes and quality of care of diabetes in Spain. Methods We performed systematic searches from secondary sources, including scientific literature and government data and reports. Results Diabetes Type II prevalence is estimated at 7.8%, and an additional 6% of the population is estimated to be undiagnosed. Four Spanish diabetes cost studies were analyzed to create a projection of direct costs in the NHS and productivity losses, estimating €5.1 billion for direct costs along with €1.5 billion for diabetes-related complications (2009) and labour productivity losses represented €2.8 billion. Glycemic control (glycolysated hemoglobin) is considered acceptable in 59% of adult Type II cases, in addition to 85% with HDL cholesterol ≥40mg/dl and 65% with blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, pointing to good intermediate outcomes. However, annual figures indicate that over half of the Type II diabetics are obese (BMI >30), 15% have diabetic retinopathy, 16% with microalbuminuria, and 15% with cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The direct health care costs (8% of the total National Health System expenditure) and the loss of labour productivity are high. The importance of a multi-sectoral approach in prevention and improvements in management of diabetes are discussed, along with policy considerations to help modify the disease course. PMID:23635075

  10. Mortality attributable to passive smoking in Spain, 2002

    PubMed Central

    López, M J; Pérez‐Ríos, M; Schiaffino, A; Nebot, M; Montes, A; Ariza, C; García, M; Juárez, O; Moncada, A; Fernández, E

    2007-01-01

    Objective Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of deaths caused by exposure to ETS among non‐smokers in Spain during the year 2002 Methods Prevalence of ETS exposure among never smokers was gathered from three region based health interview surveys. The relative risks of lung cancer and ichaemic heart diseases were selected from three meta‐analyses. Population attributable risk (PAR) was computed using a range of prevalences (minimum‐maximum). The number of deaths attributable to ETS was calculated by applying PARs to mortality not attributable to active smoking in 2002. The analyses were stratified by sex, age and source of exposure (home, workplace and both combined). In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed for different scenarios. Results Among men, deaths attributable to ETS ranged from 408 to 1703. From 247 to 1434 of these deaths would be caused by the exposure only at home, 136–196 by exposure only in the workplace and 25–73 by exposure at both home and the workplace. Among women, the number of attributable deaths ranged from 820 to 1534. Between 807 and 1477 of these deaths would be caused by exposure only at home, 9–32 by exposure only in the workplace and 4–25 by exposure both at home and in the workplace. Conclusion Exposure to ETS at home and at work in Spain could be responsible for 1228–3237 of deaths from lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease. These data confirm that passive smoking is an important public health problem in Spain that needs urgent attention. PMID:18048612

  11. Burden of disease due to cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Gil, Ángel; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Burden of disease is a joint measure of mortality and morbidity which makes it easier to compare health problems in which these two components enjoy different degrees of relative importance. The objective of this study is ascertaining the burden of disease due to cancer in Spain via the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to premature mortality and years lost due to disability. World Health Organization methodology and the following sources of data were used: the Mortality Register and Princeton Model Life Table for Years of life lost due to premature mortality and population, incidence estimates (Spanish tumour registries and fitting of generalized linear mixed models), duration (from data of survival in Spain from the EUROCARE-3 study and fitting of Weibull distribution function) and disability (weights published in the literature) for Years lost due to disability. Results There were 828,997 DALYs due to cancer (20.5 DALYs/1,000 population), 61% in men. Of the total, 51% corresponded to lung, colorectal, breast, stomach and prostate cancers. Mortality (84% of DALYs) predominated over disability. Subjects aged under 20 years accounted for 1.6% and those aged over 70 years accounted for 30.1% of DALYs. Conclusion Lung, colorectal and breast cancers are responsible for the highest number of DALYs in Spain. Even if the burden of disease due to cancer is predominantly caused by mortality, some cancers have a significant weight of disability. Information on 2000 burden of disease due to cancer can be useful to assess how it has evolved over time and the impact of medical advances on it in terms of mortality and disability. PMID:19183440

