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Sample records for alien adopted children

  1. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play ... Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text ...

  2. Heritage Literacy: Adoption, Adaptation, and Alienation of Multimodal Literacy Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumsey, Suzanne Kesler

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the concept of heritage literacy, a decision-making process by which people adopt, adapt, or alienate themselves from tools and literacies passed on between generations of people. In an auto-ethnographic study, four generations of a single family and Amish participants from the surrounding community were interviewed to…

  3. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  4. Alienation in Physical Education from the Perspectives of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Rintoul, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the phenomenon of alienation in physical education from the perspectives of children. Of particular interest were children's perspectives about the three constructs of alienation: (a) powerlessness, (b) meaninglessness, and (c) social isolation, as defined by Carlson (1995). A case study…

  5. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  6. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  7. Talking with Young Children about Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Mary; Fisher, Susan

    Even though current wisdom holds that adoptive parents should talk with their child about adoption as early as possible, no guidelines exist to prepare parents for the various ways their children might respond when these conversations take place. This book discusses how young children make sense of the fact that they are adopted, how their…

  8. An Exploratory Look at Alienation in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jean M.

    The ongoing work life of four classes of elementary school children from relatively affluent families was examined for approximately 2 years by a participant observer/classroom teacher in an attempt to identify possible causes of student alienation, i.e., negative, unproductive or disruptive behaviors. Examples of such behaviors include hostility,…

  9. Parents’ Feelings Towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent–child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child of the couple, and tested whether the links between parent feelings and child maladjustment included effects of passive gene–environment correlation. Parents reported more negativity and less positivity as well as higher levels of externalizing behaviour for the adopted child compared to the non-adopted child, although effect sizes were small and no longer statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Fathers and mothers did not differ significantly in their reports of positive and negative feelings towards their children or in regard to child externalizing and internalizing behaviours. The correlations between parental negativity and positivity and child externalizing and internalizing were similar for fathers and mothers, and for adopted and non-adopted children. The findings suggest similar parent–child relationship processes for fathers and mothers, and that genetic transmission of behaviour from parent to child does not account for the association between parental warmth and hostility and child-adjustment problems. PMID:21088705

  10. Nurturing Development of Foster and Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate early childhood teachers' perspective of teaching foster and adopted children. The main purpose is to seek suggestions how teachers can nurture the development of foster and adopted children. A 6 question survey was sent to 44 teachers pursuing graduate studies in early childhood education. Of this 50%…

  11. Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.

    2013-01-01

    This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

  12. Aliens among us: a representation of children in science fiction.

    PubMed

    Bick, I J

    1989-01-01

    As a literary genre, science fiction has been largely ignored by psychoanalysis. Science fiction lends itself well to analytic interpretations since its structure embraces an attitude of "cognitive estrangement" (a term that defines the genre). Science fiction allows for the exploration of new and different permutations of seemingly ageless conflicts and concerns. One of the conflicts science fiction seems to address revolves about our fears regarding our children. These children become the "aliens" among us, as they seek to usurp parental power and authority. This issue is addressed through a study of two of Ray Bradbury's short stories. By manipulating the reader's experience of the "uncanny," Bradbury succeeds in tapping what appear to be prevalent and potent fears regarding children and, reflexively, the adults who produce them. Mechanisms involved in this play on "alienness" include projective identification of destructive aspects of the self, a resurgence of archaic superego forerunners constituted around primal scene material, and a reawakening of oedipal struggles.

  13. Disinhibited social behavior among internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Tarullo, Amanda R; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Postinstitutionalized children frequently demonstrate persistent socioemotional difficulties. For example, some postinstitutionalized children display an unusual lack of social reserve with unfamiliar adults. This behavior, which has been referred to as indiscriminate friendliness, disinhibited attachment behavior, and disinhibited social behavior, was examined by comparing children internationally adopted from institutional care to children internationally adopted from foster care and children raised by their biological families. Etiological factors and behavioral correlates were also investigated. Both groups of adopted children displayed more disinhibited social behavior than the nonadopted children. Of the etiological factors examined, only the length of time in institutional care was related to disinhibited social behavior. Disinhibited social behavior was not significantly correlated with general cognitive ability, attachment-related behaviors, or basic emotion abilities. However, this behavior was negatively associated with inhibitory control abilities even after controlling for the length of time in institutional care. These results suggest that disinhibited social behavior might reflect underlying deficits in inhibitory control.

  14. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  15. 22 CFR 41.86 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... permanent resident aliens. 41.86 Section 41.86 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS... Nonimmigrants § 41.86 Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens. (a) Definition of...) Entitlement to classification. A consular officer may classify an alien as a nonimmigrant under INA...

  16. 22 CFR 41.86 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... permanent resident aliens. 41.86 Section 41.86 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS... Nonimmigrants § 41.86 Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens. (a) Definition of...) Entitlement to classification. A consular officer may classify an alien as a nonimmigrant under INA...

  17. 22 CFR 41.86 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... permanent resident aliens. 41.86 Section 41.86 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS... Nonimmigrants § 41.86 Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens. (a) Definition of...) Entitlement to classification. A consular officer may classify an alien as a nonimmigrant under INA...

