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Sample records for alicyclic mono di

  1. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  2. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  3. Study of viscosity of mono-, di-, and trialkylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Sindhe, R. G.; Patel, A. T.; Dave, J. P.; Patel, S. G.; Patel, B. M.

    1992-07-01

    Viscosities of several mono-, di-, and trialkylamines have been measured in the temperature range 298 to 333 K. It is observed that viscosities are highly dependent on shape, size, and association through H-bond or through dipole. Following the transition state theory, energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy of activation of viscous flow have been calculated. The values of expansion energy for these liquids have also been calculated using free volume theory, and subsequently amines have been classified as volume-restrained or energy-restrained liquids. The group contribution method of Van Velzen, Cardozo, and Langenkamp for estimating viscosity has been examined with the present and literature data, and the new group contribution increments ΔN i and ΔB i for amines have been evaluated.

  4. Interaction of potassium mono and di phosphates with bovine serum albumin studied by fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Bakkialakshmi, S; Shanthi, B; Chandrakala, D

    2011-03-01

    The interactions between potassium mono and di phosphates and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). The experimental results showed that the potassium mono and di phosphates could insert into the BSA and quench the inner fluorescence of BSA by forming the potassium mono phosphate-BSA and pottassium di phosphate-BSA complexes. It was found that the static quenching was the main reason leading to the fluorescence quenching. It was conformed by XRD and SEM techniques.

  5. The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Colby, J; Stirling, D I; Dalton, H

    1977-08-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses the oxidation of various substituted methane derivatives including methanol. 2. It is a very non-specific oxygenase and, in some of its catalytic properties, apparently resembles the analogous enzyme from Methylomonas methanica but differs from those found in Methylosinus trichosporium and Methylomonas albus. 3. CO is oxidized to CO2. 4. C1-C8 n-alkanes are hydroxylated, yielding mixtures of the corresponding 1- and 2-alcohols; no 3- or 4-alcohols are formed. 5. Terminal alkenes yield the corresponding 1,2-epoxides. cis- or trans-but-2-ene are each oxidized to a mixture of 2,3-epoxybutane and but-2-en-1-ol with retention of the cis or trans configuration in both products; 2-butanone is also formed from cis-but-2-ene only. 6. Dimethyl ether is oxidized. Diethyl ether undergoes sub-terminal oxidation, yielding ethanol and ethanal in equimolar amounts. 7. Methane mono-oxygenase also hydroxylates cyclic alkanes and aromatic compounds. However, styrene yields only styrene epoxide and pyridine yields only pyridine N-oxide. 8. Of those compounds tested, only NADPH can replace NADH as electron donor.

  6. The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Stirling, D I; Dalton, H

    1977-01-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses the oxidation of various substituted methane derivatives including methanol. 2. It is a very non-specific oxygenase and, in some of its catalytic properties, apparently resembles the analogous enzyme from Methylomonas methanica but differs from those found in Methylosinus trichosporium and Methylomonas albus. 3. CO is oxidized to CO2. 4. C1-C8 n-alkanes are hydroxylated, yielding mixtures of the corresponding 1- and 2-alcohols; no 3- or 4-alcohols are formed. 5. Terminal alkenes yield the corresponding 1,2-epoxides. cis- or trans-but-2-ene are each oxidized to a mixture of 2,3-epoxybutane and but-2-en-1-ol with retention of the cis or trans configuration in both products; 2-butanone is also formed from cis-but-2-ene only. 6. Dimethyl ether is oxidized. Diethyl ether undergoes sub-terminal oxidation, yielding ethanol and ethanal in equimolar amounts. 7. Methane mono-oxygenase also hydroxylates cyclic alkanes and aromatic compounds. However, styrene yields only styrene epoxide and pyridine yields only pyridine N-oxide. 8. Of those compounds tested, only NADPH can replace NADH as electron donor. PMID:411486

  7. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  8. Energetic N-trinitroethyl-substituted mono-, di-, and triaminotetrazoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Jiaheng; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2013-08-12

    A series of dense energetic N-trinitroethyl-substituted mono-, bis-, and tri-5-aminotetrazoles were obtained by reacting primary amines with in situ generated cyanogen azide, followed by the trinitroethyl functionalization that involves a condensation of a hydroxymethyl intermediate (prepared by a reaction with formaldehyde) with trinitromethane. These compounds were fully characterized by using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and, in one case with 9, with single-crystal XRD analysis. The heats of formation for all compounds were calculated with Gaussian 03 and then combined with experimental densities to determine the detonation pressures (P) and velocities (D(v)) of the energetic materials. Interestingly, most of them exhibited high density, good thermal stability, acceptable oxygen balance, positive heat of formation, low impact sensitivity, and excellent detonation properties, which highlighted their practical application potentials as a fascinating class of highly energetic materials.

  9. Method for separating mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for separating mono-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester from a mixture thereof comprises reacting the ester mixture with a source of lithium or sodium ions to form a mixture of the phosphate salts; contacting the salt mixture with an organic solvent which causes the dioctylphenyl phosphate salt to be dissolved in the organic solvent phase and the mono-octylphenyl phosphate salt to exist in a solid phase; separating the phases; recovering the phosphate salts from their respective phases; and acidifying the recovered salts to form the original phosphoric acid esters.

  10. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of oleanolic mono- or di-glycosides against Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Huo, G; Liu, C; Hui, Y; Chen, X; Xiao, D

    2016-09-23

    Saponins are naturally-occurring units with broad diversity and are usually recognized as phytoanticipins. In order to develop new saponin chemical entities with high activity against Magnaporthe oryzae, we selected oleanolic acid (OA), which has wide natural distribution and rich content in plants. We used the ability of OA to act as an aglycone for glycosylation to obtain information on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for rational molecular pesticide design. Oleanolic mono- or di-glycosides were synthesized at either the C3-hydroxy and/or C28-carboxyl position, using trichloroacetimidate or glycosyl bromide donors, respectively. Structures were confirmed by [(1)H]-,[(13)C]-NMR. Furthermore, the activity of the synthesized glycosides against M. oryzae was assessed in vitro, based on the mycelium growth rate. The twenty five oleanolic mono- or di-glycosides comprised fourteen saponins with 3-monosaccharide residue 1a-1n, six saponins with 28-monosaccharide residue 2a-2f, and five saponins with 3, 28-monosaccharide residue 3a-3e; all showed different activities against M. oryzae according to their different structures. We concluded that the optimal oleanolic mono- and di-glycoside structure for activity against M. oryzae is a C3 connection of a hexose such as mannose, galactose, or glucose, in combination with a C28 connection to a small group such as allyl or a C3 connection to a pentose accompanied by a larger group such as another pentose or heptenyl at C28.

  11. Mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs via oxidative bromination: synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zoufeng; Wang, Zhigang; Yiu, Shek-Man; Zhu, Guangyu

    2015-12-14

    Platinum(IV)-based anticancer prodrugs have attracted much attention due to their relative inertness under physiological conditions, being activated inside cells, and their capacity for functionalization with a variety of small-molecule or macromolecule moieties. Novel asymmetric platinum(IV) compounds synthesized through expedient and unique methods are desired. Here we utilize N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and carry out oxidative bromination on platinum(II) drugs, namely cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, to obtain asymmetric and mono-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs. Different solvents are used to obtain various compounds, and the compounds are further functionalized. Di-bromo compounds are also obtained through NBS-directed oxidative bromination in ethanol. The crystal structures of representative compounds are discussed, and the reduction potentials of some compounds are examined. A cytotoxicity test shows that the mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) compounds are active against human ovarian cancer cells. Our study enriches the family of asymmetric platinum(IV) prodrugs and provides with a convenient strategy to obtain brominated platinum(IV) complexes.

  12. Sorption of mono-, di-, and trimethylamine on ZK-5 and Y zeolites studied by deuterium NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Kustanovich, I.; Luz, Z.; Vega, S. ); Vega, A.J. )

    1990-04-05

    Deuterium NMR is used to study the sorption complexes formed by (methyl-deuterated) mono-, di-, and trimethylamine (MMA-d{sub 3}, DMA-d{sub 6}, and TMA-d{sub 9}) in the acid forms of the zeolites HZK-5 and HY, as well as in dehydroxylated HY and DHY, obtained by high-temperature calcination of HY. The measurements were made in the range {minus}140 to 160{degree}C on samples loaded up to twice the equivalent of the number of Al atoms per unit cell. For HZK-5 the uptake of MMA and DMA is rapid at room temperature, but sorption of TMA requires thermal activation. In HY and DHY all amine gases are readily absorbed upon exposure at room temperature.

  13. Enzymatic routes for the production of mono- and di-glucosylated derivatives of hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Trincone, Antonio; Pagnotta, Eduardo; Tramice, Annabella

    2012-07-01

    In this work, a new eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol α-glycosidic derivatives was proposed by using the marine α-glucosidase from Aplysia fasciata, and a commercial tyrosinase from mushroom for the bioconversion of tyrosol glycosidic derivatives into the corresponding hydroxytyrosol products. New hydroxytyrosol mono- and di-saccharide derivatives were synthesized at final concentrations of 9.35 and 10.8 g/l of reaction, respectively, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH test. The best antioxidant agent resulted the (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl-α-D-glucopyranoside; it showed a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the hydroxytyrosol, together with an increased hydrosolubility. This molecule could be a good response to many food industry demands, always in search of cheap antioxidants with nutritional properties to improve the nutritional value and the quality of foods.

  14. Comparative Study of Low-temperature PECVD of Amorphous Silicon using Mono-, Di-, Trisilane and Cyclohexasilane

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantin Pokhodnya; Joseph Sandstrom; Xuliang Dai; Philip Boudjouk; Douglas L. Schulz

    2009-06-08

    The hydrogenated amorphous silicon a-Si:H films were grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using liquid cyclohexasilane Si{sub 6}H{sub 12} (CHS). The growth rate of a-Si:H was studied as a function of substrate temperatures in the range of 30 C < T < 450 C using deposition conditions that were optimized for monosilane SiH{sub 4}. The same parameters were used for a-Si:H films grown using disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and trisilane (Si{sub 3}H{sub 8}) precursors. It was found that the a-Si:H film growth rate for CHS is lower with respect to those for mono-, di- and trisilane in an Ar plasma. Addition of {approx}10% of H{sub 2} dramatically increases the deposition rate for CHS-based films to {_}nm/min - a 700% increase. The as-deposited films were characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy to probe the hydrogen content and local bonding environment. It was found that the films grown using Ar/H{sub 2} mixtures as carrier gas have a reduced hydrogen content relative to polysilane fragments indicating higher quality amorphous silicon.

  15. π–π Interaction Energies as Determinants of the Photodimerization of Mono-, Di-, and Triazastilbenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the quantitative [2 + 2] photocycloaddition of crystalline trans-2,4-dichloro-6-styrylpyrimidine to produce the corresponding htt r-ctt cyclobutane dimer, and we present 1H NMR analysis of the photolysis of this and six other mono-, di-, and triazastilbenes in solid and solution states. Density functional (M06-2X) and correlated ab initio (MP2) calculations were used to obtain interaction energies between two monomers of each azastilbene. These energies mirror the relative polarization of the stilbene moieties and can be quantitatively correlated with the rate of reaction and selective formation of the htt r-ctt dimers. In the solid state, poor correlation is observed between interaction energy and reactivity/selectivity. This lack of correlation is explained through X-ray analysis of the azastilbene monomers and is shown to be in accordance with the principles of Schmidt’s topochemical postulate. Conversely, in solution there is a strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.96) between interaction energies and formation of the htt r-ctt dimer. These results are the first to show this correlation and to demonstrate the utility of calculated interaction energies as a tool for the prediction of stereo- and regioselectivity in solution-state stilbene-type photocycloadditions. PMID:24837276

  16. Behavior of mono-, di-, and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids during mashing and methods of controlling their production.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Kaneda, H; Kuroda, H; Watari, J; Kurihara, T; Shinotsuka, K

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of mono-, di-, and trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids was investigated during laboratory-scale mashing under various conditions with a view to controlling their production. Using a malt in which the lipoxygenase activity was at only a trace level (less than 0.01 U/g) or starting the mashing at a higher temperature than that conventionally used (65 degrees C instead of 48 degrees C) significantly decreased the production of these hydroxy fatty acids. Lowering the pH of the mash to inhibit lipoxygenase activity and preventing O2 uptake by the mash using carbon dioxide were also effective in reducing the amounts of these acids produced during mashing. From the viewpoint of industrial-scale beer production, the prevention of O2 uptake by the mash was selected as an appropriate method for reducing oxidation during wort production without affecting the subsequent brewing process or the taste of the finished beer. After introducing oxidation prevention procedures, the content of trihydroxyoctadecenoic acids decreased by about 30% and the foam stability and taste were improved in commercial products brewed using less than 25% malts.

  17. Toxicological significance of non-, mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in oysters from Galveston and Tampa bays

    SciTech Connect

    Sericano, J.L.; Safe, S.H.; Wade, T.L.; Brooks, J.M. )

    1994-11-01

    Concentrations of non-ortho (77, 126, and 169), mono-ortho (105 and 118) and di-ortho (128 and 138)-substituted PCB congeners were measured in oysters from Galveston and Tampa bays, and reported toxic equivalent factors were used to assess their toxicity. Most of the relative toxicity encountered in the oysters analyzed during this study was due to the presence of planar non-ortho-PCBs, particularly congener 126. In contrast, the contribution of di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners to the total relative toxicity of the samples was negligible. On average, the contribution of each of these non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners to the total toxicity encountered in oysters from Galveston and Tampa bays were 126 > 118 [ge] 169 [ge] 105 > 77 [much gt] 138 > 128 and 126 > 118 > 169 [ge] 77 > 105 [much gt] 138 > 128, respectively. Based on the reported lower clearance rates of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted PCB congeners compared to other congeners within the same chlorination level, contaminated oysters that are depurated in clean environments will lower their total PCB concentrations, but their original toxicity may not be proportionally reduced.

  18. H3K4 mono- and di-methyltransferase MLL4 is required for enhancer activation during cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Wang, Chaochen; Xu, Shiliyang; Cho, Young-Wook; Wang, Lifeng; Feng, Xuesong; Baldridge, Anne; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Zhuang, Lenan; Peng, Weiqun; Ge, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Enhancers play a central role in cell-type-specific gene expression and are marked by H3K4me1/2. Active enhancers are further marked by H3K27ac. However, the methyltransferases responsible for H3K4me1/2 on enhancers remain elusive. Furthermore, how these enzymes function on enhancers to regulate cell-type-specific gene expression is unclear. In this study, we identify MLL4 (KMT2D) as a major mammalian H3K4 mono- and di-methyltransferase with partial functional redundancy with MLL3 (KMT2C). Using adipogenesis and myogenesis as model systems, we show that MLL4 exhibits cell-type- and differentiation-stage-specific genomic binding and is predominantly localized on enhancers. MLL4 co-localizes with lineage-determining transcription factors (TFs) on active enhancers during differentiation. Deletion of Mll4 markedly decreases H3K4me1/2, H3K27ac, Mediator and Polymerase II levels on enhancers and leads to severe defects in cell-type-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Together, these findings identify MLL4 as a major mammalian H3K4 mono- and di-methyltransferase essential for enhancer activation during cell differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01503.001 PMID:24368734

  19. Effect of Mono and Di-rhamnolipids on Biofilms Pre-formed by Bacillus subtilis BBK006.

    PubMed

    De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Martin, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Different microbial inhibition strategies based on the planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilms communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms. In this work, we explore the aspects of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 biofilms and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (rhamnolipids) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006. The ability of mono-rhamnolipids (Rha-C10-C10) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and the di-rhamnolipids (Rha-Rha-C14-C14) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis E264, and phosphate-buffered saline to disrupt biofilm of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was evaluated. The biofilm produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was more sensitive to the di-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis than the mono-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Rhamnolipids are biologically produced compounds safe for human use. This makes them ideal candidates for use in new generations of bacterial dispersal agents and useful for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies.

  20. MONO-(3-CARBOXYPROPYL) PHTHALATE, A METABOLITE OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6–C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mo...

  1. Isomeric Mono-, Di-, and Tri-Bromobenzo-1H-Triazoles as Inhibitors of Human Protein Kinase CK2α

    PubMed Central

    Wąsik, Romualda; Wińska, Patrycja; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2012-01-01

    To further clarify the role of the individual bromine atoms of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromotriazole (TBBt), a relatively selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, we have examined the inhibition (IC50) of human CK2α by the two mono-, the four di-, and the two tri- bromobenzotriazoles relative to that of TBBt. Halogenation of the central vicinal C(5)/C(6) atoms proved to be a key factor in enhancing inhibitory activity, in that 5,6-di-Br2Bt and 4,5,6-Br3Bt were almost as effective inhibitors as TBBt, notwithstanding their marked differences in pKa for dissociation of the triazole proton. The decrease in pKa on halogenation of the peripheral C(4)/C(7) atoms virtually nullifies the gain due to hydrophobic interactions, and does not lead to a decrease in IC50. Molecular modeling of structures of complexes of the ligands with the enzyme, as well as QSAR analysis, pointed to a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as a discriminator of inhibitory activity. The role of halogen bonding remains debatable, as originally noted for the crystal structure of TBBt with CK2α (pdb1j91). Finally we direct attention to the promising applicability of our series of well-defined halogenated benzotriazoles to studies on inhibition of kinases other than CK2. PMID:23155426

  2. Sieving di-branched from mono-branched and linear alkanes using ZIF-8: experimental proof and theoretical explanation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, Marjo C; Granato, Miguel Angelo; Martins, Vanessa F Duarte; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2013-06-14

    We study the adsorption equilibrium isotherms and differential heats of adsorption of hexane isomers on the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8. The studies are carried out at 373 K using a manometric set-up combined with a micro-calorimeter. We see that the Langmuir model describes well the isotherms for all four isomers (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane). The linear and mono-branched isomers adsorb well, but 2,2-dimethylbutane is totally excluded. Plotting the differential heat of adsorption against the loading shows an initial plateau for n-hexane and 2-methylpentane. This is followed by a slow rise, indicating adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. For the di-branched isomers the differential heat of adsorption decreases with loading. To gain further insight, we ran molecular simulations using the grand-canonical Monte Carlo approach. Comparing the simulation and the experimental results shows that the ZIF framework model requires blocking of the cages, since 2,2-dimethylbutane cannot fit through the sodalite-type windows. Practically speaking, this means that ZIF-8 is a highly promising candidate for enhancing gasoline octane numbers at 373 K, as it can separate 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane from 2-methylpentane. Our results prove the potential of ZIF-8 as a new adsorbent that can be employed in the upgrade of the Total Isomerization Process for the production of high octane number gasoline, by blending di-branched alkanes in the gasoline.

  3. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Mono- and Di-N-acylated Aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite issues with oto/nephrotoxicity and bacterial resistance, aminoglycosides (AGs) remain an effective and widely used class of antibacterial agents. For decades now, efforts toward the development of novel AGs with potential to overcome some of these problems have been major research focuses. 1-N-Acylation, especially γ-amino-β-hydroxybutyrate (AHB) derivatization, has proven to be one of the most successful strategies for improving the overall properties of AGs, including their ability to avoid certain resistance mechanisms. More recently, 6′-N-acylation arose as another possible strategy to improve the properties of these drugs. In this study, we report on the glycinyl, carboxybenzyl, and AHB mono- and diderivatization at the 1-, 6′-, and/or 4‴-amines of the AGs amikacin, kanamycin A, netilmicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin. We also present the antibacterial activities and the reduced reactivity of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) toward these new AG derivatives, and identify the AMEs present in the bacterial strains tested. PMID:26617967

  4. Measurement of Intracellular Ribavirin Mono-, Di- and Triphosphate Using Solid Phase Extraction and LC-MS/MS Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Jimmerson, Leah C.; Ray, Michelle L.; Bushman, Lane R.; Anderson, Peter L.; Klein, Brandon; Rower, Joseph E.; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Kiser, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Ribavirin (RBV) is a nucleoside analog used to treat a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. RBV undergoes intracellular phosphorylation to a mono- (MP), di- (DP), and triphosphate (TP). The phosphorylated forms have been associated with the mechanisms of antiviral effect observed in vitro, but the intracellular pharmacology of the drug has not been well characterized in vivo. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of intracellular RBV MP, DP, and TP in multiple cell matrix types. For this method, the individual MP, DP, and TP fractions were isolated from lysed intracellular matrix using strong anion exchange solid phase extraction, dephosphorylated to parent RBV, desalted and concentrated and quantified using LC-MS/MS. The method utilized a stable labeled internal standard (RBV-13C5) which facilitated accuracy (% deviation within ±15%) and precision (coefficient of variation of ≤15%). The quantifiable linear range for the assay was 0.50 to 200 pmol/sample. The method was applied to the measurement of RBV MP, DP, and TP in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), red blood cells (RBC), and dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from patients taking RBV for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. PMID:25555148

  5. 6-Hydroxyflavone and derivatives exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activity among mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones in kidney mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Zhiwei; Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Desai, Umesh R; Zhou, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4',6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment.

  6. Theoretical Investigation of Mono- and Di-Chloro-Substitient Effects on the Insulation and Greenhouse Properties of Octafluorocyclobutane

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin; Qin, Zhaoyu; Zhang, Chaohai; Shi, Huixuan; Zhao, Kun; Xie, Xiaoyu; Ma, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Octafluorocyclobutane, c-C4F8, and its derivatives are regarded as promising replacements of insulation gaseous SF6, which are currently widely used in electric equipment but suffer greatly from its greenhouse effect. Based on the recent finding that the dielectric and thermodynamics properties of insulating gases are greatly dependent on the molecule's microscopic electronic and vibrational parameters, in this work, we use density functional theory (DFT) to study the molecular structures, electron affinities, and IR-active vibrational frequencies as well as thermodynamic properties for c-C4F8 and a series of mono-, di-substituted c-C4F8 compounds. It is shown that DFT calculation of perfluoro-compounds is sensitive to the chosen functional. Although all chloro-substituted c-C4F8 molecules are found to have much larger electron affinities, only part of them have less IR intensity in the atmospheric IR “window” than c-C4F8. Such a study provides useful guideline for the pre-screening search for new insulation gases via electronic structure calculations. PMID:28018899

  7. 6-Hydroxyflavone and Derivatives Exhibit Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity among Mono-, Di- and Polyhydroxylated Flavones in Kidney Mesangial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Desai, Umesh R.; Zhou, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4′,6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment. PMID:25790236

  8. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan; Jensen, Lisbeth; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Munkholm, Pia

    2014-06-07

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care.dk). During a control period of the first 6-wk patients were asked to register their IBS-SSS and IBS-QoL on the web-application weekly without receiving any intervention. Thereafter, low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) was introduced for the next 6 wk while continuing the registration. Though a small sample size a significant improvement in disease activity (IBS-SSS) was observed during both the control period, median: 278 (range: 122-377), P = 0.02, and subsequently during the LFD period, median: 151 (range: 29-334), P < 0.01. The IBS-QoL solely changed significantly during the LFD period, median: 67 (37-120), P < 0.01. The significant reduction in disease activity during the control period shows a positive effect of the web-application on IBS symptoms when presented as a "traffic light". However adding the diet reduced IBS-SSS to < 150, inactive to mild symptoms. In the future results from larger scale trials are awaited.

  9. Modification of attractive and repulsive interactions among proteins in solution due to the presence of mono-, di- and tri-valent ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sarathi; Das, Kaushik; Aswal, V. K.

    2013-07-01

    Bovine serum albumins, at physiological pH, shows a short-range attraction and in addition a long-range electrostatic repulsion among them. These interactions are modified in presence of different counterions. Small angle neutron scattering study shows that for the equal ionic strength, the interactions are largely modified by the tri-valent (Fe3+) and di-valent (Ni2+) ions and comparatively less by the mono-valent (Na+) ions. The effect is nearly similar for the di- and tri-valent ions in comparison with the mono-valent one. The strength of the attractive and repulsive interactions depends strongly on the type of the dissolved ions and salt concentrations.

  10. Mono- and di-halogenated histamine, histidine and carnosine derivatives are potent carbonic anhydrase I, II, VII, XII and XIV activators.

    PubMed

    Saada, Mohamed-Chiheb; Vullo, Daniela; Montero, Jean-Louis; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-01

    Mono- and di-halogenated histamines, l-histidine methyl ester derivatives and carnosine derivatives incorporating chlorine, bromine and iodine were prepared and investigated as activators of five carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic hCA I, II and VII, and the transmembrane hCA XII and XIV. All of them were activated in a diverse manner by the investigated compounds, with a distinct activation profile.

  11. Equilibrium binding studies of mono, di and triisocyanide ligands on Au powder surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ontko, Alyn

    1997-10-08

    The author`s group has previously shown that isocyanides are readily adsorbed from solutions to Au powder and bind to the Au surface in an end-on fashion through the terminal carbon. Later work demonstrated that the equilibrium constants for the reversible adsorption of electronically inequivalent isocyanides could be obtained using the Langmuir isotherm technique. This dissertation describes two projects completed which complement the initial findings of this group. Initially, several alkylisocyanides were synthesized to examine the effect of tail length on Au powder adsorption. It was observed that the length of the alkyl chain affected not only the Au surface binding affinity, but also the rate of surface saturation and saturation coverage values. Direct competition studies were also studied using a 13C-labeled isocyanide. These studies demonstrated the stabilization afforded by substrate-substrate packing forces in SAM`s formed by the longer chain isocyanides. In a second study, di and triisocyanides were synthesized to determine the effect that the length of the connecting link and the number of isocyanide groups (as points of attachment) have on Au adsorption stability. The work in this area describes the binding modes, relative binding affinities and surface coverage values for a series of flexible alkyl and xylyldiisocyanides on Au powder surfaces. This report contains only the introductory material, and general summary. Two chapters have been processed separately. 56 refs.

  12. Dysprosium complexes with mono-/di-carboxylate ligands—From simple dimers to 2D and 3D frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingjie; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Scales, Nicholas; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Price, Jason R.; Lu, Kim; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2014-11-15

    Four dysprosium (Dy) single carboxylates, a formate, a propionate, a butyrate and an oxalate have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The structure of Dy(HCO{sub 2}){sub 3} (1) contains nine-fold coordinated Dy polyhedra in perfect tricapped trigonal prisms. They are linked through trigonal O atoms forming 1D pillars which are further linked together through tricapped O atoms into a 3D pillared metal organic framework. The network structure is stable up to 360 °C. The structure of [Dy{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·2.5H{sub 2}O (2) contains nine-fold coordinated Dy polyhedra linking together through μ{sub 2}-bridging oxalate anions into a 2D hexagonal layered structure. Both [Dy{sub 2}(Pr){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·(HPr){sub 0.5} (3) [Pr=(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}){sup −1}] and [Dy{sub 2}(Bu){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] (4) [Bu=(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sup −1}] have similar di-nuclear structures. The Raman vibration modes of the complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four dysprosium (Dy) complexes with formate, propionate, butyrate and oxalate ligands have been synthesized and characterized. The Dy formato complex has a 3D pillared metal organic framework and the structure is stable up to 360 °C whilst the complexes with longer alkyl chained mono-carboxylates possess similar di-nuclear structures. The Dy oxalato complex has a 2D hexagonal (honeycomb-type) structure. Their Raman vibration modes have been investigated. - Highlights: • New Dysprosium complexes with formate, propionate, butyrate and oxalate ligands. • Crystal structures range from dimers to two and three dimensional frameworks. • Vibrational modes have been investigated and correlated to the structures. • The complexes are thermal robust and stable to over 300 °C.

  13. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibit growth and reduce estradiol levels of antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rupesh K.; Singh, Jeffery M.; Leslie, Tracie C.; Meachum, Sharon; Flaws, Jodi A.; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2010-01-15

    Any insult that affects survival of ovarian antral follicles can cause abnormal estradiol production and fertility problems. Phthalate esters (PEs) are plasticizers used in a wide range of consumer and industrial products. Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to reduced fertility in humans and animal models. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) decrease serum estradiol levels and aromatase (Arom) expression, prolong estrous cycles, and cause anovulation in animal and culture models. These observations suggest PEs directly target antral follicles. We therefore tested the hypothesis that DEHP (1-100 mug/ml) and MEHP (0.1-10 mug/ml) directly inhibit antral follicular growth and estradiol production. Antral follicles from adult mice were cultured with DEHP or MEHP, and/or estradiol for 96 h. During culture, follicle size was measured every 24 h as a measurement of follicle growth. After culture, media were collected for measurement of estradiol levels and follicles were subjected to measurement of cylin-D-2 (Ccnd2), cyclin-dependant-kinase-4 (Cdk4), and Arom. We found that DEHP and MEHP inhibited growth of follicles and decreased estradiol production compared to controls at the highest doses. DEHP and MEHP also decreased mRNA expression of Ccnd2, Cdk4, and Arom at the highest dose. Addition of estradiol to the culture medium prevented the follicles from DEHP- and MEHP-induced inhibition of growth, reduction in estradiol levels, and decreased Ccnd2 and Cdk4 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that DEHP and MEHP may directly inhibit antral follicle growth via a mechanism that partially includes reduction in levels of estradiol production and decreased expression of cell cycle regulators.

  14. Competitive separation of di- vs. mono-valent cations in electrodialysis: effects of the boundary layer properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younggy; Walker, W Shane; Lawler, Desmond F

    2012-05-01

    In electrodialysis desalination, the boundary layer near ion-exchange membranes is the limiting region for the overall rate of ionic separation due to concentration polarization over tens of micrometers in that layer. Under high current conditions, this sharp concentration gradient, creating substantial ionic diffusion, can drive a preferential separation for certain ions depending on their concentration and diffusivity in the solution. Thus, this study tested a hypothesis that the boundary layer affects the competitive transport between di- and mono-valent cations, which is known to be governed primarily by the partitioning with cation-exchange membranes. A laboratory-scale electrodialyzer was operated at steady state with a mixture of 10mM KCl and 10mM CaCl(2) at various flow rates. Increased flows increased the relative calcium transport. A two-dimensional model was built with analytical solutions of the Nernst-Planck equation. In the model, the boundary layer thickness was considered as a random variable defined with three statistical parameters: mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient between the thicknesses of the two boundary layers facing across a spacer. Model simulations with the Monte Carlo method found that a greater calcium separation was achieved with a smaller mean, greater standard deviation, or more negative correlation coefficient. The model and experimental results were compared for the cationic transport number as well as the current and potential relationship. The mean boundary layer thickness was found to decrease from 40 to less than 10 μm as the superficial water velocity increased from 1.06 to 4.24 cm/s. The standard deviation was greater than the mean thickness at slower water velocities and smaller at faster water velocities.

  15. Electrocatalysis of chloroacetic acids (mono-, di- and tri-) at a C60-[dimethyl-(beta-cyclodextrin)]2 and nafion chemically modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Wei, M; Li, M; Li, N; Gu, Z; Zhou, X

    2001-01-26

    The C(60)-[dimethyl-(beta-cyclodextrin)](2) and nafion chemically modified electrode (CME) exhibits one electroreduction peak and two electro-oxidation peaks in a mixed solvent of water and acetonitrile (3:2, v/v) containing tetra-butylammonium perchlorate. The reduction of chloroacetic acids (mono-, di- and tri-) can be electrocatalyzed at this electrode, indicating that C(60)-[dimethyl-(beta-cyclodextrin)](2) is capable of mediating the electron transfer to chloroacetic acids. Values of the apparent catalytic rate constant, k, were determined by using the rotating-disk electrode (RDE).

  16. Formation of mono(ethylhexyl)phthalate from di(ethylhexyl)phthalate in human plasma stored in PVC bags and its presence in fractionated plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Vessman, J; Rietz, G

    1978-01-01

    The formation of mono(ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) from di(ethylhexyl)phthalate in human plasma stored in bags of polyvinylchloride has been studied. Substantial amounts were formed and in ten bags from 4 to 56microgram/ml were found. After 2 weeks at room temperature the concentration of MEHP had increased to values between 27 and 79 microgram/ml. However, MEHP was also disappearing as shown in a recovery experiment. Of the fractionated proteins albumin contained MEHP in amounts from less than 3 to 290 microgram/g.

  17. (2R,1'S,2'R)- and (2S,1'S,2'R)-3-[2-Mono(di,tri)fluoromethylcyclopropyl]alanines and their incorporation into hormaomycin analogues

    PubMed Central

    Kozhushkov, Sergei I; Yufit, Dmitrii S; Grosse, Christian; Kaiser, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Efficient and scalable syntheses of enantiomerically pure (2R,1'S,2'R)- and (2S,1'S,2'R)-3-[2-mono(di,tri)fluoromethylcyclopropyl]alanines 9a–c, as well as allo-D-threonine (4) and (2S,3R)-β-methylphenylalanine (3), using the Belokon' approach with (S)- and (R)-2-[(N-benzylprolyl)amino]benzophenone [(S)- and (R)-10] as reusable chiral auxiliaries have been developed. Three new fluoromethyl analogues of the naturally occurring octadepsipeptide hormaomycin (1) with (fluoromethylcyclopropyl)alanine moieties have been synthesized and subjected to preliminary tests of their antibiotic activity. PMID:25550751

  18. Fluorescence behavior of globular proteins from their bulk and thin film conformations in presence of mono-, di- and tri-valent ions.

    PubMed

    Bhowal, Ashim Chandra; Das, Kaushik; Kundu, Sarathi

    2015-09-01

    Photoluminescence behavior of globular proteins, lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA), from their bulk and thin film conformations have been studied in presence of mono-, di- and tri-valent ions by using fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy at two different temperatures and the morphology of the protein thin films have been studied by using atomic force microscopy. Protein- and ion-dependent dynamic and static quenching behaviors have been identified. While dynamic quenching is observed for lysozyme for all the three different valent ions, BSA shows no quenching for mono-valent (Na(+)) ions, dynamic quenching for di-valent (Ni(2+)) ions and static quenching for tri-valent (Fe(3+)) ions at pH≈5.5. After heat treatment, as the conformation of the protein molecules changes, the quenching efficiency for lysozyme in presence of ions decreases but shows enhancement for BSA. In thin film geometry, the molecular conformation of both lysozyme and BSA modifies on the solid surfaces and hence quenching efficiency also modifies in comparison with that of bulk and as a result the quenching efficiency for lysozyme increases but decreases for the BSA film.

  19. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono, Di and Trihalogenated DBPs - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Examination of bromine incorporation in emerging DBPs vs that of regulated DBPs Study of predominance of di- vs trihalogenated species in different DBP classes Better understand and characterize exposure to DBPs of health concern

  20. Multifrequency EPR Spectroscopy: A Toolkit for the Characterization of Mono- and Di-nuclear Metal Ion Centers in Complex Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Graeme R.

    Metalloenzymes are ubiquitous in nature containing complex metal ion cofactors intimately involved in the enzymes' biological function. The application of multifrequency continuous wave and orientation selective pulsed EPR in conjunction with computer simulation and density functional theory calculations has proven to be a powerful toolkit for the geometric and electronic structural characterization of these metal ion cofactors in the resting enzyme, enzyme-substrate and -product complexes, which in turn provides a detailed understanding of the enzymes' catalytic mechanism. In this chapter, a brief description of the multifrequency EPR toolkit used to structurally (geometric and electronic) characterize metal ion binding sites in complex biological systems and its application in the structural characterization of (i) molybdenum containing enzymes and model complexes, (ii) mono- and di-nuclear copper(II) cyclic peptide complexes (marine and synthetic analogues) and (iii) dinuclear metal ion centers in purple acid phosphatases will be presented.

  1. Synthesis and antileishmanial activity of 6-mono-substituted and 3,6-di-substituted acridines obtained by acylation of proflavine.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Carole; Shimi, Kamal; Boyer, Gérard; Delmas, Florence; Galy, Jean-Pierre

    2007-10-01

    Two new series of diaminoacridinic derivatives obtained from proflavine and N-(6-amino-3-acridinyl)acetamide were synthesised and assessed for their cytotoxic and antileishmanial activities. Two compounds, N-[6-(acetylamino)-3-acridinyl]acetamide and N-[6-(benzoylamino)-3-acridinyl]benzamide demonstrated highly specific antileishmanial properties against the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite. Structure-activity relationships established that the antiproliferative activity against human cells was greatly enhanced by the presence of a benzoylamino group in 6-mono-substituted acridines, while the presence of two acetylamino or benzoylamino groups in 3,6-di-substituted acridines strongly increased the specificity of the molecules for Leishmania parasite, suggesting that symmetric conformations could preferentially interfere with Leishmania metabolism.

  2. Transnitrosation of alicyclic N-nitrosamines containing a sulfur atom.

    PubMed

    Inami, Keiko; Kondo, Sonoe; Ono, Yuta; Saso, Chiharu; Mochizuki, Masataka

    2013-12-15

    Aromatic and aliphatic nitrosamines are known to transfer a nitrosonium ion to another amine. The transnitrosation of alicyclic N-nitroso compounds generates S-nitrosothiols, which are potential nitric oxide donors in vivo. In this study, certain alicyclic N-nitroso compounds based on non-mutagenic N-nitrosoproline or N-nitrosothioproline were synthesised, and the formation of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was quantified under acidic conditions. We then investigated the effect of a sulfur atom as the substituent and as a ring component on the GSNO formation. In the presence of thiourea under acidic conditions, GSNO was formed from N-nitrosoproline and glutathione, and an N-nitroso compound containing a sulfur atom and glutathione produced GSNO without thiourea. The quantity of GSNO derived from the reaction of the N-nitrosamines containing a sulfur atom and glutathione was higher than that from the N-nitrosoproline and glutathione plus thiourea. Among the analogues that contained a sulfur atom either in the ring or as a substituent, the thiazolidines produced a slightly higher quantity of GSNO than the analogue with a thioamide group. A compound containing sulfur atoms both in the ring and as a substituent exhibited the highest activity for GSNO formation among the alicyclic N-nitrosamines tested. The results indicate that the intramolecular sulfur atom plays an important role in the transnitrosation via alicyclic N-nitroso compounds to form GSNO.

  3. Probing the human estrogen receptor-α binding requirements for phenolic mono- and di-hydroxyl compounds: A combined synthesis, binding and docking study

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Christopher; Neumann, Terrence S.; Gone, Jayapal Reddy; He, Zhengjie; Herrild, Christian; Wondergem, Julie; Pandey, Rajesh K.; Donaldson, William A.; Sem, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Various estrogen analogs were synthesized and tested for binding to human ERα using a fluorescence polarization displacement assay. Binding affinity and orientation were also predicted using docking calculations. Docking was able to accurately predict relative binding affinity and orientation for estradiol, but only if a tightly bound water molecule bridging Arg394/Glu353 is present. Di-hydroxyl compounds sometimes bind in two orientations, which are flipped in terms of relative positioning of their hydroxyl groups. Di-hydroxyl compounds were predicted to bind with their aliphatic hydroxyl group interacting with His524 in ERα. One nonsteroid-based dihdroxyl compound was 1000-fold specific for ERβ over ERα, and was also 25-fold specific for agonist ERβ versus antagonist activity. Docking predictions suggest this specificity may be due to interaction of the aliphatic hydroxyl with His475 in the agonist form of ERβ, versus with Thr299 in the antagonist form. But, the presence of this aliphatic hydroxyl is not required in all compounds, since mono-hydroxyl (phenolic) compounds bind ERα with high affinity, via hydroxyl hydrogen bonding interactions with the ERα Arg394/Glu353/water triad, and van der Waals interactions with the rest of the molecule. PMID:24315190

  4. Coordination geometry of monomeric, dimeric and polymeric organotin(IV) compounds constructed from 5-bromopyridine-2-carboxylic acid and mono-, di- or tri-organotin precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Min; Yin, Han-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Wei; Jiang, Jin; Li, Chuan

    2013-03-01

    Reactions of mono-, di-, tri-alkyltin chlorides or oxide with 5-bromopyridine-2-carboxylic acid result in five new organotin(IV) compounds, [MeSn(O2CC5NH3Br)Cl2(H2O)]·(C2H5)2O (1), [(n-Bu)Sn(O2CC5NH3Br)Cl2(H2O)]·(C2H5)2O (2), {[(n-Bu)2Sn(O2CC5NH3Br)]2O}2 (3) [(n-Bu)3Sn(O2CC5NH3Br)]n (4) and [Ph3Sn(O2CC5NH3Br)]n (5), which have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, element analysis, IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR. Three different coordination modes for the ligand are demonstrated in this group of compounds: (1) bidentate mode with the pyridyl nitrogen atom and carboxyl oxygen atom for mono-alkyltin compounds 1 and 2, in which six-coordinated tin center is also bound with two chlorine ions and one water molecule; (2) compound 3 is a tetranuclear centrosymmetric dimer with a central Sn2O2 four-membered ring. The four tin atoms are linked by two bridging carboxyl groups while the remaining two act as monodentate ligands to the endo- and exo-cyclic tin atoms; (3) for tri-alkyltin compounds 4 and 5, the bidentate bridging carboxylic group coordinates with two different tin atoms through the Snsbnd Osbnd Cdbnd O → Sn bond, and the carboxylate bridge propagates 1D polymeric chains, typical for five coordinate tin. However, in compounds 3-5, the pyridyl nitrogen atoms do not participate in the coordination. For triorganotin(IV) polymers 4 and 5, the solution studies show the collapse of the intermolecular interactions observed in the solid state to yield monomeric species.

  5. Mono-, di-, and triaryl substituted tetrahydropyrans as cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor growth inhibitors. Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Palwinder; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2010-05-13

    Rationally designed tetrahydropyrans (THPs) carrying one, two, or three aryl rings and other substituents were synthesized by the allylation of beta-hydroxy ketones followed by iodocyclization. It has been observed that compounds with one aryl ring on THP are moderate inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) (IC(50) = 0.3 microM) and cyclooxygenase-2 (IC(50) = 0.17 microM) with poor selectivity index (SI = 2-3) for COX-2. The presence of two aryl rings enhanced their inhibitory activities for COX-2 (IC(50) = 0.9-5.5 nM). Selectivity for COX-2 over COX-1 also increased (SI = 50-1900), while triaryl substituted THPs, along with high inhibition (IC(50) = 0.57-4.0 nM), also exhibited excellent selectivity for COX-2 over COX-1 (SI = 3200-44000). Similar to the experimental results of increased COX-2 inhibition and selectivity with the increase in the size of the molecule, their docking in the active sites of COX-1 and COX-2 also showed same trend. Seven compounds from the category of di- and triaryl substituted THPs exhibited average GI(50) over all the human tumor cell lines in the range 1.6-3.2 microM and showed in vitro therapeutic indices of 8-17.

  6. Mono-, di- and trimethylated homologues of isoprenoid tetraether lipid cores in archaea and environmental samples: mass spectrometric identification and significance.

    PubMed

    Knappy, Chris; Barillà, Daniela; Chong, James; Hodgson, Dominic; Morgan, Hugh; Suleman, Muhammad; Tan, Christine; Yao, Peng; Keely, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    Higher homologues of widely reported C(86) isoprenoid diglycerol tetraether lipid cores, containing 0-6 cyclopentyl rings, have been identified in (hyper)thermophilic archaea, representing up to 21% of total tetraether lipids in the cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirms that the additional carbon atoms in the C(87-88) homologues are located in the etherified chains. Structures identified include dialkyl and monoalkyl ('H-shaped') tetraethers containing C(40-42) or C(81-82) hydrocarbons, respectively, many representing novel compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of hydrocarbons released from the lipid cores by ether cleavage suggests that the C(40) chains are biphytanes and the C(41) chains 13-methylbiphytanes. Multiple isomers, having different chain combinations, were recognised among the dialkyl lipids. Methylated tetraethers are produced by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in varying proportions depending on growth conditions, suggesting that methylation may be an adaptive mechanism to regulate cellular function. The detection of methylated lipids in Pyrobaculum sp. AQ1.S2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius represents the first reported occurrences in Crenarchaeota. Soils and aquatic sediments from geographically distinct mesotemperate environments that were screened for homologues contained monomethylated tetraethers, with di- and trimethylated structures being detected occasionally. The structural diversity and range of occurrences of the C(87-89) tetraethers highlight their potential as complementary biomarkers for archaea in natural environments.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  9. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D G; Todd, G D; Turner, W E; Maggio, V; Alexander, L R; Needham, L L

    1994-01-01

    We have measured non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in human adipose tissue and serum collected in Atlanta, Georgia. The results show that the concentrations of the coplanar PCBs can be more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Our measurements in pooled serum collected in 1982, 1988, and 1989 show a decrease in coplanar PCB levels from 1982 to 1989. We found that the pattern of relative amounts of coplanar PCBs in adipose tissue varied greatly from person to person unlike the PCDD and PCDF patterns, which were more nearly the same. Age was significantly correlated with the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD,3,3'4,4'-PCB, 3,3',4,4',5-PCB, and 3,3'4,4',5,5'-PCB in adipose tissue. We also measured levels of the mono- and di-ortho chlorine-substituted PCBs in human serum. The levels for some of these PCB congeners were three orders of magnitude higher than the coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. We used the international toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDDs and PCDFs and the TEFs proposed by Safe for PCBs to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Four PCBs (3,3',4,4',5-; 2,3',4,4',5-;2,3,3',4,4'-;2,3,3',4,4',5-) make a larger contribution than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, while four other PCBs (3,3',4,4'5,5'-; 2,2',3,4,4',5'-;2,2',4,4',5,5'-;2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-) make nearly the same contribution as 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted 2,3',4,4',5-PCB, however, is the major contributor to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in general population samples from the United States, Sweden, and Japan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187709

  10. Copper-incorporated mono- and di-TeRu5 metal carbonyl complexes: syntheses, structures, and an unusual skeletal arrangement.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Minghuey; Miu, Chia-Yeh; Hsing, Kai-Jieah; Jang, Li-Fing; Lin, Chien-Nan

    2015-04-14

    Two sandwich-type Cu3Cl- or Cu2{Te2Ru4(CO)10}-bridging di-TeRu5 clusters, [{TeRu5(CO)14}2Cu3Cl](2-) () and [{TeRu5(CO)14}2Cu2{Te2Ru4(CO)10}](4-) (), were obtained from the reaction of [TeRu5(CO)14](2-) with 1 equiv. of [Cu(MeCN)4][BF4] in CH2Cl2 or THF at 0 °C, respectively, depending on the solvents. The chloride-abstracted was structurally characterized to have two TeRu5 cores that were linked by a Cu3Cl moiety with two Cu-Cu bonds. If the reaction was carried out in a molar ratio of 1 : 2 at 0 or 30 °C in CH2Cl2, the structural isomers [TeRu5(μ-CO)2(CO)12(CuMeCN)2] () and [TeRu5(μ-CO)3(CO)11Cu2(MeCN)2] () were produced, respectively, as the major product. Cluster displayed a TeRu5 core with two adjacent Ru3 triangles each capped by a μ3-Cu(MeCN) fragment, while contained a TeRu5 core with one triangle Ru3 plane capped by a Cu2(MeCN)2 fragment with two Cu atoms covalently bonded. Upon heating, the isomerization of into proceeded to undergo an unusual skeletal arrangement of Cu(MeCN) and migration of CO, with the TeRu5 core remaining intact. An electrochemical study revealed that and each exhibited only one oxidation while cluster had two consecutive oxidations, suggesting significant electronic communication between the two TeRu5 metal cores in via the Cu3 moiety. This work describes the facile synthesis of a series of semiconducting Cux-bridging Te-Ru carbonyl clusters, in which the incorporation of the Cux fragments has significantly influenced their resulting structures, rearrangements, and electronic properties, which was further elucidated by DFT calculations.