  12. Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Parés-Badell, Oleguer; Barbaglia, Gabriela; Jerinic, Petra; Gustavsson, Anders; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain disorders represent a high burden in Europe and worldwide. The objective of this study was to provide specific estimates of the economic costs of brain disorders in Spain, based on published epidemiological and economic evidence. Methods A cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective of 19 brain disorders was carried out. Cost data published between 2004 and 2012 was obtained from a systematic literature review. Direct healthcare, direct non-medical and indirect costs were considered, prioritizing bottom-up information. All costs were converted to Euro and to year 2010. The missing values were imputed with European estimates. Sensitivity analyses based on qualitative assessment of the literature and on a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Results The review identified 33 articles with information on costs for 11 disorders (8 neurological, 3 mental). The average per–patient cost ranged from 36,946 € for multiple sclerosis to 402 € for headache. The societal cost of the 19 brain disorders in Spain in 2010 was estimated in 84 € billion. Societal costs ranged from 15 € billion for dementia to 65 € million for eating disorders. Mental disorders societal cost were 46 € billions (55% of the total), while neurological disorder added up to 38 € billion. Healthcare costs represented 37% of the societal costs of brain disorders, whereas direct non-medical constituted 29% and indirect costs 33%. Conclusion Brain disorders have a substantial economic impact in Spain (equivalent to almost 8% of the country's GDP). Economic data on several important brain disorders, specially mental disorders, is still sparse. PMID:25133395

  13. Changing trends in the epidemiology of hip fracture in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Azagra, R.; López-Expósito, F.; Martin-Sánchez, JC.; Aguyé, A.; Moreno, N.; Cooper, C.; Díez-Pérez, A.; Dennison, EM.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Temporal trends in hip fracture incidence have recently been reported in some developed countries. Such data in Spain has previously been incomplete; this study reports the stratified incidence of hip fractures in people over 65 in Spain during the last 14 years. Introduction The main objective is to establish whether temporal trends in hip fracture incidence in Spain exist. Methods Ecological study with data from hospital discharges nationwide. The study includes patients aged ≥ 65 years during a 14-year period (1997-2010). The analysis compares two periods of four years: 1997-2000 (P1) and 2007-2010 (P2). Results There were 119,857 fractures in men and 415,421 in women. Comparing periods (P1 vs P2), over ten years the crude incidence rate/100,000 inhabitant/year increased an average of 2.3%/year in men and 1.4% in women. After adjustment, the rate increased an average of 0.4%/year in men (p<0.0001), but decreased 0.2%/year in women (p<0.0001). In men younger than 85, the decrease was not significant except in 70-74 years and from 80 years the adjusted rate increases significantly (p<0.0001). In women under 80 years of age, the decrease in adjusted rate was significant, there was no change in 80-84 years and the adjusted rate increased significantly in individuals 85 years and older (p<0.0001). Mortality rates declined by 22% in both sexes and the index of overaging population rises 30.1% in men and 25.2% in women. Conclusions This study supports other international studies by showing changes in the incidence of hip fractures after age-population adjustment, which denotes a decrease in the younger age groups and among women and shows an increase in both groups over 85 years. The increase in the crude incidence rate of hip fracture in Spain reflects changes in population structure. PMID:24322478

  14. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    PubMed

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  15. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 2)].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio; Taboada-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Limia-Sánchez, Aurora

    2016-03-08

    Immunization schedules are intrinsically dynamic in order to embed the immunologic and epidemiologic changes in any specific geographic Region. According to this, the current study addresses a proposal to modify the Childhood Immunization Schedule in Spain. In order to move from a three plus one schema to a two plus one, we undertake a review of the available literature to explore the immunological and clinical rationale behind this change, including an overview of the potential impact on this schedule of premature infants. Additionally, some recommendations are made regarding those Spanish regions which start hepatitis B vaccination at the newborn period.

  16. [Aging at home with telecare in Spain. A dicourse analysis].

    PubMed

    Aceros, Juan C; Cavalcante, Maria Tereza Leal; Domènech, Miquel

    2016-08-01

    Caring for the elderly is turning to forms of community care and home care. Telecare is one of those emergent modalities of caring. This article will explore the meanings that older people give to the experience of staying at home in later life by using telecare. Discourse analysis is used to examine a set of focus groups and interviews with telecare users from different cities of Catalonia (Spain). The outcomes include three interpretative repertoires that we called: "Aging at home", "normal aging" and "unsafe aging". For each repertoire we examine how the permanence of older people in their homes is accounted, and which role telecare plays in such experience.