  18. 22 CFR 41.86 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... permanent resident aliens. 41.86 Section 41.86 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS... Nonimmigrants § 41.86 Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens. (a) Definition of...) Entitlement to classification. A consular officer may classify an alien as a nonimmigrant under INA...

  19. Children after adoption: Exploring their psychological needs.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Margaret; Hodges, Jill; Malik, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Children adopted from care are known to be at increased risk for mental health difficulties although relatively little research has been carried out to explore this question. This study assessed the mental health and psychological development of children placed for adoption by one UK Local Authority. We compared the pattern and prevalence of difficulties to existing data including that on Looked-After Children (LAC) children. Totally, 106 families were initially approached and parent interviews and at least partial questionnaire data were gathered on 47 children, 72.3% of whom were known to have been maltreated prior to adoption. Of the 34 children with a complete data set including Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), 76.4% met full criteria for at least one neurodevelopmental or mental health diagnosis, a markedly higher rate than comparison data on LAC or community samples. Less than half of those identified with a mental health diagnosis had received any prior diagnosis, and only a minority had received appropriate services. Despite the children's difficulties, the great majority of parents reported high enjoyment of bringing up their child.

  20. 22 CFR 41.86 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain spouses and children of lawful... Nonimmigrants § 41.86 Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens. (a) Definition of... Department of Justice that a petition to accord status to the alien as a spouse or child pursuant to INA...

  1. Children in Adoptive Families: Overview and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickman, Steven L.; Rosenfeld, Alvin A.; Fine, Paul; MacIntyre, James C.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Howe, Ruth-Arlene; Derdeyn, Andre; Gonzales, Mayu Bonoan; Forsythe, Linda; Sveda, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the past 10 years of published research concerning the 2% of American children younger than 18 years old who are adoptees. Method: Review recent literature on developmental influences, placement outcome, psychopathology, and treatment. Results: Adoption carries developmental opportunities and risks. Many adoptees have…

  2. Perceived Alienation of, and Social Support for, Siblings of Children With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juyoun; Bang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study was performed to identify the relationships among alienation, general social support, and nurses' support for the siblings of children with cancer. The participants were 84 siblings of children with cancer. Alienation was measured by the revised version of Dean's Alienation Scale, and general social support was quantified by the revised version of Dubow and Ullman's Social Support Appraisal Scale. For nurses' support, Murray's Nurse-Sibling Social Support Questionnaire was used. Data were collected from July 2011 to December 2011. The participants' alienation was not particularly high (mean = 42.24 ± 12.72), but psychosocial vulnerability was identified from their answers to open-ended questions. The participants' perceived alienation showed a negative correlation with general social support, but no relationship with nurses' support. Although direct relationships between nurses' support and the siblings' alienation were not found in this study, the siblings perceived that the support of nurses was moderately helpful. Nurses can help siblings by providing support.

  3. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  4. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption,…

  5. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Adopted after Early Care Breakdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Kay, Catherine; Sharma, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic autism has been described in children adopted after orphanage rearing. We investigated whether the same existed in children adopted after family breakdown. Families of 54/60 adopted children aged 6-11 years (mean 102 months; SD 20; 45% male) returned screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 21/54 (39%) screened…

  7. The economics of adoption of children from foster care.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mary Eschelbach; Hansen, Bradley A

    2006-01-01

    Federal initiatives since 1996 have intensified the efforts of states to achieve adoption for children in foster care. For many waiting children, the path to adoption is long. The authors offer an economic analysis of adoption from foster care, with an emphasis on the reasons why achieving the goal of adoption for all waiting children may be so difficult. The authors then estimate the determinants of adoptions from foster care across the states using data for fiscal years 1996 and 1997. Adoption assistance subsidy rates stand out as the most important determinant of adoptions from foster care, followed by use of alternatives (e.g., intercountry adoption). Adoptive matching on the basis of race does not appear to prevent adoptions from foster care in the aggregate, leaving flaws in the matching process, such as a lack of information and difficulty using the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC), as a primary reason why children wait.

  8. Skin diseases in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Émilie; Nourrisson, Céline; Sciauvaud, Julie; Pascal, Julie; Texier, Charlotte; Corbin, Violaine; Poirier, Véronique; Beytout, Jean; Labbe, André; Lesens, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Internationally adopted children often present diseases contracted in the country of origin. Skin diseases are common in new arrivals, and diagnosis may prove challenging for GPs or even dermatologists if they are inexperienced in the extensive geographic and ethnic diversity of international adoptees. To analyse the frequency and characteristics of skin diseases in international adoptees. In total, 142 adoptees were evaluated for a cross-sectional cohort study. The most frequent diseases observed at arrival were dermatological conditions. Of the adoptees, 70% presented at least one skin disease, of which 57.5% were infectious; Tinea capitis being the most frequent (n = 42). The recovery rate of Tinea capitis was 89% (n = 32/36). Ten cases of scabies were diagnosed. Other diseases included viral skin infection (n = 22), with 16 cases of Molluscum contagiosum and bacterial infection. Skin diseases are very common in internationally adopted children. There is a need for close collaboration between dermatologists and paediatricians to diagnose such infections, as well as clear guidelines to treat them.