  11. Determination of nucleoside analog mono-, di-, and tri-phosphates in cellular matrix by solid phase extraction and ultra-sensitive LC-MS/MS detection.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Lane R; Kiser, Jennifer J; Rower, Joseph E; Klein, Brandon; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Ray, Michelle L; Anderson, Peter L

    2011-09-10

    An ultra-sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated to facilitate the assessment of clinical pharmacokinetics of nucleotide analogs from lysed intracellular matrix. The method utilized a strong anion exchange isolation of mono-(MP), di-(DP), and tri-phosphates (TP) from intracellular matrix. Each fraction was then dephosphorylated to the parent moiety yielding a molar equivalent to the original nucleotide analog intracellular concentration. The analytical portion of the methodology was optimized in specific nucleoside analog centric modes (i.e. tenofovir (TFV) centric, zidovudine (ZDV) centric), which included desalting/concentration by solid phase extraction and detection by LC-MS/MS. Nucleotide analog MP-, DP-, and TP-determined on the TFV centric mode of analysis include TFV, lamivudine (3TC), and emtricitibine (FTC). The quantifiable linear range for TFV was 2.5-2000 fmol/sample, and that for 3TC/FTC was 0.1 200 pmol/sample. Nucleoside analog MP-, DP-, and TP-determined on the ZDV centric mode of analysis included 3TC and ZDV. The quantifiable linear range for 3TC was 0.1 100 pmol/sample, and 5-2000 fmol/sample for ZDV. Stable labeled isotopic internal standards facilitated accuracy and precision in alternative cell matrices, which supported the intended use of the method for MP, DP, and TP determinations in various cell types. The method was successfully applied to clinical research samples generating novel intracellular information for TFV, FTC, ZDV, and 3TC nucleotides. This document outlines method development, validation, and application to clinical research.

  12. Separation of some mono-, di- and tri-unsaturated fatty acids containing 18 carbon atoms by high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2001-08-25

    Positional and geometric isomers of mono-, di- and tri-unsaturated fatty acids containing 18 carbon atoms were separated on commercially available reversed-phase columns in gradient systems composed of acetonitrile and water, utilizing photodiode array detection. The biological samples were hydrolyzed with 2 M NaOH for 35-40 min at 85-90 degrees C. After cooling, the hydrolysates were acidified with 4 M HCl and the free fatty acids were extracted with dichloromethane. The organic solvent was removed in a gentle stream of argon. The fatty acids were determined after pre-column derivatization with dibromacetophenone in the presence of triethylamine. The reaction components were mixed and reacted for 2 h at 50 degrees C. Separations of derivatized fatty acids were performed on two C18 columns (Nova Pak C18, 4 microm, 250x4.6 mm, Waters) by binary or ternate gradient programs and UV detection at 254 and 235 nm. The geometric and positional isomers of some unsaturated fatty acids were substantially retained on the C18 columns and were distinct from some saturated fatty acids, endogenous substances in biological samples or background interference. Only slight separation of critical pairs of cis-9 C18:1/cis-11 C18:1 and cis-6 C18:1/trans-11 C18:1 was obtained. A ternate gradient program can be used for complete fractionation of a mixture of conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) from cis-9, cis-12 and trans-9, trans-12 isomers of C18:2. The CLA isomers in the effluent were monitored at 235 nm. The CLA isomers were differentiated from saturated and unsaturated fatty acids using a photodiode array detector. The utility of the method was demonstrated by evaluating the fatty acid composition of duodenal digesta, rapeseed and maize oils.

  13. How do H-bonding interactions control viscoelasticity and thixotropy of molecular gels? Insights from mono-, di- and tri-hydroxymethylated alkanamide gelators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Weiss, Richard G

    2017-01-15

    The structural and dynamic properties of molecular gels, made from 9 structurally-related mono-, di, and tri-hydroxymethylated alkanamide gelators, have been examined at different distance scales. The subtle changes in the gelator structures, in terms of the number of hydroxymethyl groups and the length of the alkanamide chain, have been correlated with the type of the self-assembled fibrillar networks and the viscoelasticity of the gels as well as the characteristics of the liquid as indicated by Hansen solubility parameters. Some of the gels exhibit high degrees of thixotropy and very rapid recovery after the cessation of destructive strain. Gelation efficiencies-based upon the range of liquids gelated, the critical gelator concentrations, and the gel-sol transition temperatures-depend upon both the length of the fatty acid chain and the number of hydroxymethyl groups: the best gelator of the series contains the longest alkyl chain examined (hexadecyl) and two hydroxymethyl groups (i.e., better than the gelators with one or three groups). FT-IR and powder X-ray diffraction data indicate that hydrogen-bonding and molecular packing modes in the gels and the neat gelator powders are very similar. Polarizing optical microscopy images of the gels show that the morphology of the gel networks can be tuned by changing the cooling processes used to transform the sols into gels. In total, the observations and conclusions derived provide useful insights into the relationship between gelator structure and gel properties. These data will be useful to those interested in the a priori design of new gelators or other molecules undergoing a variety of self-assembly processes that lead to robust thermal- and mechano-reversible materials.

  14. Chemical activity-based environmental risk analysis of the plasticizer di-ethylhexyl phthalate and its main metabolite mono-ethylhexyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Gobas, Frank A P C; Otton, S Victoria; Tupper-Ring, Laura F; Crawford, Meara A; Clark, Kathryn E; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2016-11-17

    The present study applies a chemical activity-based approach to: 1) evaluate environmental concentrations of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP; n = 23 651) and its metabolite mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; n = 1232) in 16 environmental media from 1174 studies in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Asia, and in vivo toxicity data from 934 studies in 20 species, as well as in vitro biological activity data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Toxicity Forecaster and other sources; and 2) conduct a comprehensive environmental risk analysis. The results show that the mean chemical activities of DEHP and MEHP in abiotic environmental samples from locations around the globe are 0.001 and 10(-8) , respectively. This indicates that DEHP has reached on average 0.1% of saturation in the abiotic environment. The mean chemical activity of DEHP in biological samples is on average 100-fold lower than that in abiotic samples, likely because of biotransformation of DEHP in biota. Biological responses in both in vivo and in vitro tests occur at chemical activities between 0.01 to 1 for DEHP and between approximately 10(-6) and 10(-2) for MEHP, suggesting a greater potency of MEHP compared with DEHP. Chemical activities of both DEHP and MEHP in biota samples were less than those causing biological responses in the in vitro bioassays, without exception. A small fraction of chemical activities of DEHP in abiotic environmental samples (i.e., 4-8%) and none (0%) for MEHP were within the range of chemical activities associated with observed toxicological responses in the in vivo tests. The present study illustrates the chemical activity approach for conducting risk analyses. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-10. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Effects of Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Administrations on Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Apoptosis and Gene Quantification in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Absalan, Forouzan; Saremy, Sadegh; Mansori, Esrafil; Taheri Moghadam, Mahin; Eftekhari Moghadam, Ali Reza; Ghanavati, Razie

    2017-01-01

    Objective Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mouse strain (6-8 weeks), were divided into seven different experimental and control groups. Control group oocytes were retrieved from mice that received only normal saline. The experimental groups I, II or III oocytes were retrieved from mice treated with 50, 100 or 200 µl DEHP (2.56 µM) solution, respectively. The experimental groups IV, V or VI oocytes were retrieved from mouse exposed to 50, 100 or 200 µl MEHP (2.56 µM) solution, respectively. Fertilization and embryonic development were carried out in OMM and T6 medium. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-FITC/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit, with PI staining. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pou5f1, Ccna1 and Asah1 were examined in oocytes. Finally, mouse embryo at early blastocyst stage was stained with acridine-orange (AO) and ethidium-bromide (EB), in order to access their viability. Results The proportion of oocytes that progressed up to metaphase II (MII) and 2-cells embryo formation stage was significantly decreased by exposure to MEHP or DEHP, in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and PI positive oocytes showed greater quantity in the treated mice than control. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that expression levels of Pou5f1, Asah1 and Ccna1 were significantly lower in the treated mouse oocytes than control. The total cell count for blastocyst developed from the treated mouse oocytes was lower than the controls. Conclusion These

  16. Mono Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  17. Determination of lipophilicity of chlorinated alicyclic compounds by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Coats, J.R. . Dept. of Entomology); Chambers, J.E. . Coll. of Veterinary Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    A RP-HPLC procedure has been developed for measuring the capacity factor (k[prime]) of a series of chlorinated alicyclic compounds. The chromatographic behavior measured on a 4.5 mm i.d. [times] 3.3 cm C-18 column with methanol/water as the mobile phase was related to the volume fraction of methanol ([phi]). A linear relationship was found between log k[prime] and [phi], showing the correlation coefficient [lambda] > 0.99, for each of the 15 chlorinated alicyclic compounds tested. The log k[sub w], the capacity factor obtained by extrapolation of the retention data from binary effluents to 100% water, was chosen as a measure of the solute lipophilicity. Since log k[sub w] is considered as a valuable index of the lipophilicity of a compound, the determined values will be used for the quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of the chlorinated alicyclic compounds.

  18. Inhibition of Dioxins in Combustion of Printed Wiring Boards by Use of Hydrogenated Alicyclic Epoxy Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takahiro; Saito, Seiichi; Saito, Shigemasa; Fujimoto, Kozo

    The amount of halogenated dioxins in combustion gases of printed circuit boards depends on the concentration of halogen in the substrate, and also changes with resin structures to be applied. In this study, it was revealed that by combined use of fine aluminum hydroxide, phosphate flame retardant and alicyclic epoxy resin instead of halogenated epoxy resin or aromatic epoxy resin, these printed circuit boards met UL94-V0 flammability classification. Furthermore halogenated dibenzodioxin/dibenzofuran was hardly detected in combustion gases. The printed circuit boards which consisted of alicyclic epoxy resin could control generating of halogenated dioxins, as compared with aromatic resin. According to the heat decomposition behavior, it was suggested that alicyclic resin was easy to decompose because of weak C-C bond strength and generating of halogenated dioxins were controlled by the structure of resins.

  19. Di/mono-nuclear iron(I)/(II) complexes as functional models for the 2Fe2S subunit and distal Fe moiety of the active site of [FeFe] hydrogenases: protonations, molecular structures and electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang; Fan, Jiangli; Sun, Shiguo; Song, Fengling; Peng, Xiaojun; Duan, Qian; Jiang, Dayong; Liang, Qingcheng

    2012-10-21

    Di/mono-nuclear iron(I)/(II) complexes containing conjugated and electron-withdrawing S-to-S linkers, [{(μ-S)(2)(C(4)N(2)H(2))}Fe(2)(CO)(6)] (1), [{(μ-S)(2)(C(4)N(2)H(2))}Fe(2)(CO)(5)(PMe(3))] (1P), and [{(μ-S)(2)(C(4)N(2)H(2))}Fe(CO)(2)(PMe(3))(2)] (2) were prepared as biomimetic models for the 2Fe2S subunit and distal Fe moiety of the active site of [FeFe] hydrogenases. The N atoms in the heterocyclic pyrazines of 1 and 2 were protonated in the presence of proton acid to generate one and two hydrides, [1(NH)](+) CF(3)SO(3)(-), [2(NH)](+) CF(3)SO(3)(-), and [2(NH)(2)](2+) (CF(3)SO(3)(-))(2), respectively. The protonation processes were evidenced by in situ IR and NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structures of the protonated species [1(NH)](+) CF(3)SO(3)(-) and [2(NH)(2)](2+) (CF(3)SO(3)(-))(2) together with their originating complexes and , and the mono-PMe(3) substituted diiron complex were identified by X-ray crystallography. The IR and single-crystal analysis data all suggested that the electron-withdrawing bridge, pyrazine, led to decreased electron density at the Fe centers of the model complexes, which was consistent with the electrochemical studies. The cyclic voltammograms indicated that complex exhibited a low primary reduction potential at -1.17 V vs. Fc-Fc(+) with a 270 mV positive shift compared with that of the benzene-1,2-dithiolate (bdt) bridged analogue [(μ-bdt)Fe(2)(CO)(6)]. Under the weak acid conditions, complexes 1 and 2 could electrochemically catalyze the proton reduction. More interestingly, the mononuclear ferrous complex 2 showed two catalytic peaks during the formation of hydrogen, confirming its potential as a catalyst for hydrogen production.

  20. Complete (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift assignments of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides as basis for NMR chemical shift predictions of polysaccharides using the computer program casper.

    PubMed

    Roslund, Mattias U; Säwén, Elin; Landström, Jens; Rönnols, Jerk; Jonsson, K Hanna M; Lundborg, Magnus; Svensson, Mona V; Widmalm, Göran

    2011-08-16

    The computer program casper uses (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift data of mono- to trisaccharides for the prediction of chemical shifts of oligo- and polysaccharides. In order to improve the quality of these predictions the (1)H and (13)C, as well as (31)P when applicable, NMR chemical shifts of 30 mono-, di-, and trisaccharides were assigned. The reducing sugars gave two distinct sets of NMR resonances due to the α- and β-anomeric forms. In total 35 (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift data sets were obtained from the oligosaccharides. One- and two-dimensional NMR experiments were used for the chemical shift assignments and special techniques were employed in some cases such as 2D (1)H,(13)C-HSQC Hadamard Transform methodology which was acquired approximately 45 times faster than a regular t(1) incremented (1)H,(13)C-HSQC experiment and a 1D (1)H,(1)H-CSSF-TOCSY experiment which was able to distinguish spin-systems in which the target protons were only 3.3Hz apart. The (1)H NMR chemical shifts were subsequently refined using total line-shape analysis with the PERCH NMR software. The acquired NMR data were then utilized in the casper program (http://www.casper.organ.su.se/casper/) for NMR chemical shift predictions of the O-antigen polysaccharides from Klebsiella O5, Shigella flexneri serotype X, and Salmonella arizonae O62. The data were compared to experimental data of the polysaccharides from the two former strains and the lipopolysaccharide of the latter strain showing excellent agreement between predicted and experimental (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts.

  1. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim; Csanády, György A.; Pütz, Christian; and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 μg/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ► Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  2. Production of mono- and di-carboxylated polyethylene glycols as a factor obstacle to the successful ozonation-assisted biodegradation of ethoxylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2015-10-01

    Ozonation is believed to improve the biodegradability of organic compounds. In the present study, degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) was monitored in hybrid treatment systems consisting of ozonation and microbial degradation processes. We found that ozonation of NPEOs decreased, rather than increased, the biodegradability under certain conditions. The timing of ozonation was a definitive factor in determining whether ozonation increased or decreased the biodegradation rates of NPEOs. Initial ozonation of NPEOs prior to biodegradation reduced the rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal during the subsequent 14 d of biodegradation, whereas intermediate ozonation at the 9th day of biodegradation improved subsequent DOC removal during 14 d of NPEO biodegradation. Furthermore, reduction of DOC removal was also observed, when initial ozonation prior to biodegradation was subjected to cetyl alcohol ethoxylates. The production of less biodegradable intermediates, such as mono- and dicarboxylated polyethylene glycols (MCPEGs and DCPEGs), was responsible for the negative effect of ozonation on biodegradability of NPEOs. DCPEGs and MCPEGs were produced by biodegradation of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) that were ozonolysis products of the NPEOs, and the biodegradability of DCPEGs and MCPEGs was less than that of the precursor PEGs. The results indicate that, if the target chemicals contain ethoxy chains, production of PEGs may be one of the important factors when ozonation is considered.

  3. Localization and alteration of mono-, di-, and trifucosyl alpha 1----3 type 2 chain structures during human embryogenesis and in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Distribution patterns of specific fucose-containing antigens having X determinant (Gal beta 1----4[Fuc alpha 1----3]GlcNAc) as well as the di- or trimeric X determinants (Gal beta 1----4[Fuc alpha 1----3]GlcNAc beta 1----3Gal beta 1----4[Fuc alpha 1----3]-GlcNAc) in the developing human embryo and fetus and in human cancer have been examined using immunohistological techniques. Tissue sections were stained with monoclonal antibody FH3, which defines X determinant, and with monoclonal antibody FH4, which defines di- or trimeric X determinant. The following general trends in the expression of the antigens defined by FH3 and FH4 have been observed: (a) A well-organized, orderly appearance and disappearance of the antigens was observed during the histogenesis of various epithelia of gastrointestinal and other organs. The developmental stage exhibiting the maximum antigen expression is different for each organ. (b) The X determinant defined by FH3 was expressed approximately 2 wk earlier than the di- or trimeric X determinant defined by FH4, and the antigen defined by FH4 regressed more rapidly and more completely than the X determinant defined by FH3 on further development of epithelial tissue. Thus, expression of the FH4 antigen is highly limited to specific types of cells in newborn and adult epithelial tissues. (c) The antigen defined by FH4 was strongly expressed in the majority of tubular and papillary adenocarcinoma of stomach, adenocarcinoma of colon, and infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast and its metastatic lesions. No antigen was found in poorly differentiated stomach adenocarcinoma, squamous lung carcinoma, and many other types of tumors from ovary, testis, prostate, skin, and muscle. The presence of the antigen defined by FH4 is therefore limited to carcinoma of the stomach, colon, and breast and can be regarded as a retrograde expression of the antigen to a certain stage of fetal development in which expression of this antigen was maximal. PMID:6147386

  4. Rate constants for 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom transfer reactions of mono-, di-, and tri-aryl-substituted donors, models for hydrogen atom transfers in polyunsaturated fatty acid radicals.

    PubMed

    DeZutter, Christopher B; Horner, John H; Newcomb, Martin

    2008-03-06

    Rate constants for 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom transfer reactions in models of polyunsaturated fatty acid radicals were measured via laser flash photolysis methods. Photolyses of PTOC (pyridine-2-thioneoxycarbonyl) ester derivatives of carboxylic acids gave primary alkyl radicals that reacted by 1,5-hydrogen transfer from mono-, di-, and tri-aryl-substituted positions or 1,6-hydrogen transfer from di- and tri-aryl-substituted positions to give UV-detectable products. Rate constants for reactions in acetonitrile at room temperature ranged from 1 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(6) s(-1). The activation energies for a matched pair of 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom transfers giving tri-aryl-substituted radicals were approximately equal, as were the primary kinetic isotope effects, but the 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer reaction was 1 order of magnitude faster at room temperature than the 1,6-hydrogen atom transfer reaction due to a less favorable entropy of activation for the 1,6-transfer reaction. Solvent effects on the rate constants for the 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer reaction of the 2-[2-(diphenylmethyl)phenyl]ethyl radical at ambient temperature were as large as a factor of 2 with the reaction increasing in rate in lower polarity solvents. Hybrid density functional theory computations for the 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom transfers of the tri-aryl-substituted donors were in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Synthesis of Mono- and Di-Glucosides of Zearalenone and α-/β-Zearalenol by Recombinant Barley Glucosyltransferase HvUGT14077

    PubMed Central

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Varga, Elisabeth; Lupi, Francesca; Malachová, Alexandra; Hametner, Christian; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s−1·mM−1) with ZEN. It also efficiently glucosylates the phase-I ZEN-metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, with kcat/Km of 40 and 74 s−1·mM−1, respectively. HvUGT14077 catalyzes O-glucosylation at C-14 and C-16 with preference of 14-glucoside synthesis. Furthermore, relatively slow consecutive formation of 14,16-di-glucosides was observed; their structures were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry and for ZEN-14,16-di-glucoside confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recombinant HvUGT14077 allowed efficient preparative synthesis of ZEN-glucosides, yielding about 90% ZEN-14-glucoside and 10% ZEN-16-glucoside. The yield of ZEN-16-glucoside could be increased to 85% by co-incubation with a β-glucosidase highly selective for ZEN-14-glucoside. Depletion of the co-substrate UDP-glucose was counteracted by a sucrose synthase based regeneration system. This strategy could also be of interest to increase the yield of minor glucosides synthesized by other glucosyltransferases. PMID:28208765

  6. Synthesis of Mono- and Di-Glucosides of Zearalenone and α-/β-Zearalenol by Recombinant Barley Glucosyltransferase HvUGT14077.

    PubMed

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Varga, Elisabeth; Lupi, Francesca; Malachová, Alexandra; Hametner, Christian; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2017-02-09

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s(-1)·mM(-1)) with ZEN. It also efficiently glucosylates the phase-I ZEN-metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, with kcat/Km of 40 and 74 s(-1)·mM(-1), respectively. HvUGT14077 catalyzes O-glucosylation at C-14 and C-16 with preference of 14-glucoside synthesis. Furthermore, relatively slow consecutive formation of 14,16-di-glucosides was observed; their structures were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry and for ZEN-14,16-di-glucoside confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recombinant HvUGT14077 allowed efficient preparative synthesis of ZEN-glucosides, yielding about 90% ZEN-14-glucoside and 10% ZEN-16-glucoside. The yield of ZEN-16-glucoside could be increased to 85% by co-incubation with a β-glucosidase highly selective for ZEN-14-glucoside. Depletion of the co-substrate UDP-glucose was counteracted by a sucrose synthase based regeneration system. This strategy could also be of interest to increase the yield of minor glucosides synthesized by other glucosyltransferases.

  7. Mono-Schiff-base or di-Schiff-base? Synthesis, spectroscopic, X-ray structural and DFT study of a series of Schiff-bases derived from benzil dihydrazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xue-Jie; Hao, Xiu-Qi; Zhao, Qing-Zhe; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Xie, Wen-Long; Xing, Dian-Xiang; Liu, Yun; Song, Lai-Zhou

    2015-11-01

    A series of mono- and di-Schiff-bases based on Benzil Dihydrazone (BDH) were designed and synthesized to be set as the model compounds to explain which one should be the advanced product and which parameters will determine the end-product. As the first step of a series of investigations, this article presents the syntheses and characterization of five new Schiff-bases plus one preliminary reported Schiff-base, all derived from BDH. The compounds were characterized by single crystal (or conventional powder) X-ray diffractometry, elemental analysis, m.p., 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and UV-Vis. Structural features of the five new Schiff-bases are similar. For instance, all molecules are nonsymmetrical/symmetrical double helix with the torsion angle of two "half-parts" about 72-97°. The Ph-Cdbnd N-Ndbnd C-Ph moiety all exists in planar and anti form, indicating significant conjugation. The crystal structures appear to be stabilized by π-stacking between the aromatic rings, as well as by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and C-H … π stacking interactions. DFT calculations have been performed to explain the trend of the experimentally measured reaction yields. In the case of the studied systems by us, the type of Schiff-bases exhibits a clear dependence on the molar ratio of reactants if the products have similar stabilities. Otherwise the importance of reaction conditions will be weakened and the most stable product will be favored.

  8. Comparative Tumor Imaging and PDT Efficacy of HPPH Conjugated in the Mono- and Di-Forms to Various Polymethine Cyanine Dyes: Part - 2

    PubMed Central

    James, Nadine S.; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Zheng, Xiang; Goswami, Lalit N.; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2013-01-01

    efficacy. Among the conjugates investigated, the bifunctional agent in which two HPPH moieties were linked to the benzoindole-based cyanine dye 11 showed superiority over the lead candidate 9 (mono HPPH-cyanine dye). PMID:24019855

  9. On-line DLTS investigations of the mono- and di-vacancy in p-type silicon after low temperature electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangenberg, Nikolaj; Goubet, Jean-Jacques; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS, we have investigated vacancy-related defects created in boron-doped epitaxial Si by 2 MeV electron irradiations at low temperatures (⩽ 40 K) . The vacancy level is found at E v+0.12 eV together with a DLTS peak at E v+0.20 eV which anneals at ˜140 K and is tentatively identified as a vacancy in a different configuration. The emission rate of the dominant vacancy-related deep level in the temperature range from 200 to 550 K, namely the (0/+) transition of the di-vacancy (V 2), displays a very large dependence of the emission rate on the electric field strength in the depletion region of the diodes. This dependence is unexpected in terms of the classical Poole-Frenkel effect, given the neutral charge state of V 2 before hole capture. The effect of high fields appears to be caused by phonon assisted tunneling. When V anneals around 200 K, a new complex assigned to a vacancy-boron pair gives rise to two charge states. Quenching experiments with reverse bias show that the complex is bistable. It anneals at 260 K.

  10. Electro-optical and physic-mechanical properties of colored alicyclic polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsova, V.; Umerzakova, M.; Korobova, N.; Timoshenkov, S.; Timoshenkov, V.; Orlov, S.; Iskakov, R.; Prikhodko, O.

    2016-09-01

    Main optical, thermal and mechanical properties of new compositions based on alicyclic polyimide and active bright red 6C synthetic dye have been studied. It was shown that the transmission ratio of the new material in the region of 400-900 nm and 2.0 wt.% dye concentration was around 60-70%. Thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of new colored compositions were comparable with the properties of original polyimide.

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Transannular C–H Functionalization of Alicyclic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Noam I.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. Carbon-hydrogen bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. As such, the development of selective, rapid, and efficient methods for converting carbon-hydrogen bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to dramatically streamline pharmaceutical development1,2,3,4. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, including treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), and nicotine addiction (cytisine and varenicline)5. However, existing methods for the C–H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited 6,7. Here we report a new approach to selectively manipulate the carbon–hydrogen bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction leverages the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve the palladium-catalyzed amine-directed conversion of C–H bonds to C–C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. This approach is applied to the synthesis of novel derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including the top-selling smoking cessation drug varenicline (Chantix®). We anticipate that this method should prove broadly useful in medicinal chemistry. PMID:26886789

  12. Palladium-catalysed transannular C-H functionalization of alicyclic amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Cabrera, Pablo J.; Saper, Noam I.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2016-03-01

    Discovering pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. C-H bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. Consequently, the development of selective, rapid and efficient methods for converting these bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to streamline pharmaceutical development. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, such as treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukaemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), malaria (mefloquine) and nicotine addiction (cytisine, varenicline). However, existing methods for the C-H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited. Here we report a transannular approach to selectively manipulate the C-H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction uses the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve palladium-catalysed amine-directed conversion of C-H bonds to C-C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. We demonstrate this approach by synthesizing new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline.

  13. Direct identification of diverse alicyclic terpenoids in Suwannee River Fulvic Acid.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Neal; Aluwihare, Lihini

    2015-04-07

    The chemical complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) obstructs our ability to definitively recover source compounds from within DOM, an objective which has the capacity to alter our understanding of carbon sequestration on a global scale. To advance compositional studies of DOM we have applied a previously published reduction method to an environmental standard, Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). The reduction products, comprising 12% of the prereduced carbon, were then separated by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Results indicate that the majority of observed reduced compounds corresponded to alicyclic hydrocarbons in the size range C10 to C17. Cyclic terpenoids are the only biomolecule class with contiguous, alicyclic carbon backbones of this size. These terpenoid reduction products contain series offset by CH2 and exhibit great isomeric diversity, features previously inferred from ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and NMR studies of unreduced SRFA. Reduction of Taxodium leaf litter as a source material to SRFA confirmed the prevalence of terpenoids in SRFA and provided insight into the parent compounds that must be diagenetically modified on relatively short time scales. These data corroborate several recent studies that suggest alicyclic hydrocarbons to be important components of longer-lived DOM.

  14. Crystal structure of 4-(3,4-di-cyano-phen-oxy)-N-[3-(di-methyl-amino)-prop-yl]benzamide mono-hydrate: a phen-oxy-phthalo-nitrile derivative.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Senem; Yıldız, Salih Zeki; Çaylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Pişkin, Hasan; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2015-09-01

    In the title compound, C20H20N4O2·H2O, the planes of the phen-oxy and phthalo-nitrile rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 60.39 (5)°. The 3-(di--methyl-amino)-propyl chain has an extended conformation and is cis with respect to the phthalo-nitrile ring. In the crystal, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules to form slabs parallel to (100). There are also C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions present within the slabs. The slabs are linked by a pair of inversion-related C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, involving phthalo-nitrile rings, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damaging effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) on MA-10 Leydig cells and protection by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Erkekoglu, Pinar; Rachidi, Walid; Giray, Belma; Favier, Alain; Hincal, Filiz

    2010-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundantly used phthalate derivative, inevitable environmental exposure of which is suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in germ cells are suggested to contribute to phthalate-induced disruption of spermatogenesis in rodents, and Leydig cells are one of the main targets of phthalates' testicular toxicity. Selenium is known to be involved in the modulation of intracellular redox equilibrium, and plays a critical role in testis, sperm, and reproduction. This study was aimed to investigate the oxidative stress potential of DEHP and its consequences in testicular cells, and examine the possible protective effects of selenium using the MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cell line as a model. In the presence and absence of selenium compounds [30 nM sodium selenite (SS), and 10 {mu}M selenomethionine (SM)], the effects of exposure to DEHP and its main metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) on the cell viability, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status, ROS production, p53 expression, and DNA damage by alkaline Comet assay were investigated. The overall results of this study demonstrated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity potential of DEHP, where MEHP was found to be more potent than the parent compound. SS and SM produced almost the same level of protection against antioxidant status modifying effects, ROS and p53 inducing potentials, and DNA damaging effects of the two phthalate derivatives. It was thus shown that DEHP produced oxidative stress in MA-10 cells, and selenium supplementation appeared to be an effective redox regulator in the experimental conditions used in this study, emphasizing the critical importance of the appropriate selenium status.

  16. Design and Lithographic Characteristics of Alicyclic Fluoropolymer for ArF Chemically Amplified Resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Katsumi; Nakano, Kaichiro; Shirai, Masamitsu

    2006-12-01

    We designed a novel alicyclic fluoropolymer, poly[3-hydroxy-4-(hexafluoro-2-hydroxyisopropyl)tricyclodecene], as an ArF (193 nm) chemically amplified resist. This fluoropolymer has a hexafluoroisopropanol group as an alkaline soluble unit and a hydroxyl group for improving adhesion. This polymer also exhibited a high transparency of 93%/150 nm at 193 nm, high thermal stability (355 °C), and a good adhesion to a Si substrate compared with a poly(norbornene) with a hexafluoroisopropanol group. The etching rate of our developed fluoropolymer for CF4 gas was 1.29 times that of the KrF resist. Moreover, a chemically amplified positive resist comprising an ethoxymethyl-protected polymer and a photoacid generator achieved a 110 nm line-and-space pattern with an ArF exposure.

  17. Analysis of the HNO and NO donating properties of alicyclic amine diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Benini, Patricia G.Z.; Basudhar, Debashree; Ramos-Colon, Cyf N.; Johnson, Gail M.; Larriva, Marti M.; Keefer, Larry K.; Andrei, Daniela; Miranda, Katrina M.

    2014-01-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO) donors have been shown to elicit a variety of pharmacological responses, ranging from tumoricidal effects to treatment of heart failure. Isopropylamine-based diazeniumdiolates have been shown to produce HNO on decomposition under physiological conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis and HNO release profiles of primary alicyclic amine-based diazeniumdiolates. These compounds extend the range of known diazeniumdiolate-based HNO donors. Acetoxymethyl ester-protected diazeniumdiolates were also synthesized to improve purification and cellular uptake. The acetoxymethyl derivative of cyclopentylamine diazeniumdiolate not only showed higher cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to the parent anion but was also effective in combination with tamoxifen for targeting estrogen receptor α-negative breast cancer cells. PMID:25192820

  18. Structural design of new alicyclic acrylate polymers with androstane moiety for 193-nm resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoai, Toshiaki; Sato, Kenichiro; Kodama, Kunihiko; Kawabe, Yasumasa; Nakao, Hajime; Yagihara, Morio

    1999-06-01

    Synthesis of new alicyclic (meth)acrylate polymers containing androstane moieties, especially cholic acid derivatives, and their characteristics were investigated for 193nm single layer resists. Among the derivatives, a work of adhesion, Ohnishi and ring parameters were used as measures for the adhesion and the dry-etching resistance in this study. In the synthesis of the polymers, the use of 3- (beta) -methacryloyoxy-deoxycholic acid, which is the inverse configuration against the original 3-(alpha) -structure, was effective as a monomer, because the steric hindrance at 3- (alpha) -position degraded its polymerization ability. The polymers partially protected by acid labile groups showed a satisfactory adhesion, which was probably due to the hydrophilic hydroxyl group at the 12-position and the carboxyl group linked at the 17-position, and a good dry- etching resistance. On the lithographic imaging with these polymers, the reduction of the side reaction on the acid decomposition and also the control of the flexibility on the polymers largely affected their performance. THe adjustment of the Tg values of the polymers by the co-polymerization and the change of the polymer backbone from the methacrylate to acrylate structure performed well on imaging under 193nm exposure.

  19. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D. )

    1988-12-01

    The Mono County Board of Supervisors approved the issuance of a use-permit for the Mammoth-Pacific II geothermal power plant. The power plant will be a binary, air-cooled, 10-megawatt, net, project. An appeal was filed by the California Department of Fish and Game, and the permit will not take effect until this appeal is resolved. Mono County also issued a project use-permit to proposers of Bonneville Pacific Corporations Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project, also a 10-megawatt, net, binary and air-cooled project. The permit was appealed by the Sierra Club, Cal-Trout, and the California Department of Fish and Game. Now, a subsequent EIR must be prepared for public review and comment. The subsequent EIR will address the issue of cumulative impacts and will include a discussion of new information.

  20. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    In May 1987, the Mono County Energy Management Department recommended that a two-year moratorium be placed on geothermal power production projects on private lands within the Mono-Long Valley KGRA. The intent of the proposed moratorium was to allow for the collection and evaluation of hydrologic monitoring data in the Long Valley Caldera. Now, to still achieve this end, the Energy Management Department will suggest that mitigation measures and project-specific monitoring requirements be implemented via the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) documentation and the county use permit process. The monitoring data will provide important information to Mono County decision-makers regarding potential adverse impacts from geothermal production on such local resources as Hot Creek Gorge, the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, and Hot Creek, itself. The Mammoth/Chance Geothermal Project is the proposed construction and operation of a 10 megawatt, net, geothermal binary-cycle power plant and production- and injection-well field by Bonneville Pacific Corporation. The project is currently under environmental review, pursuant to CEQA requirements. The Mono County Energy Management Director is providing assistance to the Town of Mammoth Lakes on its California Energy Commission (CEC) grant-funded resource assessment project. The grant of $220,000 provides for the drilling of at least two temperature-gradient wells (exploratory wells) within the town limits. If a geothermal resource is detected and found to provide adequate flows at a suitable temperature, the Town of Mammoth Lakes will proceed in the development of a geothermal space-heating system to provide heat to such users as the Centinela Mammoth Hospital, Mammoth elementary and high schools, the Gateway Industrial Park, and future residential development projects.

  1. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    On February 9, 1988, the Mono County Board of Supervisors voted to approve Bonneville Pacific Corporation's Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project. The project is an air-cooled, binary, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The Mono County Board of Supervisors issued a project use-permit with vigorous and stringent conditions. Specific emphasis was placed on the establishment of a monitoring program designed to detect the effects of geothermal development on the springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek Gorge. On October 5, 1987, the Mono County Planning Commission granted a use-permit to Mammoth Pacific for its Mammoth Pacific II Project, a binary, air-cooled, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The issuance of the use-permit instigated an appeal by the Sierra Club. That appeal was heard on February 22, 1988, At the end of the testimony, the Board of Supervisors voted to uphold the appeal of the Sierra Club, thereby denying the project by a vote of 3 to 2. The main areas of concern voiced by the majority of the Board included potential hydrologic impacts to Hot Creek Gorge and Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, visual impacts, and impacts to mule deer migration and survival. One of the options now available to Mammoth Pacific is to request that the project be denied without prejudice. This would allow Mammoth Pacific to return to the Board immediately with additional material regarding its concerns.

  2. In situ polymerization and performance of alicyclic polyimide/graphene oxide nanocomposites derived from 6FAPB and CBDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yunhua; Hao, Jican; Xiao, Guoyong; Zhao, Hongbin; Hu, Zhizhi; Wang, Tonghua

    2017-02-01

    A series of alicyclic polyimide/graphene oxide(PI/GO) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by in situ polymerization of 1,4-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)benzene(6FAPB) and 1,2,3,4-cyclobutanetetracarboxylic dianhydride(CBDA) as well as GO, followed by thermal imidization. The effect of GO on the thermal stability, optical properties, mechanical properties, water absorption and water surface contact angle of the PI-based nanocomposites was investigated. The optical properties of the pure alicyclic PI and corresponding PI-based nanocomposite films showed that the addition of GO reduced the transparency of PI films in the range of 200-800 nm obviously. With the increase of GO loading, the mechanical and thermal properties of alicyclic PI-based nanocomposites were enhanced. For the PI-1.0%GO nanocomposite films, the tensile strength was increased from 96 MPa (pure PI) to 109 MPa, and the Young's modulus was improved from 2.41 GPa (pure PI) to 3.83 GPa. The 10 wt% decomposition temperature for PI-1.0%GO nanocomposite films was increased from 464 (pure PI) to 481 °C, while the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PI/GO was slightly increased. In addition, the water surface contact angle of PI/GO enhanced from 71° to 82.5°, and the water uptake of PI/GO decreased from 2.58% to 1.48% with increasing the GO loadings. The uniform dispersion of GO in PI matrix was proved, and the pure PI and PI/GO nanocomposite films were amorphous.

  3. Mono County geothermal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Three geothermal projects have been proposed or are underway in Mono County, California. The Mammoth/Chance geothermal development project plans to construct a 10-MW geothermal binary power plant which will include 8 production and 3 injection wells. Pacific Lighting Energy Systems is also planning a 10-MW binary power plant consisting of 5 geothermal wells and up to 4 injection wells. A geothermal research project near Mammoth Lakes has spudded a well to provide a way to periodically measure temperature gradient, pressure, and chemistry of the thermal waters and to investigate the space-heating potential of the area in the vicinity of Mammoth Lakes. All three projects are briefly described.

  4. GRASr2 evaluation of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances used as flavoring ingredients.

    PubMed

    Marnett, Lawrence J; Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Adams, Timothy B; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Taylor, Sean V

    2014-04-01

    This publication is the 1st in a series of publications by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Assoc. summarizing the Panel's 3rd re-evaluation of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status referred to as the GRASr2 program. In 2011, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 2700 flavor ingredients that have previously met the criteria for GRAS status under conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr2) based, in part, on their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis of neutral carbohydrates: mono-, oligosaccharides, glycosides.

    PubMed

    Campa, Cristiana; Rossi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reports an overview of the recent advances in the analysis of neutral sugars by capillary electrophoresis (CE); furthermore, some relevant reviews and research articles in the field are tabulated. Comparison of CE with chromatography is also presented, with special attention to separation efficiency and sensitivity. The main routes aimed at pretreatment and CE analysis of uncharged mono-, oligosaccharides, and glycosides are described. Representative examples of such procedures are reported in detail, upon describing robust methodologies for the study of (1) neutral mono- and oligosaccharides derivatized by reductive amination and by formation of glycosylamines; (2) underivatized mono- and di-saccharides analyzed using highly alkaline buffers; and (3) anomeric couples of glycosides separated using borate-based buffers.

  6. Physicochemical studies on cetylammonium bromide and its modified (mono-, di-, and trihydroxyethylated) head group analogues. Their micellization characteristics in water and thermodynamic and structural aspects of water-in-oil microemulsions formed with them along with n-hexanol and isooctane.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debolina; Chakraborty, Indranil; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Moulik, Satya P; Roy, Sangita; Das, Debapratim; Das, Prasanta K

    2006-06-15

    The micellization behavior of cetylammonium bromide and its mono-, di-, and trihydroxyethylated head group analogues and water/oil (w/o) microemulsion formation with them have been studied with detailed thermodynamic and structural considerations. The critical micellar concentration, micellar aggregation number, and behavior of the surfactants at the air/solution interface have been studied in detail. The results have been analyzed and discussed. The formation of the w/o microemulsion stabilized by the aforesaid surfactants in conjunction with the cosurfactant n-hexanol in isooctane has been investigated by the dilution method. The energetics of the transfer of cosurfactant from oil to the interface has been estimated. The structural parameters, namely, droplet dimension, droplet number, and population of surfactant and cosurfactant on the droplet surface, have also been estimated. The efficacy of the surfactants in respect to water dispersion in oil and cosurfactant concentration level at the oil/water interface has been worked out. Such microemulsions are prospective compartmentalized systems to assist enzyme activities. In this respect, the trihydroxyethylated head group analogue in the above series has been found to be a better performer for the preparation and stabilization of microemulsions that has correlated well with its performance than the others in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-n-hexanoate by the enzyme Chromobacterium viscosum lipase.

  7. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2013-10-17

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important environmental contaminants. Their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pg g(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. Prior to final determination by GC/MS the cleaned-up samples have to be split into some fractions in view of large differences in concentrations of various analytes and existence of numerous chromatographic co-elutions (which in any case cannot be fully avoided). The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a robust, time-saving analytical method to isolate, clean-up and fractionate PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs prior to their determination with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry; (ii) assess method performance using laboratory validation data and some certified reference materials; (iii) use the developed method to assess PCB/PBDE/PCDD/F levels in samples of commercially available food. A combination of alumina, florisil, modified silica gel and two carbon columns were used for sample cleanup and fractionation. Separate fractions containing dioxins/furans, PBDE, non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-/tri-/tetra-ortho PCBs were obtained. The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples.

  8. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is contagious. Once someone gets mono, the virus stays in that person's body for life. That doesn't mean that you are always ... as long as 18 months. After that, the virus remains dormant (inactive) in the body for the rest of a person's life. If you've had mono, the virus can ...

  9. MonoColor CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ynjiun P.

    2009-02-01

    A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.

  10. The adsorption of hetero- and alicyclic thiophene derivatives from water-acetonitrile solutions on the surface of porous graphitic carbon under high-performance liquid chromatography conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifutdinov, B. R.; Emel'yanova, N. S.; Kurbatova, S. V.; Pimerzin, A. A.

    2012-07-01

    The adsorption of hetero- and alicyclic thiophene derivatives synthesized for the first time from water-acetonitrile solutions with various compositions on the surface of porous graphitic carbon was studied by the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The retention factor and Henry adsorption constant values and equilibrium constants of quasi-chemical reactions of the adsorption and solvation of the heterocyclic compounds studied were calculated using the Lanin-Nikitin equation. The influence of the structure of hetero- and alicyclic thiophene derivative molecules on their adsorption on the surface of porous graphitic carbon and solvation in water-acetonitrile solutions was discussed. The Lanin-Nikitin model was found to be more informative in the interpretation of the adsorption-chromatographic experiment data compared with the Snyder-Soczewinski and Scott-Kucera models.

  11. An efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene: preparation and application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Bao; Deng, Cong; Tan, Yi; Chen, Ming-Jun; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-05-28

    We found in our previous study that ethylenediamine- or ethanolamine-modified ammonium polyphosphates could be used alone as an intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene (PP), but their flame-retardant efficiency was not very high. In this present work, a novel highly-efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant, piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate (PA-APP) was prepared. The oxygen index value of PP containing 22 wt % of PA-APP reached 31.2%, which increased by 58.4% compared with that of PP with equal amount of APP, and the vertical burning test (UL-94) could pass V-0 rating. Cone calorimeter (CC) results indicated that PP/PA-APP composite exhibited superior performance compared with PP/APP composite. For PP containing 25 wt % of PA-APP, fire growth rate (FGR) and smoke production rate (SPR) peak were reduced by 86.4% and 78.2%, respectively, compared with PP blended with 25 wt % APP. The relevant flame-retardant mechanism of PA-APP was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy etc. The P-N-C structure with the alicyclic amine was formed during the thermal decomposition of piperazine salt (-NH2(+)-O-P-), and the rich P-N-C structure facilitated the formation of stable char layer at the later stage, consequently improving the flame-retardant efficiency of APP.

  12. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-06-12

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  13. Mono and diterpene production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reiling, K Kinkead; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Martin, Vincent J J; Newman, Jack; Bohlmann, Jörg; Keasling, Jay D

    2004-07-20

    Mono- and diterpenoids are of great industrial and medical value as specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Production of these compounds in microbial hosts, such as Escherichia coli, can be limited by intracellular levels of the polyprenyl diphosphate precursors, geranyl diphosphate (GPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). To alleviate this limitation, we constructed synthetic operons that express three key enzymes for biosynthesis of these precursors: (1). DXS,1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase; (2). IPPHp, IPP isomerase from Haematococcus pluvialis; and (3). one of two variants of IspA, FPP synthase that produces either GPP or GGPP. The reporter plasmids pAC-LYC and pACYC-IB, which encode enzymes that convert either FPP or GGPP, respectively, to the pigment lycopene, were used to demonstrate that at full induction, the operon encoding the wild-type FPP synthase and mutant GGPP synthase produced similar levels of lycopene. To synthesize di- or monoterpenes in E. coli using the GGPP and GPP encoding operons either a diterpene cyclase [casbene cyclase (Ricinus communis L) and ent-kaurene cyclase (Phaeosphaeria sp. L487)] or a monoterpene cyclase [3-carene cyclase (Picea abies)] was coexpressed with their respective precursor production operon. Analysis of culture extracts or headspace by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed the in vivo production of the diterpenes casbene, kaur-15-ene, and kaur-16-ene and the monoterpenes alpha-pinene, myrcene, sabinene, 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, limonene, beta-phellandrene, alpha-terpinene, and terpinolene. Construction and functional expression of GGPP and GPP operons provides an in vivo precursor platform host for the future engineering of di- and monoterpene cyclases and the overproduction of terpenes in bacteria.

  14. Synthesis of Enantiopure Alicyclic Ethers and Their Activity on the Chemosensory Organ of the Ectoparasite of Honey Bees, Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Pinnelli, Govardhana R; Singh, Nitin K; Soroker, Victoria; Plettner, Erika

    2016-11-16

    The preparation of enantiopure conformationally restricted alicyclic ethers and their inhibitory activities on the chemosensory organ of the Varroa destructor, a parasite of honey bees, are reported in this article. We tested the effect of enantiopure ethers of cis-5-(2'-hydroxyethyl)cyclopent-2-en-1-ol on the Varroa chemosensory organ by electrophysiology, for their ability to inhibit the responses to two honey bee-produced odors that are important for the mite to locate its host: nurse bee head space odor and (E)-β-ocimene, a honey bee brood pheromone. Previous work with the racemic compounds showed that they suppress the mite's olfactory response to its bee host, which led to incorrect host choice. Based on a structure-activity relationship, we predicted that the two most active compounds-cis-1-butoxy-5-(2'-methoxyethyl)cyclopent-2-ene, cy{4,1}, and (cis-1-ethoxy-5-(2'ethoxyethyl)cyclopent-2-ene, cy{2,2}-could have opposite active enantiomers. Here we studied the enantiomers of both ethers, whose preparation involved enzymatic resolution of racemic diol cis-5-(2'-hydroxyethyl)cyclopent-2-en-1-ol using Lipase AK with vinyl acetate. The racemic diol was prepared from commercially available 2,5-norbornadiene. We observed that the responses of the chemosensory organ to honey bee head space volatiles were significantly decreased by both enantiomers of cy{4,1} and cy{2,2}, but that responses to (E)-β-ocimene were decreased significantly only by (+)-cy{4,1} (1R,5S) and (-)-cy{2,2} (1S,5R) and not by their respective enantiomers. The importance of this result is that the racemates could be used to inhibit olfactory detection of bee odors by mites, without a loss in activity relative to the more expensive enantiopure compounds.

  15. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components.

    PubMed

    Jetter, Reinhard; Riederer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers.

  16. Simultaneous determination of mono- and disubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates in drinking water by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huanhuan; Peng, Hui; Yang, Min; Hu, Jianying

    2012-03-02

    A sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of five monosubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (monoPAPs) and eight disubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (diPAPs) in drinking water. Complete separation and good retention for 13 polyfluoroalkyls phosphates (PAPs) were achieved with a Waters ACUITY UPLC BEH C8 column using a mixture of methanol/water containing 0.1% NH₄OH as the mobile phases. Extraction of drinking water samples was performed on weak anion exchange (WAX) cartridges, and the recoveries of target compounds were from 65 to 110%. The limits of quantization (LOQs) for 13 analytes were in the range of 0.4-40 ng/L. This method was applied to analyze the PAPs in drinking water samples from three cities in China. Of the 13 PAPs, six PAPs including 6:2 monoPAP (13.0 ng/L), 8:2 monoPAP (3.6 ng/L), 10:1 monoPAP (4.3-70.3 ng/L), 10:2 monoPAP (1.4-5.6 ng/L), 8:2 diPAP (0.10 ng/L), and 10:1 diPAP (0.8-3.8 ng/L) were detected.

  17. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  18. Radionuclides in Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Toggweiler, J.R.; Mathieu, G.; Deck, B.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Hammond, D.E.; Fuller, C.; Ku, T.L.

    1982-04-30

    Several radioisotopes of the naturally occurring uranium and thorium decay series, in addition to fallout plutonium, have unusually high concentrations in the water column of Mono Lake, a natural alkaline, saline lake. Complexing by carbonate ions appears to be responsible for the enhanced solubility of actinide elements with oxidation states of IV to VI. In contrast, fallout strontium-90 has been largely removed from the water, probably as a result of coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. The daughter/parent activity ratios of thorium, radium, and uranium isotopes suggest that thorium is removed from the water column to the sediments on time scales substantially longer than a month and that the desorption of thorium from the sediments to the water column requires less than a few years.