  17. Dynamics of the bioethics dialogue in a Spain in transition.

    PubMed

    Abel, F

    1990-01-01

    Serious work on bioethics at private Spanish institutions began in 1975, when the Spanish Government was in transition toward democracy. Since then the country has developed significant centers of bioethics study and a wide-ranging community of experts in this field. Reasons relating partly to Spain's recent history and partly to the nature of its health system have kept the discipline from attracting the support and collaboration of much of the nation's medical fraternity. This could change, however, in response to a changing legal picture, creation of hospital ethics committees, and a growing need for stronger ties between bioethicists and the medical community at large. PMID:2073567

  18. Ideal men: masculinity and decline in seventeenth-century Spain.

    PubMed

    Lehfeldt, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how the experience and critique of their country's decline led Spaniards to craft a distinct discourse of masculinity in the seventeenth century. As they self-consciously examined Spain's crisis and offered political and economic solutions, these same writers also offered a scathing critique of standards of masculinity. Using the figure of the ideal nobleman as a case study, the article examines how moralists, arbitristas, and hagiographers constructed a dynamic code of manhood linked to questions of productivity, male chastity, and military performance. Further, it argues that this discourse was ultimately nostalgic and failed to adapt itself to the circumstances of the seventeenth century.

  19. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 2)].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio; Taboada-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Limia-Sánchez, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Immunization schedules are intrinsically dynamic in order to embed the immunologic and epidemiologic changes in any specific geographic Region. According to this, the current study addresses a proposal to modify the Childhood Immunization Schedule in Spain. In order to move from a three plus one schema to a two plus one, we undertake a review of the available literature to explore the immunological and clinical rationale behind this change, including an overview of the potential impact on this schedule of premature infants. Additionally, some recommendations are made regarding those Spanish regions which start hepatitis B vaccination at the newborn period. PMID:26960345

  20. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    PubMed

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  1. [Aging at home with telecare in Spain. A dicourse analysis].

    PubMed

    Aceros, Juan C; Cavalcante, Maria Tereza Leal; Domènech, Miquel

    2016-08-01

    Caring for the elderly is turning to forms of community care and home care. Telecare is one of those emergent modalities of caring. This article will explore the meanings that older people give to the experience of staying at home in later life by using telecare. Discourse analysis is used to examine a set of focus groups and interviews with telecare users from different cities of Catalonia (Spain). The outcomes include three interpretative repertoires that we called: "Aging at home", "normal aging" and "unsafe aging". For each repertoire we examine how the permanence of older people in their homes is accounted, and which role telecare plays in such experience. PMID:27557015

  2. Spain faced with continued slowdown in oil development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-20

    Exploration and development activity in the Spanish sector of the Mediterranean remained sluggish last year, continuing the sharp decline experienced in 1986. The worldwide crude-oil glut, high operating costs, and lack of any significant discovery since 1976 have undermined explorationists' confidence. It was also one of the most disappointing years since exploration began in Spain. Nearly all the reduced numbers of wells were either dry or had noncommercial shows. Spanish production averaged 32,810 b/d last year. The offshore Casablanca field provided 29,260 b/d.

  3. [The beginnings of public health studies in Renaissance Spain].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn. PMID:17193808

  4. Nine new species of Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera) from Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Romera, Carlos; Barrientos, Jose Antonio

    2014-08-28

    One new species of Triphleba Rondani and eight new species of Megaselia Rondani are described from Montseny Natural Park (mainland Spain). The new species are Megaselia arbuciensis García-Romera sp.nov., Megaselia barrientosi García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia callunae García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia carminis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia ivanis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia longianalis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia montseniensis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia sarae García-Romera sp. nov., Triphleba beatricis García-Romera sp. nov. 

  5. [The beginnings of public health studies in Renaissance Spain].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn.

  6. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    preliminary data already suggests differences in salinity between insolation maxima's and minima's, which is not expressed in this low resolution signal. In addition we are backing up the ACE proxy data by deuterium values as an independent comparison. Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F.J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F.J., Wilson, D.S., 1999. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature 400, 652-655. Sierro, F.J., Hilgen, F.J., Krijgsman, W., Flores, J.A., 2001. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 168, 141-169. Turich, C., Freeman, K.H., 2011. Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems. Organic Geochemistry 42, 1147-1157.