  19. Radionuclides in Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Toggweiler, J.R.; Mathieu, G.; Deck, B.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Hammond, D.E.; Fuller, C.; Ku, T.L.

    1982-04-01

    Several radioisotopes of the naturally occurring uranium and thorium decay series, in addition to fallout plutonium have unusually high concentrations in the water column of Mono Lake, a natural alkaline, saline lake. Complexing by carbonate ions appears to be responsible for the enhanced solubility of actinide elements with oxidation states of IV to VI. In contrast, fallout strontium-90 has been largely removed from the water, probably as a result of coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. The daughter/parent activity ratios of thorium, radium, and uranium isotopes suggest that thorium is removed from the water column to the sediments on time scales substantially longer than a month and that the desorption of thorium from the sediments to the water column requires less than a few years. 2 tables.

  20. Di-sulfated Keratan Sulfate as a Novel Biomarker for Mucopolysaccharidosis II, IVA, and IVB.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tomatsu, Shunji; Mason, Robert W; Yasuda, Eriko; Mackenzie, William G; Hossain, Jobayer; Shibata, Yuniko; Montaño, Adriana M; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is a storage material in mucopolysaccharidosis IV (MPS IV). However, no detailed analysis has been reported on subclasses of KS: mono-sulfated KS and di-sulfated KS. We established a novel method to distinguish and quantify mono- and di-sulfated KS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and measured both KS levels in various specimens.Di-sulfated KS was dominant in shark cartilage and rat serum, while mono-sulfated KS was dominant in bovine cornea and human serum. Levels of both mono- and di-sulfated KS varied with age in the blood and urine from control subjects and patients with MPS II and IVA. The mean levels of both forms of KS in the plasma/serum from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB were elevated compared with that in age-matched controls. Di-sulfated KS provided more significant difference between MPS IVA and the age-matched controls than mono-sulfated KS. The ratio of di-sulfated KS to total KS in plasma/serum increased with age in control subjects and patients with MPS II but was age independent in MPS IVA patients. Consequently, this ratio can discriminate younger MPS IVA patients from controls. Levels of mono- and di-sulfated KS in urine of MPS IVA and IVB patients were all higher than age-matched controls for all ages studied.In conclusion, the level of di-sulfated KS and its ratio to total KS can distinguish control subjects from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB, indicating that di-sulfated KS may be a novel biomarker for these disorders.

  1. The impact of rubbing fabric type on surface roughness and tribological properties of some semi-alicyclic polyimides evaluated from atomic force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Iuliana; Barzic, Andreea Irina; Hulubei, Camelia

    2013-03-01

    The morphology of some polyimides (PI) prepared from a flexible and alicyclic dianhydride, in combination with aromatic diamines was investigated in detail before and after rubbing with two types of fabric: cotton velvet (CV) and cellulose diacetate velvet (CDV). Atomic force microscopy was employed to evaluate the correlation between rubbing-induced grooves in PI film and size/flexibility of textile fibers. For both samples surface isotropy decreased appreciatively with 91% after patterning since the appearance of ordered nanostructures in the direction of rubbing. The angular spectra reveal the generation of a surface anisotropy after rubbing process and a higher surface regularity and uniformity when using CV. This result is confirmed by decrease of texture direction index with 75% and of surface texture aspect ratio with 89%. These parameters together with the rubbing fiber characteristics are key factors in controlling liquid crystal alignment on patterned PI surfaces.

  2. Two new coordination polymers with flexible alicyclic carboxylate and bipyridyl co-ligands bearing trinuclear [Ni3(COO)6] SBUs: Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xian-Dong; Li, Yong; Gao, Jian-Gang; Wang, Fen-Hua; Li, Qing-Hai; Yang, Hong-Xun; Chen, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Two new coordination polymers generally formulated as [Ni3(Hchda)2(chda)2(bpy)2(H2O)2]n (1) and [Ni3(Hchda)2(chda)2(bpp)2(H2O)2]n (2) [H2chda = 1,1'-cyclohexanediacetic acid, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine and bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], have been successfully assembled through mixed-ligands synthetic strategy with flexible alicyclic carboxylate and bipyridyl ligands. There structures feature trinuclear nickel secondary building units connected via the bridging bipyridyl spacers to form two-dimensional (4,4) grid layer. The nature of the different N-donor auxiliary ligands leads to the discrepancy in supramolecular structure of the two compounds. Magnetic studies indicate the ferromagnetic intra-complex magnetic interaction in the molecule for 1 and 2.

  3. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  4. Digital Bathymetric Model of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raumann, Christian G.; Stine, Scott; Evans, Alexander; Wilson, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    In 1986 and 1987, Pelagos Corporation of San Diego (now Racal Pelagos) undertook a bathymetric survey of Mono Lake in eastern California for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP). The result of that survey was a series of maps at various scales and contour intervals. From these maps, the DWP hoped to predict consequences of the drop in lake level that resulted from their diversion of streams in the Mono Basin. No digital models, including shaded-relief and perspective-view renderings, were made from the data collected during the survey. With the permission of Pelagos Corporation and DWP, these data are used to produce a digital model of the floor of Mono Lake. The model was created using a geographic information system (GIS) to incorporate these data with new observations and measurements made in the field. This model should prove to be a valuable tool for enhanced visualization and analyses of the floor of Mono Lake.

  5. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand.

  6. Adsorption of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons on poly(ethylvinylbenzene-divinylbenzene) adsorbent at from effective zero to finite adsorbate surface coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, N.M.; Laub, R.J.; Kopecni, M.M.; Milonjic, S.K.

    1986-06-01

    The solid/gas partition coefficients, K/sub s/, and related thermodynamic properties of a number of hydrocarbon adsorbates at effective zero surface coverage on commercial samples of the title adsorbent, Porapak Q, were measured over the temperature range 293-443 K. The enthalpies of adsorption derived from the averaged absolute K/sub s/ gave incremental ..delta..H/sub s//sup 0/ of -7.5 kJ mol/sup -1/ for aliphatic and alicyclic -CH/sub 2/-, as well as aromatic -CH=, and -12 kJ mol/sup -1/ for -CH/sub 3/, while the differential entropies calculated in terms of translational motions were found to predict correctly the trends observed in the experimental ..delta..S/sub s//sup 0/. The technique of elution by characteristic point (ECP) was then used to derive the finite concentration adsorption isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption of n-hexane, n-heptane, cyclohexane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and acetone at fractional adsorbate pressures, p/p/sup 0/, of no greater than 10/sup -2/ on a particular sample of the title absorbent at 20/sup 0/ intervals over the temperature range 413-493 K.

  7. Supramolecular Complexes Formed by the Self-assembly of Hydrophobic Bis(Zn(2+)-cyclen) Complexes, Copper, and Di- or Triimide Units for the Hydrolysis of Phosphate Mono- and Diesters in Two-Phase Solvent Systems (Cyclen=1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane).

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yuya; Yoneda, Kakeru; Miyauchi, Miki; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Aoki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported on supramolecular complexes 4 and 5, formed by the 4 : 4 : 4 or 2 : 2 : 2 assembly of a dimeric zinc(II) complex (Zn2L(1)) having 2,2'-bipyridyl linker, dianion of cyanuric acid (CA) or 5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (Bar), and copper(II) ion (Cu(2+)) in an aqueous solution. The supermolecule 4 possesses Cu2(μ-OH)2 centers and catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphate monoester dianion, mono(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (MNP), at neutral pH. In this manuscript, we report on design and synthesis of hydrophobic supermolecules 9 and 10 by 4 : 4 : 4 and 2 : 2 : 2 self-assembly of hydrophobic Zn2L(2) and Zn2L(3) containing long alkyl chains, CA or Bar, and Cu(2+) and their phosphatase activity for the hydrolysis of MNP and bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNP) in two-phase solvent systems. We assumed that the Cu2(μ-OH)2 active sites of 9 and 10 would be more stable in organic solvent than in aqueous solution and that product inhibition of the supermolecules might be avoided by the release of HPO4(2-) into the aqueous layer. The findings indicate that 9 and 10 exhibit phosphatase activity in the two-phase solvent system, although catalytic turnover was not observed. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of BNP catalyzed by the hydrophobic 2 : 2 : 2 supermolecules in the two-phase solvent system is described.

  8. Structural characterization and physicochemical features of a new arsenate salt templated by mono and di-protonated 4-aminopyridine cations: (C5H7N2)(C5H8N2)[AsO4]·H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhadhbi, Noureddine; Naïli, Houcine; Jarraya, Khaled

    2017-03-01

    Single crystals of a new organic-inorganic hybrid compound, with the formula (4-APH)(4-APH2)[AsO4]·H2O, was synthesized at room temperature by slow evaporation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction at 150 K, DSC-TG measurements, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The title salt, (C5H7N2)(C5H8N2)[AsO4]·H2O, contains mono and diprotonated 4-aminopyridine cations, an arsenate trianion and one water molecule. The diprotonated 4-ammoniumpyridinium dication [C5H8N2]2+ is disordered over two positions with refined site occupancies of 0.73 and 0.27 however the monoprotonated 4-aminopyridinium cation [C5H7N2]+ is ordered. The 4-aminopyridinium rings are essentially planar and occur in stacks along b axis. In the crystal, the AsIII atom is coordinated by four O atoms in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The arsenate O atoms link the 4-aminopyridinium cations and water molecules into a three-dimensional network via intermolecular O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds. Additionally, in this structure, the different types and the nature of aromatic-aromatic interactions can distinguish between a stacked arrangement are parallel displaced and T-shaped conformation. Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. On the basis of detailed vibrational studies, the detailed assignment confirms the presence of the organic groups and the anionic entities. Besides, the thermal analysis studies have been performed, but no phase transition was found in the temperature range 298-625 K. Results from X-ray crystallography, Raman, IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis are combined to provide a description of the new organic arsenate monohydrate, (C5H7N2)(C5H8N2)[AsO4]·H2O.

  9. Migration of Di- and Tri-Interstitials in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, Matthias; Gao, Fei; Zwicker, D

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The results are compared with data from the literature and the implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed.

  10. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers. PMID:26644508

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO DI-N-BUTYLTIN DICHLORIDE (DBTC): IMMUNOTOXIC AND NEUROTOXIC EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organotins are incorporated as stabilizers in PVC water supply pipe. Particularly when new, mono- and di-substituted methyl- and butyltins leach from the pipe and are thus of regulatory concern to EPA. These contaminants have adverse effects on both the immune and nervous systems...

  12. Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  13. Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  14. Mono Lake earthquake of October 23, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, S.; Bryant, W.; Wilson, R.

    1991-02-01

    On October 23, 1990, a moderate earthquake of local magnitude (M{sub L}) 5.7 shook the Mono Lake area, a region known for its recent volcanic and tectonic activity. The earthquake was centered approximately 5 miles north of Lee Vining and 16 miles southeast of Bridgeport, near Black Point, an isolated flat-topped hill on the north shore of Mono Lake. Shaking from the earthquake was felt at approximately Modified Mercalli Intensity VI in the local area and weakly throughout much of north central California as far west as Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay area. This article summarizes the seismological features of the earthquake and relates the findings made during a surface fault rupture investigation of epicentral area by Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) geologists. To demonstrate how this earthquake fits into the regional tectonic setting, the character of this event is compared to that of other noteworthy seismic events that have occurred over the last 12 years.

  15. Gaylussite formation at mono lake, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Herbst, D.B.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The salinity of Mono Lake has steadily increased since 1941 from 50%. to about 90%. due to diversion of tributary streams. This increase has resulted in the newly discovered precipitation of gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2 ?? 5H2O). Chemical modeling of the lake water using Pitzer equations suggests that gaylussite has been forming year round since about 1970 when the salinity first exceeded 80%., and that it was earlier forming intermittently at lower salinities in the winter shortly after diversion began, breaking down incongruently to aragonite during summers. Lake water appears to remain at a constant 9-fold supersaturation with aragonite at all salinities, perhaps buffered by monohydrocalcite which appears to be just at saturation for all salinities. Other saline lakes also appear to be buffered by monohydrocalcite. ?? 1991.

  16. Gaylussite formation at Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J. ); Herbst, D.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The salinity of Mono Lake has steadily increased since 1941 from 50{per thousand} to about 90{per thousand} due to diversion of tributary streams. This increase has resulted in the newly discovered precipitation of gaylussite (Na{sub 2}Ca(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center dot} 5H{sub 2}O). Chemical modeling of the lake water using Pitzer equations suggests that gaylussite has been forming year round since about 1970 when the salinity first exceeded 80{per thousand}, and that it was earlier forming intermittently at lower salinities in the winter shortly after diversion began, breaking down incongruently to aragonite during summers. Lake water appears to remain at a constant 9-fold supersaturation with aragonite at all salinities, perhaps buffered by monohydrocalcite which appears to be just at saturation for all salinities. Other saline lakes also appear to be buffered by monohydrocalcite.

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis of Mono- and Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Toppazzini, Mila; Coslovi, Anna; Rossi, Marco; Flamigni, Anna; Baiutti, Edi; Campa, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports an overview of the recent advances in the analysis of mono- and oligosaccharides by capillary electrophoresis (CE); furthermore, relevant reviews and research articles recently published in the field are tabulated. Additionally, pretreatments and procedures applied to uncharged and acidic carbohydrates (i.e., monosaccharides and lower oligosaccharides carrying carboxylate, sulfate, or phosphate groups) are described.Representative examples of such procedures are reported in detail, upon describing robust methodologies for the study of (1) neutral oligosaccharides derivatized by reductive amination and by formation of glycosylamines; (2) sialic acid derivatized with 2-aminoacridone, released from human serum immunoglobulin G; (3) anomeric couples of neutral glycosides separated using borate-based buffers; (4) unsaturated, underivatized oligosaccharides from lyase-treated alginate.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10505 Section 721... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10505 Section 721... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  20. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  1. Hydrogen bond formation in regioselectively functionalized 3-mono-O-methyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Koschella, Andreas; Heublein, Brigitte; Klemm, Dieter; Heinze, Thomas

    2008-10-13

    The hydrogen bond systems of cellulose and its derivatives are one of the most important factors regarding their physical- and chemical properties such as solubility, crystallinity, gel formation, and resistance to enzymatic degradation. In this paper, it was attempted to clarify the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bond formation in regioselectively functionalized 3-mono-O-methyl cellulose (3MC). First, the 3MC was synthesized and the cast film thereof was characterized in comparison to 2,3-di-O-methyl cellulose, 6-mono-O-methyl cellulose, and 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl cellulose by means of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. Second, the hydrogen bonds in the 3MC film were analyzed by means of FTIR spectroscopy in combination with a curve fitting method. After deconvolution, the resulting two main bands (Fig. 3) indicated that instead of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between position OH-3 and O-5 another intramolecular hydrogen bond between OH-2 and OH-6 may exist. The large deconvoluted band at 3340cm(-1) referred to strong interchain hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups at C-6. The crystallinity of 54% calculated from the WAXD supports also the dependency of the usually observed crystallization in cellulose of the hydroxyl groups at C-6 to engage in interchain hydrogen bonding.

  2. High-solids anaerobic mono-digestion of riverbank grass under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Fetra J; Matsunami, Nobuyuki; Yamashiro, Takaki; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Ihara, Ikko; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of high-solids anaerobic mono-digestion of riverbank grass under thermophilic conditions, focusing on the effects of the strength and the amount of inoculum. Ensiled grass was inoculated with three different inocula; inoculum from liquid anaerobic digester (LI), inoculum from dry anaerobic digester (DI), and mixture of LI and DI (MI), at feedstock-to-inoculum ratio (FIR) of 1, 2 and 4. The ensiling process of riverbank grass reduced moisture content (p>0.05), while the hemicellulose content was significantly increased from 30.88% to 35.15% (p<0.05), on dry matter basis. The highest methane production was at an FIR of 2 with MI (167L/kg VSadded), which was significantly higher (p<0.05) than with DI, but not significant compared to LI (p>0.05). At an FIR of 4, digesters inoculated with LI and DI failed to produce methane, whereas 135LCH4/kg VSadded was obtained with MI. The kinetic studies showed that at an FIR of 1 with LI and MI, the inoculum had less of effects on the hydrolysis rate constant (0.269day(-1) and 0.245day(-1)) and methane production (135 versus 149L/kg VSadded); rather, it affected the lag phase. In a thermophilic HS-AD of riverbank grass, the mixture of inoculum with low and high total solids content (TS) helps increase the TS of inoculum and digestion process. An FIR of 2 was deducted to be the limit for a better startup time and higher volumetric productivity of methane.

  3. Methods for the Syntheses of Mono-, Di-, Tri- and Tetranitro Derivatives of Diphenylamine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    very large differences in rate are encountered. In general, fluoride and nitro are better leaving groups than chloride, bromide and iodide ...2100) or bromobenzene (1600) when used as a reactant, in the presence of catalytic amounts of copper or copper(I) iodide . Potassium carbonate was used...were carried out in the absence of copper or copper(I) iodide . This method has been further extended for the preparations of other nitrodiphenylamines

  4. Depolarization thermocurrents in frozen aqueous solutions of mono- and di-saccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoukaki-Diamanti, D.; Pissis, P.; Boudouris, G.

    1984-12-01

    The dielectric behaviour of frozen aqueous solutions of the monosaccharides glucose, galactose, mannose, ribose and arabinose and the disaccharides cellobiose, lactose and maltose was studied by the depolarization thermocurrent (DTC) method in the temperature range 80-270 K and over a wide range of concentrations (0.0003-1.5 mol/ l), to obtain information on the state of water in the solutions. The results show that the saccharides studied can be subdivided into two classes regarding their hydration behaviour. The solutions of glucose, galactose and mannose are characterized by a continuous transition from hydration (i.e. affected by the solute molecule) to free (i.e. non-affected) H 2O molecules. The solutions of ribose, arabinose, cellobiose, lactose and maltose are characterized by the presence of two dicrete kinds of H 2O molecules, namely free and hydration molecules. These results are discussed in terms of a hydration model.

  5. Mono-, di-, tri- and tetranuclear rare earth complexes obtained using a moderately bulky aryloxide ligand.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J

    2009-11-02

    Redox transmetallation ligand exchange reactions involving a rare earth metal, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (HOmes), and a diarylmercurial afford rare earth aryloxo complexes, which are structurally characterized. Both the lanthanoid contraction and the identity of the reaction solvent are found to influence the outcome of the reactions. Using THF in the reaction affords a dinuclear species [Ln2(Omes)6(thf)4].2THF (Ln=La 1, Nd 2) for the lighter rare earth metals, while a mononuclear species [Ln(Omes)3(thf)3] (Ln=Sm 3, Tb 5, Er 6, Yb 7, Y 8) is obtained for the heavier rare earth elements. Surprisingly, there is no change in metal coordination number between the two structural motifs. A divalent trinuclear linear complex [Eu3(Omes)6(thf)6] 4 is obtained for Eu, and features solely bridging aryloxide ligands. Using DME as the reaction solvent affords [La(Omes)3(dme)2] 9 from the reaction mixture, and [Ln2(Omes)6(dme)2].PhMe (La 10, Nd 11) and [Y(Omes)3(dme)2] 14 following crystallization of the crude product from toluene. The dinuclear species [Eu2(Omes)4(dme)4] 12 contains two unidentate and two chelating DME ligands, and contrasts the linear structure of 4. Treatment of HOmes and HgPh2 with Yb metal in DME affords the mixed valent Yb(II/III) complex [Yb2(Omes)5(dme)2] 13, which is stabilized by an intramolecular pi-Ph-Yb interaction, and is a rare example of a mixed valent rare earth aryloxide. Treatment of Er metal with HOmes at elevated temperature (solvent free) affords the homoleptic [Er4(Omes)12] 15, which consists of a tetranuclear array of Er atoms arranged in a 'herringbone' fashion; the structure is stabilized by intramolecular pi-Ph-Er interactions. Reaction of La metal with HOmes under similar conditions yields toluene insoluble "La(Omes)3", which affords 1 following extraction with THF.

  6. Synthesis and cell imaging applications of fluorescent mono/di/tri-heterocyclyl-2,6-dicyanoanilines.

    PubMed

    Pisal, Mahesh M; Annadate, Ritesh A; Athalye, Meghana C; Kumar, Deepak; Chavan, Subhash P; Sarkar, Dhiman; Borate, Hanumant B

    2017-02-15

    Synthesis of 3,4,5-triheterocyclyl-2,6-dicyanoanilines, starting from heterocyclic aldehydes and 1,2-diheterocycle-substituted ethanones, is described. 2,6-Dicyanoanilines with one or two heterocyclic substituents have also been synthesized. It was found that some of these molecules have selective cell-staining properties useful for cell imaging applications. The compounds 1g, 10f and 11 were found to stain cytoplasm of the cells in contact but not the nucleus while the compound 12 showed affinity to apoptotic cells resulting in blue fluorescence. The cell imaging results with compound 12 were similar to Annexin V-FITC, a known reagent containing recombinant Annexin V conjugated to green-fluorescent FITC dye, used for detection of apoptotic cells. These compounds were found to be non-cytotoxic and have potential application as cell imaging agents.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Mono-, Di-, and Tetranitrated 7,8-Disubstituted Glycolurils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...dictates the degree of nitration with few, if any, unwanted side products. While many substitution patterns exist in the literature for 7,8... Cheetah 7.0 [7] . All of the compounds 8–13 are predicted to have performance values less than TNT with 15 and 16 approaching the performance of TNT

  8. MONO FOR CROSS-PLATFORM CONTROL SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Timossi, Chris

    2006-10-19

    Mono is an independent implementation of the .NET Frameworkby Novell that runs on multiple operating systems (including Windows,Linux and Macintosh) and allows any .NET compatible application to rununmodified. For instance Mono can run programs with graphical userinterfaces (GUI) developed with the C# language on Windows with VisualStudio (a full port of WinForm for Mono is in progress). We present theresults of tests we performed to evaluate the portability of our controlssystem .NET applications from MS Windows to Linux.

  9. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  10. 9. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 1. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING EAST TO MONO LAKE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING EAST TO MONO LAKE. - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 2. LEE VINING INTAKE, MONO LAKE IN BACKGROUND. Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LEE VINING INTAKE, MONO LAKE IN BACKGROUND. - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  14. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-12-23

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  15. Electron transfer reactions in the alkene mono-oxygenase complex from Nocardia corallina B-276.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, S C; Cammack, R; Dalton, H

    1999-01-01

    Nocardia corallina B-276 possesses a multi-component enzyme, alkene mono-oxygenase (AMO), that catalyses the stereoselective epoxygenation of alkenes. The reductase component of this system has been shown by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy to contain two prosthetic groups, an FAD centre and a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The role of these centres in the epoxygenation reaction was determined by midpoint potential measurements and electron transfer kinetics. The order of potentials of the prosthetic groups of the reductase were FAD/FAD.=-216 mV, [2Fe-2S]/[2Fe-2S].=-160 mV and FAD./FAD.=-134 mV. Combined, these data implied that the reductase component supplied the energy required for the epoxygenation reaction and allowed a prediction of the mechanism of electron transfer within the AMO complex. The FAD moiety was reduced by bound NADH in a two-electron reaction. The electrons were then transported to the [2Fe-2S] centre one at a time, which in turn reduced the di-iron centre of the epoxygenase. Reduction of the di-iron centre is required for oxygen binding and substrate oxidation. PMID:10085230

  16. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  17. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S2CNR'R″]2 (R= Ph, CH3, R' = CH3, C2H5, C7H7 and R″ = C2H5, C6H11, iC3H7, C7H7). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444-1519, 954-1098 and 318-349 cm-1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 - 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N13CS2) in the range of 196.8 - 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S2CN(Et)(i-Pr)]2, MeSnCl[S2CN(Me)(Cy)]2 and MeSnCl[S2CN(i-Pr)(CH2Ph)]2. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  18. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Zhuang, Wei E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Yi Qin E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  19. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Gao, Yi Qin; Zhuang, Wei

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  20. Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Rwebangira, Mugizi Robert; Burge, Legand

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized naïve Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict mono-isotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to publicMo dataset demonstrates that our naïve Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity. PMID:25620856

  1. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies on mono-iodohistamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnuszek, P.; Dobrowolski, J. Cz; Sitkowski, J.; Bednarek, E.; Witowska, J.; Mazurek, A. P.

    2001-05-01

    The structure of mono-iodohistamine cation was determined by the 1H, 13C NMR, supported by ab initio calculations. Theoretical NMR spectra of the two mono-iodohistamine tautomers were calculated by using the CHF-GIAO approach. The N3-H tautomer of 4-I-histamine cationic form has been predicted to be the most stable, and its potential energy surface has been scanned at the HF/3-21G ∗∗ level. Reasons for higher stability of the 4-I-histamine comparing to the other iodohistamine isomers are also discussed.

  3. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in the presence of an alkaline...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A

  10. Geophysical studies of Mono Lake, east-central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athens, N. D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake, California to study regional crustal structures and to aid understanding the geologic framework of Mono Lake, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Recent geophysical surveys included over 600 line-kilometers of high-resolution ship-borne magnetometer data that augmented existing airborne data, 22 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data that were collected along six traverses across Paoha Island, 56 gravity stations that were collected on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples that were collected for physical property data. Magnetic highs in the study area occur to the east and west of Mono Lake, where pre-Tertiary basement is exposed. Magnetic data indicate that Mono Lake itself is dominated by three prominent magnetic anomalies that are from west to east: a magnetic high along the northwest part of the lake associated with the moderately magnetic basalt cinder cone at Black Point, a magnetic high associated with the young volcanic centers at Paoha and Negit Islands, and a broad magnetic high along the eastern margin of the lake probably associated with moderately magnetic granitic basement rocks at depth. Because volcanic rocks exposed at the surface of Paoha and Negit Islands are only weakly magnetic, magnetic data suggest that more mafic volcanic rocks probably occur at depth and are the source of the anomaly. The linear and steep magnetic gradient across the eastern part of the lake may reflect a fault. A fault may also be imaged in the northeastern part of the lake, where a possible laterally offset magnetic anomaly may be present. Within Mono Lake, gravity station control is poor because land-based gravity stations are limited to Paoha and Negit Islands. The gravity low in the basin reflects a moderately deep sedimentary basin filled with low density lacustrine and volcanic deposits. Isostatic gravity data indicate the central

  11. Quaternary Eruptions of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, M. I.; Pouget, S.; Mangan, M.; Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eruptive products of the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain include the tephra and associated volcanic rocks of Black Point, islands of Mono Lake, Mono Craters, Inyo Craters, late eruptions of Mammoth Mountain and Red Cones. Most of the eruptions were explosive, and generated numerous pyroclastic flows, surges and falls as well as the prominent domes and lava flows that now cover vents. The eruptions range in age from several hundred years to at least 60,000 yr BP. The Mono-Inyo tephras are dispersed throughout the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range, providing key time-stratigraphic marker layers. Recent work has not only resulted in high-precision radiometric dating of many of the tephras, but also detailed geochemical data that for the first time provides fingerprinting sufficiently precise to discriminate among the tephras. Lithostratigraphy of many of the layers is herein described for the first time, based on careful sampling and description in the field, and laboratory grain size, grain shape and componentry analyses of the late Pleistocene tephras of the Wilson Creek Formation. Most of the Wilson Creek volcanic layers are fall deposits accumulated within paleolake Russell, which were generated by eruptions of variable intensity and influenced by paleowinds of different orientation. Prevailing winds were generally to the North and East, but often the Pleistocene layers less than 25 ka were dispersed to the West. Many of the fall layers show evidence of wave reworking, generally near the top, although in some cases it is pervasive. Only near the vent do some layers of apparent debris flow origin occur. Maximum pumice sizes range up to nearly 3 cm, and lithics range up to 1 cm in the rhyolitic fall beds, while thicknesses range up to c. 30 cm. These data are consistent with relatively low volume, subplinian style eruptive behavior for most of the life of the Mono-Inyo Craters.

  12. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1101 Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  3. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  4. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  5. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  6. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  7. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates... sulfonates. The food additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates may be safely used in... statement declaring the presence of sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates....

  8. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates... sulfonates. The food additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates may be safely used in... statement declaring the presence of sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates....

  9. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  12. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  13. Magmatic storage conditions along the Mono Craters chain, Eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M.; Befus, K.; Gardner, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    We employ a variety of petrologic tools to characterize the pre-eruptive storage conditions of individual units erupted from Mono Craters. The Mono Craters chain represents one of the systems within the Long Valley volcanic field in Eastern California, which has been a regional center for effusive to cataclysmic volcanism from 800 ka until recent times. The Long Valley system has been the focus of much research; however, there are little published petrologic data for the Mono Craters chain. Understanding the Mono Craters chain is critical because it was the center for the most recent eruptions in the region. Eruptions along the chain occurred from 20 ka to ~660 years ago, and it is the most likely focus for future volcanic activity in the Long Valley region. Thus, petrologic data from Mono Craters must provide excellent constraints on the development and nature of the existing magmatic system. The Mono Craters chain contains 27 high silica rhyolite domes and flows and 1 dacite dome that were erupted along a gently arcuate trend that extends for ~15 km south of Mono Lake. The high silica rhyolites can be subdivided based on phenocryst assemblages into the following groups: biotite-bearing rhyolite, orthopyroxene-bearing rhyolite, fayalite-bearing rhyolite, sparsely porphyritic rhyolite, and aphyric rhyolite. We collected samples from 14 of the domes and flows within the Mono Craters chain, obtaining samples from each of the groups except the orthopyroxene-bearing rhyolite. We examined the composition of the mineral phases using electron microprobe analyses. Biotite-bearing rhyolites contain phenocrysts of quartz, plagioclase (Ab74-77), sanidine (Or66-68), Fe-rich hornblende, Ti-rich biotite, pyroxene, and magnetite with lamellae of ilmenite. Fayalite-bearing rhyolites contain phenocrysts of quartz, plagioclase (Ab75-80), sanidine (Or61-69), fayalite (Fa92-93), Fe-rich hornblende, Ti-rich biotite, pyroxene, magnetite and ilmenite. Sparsely porphyritic rhyolites

  14. The Magma Transport System of the Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. R.; Putirka, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Mono Craters are a series of 28 volcanic domes, coulees, and craters, just 16 km north of Long Valley. The magmatic products of the Mono Craters include mostly small magmatic bodies, sills, and dikes set in a transtensional tectonic setting. New high-density sampling of the domes reveals a wider range of magma compositions than heretofore recognized, and thus reveals what is likely a more complex magmatic system, involving a greater number of batches of magma and a more complex magma storage/delivery system. Here, we present a model for the magma plumbing system based on space-composition patterns and preliminary estimates of crystallization temperatures and pressures based on olivine-, feldspar- and clinopyroxene-liquid equilibria. Whole rock analyses show three compositionally distinct batches of magma within the Mono Craters proper: a felsic (73-78.4% SiO2), intermediate (64.4-68% SiO2) and mafic (52.7-61% SiO2) group. The Mono Lake Islands (Paoha and Negit) fall into the intermediate group, but contain distinctly lower TiO2 and Fe2O3 at a given SiO2 compared to all other Mono Craters; on this basis, we surmise that the Paoha and Negit eruptions represent a distinct episode of magmatism that is not directly related to the magmatic activity that created the Mono Craters proper. The discontinuous nature of the three groups indicates that magma mixing, while evident to some degree within and between certain domes, did not encompass the entire range of compositions at any given time. The three groups, however, do form a rough linear trend, and some subsets of domes have compositions that fall on distinctly linear (if still discontinuous) trends that cannot be reproduced by fractional crystallization, but rather are indicative of magma mixing. Our high-density sampling also reveals interesting geographical patterns: for example, felsic magmas erupt throughout the entire Mono Craters chain, erupting at a wide range of temperatures, ranging from 650-995°C, but

  15. Stabilization of magnesium dichloride surface defects by mono- and bidentate donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklin, Mikhail S.; Bazhenov, Andrey S.; Denifl, Peter; Leinonen, Timo; Linnolahti, Mikko; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the stabilization of magnesium dichloride surfaces by mono- and bidentate electron donors typically used in heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta olefin polymerization catalysis: tetrahydrofuran, ethyl benzoate, 2,2-dimethyl 1,3-dimethoxy propane, 2S,2R-di(2-tetrahydrofuryl) propane, dimethyl phthalate, and dimethyl succinate. Structural defects are generated into the ideal (104) and (110) MgCl2 surfaces, and both ideal and defective surfaces are saturated by the donors. The quantum chemical calculations (PBE0 density functional theory method), performed with periodic boundary conditions, show that all donors stabilize all surfaces. Stabilization energy of the surfaces by the ethers is linearly dependent on surface site coordination, the four-coordinate (110) surface being stabilized the most, the five-coordinate (104) surface the least, and all the defective structure fitting in between the two limiting cases of the ideal surfaces. However, the esters can additionally stabilize the defective surfaces depending on the steric effects at the point of coordination. The results suggest that defects need to be taken into account to properly address the surface-donor complexation.

  16. Mono Lake Analog Mars Sample Return Expedition for AMASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Steele, A.; Younse, P.; DiCicco, M.; Morgan, A. R.; Backes, P.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Marquardt, D.; Amundsen, H. E. F.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the performance of one robotic prototype for sample acquisition and caching of martian materials that has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for potential use in the proposed MAX-C Mars Sample Return architecture in an environment, rich in chemical diversity with a variety of mineralogical textures. Mono Lake State Tufa Reserve in Mono County, CA possesses a variety of minerals including a variety of evaporites, volcanic glass and lava, and sand and mudstones. The lake itself is an interesting chemical system: the water is highly alkaline (pH is approximately 10) and contains concentrations of Cl, K, B, with lesser amounts of S Ca Mg, F, As, Li, I and Wand generally enriched HREEs. There are also traces of radioactive elements U, Th, Pl.

  17. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  18. A Lane Following Mobile Robot Navigation System Using Mono Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yeongcheol; Kim, Seungwoo; Park, Seongkeun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a lane following mobile robot using mono camera. By using camera, robot can recognize its left and right side lane, and maintain the center line of robot track. We use Hough Transform for detecting lane, and PID controller for control direction of mobile robot. The validity of our robot system is performed in a real world robot track environment which is built up in our laboratory.

  19. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, T.L.; Joye, S.B.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) in the water column of Mono Lake, CA, was studied by measuring the formation of H14CO3 from [14C]MeBr. Potential oxidation was detected throughout the water column, with highest rates occurring in the epilimnion (5-12 m depth). The oxidation of MeBr was eliminated by filter-sterilization, thereby demonstrating the involvement of bacteria. Vertical profiles of MeBr activity differed from those obtained for nitrification and methane oxidation, indicating that MeBr oxidation is not simply a co-oxidation process by either nitrifiers or methanotrophs. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of methane oxidation and/or nitrification (e.g., methyl fluoride, acetylene, allyl sulfide) had no effect upon the rate of MeBr oxidation in live samples. Of a variety of potential electron donors added to Mono Lake water, only trimethylamine resulted in the stimulation of MeBr oxidation. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the oxidation of MeBr in Mono Lake waters is attributable to trimethylamine-degrading methylotrophs. Neither methyl chloride nor methanol inhibited the oxidation of [14C]MeBr in live samples, indicating that these bacteria directly oxidized MeBr rather than the products of MeBr nucleophilic substitution reactions.

  20. Nongeocentric axial dipole field behavior during the Mono Lake excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, Robert M.; McCuan, Daniel T.; Horton, Robert A.; Lopez, James D.; Cassata, William S.; Channell, James E. T.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Coe, Robert S.; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Lund, Steven P.; Benson, Larry V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2014-04-01

    A new record of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is reported from the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, USA. Sediment magnetic properties indicate magnetite as the magnetization carrier and imply suitability of the sediments as accurate recorders of the magnetic field including relative paleointensity (RPI) variations. The magnitudes and phases of the declination, inclination, and RPI components of the new record correlate well with other coeval but lower resolution records from western North America including records from the Wilson Creek Formation exposed around Mono Lake. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path of the new record is similar to that from another high-resolution record of the MLE from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin between Iceland and Greenland but different from the VGP path for the Laschamp excursion (LE), including that found lower in the ODP-919 core. Thus, the prominent excursion recorded at Mono Lake, California, is not the LE but rather one that is several thousands of years younger. The MLE VGP path contains clusters, the locations of which coincide with nonaxial dipole features found in the Holocene geomagnetic field. The clusters are occupied in the same time progression by VGPs from Summer Lake and the Irminger Basin, but the phase of occupation is offset, a behavior that suggests time-transgressive decay and return of the principal field components at the beginning and end of the MLE, respectively, leaving the nonaxial dipole features associated with the clusters dominant during the excursion.

  1. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Satish; Sell, Marie A; Relyea, George

    2007-11-08

    To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category-other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse.

  2. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Liddicoat, J.; Smoot, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Negrini, R.; Lund, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash #15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620 ?? 300 14C yr BP (??? 32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash #15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  3. Mono- and tetra-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanines containing morpholinyl moieties: Synthesis, antifungal photodynamic activities, and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Ke, Mei-Rong; Lan, Wen-Liang; Hou, Lu; Guo, Jun; Wan, Dong-Hua; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-05-23

    A series of zinc(II) phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) mono-substituted and tetra-substituted with morpholinyl moieties and their quaternized derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal photodynamic activities toward Candida albicans. The α-substituted, quaternized, and mono-substituted ZnPcs are found to have higher antifungal photoactivity than β-substituted, neutral, and tetra-substituted counterparts. The cationic α-mono-substituted ZnPc (6a) exhibits the highest photocytotoxicity. Moreover, it is more potent than axially di-substituted analogue. The different photocytotoxicities of these compounds have also been rationalized by investigating their spectroscopic and photochemical properties, aggregation trend, partition coefficients, and cellular uptake. The IC90 value of 6a against C. albicans cells is as low as 3.3 μM with a light dose of 27 J cm(-2), meaning that 6a is a promising candidate as the antifungal photosensitizer for future investigations.

  4. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  5. The Relationship between Mono-abundance and Mono-age Stellar Populations in the Milky Way Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchev, I.; Steinmetz, M.; Chiappini, C.; Martig, M.; Anders, F.; Matijevic, G.; de Jong, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Studying the Milky Way disk structure using stars in narrow bins of [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] has recently been proposed as a powerful method to understand the Galactic thick and thin disk formation. It has been assumed so far that these mono-abundance populations (MAPs) are also coeval, or mono-age, populations. Here we study this relationship for a Milky Way chemodynamical model and show that equivalence between MAPs and mono-age populations exists only for the high-[α/Fe] tail, where the chemical evolution curves of different Galactic radii are far apart. At lower [α/Fe]-values an MAP is composed of stars with a range in ages, even for small observational uncertainties and a small MAP bin size. Due to the disk inside-out formation, for these MAPs younger stars are typically located at larger radii, which results in negative radial age gradients that can be as large as 2 Gyr kpc‑1. Positive radial age gradients can result for MAPs at the lowest [α/Fe] and highest [Fe/H] end. Such variations with age prevent the simple interpretation of observations for which accurate ages are not available. Studying the variation with radius of the stellar surface density and scale height in our model, we find good agreement to recent analyses of the APOGEE red-clump (RC) sample when 1–4 Gyr old stars dominate (as expected for the RC). Our results suggest that the APOGEE data are consistent with a Milky Way model for which mono-age populations flare for all ages. We propose observational tests for the validity of our predictions and argue that using accurate age measurements, such as from asteroseismology, is crucial for putting constraints on Galactic formation and evolution.

  6. Genetic Structure and Hierarchical Population Divergence History of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species’ evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST = 0.073; G′ST = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species’ more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study. PMID:24498039

  7. Mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate advancing the progression of prostate cancer through activating the hedgehog pathway in LNCaP cells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Wang; Jiao, Chen; Jianhui, Wu; Yan, Zhao; Qi, Pan; Xiu, Wang; Zuyue, Sun; Yunhui, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays a critical role in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in male adults. Studies showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) could interference with the Hh pathway. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), the congener of DBP, is the major plasticizer used in plastic materials that are inevitably exposed by patients with PCa. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the active metabolite of DEHP) could activate the Hh pathway of LNCaP cells. Results showed that the expression of the critical gene of Hh pathway PTCH and androgen-regulated gene KLK3 was significantly decreased on 3, 6 and 9 days with Hh pathway inhibitor cyclopamine's treatment. MEHP notably up-regulated the expression of PTCH with a dose-response relationship in the presence of cyclopamine, which indicate that MEHP might target on the downstream components of Hh pathway and advance the progression of PCa through activating the Hh pathway.

  8. Synthesis, spectral and magnetic studies of mono- and bi-nuclear metal complexes of a new bis(tridentate NO2) Schiff base ligand derived from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and ethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Shebl, Magdy

    2009-07-15

    A new bis(tridentate NO2) Schiff base ligand, H(4)L, was prepared by the reaction of the bifunctional carbonyl compound; 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (DAR) with ethanolamine. The ligand reacted with iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), cerium(III) and uranyl(VI) ions, in absence and in presence of LiOH, to yield mono- and bi-nuclear complexes with different coordinating sites. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as thermal analyses. In absence of LiOH, mononuclear complexes (2, 3 and 5-9) as well as binuclear complexes (1 and 4) were obtained. In mononuclear complexes, the ligand acted as a neutral, mono- and di-basic/bi- and tetra-dentate ligand while in binuclear complexes (1 and 4), the ligand acted as a bis(mono- or di-basic/tridentate) ligand. On the other hand, in presence of LiOH, only binuclear complexes (10-15) were obtained in which the ligand acted as a bis(dibasic tridentate) ligand. The metal complexes exhibited different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral, tetrahedral, square planar, square pyramidal and pentagonal bipyramidal arrangements.

  9. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  10. Biotinylation of a propargylated cyclic (3'-5') diguanylic acid and of its mono-6-thioated analog under "click" conditions.

    PubMed

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Schindler, Christian; Beaucage, Serge L

    2013-03-01

    Commercial N(2)-isobutyryl-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2'-O-(propargyl)guanosine is converted to its 3'-O-levulinyl ester in a yield of 91%. The reaction of commercial N(2)-isobutyryl-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-3'-O-[(2-cyanoethyl)-N,N-diisopropylaminophosphinyl]guanosine with N(2)-isobutyryl-2'-O-propargyl-3'-O-(levulinyl)guanosine provides, after P(III) oxidation, 3'-/5'-deprotection, and purification, the 2'-O-propargylated guanylyl(3'-5')guanosine 2-cyanoethyl phosphate triester in a yield of 88%. Phosphitylation of this dinucleoside phosphate triester with 2-cyanoethyl tetraisopropylphosphordiamidite and 1H-tetrazole, followed by an in situ intramolecular cyclization, gives the propargylated cyclic dinucleoside phosphate triester, which is isolated in a yield of 40% after P(III) oxidation and purification. Complete removal of the nucleobases, phosphates, and 2'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl protecting groups leads to the desired propargylated c-di-GMP diester. Cycloaddition of a biotinylated azide with the propargylated c-di-GMP diester under click conditions provides the biotinylated c-di-GMP conjugate in an isolated yield of 62%. Replacement of the 6-oxo function of N(2)-isobutyryl-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-3'-O-levulinyl-2'-O-(propargyl)guanosine with a 2-cyanoethylthio group is effected by treatment with 2,4,6-triisopropybenzenesulfonyl chloride and triethylamine to give a 6-(2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonic acid) ester intermediate. Reaction of this key intermediate with 3-mercaptoproprionitrile and triethylamine, followed by 5'-dedimethoxytritylation, affords the 6-(2-cyanoethylthio)guanosine derivative in a yield of 70%. The 5'-hydroxy function of this derivative is reacted with commercial N(2)-isobutyryl-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-3'-O-[(2-cyanoethyl)-N,N-diisopropylaminophosphinyl]guanosine. The reaction product is then converted to the mono-6-thioated c-di- GMP biotinylated conjugate under

  11. A comparative analysis of mono- and disaccharide benzyl fucopyranosides.

    PubMed

    Brito-Arias, Marco; Durán-Páramo, Enrique; Mata, Ignasi; Molins, Elies

    2002-09-01

    The syntheses and X-ray analyses of two fucopyranosides, the monosaccharide benzyl 3,4-di-O-acetyl-2-hydroxy-beta-D-fucopyranoside, C(17)H(22)O(7), and the disaccharide 1-benzyl O-(2,3-di-O-acetyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->2)-3,4-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-fucopyranoside, C(33)H(40)O(12), are described. The different substituents induce small conformational changes on the fucopyranoside ring. However, the conformation of the benzyl group varies from (+)gauche for the monosaccharide to synperiplanar for the disaccharide.

  12. Dust Storms From Owens and Mono Valleys, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    developed a model that predicts that the level of Mono Lake will stabilize at 6.223 feet just after the year 2050, if the present water export and...done on the behavior of the saline components. and models were c’nstructed usint! lake-bed clays and brines. We visited the plava monthly in 1985. 21...lake bed. Spiralling streamers of dust arose from south of the water body to the region of the sand dunes, where an opaque cloud rose to 8,500 feet

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  14. Mono-, bi-, and trinuclear bis-hydrated Mn(2+) complexes as potential MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Attila; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Barriada, José Luis; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Botta, Mauro; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2015-10-05

    We report a series of ligands containing pentadentate 6,6′-((methylazanediyl)bis(methylene))dipicolinic acid binding units that form mono- (H2dpama), di- (mX(H2dpama)2), and trinuclear (mX(H2dpama)3) complexes with Mn2+ containing two coordinated water molecules per metal ion, which results in pentagonal bipyramidal coordination around the metal ions. In contrast, the hexadentate ligand 6,6′-((ethane-1,2-diylbis(azanediyl))bis(methylene))dipicolinic acid (H2bcpe) forms a complex with distorted octahedral coordination around Mn2+ that lacks coordinated water molecules. The protonation constants of the ligands and the stability constants of the Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ complexes were determined using potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations in 0.15 M NaCl. The pentadentate dpama2– ligand and the di- and trinucleating mX(dpama)24– and mX(dpama)36– ligands provide metal complexes with stabilities that are very similar to that of the complex with the hexadentate ligand bcpe2–, with log β101 values in the range 10.1–11.6. Cyclic voltammetry experiments on aqueous solutions of the [Mn(bcpe)] complex reveal a quasireversible system with a half-wave potential of +595 mV versus Ag/AgCl. However, [Mn(dpama)] did not suffer oxidation in the range 0.0–1.0 V, revealing a higher resistance toward oxidation. A detailed 1H NMRD and 17O NMR study provided insight into the parameters that govern the relaxivity for these systems. The exchange rate of the coordinated water molecules in [Mn(dpama)] is relatively fast, kex298 = (3.06 ± 0.16) × 108 s–1. The trinuclear [mX(Mn(dpama)(H2O)2)3] complex was found to bind human serum albumin with an association constant of 1286 ± 55 M–1 and a relaxivity of the adduct of 45.2 ± 0.6 mM–1 s–1 at 310 K and 20 MHz.

  15. Mono-W dark matter signals at the LHC: simplified model analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nicole F.; Cai, Yi; Leane, Rebecca K. E-mail: yi.cai@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-01-01

    We study mono-W signals of dark matter (DM) production at the LHC, in the context of gauge invariant renormalizable models. We analyze two simplified models, one involving an s-channel Z' mediator and the other a t-channel colored scalar mediator, and consider examples in which the DM-quark couplings are either isospin conserving or isospin violating after electroweak symmetry breaking. While previous work on mono-W signals have focused on isospin violating EFTs, obtaining very strong limits, we find that isospin violating effects are small once such physics is embedded into a gauge invariant simplified model. We thus find that the 8 TeV mono-W results are much less constraining than those arising from mono-jet searches. Considering both the leptonic (mono-lepton) and hadronic (mono fat jet) decays of the W, we determine the 14 TeV LHC reach of the mono-W searches with 3000 fb{sup −1} of data. While a mono-W signal would provide an important complement to a mono-jet discovery channel, existing constraints on these models imply it will be a challenging signal to observe at the 14 TeV LHC.

  16. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Mono-, Oligo-, and Polysaccharides: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Iain B. H.

    Glycomolecules, whether they be mono-, oligo-, or polysaccharides or simple glycosides, are—as any biological molecules—the products of biosynthetic processes; on the other hand, at the end of their lifespan, they are also subject to degradation. The beginning point, biochemically, is the fixation of carbon by photosynthesis; subsequent metabolism in plants and other organisms results in the generation of the various monosaccharides. These must be activated—typically as nucleotide sugars or lipid-phosphosugars—before transfer by glycosyltransferases can take place in order to produce the wide variety of oligo- and polysaccharides seen in Nature; complicated remodelling processes may take place—depending on the pathway—which result in partial trimming of a precursor by glycosidases prior to the addition of further monosaccharide units. Upon completion of the 'life' of a glycoconjugate, glycosidases will degrade the macromolecule finally into monosaccharide units which can be metabolized or salvaged for incorporation into new glycan chains. In modern glycoscience, a wide variety of methods—genetic, biochemical, analytical—are being employed in order to understand these various pathways and to place them within their biological and medical context. In this chapter, these processes and relevant concepts and methods are introduced, prior to elaboration in the subsequent more specialized chapters on biosynthesis and degradation of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides.

  17. MonoSLAM: real-time single camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Reid, Ian D; Molton, Nicholas D; Stasse, Olivier

    2007-06-01

    We present a real-time algorithm which can recover the 3D trajectory of a monocular camera, moving rapidly through a previously unknown scene. Our system, which we dub MonoSLAM, is the first successful application of the SLAM methodology from mobile robotics to the "pure vision" domain of a single uncontrolled camera, achieving real time but drift-free performance inaccessible to Structure from Motion approaches. The core of the approach is the online creation of a sparse but persistent map of natural landmarks within a probabilistic framework. Our key novel contributions include an active approach to mapping and measurement, the use of a general motion model for smooth camera movement, and solutions for monocular feature initialization and feature orientation estimation. Together, these add up to an extremely efficient and robust algorithm which runs at 30 Hz with standard PC and camera hardware. This work extends the range of robotic systems in which SLAM can be usefully applied, but also opens up new areas. We present applications of MonoSLAM to real-time 3D localization and mapping for a high-performance full-size humanoid robot and live augmented reality with a hand-held camera.

  18. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source.

  19. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    PubMed Central

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source. PMID:28181544

  20. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Tetz, Lauren M.; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S.; Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang; Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2013-04-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. - Highlights: ► MEHP increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase activity. ► MEHP induced expression of PTGS2, a gene

  1. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on steroid production of human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsberg, Jochen Wegener-Toper, Petra; Ven, Katrin van der; Ven, Hans van der; Klingmueller, Dietrich

    2009-08-15

    The phthalate ester mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a high-production-volume chemical used as a plasticizer and solvent in numerous consumer products. MEHP has been demonstrated to be a reproductive toxicant in rodents decreasing estradiol and progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of MEHP on steroid production of human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells. Human GL cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were cultured in medium containing FSH, hCG and 8-Br-cAMP, respectively, together with various concentrations of MEHP (0-500 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). After incubation for 48 h estradiol and progesterone were assayed in the spent culture medium. Furthermore, aromatase activity and mRNA levels of GL cells were determined. Basal as well as FSH-, hCG- and 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated estradiol production of GL cells was suppressed by MEHP in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 105 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 138 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 49 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and 78 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). Furthermore aromatase activity and mRNA levels were reduced in GL cells cultured with MEHP. In contrast, MEHP did not alter the production of progesterone up to a concentration of 167 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The present data indicate that MEHP is a specific inhibitor of estradiol production in human GL cells with a post-cAMP site of action. The inhibition of estradiol production obviously results from a reduction of aromatase activity on the transcript level. As the in vitro effective doses of MEHP are within the range of real environmental exposure levels an inhibitory effect on estrogen production in vivo seems to be possi0009b.

  2. Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Induces Oxidative Stress Responses in Human Placental Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tetz, Lauren M; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S.; Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang; Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23360888

  3. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene...

  8. Mitochondrial Permeability and Toxicity of Di ethylhexyl and Mono ethylhexyl Phthalates on TK6 Human Lymphoblasts Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-Berrios, Carlos A.; Vélez, Christian; Zayas, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous compounds used in the manufacturing industry. Some are known endocrine disruptors, acting as xenoestrogens, others induce reproductive toxicity and damage to DNA among other effects. Studies on apoptosis induction and mitochondrial damage capacity of phthalates on the immune system are limited. This study aims to determine cell viability inhibition and apoptosis induction of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) on the human TK6 lymphoblast cell line at concentrations found in the environment. Key hallmark events, such as mitochondrial membrane permeability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of caspase 3 and 7 were measured. Concentrations that inhibit viability of 50% (IC50) of the cells were determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours with doses ranging from 10μM to 500μM. Changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, ROS generation and activation of caspases 3 and 7, were measured as part of the cell death mechanism. The IC50 at 24 hours was approximately 250 μM for both phthalates; at 48 hours were 234μM and 196μM for DEHP and MEHP, respectively and at 72 hours IC50s were 100 μM and 80 μM for DEHP and MEHP respectively. Overall the longer the time of exposure the lower the IC50's for both compounds. Both compounds affected mitochondrial membrane potential, promoted ROS generation and activated caspases 3 and 7. MEHP is more toxic, promotes higher level of ROS production and caspases activation. Our findings suggest that DEHP and MEHP have the capacity to induce apoptosis in cells of the immune system at concentrations found in the environment. PMID:21864672

  9. C-H bond strengths and acidities in aromatic systems: effects of nitrogen incorporation in mono-, di-, and triazines.

    PubMed

    Wren, Scott W; Vogelhuber, Kristen M; Garver, John M; Kato, Shuji; Sheps, Leonid; Bierbaum, Veronica M; Lineberger, W Carl

    2012-04-18

    The negative ion chemistry of five azine molecules has been investigated using the combined experimental techniques of negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy to obtain electron affinities (EA) and tandem flowing afterglow-selected ion tube (FA-SIFT) mass spectrometry to obtain deprotonation enthalpies (Δ(acid)H(298)). The measured Δ(acid)H(298) for the most acidic site of each azine species is combined with the EA of the corresponding radical in a thermochemical cycle to determine the corresponding C-H bond dissociation energy (BDE). The site-specific C-H BDE values of pyridine, 1,2-diazine, 1,3-diazine, 1,4-diazine, and 1,3,5-triazine are 110.4 ± 2.0, 111.3 ± 0.7, 113.4 ± 0.7, 107.5 ± 0.4, and 107.8 ± 0.7 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The application of complementary experimental methods, along with quantum chemical calculations, to a series of nitrogen-substituted azines sheds light on the influence of nitrogen atom substitution on the strength of C-H bonds in six-membered rings.

  10. Occurrence and origin of mono-, di-, and trimethylalkanes in modern and Holocene cyanobacterial mats from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Kenig, F. |; Huc, A.Y.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.

    1995-07-01

    n-Alkanes, highly branched isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes (MMAs), dimethyalkanes (DMAs), and trimethylalkanes (TMAs) are the most abundant components in the hydrocarbon fractions of extracts of four modern and two Holocene cyanobacterial mats ({approximately}1500 and 5110 {+-} 170 y BP) collected in Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). The homologous families of MMAs, DMAs, and TMAs were identified by comparison of mass spectral and relative retention time data with published data. DMAs were also identified by synthesis of authentic standards, 3,9-dimethyltricosane, 5,9-dimethyltricosane, and 11,15-dimethylheptacosane. MMAs, DMAs, and TMAs of the cyanobacterial mats can be separated into two groups on the basis of their distribution patterns and structures. MMAs and DMAs in the C{sub 16}-C{sub 22} range are characterized by methyl substituents mainly located at C-6 (or {omega}6) and C-7 (or {omega}7) and are derived from cyanobacteria. They are relatively abundant components in the modern cyanobacterial mats, but with increasing age of the mats they become much less abundant. On the contrary MMAs, DMAs, and TMAs in the C{sub 24}-C{sub 45} range are exclusively found in the Holocene cyanobacterial mats. Their longest chains mainly contain an odd number of carbon atoms and they always carry the methyl substituents at odd numbered carbon atoms. The similarity in composition of this very specific group of branched alkanes with that encountered in insect epicuticular waxes suggests that these sedimentary hydrocarbons originate from insects, which probably grazed on the cyanobacterial mats.

  11. Adsorption and diffusion of mono, di, and trivalent ions on two-dimensional TiS2.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdus; Shafique, Aamir; Shin, Young-Han

    2017-04-28

    A comparative study of the monovalent (Li, Na, and K) and multivalent (Be, Mg, Ca, and Al) metal ion adsorption and diffusion on an electronically semi-metallic two-dimensional nanosheet of 1T structured TiS2 is presented here to contribute to the search for abundant, cheap, and nontoxic ingredients for efficient rechargeable metal ion batteries. The total formation energy of the metal ion adsorption and the Bader charge analysis show that the divalent Mg and Ca ions can have a charge storage density double that of the monovalent Li, Na, and K ions, while the Be and Al ions form metallic clusters even at a low adsorption density because of their high bulk energies. The adsorption of Mg ions shows the lowest averaged open circuit voltage (0.13 V). The activation energy barriers for the diffusion of metal ions on the surface of the monolayer successively decrease from Li to K and Be to Ca. Mg and Ca, being divalent, are capable of storing a higher power density than Li while K and Na have a higher rate capability than the Li ions. Therefore, rechargeable Li ion batteries can be totally or partially replaceable by Mg ion batteries, where high power density and high cell voltage are required, while the abundant, cheap, and fast Na ions can be used for green grid applications.

  12. The identification of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetragalactosyl-diacylglycerols and their natural estolides in oat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat kernels were extracted with methanol, and glycolipid-enriched fractions were prepared using silica solid phase extraction. Using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS), HPLC-ESI-MS, and HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS, we confirmed pr...

  13. Adsorption of mono- and di-butyltin by a wheat charcoal: pH effects and modeling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liping; Borggaard, Ole K; Christensen, Jan H; Holm, Peter E; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2012-10-01

    Understanding adsorption processes of butyltins (BTs) such as monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) by black carbons is important for the evaluation of BT exposure risks to organisms and humans. However, relevant knowledge is scarce. In this study, the acidity constants pK(a,1)=2.3, pK(a,2)=3.5 and pK(a,3)=5.9 for MBT and pK(a,1)=3.0 and pK(a,2)=5.1 for DBT are estimated via potentiometric titration. Additionally, adsorption isotherms of BTs to a wheat charcoal were determined. The adsorption behavior was observed to be pH-dependent due to BT speciation and the pH-dependent surface charge of the charcoal. MBT adsorption to the charcoal decreases with increasing pH from 4 to 8, while the highest adsorption occurs at pH 6 for DBT. Adsorption of the BTs is successfully described in the pH range of 3-10 by using a newly developed pH-dependent Dual Langmuir model. The model has the potential to predict the interaction of BT species with charcoal, which can contribute to the risk assessments of BTs in the environment.

  14. Processing of mono-, di- and tricistronic transfer RNAs precursors in a spinach or pea chloroplast soluble extract.

    PubMed

    Marion-Poll, A; Hibbert, C S; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1988-01-01

    Monomeric, dimeric and trimeric chloroplast tRNA precursors from Euglena gracilis were synthesized by Sp6, T7 or T3 RNA polymerases using an in vitro transcription system. The length of the 3' and 5' ends of these precursors was varied to facilitate the identification of processing intermediates, and to study the effect of the structure of the tRNA precursors on the processing reactions. All the tRNA precursors studied, independent of their structure, are processed to mature tRNAs in both spinach and pea chloroplast soluble extracts. 5'-and 3' endonucleases are involved in the cleavage of 5' and 3' ends of the pre-tRNAs. These two reactions are not ordered in vitro. Other enzymatic activities can be detected in the chloroplast soluble extract including exonucleases, and CCA-adding enzyme.

  15. A mechanistic study into the epoxidation of carboxylic acid and alkene in a mono, di-acylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuping; Tang, Qingyun; Popowicz, Grzegorz Maria; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-05-01

    More and more industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes are finding increasing use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized vegetable oils have recently found applications as plasticizers and additives for PVC production. We report here an unusual activity of the Malassezia globosa lipase (SMG1) that is able to catalyze epoxidation of alkenes. SMG1 catalyzes formation of peroxides from long chain carboxylic acids that subsequently react with double bonds of alkenes to produce epoxides. The SMG1 is selective towards carboxylic acids and active also as a mutant lacking hydrolase activity. Moreover we present previously unobserved mechanism of catalysis that does not rely on acyl-substrate complex nor tetrahedral intermediate. Since SMG1 lipase is activated by allosteric change upon binding to the lipophilic-hydrophilic phase interface we reason that it can be used to drive the epoxidation in the lipophilic phase exclusively.

  16. Simultaneous analysis of mono-, di-, and tri-ethanolamine in cosmetic products using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    Alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are used as wetting agents in shampoos, lotions, creams, and other cosmetics. DEA is widely used to provide lather in shampoos and maintain a favorable consistency in lotions and creams. Although DEA is not harmful, it may react with other ingredients in the cosmetic formula after extended storage periods to form an extremely potent carcinogen called nitrosodiethanolamine (NDEA), which is readily absorbed through the skin and has been linked to the development of stomach, esophagus, liver, and bladder cancers. The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous quantification method for measurement of MEA, DEA, and TEA in cosmetic products. Liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column with isocratic elution containing acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate in water (88:12, v/v). Identification and quantification of alkanolamines were performed using MS/MS monitoring to assess the transition from precursor to product ion of MEA (m/z, 61.1 → 44.0), DEA (m/z, 106.1 → 88.0), TEA (m/z, 150.1 → 130.0), and the internal standard triethylamine (m/z, 102.2 → 58.0). Alkanolamines extractions were simplified using a single extraction with acetonitrile in the cosmetic matrix. Performance of the method was evaluated with quality parameters such as specificity, carry-over, linearity and calibration, correlation of determination (R(2)), detection limit, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Calibration curves of MEA (2.9-1000 ppb), DEA (1-1000 ppb), and TEA (1-1000 ppb) were constructed by plotting concentration versus peak-area ratio (analyte/internal standard with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay accuracy ranged from 92.92 to 101.15 % for all analytes. The intra- and inter-assay precision for MEA, DEA, and TEA showed all coefficients of variance were less than 9.38 % for QC samples. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 2.00 and 15.63 ppb for MEA, 0.49 and 1.96 ppb for DEA, and 0.49 and 1.96 ppb for TEA, respectively. This novel quantification method simplified sample preparation and allowed accurate and reproducible quantification of alkanolamines in the ng/g cosmetic weight (ppb) range for several cosmetic products.

  17. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (in general) appear to be more cytotoxic and genotoxic than the chlorinated species, and some of the dihalogenated species are more toxic than the trihalogenated analogues; however, many of the more toxic species are not routinely measur...

  18. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs (Proceedings Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has shown that bromine incorporation into trihalogenated acetic acids (TXAAs) was similar to that of the trihalomethanes (THMs). Likewise, occurrence data for other trihalogenated DBPs (e.g., halonitromethanes [HNMs], haloacetaldehydes [HAs]) showed similar or ...

  19. Three-dimensional model of the Mono Basin (California): finite element analysis of the interaction between the Hartley Spring Fault and the Mono Dike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, D.; Manconi, A.; McDonnell, A.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Mono Basin is a northward-trending structural depression lying immediately east of the central Sierra Nevada (California) that extends from the northern edge of Long Valley Caldera towards the center of Mono Lake. The Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain forms a prominent 17-km-long arcuate ridge within the Mono Basin. Recent studies have proposed that the volcanism and tectonism in this area is likely interrelated. Stratigraphic data suggest that a series of strong earthquakes occurred during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of 1350 A.D. Geological data are consistent with rupture of the Hartley Springs fault during the eruption sequence. The temporal proximity of these events suggests the possibility of a causal relationship. We use the Finite Element Method (FEM) to generate a three-dimensional model of the Mono Basin and investigate the feedback mechanism between dike intrusion and slip along the Hartley Springs fault. First we combine the potential of the FEM with the Okada (1992) analytical solution for a homogeneous elastic flat half-space to validate our model. Then, to better simulate a geodynamic model of the Mono Basin, we implement more realistic dynamics that include gravity forces, vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust, and topography. We evaluate the distribution of local stress changes to study the influence of the Inyo dike intrusion on the Hartley Springs fault and how slip along the fault may encourage the propagation of dikes towards the surface. We employ the Coulomb stress change as a failure criterion on the Hartley Springs fault. Preliminary results indicate that slip along the Hartley Springs fault may have encouraged the intrusion of the Mono Dike.

  20. Synthesis, purification, and time-dependent disposition studies of 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid and 9- and 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the potential use of radiolabeled 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine as a perfusion and metabolic imaging agent for the heart. Radiochemical purity was achieved and determined by the use of silica gel and/or anion exchange resin chromatography. Radiochemical yields of 45-63 and 4% were obtained for the fatty acid and carnitine ester, respectively. Male albino mice were sacrificed at 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 50 minutes post-injection with either /sup 125/I 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid or 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl (-) carnitine. The lungs, liver heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, stomach, thyroid, blood, fat, and skeletal muscle tissue were excised and assayed for levels of radioactivity in a NaI crystal well counter. The very low target-to-nontarget ratios obtained with /sup 125/I 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine in mice strongly suggest that radioiodinated 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine is not suitable for use as a myocardial imaging agent. However, radioiodinated 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid showed promise as a myocardial imaging agent and may warrant further investigation.

  1. Lithium adsorption on heteroatom mono and dual doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Pablo A.

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we studied the interaction of lithium with monodoped (X) and dual-doped graphene (XY), X = Al, Si, P and S and Y = B, N and O. Dual-doping is the best choice to modulate the interaction of lithium with graphene. The strongest interaction with lithium was observed for SN-dual-doped graphene, while S-doped and N-doped graphene displayed the weakest interactions. With regards to the electronic properties, for some systems Li adsorption opened a band-gap, while for others restored the Dirac cones and the semimetallic character at the K-point. Therefore, Li-doping is a useful tool to fine-tune the band gap in mono and dual-doped graphene.

  2. The radiocarbon budget for Mono Lake: an unsolved mystery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broecker, W.S.; Wanninkhof, R.; Mathieu, G.; Peng, T.-H.; Stine, S.; Robinson, S.; Herczeg, A.; Stuiver, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1957 the 14C C ratio of the dissolved inorganic carbon in Mono Lake has risen by about 60???. The magnitude of this increase is about four times larger than that expected from the invasion of bomb-produced 14C from the atmosphere. We have eliminated the following explanations: (1) measurement error, (2) an unusually high physical exchange rate for non-reactive gases, (3) inorganic enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate, and (4) biological enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate. Clandestine disposal of waste radiocarbon remains a dark-horse explanation. In the course of our investigations we have uncovered evidence for at least one episodic input of radiocarbon-free carbon to the lake over the last 1000 years. We speculate that this injection was related to a hydrothermal event resulting from sublacustrine volcanic activity. ?? 1988.

  3. Effects of mono- and bicultural experiences on auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Chan, Alice H D; Margulis, Elizabeth H

    2012-04-01

    The auditory system functions in the context of everyday life and the cultural environment in which we live. Although cultural-invariant, universal principles certainly contribute to sound processing, cultural factors play a role as well. In this review paper, we discuss two potential sources of cultural influence on auditory perception. We term the first type bottom-up, and use it to refer to the way that increased exposure to particular kinds of sound could shape our auditory and auditory-neural responses. The second type we term top-down, and use it to refer to the way our cultural upbringing broadly shapes how we think, which may in turn have an impact on how we perceive the world. An important consideration regarding cultural influences is that many individuals grow up with exposure to environmental stimulations of more than one culture. In our discussion, we will consider both mono- and bicultural experiences.

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  5. Mono-Higgs detection of dark matter at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Lin, Tongyan; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of the Higgs boson, we investigate the possibility that a missing energy plus Higgs final state is the dominant signal channel for dark matter at the LHC. We consider examples of higher-dimension operators where a Higgs and dark matter pair are produced through an off-shell Z or γ, finding potential sensitivity at the LHC to cutoff scales of around a few hundred GeV. We generalize this production mechanism to a simplified model by introducing a Z' as well as a second Higgs doublet, where the pseudoscalar couples to dark matter. Resonant production of the Z' which decays to a Higgs plus invisible particles gives rise to a potential mono-Higgs signal. This may be observable at the 14 TeV LHC at low tan β and when the Z' mass is roughly in the range 600 GeV to 1.3 TeV.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  10. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  11. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  12. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  13. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  14. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  15. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  18. Mono and digallium selenide clusters as potential superhalogens.

    PubMed

    Seeburrun, Neelum; Archibong, Edet F; Ramasami, Ponnadurai

    2015-03-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study on mono and digallium selenide clusters, Ga(m)Se(n) (m = 1, 2 and n  =  1-4), along with their negatively and positively charged counterparts. Different theoretical methods, namely density functional theory (DFT), second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled cluster singles and doubles, including non-iterative triples [CCSD(T)], were employed in conjunction with the 6-311+G(2df) basis set. The lowest-energy configurations of gallium selenides prefer to be planar, with the exception of cationic GaSe4 and Ga2Se4. The adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of Ga(m)Se(n) (m = 1, 2 and n  = 1-4) clusters range from 1.07 to 3.78 eV, and their adiabatic ionization potentials (AIP) vary from 7.57 to 8.76 eV using the CCSD(T)//B3LYP level of theory. It was found that the AEAs of gallium selenides do not depend solely on the electrophilicity of the clusters but also on their electronic structures. No significant trend was observed in the AIP values and HOMO-LUMO (H-L) gaps with increase in cluster size of the mono and digallium selenide series. Among the dissociation channels, the decomposition of GaSe4 → GaSe2 + Se2 was found to be thermodynamically most favored. Furthermore, the AEAs of GaSe2, GaSe3, GaSe4 and Ga2Se4 were found to exceed that of the chlorine atom and are therefore termed as 'superhalogens'. Finally, the AEAs of the Ga2X(n) (X = O-Se; n = 2-4) series were found to be almost similar.

  19. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- benzimidazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  20. Myosin di-phosphorylation and peripheral actin bundle formation as initial events during endothelial barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Mayumi; Hirano, Katsuya

    2016-02-11

    The phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain (MLC) and actin filament formation play a key role in endothelial barrier disruption. MLC is either mono- or di-phosphorylated (pMLC and ppMLC) at T18 or S19. The present study investigated whether there are any distinct roles of pMLC and ppMLC in barrier disruption induced by thrombin. Thrombin induced a modest bi-phasic increase in pMLC and a robust mono-phasic increase in ppMLC. pMLC localized in the perinuclear cytoplasm during the initial phase, while ppMLC localized in the cell periphery, where actin bundles were formed. Later, the actin bundles were rearranged into stress fibers, where pMLC co-localized. Rho-kinase inhibitors inhibited thrombin-induced barrier disruption and peripheral localization of ppMLC and actin bundles. The double, but not single, mutation of phosphorylation sites abolished the formation of peripheral actin bundles and the barrier disruption, indicating that mono-phosphorylation of MLC at either T18 or S19 is functionally sufficient for barrier disruption. Namely, the peripheral localization, but not the degree of phosphorylation, is suggested to be essential for the functional effect of ppMLC. These results suggest that MLC phosphorylation and actin bundle formation in cell periphery are initial events during barrier disruption.

  1. Characterization of deep level defects present in mono-like, quasi-mono and multicrystalline silicon solar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, E.; García, H.; Castán, H.; Dueñas, S.

    2015-03-01

    Defects on mono-like (ml-Si), quasi-mono (qm-Si) and multicrystalline silicon solar cell substrates are studied in depth. Using the thermal admittance spectroscopy technique we found a single deep level with an activation energy between 213 and 224 meV and a capture cross section in the order of 10-15-10-14 cm2, in the case of ml-Si samples. The 271, 291 and 373 meV levels were found in qm-Si samples. The first one is associated with a capture cross section in the order of 10-16 cm2, the second one in the order of 10-14, while the third one is associated, for the same magnitude, with a value in the order of 10-12 cm2. Multicrystalline samples showed two tendencies in the Arrhenius plot fit associated with a deep level in each one. The activation energy of the first one ranges from 336 meV to 342 meV, and the capture cross sections are in the order of 10-13-10-11 cm2. The values obtained for the second one are 251 and 171 meV, with the capture cross section values in the order of 10-15 and 10-18 cm2, respectively. The nature of these defects is probably due to iron-based impurities in different complexes. Segregation into extended defects of Fei or Fei-V is the most probable cause of the deep levels with higher capture cross section value. Punctual complexes such as Fei or Fei-V2 are probably the reason for the deep levels with lower capture cross section value.

  2. C-Glycosyltransferases catalyzing the formation of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takamitsu; Fujimoto, Shunsuke; Suito, Fumiaki; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2017-04-02

    Citrus plants accumulate many kinds of flavonoids, including di-C-glucosyl flavonoids, which have attracted considerable attention owing to their health benefits. However, biosynthesis of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids has not been elucidated at the molecular level. Here, we identified the C-glycosyltransferases (CGTs) FcCGT (UGT708G1) and CuCGT (UGT708G2) as the primary enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids in the citrus plants kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), respectively. The amino acid sequences of these CGTs were 98% identical, indicating that CGT genes are highly conserved in the citrus family. The recombinant enzymes FcCGT and CuCGT utilized 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, and their mono-C-glucosides as sugar acceptors and produced corresponding di-C-glucosides. The Km and kcat values of FcCGT toward phloretin were <0.5 μM and 12.0 s(-1) , and those toward nothofagin (3'-C-glucosylphloretin) were 14.4 μM and 5.3 s(-1) , respectively; these values are comparable to those of other glycosyltransferases reported to date. Transcripts of both CGT genes were found to concentrate in various plant organs, and particularly in leaves. Our results suggest that di-C-glucosyl flavonoid biosynthesis proceeds via a single enzyme using either 2-hydroxyflavanones or phloretin as a substrate in citrus plants. In addition, Escherichia coli cells expressing CGT genes were found to be capable of producing di-C-glucosyl flavonoids, which is promising for commercial production of these valuable compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of Nucleoside Mono- and Dialdehydes as Antiviral Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-15

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever VSV Vesicular Stomatitis Virus AD2 Adenovirus Type 2 VV Vaccinia FeLV Feline Leukemia Virus HIV Human Immunodeficiency...8217-unsaturaited adenosin*-2’,3’-diLsdehyde ahowed excellent activity against vesicular stomatitis virus. 20. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21... stomatitis virus. F’; Accession oro NTIS GFL&lDTIC TAM .t ,i bt On. - i t--tributton/ Av~tlmbility CoJ03 P, ... ,Avmil nrl/or . . i u1st ý ps~lal "’" PL

  4. Synthesis and structural investigation of mono- and polynuclear copper complexes of 4-ethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl) thiosemicarbazide.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, M M; Gabr, I M; Abdel-Rhman, M H; El-Asmy, A A

    2008-11-01

    The reaction between 2-hydrazinopyridine and ethylisothiocyanate produced 4-ethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl) thiosemicarbazide (HEPTS). Its reaction with copper fluoride, chloride, bromide, acetate, nitrate, perchlorate, sulfate, carbonate, hydroxide and copper metal produced 15 Cu(II) complexes. The copper metal is easily oxidized in aqueous-ethanol solution of HEPTS giving [Cu2(EPTS)(H2O)3(OH)3]EtOH. Different complexes for the same anion were synthesized by controlling the heating time. Characterization by elemental, thermal, magnetic and spectral (electronic, IR, mass and ESR) studies showed the formation of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra nuclear complexes. The room temperature solid state ESR spectra of the complexes show an axial spectrum with dx2-y2 ground state, suggesting distorted tetragonal geometry around Cu(II) center. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps in the complexes were calculated. HEPTS and its Cu(II) complexes showed high activity against gram negative bacteria; [Cu3(EPTS)2(EtOH)2Br4] has more activity.

  5. Synthesis and structural investigation of mono- and polynuclear copper complexes of 4-ethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl) thiosemicarbazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanien, M. M.; Gabr, I. M.; Abdel-Rhman, M. H.; El-Asmy, A. A.

    2008-11-01

    The reaction between 2-hydrazinopyridine and ethylisothiocyanate produced 4-ethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl) thiosemicarbazide (HEPTS). Its reaction with copper fluoride, chloride, bromide, acetate, nitrate, perchlorate, sulfate, carbonate, hydroxide and copper metal produced 15 Cu(II) complexes. The copper metal is easily oxidized in aqueous-ethanol solution of HEPTS giving [Cu 2(EPTS)(H 2O) 3(OH) 3]EtOH. Different complexes for the same anion were synthesized by controlling the heating time. Characterization by elemental, thermal, magnetic and spectral (electronic, IR, mass and ESR) studies showed the formation of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra nuclear complexes. The room temperature solid state ESR spectra of the complexes show an axial spectrum with dx2-y ground state, suggesting distorted tetragonal geometry around Cu(II) center. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps in the complexes were calculated. HEPTS and its Cu(II) complexes showed high activity against gram negative bacteria; [Cu 3(EPTS) 2(EtOH) 2Br 4] has more activity.

  6. A low-voltage alterable EEPROM with Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Semiconductor /MONOS/ structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, E.; Ishii, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hiraishi, H.

    1983-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations to obtain lower voltage Electrically Erasable and Programmable ROM's (EEPROM's) than conventional devices have been performed. The scaled-down Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide semiconductor (MONOS) structure is proposed to realize an extremely low-voltage programmable device. The proposed scaled down MONOS devices enjoy several advantages over MNOS devices, e.g., enlargement of the memory window, elimination of degradation phenomena, and drastic improvement in device yield. Low voltage operation with + or - 6-V supplies is demonstrated by the fabricated scaled down MONOS transistors.

  7. Balancing Public Trust Resources of Mono Lake and Los Angeles' Water Right: An Economic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John B.

    1987-08-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is used to quantify the Public Trust values of Mono Lake at alternative lake levels. The dichotomous choice approach to contingent valuation is employed using a logit model. The economic benefit to California residents of preserving Mono Lake is estimated to be 1.5 billion. Purchase of replacement water and power would cost 26.2 million annually. On efficiency grounds, reallocation of water for maintenance of Public Trust values at Mono Lake is warranted. The CVM appears to be a useful methodology to evaluate the balancing and feasibility tests of the expanded Public Trust doctrine suggested by the California Supreme Court.

  8. Neutrino Mass Measurement Using a Directed Mono-Energetic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsifrinovich, Vladimir; Folan, Lorcan

    2015-04-01

    It was shown that a directed mono-energetic neutrino beam can be generated by electron capture beta-decay in a sample with a strong hyperfine field at the radioactive nuclei. We study the conditions required to measure the neutrino rest mass using the recoil force produced by a directed neutrino beam. We consider the displacement of an atomic force microscope cantilever due to such a recoil force. We find the change in the cantilever displacement associated with the non-zero neutrino mass, as a function of nuclear half-life T1 / 2, cantilever spring constant, and temperature. We consider the opportunity to increase the sensitivity of the neutrino mass measurement using averaging of the measurement signal. We show that the optimal time for the signal accumulation is, approximately, 1.8T1 / 2. We compute the optimal signal-to-noise ratio for 119Sb nuclei decaying to 119Sn with a decrease in the nuclear spin from I = 5/2 to I = 3/2, and T1 / 2 = 38.2 hours. Finally, we present the parameters values required for detection of sub-eV neutrino rest mass, and estimate the angular distribution of neutrino radiation as a function of temperature.

  9. Raman spectroscopy of suspended mono and bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitt, Alexander; Feldman, Benjamin; Remi, Sebastian; Martin, Jens; Swan, Anna; Yacoby, Amir; Goldberg, Bennett

    2010-03-01

    Suspended mono and bilayer graphene flakes have been shown to have higher mobility and lower disorder than their supported counterparts^1. The geometry which decouples the flake from the substrate also causes an as yet uncharacterized backgate specific strain due to an electrostatic attraction between the graphene and the back gated substrate. We study this strain using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy with a diffraction limited spot size. Upon application of uni-axial strain the unit cell is stretched reducing the symmetry of the system and breaking the double degeneracy of the G band causing a split in the peak. Additionally the Raman modes show a linear softening as a function of strain in the case of supported graphene. Suspended flakes provide an ideal system to study back gate tunable strain while avoiding complications due to substrates including the determination of the Poisson ratio and sample slippage^2. Here we present preliminary results of our observations. 1: B Feldman, J Martin, A Yacoby, ``Broken-symmetry states and divergent resistance in suspended bilayer graphene'', Nature Physics, doi:10.1038/nphys1406 2: C Metzger et al, ``Biaxial strain in graphene adhered to shallow depressions'', Accepted for publication in Nano Letters

  10. Sources and flux of natural gases from Mono lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G. ); Whiticar, M.J. )

    1987-11-01

    The ability to identify a formation mechanism for natural gas in a particular environment requires consideration of several geochemical factors when there are multiple sources present. Four primary sources of methane have been identified in Mono Lake. Two of these sources were associated with numerous natural gas seeps which occur at various locations in the lake and extend beyond its present boundary; the two other gas sources result from current microbiological processes. Current microbiological processes responsible for sources of natural gas in the lake included pelagic methanogenesis and decomposition of terrestrial grasses in the littoral zone. Methanogenesis in the pelagic sediments resulted in methane saturation. Interstitial sulfate decreased from 133 mM at the surface to 35 mM by 110 cm depth, indicating that sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis operated concurrently. Methane diffused out of the sediments resulting in concentrations of about 50 {mu}M in the anoxic bottom waters. Methane oxidation in the oxic/anoxic boundary lowered the concentration by > 98%, but values in surface waters were supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The {delta}{sup 13}CH{sub 4} of this unoxidized residual methane was enriched in {sup 13}C relative to methane in the bottom water and sediments. Average outward flux of this methane was 2.77 {times} 10{sup 7} moles yr{sup {minus}1}. A fourth, but minor source of methane was associated with the decomposition of terrestrial grasses taking place in the lake's recently expanded littoral zone.

  11. The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John F; Hollibaugh, James T

    2004-04-01

    Significant concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic can be found in the waters of a number of lakes located in the western USA and in other water bodies around the world. These lakes are often situated in arid, volcanic terrain. The highest concentrations of arsenic occur in hypersaline, closed basin soda lakes and their remnant brines. Although arsenic is a well-known toxicant to eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike, some prokaryotes have evolved biochemical mechanisms to exploit arsenic oxyanions (i.e., arsenate and arsenite); they can use them either as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (arsenate), or as an electron donor (arsenite) to support chemoautotrophic fixation of CO(2) into cell carbon. Unlike in freshwater or marine ecosystems, these processes may assume quantitative significance with respect to the carbon cycle in arsenic-rich soda lakes. For the past several years our research has focused on the occurrence and biogeochemical manifestations of these processes in Mono Lake, a particularly arsenic-rich environment. Herein we review some of our findings concerning the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in this lake, with the hope that it may broaden the understanding of the influence of microorganisms upon the speciation of arsenic in more common, less "extreme" environments, such as drinking water aquifers.

  12. Transcranial Propagation with an Ultrasonic Mono-element Focused Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, P. C.; Jiménez, N.; Konofagou, E.; Camarena, F.; Redondo, J.

    Focused Ultrasound is the only truly transient, local and non-invasive technique able to induce safe Blood-Brain Barrier Opening (BBBO), technique used in Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases research. However, the presence of the skull in the path usually affects the focus characteristics (gain, beam width, shape and maxima location). In this work, transcranial acoustic wave propagation generated by a mono-element focused transducer has been modeled using 2D and 3D FDTD methods. Skull structure of the non-human primate under test can be compared in terms of density and sound speed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films. Then, focus aberration and the phenomena that cause it are characterized, providing a better control of the beam focus using the BBBO technique. Results throw that focal axial displacements are constant with the angle of incidence for PMMA flat films. In normal incidence, a shift of 6 mm is given for axial displacement in the 2D transcranial propagation. Moreover, if the skull geometry under the action of the ultrasonic beam can be compared with the curvature radius of the transducer, displacements should be constant with angle independency, like those seeing in the homogenous flat films with the same thickness.

  13. Glass liquid glass reentrance in mono-component colloidal dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-González, P. E.; Vizcarra-Rendón, A.; Guevara-Rodríguez, F. de J.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2008-05-01

    The self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics is employed to describe the ergodic-non-ergodic transition in model mono-disperse colloidal dispersions whose particles interact through hard-sphere plus short-ranged attractive forces. The ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram in the temperature-concentration state space is determined for the hard-sphere plus attractive Yukawa model within the mean spherical approximation for the static structure factor by solving a remarkably simple equation for the localization length of the colloidal particles. Finite real values of this property signals non-ergodicity and determines the non-ergodic parameters f(k) and fs(k). The resulting phase diagram for this system, which involves the existence of reentrant (repulsive and attractive) glass states, is compared with the corresponding prediction of mode coupling theory. Although both theories coincide in the general features of this phase diagram, there are also clear qualitative differences. One of the most relevant is the SCGLE prediction that the ergodic-attractive glass transition does not preempt the gas-liquid phase transition, but always intersects the corresponding spinodal curve on its high-concentration side. We also calculate the ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram for the sticky hard-sphere model to illustrate the dependence of the predicted SCGLE dynamic phase diagram on the choice of one important constituent element of the SCGLE theory.

  14. Collaborative study on determination of mono methylmercury in seafood.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Fecher, Peter; Maage, Amund; Julshamn, Kaare

    2016-03-01

    Eight laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory method-performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of mono methylmercury (MMHg) in foodstuffs of marine origin by gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-IDMS) after dissolution, derivatisation and extraction of the species. The method was tested on seven seafood products covering both a wide concentration range and variations in the MMHg concentrations as well as matrix compositions. The samples were mussel tissue, squid muscle, crab claw meat, whale meat, cod muscle, Greenland halibut muscle and dogfish liver (NRCC DOLT-4), with MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 3.58mg/kg (as Hg) dry weight. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for MMHg ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 5.8% to 42%. All samples showed HorRat value below 1.0, except for the sample with the lowest MMHg content, mussel tissue, with a HorRat value of 1.6.

  15. The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.; Hollibaugh, James T.

    2004-01-01

    Significant concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic can be found in the waters of a number of lakes located in the western USA and in other water bodies around the world. These lakes are often situated in arid, volcanic terrain. The highest concentrations of arsenic occur in hypersaline, closed basin soda lakes and their remnant brines. Although arsenic is a well-known toxicant to eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike, some prokaryotes have evolved biochemical mechanisms to exploit arsenic oxyanions (i.e., arsenate and arsenite); they can use them either as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (arsenate), or as an electron donor (arsenite) to support chemoautotrophic fixation of CO2 into cell carbon. Unlike in freshwater or marine ecosystems, these processes may assume quantitative significance with respect to the carbon cycle in arsenic-rich soda lakes. For the past several years our research has focused on the occurrence and biogeochemical manifestations of these processes in Mono Lake, a particularly arsenic-rich environment. Herein we review some of our findings concerning the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in this lake, with the hope that it may broaden the understanding of the influence of microorganisms upon the speciation of arsenic in more common, less “extreme” environments, such as drinking water aquifers.

  16. Similar Sister Chromatid Arrangement in Mono- and Holocentric Plant Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Veit; Zelkowski, Mateusz; Klemme, Sonja; Houben, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Due to the X-shape formation at somatic metaphase, the arrangement of the sister chromatids is obvious in monocentric chromosomes. In contrast, the sister chromatids of holocentric chromosomes cannot be distinguished even at mitotic metaphase. To clarify their organization, we differentially labelled the sister chromatids of holocentric Luzula and monocentric rye chromosomes by incorporating the base analogue EdU during replication. Using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and 3D rendering, we found that holocentric sister chromatids attach to each other at their contact surfaces similar to those of monocentrics in prometaphase. We found that sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are distributed homogeneously along the whole holocentric chromosomes of Luzula, and that their occurrence is increased compared to monocentric rye chromosomes. The SCE frequency of supernumerary B chromosomes, present additionally to the essential A chromosome complement of rye, does not differ from that of A chromosomes. Based on these results, models of the sister chromatid arrangement in mono- and holocentric plant chromosomes are presented.

  17. Laser System for Livermore's Mono Energetic Gamma-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D; Albert, F; Bayramian, A; Marsh, R; Messerly, M; Ebbers, C; Hartemann, F

    2011-03-14

    A Mono-energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source, based on Compton scattering of a high-intensity laser beam off a highly relativistic electron beam, requires highly specialized laser systems. To minimize the bandwidth of the {gamma}-ray beam, the scattering laser must have minimal bandwidth, but also match the electron beam depth of focus in length. This requires a {approx}1 J, 10 ps, fourier-transform-limited laser system. Also required is a high-brightness electron beam, best provided by a photoinjector. This electron source requires a second laser system with stringent requirements on the beam including flat transverse and longitudinal profiles and fast rise times. Furthermore, these systems must be synchronized to each other with ps-scale accuracy. Using a novel hyper-dispersion compressor configuration and advanced fiber amplifiers and diode-pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers, we have designed laser systems that meet these challenges for the X-band photoinjector and Compton-scattering source being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Trasforiiazioni Termoelastiche Finite di Solidi Incomprimibili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, A.

    Queste lezlioni hanno come direttiva una sintesi di quanto si trova sistematicamente sviluppato in una mia Memoria sulle trasformazioni termoelastiche finite di solidi incomprimibili, in corso di stampa negli Annali di Matematica pura e applicata t. XXXIX ( 1955) pp. 147-201 , Verranno anche esposti, come necessaria premessa, alcuni d ei risultati di due precedenti Memorie degli stessi Annali. Invece, per motivo di brevità, non potrò dare neppure un cenno delle ulteriori ricerche svilup pate dal prof. T. Manacorda in tre recentissimi suoi lavori:

  19. 11. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE LOOKING NORTH/NORTHEAST Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE LOOKING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 10. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Vibration localization in mono- and bi-coupled bladed disks - A transfer matrix approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottarsson, Gisli; Pierre, Christophe

    1993-01-01

    A transfer matrix approach to the analysis of the dynamics of mistuned bladed disks is presented. The study focuses on mono-coupled systems, in which each blade is coupled to its two neighboring blades, and bi-coupled systems, where each blade is coupled to its four nearest neighbors. Transfer matrices yield the free dynamics, both the characteristic free wave and the normal modes - in closed form for the tuned assemblies. Mistuned assemblies are represented by random transfer matrices and an examination of the effect of mistuning on harmonic wave propagation yields the localization factor - the average rate of spatial wave amplitude decay per blade - in the mono-coupled assembly. Based on a comparison of the wave propagation characteristics of the mono- and bi-coupled assemblies, important conclusions are drawn about the effect of the additional coupling coordinate on the sensitivity to mistuning and the strength of mode localization predicted by a mono-coupled analysis.

  2. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  3. Assessing Ecological Impact Assessment: Lessons from Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John A; Patten, Duncan T; Botkin, Daniel B

    1993-11-01

    Because of its high salinity and alkalinity, Mono Lake, in eastern California (USA), is a relatively simple ecosystem. It has become the focus of an environmental controversy over the effects of 50 yr of diversions of water from tributary streams to supply water to Los Angeles. Diversions lowered the lake level, increased the salinity, changed the availability of aquatic habitats, and altered the configuration of the shoreline and of islands that support breeding colonies of gulls. We consider (1) how two independent panels of experts synthesized scientific information on the lake ecosystem to assess the environmental consequences of these changes, and (2) how the findings of these groups influenced policy decisions and how well subsequent changes in the lake matched expectations. Despite differences in composition and approach, the two panels reached generally similar conclusions. These conclusions have been a major component of legal activities and the development of management plans for the lake and basin ecosystem. Both panels concluded that, because of the simplicity of the lake ecosystem, ecological consequences of changes in lake level and salinity associated with continuing diversions were likely to be unusually clear-cut. At certain lake levels these changes would be expected to alter algal and invertebrate populations and the populations of aquatic birds that feed upon them or to disrupt breeding activities in gull colonies. Projections about when critical lake levels might be reached, however, have not been met. This is largely because stream flows into the lake have been altered from recent historic patterns by the cessation of water diversions due to governmental and legal actions (prompted in part by the panels' findings) and by a prolonged drought. These events illustrate the difficulty of projecting a timetable for environmental changes, even in simple and well-studied ecosystems.

  4. Discovery and industrial applications of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Katja S

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) has opened up a vast area of research covering several fields of application. The biotech company Novozymes A/S holds patents on the use of these enzymes for the conversion of steam-pre-treated plant residues such as straw to free sugars. These patents predate the correct classification of LPMOs and the striking synergistic effect of fungal LPMOs when combined with canonical cellulases was discovered when fractions of fungal secretomes were evaluated in industrially relevant enzyme performance assays. Today, LPMOs are a central component in the Cellic CTec enzyme products which are used in several large-scale plants for the industrial production of lignocellulosic ethanol. LPMOs are characterized by an N-terminal histidine residue which, together with an internal histidine and a tyrosine residue, co-ordinates a single copper atom in a so-called histidine brace. The mechanism by which oxygen binds to the reduced copper atom has been reported and the general mechanism of copper-oxygen-mediated activation of carbon is being investigated in the light of these discoveries. LPMOs are widespread in both the fungal and the bacterial kingdoms, although the range of action of these enzymes remains to be elucidated. However, based on the high abundance of LPMOs expressed by microbes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, the importance of LPMOs in the natural carbon-cycle is predicted to be significant. In addition, it has been suggested that LPMOs play a role in the pathology of infectious diseases such as cholera and to thus be relevant in the field of medicine.

  5. OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2010-05-18

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

  6. Roles of mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 in the formation of Smad transcriptional complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bei; Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2008-11-14

    TGF-{beta} activates receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) through phosphorylation by type I receptors. Activated R-Smad binds to Smad4 and the complex translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of target genes through association with co-activators including p300. It is not clear, however, how activated Smad complexes are removed from target genes. In this study, we show that TGF-{beta} enhances the mono-ubiquitination of Smad4. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination was promoted by p300 and suppressed by the c-Ski co-repressor. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination disrupted the interaction with Smad2 in the presence of constitutively active TGF-{beta} type I receptor. Furthermore, mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 was not found in DNA-binding Smad complexes. A Smad4-Ubiquitin fusion protein, which mimics mono-ubiquitinated Smad4, enhanced localization to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that mono-ubiquitination of Smad4 occurs in the transcriptional activator complex and facilitates the turnover of Smad complexes at target genes.