  7. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes a Na/K geothermometer probability greater than 200 deg C map, as well as two play fairway analysis (PFA) models. The probability map acts as a composite risk segment for the PFA models. The PFA models differ in their application of magnetotelluric conductors as composite risk segments. These PFA models map out the geothermal potential in the region of SE Great Basin, Utah.

  8. Education of Deaf Students in Spain: Legal and Educational Politics Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Fuentes, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the legal instruments and educational politics affecting deaf persons' educational rights in Spain. We present a historical view of deaf education in Spain before and after the Congress of Milan (1880) and then introduce educational legislation and practices in recent decades. At present, Spanish legislation is moving toward…

  9. Pedagogical Innovation and Music Education in Spain: Introducing the Dalcroze Method in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comas Rubí, Francesca; Motilla-Salas, Xavier; Sureda-Garcia, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse how the Dalcroze method was introduced to Spain and became known there, more specifically in the Catalonia of the "Noucentisme" movement, and why it made the greatest impact and was more widely disseminated in this particular region of Spain. Following a summary of Dalcroze's contributions to…

  10. Transition Scenarios for Young People with Learning Disabilities in Spain. Relationships and Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallisera, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines transition scenarios to adult and active life in Spain from an inclusive viewpoint. For people with learning disabilities, the transition to adult life is a particularly complex process worldwide, and this is especially true in Spain. The multitude of services and professionals involved, the diversity of views regarding what…

  11. Review of Doctoral Research on Second Language Teaching and Learning in Spain (2008-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Raquel; Miralpeix, Imma

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of doctoral theses on language learning and teaching completed in Spain between 2008 and 2010. A total of 16 theses have been identified as representative--in terms of the topics under investigation and the methodology employed--of the doctoral research undertaken in Spain. Current topics include the development of…

  12. School Choice in Spain and the United States: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umpstead, Regina; Jankens, Benjamin; Ortega Gil, Pablo; Weiss, Linda; Umpstead, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article explores issues of school choice in Spain and the United States by examining the roles and functions of "centros concertados," publicly funded private schools in Spain, and public charter schools in the United States, to provide key insights into the similarities and differences between them. After making a national…

  13. 77 FR 22463 - Importation of Clementines From Spain; Amendment to Inspection Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ..., 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 81942-81943, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0036) a proposal... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD27 Importation of Clementines From Spain; Amendment to...: We are amending the regulations governing the importation of clementines from Spain by removing...

  14. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  15. 75 FR 62764 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain and the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Order''); see also Chlorinated Isocyanurates from Spain: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 70 FR 36562...\\ See Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain; Determinations, 75 FR 61772 (October 6, 2010... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 23240 (May 3, 2010); see also Notice of Antidumping...

  16. 77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... respect to Brazil and Spain. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74807) and determined on March 5, 2012 that it would conduct expedited reviews (77 FR 18861, March 28... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On the...

  17. Identification, Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal Learning in Spain. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Juan Jose; Alas-Pumarino, Andres; Santos, Maximiano

    This report describes and analyzes the situation of nonformal learning in Spain. Chapter 1 describes the Spanish context by looking at qualification as the point of departure; recent changes in the industrial fabric of Spain and the birth of a new social and institutional view of qualification; the reform of vocational education and training;…

  18. The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

  19. Moroccan Immigrant Children in a Time of Surveillance: Navigating Sameness and Difference in Contemporary Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Sanchez, Inmaculada Maria

    2009-01-01

    Moroccan Immigrant Children in a Time of Surveillance: Navigating Sameness and Rooted in twenty months of ethnographic fieldwork in Southwestern Spain, this dissertation analyzes the socio-cultural and linguistic lifeworlds of 8-11 year-old Moroccan immigrant children as they navigate family, school institutions, and peer groups in Spain. To…

  20. 62 FR 61036 - Changes in Disease Status of Belgium, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-11-14

    ... specified conditions, based on the regions' disease status (see 62 FR 56000-56033, October 28, 1997, Dockets..., Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...-mouth disease; Greece free of rinderpest; France, Greece, Luxembourg, and Spain free of exotic...