  7. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) adipate ; CASRN 103 - 23 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  8. Mono-N-methylation of primary amines with alkyl methyl carbonates over Y faujasites. 2. Kinetics and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Selva, Maurizio; Tundo, Pietro; Perosa, Alvise

    2002-12-27

    In the presence of a Na-exchanged Y faujasite, the reaction of primary aromatic amines 1 with 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)methylethyl carbonate [MeO(CH(2))(2)O(CH(2))(2)OCO(2)Me, 2a] yields the corresponding mono-N-methyl derivatives ArNHMe with selectivity up to 95%, at substantially quantitative conversions. At 130 degrees C, the reaction can be run under diffusion-free conditions and is strongly affected by the solvent polarity: for instance, in going from xylene (epsilon(r) = 2.40) to triglyme (epsilon(r) = 7.62) as the solvent, the pseudo-first-order rate constant for the aniline (1a) disappearance shows a 5-fold decrease. In DMF (epsilon(r) = 38.25), the same reaction does not occur at all. Competitive adsorption of the solvent and the substrate onto the catalytic sites accounts for this result. The behavior of alkyl-substituted anilines ZC(6)H(4)NH(2) [Z = p-Me, p-Et, p-Pr, p-(n-Bu) (1b-e); Z = 3,5-di-tert-butyl- and 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylanilines (1f,g)] and p-alkoxyanilines p-ZC(6)H(4)NH(2) [Z = OMe, OEt, OPr, O-n-Bu (1b'-e')] clearly indicates a steric effect of ring substituents: as diffusion of the amine into the catalytic pores is hindered, the reaction hardly proceeds and the mono-N-methyl selectivity (S(M/D)) drops as well. Moreover, the strength of adsorption of the amine onto the catalyst influences the rate and the selectivity as well: the reaction of p-anisidine and p-toluidine-despite the higher nucleophilicity of these compounds-is slower and even less selective with respect to aniline. From a mechanistic viewpoint, the intermediacy of carbamates ArN(Me)CO(2)R [R = MeO(CH(2))(2)O(CH(2))(2)] is suggested. At 90 degrees C, the reaction of benzylamine (7)-a model for aliphatic amines-with dimethyl carbonate shows that the reaction outcome can be improved by tuning the amphoteric properties of the catalyst: in going from CsY to the more acidic LiY zeolite, methylation is not only more selective (S(M/D) ratio increases from 77% to 84%) but even much faster (Cs

  9. 238U-230Th crystallization ages for the oldest domes of the Mono Craters, eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mono Craters volcanic chain is one of the youngest areas of rhyolitic volcanism in the Mono Lake-Long Valley region of eastern California. Located just south of Mono Lake, the Mono Craters comprise at least 28 individual domes and flows (numbered 3-30, north to south); however, the timing and frequency of eruptions remain poorly resolved. The earliest signs of volcanic activity are preserved as numerous tephra layers (Ashes 1-19, top to bottom) in the late Pleistocene Wilson Creek formation of ancestral Mono Lake, which indicate that rhyolitic volcanism from Mono Craters began by at least ca. 62 ka [1]. Although the current chronology indicates that most of the Mono Craters are younger than ca. 20 ka [2-4], similar compositions of titanomagnetite from both pumice and lava potentially correlate several Wilson Creek tephras to porphyritic biotite-bearing domes 11, 24, and 19 of the Mono Craters [5], suggesting that multiple domes in the Mono Craters chain reflect volcanism older than ca. 20 ka. Ash 3 is correlated to dome 11 based on similar ca. 20 ka ages and titanomagnetite compositions [6]. More recently, we performed ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of unpolished rims of allanite and zircon from domes 24 and 19, yielding isochron ages of ca. 38 ka and ca. 42 ka, respectively. The age of dome 24 is consistent with the ca. 38 ka age of its potential correlative tephra layers [1, 5], indicating that dome 24 is likely the extrusive equivalent of Ashes 9-10. Dome 19 has titanomagnetite crystals with similar bimodal chemistry to titanomagnetites from Ash 15 [5]. The age of dome 19 is indistinguishable from the 238U-230Th age of Ash 15 [1], which erupted during a prominent geomagnetic excursion, originally designated as the "Mono Lake" excursion. Combining geochronological and titanomagnetite compositional data confirms that Ash 15 and its extrusive equivalent, dome 19, erupted during the Laschamp excursion. [1] Vazquez, J.A. and Lidzbarski, M.I. (2012) EPSL 357

  10. Sources and flux of natural gases from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Whiticar, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to identify a formation mechanism for natural gas in a particular environment requires consideration of several geochemical factors when there are multiple sources present. Four primary sources of methane have been identified in Mono Lake. Two of these sources were associated with numerous natural gas seeps which occur at various locations in the lake and extend beyond its present boundary; the two other gas sources result from current microbiological processes. In the natural gas seeps, we observed flow rates as high as 160 moles CH4 day-1, and estimate total lakewide annual seep flux to be 2.1 ?? 106 moles CH4. Geochemical parameters (??13CH4,??DCH4,CH4/[C2H6+ C3H8]) and ??14CH4measurements revealed that most of the seeps originate from a paleo-biogenic (??13CH4 = about -70%.). natural gas deposit of Pleistocene age which underlies the current and former lakebed. Gas seeps in the vicinity of hot springs had, in combination with the biogenic gas, a prominent thermogenic gas component resulting from hydrothermal alteration of buried organic matter. Current microbiological processes responsible for sources of natural gas in the lake included pelagic meth- anogenesis and decomposition of terrestrial grasses in the littoral zone. Methanogenesis in the pelagic sediments resulted in methane saturation (2-3 mM at 50 cm; ??13CH4 = about -85%.). Interstitial sulfate decreased from 133 mM at the surface to 35 mM by 110 cm depth, indicating that sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis operated concurrently. Methane diffused out of the sediments resulting in concentrations of about 50 ??M in the anoxic bottom waters. Methane oxidation in the oxic/anoxic boundry lowered the concentration by >98%, but values in surface waters (0.1-1.3??M) were supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The ??13CH4 (range = -21.8 to -71.8%.) of this unoxidized residual methane was enriched in 13C relative to methane in the bottom water and sediments. Average outward flux of this

  11. Biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Hayton, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following intravascular administration. Methyl-esterified metabolites were identified using rodent-derived standards and non-linear gradient elution HPLC; metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography. Similarities between the biotransformation of DEHP by rainbow trout and mammalian species included (a) mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) appeared to be the obligatory first step in DEHP metabolism; (b) the phthalate ring was not oxidized; (c) phthalic acid was a minor metabolite; and (d) several metabolites contained multiple oxidations of the 2-ethylhexyl moiety of MEHP. No metabolites unique to rainbow trout were identified. However, fewer oxidized metabolites were identified in rainbow trout than in mammalian species, possibly due to limited mitochondrial metabolism of MEHP in rainbow trout. The amount of biliary MEHP glucuronide after intravascular administration of DEHP was substantially less than reported in rainbow trout exposed to DEHP via the water. Results confirmed that DEHP metabolism in rainbow trout proceeds by initial rapid formation of MEHP, followed by excretion or extensive oxidation by microsomal P450.

  12. Caspase-dependent and -independent suppression of apoptosis by monoHER in Doxorubicin treated cells

    PubMed Central

    Bruynzeel, A M E; Abou El Hassan, M A; Torun, E; Bast, A; van der Vijgh, W J F; Kruyt, F A E

    2007-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an antitumour agent for different types of cancer, but the dose-related cardiotoxicity limits its clinical use. To prevent this side effect we have developed the flavonoid monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER), a promising protective agent, which did not interfere with the antitumour activity of DOX. To obtain more insight in the mechanism underlying the selective protective effects of monoHER, we investigated whether monoHER (1 mM) affects DOX-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NeRCaMs), human endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and OVCAR-3. DOX-induced cell death was effectively reduced by monoHER in heart, endothelial and A2780 cells. OVCAR-3 cells were highly resistant to DOX-induced apoptosis. Experiments with the caspase-inhibitor zVAD-fmk showed that DOX-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent in HUVECs and A2780 cells, whereas caspase-independent mechanisms seem to be important in NeRCaMs. MonoHER suppressed DOX-dependent activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in normal and A2780 cells as illustrated by p53 accumulation and activation of caspase-9 and -3 cleavage. Thus, monoHER acts by suppressing the activation of molecular mechanisms that mediate either caspase-dependent or -independent cell death. In light of the current work and our previous studies, the use of clinically achievable concentrations of monoHER has no influence on the antitumour activity of DOX whereas higher concentrations as used in the present study could influence the antitumour activity of DOX. PMID:17285121

  13. Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, B; Schöniger, S; Faigle, M; Eichner, M; Dietz, K

    1997-01-01

    Survival and distribution of legionellae in the environment are assumed to be associated with their multiplication in amoebae, whereas the ability to multiply in macrophages is usually regarded to correspond to pathogenicity. Since most investigations focused on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we examined the intracellular multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells, which express phenotypic and functional features of mature monocytes, and in Acanthamoeba castellanii, an environmental host of Legionella spp. According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. L. longbeachae serogroup 1, L. jordanis, and L. anisa were not able to multiply in either A. castellanii or Mono Mac 6 cells and are members of the first cluster. L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after infection and is the only member of the second cluster. L. steigerwaltii, L. gormanii, L. pneumophila serogroup 6 ATCC 33215, L. bozemanii, and L. micdadei showed a stable bacterial count in Mono Mac 6 cells after infection but a decreasing count in amoebae. They can be regarded as members of the third cluster. As the only member of the fourth cluster, L. oakridgensis was able to multiply slight in Mono Mac 6 cells but was killed within amoebae. A strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after 30 passages on SMH agar and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs are members of the fifth cluster, which showed multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a decrease of bacterial counts in A. castellanii. The sixth cluster is characterized by intracellular multiplication in both host cell systems and consists of several strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia, a strain of L. pneumophila

  14. Introduzione al Laboratorio di Fisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Giuseppe

    La Fisica (dal greco τὰ ϕυσικὰ: le cose naturali) si pone l'obiettivo di descrivere e prevedere il comportamento dei fenomeni naturali, nonché degli apparati e degli strumenti, che hanno reso e rendono la nostra vita più comoda ed efficiente. Tale obiettivo viene perseguito mediante un'attenta osservazione dei fenomeni, con una conseguente schematizzazione dell'osservazione, per fornire una conoscenza della realtà oggettiva, affidabile, verificabile e condivisibile.

  15. An autosomal locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and mono-allelic expression.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Eric P; Donley, Nathan; Stauffer, Daniel; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J

    2011-06-15

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30-80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes.

  16. An autosomal locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and mono-allelic expression

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Eric P.; Donley, Nathan; Stauffer, Daniel; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30–80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes. PMID:21459774

  17. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  18. PCNA Mono-ubiquitination and Activation of Translesion DNA Polymerases by DNA Polymerase α

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Tomida, Shuta; Miao, Huang Qin; Izuta, Shunji; Usukura, Jiro; Itoh, Yasutomo; Hishida, Takashi; Akashi, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Pavlov, Youri; Murate, Takashi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) involves PCNA mono-ubiquitination and TLS DNA polymerases (pols). Recent evidence has shown that the mono-ubiquitination is induced not only by DNA damage but also by other factors that induce stalling of the DNA replication fork. We studied the effect of spontaneous DNA replication errors on PCNA mono-ubiquitination and TLS induction. In the pol1L868F strain, which expressed an error-prone pol α, PCNA was spontaneously mono-ubiquitinated. Pol α L868F had a rate-limiting step at the extension from mismatched primer termini. Electron microscopic observation showed the accumulation of a single-stranded region at the DNA replication fork in yeast cells. For pol α errors, pol ζ participated in a generation of +1 frameshifts. Furthermore, in the pol1L868F strain, UV-induced mutations were lower than in the wild-type and a pol δ mutant strain (pol3-5DV), and deletion of the RAD30 gene (pol η) suppressed this defect. These data suggest that nucleotide misincorporation by pol α induces exposure of single-stranded DNA, PCNA mono-ubiquitination, and activates TLS pols. PMID:19279190

  19. Mono(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Accelerates Early Folliculogenesis and Inhibits Steroidogenesis in Cultured Mouse Whole Ovaries and Antral Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant present in common consumer products. DEHP potentially targets the ovary through its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, the direct effects of MEHP on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis, two processes essential for reproductive and nonreproductive health, are unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that MEHP directly accelerates early folliculogenesis via overactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a pathway that regulates primordial follicle quiescence and activation, and inhibits the synthesis of steroid hormones by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. Neonatal ovaries from CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days with vehicle control, DEHP, or MEHP (0.2–20 μg/ml) to assess the direct effects on folliculogenesis and PI3K signaling. Further, antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or MEHP (0.1–10 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of MEHP on steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes. In the neonatal ovaries, MEHP, but not DEHP, decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels and increased phosphorylated protein kinase B levels, leading to a decrease in the percentage of germ cells and an increase in the percentage of primary follicles. In the antral follicles, MEHP decreased the mRNA levels of 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase leading to a decrease in testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Collectively, MEHP mediates the effect of DEHP on accelerated folliculogenesis via overactivating PI3K signaling and inhibits steroidogenesis by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. PMID:25810477

  20. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) regulates glucocorticoid metabolism through 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in murine gonadotrope cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Li, Xing-Wang; Lian, Qing-Quan; Lamba, Pankaj; Bernard, Daniel J.; Hardy, Dianne O.; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2009-11-13

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) have been classified as toxicants to the reproductive system at the testis level and DEHP may also impair reproductive axis function at the pituitary levels. However, MEHP is 10-fold more potent than DEHP in toxicity and little is known about the toxicological effect of MEHP on pituitary. In this study, we demonstrated that 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11{beta}-HSD2), not 11{beta}-HSD1, is strongly expressed in murine gonadotrope L{beta}T2 cells. Interestingly, MEHP inhibited Hsd11b2 mRNA level and 11{beta}-HSD2 enzyme activity in L{beta}T2 cells at as low as 10{sup -7} M. Corticosterone (CORT) at a concentration of 10{sup -6} M significantly inhibited L{beta}T2 cell proliferation after 2-day culture, and 10{sup -6} M RU486, an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), reversed this inhibition. However, in the presence of 10{sup -5} or 10{sup -4} M MEHP, the minimal concentration of CORT to inhibit the proliferation of L{beta}T2 cells was lowered to 10{sup -7} M, and 10{sup -6} M RU486 was not able to completely reverse the CORT effect. In conclusion, along with the regulation of GR, 11{beta}-HSD2 may have a key role in glucocorticoid metabolism in L{beta}T2 cells. MEHP may participate in the glucocorticoid metabolism in L{beta}T2 cells through inhibition of 11{beta}-HSD2 enzyme activity. Such perturbation may be of pathological significance as MEHP may interfere with the reproductive system at pituitary level through regulation of glucocorticoid metabolism, especially in neonates with higher risk of phthalates exposure.

  1. Arginine (Di)methylated Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Peptides Are Favorably Presented by HLA-B*07.

    PubMed

    Marino, Fabio; Mommen, Geert P M; Jeko, Anita; Meiring, Hugo D; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Scheltema, Richard A; van Els, Cécile A C M; Heck, Albert J R

    2017-01-06

    Alterations in protein post-translational modification (PTM) are recognized hallmarks of diseases. These modifications potentially provide a unique source of disease-related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-presented peptides that can elicit specific immune responses. While phosphorylated HLA peptides have already received attention, arginine methylated HLA class I peptide presentation has not been characterized in detail. In a human B-cell line we detected 149 HLA class I peptides harboring mono- and/or dimethylated arginine residues by mass spectrometry. A striking preference was observed in the presentation of arginine (di)methylated peptides for HLA-B*07 molecules, likely because the binding motifs of this allele resemble consensus sequences recognized by arginine methyl-transferases. Moreover, HLA-B*07-bound peptides preferentially harbored dimethylated groups at the P3 position, thus consecutively to the proline anchor residue. Such a proline-arginine sequence has been associated with the arginine methyl-transferases CARM1 and PRMT5. Making use of the specific neutral losses in fragmentation spectra, we found most of the peptides to be asymmetrically dimethylated, most likely by CARM1. These data expand our knowledge of the processing and presentation of arginine (di)methylated HLA class I peptides and demonstrate that these types of modified peptides can be presented for recognition by T-cells. HLA class I peptides with mono- and dimethylated arginine residues may therefore offer a novel target for immunotherapy.

  2. Anaerobic Halo-Alkaliphilic Baterial Community of Athalassic, Hypersaline Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Ng, Joseph D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The microorganisms of soda Mono Lake and other similar athalassic hypersaline alkaline soda lakes are of significance to Astrobiology. The microorganisms of these regimes represent the best known terrestrial analogs for microbial life that might have inhabited the hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters during the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs (3.6 - 4.2 Gya) of ancient Mars. We have investigated the anaerobic microbiota of soda Mono Lake in northern California. In this paper we discuss the astrobiological significance of these ecosystems and describe several interesting features of two novel new species of anaerobic halo-alkaliphilic bacteria (Spirochaeta americana, sp. nov. and Desulfonatronum paiuteum, sp. nov) that we have isolated from Mono Lake.

  3. DABCO mono-betaine hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Perdoch, W.; Szafran, M.

    2009-09-01

    A new DABCO mono-betaine (1-carboxymethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt) has been synthesized. It crystallizes as monohydrate in orthorhombic space group Pmn2 1. The DABCO mono-betaine and water molecules are located on a mirror plane. The water molecules link DABCO mono-betaine into linear chains through the H-O-H⋯OOC and H-O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds of 2.709(2) and 2.875(2) Å. The structure of the title compound optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory is consistent with X-ray diffraction. The absorption bands in the FTIR spectrum have been assigned. The calculated magnetic isotropic shielding tensors confirm the assignments of the 13C NMR resonance signals.

  4. Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuangqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Shayu; Ma, Jin Shi; Yang, Guoqiang

    2015-10-05

    A series of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines are synthesized, intramolecular aggregation is found in bis- and tris-phthalocyanines via π-π stacking interaction. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The spectrographic, photophysical and nonlinear optical properties of these compounds are adjusted for the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The bis-phthalocyanine dimer presents smaller fluorescence quantum yield, lower triplet formation yield and the triplet-minus-ground state extinction coefficient, which causes poorer optical limiting performance. It is interesting that the tris-phthalocyanine is composed of a mono-phthalocyanine part and a bis-phthalocyanine part, the optical limiting property of the tris-phthalocyanine is similar to that of mono-phthalocyanine.

  5. On the existence of a scattering pre-peak in the mono-ols and diols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poz̆ar, Martina; Perera, Aurélien

    2017-03-01

    We report a computer simulation study of four 1,n-diols (1,2-ethanediol to 1,5-pentanediol). It is found that increasing the alkyl chain length increases chain-like clusters, and correspondingly the structure factor pre-peak, just like for mono-ols. However, our calculated X-ray intensities show that the pre-peak tends to diminish to a shoulder, in contrast with mono-ols where the pre-peak becomes more apparent with increasing alkyl chain. We attribute this contrasting finding to the fact that the alkyl chain is constrained between the two hydroxyl groups in linear diols, while they are free in linear mono-ols.

  6. Suicidal inactivation and labelling of ammonia mono-oxygenase by acetylene.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, M R; Wood, P M

    1985-01-01

    Acetylene brings about a progressive inactivation of ammonia mono-oxygenase, the ammonia-oxidizing enzyme in Nitrosomonas europaea. High NH4+ ion concentrations were protective. The inactivation followed first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of 1.5 min-1 at saturating concentrations of acetylene. If acetylene was added in the absence of O2, the cells remained active until O2 was re-introduced. A protective effect was also demonstrated with thiourea, a reversible non-competitive inhibitor of ammonia oxidation. Incubation of cells with [14C]acetylene was found to cause labelling of a single membrane polypeptide. This ran on dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an Mr value of 28 000. It is concluded that acetylene is a suicide substrate for the mono-oxygenase. The labelling experiment provides the first identification of a constituent polypeptide of ammonia mono-oxygenase. Images Fig. 4. PMID:4004794

  7. Regioselective solid-phase synthesis of N-mono-hydroxylated and N-mono-methylated acylpolyamine spider toxins using an 2-(ortho-nitrophenyl)ethanal-modified resin.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Denise; Bienz, Stefan

    2015-04-21

    A recently introduced new SPS resin, possessing a 2-(ortho-nitrophenyl)ethanal linker, was used for the regioselective on-resin synthesis of N-mono-hydroxylated and N-mono-methylated polyamine spider toxins of Agelenopsis aperta and Larinioides folium. The polyamine backbones of the target compounds were efficiently constructed from the center by reductive amination of the aldehyde linker, followed by stepwise alkylation and acylation on solid support. Depending on the cleavage conditions, employing either oxidation/Cope elimination or methylation/Hofmann elimination, regioselectively the respective N-hydroxyl or N-methyl products were obtained. Employing this methodology, a number of acylpolyamine spider toxins were synthesized and identified as venom components by UHPLC and ESI-MS/MS.

  8. Ambienti Circumstellari ed Interstellari di Supernovae di vario Tipo ed Applicazioni Astrofisiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Francesca R.

    Nella presente tesi vengono studiati gli ambienti circumstellari ed interstellari di supernovae (anche SNe; singolare SN) di vario tipo. In particolare si descrivono alcune applicazioni astrofisiche, relative a questi ambienti, che permettono di desumere informazioni sui sistemi stellari progenitori delle supernovae o di determinare le distanze a tali oggetti. L' emissione radio da supernovae, prodotta nell' ambiente circumstellare ad opera dell'interazione idrodinamica del gas di SN con l' ambiente circostante, puo' essere impiegata come mezzo di indagine del sistema di pre-supernova. In particolare si e' introdotta l'idea che tale emissione possa essere impiegata nel caso delle SNe di tipo Ia come test dei sistemi progenitori di tipo simbiotico. Il test e' stato effettuato sulla SN 1986G, per la quale avevamo ottenuto limiti superiori a lunghezze d'onda radio. Nel caso che un sistema simbiotico sia responsabile di una SN Ia, l'interazione tra l' ejecta e una shell circumstellare origina, in un'epoca molto prossima al massimo di luce, un'emissione radio rivelabile con strumenti tipo Very Large Array. Inoltre l'emissione radio fornisce informazioni circa gli stadi di pre-supernova nel caso di altri tipi di supernova. In questo lavoro di tesi vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti nel caso delle SNe di tipo II 1984E e 1986E. Queste due SNe non mostrano emissione radio: la prima, in prossimita del massimo ottico, stava interagendo con una shell circumstellare prodotta da un episodio di perdita di massa di breve durata in fase di pre-supernova; la seconda, invece e' la prima SN ``vecchia'' ad essere rivelata nell' ottico ma non nel radio (l' oggetto non ha ancora iniziato la fase di supernova remnant ed emette radiazione ottica prodotta ancora per interazione circumstellare). In ambiente circum-interstellare, gli echi di luce, prodotti dallo scattering della luce della supernova ad opera della polvere presente, possono essere utilizzati per determinare le distanze

  9. Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Hektor, Andi; Marzola, Luca

    2016-07-25

    Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.

  10. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to monitor in a single run, mono- to triterpenoid compounds distribution in resinous plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jemmali, Zaineb; Chartier, Agnes; Elfakir, Claire

    2016-04-22

    A new procedure based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of mono- to triterpenoid compounds in resinous materials. Given the difference of volatility and polarity of the studied compounds some critical steps in this methodology had to be identified and investigated. The recovery of volatile compounds after sample extraction was studied. A recovery range from 30% to 100% from the more volatile monoterpene to the least one was observed. Then the mandatory derivatization step for the analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes bearing hydroxyl and carboxyl groups was optimized. Results showed that derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine (22:13:65 v/v/v) for 2h at 30 °C was the most efficient method of derivatizing all the hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups contained in the triterpene structures. After choosing the best injection parameters for these compounds, the selectivity of the GC column towards the separation of these terpenoids was investigated using statistical tools (principal component analysis and desirability functions). A separation with a good resolution was achieved on an HP-5ms column using a programmed temperature vaporizing injector (PTV). The method was pre-validated in terms of detection limits (LOD from 100 μg L(-1) to 200 μg L(-1) depending on the compound), linearity and repeatability using seven compounds representative of mono- and triterpenoid classes. An exhaustive characterization of various types of resins (di-, triterpenic and oleo-gum resins) was achieved.

  11. Aza-Michael Mono-addition Using Acidic Alumina under Solventless Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bosica, Giovanna; Abdilla, Roderick

    2016-06-22

    Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs.

  12. Palladium-catalysed mono-α-alkenylation of ketones with alkenyl tosylates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Fu, Wai Chung; Chiang, Chien-Wei; Choy, Pui Ying; Kwong, Fuk Yee; Lei, Aiwen

    2017-01-16

    The first example of palladium-catalysed selective mono-α-alkenylation of ketones with alkenyl tosylates is described. In the presence of a Pd/XPhos catalyst system (0.1-1.0 mol%), the reaction provides mono-α-alkenylated ketones in good yields and exhibits excellent substrate tolerance. Highly congested, tri- and tetra-substituted alkenyl tosylates react smoothly and even problematic heteroaryl and aliphatic ketones are applicable substrates. Notably, small β,γ-unsaturated ketones are successfully prepared using acetone as a simple three-carbon feedstock.

  13. Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, You-Chia; Liu, Chang-Hua; Liu, Che-Hung; Zhong, Zhaohui; Norris, Theodore B.

    2014-06-01

    A method for analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry data is demonstrated to extract the optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer chemical-vapor-deposited graphene. We model graphene as a truly two-dimensional (2D) material with a sheet conductivity, rather than a phenomenological effective refractive index as has been used in the literature. This technique measures both the real and imaginary part of the optical conductivity, which is important for graphene optoelectronics and metamaterials. Using this method, we obtain broadband measurements of the complex optical conductivity for mono- and bilayer graphene from ultraviolet to mid-infrared wavelengths. We also study how chemical doping with nitric acid modifies the complex optical conductivity.

  14. Pro-apoptotic activity and mono-/diubiquitylation of Xenopus Bid in egg extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Tomohiro; Tsuchiya, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Itoh, Motohiro; Yamashita, Shigeru

    2009-07-10

    Apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts is carried out by maternally stockpiled materials, but the contributions of endogenous apoptosis regulators are still poorly characterized. Here we examined the physiological role of Xenopus Bid (xBid), a pro-apoptotic BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family proteins. We found that endogenous xBid was a physiological accelerator of apoptosis in egg extracts. Interestingly, xBid was mono-/diubiquitylated but not degraded by proteasome in egg extracts, and we identified three ubiquitylated Lys residues in the N-terminal propeptide region. Comparison with human Bid suggested that mono-/diubiquitylation is a specific feature of xBid.

  15. Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus.

  16. Selective synthesis of mono- and bis-butenolide α-aminomethyl adducts.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Arbia; Arfaoui, Aïcha; Bsaibess, Talia; Lotfi Efrit, Mohamed; Gaucher, Anne; Prim, Damien; M Rabet, Hédi

    2017-03-30

    The selective installation of α-methylamine residues at the butenolide core is described using α-bromomethylene-γ-butenolide and primary as well as secondary amines in methanol at 0 °C. The preparation of mono- and bis-butenolide α-adducts is described. Bis-γ-butenolide adducts as well as mono α-aminomethyl-γ-butenolides can be selectively obtained depending on the nature of the reacting primary amine. In contrast, the use of secondary amines allows two different pathways leading either to the expected amino derivatives or to the formation of a C-O bond.

  17. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  2. Three-Dimensional Analysis of dike/fault interaction at Mono Basin (California) using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, D.; Battaglia, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mono Basin is a north-trending graben that extends from the northern edge of Long Valley caldera towards the Bodie Hills and is bounded by the Cowtrack Mountains on the east and the Sierra Nevada on the west. The Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain forms a north-trending zone of volcanic vents extending from the west moat of the Long Valley caldera to Mono Lake. The Hartley Springs fault transects the southern Mono Craters-Inyo Domes area between the western part of the Long Valley caldera and June Lake. Stratigraphic data suggest that a series of strong earthquakes occurred during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of ~1350 A.D. The spatial and temporal proximity between Hartley Springs Fault motion and the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence suggests a possible relation between seismic events and eruptions. We investigate the interactions between slip along the Hartley Springs fault and dike intrusion beneath the Mono-Inyo craters using a three-dimensional finite element model of the Mono Basin. We employ a realistic representation of the Basin that includes topography, vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust, contact relations between fault planes, and a physical model of the pressure required to propagate the dike. We estimate (a) the distribution of Coulomb stress changes to study the influence of dike intrusion on Hartley Springs fault, and (b) the local stress and volumetric dilatation changes to understand how fault slip may influence the propagation of a dike towards the surface.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  13. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  14. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  15. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  17. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01.

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  20. Water miscible mono alcohols' effect on the proteolytic performance of Bacillus clausii serine alkaline protease.

    PubMed

    Duman, Yonca Avci; Kazan, Dilek; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Erarslan, Altan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, our investigations showed that the increasing concentrations of all examined mono alcohols caused a decrease in the Vm, kcat and kcat/Km values of Bacillus clausii GMBE 42 serine alkaline protease for casein hydrolysis. However, the Km value of the enzyme remained almost the same, which was an indicator of non-competitive inhibition. Whereas inhibition by methanol was partial non-competitive, inhibition by the rest of the alcohols tested was simple non-competitive. The inhibition constants (KI) were in the range of 1.32-3.10 M, and the order of the inhibitory effect was 1-propanol>2-propanol>methanol>ethanol. The ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased at increasing concentrations of all alcohols examined, but the ΔG(≠)ES value of the enzyme remained almost the same. The constant Km and ΔG(≠)ES values in the presence and absence of mono alcohols indicated the existence of different binding sites for mono alcohols and casein on enzyme the molecule. The kcat of the enzyme decreased linearly by increasing log P and decreasing dielectric constant (D) values, but the ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased by increasing log P and decreasing D values of the reaction medium containing mono alcohols.

  1. One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eunyoung; Hong, Bomi; De Castro, Kathlia A; Lim, Minkyung; Rhee, Hakjune

    2007-12-07

    One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using various aldehydes by Pd/C catalyst in aqueous 2-propanol solvent with ammonium formate as in situ hydrogen donor is illustrated. The reaction proceeded smoothly and selectively with excellent yield at room temperature. Our protocol presents a facile, economical, and environmentally benign alternative for reductive amination.

  2. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  3. Asynchronous Replication, Mono-Allelic Expression, and Long Range Cis-Effects of ASAR6

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leslie; Montagna, Christina; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes initiate DNA replication at multiple sites along their length during each S phase following a temporal replication program. The majority of genes on homologous chromosomes replicate synchronously. However, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes, and genes on female X chromosomes replicate asynchronously. We have identified a cis-acting locus on human chromosome 6 that controls this replication-timing program. This locus encodes a large intergenic non-coding RNA gene named Asynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, or ASAR6. Disruption of ASAR6 results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic chromosome condensation, and activation of the previously silent alleles of mono-allelic genes on chromosome 6. The ASAR6 gene resides within an ∼1.2 megabase domain of asynchronously replicating DNA that is coordinated with other random asynchronously replicating loci along chromosome 6. In contrast to other nearby mono-allelic genes, ASAR6 RNA is expressed from the later-replicating allele. ASAR6 RNA is synthesized by RNA Polymerase II, is not polyadenlyated, is restricted to the nucleus, and is subject to random mono-allelic expression. Disruption of ASAR6 leads to the formation of bridged chromosomes, micronuclei, and structural instability of chromosome 6. Finally, ectopic integration of cloned genomic DNA containing ASAR6 causes delayed replication of entire mouse chromosomes. PMID:23593023

  4. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium...

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF MIXTURES OF MONO- AND DIMETHYL TIN IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Mixtures of Mono- and Dimethyl Tin in Drinking Water of Rats

    V.C. Moser, K.L. McDaniel, P.M. Phillips

    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA

    Organotins, especially monomethyl (MMT) and dimethyl (D...

  9. The Effects of Operational Parameters on a Mono-wire Cutting System: Efficiency in Marble Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmazkaya, Emre; Ozcelik, Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Mono-wire block cutting machines that cut with a diamond wire can be used for squaring natural stone blocks and the slab-cutting process. The efficient use of these machines reduces operating costs by ensuring less diamond wire wear and longer wire life at high speeds. The high investment costs of these machines will lead to their efficient use and reduce production costs by increasing plant efficiency. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the cutting performance parameters of mono-wire cutting machines in terms of rock properties and operating parameters. This study aims to investigate the effects of the wire rotational speed (peripheral speed) and wire descending speed (cutting speed), which are the operating parameters of a mono-wire cutting machine, on unit wear and unit energy, which are the performance parameters in mono-wire cutting. By using the obtained results, cuttability charts for each natural stone were created on the basis of unit wear and unit energy values, cutting optimizations were performed, and the relationships between some physical and mechanical properties of rocks and the optimum cutting parameters obtained as a result of the optimization were investigated.

  10. Analysis of fae and fhcD genes in Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Nercessian, Olivier; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Joye, Samantha B; Lidstrom, Mary E; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2005-12-01

    Genes for two enzymes of the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked C(1) transfer pathway (fae and fhcD) were detected in hypersaline, hyperalkaline Mono Lake (California), via PCR amplification and analysis. Low diversity for fae and fhcD was noted, in contrast to the diversity previously detected in a freshwater lake, Lake Washington (Washington).

  11. Cyclin D activates the Rb tumor suppressor by mono-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Narasimha, Anil M; Kaulich, Manuel; Shapiro, Gary S; Choi, Yoon J; Sicinski, Piotr; Dowdy, Steven F

    2014-06-04

    The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, to release E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. In this study, we find that Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated in early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but show preferential E2F binding patterns. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by quantum hyper-phosphorylation. Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription, whereas cells undergoing differentiation utilize un-phosphorylated Rb. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that mono-phosphorylated Rb, generated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, is the only Rb isoform in early G1 phase.

  12. Synthesis of hierarchical zeolites using an inexpensive mono-quaternary ammonium surfactant as mesoporogen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Rohling, Roderigh; Filonenko, Georgy; Mezari, Brahim; Hofmann, Jan P; Asahina, Shunsuke; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2014-12-04

    A simple amphiphilic surfactant containing a mono-quaternary ammonium head group (N-methylpiperidine) is effective in imparting substantial mesoporosity during synthesis of SSZ-13 and ZSM-5 zeolites. Highly mesoporous SSZ-13 prepared in this manner shows greatly improved catalytic performance in the methanol-to-olefins reaction compared to bulk SSZ-13.

  13. Mono- and multimeric ferrocene congeners of quinoline-based polyamines as potential antiparasitics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of mono- and multimeric polyamine-containing ferrocenyl complexes bearing a quinoline motif were prepared. The complexes were characterised by standard techniques. The molecular structure of the monomeric salicylaldimine derivative was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction and w...

  14. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...

  15. Health Disparities and Relational Well-Being between Multi- and Mono-Ethnic Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…

  16. Emotions in freely varying and mono-pitched vowels, acoustic and EGG analyses.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija; Palo, Pertti; Kankare, Elina

    2015-12-01

    Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their profession, actors have to be able to express emotions both by speech and singing. Electroglottogram and acoustic analyses of emotional utterances embedded in expressions of freely varying vowels [a:], [i:], [u:] (96 samples) and mono-pitched protracted vowels (96 samples) were studied. Contact quotient (CQEGG) was calculated using 35%, 55%, and 80% threshold levels. Three different threshold levels were used in order to evaluate their effects on emotions. Genders were studied separately. The results suggested significant gender differences for CQEGG 80% threshold level. SPL, CQEGG, and F4 were used to convey emotions, but to a lesser degree, when F0 was predetermined. Moreover, females showed fewer significant variations than males. Both genders used more hypofunctional phonation type in mono-pitched utterances than in the expressions with freely varying pitch. The present material warrants further study of the interplay between CQEGG threshold levels and formant frequencies, and listening tests to investigate the perceptual value of the mono-pitched vowels in the communication of emotions.

  17. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  18. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  19. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  20. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in compliance with § 172.862. (b... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.856 Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty...

  1. Performance limits of tunnel transistors based on mono-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen

    2014-05-01

    Performance limits of tunnel field-effect transistors based on mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated through numerical quantum mechanical simulations. The atomic mono-layer nature of the devices results in a much smaller natural length λ, leading to much larger electric field inside the tunneling diodes. As a result, the inter-band tunneling currents are found to be very high as long as ultra-thin high-k gate dielectric is possible. The highest on-state driving current is found to be close to 600 μA/μm at Vg = Vd = 0.5 V when 2 nm thin HfO2 layer is used for gate dielectric, outperforming most of the conventional semiconductor tunnel transistors. In the five simulated transition-metal dichalcogenides, mono-layer WSe2 based tunnel field-effect transistor shows the best potential. Deep analysis reveals that there is plenty room to further enhance the device performance by either geometry, alloy, or strain engineering on these mono-layer materials.

  2. Synthesis of Mono-PEGylated Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 and Investigation of its Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Beihua; Zhou, Ziniu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an efficient synthetic route to the mono-PEGylated growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and its biological activity in vivo. The commercially available key PEGylating reagent, mPEG-NHS ester, was successfully utilized to the synthesis of mono-PEGylated GHRP-2, during which the PEGylation profiles of GHRP-2 were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The product was purified by cation exchange chromatography, and its biological activity was conducted in rats. The desired mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 as the major product was readily obtained in anhydrous aprotic solvent, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), when the molar ratio of mPEG-NHS ester to GHRP-2 was fixed to be 0.8:1. The products were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the biological activity for the products showed that the mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 gave a more stable activity than GHRP-2, suggesting that PEGylation led to the increase in the half-life of GHRP-2 in plasma without greatly impairing the biological activity. PEGylation of the GHRP-2 is a good choice for the development of the GHRP-2 applications.

  3. Performance limits of tunnel transistors based on mono-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiang-Wei Li, Shu-Shen

    2014-05-12

    Performance limits of tunnel field-effect transistors based on mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated through numerical quantum mechanical simulations. The atomic mono-layer nature of the devices results in a much smaller natural length λ, leading to much larger electric field inside the tunneling diodes. As a result, the inter-band tunneling currents are found to be very high as long as ultra-thin high-k gate dielectric is possible. The highest on-state driving current is found to be close to 600 μA/μm at V{sub g} = V{sub d} = 0.5 V when 2 nm thin HfO{sub 2} layer is used for gate dielectric, outperforming most of the conventional semiconductor tunnel transistors. In the five simulated transition-metal dichalcogenides, mono-layer WSe{sub 2} based tunnel field-effect transistor shows the best potential. Deep analysis reveals that there is plenty room to further enhance the device performance by either geometry, alloy, or strain engineering on these mono-layer materials.

  4. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  5. Morphological characterization of viruses in the stratified water column of alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Steward, Grieg F

    2010-10-01

    Concentrations of viruses and prokaryotes in the alkaline, moderately hypersaline, seasonally stratified Mono Lake are among the highest reported for a natural aquatic environment. We used electron microscopy to test whether viral morphological characteristics differed among the epilimnion, metalimnion, and the anoxic hypolimnion of the lake and to determine how the properties of viruses in Mono Lake compare to other aquatic environments. Viral capsid size distributions were more similar in the metalimnion and hypolimnion of Mono Lake, while viral tail lengths were more similar in the epilimnion and metalimnion. The percentage of tailed viruses decreased with depth and the relative percentages of tailed phage families changed with depth. The presence of large (>125 nm capsid), untailed viruses in the metalimnion and hypolimnion suggests that eukaryotic viruses are produced in these suboxic and anoxic, hypersaline environments. Capsid diameters of viruses were larger on average in Mono Lake compared to other aquatic environments, and no lemon-shaped or filamentous viruses were found, in contrast to other high-salinity or high-altitude lakes and seas. Our data suggest that the physically and chemically distinct layers of Mono Lake harbor different viral assemblages, and that these assemblages are distinct from other aquatic environments that have been studied. Furthermore, we found that filtration of a sample through a 0.22-µm pore-size filter significantly altered the distribution of viral capsid diameters and tail lengths, resulting in a relative depletion of viruses having larger capsids and longer tails. This observation highlights the potential for bias in molecular surveys of viral diversity, which typically rely on filtration through 0.2- or 0.22-µm pore-size membrane filters to remove bacteria during sample preparation.

  6. Drainage reversals in Mono Basin during the late pliocene and Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Stine, S.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Mono Basin, on the eastern flank of the central Sierra Nevada, is the highest of the large hydrographically closed basins in the Basin and Range province. We use geomorphic features, shoreline deposits, and basalt-filled paleochannels to reconstruct an early to middle Pleistocene record of shorelines and changing spillways of Lake Russell in Mono Basin. During this period of time, Lake Russell repeatedly attained altitudes between 2205 and 2280 m-levels far above the present surface of Mono Lake (~1950 m) and above its last overflow level (2188 m). The spill point of Lake Russell shifted through time owing to late Tertiary and Quaternary faulting and volcanism. During the early Pleistocene, the lake periodically discharged through the Mount Hicks spillway on the northeastern rim of Mono Basin and flowed northward into the Walker Lake drainage basin via the East Walker River. Paleochannels recording such discharge were incised prior to 1.6 Ma, possibly between 1.6 and 1.3 Ma, and again after 1.3 Ma (ages of basaltic flows that plugged the paleochannels). Faulting in the Adobe Hills on the southeastern margin of the basin eventually lowered the rim in this area to below the altitude of the Mount Hicks spillway. Twice after 0.76 Ma, and possibly as late as after 0.1 Ma, Lake Russell discharged southward through the Adobe Hills spillway into the Owens-Death Valley system of lakes. This study supports a pre-Pleistocene aquatic connection through Mono Basin between the hydrologically distinct Lahontan and Owens-Death Valley systems, as long postulated by biologists, and also confirms a probable link during the Pleistocene for species adapted to travel upstream in fast-flowing water.

  7. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  12. Structural and functional analysis of two di-domain aromatase/cyclases from type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Caldara-Festin, Grace; Jackson, David R.; Barajas, Jesus F.; Valentic, Timothy R.; Patel, Avinash B.; Aguilar, Stephanie; Nguyen, MyChi; Vo, Michael; Khanna, Avinash; Sasaki, Eita; Liu, Hung-wen; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic polyketides make up a large class of natural products with diverse bioactivity. During biosynthesis, linear poly-β-ketone intermediates are regiospecifically cyclized, yielding molecules with defined cyclization patterns that are crucial for polyketide bioactivity. The aromatase/cyclases (ARO/CYCs) are responsible for regiospecific cyclization of bacterial polyketides. The two most common cyclization patterns are C7–C12 and C9–C14 cyclizations. We have previously characterized three monodomain ARO/CYCs: ZhuI, TcmN, and WhiE. The last remaining uncharacterized class of ARO/CYCs is the di-domain ARO/CYCs, which catalyze C7–C12 cyclization and/or aromatization. Di-domain ARO/CYCs can further be separated into two subclasses: “nonreducing” ARO/CYCs, which act on nonreduced poly-β-ketones, and “reducing” ARO/CYCs, which act on cyclized C9 reduced poly-β-ketones. For years, the functional role of each domain in cyclization and aromatization for di-domain ARO/CYCs has remained a mystery. Here we present what is to our knowledge the first structural and functional analysis, along with an in-depth comparison, of the nonreducing (StfQ) and reducing (BexL) di-domain ARO/CYCs. This work completes the structural and functional characterization of mono- and di-domain ARO/CYCs in bacterial type II polyketide synthases and lays the groundwork for engineered biosynthesis of new bioactive polyketides. PMID:26631750

  13. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis through miR-16 in human first trimester placental cell line HTR-8/SVneo.

    PubMed

    Meruvu, Sunitha; Zhang, Jian; Bedi, Yudhishtar Singh; Choudhury, Mahua

    2016-03-01

    Phthalates have been linked to adverse pregnancy complications. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and an endocrine disruptor, has been shown to induce apoptosis in various cell types including placental cells. However, the mechanism of action of MEHP induced apoptosis is still unknown. We hypothesized that apoptosis may be mediated in part through altered microRNA(s) in placenta under MEHP exposure. In the present study, we report that MEHP increases miR-16 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p<0.05), while inducing apoptosis in HTR-8/SVneo. Cells treated with MEHP showed a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species along with decreased cell viability. Consistent with significant increase in apoptosis analyzed by flow cytometry, we detected decreased anti-apoptotic BCL-2 at transcriptional and translational levels with MEHP (p<0.05). Knockdown of miR-16 did not decrease the BCL-2/BAX protein expression ratio in the presence of MEHP when compared to negative control demonstrating that MEHP induces apoptosis directly through miR-16. In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that MEHP induces miR-16, which in turn, alters BCL-2/BAX ratio leading to increased apoptosis. This study provides a novel insight into MEHP induced epigenetic regulation in placental apoptosis which may lead to pregnancy complications.

  14. Mono-cationic detergents play a critical role in the development of liposome-based gene vector via controlling its lamellarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryosuke; Yamada, Yuma; Kawamura, Eriko; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Controlling the number of lipid bilayers, the lamellarity, in a liposome is a major factor in the in vivo/in vitro pharmacokinetics of drug delivery using liposome-based nanocarriers. Findings reported in a previous study indicated that a mono-cationic detergent (MCD) could be useful in controlling liposomal size via interaction with the lipid envelope. Here, we investigated controlling the lamellarity of the liposomal gene vector by MCD, using a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND). The MEND consisted of a condensed plasmid DNA core and lipid envelopes. The size of the MCD-contained MEND (MCD-MEND) decreased as a function of the amount of MCD, indicating that MCD can be used to control the number of the lipid bilayers. We also developed a triple-layered MEND (TL-MEND) by packaging a di-lamellar MEND into an MCD-containing lipid bilayer. We hypothesized that the TL-MEND would efficiently deliver a gene to the nucleus, when the outer single bilayer fused with the plasma membrane and the inner double membranes then fused with the nuclear double membranes. Transfection assays showed that the TL-MEND had a high transfection activity in JAWS II cells, non-dividing cells. These results indicate that MCD has the potential for enhancing the gene delivery by controlling liposomal lamellarity.

  15. Dust Generation Resulting from Desiccation of Playa Systems: Studies on Mono and Owens Lakes, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Thomas Edward

    1995-01-01

    Playas, evaporites, and aeolian sediments frequently are linked components within the Earth system. Anthropogenic water diversions from terminal lakes form playas that release fugitive dust. These actions, documented worldwide, simulate aeolian processes activated during palaeoclimatic pluvial/interpluvial transitions, and have significant environmental impacts. Pluvial lakes Russell and Owens in North America's Great Basin preceded historic Mono and Owens Lakes, now desiccated by water diversions into dust-generating, evaporite -encrusted playas. Geochemical and hydrologic cycles acting on the Owens (Dry) Lake playa form three distinct crust types each year. Although initial dust production results from deflation of surface efflorescences after the playa dries, most aerosols are created by saltation abrasion of salt/silt/clay crusts at crust/ sand sheet contacts. The warm-season, clastic "cemented" crust is slowest to degrade into dust. If the playa surface is stabilized by an unbroken, non-efflorescent crust, dust formation is discouraged. When Mono Lake's surFace elevation does not exceed 1951 meters (6400 feet), similar processes will also generate dust from its saline lower playa. Six factors--related to wind, topography, groundwater, and sediments--control dust formation at both playas. These factors were combined into a statistical model relating suspended dust concentrations to playa/lake morphometry. The model shows the extent and severity of Mono Lake dust storms expands significantly below the surface level 6376 feet (1943.5 meters). X-ray diffraction analysis of Mono Basin soils, playa sediments, and aerosols demonstrates geochemical cycling of materials through land, air and water during Mono Lake's 1982 low stand. Soils and clastic playa sediments contain silicate minerals and tephra. Saline groundwater deposited calcite, halite, thenardite, gaylussite, burkeite and glauberite onto the lower playa. Aerosols contained silicate minerals (especially

  16. Three-Dimensional Resistivity Model of the Mono Craters Region in Eastern California from Magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Long Valley volcanic region in eastern California contains three magmatic foci; Long Valley Caldera (760-50 ka), Mammoth Mountain (120-8 ka), and Mono-Inyo Craters (60-0.3 ka). Zones of partial melt and/or hydrothermal fluids are known to exist under all three systems, but are not well constrained. In 2013-2014, we collected 110 magnetotelluric stations within a 40km x 45km grid, from Mono Craters through Long Valley Caldera. To date, a 3-D resistivity model has been created for Mono Craters showing three distinct features. Best constrained is a 150±50 km3, near vertical conductive anomaly (0.1-3 Ω·m) located under the southeast margin of Mono Craters at depths from 10km to >35km, which may reflect the deep, partially molten source region for Holocene eruptions. Electrical resistivity calculations suggest temperatures of 775°C±50 and a partial melt fraction 0.2 ±0.1. The location, melt fraction, and volume estimated in this study are consistent with those from teleseismic experiments conducted by Archauer (1986) and Dawson et al. (1990). A second conductive anomaly (0.5-5 Ω·m) at 12km to >35km depths was found 10km west of the Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada. This anomaly coincides with a zone of sporadic, long-period earthquakes interpreted as "fluid-driven" by Pitt et al. (1994). This anomaly may reflect a zone of hydrothermal fluid infiltration originating from the aforementioned magmatic region. The third feature identified in this study is a resistive anomaly (103-104 Ω·m) under Aeolian Buttes, a Cretaceous quartz monzanite outcropping within the Bishop Tuff between Mono Craters and the Sierran front. The anomaly, which fills a crustal volume of 1500 ±500 km3, balloons upward from a deep root at >30 km to within 2 km of the surface and is interpreted as a cold, granitic pluton as supported by gravity and magnetic data. Future work will extend our three-dimensional resistivity model southwards to Inyo Craters and Long

  17. Imaging the magmatic system of Mono Basin, California with magnetotellurics in three--dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peacock, Jared R.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Ponce, David A.