  1. Global Citizenship and National (Re)formations: Analysis of Citizenship Education Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many European education systems have embarked on a process of education policy and curriculum reform related to citizenship education. This article explores citizenship education reform in the context of Spain. It considers how and to what extent Spain's 2006 citizenship education addressed issues of national and global…

  2. The Ratification of Spain of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surribas, Santiago Castella

    This report describes the development and approval of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. After discussing the expression of consent to the European Charter, the report focuses on the ratification process of and obligations assumed by Spain. Although Spain was one of the first signatories in 1992, the ratification was not…

  3. The Situation of Open Access Institutional Repositories in Spain: 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Remedios; Abadal, Ernest; Abad, Francisca; Rodriguez-Gairin, Josep Manel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The DRIVER I project drew up a detailed report of European repositories based on data gathered in a survey in which Spain's participation was very low. This created a highly distorted image of the implementation of repositories in Spain. This study aims to analyse the current state of Spanish open-access institutional repositories…

  4. From Student Associations to CEUNE: The Development of Student Representation in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parejo, José Luis; Lorente, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The forms of students' political participation in the administration of higher education in Spain have evolved throughout history. Spain has developed from a period characterised by the corporatist model of Sindicato Espanõl Universitario--as a single syndicate of students controlled by the Franco Regime--towards the emergence of a student…

  5. An Induction Programme for Bologna First-Year Bachelor's Degree Students in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del-Arco Bravo, Isabel; Camats, Ramon; Flores, Oscar; Alaminos, Francisco; Blazquez, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The current study describes the planning process and aims of the university reforms in Spain and suggests an innovative proposal, namely the design and evaluation of a week-long induction programme for first-year bachelor's degree students at the University of Lleida (Spain), organised within the European higher education framework.…

  6. Magnetic ground state of FeSe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qisi; Shen, Yao; Pan, Bingying; Zhang, Xiaowen; Ikeuchi, K.; Iida, K.; Christianson, A. D.; Walker, H. C.; Adroja, D. T.; Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Chen, Xiaojia; Chareev, D. A.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the nature of the magnetism of a high-temperature superconductor is crucial for establishing its pairing mechanism. The parent compounds of the cuprate and iron-pnictide superconductors exhibit Néel and stripe magnetic order, respectively. However, FeSe, the structurally simplest iron-based superconductor, shows nematic order (Ts=90 K), but not magnetic order in the parent phase, and its magnetic ground state is intensely debated. Here we report inelastic neutron-scattering experiments that reveal both stripe and Néel spin fluctuations over a wide energy range at 110 K. On entering the nematic phase, a substantial amount of spectral weight is transferred from the Néel to the stripe spin fluctuations. Moreover, the total fluctuating magnetic moment of FeSe is ∼60% larger than that in the iron pnictide BaFe2As2. Our results suggest that FeSe is a novel S=1 nematic quantum-disordered paramagnet interpolating between the Néel and stripe magnetic instabilities. PMID:27431986

  7. Magnetic ground state of FeSe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qisi; Shen, Yao; Pan, Bingying; Zhang, Xiaowen; Ikeuchi, K; Iida, K; Christianson, A D; Walker, H C; Adroja, D T; Abdel-Hafiez, M; Chen, Xiaojia; Chareev, D A; Vasiliev, A N; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the nature of the magnetism of a high-temperature superconductor is crucial for establishing its pairing mechanism. The parent compounds of the cuprate and iron-pnictide superconductors exhibit Néel and stripe magnetic order, respectively. However, FeSe, the structurally simplest iron-based superconductor, shows nematic order (Ts=90 K), but not magnetic order in the parent phase, and its magnetic ground state is intensely debated. Here we report inelastic neutron-scattering experiments that reveal both stripe and Néel spin fluctuations over a wide energy range at 110 K. On entering the nematic phase, a substantial amount of spectral weight is transferred from the Néel to the stripe spin fluctuations. Moreover, the total fluctuating magnetic moment of FeSe is ∼60% larger than that in the iron pnictide BaFe2As2. Our results suggest that FeSe is a novel S=1 nematic quantum-disordered paramagnet interpolating between the Néel and stripe magnetic instabilities. PMID:27431986

  8. Quadrupolar Spin Orders in FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentao; Nevidomskyy, Andriy

    Motivated by the absence of long-range magnetic order and the strong spin fluctuations observed in the Fe-based superconductor FeSe, we study spin-1 model on a square lattice up to next-nearest neighbor Heisenberg and biquadratic spin exchanges. The zero-temperature variational phase diagram gives the conventional antiferromagnetic order and also more exotic quadrupolar spin phases. These quadrupolar phases do not host long-range magnetic order and preserve time-reversal symmetry, but break the spin SU(2) symmetry. In particular, we observe a robust ferroquadrupolar order (FQ) in immediate proximity to the columnar AFM phase. We envision that FeSe may be positioned within the FQ phase close to the phase boundary. Using the flavor-wave technique, we calculate the structure factor inside the FQ phase and find a Goldstone mode emerging from Q = (0 , 0) , which however bears zero spectral weight at ω = 0 due to time reversal symmetry. At the same time, we observe strong spin fluctuations near (π , 0) / (0 , π) , which agrees with the recent neutron scattering experiments. Further, we calculate the higher order interactions between the (π , 0) and (0 , π) spin fluctuations inside the FQ phase, which may shed light on the C4 symmetry breaking in the nematic phase of FeSe.

  9. Community and the Myth of the Ideal School: Circulation and Appropriation of the Hamburg Gemeinschaftsschulen in Spain (1922-1933)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Pozo Andrés, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    The progressive education movement was known in Spain from its very inception, and in fact many of its pedagogical theories and practices reached Spain before reaching other European countries. Yet traditional historiography has always maintained that Spain was never integrated in the progressive education movement, a misconception that helps…

  10. 76 FR 74807 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... on imports of stainless steel bar from Spain (60 FR 11656). Following first five-year reviews by... duty orders on imports of stainless steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain (66 FR 19919..., Japan, and Spain (72 FR 2858). The Commission is now conducting third reviews to determine...

  11. Use of homeopathy in organic dairy farming in Spain.

    PubMed

    Orjales, Inmaculada; López-Alonso, Marta; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Rey-Crespo, Francisco; Villar, Ana; Miranda, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Organic farming principles promote the use of unconventional therapies as an alternative to chemical substances (which are limited by organic regulations), with homeopathy being the most extensive. Traditionally, Spain has had little faith in homeopathy but its use in organic farming is growing. Fifty-six Spanish organic dairy farmers were interviewed to obtain what we believe to be the first data on the use of homeopathy in organic dairy cattle in Spain. Only 32% of farms use some sort of alternative therapy (16.1% homeopathy, 10.7% phytotherapy and 5.3% using both therapies) and interestingly, a clear geographical pattern showing a higher use towards the East (similar to that in the human population) was observed. The main motivation to use homeopathy was the need to reduce chemical substances promoted by organic regulations, and the treatment of clinical mastitis being the principle reason. The number of total treatments was lower in farms using homeopathy compared with those applying allopathic therapies (0.13 and 0.54 treatments/cow/year respectively) and although the bulk SCC was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in these farms (161,826 and 111,218 cel/ml, respectively) it did not have any negative economical penalty for the farmer and milk quality was not affected complying with the required standards; on the contrary homeopathic therapies seems to be an alternative for reducing antibiotic treatments, allowing farmers to meet the organic farming principles.

  12. Effects of the great recession on drugs consumption in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martin Bassols, Nicolau; Vall Castelló, Judit

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents evidence on how the consumption of legal and illegal drugs has changed in response to the Great Recession in Spain. We use a large scale survey from 2005 to 2011 to analyze the association between changes in local economic conditions and drug consumption among individuals aged 15-64. Although Spain was one of the countries hardest hit by the economic downturn, the crisis was unevenly felt across the country. Therefore, we exploit this difference in unemployment rates across provinces to identify the effects of business cycle variations on the consumption of legal and illegal drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to find a relation between the deterioration of local economic conditions and a strong increase in the consumption of marihuana and cocaine. We also report a decrease in alcohol consumption but a significant escalation in abusive smoking behavior (smoking every day). We believe that these findings are important not only for the potential negative implications at the individual level but also for the costs to society as a whole.