    2015-01-01

    A three–dimensional (3D) electrical resistivity model of Mono Basin in eastern California unveils a complex subsurface filled with zones of partial melt, fluid–filled fracture networks, cold plutons, and regional faults. In 2013, 62 broadband magnetotelluric (MT) stations were collected in an array around southeastern Mono Basin from which a 3D electrical resistivity model was created with a resolvable depth of 35 km. Multiple robust electrical resistivity features were found that correlate with existing geophysical observations. The most robust features are two 300 ± 50 km3 near-vertical conductive bodies (3–10 Ω·m) that underlie the southeast and north-eastern margin of Mono Craters below 10 km depth. These features are interpreted as magmatic crystal–melt mush zones of 15 ± 5% interstitial melt surrounded by hydrothermal fluids and are likely sources for Holocene eruptions. Two conductive east–dipping structures appear to connect each magma source region to the surface. A conductive arc–like structure (< 0.9 Ω·m) links the northernmost mush column at 10 km depth to just below vents near Panum Crater, where the high conductivity suggests the presence of hydrothermal fluids. The connection from the southernmost mush column at 10 km depth to below South Coulée is less obvious with higher resistivity (200 Ω·m) suggestive of a cooled connection. A third, less constrained conductive feature (4–10 Ω·m) 15 km deep extending to 35 km is located west of Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada escarpment, and is coincident with a zone of sporadic, long–period earthquakes that are characteristic of a fluid-filled (magmatic or metamorphic) fracture network. A resistive feature (103–105 Ω·m) located under Aeolian Buttes contains a deep root down to 25 km. The eastern edge of this resistor appears to structurally control the arcuate shape of Mono Craters. These observations have been combined to form a new conceptual model

  18. Design, Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemical Properties of BODIPY Dyes Containing Mono, Bis-2-Naphthyloxyhexyloxy and 4-(Benzyloxy)Phenoxyhexyloxy Groups.

    PubMed

    Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Keleş, Turgut

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the synthesis of boron dipyrromethene dyes containing mono, bis-2-naphthyloxyhexyloxy and 4-(benzyloxy)phenoxyhexyloxy groups has been reported. Boron dipyrromethene dyes were synthesized from the mono, bis-benzaldehyde derivatives with 2,4-dimethylpyrrole in dichloromethane in the presence of trifluoroacetic, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon, triethyl amine and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, respectively. Electrochemical characterization of boron dipyrromethene dyes were carried out with voltammetric measurements. Electrochemical studies show that boron dipyrromethene dyes containing mono, bis-2-naphthyloxyhexyloxy and 4-(benzyloxy)phenoxyhexyloxy groups have reversible one reduction potentials unlike irreversible one oxidation potentials. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Preparation and one-step purification of mono-125I-angiotensin II for radioligand binding assays

    SciTech Connect

    Speth, R.C.; Husain, A.

    1984-04-01

    A one-step purification of mono-/sup 125/I-angiotensin II prepared by the chloramine T procedure is described. The purification is effected on a cellulose cation exchange column with isocratic elution by 50 mM sodium acetate, pH 5.0. The purity of the mono-/sup 125/I-angiotensin II was determined by thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, enzymatic digestion, radioreceptor assay, and radioimmunoassay. Preparation and purification of mono-/sup 125/I-angiotensin II by this procedure offers significant advantages over existing methods for its preparation in terms of purity, simplicity, efficiency, and cost.

  20. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  1. 1. Mono((8)annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  2. Effect of benthic boundary layer transport on the productivity of Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Louise C; Jellison, Robert; Imberger, Jörg; Melack, John M

    2008-08-19

    The significance of the transport of nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water via the benthic boundary layer (BBL) to the productivity of Mono Lake was studied using a coupled hydrodynamic and ecological model validated against field data. The coupled model enabled us to differentiate between the role of biotic components and hydrodynamic forcing on the internal recycling of nutrients necessary to sustain primary productivity. A 4-year period (1991-1994) was simulated in which recycled nutrients from zooplankton excretion and bacterially-mediated mineralization exceeded sediment fluxes as the dominant source for primary productivity. Model outputs indicated that BBL transport was responsible for a 53% increase in the flux of hypolimnetic ammonium to the photic zone during stratification with an increase in primary production of 6% and secondary production of 5%. Although the estimated impact of BBL transport on the productivity of Mono Lake was not large, significant nutrient fluxes were simulated during periods when BBL transport was most active.

  3. On the Quantum Hall Effect in mono(bi)-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisin, M. V.

    2014-11-01

    Based on a thermodynamic approach, we have calculated the specific resistivity of mono(bi)-layer graphene assumed dissipationless in quantizing magnetic field. The resistivity arises from combination of Peltier and Seebeck effects. The current I causes heating (cooling) at the first (second) sample contacts, due to the Peltier effect. The voltage measured across the sample is equal to the Seebeck thermoemf, and thus provides finite resistivity as I→0. The resistivity is a universal function of the magnetic field, e-h plasma density and temperature, expressed in fundamental units h/e2. At fixed magnetic field the magneto-transport problem is resolved in the vicinity of the Dirac point taking into account the splitting of zeroth Landau level. For mono(bi)- layer graphene the B-dependent splitting of zeroth Landau level is recovered from experimental data.

  4. High-efficiency graphene nanomesh magnets realized by controlling mono-hydrogenation of pore edges

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Kamijyo, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Yagi, Y.; Haruyama, J.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate a drastic improvement in the efficiency of rare-element-free graphene nanomesh (GNM) magnets with saturation magnetization values as large as ∼10{sup −4 }emu/mm{sup 2}, which are 10–100 times greater than those in previous GNM magnets hydrogenated by only annealing under a hydrogen molecule (H{sub 2}) atmosphere, even at room temperature. This improvement is realized by a significant increase in the area of the mono-H-terminated pore edges by using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist treatment with electron beam irradiation, which can produce mono-H by detaching H-silicon (Si) bonds. This result must open the door for industrial applications of graphene magnets to rare-element-free magnetic and spintronic systems.

  5. Detection and Quantification of Crack in Composite Mono Leaf Spring by Vibration Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamadar, Nagendra Iranna; Kivade, Sangshetty Bheemanna; Pedada, Sudhakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Automobile industries focus for the components alternative to conventional materials with composites. There is high demand for enhanced performance and light weight. The emphasis is given for composite mono leaf spring as potential item as it is made up of glass fibre reinforced plastics despite they are sensitive to damages such as crack, delamination, de-bonding etc., occurred during either manufacturing or in service condition. These damages grow in progression and results in catastrophic failure. This work aims to deal with structural health monitoring to study and analyse the damage levels in composite mono leaf spring such as detection, location and quantification of damage. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate presence and severity of damage by vibration parameters and validated with simulation.

  6. Search for mono-Higgs signals at the LHC in the B -L supersymmetric standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, W.; Hammad, A.; Khalil, S.; Moretti, S.

    2017-03-01

    We study mono-Higgs signatures emerging in the B -L supersymmetric standard model induced by new channels not present in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, i.e., via topologies in which the mediator is either a heavy Z', with mass of O (2 TeV ) , or an intermediate h' (the lightest C P -even Higgs state of B -L origin), with a mass of O (0.2 TeV ) . The mono-Higgs probe considered is the standard model-like Higgs state recently discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, so as to enforce its mass reconstruction for background reduction purposes. With this in mind, its two cleanest signatures are selected: γ γ and Z Z*→4 l (l =e , μ ). We show how both of these can be accessed with foreseen energy and luminosity options using a dedicated kinematic analysis performed in the presence of partonic, showering, hadronization and detector effects.

  7. Effect of benthic boundary layer transport on the productivity of Mono Lake, California

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Louise C; Jellison, Robert; Imberger, Jörg; Melack, John M

    2008-01-01

    The significance of the transport of nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water via the benthic boundary layer (BBL) to the productivity of Mono Lake was studied using a coupled hydrodynamic and ecological model validated against field data. The coupled model enabled us to differentiate between the role of biotic components and hydrodynamic forcing on the internal recycling of nutrients necessary to sustain primary productivity. A 4-year period (1991–1994) was simulated in which recycled nutrients from zooplankton excretion and bacterially-mediated mineralization exceeded sediment fluxes as the dominant source for primary productivity. Model outputs indicated that BBL transport was responsible for a 53% increase in the flux of hypolimnetic ammonium to the photic zone during stratification with an increase in primary production of 6% and secondary production of 5%. Although the estimated impact of BBL transport on the productivity of Mono Lake was not large, significant nutrient fluxes were simulated during periods when BBL transport was most active. PMID:18710583

  8. Origin of Structural Transformation in Mono- and Bi-Layered Molybdenum Disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Zhijie; Fu, Y. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Mono- and multi-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered to be one of the next generation anode materials for rechargeable ion batteries. Structural transformation from trigonal prismatic (2H) to octahedral (1T) upon lithium or sodium intercalation has been in-situ observed experimentally using transmission electron microscope during studies of their electrochemical dynamics processes. In this work, we explored the fundamental mechanisms of this structural transformation in both mono- and bi-layered MoS2 using density functional theory. For the intercalated MoS2, the Li and Na donate their electrons to the MoS2. Based on the theoretical analysis, we confirmed that, for the first time, electron transfer is dominant in initiating this structural transformation, and the results provide an in-depth understanding of the transformation mechanism induced by the electron doping. The critical values of electron concentrations for this structural transformation are decreased with increasing the layer thickness.

  9. Resurrecting an unsalvageable lower incisor with a mono-block approach

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rachit; Thomas, Manuel S.; Yadav, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary techniques, as well as the availability of bioactive and adhesive materials in endodontics, have helped revivifying teeth that were deemed hopeless. These newer materials and techniques would enable the clinician: (a) to predictably stop microbial activity (b) to achieve a total corono-apical fluid tight seal and (c) to strengthen mutilated teeth by obtaining intra-radicular reinforcement through mono-block effect. This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of a mutilated anterior tooth with the use of bioactive and adhesive materials to obtain a total seal and mono-block effect. This article also shows the use of a simple method in the placement of root filling cement into the root canal. PMID:26430310

  10. Novel carboranyl derivatives of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates: a synthetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Vyakaranam, Kamesh; Hosmane, Narayan S

    2004-01-01

    A number of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates containing 1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (12) (la-6b) at 5'-position of the sugar moiety have been synthesized in good yields. Experimental details along with the spectroscopic and analytical data, supporting the formation of the title compounds, are presented. These constitute a new generation of boron compounds that are envisioned to be useful in cancer treatment via Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).

  11. Relative performance of a vibratory energy harvester in mono- and bi-stable potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masana, Ravindra; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2011-11-01

    Motivated by the need for broadband vibratory energy harvesting, many research studies have recently proposed energy harvesters with nonlinear characteristics. Based on the shape of their potential function, such devices are classified as either mono- or bi-stable energy harvesters. This paper aims to investigate the relative performance of these two classes under similar excitations and electric loading conditions. To achieve this goal, an energy harvester consisting of a clamped-clamped piezoelectric beam bi-morph is considered. The shape of the harvester's potential function is altered by applying a static compressive axial load at one end of the beam. This permits operation in the mono-stable (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) configurations. For the purpose of performance comparison, the axial load is used to tune the harvester's oscillation frequencies around the static equilibria such that they have equal values in the mono- and bi-stable configurations. The harvester is subjected to harmonic base excitations of different magnitudes and a slowly varying frequency spanning a wide band around the tuned oscillation frequency. The output voltage measured across a purely resistive load is compared over the frequency range considered. Two cases are discussed; the first compares the performance when the bi-stable harvester has deep potential wells, while the second treats a bi-stable harvester with shallow wells. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate the essential role that the potential shape plays in conjunction with the base acceleration to determine whether the bi-stable harvester can outperform the mono-stable one and for what range of frequencies. Results also illustrate that, for a bi-stable harvester with shallow potential wells, super-harmonic resonances can activate the inter-well dynamics even for a small base acceleration, thereby producing large voltages in the low frequency range.

  12. The Calibration of Mono-Chromatic Infrared Star Formation Rate Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; LVL Team

    2010-01-01

    I will present recent results on the calibration of mono-chromatic (single band) star formation rate indicators using Spitzer data of nearby galaxies from the SINGS and LVL samples. I will discuss not only the range of applicability of each indicator, but also the limitations and caveats. Many of these indicators can have immediate application in surveys of distant galaxies with the Herschel Space Telescope.

  13. Nd and Sr isotopic study of the Inyo Dome-Mono Crater rhyolites, eastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, K.L.; Kelleher, P.C.; Sampson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Late Pleistocene to Recent mafic to silicic volcanic rocks from the Inyo Domes and Mono Craters were analyzed to constrain the origin and evolution of magmas erupted during the most recent cycle of silicic volcanism in the Long Valley region. Whole rock samples of biot-, opx-, and ol-bearing rhyolites from the Mono Craters have similar epsilon/sub Nd/(0) and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios, ranging from 0.9 to -1.4, and .70633 to .70680, respectively. Intermediate composition inclusions in the Mono Crater rhyolites have slightly higher epsilon/sub Nd/(0)=2.90 and lower /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr=.70526, which suggests that the rhyolites evolved via crustal assimilation from more mafic, higher epsilon/sub Nd/(0), parental magmas. However, young basaltic rocks at June Lake and Black Point have epsilon/sub Nd/(0)=-1.5 and 1.6, while the Mesozoic batholithic crust in the region has epsilon/sub Nd/(0)=-2.0, suggesting that the mantle-derived magmas parental to the rhyolites, and the assimilated crust, may have differed only by 2-4 epsilon/sub Nd/ units. Therefore, the uniform isotopic compositions of the Mono Crater rhyolites, Inyo Domes rhyolites, and Bishop Tuff may only reflect the similar isotopic compositions of the mantle and crustal source regions, and do not require that the rhyolites were all derived from the same magma body. More precise isotopic measurements will be required to establish the proportions of mantle and crustally-derived components in the rhyolites, and to determine if this proportion varies with time or rhyolite composition. The apparent similarity in the isotopic compositions of the upper mantle and continental crust in this region is enigmatic, but could be an artifact of extensive mass transfer between the upper mantle and lower continental crust during the subduction-related Mesozoic magmatism.

  14. First survey of fungi in hypersaline soil and water of Mono Lake area (California).

    PubMed

    Steiman, Régine; Ford, Larry; Ducros, Véronique; Lafond, Jean-Luc; Guiraud, Pascale

    2004-01-01

    Mono Lake is a closed lake located in central California, east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. It contains dissolved carbonates, sulfates and chlorides at high concentrations. Due to its high salinity, Mono Lake was sometimes compared to the Dead Sea. However, it appears that Mono Lake water and vicinity abound with life. In this work, the fungal flora living in this extreme ecosystem was studied for the first time. Soil, tufa, water and sediment samples were also analyzed for their mineral and salt composition. Results showed that water was particularly rich in sodium, potassium, phosphorus and boron. Soil and sediments contained very high levels of calcium and magnesium, but also barium, boron and strontium. Sodium, phosphorus and iron levels varied in a large extent from one to another sample. Neutral to very alkaline pH were recorded. Water samples were found sterile in the conditions chosen for fungi isolation, while sediment, soil and tufa samples led to the isolation of a total of 67 fungal species (from 23 samples), belonging to various taxonomic groups. From our results no clear effects of the chemical parameters of the samples were observed on fungal life apart from the pH. The methods chosen did not allow the isolation of extremely halotolerant species. We isolated in this work a series of ubiquitous species, suggesting that a selection of resistant and/or adaptable strains of some common species could have occurred. Depending on the medium and the temperature of isolation, it can be hypothesized that some species were present as dormant structures, while some others, isolated at pH 8 on a medium enriched in Na and Ca, could be in a growing form adapted to alkaline and saline conditions. This work contributes to a better knowledge of the mycobiota present in the Mono Lake's ecosystem.

  15. Systematic Behavior of the Non-dipole Magnetic Field during the 32 ka Mono Lake Excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, R. M.; McCuan, D.; Cassata, W. S.; Channell, J. E.; Verosub, K. L.; Liddicoat, J. C.; Knott, J. R.; Coe, R. S.; Benson, L. V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Lund, S.; Horton, R.; Lopez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Paleomagnetic excursions are enigmatic phenomena that reveal geodynamo behavior in its transitional state and provide important refinements in age control for the late Pleistocene, a critical time period for the study of paleoclimate and human evolution. We report here on two widely separated, unusually detailed records of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) from sedimentary sequences dated at 32 ka. One of the records is from Summer Lake, Oregon. The vector components of this new record faithfully reproduce the principle features of the MLE as recorded at the type localities around Mono Lake, CA, though with greater detail and higher amplitude. Radiocarbon dates on bulk organics in the Summer Lake record confirm the 32 ka age of the MLE. The other record is from the marine Irminger Basin off of eastern Greenland and is based on the measurement of discrete samples rather than u-channels. The associated VGP paths of the two records strongly suggest systematic field behavior that includes three loci of nondipole flux whose relative dominance oscillates through time. The staggered sequence followed by the two paths through each flux locus further suggests that both the demise and return of the main field floods zonally during the excursion. The composite path is also compatible with the VGPs of a 32 ka set of lavas from New Zealand and, notably, it does not include VGPs associated with the 40 ka Laschamp excursion. This confirms that these two excursions are distinct events and, more specifically, shows that it is the 32 ka Mono Lake excursion that is recorded in the sediments surrounding Mono Lake rather than the ~40 ka Laschamp excursion.

  16. Intraductal mono-octanoin for the direct dissolution of bile duct stones: experience in 343 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K R; Hofmann, A F

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of mono-octanoin, a cholesterol solvent for the direct dissolution of stones in the biliary tract, was assessed by collating case reports on 343 patients provided by 222 physicians who used the material between 1977 and 1983. Most patients had previously undergone cholecystectomy, with common duct exploration, the majority within the preceding six weeks. In most, sphincterotomy was impossible or if carried out, had not induced stone passage. Stone dissolution was considered preferable to surgery, especially in patients who were frail, elderly, or had multiple medical problems. Treatment was unequivocally successful in 88 patients (26%) and was a valuable adjunct to interventional treatment in another 29 subjects (8%). In 70 patients (20%), calculi became smaller, but remained within the biliary tree. Thus, mono-octanoin was judged to have been useful in 54% of patients. Treatment was ineffective in 124 cases (36%). In the remaining 32 patients (9%), treatment was aborted because of side effects. Such side effects were common, occurring in 67% of cases, and in 41% of patients they were multiple. Abdominal pain was the most common complication. Other side effects reported were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Side effects were usually dose related and responded to reduction in infusion rate. Side effects were life threatening in 12 patients (5%), but there were no permanent sequelae and no deaths occurred. These data indicate that mono-octanoin is moderately effective, generally second line, but sometimes first line, treatment for retained biliary duct calculi. PMID:3949248

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 is a non-virulent strain suitable for mono-rhamnolipids production.

    PubMed

    Grosso-Becerra, María-Victoria; González-Valdez, Abigail; Granados-Martínez, María-Jessica; Morales, Estefanía; Servín-González, Luis; Méndez, José-Luis; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Ponce-Soto, Gabriel-Yaxal; Cocotl-Yañez, Miguel; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2016-12-01

    Rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are biosurfactants with a high biotechnological potential, but their extensive commercialization is limited by the potential virulence of P. aeruginosa and by restrictions in producing these surfactants in heterologous hosts. In this work, we report the characterization of P. aeruginosa strain ATCC 9027 in terms of its genome-sequence, virulence, antibiotic resistance, and its ability to produce mono-rhamnolipids when carrying plasmids with different cloned genes from the type strain PAO1. The genes that were expressed from the plasmids are those coding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of this biosurfactant (rhlA and rhlB), as well as the gene that codes for the RhlR transcriptional regulator. We confirm that strain ATCC 9027 forms part of the PA7 clade, but contrary to strain PA7, it is sensitive to antibiotics and is completely avirulent in a mouse model. We also report that strain ATCC 9027 mono-rhamnolipid synthesis is limited by the expression of the rhlAB-R operon. Thus, this strain carrying the rhlAB-R operon produces similar rhamnolipids levels as PAO1 strain. We determined that strain ATCC 9027 with rhlAB-R operon was not virulent to mice. These results show that strain ATCC 9027, expressing PAO1 rhlAB-R operon, has a high biotechnological potential for industrial mono-rhamnolipid production.

  18. [A Generator of Mono-energetic Electrons for Response Test of Charged Particle Detectors.].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Fumiyasu; Yoshida, Katsuhide; Maruyama, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a generator of mono-energetic electrons for the response test of charged particle detectors, which is used to measure fragmented particles of the carbon beam for cancer therapy. Mono-energetic electrons are extracted from (90)Sr by analyzing the energy of beta rays in the generator with a magnetic field. We evaluated performance parameters of the generator such as the absolute energy, the energy resolution and the counting rates of extracted electrons. The generator supplies mono-energetic electrons from 0.5MeV to 1.7MeV with the energy resolution of 20% in FWHM at higher energies than 1.0MeV. The counting rate of electrons is 400cpm at the maximum when the activity of (90)Sr is 298kBq. The generator was used to measure responses of fragmented-particle detectors and to determine the threshold energy of the detectors. We evaluated the dependence of pulse height variation on the detector position and the threshold energy by using the generator. We concluded this generator is useful for the response test of general charged particle detectors.

  19. Modeling of point defects and rare gas incorporation in uranium mono-carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, A.; Van Brutzel, L.

    2007-02-01

    An embedded atom method (EAM) potential has been established for uranium mono-carbide. This EAM potential was fitted on structural properties of metallic uranium and uranium mono-carbide. The formation energies of point defects, as well as activation energies for self migration, have been evaluated in order to cross-check the suitability of the potential. Assuming that the carbon vacancies are the main defects in uranium mono-carbide compounds, the migration paths and energies are consistent with experimental data selected by Catlow[C.R.A. Catlow, J. Nucl. Mater. 60 (1976) 151]. The insertion and migration energies for He, Kr and Xe have also been evaluated with available inter-atomic potentials [H.H. Andersen, P. Sigmund, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 38 (1965) 238]. Results show that the most stable defect configuration for rare gases is within uranium vacancies. The migration energy of an interstitial Xe is 0.5 eV, in agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 eV [Hj. Matzke, Science of advanced LMFBR fuels, Solid State Physics, Chemistry and Technology of Carbides, Nitrides and Carbonitrides of Uranium and Plutonium, North-Holland, 1986].

  20. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, California) using titanomagnetite compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Bursik, Marcus; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2014-03-01

    Nineteen tephra layers within the Wilson Creek formation near Mono Lake provide a record of late Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic activity from the nearby Mono Craters and are important chronostratigraphic markers for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. These stratigraphically important tephra deposits can be geochemically identified using compositions of their titanomagnetite phenocrysts. Titanomagnetite compositions display a broad range (XUsp 0.26-0.39), which allow the tephra layers to be distinguished despite the indistinguishable major-element glass compositions (76-77 wt% SiO2) of their hosts. The concentrations of Ti and Fe in titanomagnetite display geochemical and stratigraphic groupings that allow clear discrimination between older (> 57 ka) and younger (< 41 ka) tephras. Some individual tephra layers can be uniquely identified on the basis of titanomagnetite MgO, MnO, and Al2O3 contents. In addition, a few tephra layers can be correlated to their source vents by their titanomagnetite compositions. The unique geochemical fingerprint of the Mono Craters-sourced titanomagnetites also allows the discrimination of two tephra layers apparently sourced from nearby Mammoth Mountain volcano in Long Valley.

  1. Selenate-dependent anaerobic arsenite oxidation by a bacterium from Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Hollibaugh, James T

    2008-05-01

    Arsenate was produced when anoxic Mono Lake water samples were amended with arsenite and either selenate or nitrate. Arsenite oxidation did not occur in killed control samples or live samples with no added terminal electron acceptor. Potential rates of anaerobic arsenite oxidation with selenate were comparable to those with nitrate ( approximately 12 to 15 mumol.liter(-1) h(-1)). A pure culture capable of selenate-dependent anaerobic arsenite oxidation (strain ML-SRAO) was isolated from Mono Lake water into a defined salts medium with selenate, arsenite, and yeast extract. This strain does not grow chemoautotrophically, but it catalyzes the oxidation of arsenite during growth on an organic carbon source with selenate. No arsenate was produced in pure cultures amended with arsenite and nitrate or oxygen, indicating that the process is selenate dependent. Experiments with washed cells in mineral medium demonstrated that the oxidation of arsenite is tightly coupled to the reduction of selenate. Strain ML-SRAO grows optimally on lactate with selenate or arsenate as the electron acceptor. The amino acid sequences deduced from the respiratory arsenate reductase gene (arrA) from strain ML-SRAO are highly similar (89 to 94%) to those from two previously isolated Mono Lake arsenate reducers. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ML-SRAO places it within the Bacillus RNA group 6 of gram-positive bacteria having low G+C content.

  2. Synthesis and SAR study of opioid receptor ligands: mono- and bis-indolomorphinans.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuying; Yin, Chenlei; Chen, Jie; Liu, Jinggen; Xie, Xin; Zhang, Ao

    2009-10-01

    Mono- and bis-indolomorphinans were synthesized through a multi-step synthetic approach from the alkaloid, thebaine, to further explore the C-ring SAR (structure-activity relationship) of morphinan scaffold. Both mono-indoles displayed good binding affinity and selectivity for the delta receptor, with compound 6b possessed the highest K(i) value of 1.45 nm at this receptor. Bisindolomorphinans 7a,b did not have appreciable affinity for both delta and kappa receptors, but moderate binding at the mu receptor was observed. Functional assays indicated that the newly synthesized mono-indole 6b was delta-agonist, opposite to the delta-antagonist profile of naltrindole. Bisindoles 7a,b were mu-agonists. This work further confirms that the phenol component in opioids is essential for higher binding to the opioid receptors. The different binding ability, receptor selectivity, and the functional activity profiles of naltrindole 2, monoindole 6b, and bisindole 7b clearly indicated that they interact with the opioid receptors in different modes.

  3. The Torsional Spectrum of Mono-Deuterated Methanol CH_2DOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hilali, A.; Coudert, L. H.; Klee, S.

    2010-06-01

    Contrary to the isotopic specie of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 methyl group, in the mono-deuterated species CH_2DOH the hindering potential no longer displays 3-fold symmetry and all moments of inertia depend on the angle of internal rotation. For this reason, this mono-deuterated species displays a fairly dense torsional spectrum difficult to compute and to assign. In this paper an analysis of the torsional spectrum of mono-deuterated methanol is presented. More than 40 torsional subbands have been assigned in the 20 to 800 cm-1 region. The body of data available for CH_2DOH consists of these newly assigned subbands and of the already available ones. The observed torsional subbands are characterized by K ≤ 10 and v_t ≤ 10. For 23 subbands, the rotational structure could be analyzed and this provides us with a mean to check their torsional assignment. The positions of the subband centers were analyzed with a theoretical approach accounting for the dependence of the inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. This allowed us to reproduce 58 experimental wavenumbers with an RMS value of 0.12 cm-1. The spectroscopic parameters corresponding to the hindering potential and to the inertia tensor were also retrieved. Quade and Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 38 (1963) 54. Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spec. 239 (2009) 204.

  4. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, California) using titanomagnetite compositions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Bursik, Marcus; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen tephra layers within the Wilson Creek formation near Mono Lake provide a record of late Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic activity from the nearby Mono Craters and are important chronostratigraphic markers for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. These stratigraphically important tephra deposits can be geochemically identified using compositions of their titanomagnetite phenocrysts. Titanomagnetite compositions display a broad range (XUsp 0.26–0.39), which allow the tephra layers to be distinguished despite the indistinguishable major-element glass compositions (76–77 wt% SiO2) of their hosts. The concentrations of Ti and Fe in titanomagnetite display geochemical and stratigraphic groupings that allow clear discrimination between older (> 57 ka) and younger (2O3 contents. In addition, a few tephra layers can be correlated to their source vents by their titanomagnetite compositions. The unique geochemical fingerprint of the Mono Craters-sourced titanomagnetites also allows the discrimination of two tephra layers apparently sourced from nearby Mammoth Mountain volcano in Long Valley.

  5. Systemic cytokine and interferon responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV mono and co-infections.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael; Bordon, Jose

    2014-11-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(+)), HCV mono-infected (HIV(-)/HCV(+)), HIV mono-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(-)) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV(-)/HCV(-)) who had enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV(+)/HCV(+) women had higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as caspase-1 compared with other groups. Both HIV(+)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) women had significantly higher sCD14 levels compared with other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV mono-infected patients had reduced levels of phosphorylation of STAT1 compared with other groups as well as lower basal levels of expression of the IFN-stimulated genes, OAS1, ISG15, and USP18 (UBP43). Basal expression of USP18, a functional antagonist of ISG15, as well as USP18/ISG15 ratios were increased in the HIV(+)/HCV(+) group compared with HIV(-)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) groups. A more pronounced systemic inflammatory profile as well as increased expression ratios of USP18 to ISG15 may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease in HIV(+)/HCV(+) individuals.

  6. Evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS regulates lipid storage.

    PubMed

    Bartz, René; Seemann, Joachim; Zehmer, John K; Serrero, Ginette; Chapman, Kent D; Anderson, Richard G W; Liu, Pingsheng

    2007-08-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is emerging as an important posttranslational modification that modulates a variety of cell signaling pathways. Here, we present evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of the transcriptional corepressor C terminal binding protein, brefeldin A (BFA)-induced ADP-ribosylated substrate (CtBP1/BARS) regulates neutral lipid storage in droplets that are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipid and associated proteins. CtBP1/BARS is an NAD-binding protein that becomes ribosylated when cells are exposed to BFA. Both endogenous lipid droplets and droplets enlarged by oleate treatment are lost after 12-h exposure to BFA. Lipid loss requires new protein synthesis, and it is blocked by multiple ribosylation inhibitors, but it is not stimulated by disruption of the Golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. Small interfering RNA knockdown of CtBP1/BARS mimics the effect of BFA, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from embryos that are deficient in CtBP1/BARS seem to be defective in lipid accumulation. We conclude that mono-ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS inactivates its repressor function, which leads to the activation of genes that regulate neutral lipid storage.

  7. Severe dystrophy in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rózsai, Barnabás; Kiss, Akos; Csábi, Györgyi; Czakó, Márta; Decsi, Tamás

    2009-03-21

    We present the case history of a 3-year-old girl who was examined because of severe dystrophy. In the background, cow's milk allergy was found, but her body weight was unchanged after eliminating milk from her diet. Other types of malabsorption were excluded. Based on nasal regurgitation and facial dysmorphisms, the possibility of DiGeorge syndrome was suspected and was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The authors suggest a new feature associated with DiGeorge syndrome.

  8. Serum adiponectin in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus mono- and co-infected Kenyan injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (ρ=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (ρ=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (ρ=−0.626; P<0.0001), hip (ρ=−0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (ρ=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (ρ=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (ρ=−0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. PMID:26306727

  9. Symptoms and Immune Markers in Plasmodium/Dengue Virus Co-infection Compared with Mono-infection with Either in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Eric S.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Sihuincha, Moises; Lescano, Andres G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are two of the most common vector-borne diseases in the world, but co-infection is rarely described, and immunologic comparisons of co-infection with mono-infection are lacking. Methodology and Principal Findings We collected symptom histories and blood specimens from subjects in a febrile illness surveillance study conducted in Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado, Peru, between 2002–2011. Nineteen symptoms and 18 immune markers at presentation were compared among those with co-infection with Plasmodium/dengue virus (DENV), Plasmodium mono-infection, and DENV mono-infection. Seventeen subjects were identified as having Plasmodium/DENV co-infection and were retrospectively matched with 51 DENV mono-infected and 44 Plasmodium mono-infected subjects. Those with Plasmodium mono-infection had higher levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, IFN-γ, and MIP1-α/CCL3 compared with DENV mono-infection or co-infection; those with Plasmodium mono-infection had more cough than those with DENV mono-infection. Subjects with DENV mono-infection had higher levels of TGF-β1 and more myalgia than those with Plasmodium mono-infection. No symptom was more common and no immune marker level was higher in the co-infected group, which had similar findings to the DENV mono-infected subjects. Conclusions/Significance Compared with mono-infection with either pathogen, Plasmodium/DENV co-infection was not associated with worse disease and resembled DENV mono-infection in both symptom frequency and immune marker level. PMID:27128316

  10. Remote Operator Performance Comparing Mono and Stereo TV Displays: the Effects of Visibility, Learning and Task Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    FACTORS DC Smith Naval Ocean Systems Center L RE ColeCf University of Hawaii II• Facor JO Merritt Human Factors Research, Inc. RL Pepper[ Naval Ocean...salvage operations, he compared performanct between a stereo and a mono display. Pesch concluded that the advantages given by a stereo, display is task...practical and 15 theoretical consequences. Pesch (1967). for example, reports a mono-stereo difference that "washed out" on the second day’s testing

  11. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected

  12. Mono Lake Excursion in Cored Sediment from the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Iorio, Marina; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Incoronato, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    A search for the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions in cored marine and lacustrine sediment younger than 50,000 years resulted in the discovery of both excursions in the Greenland Sea (73.3˚ N, 351.0˚ E, Nowaczyk and Antanow, 1997), in the North Atlantic Ocean (62.7˚ N, 222.5˚ E, Channell, 2006), in Pyramid Lake in the Lahontan Basin, NV, USA (40.1˚ N, 240.2˚ E, Benson et al., 2008), and in the Black Sea (43.2˚ N, 36.5˚ E, Nowaczyk et al., 2012). The inclination, declination, and relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in the Black Sea sediment matches well the behaviour of the excursion in the Mono Basin, CA, in that a reduction in inclination during westerly declination is soon followed by steep positive inclination when declination is easterly, and relative field intensity increases after a low at the commencement of the excursion (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). A large clockwise loop of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at the Black Sea when followed from old to young patterns very well the VGP loop formed by the older portion of the MLE in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We also searched for the MLE in cored sediment from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea (40.1˚ N, 14.7˚ E) where the age of the sediment is believed to be about 32,000 years when comparing the susceptibility in the core with the susceptibility in a nearby one that is dated by palaeomagnetic secular variation records, Carbon-14, and numerous tephra layers in the Tyrrhenian Sea sediment (Iorio et al., 2011). In the Tyrrhenian Sea core, called C1067, closely spaced samples demagnetized in an alternating field to100 mT record a shallowing of positive inclination to 48˚ that is followed by steep positive inclination of 82˚ when declination moves rapidly to the southeast. The old to young path of the VGPs in C1067 forms a narrow counter-clockwise loop that reaches 30.3˚ N, 30.8˚ E and that is centered at about 55˚ N, 15˚ E. Although descending to a latitude that is

  13. Range optimization for mono- and bi-energetic proton modulated arc therapy with pencil beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, Daniel; Kirk, Maura; Fager, Marcus; Burgdorf, Brendan; Stowe, Malorie; Solberg, Tim; Carabe, Alejandro

    2016-11-07

    The development of rotational proton therapy plans based on a pencil-beam-scanning (PBS) system has been limited, among several other factors, by the energy-switching time between layers, a system-dependent parameter that ranges between a fraction of a second and several seconds. We are investigating mono- and bi-energetic rotational proton modulated arc therapy (PMAT) solutions that would not be affected by long energy switching times. In this context, a systematic selection of the optimal proton energy for each arc is vital. We present a treatment planning comparison of four different range selection methods, analyzing the dosimetric outcomes of the resulting treatment plans created with the ranges obtained. Given the patient geometry and arc definition (gantry and couch trajectories, snout elevation) our in-house treatment planning system (TPS) FoCa was used to find the maximum, medial and minimum water-equivalent thicknesses (WETs) of the target viewed from all possible field orientations. Optimal ranges were subsequently determined using four methods: (1) by dividing the max/min WET interval into equal steps, (2) by taking the average target midpoints from each field, (3) by taking the average WET of all voxels from all field orientations, and (4) by minimizing the fraction of the target which cannot be reached from any of the available angles. After the range (for mono-energetic plans) or ranges (for bi-energetic plans) were selected, the commercial clinical TPS in use in our institution (Varian Eclipse(™)) was used to produce the PMAT plans using multifield optimization. Linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of all plans were also calculated using FoCa and compared among the different methods. Mono- and bi-energetic PMAT plans, composed of a single 180° arc, were created for two patient geometries: a C-shaped target located in the mediastinal area of a thoracic tissue-equivalent phantom and a small brain tumor located directly above the brainstem

  14. Range optimization for mono- and bi-energetic proton modulated arc therapy with pencil beam scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, Daniel; Kirk, Maura; Fager, Marcus; Burgdorf, Brendan; Stowe, Malorie; Solberg, Tim; Carabe, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    The development of rotational proton therapy plans based on a pencil-beam-scanning (PBS) system has been limited, among several other factors, by the energy-switching time between layers, a system-dependent parameter that ranges between a fraction of a second and several seconds. We are investigating mono- and bi-energetic rotational proton modulated arc therapy (PMAT) solutions that would not be affected by long energy switching times. In this context, a systematic selection of the optimal proton energy for each arc is vital. We present a treatment planning comparison of four different range selection methods, analyzing the dosimetric outcomes of the resulting treatment plans created with the ranges obtained. Given the patient geometry and arc definition (gantry and couch trajectories, snout elevation) our in-house treatment planning system (TPS) FoCa was used to find the maximum, medial and minimum water-equivalent thicknesses (WETs) of the target viewed from all possible field orientations. Optimal ranges were subsequently determined using four methods: (1) by dividing the max/min WET interval into equal steps, (2) by taking the average target midpoints from each field, (3) by taking the average WET of all voxels from all field orientations, and (4) by minimizing the fraction of the target which cannot be reached from any of the available angles. After the range (for mono-energetic plans) or ranges (for bi-energetic plans) were selected, the commercial clinical TPS in use in our institution (Varian Eclipse™) was used to produce the PMAT plans using multifield optimization. Linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of all plans were also calculated using FoCa and compared among the different methods. Mono- and bi-energetic PMAT plans, composed of a single 180° arc, were created for two patient geometries: a C-shaped target located in the mediastinal area of a thoracic tissue-equivalent phantom and a small brain tumor located directly above the brainstem. All

  15. Hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions in the 1:1 complex of DABCO di-betaine with squaric acid: Crystallographic, theoretical and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2012-06-01

    The molecular structure of the 1:1 complex of DABCO di-betaine (1,4-dicarboxymethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt) with squaric acid (1) has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Crystals 1 are monoclinic, space group P21/c. One proton of squaric acid is transferred to one of the carboxylate groups of DABCO di-betaine. The mono-protonated DABCO di-betaine cation is further engaged in the COOH⋯OOC hydrogen bond of 2.526(2) Å with the neighboring cations, linking them into a zigzag chain. The hydrogen squarate anion interacts with the oxygen atom of the carboxylate group of DABCO di-betaine cation, through the Osbnd H⋯Odbnd C hydrogen bonds of 2.600(2) Å. The structures of monomer 1a, dimer 2 and cation 3 have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The FTIR spectrum is consistent with the X-ray results. The second-derivative spectrum of 1 and calculated frequencies for the optimized structure 1a are used to explain the frequencies in the experimental FTIR spectrum.

  16. Mono Lake Excursion as a Chronologic Marker in the U.S. Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Knott, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    Nevada, Utah, and California east of the Sierra Nevada are in the Great Basin physiographic province of western North America. During periods of the Pleistocene, Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan covered valleys in Utah and Nevada, respectively, and other lakes such as Lake Russell in east-central California did likewise (Feth, 1964). Now dry except for its remnant, Mono Lake, Lake Russell provides an opportunity to study behavior of Earth's past magnetic field in lacustrine sediments that are exposed in natural outcrops. The sediments record at least 30,000 years of paleomagnetic secular variation (Liddicoat, 1976; Zimmerman et al., 2006) and have been of particular interest since the discovery of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) by Denham and Cox (1971) because the field behavior can be documented at numerous sites around Mono Lake (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979, Liddicoat, 1992; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and on Paoha Island in the lake. Moreover, there have been recent attempts to date the excursion (Kent et al., 2002, Benson et al., 2003) more accurately and use the age and relative field intensity in paleoclimate research (Zimmerman et al., 2006). It has been proposed that the excursion in the Mono Basin might be older than originally believed (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and instead be the Laschamp Excursion (LE), ~ 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004), on the basis of 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and the relative paleointensity record (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the excursion in the Mono Basin. On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the excursion, ~ 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity at the Mono and Lahontan basins and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2003). The age of ~ 32,000 yrs B.P. is in accord with the age (32,000-34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the MLE at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin in the North Atlantic Ocean, which contains as well an

  17. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on degradation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in polyvinyl chloride sheet.

    PubMed

    Ito, Rie; Miura, Naoko; Ushiro, Masaru; Kawaguchi, Migaku; Nakamura, Hiroko; Iguchi, Hirofumi; Ogino, Jun-Ichi; Oishi, Manabu; Wakui, Nobuyuki; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-06

    The risk assessment of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) migration from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical devices is an important issue for patients. The aim of this study was to determine DEHP degradation and migration from PVC sheets. To this end, the method for the simultaneous determination of DEHP and its breakdown products (mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) and phthalic acid (PA)) was improved. Their migration levels from 0 to 50 kGy gamma-ray irradiated PVC sheets were determined. DEHP migration level decreased in proportion to the dose of gamma-ray irradiation, while MEHP and PA migration levels increased. The hardness and the elastic modulus of PVC sheets were examined, but no clear relationship between DEHP migration and these parameters was observed.

  18. Developmental changes in the conversion rates of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate to monoethylhexyl phthalate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gollamudi, R.; Hanumantha, R.; Lawrence, W.H.; Autian, J.

    1985-01-01

    The activities of liver, lung, and kidney of rats of various age groups and that of placenta in hydrolyzing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate have been measured. Male and female rats of 45 d of age, neonatal rats within 12 h of parturition, and fetuses and placenta on d 19 of gestation were used. The liver was most active in all age groups; however, the lung and the kidney also had considerable activity. The tissues of the fetuses and the neonate had significant activity. The k/sub m/ values of the enzyme were 4mM in the neonatal liver and 5.9 mM in the adult liver.

  19. A novel heteroditopic terpyridine-pincer ligand as building block for mono- and heterometallic Pd(II) and Ru(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gagliardo, Marcella; Rodríguez, Gema; Dam, Henk H; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Havenith, Remco W A; Coppo, Paolo; De Cola, Luisa; Hartl, Frantisek; van Klink, Gerard P M; van Koten, Gerard

    2006-03-06

    A palladium-catalyzed Stille coupling reaction was employed as a versatile method for the synthesis of a novel terpyridine-pincer (3, TPBr) bridging ligand, 4'-{4-BrC6H2(CH2NMe2)2-3,5}-2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine. Mononuclear species [PdX(TP)] (X = Br, Cl), [Ru(TPBr)(tpy)](PF6)2, and [Ru(TPBr)2](PF6)2, synthesized by selective metalation of the NCNBr-pincer moiety or complexation of the terpyridine of the bifunctional ligand TPBr, were used as building blocks for the preparation of heterodi- and trimetallic complexes [Ru(TPPdCl)(tpy)](PF6)2 (7) and [Ru(TPPdCl)2](PF6)2 (8). The molecular structures in the solid state of [PdBr(TP)] (4a) and [Ru(TPBr)2](PF6)2 (6) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Electrochemical behavior and photophysical properties of the mono- and heterometallic complexes are described. All the above di- and trimetallic Ru complexes exhibit absorption bands attributable to (1)MLCT (Ru --> tpy) transitions. For the heteroleptic complexes, the transitions involving the unsubstituted tpy ligand are at a lower energy than the tpy moiety of the TPBr ligand. The absorption bands observed in the electronic spectra for TPBr and [PdCl(TP)] have been assigned with the aid of TD-DFT calculations. All complexes display weak emission both at room temperature and in a butyronitrile glass at 77 K. The considerable red shift of the emission maxima relative to the signal of the reference compound [Ru(tpy)2]2+ indicates stabilization of the luminescent 3MLCT state. For the mono- and heterometallic complexes, electrochemical and spectroscopic studies (electronic absorption and emission spectra and luminescence lifetimes recorded at room temperature and 77 K in nitrile solvents), together with the information gained from IR spectroelectrochemical studies of the dimetallic complex [Ru(TPPdSCN)(tpy)](PF6)2, are indicative of charge redistribution through the bridging ligand TPBr. The results are in line with a weak coupling between the {Ru(tpy)2

  20. Exclusive e+e-, di-photon and di-jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Terashi, Koji; /Rockefeller U.

    2007-05-01

    Results from studies on exclusive production of electron-position pair, di-photon, and dijet production at CDF in proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented. THe first observation and cross section measurements of exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and di-jet production in hadron-hadron collisions are emphasized.

  1. [Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro è un fattore di rischio di ridotta densità minerale ossea in donne in menopausa. Uno studio pilota].

    PubMed

    Niolu, Cinzia; Bianciardi, Emanuela; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Nicolai, Sara; Celi, Monica; Ribolsi, Michele; Pietropolli, Adalgisa; Ticconi, Carlo; Tarantino, Umberto; Siracusano, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Introduzione. La depressione maggiore (MD) e l'osteoporosi sono malattie ad alta prevalenza nel genere femminile, associate a morbosità e mortalità. Sebbene alcuni studi abbiano dimostrato un'associazione tra MD, ridotta densità minerale ossea (BMD) e osteoporosi, non sono stati chiariti i meccanismi causali. Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro è stato messo in relazione con la patogenesi e il decorso di malattie croniche come la MD e le malattie cardiovascolari. Obiettivo di questo studio pilota è esplorare la relazione tra MD e BMD. Si ipotizza che lo stile di attaccamento possa agire da mediatore. Metodi. Il campione è formato da 101 donne in menopausa, 49 con MD e 52 controlli sani. La diagnosi di MD è stata formulata con l'intervista clinica e la Beck Depression Inventory. Lo stile di attaccamento è stato esplorato usando il Relationship Questionnaire, la BMD con la Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata con tecnica DXA (Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry). Risultati. L'analisi univariata ha mostrato che le donne con MD avevano valori di BMD inferiori rispetto ai controlli sani. Nelle analisi di regressione multipla la MD non è emersa come predittore significativo di ridotta BMD. Lo stile di attaccamento insicuro "preoccupato" è risultato un predittore significativo di ridotta BMD in tutti i siti scheletrici misurati con la DXA: colonna vertebrale lombare (p=0,008) e segmenti femorali: "femoral neck" (p=0,011), "total hip" (p=0,002). Conclusioni. Questo è il primo studio che esplora il possibile ruolo di MD e stile di attaccamento sulla BMD. Lo stile di attaccamento è risultato un predittore di ridotta BMD, indipendentemente dalla MD. L'attaccamento insicuro potrebbe avere un ruolo nella patogenesi dell'osteoporosi anche indipendente dalla MD. Se questi risultati saranno confermati, gli interventi terapeutici focalizzati sullo stile di attaccamento potrebbero contribuire al miglioramento della comorbilità psichiatrica e medica legata all'osteoporosi.

  2. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid- and Rifampicin- Mono-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Leonela; Huaman, Moises A.; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment. Results Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80%) were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8%) patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2%) patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–4.1), and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9–47.8). Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-value<0.01) and death (4/85, 5%, p<0.02). Rifampicin mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, p<0.01). Conclusion A high prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes. PMID:27045684

  3. What's Mono?

    MedlinePlus

    ... all involve contact with saliva (spit) — so sharing straws, toothbrushes, or food from the same plate can ... it's important not to share things like forks, straws, water bottles, or lip gloss at school. continue ...

  4. What's Mono?

    MedlinePlus

    ... involve contact with saliva (spit) — so sharing straws, toothbrushes, or food from the same plate can spread ... cough or sneeze. Keep your straws, forks, and toothbrushes to yourself, and… no kissing for a few ...

  5. Ultrasensitive method to quantify intracellular zidovudine mono-, di- and triphosphate concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kinai, Ei; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Kato, Shingo

    2015-06-01

    Although zidovudine (AZT) is not the preferred antiretroviral drug for adult HIV-infected patients, it is still widely used in infants for both prevention of mother-to-infant HIV-1 transmission and treatment of HIV-infected children. However, it is difficult to measure intracellular concentrations of AZT metabolites in small blood samples due to their extremely low concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and interference by endogenous nucleotide triphosphates, residual plasma phosphates and electrolytes. We developed an ultrasensitive assay using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for measurement of intracellular concentrations of zidovudine (AZT)-monophosphate (AZT-MP), -diphosphate (AZT-DP) and -triphosphate (AZT-TP). The high sensitivity was due to the improvement of peripheral blood mononuclear cells extraction for complete removal of plasma and electrolytes, alkalization of LC buffer and use of alkaline-stable high performance liquid chromatography column and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as the ion pair. Using this method, the lower limits of quantification of AZT, AZT-MP, -DP and -TP were 6, 6, 10 and 10 fmol per sample, respectively. Accuracy ranged 89-115% and precision was lower than 15% in the quantification range of 6-6000 fmol/sample for plasma AZT and intracellular AZT-MP and 10-10 000 fmol/sample for AZT-DP and -TP. The validation parameters met the international requirements. Among nine AZT-treated HIV-infected adult patients, five had low AZT-TP levels (<10 fmol/10(6) cells). Our assay has high sensitivity and is advantageous for evaluation of AZT phosphates in children and infants based on minimum blood sampling requirement.