  13. Intussusception following rotavirus vaccination in the Valencia Region, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Vilar, Silvia; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Romio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown high intussusception rates in Spain. We performed a hospital-based retrospective observational study of the intussusception risk following rotavirus vaccinations among infants in Valencia, a region of Spain with an annual birth cohort of approximately 48,000 children, during 2007–2011, using a self-controlled case series design. We performed medical record review of all cases using Brighton Collaboration´s case definition and assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) of the intussusception diagnosis code. Among 151 hospitalized cases discharged as intussusception, we confirmed 136 as Brighton Collaboration's Levels 1 or 2, resulting in a PPV of 93% (95% CI: 87%–96%). Three confirmed cases occurred within days 1–7 following the first rotavirus vaccination. The incidence rate ratio was 9.0 (95% CI: 0.9–86.5) (crude) and 4.7 (95% CI:0.3–74.1)(age adjusted). In this first study in Europe, the intussusception risk point estimate was comparable to other studies, although results were not statistically significant, maybe due to limited power. The high PPV found will facilitate implementation of a larger study without requiring medical record review. Our finding of very few vaccinated cases despite a thorough 5-year investigation in a country that, according to previous studies, may have a large background rate of intussusception is reassuring and should contribute to deliberations about the need to include rotavirus vaccines in the official Spanish calendars. PMID:26083707

  14. Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain, 2001–2005

    PubMed Central

    López-de-Andrés, Ana; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Galarza, Patricia Graciela; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2008-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe and analyze hospital admissions in Spain due to rotavirus infections among children aged 5 years or under during the period 2001–2005, along with the associated health cost. Methods To update estimates of rotavirus hospitalizations rates in Spain, we conducted a retrospective study of 5 years of national hospitalization data associated with acute gastroenteritis using the Minimum Basic Data Set. Results During the study period, a total of 17.1% of all admissions due to acute gastroenteritis of any etiology in children aged ≤ 5 years were attributable to rotavirus infection as determined by the rotavirus-specific International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification code. A mean incidence of 135 hospital admissions attributable to rotavirus per 100,000 children aged ≤ 5 years was found. Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus had a marked winter-time seasonality. The estimated cost of hospital admission attributable to rotavirus has risen from 3 million euros estimated for 2001 to almost 7 million euros estimated in 2005. Conclusion Rotavirus gastroenteritis remains an important cause of hospitalizations in Spanish children, mostly during the winter season. PMID:18397512

  15. Implementation of the e-Bug Project in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Carla; González, Elena; García, Alejandro; Campos, José

    2011-06-01

    Antibiotic abuse and misuse have been recognized as important factors in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. To prevent the further dissemination of resistance and to develop effective strategies to foster appropriate antibiotic consumption in all European countries, international cooperation is necessary. In comparison with some European countries, Spain shows high percentages of antibiotic resistance in several community-associated bacterial pathogens. In recent years, the health education of children has become a powerful tool for the promotion of healthy lifestyles. The e-Bug Project is a promising approach to improve the prudent use of antibiotics and hygiene habits, and to prevent disease transmission. It is expected that this project will influence Spanish children and young people, so that the adults of the future may follow healthier lifestyles and misuse antibiotics less. The implementation of the e-Bug Project in Spain is explained in this article, including an additional activity of the Ministry of Education related to the European Antibiotic Awareness Day.

  16. [Cirurgia Taurina--emergency medical treatment of bullfighters in Spain].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, V; Lehmann, J

    2003-08-01

    A considerable risk of life-threatening injury is inherent to bullfighting. Thus, a unique form of emergency treatment has evolved over recent decades of organized bull-fighting. Today bullfight arenas in larger cities are equipped with emergency facilities including fully furnished operating rooms. During a fiesta these facilities are run by a medical team consisting of three surgeons, one intensive care specialist, and one anesthesiologist with their supporting medical personnel. In smaller arenas or villages immediate care units consist of emergency vehicles, and a mobile container equipped with a fully functional operating room. Of all toreros the matadores including the novilleros are most often injured in 56 % of cases. This rate decreases for banderillos (30 %), and for picadores (14 %). Parts of the body that are most frequently affected are thighs, and the inguinal region (54 %). Head and neck injuries are seen in 19 %, and 12 % of cases present with open abdominal wounds including liver or gastrointestinal tract traumas. 10 % of injuries affect the thorax, and 4 % the pelvic floor. The particular form of organised medical treatment for bullfighters in Spain has only developed since the nineteen-thirties. In 1972 a scientific society for bullfight surgery was founded in Spain by specialized surgeons, and immediate care specialists holding a first convention that year. The society is continuously striving to improve technical and logistical aspects of immediate medical care for injured bullfighters.

  17. Effects of the great recession on drugs consumption in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martin Bassols, Nicolau; Vall Castelló, Judit

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents evidence on how the consumption of legal and illegal drugs has changed in response to the Great Recession in Spain. We use a large scale survey from 2005 to 2011 to analyze the association between changes in local economic conditions and drug consumption among individuals aged 15-64. Although Spain was one of the countries hardest hit by the economic downturn, the crisis was unevenly felt across the country. Therefore, we exploit this difference in unemployment rates across provinces to identify the effects of business cycle variations on the consumption of legal and illegal drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to find a relation between the deterioration of local economic conditions and a strong increase in the consumption of marihuana and cocaine. We also report a decrease in alcohol consumption but a significant escalation in abusive smoking behavior (smoking every day). We believe that these findings are important not only for the potential negative implications at the individual level but also for the costs to society as a whole. PMID:27039369

  18. Incidence of the major Brassica pests in northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cartea, M E; Padilla, G; Vilar, M; Velasco, P

    2009-04-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. acephala group) crops are common in northwestern Spain, where they are severely damaged by different insect pests. The damage notably affects the value of this crop because it is freshly consumed and fresh processed. The objective of this work was to determine the abundance and relative importance of the main Lepidoptera pests of Brassica crops for 6 yr at five localities in northwestern Spain and to relate the seasonal changes of larval populations and environmental conditions. Pheromone traps were used as a method of monitoring adults. Larval populations were monitored on kales by counting the larvae for several years and locations at different sample dates. Five species were found: Mamestra brassicae (L.); imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.); Pieris brassicae (L.); diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella (L.); and Autographa gamma L. Proportions of each insect fluctuated over the years and in the different locations. M. brassicae was the most abundant (48.5% of the total of Lepidoptera species) followed by P. xyllostella (25%) and P. rapae (15%). The use of pheromone traps combined with plant sampling permitted the detection of two generations of M. brassicae. However, adult counts were not correlated to the number of larvae on plants. PMID:19449659

  19. Adrenal insufficiency and adrenal replacement therapy. Current status in Spain.

    PubMed

    Aulinas, Anna; Casanueva, Felipe; Goñi, Fernando; Monereo, Susana; Moreno, Basilio; Picó, Antonio; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Salvador, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J; Webb, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare endocrine disease, associated to increased mortality if left untreated. It can be due to a primary failure of the adrenal glands (primary AI) or malfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) (secondary AI). The lack of data on incidence/prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in Spain complicates any evaluation of the magnitude of the problem in our country. Initial symptoms are non-specific, so often there is a delay in diagnosis. Current therapy with available glucocorticoids is associated with decreased quality of life in patients with treated AI, as well as with increased mortality and morbidity, probably related to both over-treatment and lack of hydrocortisone, associated with non-physiological peaks and troughs of the drug over the 24 hours. The availability of a new drug with a modified dual release (immediate and retarded), that requires one only daily dose, improves and simplifies the treatment, increases compliance as well as quality of life, morbidity and possibly mortality. This revision deals with the knowledge on the situation both globally and in Spain, prior to the availability of this new drug.

  20. Cervical cancer: incidence and survival in migrants within Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Borràs, J M; Sánchez, V; Moreno, V; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study examined the incidence of cervical cancer and survival rates according to migrant experience of women from different regions of Spain to Girona, Catalonia (Spain). DESIGN--Using data from the population based cancer registry of Girona for the period 1980-89, crude and age adjusted incidence rates were calculated for local-born and first generation migrants from other Spanish regions. The age standardised rate ratio (SRR) was calculated and Cox's regression model was used to adjust survival according to migrant status for age and stage at diagnosis. MAIN RESULTS--The incidence of cervical cancer was significantly higher in first generation Spanish migrants compared with locally born women (SRR: 2.02; 95% CI 1.40:2.92). The stage at diagnosis was more advanced among migrants. Survival probability was significantly associated with stage at diagnosis, but age and region of birth were not. CONCLUSIONS--Migrants from the southern Spanish regions show a twofold excess in the incidence of cervical cancer compared with the Girona-born female population. Cases of cervical cancer in migrants are diagnosed at a more advanced stage and as a consequence have a poorer prognosis. PMID:7798043