  6. Acute oral toxicity of 3-MCPD mono- and di-palmitic esters in Swiss mice and their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Gao, Bo-Yan; Qin, Fang; Wu, Ping-Ping; Shi, Hai-Ming; Luo, Wei; Ma, Ai-Niu; Jiang, Yuan-Rong; Xu, Xue-Bing; Yu, Liang-Li Lucy

    2012-10-01

    The acute oral toxicity of 1-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate) and 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD dipalmitate) in Swiss mice were examined, along with their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells. LD50 (median lethal dose) value of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was determined 2676.81 mg/kg body weight (BW). The results showed that 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate dose-dependently decreased the mean body weight, and caused significant increase of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine in dead mice compared to the control and survived mice. Major histopathological changes in mice fed 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate were renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease in the seminiferous tubules. According to the limit test for 3-MCPD dipalmitate, LD50 value of 3-MCPD dipalmitate was presumed to be greater than 5000 mg/kg BW. Obvious changes were not observed on mean body weight, absolute and relative organ weight or serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in mice fed 3-MCPD dipalmitate. However, renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease were also observed in the dead mice. In addition, MTT and LDH assay results only showed the cytotoxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate in NRK-52E rat kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner. Together, the results indicated a greater toxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate compared to 3-MCPD dipalmitate.

  7. Skin sensitizing properties of the ethanolamines mono-, di-, and triethanolamine. Data analysis of a multicentre surveillance network (IVDK) and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Holger; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel; Geier, Johannes

    2009-05-01

    Numerous publications address the skin sensitizing potential of the short chain alkanolamines triethanolamine (TEA), diethanolamine (DEA), monoethanolamine (MEA), which are not skin sensitizing according to animal studies. Regarding TEA, we analysed patch test data of 85,098 patients who had been tested with TEA 2.5% petrolatum by Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) to identify particular exposures possibly associated with an elevated risk of sensitization. Altogether, 323 patients (0.4%) tested positive. The profile of patch test reactions indicates a slightly irritant potential rather than a true allergic response in many cases. Although used widely, no exposure associated with an increased risk of TEA sensitization was identified. Therefore, the risk of sensitization to TEA seems to be very low. MEA and DEA were patch tested in a much more aimed fashion in 9602 and 8791 patients, respectively when prevalence of contact allergy was 3.8% and 1.8%. MEA is the prominent allergen in metalworkers with exposure to water-based metalworking fluids (wbMWFs); DEA is probably used in cutting fluids less frequently nowadays. Chronic damage to the skin barrier resulting from wbMWF, the alkalinity of ethanolamines (increasing from TEA to MEA), and other cofactors may contribute to a notable sensitization risk.

  8. Mono-, di- and polynuclear copper(II) compounds derived from N-butyldiethanolamine: structural features, magnetism and catalytic activity for the mild peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Katrin R; Kirillov, Alexander M; Haukka, Matti; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2009-03-28

    The new mononuclear [Cu(Hbdea)(2)].2Hdnba (), dinuclear [Cu(2)(mu-Hbdea)(2)(N(3))(2)] () and [Cu(2)(mu-Hbdea)(2)(pta)(2)].2H(2)O (), and 1D polymeric [Cu(2)(mu-Hbdea)(2)(mu-tpa)](n).2nH(2)O () copper(II) compounds have been prepared by self-assembly, in aqueous alkali medium and at ambient conditions, from Cu(II) acetate, N-butyldiethanolamine (H(2)bdea) and the corresponding auxiliary reagents, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (Hdnba), sodium azide, p-toluic acid (Hpta) and terephthalic acid (H(2)tpa), respectively. They have been fully characterized by IR spectroscopy, FAB-MS(+), elemental and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, the latter also revealing intensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding in , resulting in the extension of the structural motifs and generation of tetrameric aggregates (in ) and 1D (in ) or 2D (in ) supramolecular networks. All compounds constitute the first examples of Cu complexes derived from N-butyldiethanolamine, while represents also the first coordination polymer bearing this ligand. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that compound follows the Curie-Weiss law, whereas follow the Bleaney-Bowers dinuclear model displaying antiferromagnetic coupling. Compounds act as valuable catalyst precursors for the mild peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane, by aqueous H(2)O(2) in acidic MeCN medium, to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone with overall yields up to 38%. The effects of various acid additives (promoters) have been studied, showing the preferable use of trifluoroacetic (TFA), nitric and hydrochloric acids.

  9. Differential Effects of FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-Saccharides and Polyols) on Small and Large Intestinal Contents in Healthy Subjects Shown by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kathryn; Wilkinson-Smith, Victoria; Hoad, Caroline; Costigan, Carolyn; Cox, Eleanor; Lam, Ching; Marciani, Luca; Gowland, Penny; Spiller, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate whether ingestion of fructose and fructans (such as inulin) can exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. The aim was to better understand the origin of these symptoms by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the gut. METHODS: A total of 16 healthy volunteers participated in a four-way, randomized, single-blind, crossover study in which they consumed 500 ml of water containing 40 g of either glucose, fructose, inulin, or a 1:1 mixture of 40 g glucose and 40 g fructose. MRI scans were performed hourly for 5 h, assessing the volume of gastric contents, small bowel water content (SBWC), and colonic gas. Breath hydrogen (H2) was measured and symptoms recorded after each scan. RESULTS: Data are reported as mean (s.d.) (95% CI) when normally distributed and median (range) when not. Fructose increased area under the curve (AUC) from 0–5 h of SBWC to 71 (23) l/min, significantly greater than for glucose at 36 (11–132) l/min (P<0.001), whereas AUC SBWC after inulin, 33 (17–106) l/min, was no different from that after glucose. Adding glucose to fructose decreased AUC SBWC to 55 (28) l/min (P=0.08) vs. fructose. Inulin substantially increased AUC colonic gas to 33 (20) l/min, significantly greater than glucose and glucose+fructose (both P<0.05). Breath H2 rose more with inulin than with fructose. Glucose when combined with fructose significantly reduced breath H2 by 7,700 (3,121–12,300) p.p.m./min relative to fructose alone (P<0.01, n=13). CONCLUSIONS: Fructose but not inulin distends the small bowel with water. Adding glucose to fructose reduces the effect of fructose on SBWC and breath hydrogen. Inulin distends the colon with gas more than fructose, but causes few symptoms in healthy volunteers. PMID:24247211

  10. Interaction of the cesium cation with mono-, di-, and tricarboxylic acids in the gas phase. A Cs+ affinity scale for cesium carboxylates ion pairs.

    PubMed

    Mayeux, Charly; Tammiku-Taul, Jaana; Massi, Lionel; Lohu, Ene-Liis; Burk, Peeter; Maria, Pierre-Charles; Gal, Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    Humic substances (HS), including humic and fulvic acids, play a significant role in the fate of metals in soils. The interaction of metal cations with HS occurs predominantly through the ionized (anionic) acidic functions. In the context of the effect of HS on transport of radioactive cesium isotopes in soils, a study of the interaction between the cesium cation and model carboxylic acids was undertaken. Structure and energetics of the adducts formed between Cs+ and cesium carboxylate salts [Cs+RCOO-] were studied by the kinetic method and density functional theory (DFT). Clusters generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry from mixtures of a cesium salt (nitrate, iodide, trifluoroacetate) and carboxylic acids were quantitatively studied by CID. By combining the results of the kinetic method and the energetic data from DFT calculations, a scale of cesium cation affinity, CsCA, was built for 33 cesium carboxylates representing the first scale of cation affinity of molecular salts. The structural effects on the CsCA values are discussed.

  11. Determination of ZFS parameters from the EPR spectra of mono-, di- and trinuclear Mn(II) complexes: impact of magnetic coupling.

    PubMed

    Escriche-Tur, Luis; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Albela, Belén; Corbella, Montserrat

    2017-02-21

    A family of new Mn(II) compounds, consisting of seven dinuclear, three mononuclear, and four trinuclear ones, were synthesised using benzoic acid derivatives n-RC6H4COOH, where n-R = 2-MeO, 3-MeO, 4-MeO, or 4-(t)Bu, and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenantroline (phen) as blocking ligands. The crystal structures of nine of these compounds and the magnetic studies of all of them are reported here. Each type of compound was formed depending on the presence or absence of ClO4(-) ions, the solvent used, and/or the presence of a small amount of water in the reaction medium. The use of the tert-buthylbenzoate ligand gave unexpected results, very likely due to the steric hindrance caused by the voluminous (t)Bu groups. The EPR spectra of each type of compound give some peculiar features that allow its identification. Attempts to fit these spectra have been made in order to determine the ZFS parameters, D and E, of the Mn(II) ion (for mononuclear and dinuclear systems) or of the ground state (for trinuclear systems). For trinuclear systems, the single-ion ZFS parameters estimated from those of the ground state provided a good simulation of the EPR spectra of these compounds. The EPR signals observed in each case have been rationalised according to the energy level distribution and the plausible population in the excited states. In some particular situations, the sign of DMn could be determined from the fit of the EPR spectra of the antiferromagnetic dinuclear compounds, the source of the difference between the spectra lying in the second excited state.

  12. Complex formation equilibria of Cu(II) and Zn(II) with triethylenetetramine and its mono- and di-acetyl metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nurchi, Valeria M; Crisponi, Guido; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Cooper, Garth J S

    2013-05-07

    Triethylenetetramine (TETA) dihydrochloride, or trientine, is a therapeutic molecule that has long been used as a copper-chelating agent for the second-line treatment of patients with Wilson's disease. More recently, it has also been employed as an experimental therapeutic molecule in diabetes where it improves cardiac structure in patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy and left-ventricular hypertrophy. TETA is metabolized by acetylation, which leads to the formation of two main metabolites in humans and other mammals, monoacetyl-TETA (MAT) and diacetyl-TETA (DAT). These metabolites have been identified in the plasma and urine of healthy and diabetic subjects treated with TETA, and could themselves play a role in TETA-mediated copper chelation and restoration of physiological copper regulation in diabetes. In this regard, a potentiometric and spectrophotometric study of Cu(II)-complex formation equilibria of TETA, MAT and DAT is presented here, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the stoichiometries of the complexes formed and of their relative stability constants. A potentiometric study has also been conducted on the corresponding Zn(II) complexes, to evaluate any possible interference with TETA-mediated Cu(II) binding by this second physiological transition-metal ion, which is present in similar concentrations in human plasma and which also binds to TETA. An ESI-MS study of these systems has both confirmed the complex formation mechanisms established from the potentiometric and spectrophotometric results, and in addition provided direct information on the stoichiometry of the complexes formed in solution. These data when taken together show that the 1 : 1 complexes formed with Cu(II) and Zn(II) have different degrees of protonation. The stability of the Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with the three ligands, evaluated by the parameters pCu and pZn, decreases with the introduction of the acetyl groups. Nevertheless the stability of Cu(II) complexes with MAT is sufficiently high to enable its participation in copper scavenging from the patient. A speciation study of the behavior of TETA and MAT with Cu(II) in the presence of Zn(II) at peri-physiological plasma concentrations is also presented. While Zn(II) did not hinder copper binding, the possibility is raised that prolonged TETA treatment could possibly alter the homeostatic regulation of this essential metal ion. The lack of reliable literature stability constants concerning the Cu(II) and Zn(II) interaction with the major transport proteins in plasma is also briefly considered.

  13. Unveiling of novel regio-selective fatty acid double bond hydratases from Lactobacillus acidophilus involved in the selective oxyfunctionalization of mono- and di-hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Hye-Jin; Park, Chul-Soon; Hong, Seung-Hye; Park, Ji-Young; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is the first time demonstration of cis-12 regio-selective linoleate double-bond hydratase. Hydroxylation of fatty acids, abundant feedstock in nature, is an emerging alternative route for many petroleum replaceable products thorough hydroxy fatty acids, carboxylic acids, and lactones. However, chemical route for selective hydroxylation is still quite challenging owing to low selectivity and many environmental concerns. Hydroxylation of fatty acids by hydroxy fatty acid forming enzymes is an important route for selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of fatty acids. Therefore, novel fatty acid hydroxylation enzymes should be discovered. The two hydratase genes of Lactobacillus acidophilus were identified by genomic analysis, and the expressed two recombinant hydratases were identified as cis-9 and cis-12 double-bond selective linoleate hydratases by in vitro functional validation, including the identification of products and the determination of regio-selectivity, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters. The two different linoleate hydratases were the involved enzymes in the 10,13-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid biosynthesis. Linoleate 13-hydratase (LHT-13) selectively converted 10 mM linoleic acid to 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid with high titer (8.1 mM) and yield (81%). Our study will expand knowledge for microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes and facilitate the designed production of the regio-selective hydroxy fatty acids for useful chemicals from polyunsaturated fatty acid feedstocks.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic studies on mono-, di-, and tri-nuclear Cu(ii) complexes of a new versatile diazine ligand.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad U; Rawson, Jeremy M; Gavey, Emma L; Pilkington, Melanie; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Thompson, Laurence K

    2017-02-14

    The synthesis and coordination chemistry of a new open-chain diazine ligand (L4H2) containing bipyridine, oxime and hydrazone functionalities is reported. Reaction of L4H2 with CuCl2·2H2O affords the mononuclear complex [Cu(L4H2)Cl2] (1) in which the ligand acts as a neutral tridentate N,N',N'' donor, whereas treatment with a large excess of CuCl2·2H2O affords the dinuclear complex [Cu2(L4H)Cl3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (2) in which the ligand is singly-deprotonated at the diazine, offering N,N',N'' and N,N' donor sets to two Cu(ii) ions. Reaction with Cu(NO3)2·3H2O yields the trinuclear complex, [Cu3(L4H)2(CH3OH)4(NO3)4] (3) in which the ligand is again singly deprotonated, but now presents a tetradentate N,N',N'',N'''-donor set to the first Cu(ii) and behaves as an N,O-chelate to a second Cu(ii), with a conformational change from cis to trans at the diazine moiety. When the latter reaction is repeated in the presence of a mild base, a second trinuclear complex is isolated, [Cu3(L4)2(CH3CH2OH)](NO3)2 (4) in which both the diazine and oxime functionalities of the ligand are deprotonated which subsequently bridges all three Cu(ii) ions, acting as an N,N',N'' donor to the first Cu(ii), a N,N' donor to a second Cu(ii) (similar to 2) and as a terminal O-donor to a third Cu(ii) ion. The Cu(ii) ions are linked mutually cis via the two-atom diazine bridge in the case of 2 and 4 and trans in the case of 3. Magnetic studies reveal the presence of weak ferromagnetic interactions in 2 (g = 2.2, J/k = +12.8 K) and strong antiferromagnetic interactions in both 3 and 4 (g = 2.093 J/k = -140 K and g = 2.24 J/k = -300 K respectively).

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A HUMAN PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ITS MONO- AND DI-METHYLATED METABOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to estimate levels of arsenic and its metabolites in human tissues and urine after oral exposure to either arsenate (AsV) or arsnite (AsIII). The model consists of interconnected individual ...

  16. Clinical differences between respiratory viral and bacterial mono- and dual pathogen detected among Singapore military servicemen with febrile respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Zheng Jie Marc; Zhao, Xiahong; Cook, Alex R; Loh, Jin Phang; Ng, Sock Hoon; Tan, Boon Huan; Lee, Vernon J

    2015-01-01

    Background Although it is known that febrile respiratory illnesses (FRI) may be caused by multiple respiratory pathogens, there are no population-level studies describing its impact on clinical disease. Methods Between May 2009 and October 2012, 7733 FRI patients and controls in the Singapore military had clinical data and nasal wash samples collected prospectively and sent for PCR testing. Patients with one pathogen detected (mono-pathogen) were compared with those with two pathogens (dual pathogen) for differences in basic demographics and clinical presentation. Results In total, 45.8% had one pathogen detected, 20.2% had two pathogens detected, 30.9% had no pathogens detected, and 3.1% had more than two pathogens. Multiple pathogens were associated with recruits, those with asthma and non-smokers. Influenza A (80.0%), influenza B (73.0%) and mycoplasma (70.6%) were most commonly associated with mono-infections, while adenovirus was most commonly associated with dual infections (62.9%). Influenza A paired with S. pneumoniae had higher proportions of chills and rigors than their respective mono-pathogens (P = 0.03, P = 0.009). H. influenzae paired with either enterovirus or parainfluenzae had higher proportions of cough with phlegm than their respective mono-pathogens. Although there were observed differences in mean proportions of body temperature, nasal symptoms, sore throat, body aches and joint pains between viral and bacterial mono-pathogens, there were few differences between distinct dual-pathogen pairs and their respective mono-pathogen counterparts. Conclusion A substantial number of FRI patients have multiple pathogens detected. Observed clinical differences between patients of dual pathogen and mono-pathogen indicate the likely presence of complex microbial interactions between the various pathogens. PMID:25827870

  17. ON THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ISOLATED MONO-DEHYDROGENATED POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBON IONS AND THEIR ASTROPHYSICAL RELEVANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Alvaro Galue, Hector; Oomens, Jos

    2012-02-10

    The attribution of the unidentified infrared bands to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules is a key argument for their abundant occurrence in interstellar environments, which has important implications for interstellar chemistry. In contrast to terrestrial conditions, their transient forms are of importance in the low-density astrophysical environments. Here, the gas-phase IR spectra of three PAH molecules in a carbocation state (naphthyl{sup +}, C{sub 10}H{sub 7}{sup +}; phenanthryl{sup +}, C{sub 14}H{sub 9}{sup +}; and pyrenyl{sup +}, C{sub 16}H{sub 9}{sup +}) are investigated by action spectroscopy methods using an infrared free electron laser and an ion-trap mass spectrometer. The IR spectra of the mono-dehydrogenated PAH{sup +} (aryl) ions in the 6-18 {mu}m spectral range are compared to computed IR spectra for various structural isomers of the aryl ions; the comparison indicates that the most stable structures under isolated conditions have a triplet electronic configuration. Electronic structure calculations on systems as large as the mono-dehydrogenated circumcoronene cation (C{sub 54}H{sub 17}{sup +}) provide further evidence for the higher stability of a triplet state as compared with the singlet state. Moreover, the gas-phase IR spectra reveal that the IR signatures of a PAH cation before and after H-atom loss are very similar, in particular in the 6-9 {mu}m region involving the skeletal CC stretching modes, so that triplet mono-dehydrogenated PAH ions are similarly compliant with the general match between PAH mid-IR features and the interstellar unidentified infrared emissions. The establishment of a triplet electronic ground state suggests that interstellar scenarios should consider the possible influence of triplet aromatic chemistry as well as the possible influence of the altered optical properties of triplet PAH species.

  18. Organic osmolytes in aerobic bacteria from mono lake, an alkaline, moderately hypersaline environment.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, R A; Diaz, M R; Taylor, B F; Roberts, M F

    1997-01-01

    The identity and concentrations of intracellular organic solutes were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for two strains of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria isolated from Mono Lake, Calif., an alkaline, moderately hypersaline lake. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was the major endogenous solute in both organisms. Concentrations of ectoine varied with external NaCl levels in strain ML-D but not in strain ML-G, where the level was high but invariant from 1.5 to 3.0 M NaCl. Hydroxyectoine also occurred in strain ML-D, especially at elevated NaCl concentrations (2.5 and 3.0 M), but at levels lower than those of ectoine. Exogenous organic solutes that might occur in Mono Lake were examined for their effects on the de novo synthesis of ectoine. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (0.1 or 1 mM) did not significantly lower ectoine levels in either isolate, and only strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G and became the main organic solute. Glycine betaine (GB) was more effective than DMSP in affecting ectoine levels, principally in strain ML-D. Strain ML-D accumulated GB to 50 or 67% of its organic solute pool at 2.5 M NaCl, at an external level of 0.1 or 1 mM GB, respectively. Strain ML-D also accumulated arsenobetaine. The methylated zwitterionic compounds, probably metabolic products of phytoplankton (DMSP and GB) or brine shrimps (arsenobetaine) in Mono Lake, may function as osmolytes for indigenous bacteria when present at high concentrations or under conditions of nitrogen limitation or salt stress.

  19. High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Trench Canyon Fault Zone, Mono Lake, Northeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, M. W.; Jayko, A. S.; Roeske, S.; McClain, J. S.; Hart, P. E.; Boyle, M.

    2009-12-01

    High resolution seismic imaging of Mono Lake, located in northeastern California, has revealed an approximately northwest striking fault in the area to the west of aerially exposed Negit Volcano. This fault, henceforth referred to as the Trench Canyon Fault (TCF), has also been mapped onshore along a correlating strike as far north as Cedar Hill Volcano, located to the northeast of the lake on the California/Nevada border. Onshore, the TCF was mapped for approximately 10 kilometers using air photos, DEM images, and standard geologic pace and compass mapping techniques. The TCF post- dates the last glacial maximum, evidenced by the cutting of wave cut benches along Cedar Hill Volcano. Relict, non-historic shorelines, left by the steady evaporation of Mono Lake beginning approximately 13k, are also repeatedly cut by the fault. Additional evidence of fault presence includes sag ponds, pressure ridges, tectonically fractured rocks, and normal fault scarps found along strike. Offshore, DEM images show a northeast striking structure to the northwest of Negit Volcano, which is co-linear with the onshore TCF. High resolution seismic imaging of the structure, using an applied acoustic/SIG mini-sparker system, reveals steeply dipping Holocene sediments, as well as volcanic deposits from active vents which have erupted in the last 1000 years, offset by the fault. Detailed structural analysis of the previously unstudied Trench Canyon Fault (TFC) and faults in the Cedar Hill region of northern California, along with seismic studies of sediments beneath Mono Lake not only allow for a better comprehension of this minor fault system, but provide greater understanding of the larger and more complex Walker Lane Shear Zone. Fault analyses, combined and correlated with those from CHV, give a better understanding of how slip is transferred into the complicated Mina defection to the east, from the dextral and normal faults along the Sierra Nevada Range front.

  20. Seed mediated synthesis of highly mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the presence of hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Sykes, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are being studied for several biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biomedical imaging, contrast agents and tumor targeting. The synthesis of nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is critical for these applications. We report the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed AuNPs by a seed mediated approach, in the presence of tri-sodium citrate and hydroquinone (HQ). AuNPs with an average size of 18 nm were used for the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed nanocrystals of an average size 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ˜100 nm; but the protocol is not limited to these sizes. The colloidal gold was subjected to UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, showing a red shift in lambda max wavelength, peaks at 518.47 nm, 526.37 nm, 535.73 nm, 546.03 nm and 556.50 nm for AuNPs seed (18 nm), 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ˜100 nm respectively. The analysis was consistent with dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Hydrodynamic diameters measured were 17.6 nm, 40.8 nm, 59.8 nm, 74.1 nm, and 91.4 nm (size by dynamic light scattering—volume %); with an average poly dispersity index value of 0.088, suggesting mono-dispersity in the size distribution, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The advantage of a seed mediated approach is a multi-step growth of nanoparticle size that enables us to control the number of nanoparticles in the suspension, for size ranging from 24.5 nm to 95.8 nm. In addition, the HQ-based synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals allowed control of the particle size and size distribution by tailoring either the number of seeds, amount of gold precursor or reducing agent (HQ) in the final reaction mixture.

  1. Methods and spatial extent of geophysical Investigations, Mono Lake, California, 2009 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.; Hart, P.E.; Childs, J. R.; Cormier, M.-H.; Ponce, D.A.; Athens, N.D.; McClain, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods and spatial extent of geophysical surveys conducted on Mono Lake and Paoha Island by U.S. Geological Survey during 2009 and 2011. The surveys include acquisition of new high resolution seismic reflection data, shipborne high resolution magnetic data, and ground magnetic and gravity data on Paoha Island. Several trials to acquire swath bathymetry and side scan sonar were conducted, but were largely unsuccessful likely due to physical properties of the water column and (or) physical properites of the highly organic bottom sediment.

  2. Simulation study of accelerator based quasi-mono-energetic epithermal neutron beams for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Adib, M; Habib, N; Bashter, I I; El-Mesiry, M S; Mansy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Filtered neutron techniques were applied to produce quasi-mono-energetic neutron beams in the energy range of 1.5-7.5 keV at the accelerator port using the generated neutron spectrum from a Li (p, n) Be reaction. A simulation study was performed to characterize the filter components and transmitted beam lines. The feature of the filtered beams is detailed in terms of optimal thickness of the primary and additive components. A computer code named "QMNB-AS" was developed to carry out the required calculations. The filtered neutron beams had high purity and intensity with low contamination from the accompanying thermal, fast neutrons and γ-rays.

  3. High-resolution seismic imaging, Mono Lake fault zone, eastern Sierra region, Walker Lane, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Childs, J. R.; Hart, P. E.; Bursik, M. I.; McClain, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Multiple strands of the Mono Lake fault zone (MLfz), a segment of the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone, have been imaged on several high-resolution seismic reflection profiles collected during 2009 and 2011 at Mono Lake. The profiles show coherent reflectors to about 30-40 ms depth below the lake bottom (~30 m thick section) in nearshore areas north of the Lee Vining delta. The MLfz is well imaged on 8 lines including 4 lines ~normal to the trend of the fault zone. The fault zone is ~ 0.75 km wide. Deep reflection horizons appear gently tilted and rotated into the fault zone with a prominent clastic wedge overlying the west-tilted horizons. Shallow reflectors above the clastic wedge are generally east-sloping, but noticeably less inclined above the fault zone. At least two ruptures offset Holocene deposits, with ~0.5-1.8 m dip-slip offset around 2.5 ka and ~3.6-6.13 m dip-slip offset around 4.7 to 6.25 ka. The ages of reflection horizons are estimated using published Holocene and late Pleistocene sedimentation rates, as well as correlation with a published nearby shallow core. The short term fault slip rate based on the timing of the most recent event and multiple events in the profile lines suggests fault slip rates of about 0.26 to 0.55 m/ka using ages based only on sedimentation rate and of about 0.31 to 0.34 m/ka using correlation ages from nearby shallow core. This offshore dip-slip rate is significantly lower than previous published 1.0-2.0 m/ka dip-slip rates estimated using cosmogenic dating of Tioga glacial moraines in Lundy Canyon and offset older moraines. The offset on the large scarp in Lundy Canyon (~20 m) decreases both north and south of the canyon and flanking lateral moraines where the scarp is on the order of only ~4-7 m high. A possible explanation for the apparent difference in MLfz slip rates onshore and offshore in this part of Mono Basin may be soft sediment deformation of saturated glacial-deltaic sediment within Lundy Canyon that causes

  4. Third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by mono- and few-layers of WS2

    DOE PAGES

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; ...

    2016-04-13

    In this work, strong third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by WS2 layers are presented. Optical Kerr effect was identified as the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these third order optical nonlinearities. An extraordinary nonlinear refractive index together with an important contribution of a saturated absorptive response was observed to depend on the atomic layer stacking. Comparative experiments performed in mono- and few-layer samples of WS2 revealed that this material is potentially capable of modulating nonlinear optical processes by selective near resonant induced birefringence. In conclusion, we envision applications for developing all-optical bidimensional nonlinear optical devices.

  5. New ruthenium nitrosyl pincer complexes bearing an O2 ligand. Mono-oxygen transfer.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Eran; Efremenko, Irena; Gargir, Moti; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David

    2015-03-02

    We report on Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl pincer complexes that can return to their original Ru(0) state by reaction with mono-oxygen scavengers. Potential intermediates were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and a mechanism is proposed, revealing a new type of metal-ligand cooperation consisting of activation of the O2 moiety by both the metal center and the NO ligand. Reaction of the Ru(0) nitrosyl complex 1 with O2 quantitatively yielded the crystallographically characterized Ru((II)) (μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl complex 2. Reaction of 2 with the mono-oxygen scavengers phosphines or CO gave the Ru(0) complex 1 and phosphine oxides, or the carbonyl complex 3 (1 trapped by CO) and CO2, respectively. Reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature or -40 °C resulted in immediate formation of half an equivalent of 1 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide, while half an equivalent of 2 remained unchanged. Overnight reaction at room temperature of 2 with excess CO (≥3 equiv) resulted in 3 and CO2 gas as the only products. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of mono-oxygen source (dioxirane) at -78 °C yielded the Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 2. Similarly, reaction of the Ru(0) dearomatized complex 4 with O2 led to the crystallographicaly characterized Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 5. Further reaction of 5 with mono-oxygen scavengers (phosphines or CO) led to the Ru(0) complex 4 and phosphine oxides or complex 6 (4 trapped by CO) and CO2. When instead only 1 equiv of 5 was reacted with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature, immediate formation of half an equivalent of 4 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide took place, while half an equivalent of 5 remained unchanged. When 5 reacted with an excess of CO (≥3 equiv), complex 6 and CO2 gas were the only products obtained. DFT studies indicate a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving the nitrosyl ligand in the oxygen transfer process.

  6. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  7. Isotope-specific detection of low density materials with mono-energetic (gamma)-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J

    2009-03-16

    The first demonstration of isotope-specific detection of a low-Z, low density object, shielded by a high-Z and high density material using mono-energetic gamma-rays is reported. Isotope-specific detection of LiH shielded by Pb and Al is accomplished using the nuclear resonance fluorescence line of {sup 7}Li at 0.478 MeV. Resonant photons are produced via laser-based Compton scattering. The detection techniques are general and the confidence level obtained is shown to be superior to that yielded by conventional x-ray/{gamma}-ray techniques in these situations.

  8. [Normal values of optokinetic nystagmus during mono- and binocular panorama stimulation].

    PubMed

    Likhachev, S A; Skliut, I A; Dukor, D M

    2001-01-01

    Optokinetic nystagmus was studied in 20 normals (14 females and 6 males) aged from 23 up to 35 with the use of mono- and binocular panorama stimulation (a 1.5-m optokinetic cylinder) with the intensity of 0.67, 1.33 and 2 Hz. In normal subjects, the coefficient of OKN amplitude asymmetry was equal to 6% and the coefficient of slow phase velocity was 7.7%. None of the subjects displayed inversion, i.e. change in nystagmus direction for opposite. Temporal nasal asymmetry in adult subjects was not registered either.

  9. Tunneling transport of mono- and few-layers magnetic van der Waals MnPS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungmin; Choi, Ki-Young; Lee, Sangik; Park, Bae Ho; Park, Je-Geun

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the tunneling transport of mono- and few-layers of MnPS3 by using conductive atomic force microscopy. Due to the band alignment of indium tin oxide/MnPS3/Pt-Ir tip junction, the key features of both Schottky junction and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FNT) were observed for all the samples with varying thickness. Using the FNT model and assuming the effective electron mass (0.5 me) of MnPS3, we estimate the tunneling barrier height to be 1.31 eV and the dielectric breakdown strength as 5.41 MV/cm.

  10. Polyelectrolyte Properties in Mono and Multi-Valent Ionic Media: Brushes and Complex Coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Robert M.

    Materials composed of polyelectrolytes have unique and interesting physical properties resulting primarily from their charged monomer segments. Polyelectrolytes, which exist in many different biological and industrial forms, have also been shown to be highly responsive to external environmental changes. Here, two specific polyelectrolyte systems, brushes and complex coacervates, are discussed in regards to how their properties can be tailored by adjusting the surrounding ionic environment with mono and multi-valent ions. End-tethered polyelectrolyte brushes, which constitute an interesting and substantial portion of polyelectrolyte applications, are well known for their ability to provide excellent lubrication and low friction when coated onto surfaces (e.g. articular cartilage and medical devices), as well as for their ability to stabilize colloidal particles in solution (e.g. paint and cosmetic materials). These properties have been extensively studied with brushes in pure mono-valent ionic media. However, polyelectrolyte brush interactions with multi-valent ions in solution are much less understood, although highly relevant considering mono and multi-valent counterions are present in most applications. Even at very low concentrations of multi-valent ions in solution, dramatic polyelectrolyte brush physical property changes can occur, resulting in collapsed chains which also adhere to one another via multi-valent bridging. Here, the strong polyelectrolyte poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) was studied using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) and electrochemistry in order to investigate brush height and intermolecular interactions between two brushes as a function of multi-valent counterion population inside a brush. Complex coacervates are formed when polyanions and polycations are mixed together in proper conditions of an aqueous solution. This mixing results in a phase separation of a polymer-rich, coacervate phase composed of a chain network held together via

  11. Die Schokoladen-Diät

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    Schlankheitskuren sind einerseits ein soziales Phänomen, aber auch ein großer Zweig der Nahrungsmittelindustrie. Die Industrie bietet dabei verschiedene Produkte an, wie Diätlebensmittel, Nahrungsergänzungsmittel, Sportkleidung und -ausrüstung, Übungsvideos und -bücher, usw. Allerdings ist es bekanntermaßen sehr schwer, das einmal erreichte Wunschgewicht auch langfristig zu halten. Häufig tritt dabei der so genannte Jojo-Effekt auf, so dass man schließlich nach der Diät mehr wiegt als vorher.

  12. The effect of cold on serum thyroid hormones and hepatic 5 prime mono-deiodinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hesslink, R.L. Jr.; Quesada, M.; D'Alesandro, M.; Homer, L.D.; Reed, J.L.; Christopherson, R.; Young, B.A. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton )

    1991-03-11

    Cold exposed swine have an increases serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and increased T{sub 3} production rate. It is thought that hepatic thyroxine (T{sub 4}) deiodination (5DI) contributes to circulating T{sub 3} concentrations. The authors investigated the effects of cold exposure (14 days) on energy intake, serum free T{sub 3} (FT{sub 3}) and free T{sub 4} (FT{sub 4}) levels; and 5DI in 5-month boars. Hepatic 5DI activity was determined by measuring the {sup 125}I generated from trace amounts of {sup 125}I T{sub 4}. FT{sub 3} and FT{sub 4} were assayed by RIA. Swine were housed in either 20C (control; n = 5) or 4C (cold; n = 7) chambers and given food ad libitum. Cold exposure increased energy intake by 42%. The increase (93%) in hepatic 5DI V{sub max} after cold exposure parallels the increase in whole animal T{sub 3} production and may account for FT{sub 3} values found after cold exposure.

  13. Block of sodium channels by internal mono- and divalent guanidinium analogues. Modulation by sodium ion concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Danko, M; Smith-Maxwell, C; McKinney, L; Begenisich, T

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the block of squid axon sodium channels by mono- and divalent guanidinium analogues. The action of these compounds on steady state sodium currents was independent of the presence or absence of the normal inactivation process. Block by both mono- and divalent analogues was voltage-dependent, but was a steeper function of potential for divalent molecules. The voltage-dependence could not, in general, be reproduced by a simple model based on Boltzmann's equation. Inhibition of steady state currents by guanidinium ions with 50 mM internal sodium was reasonably well described by a 1:1 drug/channel binding function. Increasing the internal sodium ion concentration increased both the degree and voltage-dependence of current inhibition. This is in sharp contrast to the decrease in inactivation caused by internal sodium. Changes in the external sodium concentration had very little effect on drug block. These results are consistent with a model of the sodium channel as a multi-ion pore. Only a small increase in block can be produced by increased internal sodium in a three-barrier two-site model, but a four-barrier three-site model can reproduce these experimental findings. The implications of these results for physical models of inactivation are discussed. PMID:2420382

  14. Distribution, production, and ecophysiology of Picocystis strain ML in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roesler, Collin S.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Goericke, Ralf; Kiene, Ronald P.; Miller, Laurence G.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A recently described unicellular chlorophytic alga isolated from meromictic Mono Lake, California, occupies a niche that spans two environments: the upper oxic mixolimnion and the deeper anoxic and highly reducing monimolimnion. This organism, Picocystis sp. strain ML, accounts for nearly 25% of the primary production during the winter bloom and more than 50% at other times of the year. In incubations, it is heavily grazed by the brine shrimp, Artemia monica. We assessed growth and photosynthetic parameters over broad ranges of irradiance, salinity, and pH and under oxic and anoxic conditions. Picocystis appears to be particularly adapted to low irradiance; we observed an order of magnitude increase in the cellular pigment concentrations, as well as marked increases in cellspecific photosynthetic parameters for cells acclimated to low-growth irradiance. Growth rates of 0.3–1.5 d21 were observed over a salinity range of 0–260‰ and a pH range of 4–12, with maximal growth at ;50 mmol photons m22 s21 , 40‰, and pH 6–10. Growth and oxygenic photosynthesis were observed under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those measured under oxic conditions. The ability of the organism to acclimate and grow under such a broad range of environmental conditions makes it an important component of the Mono Lake ecosystem and likely contributes to its dominance of the monimolimnion/mixolimnion interface.

  15. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure: ammonia inhibition and recirculation of the digestate.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hong; Jacobi, H Fabian; Strach, Katrin; Xu, Chunming; Zhou, Hongjun; Liebetrau, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of ammonia concentration on the performance and stability of mono-fermentation of chicken manure were investigated in a lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactor at 40 °C. Technical stripping was performed to remove ammonia from the liquid fraction of digestate, and the entire product was recycled to the fermenter to control ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 gVS/(L d) was achieved with an average free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) concentration of 0.77 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.39 L/gVS. When OLR was increased to 6.0 gVS/(L d), stable operation could be obtained with an average FAN concentration of 0.86 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.27 L/gVS. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure was successfully carried out at high ammonia concentrations. Controlled recirculation of treated liquid fraction of digestate could be a solution in large-scale application for both: to avoid ammonia inhibition and minimize digestate.

  16. Synthesis, structure and magnetism of homologous series of polycrystalline cobalt alkane mono- and dicarboxylate soaps.

    PubMed

    Rueff, Jean-Micel; Masciocchi, Norberto; Rabu, Pierre; Sironi, Angelo; Skoulios, Antoine

    2002-04-15

    Carboxylate-bridged chain complexes of Co(II) (the diaquacobalt(II) mono- and ,-dialkanoates) form two homologous series of layered compounds which have been fully characterised both structurally and magnetically. The crystal structures of two selected members, [Co[CH3(CH2)10COO]2(H2O)2] and [Co[CH3(CH2)18COO]2(H2O)2], have been solved by X-ray powder diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction methods, and refined by the Rietveld technique. Crystal data: monoclinic, P 2(1)/a; a=9.688(1), b=7.5495(9), c=37.281(5) A, =96.70(3) primary, Z=4; and monoclinic, P 2(1)/a; a=9.7260(7), b=7.5477(7), c=57.53(1) A, =94.66(4) primary, Z=4, respectively. Their isomorphous structures contain layers of octahedral diaquacobalt(II) ions bonded to two chemically inequivalent alkanoates, one chelating and one bridging two Co atoms about 6.3 A apart, thus confirming the rare anti-anti conformation mode of the -RCOO groups recently proposed for diaquacobalt(II) ,-dodecanedioate. Extensive magnetic characterisation allowed estimation of the feeble antiferromagnetic coupling, which is weaker in the mono- than in the dialkanoate series.

  17. Origin of Structural Transformation in Mono- and Bi-Layered Molybdenum Disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Zhijie; Fu, Y. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Mono- and multi-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered to be one of the next generation anode materials for rechargeable ion batteries. Structural transformation from trigonal prismatic (2H) to octahedral (1T) upon lithium or sodium intercalation has been in-situ observed experimentally using transmission electron microscope during studies of their electrochemical dynamics processes. In this work, we explored the fundamental mechanisms of this structural transformation in both mono- and bi-layered MoS2 using density functional theory. For the intercalated MoS2, the Li and Na donate their electrons to the MoS2. Based on the theoretical analysis, we confirmed that, for the first time, electron transfer is dominant in initiating this structural transformation, and the results provide an in-depth understanding of the transformation mechanism induced by the electron doping. The critical values of electron concentrations for this structural transformation are decreased with increasing the layer thickness. PMID:27225416

  18. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Lizardo, Ernesto B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical "through silicon" micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  19. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of mono-arylimidamides as antileishmanial agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Mattamana, Meena; Joice, April; Pandharkar, Trupti; Holt, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Moloy; Gragg, Jamie L.; Hu, Laixing; Kumar, Arvind; Yang, Sihyung; Wang, Michael Zhuo; Boykin, David W.; Werbovetz, Karl A.

    2016-01-01

    Arylimidamide (AIA) compounds containing two pyridylimidamide terminal groups (bis-AIAs) possess outstanding in vitro antileishmanial activity, and the frontrunner bis-AIA DB766 (2,5-bis[2-(2-isopropoxy)-4-(2-pyridylimino)aminophenyl]furan) is active in visceral leishmaniasis models when given orally. Eighteen compounds containing a single pyridylimidamide terminal group (mono-AIAs) were synthesized and evaluated for their antileishmanial potential. Six of these compounds exhibited sub-micromolar potency against both intracellular Leishmania donovani and Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes, and three of these compounds also displayed selectivity indexes of 25 or greater for the parasites compared to a J774 macrophage cell line. When given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for five days, compound 1b (N-(3-isopropoxy-4-(5-phenylfuran-2-yl)phenyl)picolinimidamide methanesulfonate) reduced liver parasitemia by 46% in L. donovani-infected mice. Mono-AIAs are thus a new class of candidate molecules for antileishmanial drug development. PMID:27048943

  20. Advances in fabrication of mono- and multifilament Ag-CLAD BSCCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A.N.; Jammy, R.; Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Suenaga, M.

    1995-07-01

    Fabricating long lengths of robust and high-quality conductors is imperative for various applications of high-{Tc} superconductors. Long lengths of mono- and multifilament Ag-clad Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 conductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique. High values for critical current density (J{sub c}) have been achieved in both short- and long-length conductors. J{sub c} values up to 12,000 A/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in an 850-m-long multifilament conductor. Pancake-shaped coils and test magnets fabricated from long-length conductors were characterized at various temperatures and applied magnetic fields. A magnet containing 770 m of high-{Tc} conductor generated a record high field of {approx} 1 T at 4.2 K in a background field of {approx} 20 T. In-situ tensile and bending characteristics of both mono- and multifilament conductors have also been studied. Multifilament conductors exhibited better axial strain tolerance ({var_epsilon} {approx} 1%) than that of monofilament conductor ({var_epsilon} {approx} 0.2%), while retaining 90% of their initial critical current. An analysis of the results is presented, along with effects of parameters such as thickness, superconductor/Ag ratio, and microstructural details.

  1. Ash production and dispersal from sustained low-intensity Mono-Inyo eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael; Andrews, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Recent rhyolitic volcanism has demonstrated that prolonged low-intensity ash venting may accompany effusive dome formation. We examine the possibility and some consequences of episodes of extended, weak ash venting at the rhyolitic Mono-Inyo chain in Eastern California. We describe ash-filled cracks within one of the youngest domes, Panum Crater, which provide a textural record of ash venting during dome effusion. We use synchrotron-based X-ray computed tomography to characterize the particles in these tuffisites. Particle sizes in well-sorted tuffisite layers agree well with grain size distributions observed during weak ash venting at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and yield approximate upper and lower bounds on gas velocity and mass flux during the formation of those layers. We simulate ash dispersal with Ash3d to assess the consequences of long-lived Mono-Inyo ash venting for ash deposition and the accompanying volcanic hazards. Our results highlight the sensitivity of large-scale outcomes of volcanic eruptions to small-scale processes.

  2. Production, purification and biological characterization of mono-PEGylated anti-IL-17A antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome-Juliette; Heywood, Sam; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Barilly, Céline; Van Snick, Jacques; Vanbever, Rita

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to maximize the yield of the production of mono-PEGylated anti-interleukin-17A (anti-IL-17A) antibody fragments using large (≥ 20 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. Particular attention was paid to selectively yield mono-PEGylated species to maintain the maximum possible functionality and to simplify the purification. Neutralization of IL-17A by antibody constructs might find application for the treatment of bronchial hyperreactivity. Amino-directed and sulfhydryl-directed PEGylation of the native antibody fragments were compared. The former was selected as it produced the most interesting construct in terms of yield and preservation of biological activity. In particular, the F(ab')2-PEG conjugate with one 40 kDa branched PEG prepared in this study was produced at a 42% yield. The conjugate presented only a slight decrease in its binding activity and in its in vitro inhibitory potency offering interesting perspectives for in vivo studies.

  3. Interactions of squaric acid with DABCO mono-betaine: Structural, spectroscopic and calculation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2012-04-01

    The 1:1 complex of squaric acid (3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dion) with DABCO mono-betaine (1-carboxymethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt), 1, has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies and by DFT calculations. The crystal of 1 is triclinic, space group P1¯. Short COOH⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds of 2.445(2) and 2.582(2) Å, respectively, link the diprotonated DABCO mono-betaine dications and squarate dianions into chain. The structure is additionally stabilized by the N+⋯O electrostatic interactions and weak Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The FTIR spectrum shows two broad absorptions in the 3000-2000 cm-1 region assigned to the νNsbnd H⋯O vibration and in the 1900-500 cm-1 region attributed to the ν(OHO) and γ(OHO) vibrations of the short hydrogen bonds.

  4. [Consultations in oncological supportive care mono-, multi-, ou interdisciplinary: What should we favour?].

    PubMed

    Garnier, Stéphanie Ranque; Pelletti, Caroline; Quenard, Christelle; Vallet, Fabienne; Lemoine, Patrick; Guastella, Virginie; Rhondali, Wadih

    2015-09-01

    According to the point 7.6 and 7.7 of the Cancer Plan 2014, all cancer patients should have access to supportive care. Indeed, the supportive care consultation in oncology is an important tool for the symptom management of cancer patients at all times of treatment. This consultation can be mono-disciplinary or multi-disciplinary (with different professions: physician, nurse, psychologist, social service assistant…) with or without integration (multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary). There are few studies focusing on the types of consultations (mono- or multidisciplinary) to promote based on their expected outcomes. After describing the different types of consultations (initial, follow-up, unscheduled, discharge) and having highlighted the main issues of these consultations, we will present the possible configurations. Our discussion will concern then the advantages and disadvantages of monodisciplinarity and different types of multidisciplinary highlighting the possible improvements. At the end of this work, after a brief synthesis of the different outcomes associated with each type of consultation, we would like to discuss the type of consultation to choose according to the outcomes.

  5. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process.

  6. Novel surface-active oligofructose fatty acid mono-esters by enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Silvia E H J; Boeriu, Carmen G; Schols, Henk A; de Waard, Pieter; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2013-06-01

    This article describes the synthesis of a series of oligofructose monoesters with fatty acids of different chain length (C8, C12, C16 and C18) to obtain food-grade surfactants with a range of amphiphilicity. Reactions were performed in a mixture of DMSO/Bu(t)OH (10/90 v/v) at 60°C and catalysed by immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the crude reaction products were mixtures of unmodified oligofructose and mostly mono-esters. The conversion into mono-esters increased with the length of the fatty acid chain, reflecting the specificity of the lipase towards more lipophilic substrates. Reverse phase solid phase extraction was used to fractionate the products, which lead to sufficient purity (>93%) of the fatty acid esters for functionality testing. It was shown that derivatives of longer (C16 and C18) fatty acids were more efficient in lowering surface tension and gave a much higher dilatational modulus than derivatives of the shorter (C8 and C12) fatty acids.

  7. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells via activation of both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Qin, Qizhi; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Hongyan; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The evidence shows that DEHP may exert its toxic effects primarily via MEHP, which is 10-fold more potent than its parent compound in toxicity in vitro. MEHP-induced apoptosis is mediated by either p53-dependent or -independent pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. In this study, immortalized normal human liver cell line L02 was chosen, as an in vitro model of nonmalignant liver, to elucidate the role of p53 in MEHP-induced apoptosis. The cells were treated with MEHP (6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, and 100.00 μM) for 24 and 36 h, then small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to specifically silence p53 gene of L02 cells. The results indicated that MEHP caused oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in L02 cells were associated with the p53 signaling pathway. Further study found that MEHP (50.00 and 100.00 μM) induced apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells, along with the up-regulations of Fas and FasL proteins as well as increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 activities. Additionally, both FasL inhibitor (AF-016) and Caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp- fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) could prevent the cell apoptosis induced by MEHP. The findings suggested that MEHP-induced apoptosis in L02 cells involving a Caspases-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway and/or death receptor pathway. p53 was not absolutely necessary for MEHP-induced L02 cell apoptosis.

  8. Ca isotope fractionation in a high-alkalinity lake system: Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Laura C.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2013-10-01

    Precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals from aqueous solutions causes surface-controlled kinetic stable Ca isotope fractionation. The magnitude of fractionation depends on the relative rates of ion attachment to and detachment from the mineral surface, which in turn is predicted to depend on both the saturation state and the solution stoichiometry or the Ca:CO32- activity ratio. Experimental studies have not directly investigated the effects of varying solution stoichiometry on calcium isotope partitioning during calcite or aragonite growth, but natural alkaline lake systems such as Mono Lake, California provide a test bed for the hypothesized stoichiometry dependence. Mono Lake has a Ca:CO32- activity ratio of about 0.0001, seven orders of magnitude lower than ocean water and typical terrestrial freshwater. We present chemical and isotopic measurements of streams, springs, lake water, and precipitated carbonates from the Mono Basin that yield evidence of stoichiometry-dependent Ca isotope fractionation during calcite, aragonite and Mg-calcite precipitation from the alkaline lake water. To estimate the Ca isotope fractionation factors, it is necessary to characterize the lake Ca balance and constrain the variability of lake water chemistry both spatially and temporally. Streams and springs supply Ca to the lake, and a substantial fraction of this supply is precipitated along the lake shore to form tufa towers. Lake water is significantly supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals, so CaCO3 also precipitates directly from the water column to form carbonate-rich bottom sediments. Growth rate inhibition by orthophosphate likely preserves the high degree of supersaturation in the lake. Strontium isotope ratios are used to estimate the proportions of fresh and alkaline lake water from which each solid carbonate sample precipitated. Carbonate minerals that precipitate directly from lake water (low Ca:CO32-) experience relatively large Ca isotope fractionation

  9. Digital database of the Holocene tephras of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursik, Marcus; Sieh, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    This digital product comprises a collection of age and isopach data for the Holocene tephras of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California. Data on the most recent eruptions from this volcanic chain are relatively comprehensive, getting less so the further back in time. For the most recent eruptions to about 1,500 years ago, tephra beds within separate eruptive sequences have been studied and isopached. Before this, from about 2,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago, there are insufficient data for isopaching. However, one isolated tephra of about 9,000 years ago was studied and isopached in detail. Regarding ages, there are many tens of radiocarbon ages that have been obtained on the Holocene Mono-Inyo volcanic products. The vast majority of these radiocarbon dates are associated with tephras at locales that can be considered distal (basically where the primary tephra is less than several centimeters (cm) thick). These dates represent carbon that was sequestered perhaps within several hundred years of the eruption but do not represent the ages of separate eruptive pulses. There are two reasons for this. In some cases, it is clear that the dated material is not associated with the eruption products. This is the case in some lake strata where carbon is either not physically close to a given tephra layer or where an age for a tephra layer was obtained by interpolation assuming a sedimentation rate. In other cases, it is not clear that a given tephra layer represents a primary tephra; in such cases the layer could instead be redeposited. At most distal localities (beyond about 5 kilometers (km) from the chain), there was no record made of whether tephra was primary or redeposited, and at these distances where tephra is thin, it is generally redeposited during later events such as fires or thunderstorms. These age data are not appropriate for use in dating the eruptive history of the volcanic chain, and are therefore not included in the present contribution. The carbon age

  10. Chronology of late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanics, Long Valley and Mono Basin geothermal areas, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hydration-rind ages based on hydration-rind thicknesses of obsidian and an assumed hydration rate of 5 microns /1000 yrs have been determined for the 26 exposed Mono domes and coulees. Hydration-rind thickness data give good estimates of relative age differences between the domes, but determination of absolute ages will depend upon calibration to radiometric ages. The first extrusion of highly differentiated, sparsely porphyritic rhyolite occurred an estimated 32,000 to 40,000 yrs ago and consists of a small dome at the northwest end of the contiguous chain. The next major extrusive event occurred about 24,000 yrs ago and is represented by two domes and a major tephra. About 10,000 yrs ago the frequency of eruptive activity increases and rhyolite lave was extruded at an average rate of 0.2 km3/1000 yrs; periods of dormancy ranging in length from 300 to 2000 yrs. About 2000 to 3000 yrs ago the rate of extrusion increased dramatically to 0.8 km3/1000 yrs beginning with the eruption of the South Coulee and its associated tephra. At the same time, the nature of erupted magma changed from sparsely porphyritic (3 to 10 per cent sanidine) to aphyric rhyolite. All eruptions since 2000 radiocarbon yrs BP have produced magma that is aphyric but is of the same chemical composition as the earlier porphyritic magma. Volumes of porphyritic and aphyric extrusives, each of which includes volumes of lava and volumes of pumiceous pyroclastics reduced for porosity, are nearly equal and together total about 4 km3. Projecting the recent rate of extrusion over the time since the last major eruption, 1185 radiocarbon yrs ago suggests that a future eruption in the Mono Chain could release as much as 1 km 3 of magma. The recent increase in extrusion rate and the contemporaneous change in the nature of the magma are attributed to an event in the magma chamber that allowed the release of hotter, more fluid, crystal-free magma. The young age for the beginning of rhyolite volcanism from the

  11. Two coarse pyroclastic flow deposits, northern Mono-Inyo Craters, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennen, R. L.; Bursik, M. I.; Stokes, P. J.; Lagamba, M.; Fontanella, N.; Hintz, A. R.; Jayko, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    The ~1350 A.D., rhyolitic North Mono eruption, Mono-Inyo Craters, CA, included the extrusion and destruction of Panum Dome and associated clastic deposits. Overlying the tephras of the North Mono sequence, the Panum deposits include a block-and-ash flow (BAF) deposit, covering ~3.5 km2. Blocks within the deposit are typically lithic rhyolite and banded gray micro-vesicular glass, showing white, almost powdery marks ranging from circular to linear in shape. These marks are interpreted as friction marks resulting from collisions between clasts. The deposit also contains bread-crusted obsidians with pressed-in clasts as well as reticulite with a bread-crusted surface texture. Near the centerline of the deposit is a ridge-topping train of jigsaw fractured blocks, often with reddish-orange alteration. One house sized jigsaw block sits upstream of a long, thinning pile of reddish orange debris; this “flow shadow” indicates that the block remained relatively stationary while the block and ash flow continued to propagate around it. The bread-crusted reticulite is most common at proximal localities. It is proposed that the dome destruction included a debris avalanche emplacing the train of jigsaw fractured blocks and creating a topographic high, the block-and-ash flow (the farthest reaching deposit from this event) which flowed around the debris avalanche deposits, and a final “lateral expansion” of a magma foam, creating the reticulite seen concentrated at proximal locations. Another coarse pyroclastic flow (here termed the “lower blast deposit”) underlies the North Mono tephra. It is more obsidian rich and finer grained than the Panum BAF. The lower blast deposit may have originated from Pumice Pit vent, which is now capped with an older dome ~0.5 km southeast of Panum. The lower blast deposit extends farther from the Panum vent than does the Panum BAF deposit, and apparently was mistaken for the Panum BAF deposit by previous workers. Hence the run

  12. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Leslie, Traci C.; Hatfield, Kimberly P.; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2010-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 {mu}g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 {mu}g/mL) decreased E{sub 2} (DMSO: 3009.72 {+-} 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1679.66 {+-} 461.99 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 1752.72 {+-} 532.41 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 45.89 {+-} 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 {+-} 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 17.17 {+-} 4.71 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 13.64 {+-} 3.53 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 1.29 {+-} 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 {+-} 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1.49 {+-} 0.43 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 0.64 {+-} 0.31 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 0.12 {+-} 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 {+-} 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 26.77 {+-} 4.41 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 20.90 {+-} 3.75 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 9.44 {+-} 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  13. In vitro release study of mono-PEGylated growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Ji; Na, Dong Hee; Lee, Kang Choon

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro release property of mono-PEGylated growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) microspheres. The microspheres encapsulating native GHRP-6 or mono-PEG-GHRP-6 were prepared using the single oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. In vitro release study was performed in 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.02% Tween 80 and sodium azide at 37 or 55 degrees C. The mono-PEG-GHRP-6 microspheres showed a lower initial burst compared with native GHRP-6 microspheres and zero-order release profile for a 1-month period. The release period was dependent on the PEG size attached to the GHRP-6 with more rapid drug release being observed with the smaller PEG size. This study suggests that PEGylated peptide has good potential as a source for a sustained release microsphere delivery system.

  14. Benchmarking of the mono-energetic transport coefficients—results from the International Collaboration on Neoclassical Transport in Stellarators (ICNTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidler, C. D.; Allmaier, K.; Isaev, M. Yu.; Kasilov, S. V.; Kernbichler, W.; Leitold, G. O.; Maaßberg, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Murakami, S.; Schmidt, M.; Spong, D. A.; Tribaldos, V.; Wakasa, A.

    2011-07-01

    Numerical results for the three mono-energetic transport coefficients required for a complete neoclassical description of stellarator plasmas have been benchmarked within an international collaboration. These transport coefficients are flux-surface-averaged moments of solutions to the linearized drift kinetic equation which have been determined using field-line-integration techniques, Monte Carlo simulations, a variational method employing Fourier-Legendre test functions and a finite-difference scheme. The benchmarking has been successfully carried out for past, present and future devices which represent different optimization strategies within the extensive configuration space available to stellarators. A qualitative comparison of the results with theoretical expectations for simple model fields is provided. The behaviour of the results for the mono-energetic radial and parallel transport coefficients can be largely understood from such theoretical considerations but the mono-energetic bootstrap current coefficient exhibits characteristics which have not been predicted.

  15. Missing particle associated with two bottom quarks at the LHC: Mono-b versus 2 b with razor variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ning; Kang, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinmian

    2017-01-01

    The extended Higgs sector, such as by a second Higgs doublet of type II, provides portals to the dark sector which contain missing particles at the LHC, e.g., dark matter particles. In this paper, working in the simplified model and taking into consideration the wide decay-width effect of the mediator, we analyze the characteristic signatures of mono-b +MET and 2 b +MET at the LHC. The latter signature was believed to be ineffective, while we found that, with the aid of razor shape analysis, it should be as important as the mono-b signature. In the region of relatively low mediator mass (below a few hundred GeV), by requiring a signal-to-background ratio greater than a few percent, the 2 b -tagged razor analysis has comparable sensitivity to the mono-b search; it is even better for a mediator lighter than ˜200 GeV .

  16. Biopreservation of Fior di Latte cheese.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Zambrini, A V; Del Nobile, M A

    2014-09-01

    In this study a new biopreservation system consisting of an active sodium alginate coating containing Lactobacillus reuteri applied to Fior di Latte cheese was studied. The final aim was to extend cheese shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin. Experimental trials were carried out with and without glycerol. How the fermentation time could improve the production of reuterin, enabling Fior di Latte shelf life, was also assessed. To this aim, the experimental analyses were conducted in 2 different trials, using 2 different production batches of samples. In the first one, Fior di Latte samples were dipped into the active sodium alginate solution prepared on the same day of their production, whereas in the second trial, samples were dipped into the active solution prepared 48h before their production to allow a proper fermentation of the inoculated microorganism. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to prove the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. In the first trial, the combination of the probiotic microorganism with glycerol improved the microbial quality by 1 d compared with the same active solution without glycerol, whereas the 48-h-fermented active alginate solution (second trial) showed a further improved microbial quality. The application of an active coating enriched with L. reuteri and glycerol to Fior di Latte cheese is an optimal and innovative way to preserve the product and at the same time, with a combination of an optimal fermentation time, to prolong its microbial quality and thus its shelf life.

  17. Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) ; CASRN 117 - 81 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  18. N-Nitroso-di-n-butylamine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    N - Nitroso - di - n - butylamine ; CASRN 924 - 16 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  19. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; et. al.,

    2014-10-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  20. URINARY BIOMARKERS OF DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a mixture of various branched-chain dialkyl phthalates mainly containing ninecarbon alkyl isomers. At high doses in rodents, DiNP is a carcinogen, and a developmental toxicant. After exposure, the diester isomers are de-esterified to for...

  1. Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Adam J.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a signaling molecule that has been shown to play important roles in bacterial physiology and infections. Currently, c-di-AMP detection and quantification relies mostly on the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed, which utilizes a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) and a newly commercialized c-di-AMP derivative. With this new method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. Furthermore, this assay is much more efficient than current methods as it requires less overall cost and training while processing many samples at once. Therefore, this assay can be extensively used in research into c-di-AMP signaling. PMID:25239824

  2. Magmatic gas emissions at Holocene volcanic features near Mono Lake, California, and their relation to regional magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Howle, James F.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-02-01

    Silicic lavas have erupted repeatedly in the Mono Basin over the past few thousand years, forming the massive domes and coulees of the Mono Craters chain and the smaller island vents in Mono Lake. We report here on the first systematic study of magmatic CO2 emissions from these features, conducted during 2007-2010. Most notably, a known locus of weak steam venting on the summit of North Coulee is actually enclosed in a large area (~ 0.25 km2) of diffuse gas discharge that emits 10-14 t/d of CO2, mostly at ambient temperature. Subsurface gases sampled here are heavily air-contaminated, but after standard corrections are applied, show average δ13C-CO2 of - 4.72‰, 3He/4He of 5.89RA, and CO2/3He of 0.77 × 1010, very similar to the values in fumarolic gas from Mammoth Mountain and the Long Valley Caldera immediately to the south of the basin. If these values also characterize the magmatic gas source at Mono Lake, where CO2 is captured by the alkaline lake water, a magmatic CO2 upflow beneath the lake of ~ 4 t/d can be inferred. Groundwater discharge from the Mono Craters area transports ~ 13 t/d of 14C-dead CO2 as free gas and dissolved carbonate species, and adding in this component brings the estimated total magmatic CO2 output to 29 t/d for the two silicic systems in the Mono Basin. If these emissions reflect intrusion and degassing of underlying basalt with 0.5 wt.% CO2, a modest intrusion rate of 0.00075 km3/yr is indicated. Much higher intrusion rates are required to account for CO2 emissions from Mammoth Mountain and the West Moat of the Long Valley Caldera.

  3. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Bayr, S. Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  4. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of spontaneous fermentation of Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives

    PubMed Central

    Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Perbellini, Ezio; Ramires, Francesca A.; Grieco, Francesco; Cappello, Maria S.; De Domenico, Stefania; Mita, Giovanni; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2014-01-01

    Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. In the Greek style, table olives are obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. Evolution of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, mono, and polyphenol compounds and volatile compounds associated with the fermentative metabolism of yeasts and bacteria throughout the natural fermentation process of the two Italian olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Leccino were determined. A protocol was developed and applied aimed at the technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains as possible candidate autochthonous starters for table olive fermentation from Cellina di Nardò and Leccino cultivars. The study of the main physic-chemical parameters and volatile compounds during fermentation helped to determine chemical descriptors that may be suitable for monitoring olive fermentation. In both the analyzed table olive cultivars, aldehydes proved to be closely related to the first stage of fermentation (30 days), while higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol; 3-methyl-1-butanol), styrene, and o-cymene were associated with the middle stage of fermentation (90 days) and acetate esters with the final step of olive fermentation (180 days). PMID:25389422

  5. [Study on removal of di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate by using of small-scale biological aerated filter].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Jian; Ren, Wen-Hui

    2013-03-01

    Ceramsite medium biological aerated filter (BAF) was used to treat the sewage containing di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate (DEHP). The treatment efficiency under different empty bed contact time (EBCT) and temperatures was investigated and the major intermediate products of biodegradation of DEHP were analyzed via GC-MS. Results show that the removal rate of DEHP can be highly achieved at 90.3% under the conditions of 25 degrees C and 8 hours of empty bed contact time. The removal efficiency will be increased after raising temperature or EBCT. The EBCT plays the main role between two influencing factors. The biodegradation of DEHP in BAF is expressed in the first-order kinetics. The major intermediate products of biodegradation of DEHP are made up of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate( MEHP), bisethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and phthalic acid (PA). It is supposed that the possible pathway of the biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate is that the long alkyl side-chain of DEHP may be cleavaged into a shorter and more straight one, then PA is formed after cleavaging the two ester bonds, and finally being oxidized into CO2 and H2O.

  6. Theoretical studies of the first- and second-row transition-metal mono- and dicarbonyl positive ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Leslie A.; Rosi, Marzio; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Ab initio calculations have been carried out on the first- and second-row transition-metal mono- and dicarbonyl positive ions. The bonding in these systems is discussed in detail. Trends in the series of mono- and dicarbonyl ions and between the first- and second-row transition metals are explained in terms of a dominantly electrostatic bonding interaction and differences in metal ion state separations, ionization potentials, and s and d orbital sizes. Dissociation energies are presented and a detailed comparison is made with experimental data. Where reliable experimental data exists, agreement with the theoretical results is generally good.

  7. Organic osmolytes in aerobic bacteria from Mono Lake, an alkaline, moderately hypersaline environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ciulla, R.A.; Roberts, M.F.; Diaz, M.R.; Taylor, B.F.

    1997-01-01

    The identity and concentrations of intracellular organic solutes were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for two strains of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria isolated from Mono Lake, California, an alkaline, moderately hypersaline lake. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was the major endogenous solute in both organisms. Concentrations of ectoine varied with external NaCl levels in strain ML-D but not in strain ML-G, where the level was high but invariant from 1.5 to 3.0 M NaCl. Hydroxyectoine also occurred in strain ML-D, especially at elevated NaCl concentrations (2.5 and 3.0 M), but at levels lower than those of ectoine. Exogenous organic solutes that might occur in Mono Lake were examined for their effects on the de novo synthesis of ectoine. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (0.1 or 1 mM) did not significantly lower ectoine levels in either isolate, and only strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G and became the main organic solute. Glycine betaine (GB) was more effective than DMSP in affecting ectoine levels, principally in strain ML-D. Strain ML-D accumulated GB to 50 or 67% of its organic solute pool at 2.5 M NaCl, at an external level of 0.1 or 1 mM GB, respectively. Strain ML-D also accumulated arsenobetaine. The methylated zwitterionic compounds, probably metabolic products of phytoplankton (DMSP and GB) or brine shrimps (arsenobetaine) in Mono Lake, may function as osmolytes for indigenous bacteria when present at high concentrations or under conditions of nitrogen limitation or salt stress. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Bubble geobarometry: A record of pressure changes, degassing, and regassing at Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. M.; Manga, M.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The mass discharge rate of volcanic eruptions depends on the amount and rate of volatile exsolution, and the efficiency of gas removal from rising magma. Although methods exist to estimate the total volatile budget of volcanic systems, it is more difficult to get information about the rates of exsolution and mechanisms of gas loss during magma ascent. Volcanic tephra deposits typically contain inclusions or fragments of quenched melt that preserve pre-eruptive volatile concentrations within the volcanic conduit. We focus specifically on detecting and characterizing gradients in dissolved H2O and CO2 concentration around small (ca. 1 mm diameter) bubbles (vesicles) in glass fragments. If diffusion prevents bubbles from growing (or shrinking) fast enough to maintain equilibrium, the sign and magnitude of pressure changes in the volcanic feeder systems can be inferred from H2O or CO2 concentration profiles adjacent to bubbles. We measured H2O and CO2 profiles in bubble-bearing pyroclastic obsidian clasts from Mono Craters, California, using high spatial resolution (5 μm) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (SS-FTIR) at the Advanced Light Source. A key result is that H2O is enriched in the glass surrounding bubbles, indicating that (1) bubbles were redissolving into the melt just prior to the eruption, and (2) volatile concentration gradients are preserved during the eruption and record information about conduit processes at depth. We propose that bubble dissolution was triggered by a pressure increase within the conduit. The required pressure increase is inferred to be the last in a series of pressure cycles with amplitude 5-30 MPa that are caused by repeated fragmentation and annealing. Using a bubble dissolution model, we calculate a timescale of several hours for bubble dissolution at magmatic temperatures prior to quenching during the ca. 1340 A.D. Mono Craters eruption. Unlike H2O concentrations, CO2 concentrations are heterogeneous in the obsidian

  9. Lake Level Changes in the Mono Basin During the Last Deglacial Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ali, G.; Hemming, S. R.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Stine, S. W.; Hemming, G.

    2014-12-01

    Mono Basin, located in the southwestern corner of the US Great Basin, has long been known to have experienced large lake level changes, particularly during the last deglaciation. But until recently it was not possible to establish a reliable lake level time series. We discovered many visually clean, white, shiny, dense calcite samples in the basin, associated with tufa deposits from high terraces. Their low thorium, but high uranium contents allow precise and reproducible U/Th age determinations. A highly resolved history of a minimum lake level through the last deglaciation can therefore be inferred based on sample locations and their ages. We found that the lake level reached ~2030 m asl at ~20.4 ka, evidenced by calcite coatings on a tufa mound at the upper Wilson Creek. The lake then rose to ~2075 m by ~19.1 ka, shown by calcite cements on conglomerates from the Hansen Cut terrace. The lake climbed to at least ~2140 m at ~15.9 ka, indicated by beach calcites from the east Sierra slope. Such timing of the highest lake stand, occurring within Heinrich Stadial 1, is reinforced by U/Th dates on calcite coatings from widespread locations in the basin, including the Bodie Hills and Cowtrack Mountains. The lake then dropped rapidly to ~2075 m at ~14.5 ka. It stood near this height over the next ~300 years, evidenced by a few-centimeter thick, laminated calcite rims on the Goat Ranch tufa mounds. It subsequently plunged to ~2007 m at ~13.8 ka, indicated by calcite coatings from cemetery road tufa mounds. The lake level came back to ~2030 m at ~12.9 ka, as seen in upper Wilson Creek tufa mounds. The lake level had a few fluctuations within the Younger Dryas, and even shot up to ~2075 m at ~12.0 ka. It then fell to levels in accord with Holocene climatic conditions. Relative to the present lake level of ~1950 m, Mono Lake broadly stood high during Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas, when the climate was extremely cold over the North Atlantic, and the Asian monsoon was

  10. Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1 efficiently remediates di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Josh, M K Sarath; Binod, P; Devi, R Sudha; Balachandran, S; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

    2015-02-01

    This study describes how Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1, a novel isolate from heavily plastics-contaminated sewage sludge efficiently consumed the hazardous plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) as carbon source supplemented in a simple basal salt medium (BSM). Response surface methodology was employed for the statistical optimization of the process parameters such as temperature (32°C), agitation (200 rpm), DEHP concentration (10 mM), time (72 h) and pH (8.0). At these optimized conditions, experimentally observed DEHP degradation was 63%, while the predicted value was 59.2%; and the correlation coefficient between them was 0.998, i.e., highly significant and fit to the predicted model. Employing GC-MS analysis, the degradation pathway was partially deduced with intermediates such as mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and 2-ethyl hexanol. Briefly, this first report describes A. denitrificans strain SP1 as a highly efficient bacterium for completely remediating the hazardous DEHP (10 mM) in 96 h in BSM (50% consumed in 60 h), which offers great potentials for efficiently cleaning the DEHP-contaminated environments such as soil, sediments and water upon its deployment.

  11. Development of Conductometric Sensor Based on 25,27-Di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 for Determination of Ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiapina, O. Y.; Kharchenko, S. G.; Vishnevskii, S. G.; Pyeshkova, V. M.; Kalchenko, V. I.; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    The conductometric sensor based on 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 was developed for the quantitative analysis of ammonium. The calixarene was immobilized on the surface of the planar interdigitated electrodes by attachment of its dialkyl sulfide groups to the surface of the gold electrodes. The intrinsic ability of the calixarene to capture ammonium was studied in the conductometric measuring mode and by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The developed sensor showed high selectivity to ammonium in the presence of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Selective and highly sensitive detection of ammonium resulted from the complexation between the ammonium ions and a crown-ether fragment of the upper rim of the 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 macrocycle. The developed sensor had high signal repeatability. Its sensitivity was found to be satisfactory for the forthcoming sensor application in the water-sample analysis; the linear range was 0.01-1.5 mM and limit of detection 10 μM.

  12. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari.

  13. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  14. Targeting HER3 using mono- and bispecific antibodies or alternative scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Magdalena; Frejd, Fredrik Y.; Ståhl, Stefan; Löfblom, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) has in recent years been recognized as a key node in the complex signaling network of many different cancers. It is implicated in de novo and acquired resistance against therapies targeting other growth factor receptors, e.g., EGFR, HER2, and it is a major activator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Consequently, HER3 has attracted substantial attention, and is today a key target for drugs in clinical development. Sophisticated protein engineering approaches have enabled the generation of a range of different affinity proteins targeting this receptor, including antibodies and alternative scaffolds that are either mono- or bispecific. Here, we describe HER3 and its role as a key tumor target, and give a comprehensive review of HER3-targeted proteins currently in development, including discussions on the opportunities and challenges of targeting this receptor. PMID:27532938

  15. Strain-Induced Spatial and Spectral Isolation of Quantum Emitters in Mono- and Bilayer WSe2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors are intriguing hosts for quantum light sources due to their unique optoelectronic properties. Here, we report that strain gradients, either unintentionally induced or generated by substrate patterning, result in spatially and spectrally isolated quantum emitters in mono- and bilayer WSe2. By correlating localized excitons with localized strain variations, we show that the quantum emitter emission energy can be red-tuned up to a remarkable ∼170 meV. We probe the fine-structure, magneto-optics, and second-order coherence of a strained emitter. These results raise the prospect of strain-engineering quantum emitter properties and deterministically creating arrays of quantum emitters in two-dimensional semiconductors. PMID:26480237

  16. Theoretical study of lanthanide mono cation-mediated C-F bond activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Aya; Mori, Hirotoshi

    2011-02-01

    The potential energy surface corresponding to the reaction of lanthanide mono-cations (Ln +; Ln = Ce-Yb) with CH 3F has been investigated using density functional theory calculations. In the initial step of the C-F activation reaction, Ln + directly coordinates to the F atom of CH 3F, and forms same [Ln⋯F⋯CH 3] + type transition state structures with an accompanying electron-transfer from the Ln + to the F atom. Performing intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations from the transition states, we found that all Ln + reactions can be classified into one of two different reaction mechanisms, "harpoon-like" and "insertion-elimination", which were experimentally proposed by Cohrnel et al. and Konayagi et al., respectively. The two mechanisms have been proposed exclusive to each other. Our results show that both reaction mechanisms are possible in Ln + reaction systems.

  17. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Pence, Natasha K.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-12-21

    A method for separating the trivalent actinides and lanthanides is being developed using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) as the extractant. The method is based on the preferential binding of the actinides in the aqueous phase by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), which serves to keep the actinides in the aqueous phase while the lanthanides are extracted into an organic phase containing HEH[EHP]. The process is very robust, showing little dependence upon the pH or the HEH[EHP], HEDTA, and citrate concentrations over the ranges that might be expected in a nuclear fuel recycling plant. Single-stage runs with a 2-cm centrifugal contactor indicate that modifications to the process chemistry may be needed to increase the extraction rate for Sm, Eu, and Gd. The hydraulic properties of the system are favorable to application in centrifugal contactors.

  18. Pd-catalysed asymmetric mono- and bis-alkoxycarbonylation of vinylarenes.

    PubMed

    Godard, Cyril; Muñoz, Bianca K; Ruiz, Aurora; Claver, Carmen

    2008-02-21

    The asymmetric alkoxycarbonylation of vinylarenes catalysed by palladium complexes bearing chiral phosphine ligands has attracted much attention over the last decades. The products of both mono- and bis(alkoxycarbonylation) reactions are important intermediates in the syntheses of pharmaceuticals such as 2-arylpropionic acids, the most important class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this article, a general overview of the topics will be presented and the recent advances in this field will be particularly detailed. Besides the term alkoxycarbonylation, hydroesterification and hydroalkoxycarbonylation are also used in the literature to describe this reaction. Furthermore, more specific terms such as methoxycarbonylation can be found. In this report, the term alkoxycarbonylation will be used as the general term, and specific terms will be used to unambiguously define which reaction is meant.

  19. An S to P Converted Phase Recorded Near Long Valley/Mono Craters Region, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon, C. J.; Zucca, J.; Kasameyer, P.

    1989-01-01

    We examine and model the arrival time of a large secondary seismic arrival recorded in the Long Valley/Mono Craters region of east-central California. Zucca et. al. (1987) and Peppin (1987) both previously reported on different features of this same arrival. Using both arrays of sources and receivers we demonstrate that the arrival is an S to P converted phase as first suggested by Lewis and Peppin (1988). Backprojection of the observed travel times allows us to constrain the location of the converting material to a southeast dipping zone between 7 and 16 km depth, and {+-} 5 km on either side of the topographic margin of the caldera. The analysis demonstrates the power of source and receiver array combinations when analyzing seismic arrivals in complicated environments.

  20. Distribution of RuBisCO genotypes along a redox gradient in Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Giri, Bruno J; Bano, Nasreen; Hollibaugh, James T

    2004-06-01

    Partial sequences of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) (EC 4.1.1.39) genes were retrieved from samples taken along a redox gradient in alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, Calif. The form I gene (cbbL) was found in all samples, whereas form II (cbbM) was not retrieved from any of the samples. None of the RuBisCO sequences we obtained were closely related (nucleotide similarity, <90%) to sequences in the database. Some could be attributed to organisms isolated from the lake (Cyanobium) or appearing in enrichment cultures. Most (52%) of the sequences fell into in one clade, containing sequences that were identical to sequences retrieved from an enrichment culture grown with nitrate and sulfide, and another clade contained sequences identical to those retrieved from an arsenate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing enrichment.

  1. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek Formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, CA) using titanomagnetite compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, M.; Mangan, M.; Vazquez, J. A.; Bursik, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    The Wilson Creek Formation (WCF) near Mono Lake in eastern California is a 6-15 m thick sequence of lake sediments interbedded with 18 rhyolitic tephra layers attributed to eruptions from nearby Mono Craters, and 2 basaltic tephra layers erupted from Black Point and June Lake (not included in study). These tephra layers are numbered 1 to 19 (June Lake tephra designated as Ash 13*) from top to bottom (Lajoie, 1968), and range in age from ~14 to 67 ka (Zimmerman et al., 2006). The WCF tephras are important to understanding volcanism in the Long Valley region, and they provide age constraints for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. Major-oxide compositions of glass for the rhyolitic tephras are similar, with no reported compositional variations between layers. In this study, we show that titanomagnetite compositions can be used to fingerprint specific WCF tephra layers, thus enhancing their use as time-stratigraphic markers. We performed electron microprobe analyses of >700 titanomagnetite crystals and minor ilmenite. Compositional ranges of titanomagnetite are ~83-89 wt% FeO, and ~8-14 wt% TiO2, with MgO+MnO+Al2O3 <3 wt%. Major oxide concentrations trend linearly, with ratios of FeO/TiO2 generally increasing with age. There is a slight trend offset between the older (~57-67 ka) tephras (Ashes 16, 17, and 19) and younger (~14-40 ka) tephras (Ashes 1-15), and a compositional gap between Ash 8 and the rest of the WCF tephras. Compositional variability within individual tephra beds is minor (FeO <0.4 wt%; TiO2 <0.3 wt%). Older WCF tephra titanomagnetites (Ashes 16, 17, 19) are distinct and characterized by high FeO/TiO2 (~9-9.5). Ashes 7 and 8 have relatively high-TiO2 compositions (>12 wt%), although Ash 8 has the lowest FeO/TiO2 (~6). Titanomagnetite crystals in the other WCF tephra layers are not as compositionally distinct (FeO/TiO2 = ~7.5-8), although the youngest tephras (Ashes 1- 4) can be distinguished on the basis of MgO content. Ash 15 is

  2. Probing atomic structure and Majorana wavefunctions in mono-atomic Fe chains on superconducting Pb surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Rémy; Kisiel, Marcin; Klinovaja, Jelena; Meier, Tobias; Kawai, Shigeki; Glatzel, Thilo; Loss, Daniel; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the striking promise of quantum computation, Majorana bound states (MBSs) in solid-state systems have attracted wide attention in recent years. In particular, the wavefunction localisation of MBSs is a key feature and is crucial for their future implementation as qubits. Here we investigate the spatial and electronic characteristics of topological superconducting chains of iron atoms on the surface of Pb(110) by combining scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that the Fe chains are mono-atomic, structured in a linear manner and exhibit zero-bias conductance peaks at their ends, which we interpret as signature for a MBS. Spatially resolved conductance maps of the atomic chains reveal that the MBSs are well localised at the chain ends (≲25 nm), with two localisation lengths as predicted by theory. Our observation lends strong support to use MBSs in Fe chains as qubits for quantum-computing devices.

  3. THE VERTICAL MOTIONS OF MONO-ABUNDANCE SUB-POPULATIONS IN THE MILKY WAY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W.; Zhang, Lan; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun

    2012-08-20

    We present the vertical kinematics of stars in the Milky Way's stellar disk inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SDSS/SEGUE) G-dwarf data, deriving the vertical velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub z}, as a function of vertical height |z| and Galactocentric radius R for a set of 'mono-abundance' sub-populations of stars with very similar elemental abundances [{alpha}/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We find that all mono-abundance components exhibit nearly isothermal kinematics in |z|, and a slow outward decrease of the vertical velocity dispersion: {sigma}{sub z}(z, R | [{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]) Almost-Equal-To {sigma}{sub z}([{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]) Multiplication-Sign exp (- (R - R{sub 0})/7 kpc). The characteristic velocity dispersions of these components vary from {approx}15 km s{sup -1} for chemically young, metal-rich stars with solar [{alpha}/Fe], to {approx}> 50 km s{sup -1} for metal-poor stars that are strongly [{alpha}/Fe]-enhanced, and hence presumably very old. The mean {sigma}{sub z} gradient (d{sigma}{sub z}/dz) away from the mid-plane is only 0.3 {+-} 0.2 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1}. This kinematic simplicity of the mono-abundance components mirrors their geometric simplicity; we have recently found their density distribution to be simple exponentials in both the z- and R-directions. We find a continuum of vertical kinetic temperatures ({proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}) as a function of ([{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]), which contribute to the total stellar surface-mass density approximately as {Sigma}{sub R{sub 0}}({sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}){proportional_to} exp(-{sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}). This and the existence of isothermal mono-abundance populations with intermediate dispersions (30-40 km s{sup -1}) reject the notion of a thin-thick-disk dichotomy. This continuum of disk components, ranging from old, 'hot', and centrally concentrated ones to younger, cooler, and radially extended ones, argues against models where the thicker

  4. Exposure to mono-n-butyl phthalate disrupts the development of preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Chu, Da-Peng; Tian, Shi; Sun, Da-Guang; Hao, Chan-Juan; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used phthalate, is known to cause many serious diseases, especially in the reproductive system. However, little is known about the effects of its metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), on preimplantation embryo development. In the present study, we found that treatment of embryos with 10⁻³ M MBP impaired developmental competency, whereas exposure to 10⁻⁴ M MBP delayed the progression of preimplantation embryos to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in embryos were significantly increased following treatment with 10⁻³ M MBP. In addition, 10⁻³ M MBP increased apoptosis via the release of cytochrome c, whereas immunofluorescent analysis revealed that exposure of preimplantation embryos to MBP concentration-dependently (10⁻⁵, 10⁻⁴ and 10⁻³ M) decreased DNA methylation. Together, the results indicate a possible relationship between MBP exposure and developmental failure in preimplantation embryos.

  5. Challenges in the Synthesis of a Unique Mono-Carboxylic Acid Antibiotic (+)-Zincophorin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenlei; Lohse, Andrew G.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    (+)-Zincophorin, also referred to as M144255 or griseochellin, is a polyoxygenated ionophoric antibiotic that was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in 1984. It possesses strong in vivo activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Clostridium coelchii. Its methyl ester was reported in a patent as having strong inhibitory properties against influenza WSN/virus with reduced toxicity for the host cell. Its ability to strongly bind with Zn2+, which is also present in its X-ray structure, is the basis for its name. Over the last two decades, (+)-zincophorin h as attracted an impressive array of synthetic efforts including Danishefsky's first total synthesis along with two recent elegant total syntheses reported by Cossy and Miyashita as well as our own formal total synthesis. This Account provides a comparison of the different synthetic efforts on this novel mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic and documents its interesting isolation, structure determination, and biological activities. PMID:19642422

  6. Challenges in the synthesis of a unique mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic, (+)-zincophorin.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenlei; Lohse, Andrew G; Hsung, Richard P

    2009-04-01

    (+)-Zincophorin, also referred to as M144255 or griseocholin, is a polyoxygenated ionophoric antibiotic that was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in 1984. It possesses strong in vivo activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Clostridium coelchii. Its methyl ester was reported in a patent as having strong inhibitory properties against influenza WSN/virus with reduced toxicity for the host cell. Its ability to strongly bind with Zn2+, which is also present in its X-ray structure, is the basis for its name. Over the last two decades, (+)-zincophorin has attracted an impressive array of synthetic efforts including Danishefsky's first total synthesis, along with two recent elegant total syntheses reported by Cossy and Miyashita as well as our own formal total synthesis. This review provides a comparison of the different synthetic efforts on this novel mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic and documents its interesting isolation, structure determination, and biological activities.

  7. Near-Infrared Light Absorption and Scattering Based on a Mono-Layer of Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanmoradi, R.; Wang, Q.; Qiu, M.; Popov, S.; Yan, M.

    2015-06-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of large-area ultrathin near-infrared light absorbers and scatterers based on a mono-layer of gold nanoparticles laying on top of a dielectric spacer and an aluminum reflector. The nanoparticles are formed through thermal annealing of an evaporated continuous gold film. Through optimization of initial gold-film thickness, spacer thickness, as well as annealing temperature we obtained samples that exhibit very low (~2%) broadband specular reflectance at near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range. By considering also diffuse reflection, we identify that the low specular reflectance can be due to either relatively high light absorption (~70%) or high light scattering (over 60%), with the latter achieved for samples having relatively sparse gold nanoparticles. Both strong absorption and scattering of NIR light are not inherent properties of the bulk materials used for fabricating the samples. Such composite optical surfaces can potentially be integrated to solar-energy harvesting and LED devices.

  8. The Be Phenomenon in the Mono-Periodic STEREO Star 13 Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozuyar, D.; Stevens, I. R.

    2017-02-01

    13 Tau is a rarely studied bright B9 V type star (V = 5.68 mag), which shows a weak double-peaked H α emission profile in its spectra. In this study, we present high-precision photometric data of 13 Tau taken by the STEREO satellite between 2007 and 2011, and compare the results to the spectroscopic findings to shed light on the Be phenomenon in the star. From the frequency analysis of the five-year data, we detected that 13 Tau has exhibited a mono-periodic light variation (f = 1.80487(1) cycles d-1 and A ˜ 2.76(8) mmag). The analysis revealed that the frequency and amplitude of the seasonal light curves varied from one year to another. From the spectroscopic data we found that the equivalent widths of the Hα line also showed variability, which seemed connected to the changes seen in both frequency and amplitude.

  9. Quasi-mono-energetic ion acceleration from a homogeneous composite target by an intense laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Brantov, A. V.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Klimo, O.; Romanov, D. V.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Sokollik, T.; Nickles, P. V.

    2006-12-15

    The paper presents an analytical model and particle-in-cell simulations of the quasi-mono-energetic ion acceleration by an intense laser pulse in a multispecies target and the corresponding experimental observations. Homogeneous and heterogeneous targets are considered, and it is shown that the formation of the energy spectrum proceeds in three stages: (1) the initial light ion acceleration in the sheath electric field, (2) the ion species separation followed by the electrostatic shock formation, and (3) the interaction of spatially separated ion bunches accompanied by electron cooling. The field ionization of heavy ions and interaction between the heavy and light species play an important role in the formation and preservation of the energy spectrum of light ions. The simulation results are compared with the theoretical predictions and the experiments.

  10. Static and Ultrafast Transient Photophysics of Mono- and Dual-Branched Triarylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Ming; Meng, Fan-Shun; Feng, Wen-Ke; Wang, Shu-Feng; Tian, He; Gong, Qi-Huang

    2010-06-01

    Mono- and dual-branched molecules, {4-[2-(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenyl)-vinyl]-phenyl}-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-phenyl-amine (BS1) and bis-{4-[2-(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenyl)-vinyl]-phenyl}-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-phenyl-amine (BS2), are investigated with one- and two-photon static spectroscopy, and the femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion technique. The molecules show branch-based fluorescence emission at low quantum yield. Ultrafast non-radiative decay on a picosecond time scale is found and is attributed to intramolecular charge-transfer bridged by the central triphenylamine. The two-photon absorption cross-sections of BS1 and BS2 are 19.1 and 19.4 GM, respectively.

  11. Accurate prediction of the linear viscoelastic properties of highly entangled mono and bidisperse polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Stephanou, Pavlos S; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G

    2014-06-07

    We present a hierarchical computational methodology which permits the accurate prediction of the linear viscoelastic properties of entangled polymer melts directly from the chemical structure, chemical composition, and molecular architecture of the constituent chains. The method entails three steps: execution of long molecular dynamics simulations with moderately entangled polymer melts, self-consistent mapping of the accumulated trajectories onto a tube model and parameterization or fine-tuning of the model on the basis of detailed simulation data, and use of the modified tube model to predict the linear viscoelastic properties of significantly higher molecular weight (MW) melts of the same polymer. Predictions are reported for the zero-shear-rate viscosity η0 and the spectra of storage G'(ω) and loss G″(ω) moduli for several mono and bidisperse cis- and trans-1,4 polybutadiene melts as well as for their MW dependence, and are found to be in remarkable agreement with experimentally measured rheological data.

  12. Optimizing seeded casting of mono-like silicon crystals through numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Andrés; Medina, Juan; Piñeiro, Axa; Dieguez, Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    Recently, silicon ingots produced by typical multicrystalline casting systems but having monocrystalline features are entering the photovoltaic market. In order to look into the particular properties of this novel method, the normal silicon casting process is numerically simulated, and compared to an optimized mono-like casting process, based on the use of oriented monocrystalline silicon seeds. The seeding process was optimized by reducing the time spent in the melt in order to reduce the back diffusion of harmful non-feedstock metal impurities such as iron, reducing the thermomechanical stress to avoid dislocation multiplication, and decreasing the overall interface curvature. Additionally, the growth conditions in the zone just above the seeds were fine-tuned to increase the production of vacancy point defects, in the hope of achieving "vacancy passivation" of harmful interstitial iron by moving it to substitutional position.

  13. Surface-Controlled Mono/Diselective ortho C-H Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Yang, Biao; Lin, Haiping; Aghdassi, Nabi; Miao, Kangjian; Zhang, Junjie; Zhang, Haiming; Li, Youyong; Duhm, Steffen; Fan, Jian; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-03-02

    One of the most charming and challenging topics in organic chemistry is the selective C-H bond activation. The difficulty arises not only from the relatively large bond-dissociation enthalpy, but also from the poor reaction selectivity. In this work, Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces were used to address ortho C-H functionalization and ortho-ortho couplings of phenol derivatives. More importantly, the competition between dehydrogenation and deoxygenation drove the diversity of reaction pathways of phenols on surfaces, that is, diselective ortho C-H bond activation on Au(111) surfaces and monoselective ortho C-H bond activation on Ag(111) surfaces. The mechanism of this unprecedented phenomenon was extensively explored by scanning tunneling microscopy, density function theory, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our findings provide new pathways for surface-assisted organic synthesis via the mono/diselective C-H bond activation.

  14. Probing a General Rule towards Thermodynamic Stabilities of Mono BN-doped Lower Polyenes.

    PubMed

    Rouf, Alvi Muhammad; Wu, Jingjing; Zhu, Jun

    2017-03-02

    The BN-doped organic analogues are interesting as aliphatic amineboranes for hydrogen storage, precursors for aromatic borazines and adsorbent cage azaboranes. However, BN-doped aliphatic polyenes remained undeveloped. Herein, we perform theoretical calculations on two mono BN-doped aliphatic lower polyenes, 1,3-butadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene. A general rule is proposed, i.e., isomers with terminal nitrogen and directly BN-connected, N-B(R), in particular, are of significant thermodynamic stability as compared with their inverse analogues (where boron is at the terminal position). The N-B(R) type isomers are found to be the most stable ones in both polyenes. Isomers with terminal B and N are of intermediate stability. Highly destabilized isomers are those with one terminal methylene group and one terminal heteroatom in the butadiene series, and two terminal methylene groups in the hexatriene series. Rules established here may lead researchers to synthesize isomers with particular thermodynamic stability.

  15. Planar Position Sensor Based on Mono Sensing Electrode and Hybrid-Frequency Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongxiang; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Mengfeng; Zhang, Hongli; Gao, Zhao; Wang, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    A new way of measuring planar position for micrometric and sub-micrometric applications is presented with a mono sensing electrode and hybrid-frequency excitation. The sensing theory and operation principle are described and summarized, and a printed circuit board (PCB) sensor prototype is built and tested. It is shown by the experimental results that a very simple structure and geometric relationship are achieved. Meanwhile, displacement sensitivity on an order of 1.50 mV per micron and measurement repeatability better than 0.002 mm are easily fulfilled for a square zone of 256 mm2, making it a valuable alternative measurement device candidate for flexible and low-cost planar position detection. PMID:27187404

  16. Calcite-impregnated defluidization structures in littoral sands of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Associated locally with well-known tufa mounds and towers of Mono Lake, California, are subvertical, concretionary sand structures through which fresh calcium-containing artesian waters moved up to sites of calcium carbonate precipitation beneath and adjacent to the lake. The structures include closely spaced calcite-impregnated columns, tubes, and other configurations with subcylindrical to bizarre cross sections and predominantly vertical orientation in coarse, barely coherent pumice sands along the south shore of the lake. Many structures terminate upward in extensive calcareous layers of caliche and tufa. Locally they enter the bases of tufa mounds and towers. A common form superficially resembles root casts and animal burrows except that branching is mostly up instead of down. Similar defluidization structures in ancient sedimentary rocks have been mistakenly interpreted as fossil burrows.

  17. Thermal Joining of Thermoplastic Metal Hybrids by Means Of Mono- and Polychromatic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, P.; Pfindel, S.; Schmidt, M.

    In recent years, joining of plastics and metals for lightweight constructions has become more and more important for industrial applications. This paper presents a novel approach for thermal joining of thermoplastic metal hybrids by means of a combination of mono- and polychromatic radiation. During this work, hybrid joints of aluminum (EN AW-5182) and technical thermoplastics (PC, PA6, PA66-GF30) are studied. Thereby experiments for transmission and heat-conduction joining are performed. Besides, the influences of laser structuring of the metal surface on the joint connections are investigated. Additionally, climate tests according to BMW PR 308.2 from -30 °C to 90 °C and from -40 °C to 120 °C are performed to analyze the long-term durability of the hybrid joint connections.

  18. A quantum Monte Carlo study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M. Chandler; Kulahlioglu, A. H.; Mitas, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems, where TM = {Mo, W}. We calculate the binding energies by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches and compare the results with other methods and available experiments. The orbitals for the determinantal part of each trial wave function were generated from several types of DFT functionals in order to optimize for fixed-node errors. We estimate and compare the size of the fixed-node errors for both the Mo and W systems with regard to the electron density and degree of localization in these systems. For the W systems we provide benchmarking results of the binding energies, given that experimental data is not available.

  19. Pressure induced structural phase transition in actinide mono-bismuthides: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataiya, J.; Makode, C.; Aynyas, M.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2013-06-01

    The structural and electronic properties of mono-bismuthides of Plutonium and Americium have been investigated using tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). From present study with the help of total energy calculations it is found that PuBi and AmBi are stable in NaCl - type structure under ambient pressure. The structure stability of PuBi and AmBi changes under the application of pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B1-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B2-phase) structure for these phospides in the pressure range of 45 - 4.5 GPa for PuBi and AmBi respectively. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters and bulk modulus are in good agreement with experimental and theoretical work.

  20. Bottom-up formation of endohedral mono-metallofullerenes is directed by charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunk, Paul W.; Mulet-Gas, Marc; Nakanishi, Yusuke; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Shinohara, Hisanori; Poblet, Josep M.; Marshall, Alan G.; Kroto, Harold W.

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of chemical formation mechanisms is essential to achieve effective yields and targeted products. One of the most challenging endeavors is synthesis of molecular nanocarbon. Endohedral metallofullerenes are of particular interest because of their unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications. Nevertheless, the mechanism of formation from metal-doped graphite has largely eluded experimental study, because harsh synthetic methods are required to obtain them. Here we report bottom-up formation of mono-metallofullerenes under core synthesis conditions. Charge transfer is a principal factor that guides formation, discovered by study of metallofullerene formation with virtually all available elements of the periodic table. These results could enable production strategies that overcome long-standing problems that hinder current and future applications of metallofullerenes.