  9. 8 CFR 1214.3 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents; aliens in proceedings; V visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents; aliens in proceedings; V visas. 1214.3 Section 1214.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.3 Certain spouses and...

  10. 8 CFR 1214.3 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents; aliens in proceedings; V visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents; aliens in proceedings; V visas. 1214.3 Section 1214.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.3 Certain spouses and...

  11. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology.

  12. Adoption: A Lifelong Journey for Children & Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn, C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Several issues surrounding adoption are addressed in this journal. "Openness in Adoption," by Ruth G. McRoy and others, explores the movement away from confidentiality in adoption. "Mid-Life Reflections on Adoption" by Carol Yttri and "An Adoption Journey" by Shannon Latimer detail the experiences of adults who were…

  13. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  14. Social Competence in Internationally Adopted and Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Moreno, Carmen; Roman, Maite

    2013-01-01

    A growing, sizable proportion of school children do not live in conventional family environments. Among these, internationally adopted children have gained increasing visibility in recent years. While other areas of their behavior have been widely explored, little is known about adopted children's social competence and their integration into peer…

  15. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  16. 77 FR 58404 - Announcing the Award of Two Urgent Single-Source Grants To Support Unaccompanied Alien Children...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Support Unaccompanied Alien Children Program Services AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS... from the Unaccompanied Alien Children's Program to Youth for Tomorrow in Bristow VA and Lincoln Hall in... will support grants to two organizations that are providing services under the Unaccompanied...

  17. The role of faith in adoption: achieving positive adoption outcomes for African American children.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Kathleen; Copeland, Sam; Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    African American children are overrepresented in foster care by more than twice their proportion in the population (U.S. Government Accountability Office [USGAO], 2007). Building upon research relating faith (religiosity) to positive health and mental health, this study utilized cognitive and religious coping theories to examine the influence of faith on choosing to adopt, achieving positive adoption outcomes, and reducing disproportionality. From Louisiana and Texas, 113 families who adopted 226 children, 48% African American, participated in a survey measuring children's behavior and parent distress (PSI-SF Difficult Child and Parent Distress Subscales) and religiosity (Hoge Intrinsic Religiosity Index). Of the respondents, 93% of the respondents belonged to a religious congregation, 86% attended church weekly. Controlling for child's behavior, religiosity predicted lower stress in adoptive parenting; church attendance was related to improvement in parental health since adopting. Faith was rated most frequently as essential in parents' decisions to adopt. The study concludes that faith may be an asset in increasing adoptions and improving adoption outcomes resulting in increased numbers of African American children adopted.

  18. Open adoption and adoptive mothers: attitudes toward birthmothers, adopted children, and parenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Twaite, J A

    1997-10-01

    The nature and extent of contact between 238 adoptive mothers and their child's biological mother was assessed for the period prior to the birth of the child and during the first two years of the child's life. Adoptive mothers who reported such contact prior to the child's birth had significantly more favorable attitudes toward both the biological mother and the adopted child. Those with contact either before or after the birth also demonstrated significantly more favorable parenting attitudes. Policy implications and the need for further research are noted.

  19. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  20. Behavior Problems in Children Adopted from Psychosocially Depriving Institutions

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems were investigated in 342 6- to 18-year-old children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that provided adequate physical resources but not consistent, responsive caregiving. Results indicated that attention and externalizing problems were the most prevalent types of behavior problems in the sample as a whole. Behavior problem rates increased with age at adoption, such that children adopted at 18 months or older had higher rates than never-institutionalized children but younger-adopted children did not. There was a stronger association between age at adoption and behavior problems during adolescence than at younger ages at assessment. Children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions had lower behavior problem rates than children adopted from severely depriving Romanian institutions in the 1990s. The implications of these results are that early psychosocial deprivation is associated with behavior problems, children exposed to prolonged early deprivation may be especially vulnerable to the developmental stresses of adolescence, and severe institutional deprivation is associated with a higher percentage of behavior problems after a shorter duration of exposure. PMID:20084451

  1. Adopted Children: A Question of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Samina; Visser, John

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon a study completed in a specific school in Bangalore where most children enter at the pre-school level and continue till high school. While the particular children in the study constitute a small number--four--it was observed that questions of identity mainly arose when they started questioning the circumstances behind their…

  2. Disturbances of attachment in young children adopted from institutions.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, C H

    2000-06-01

    In this article, the author describes a discrepancy between popular media accounts of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and its clinical and scientific description. The literature on serious disturbances of attachment in children adopted out of institutions is reviewed. The author concludes that children adopted from institutions are at dramatically increased risk for disturbances, although the majority of such children do not demonstrate problems. Both the duration of deprivation and the postinstitutional caregiving environment seem to be importantly related to outcome. Inhibited/withdrawn RAD is exceedingly uncommon in children adopted from institutions (at least after 1 or more years), but disinhibited/indiscriminate RAD is quite persistent. Long after children become attached to adoptive parents, a number of them continue to exhibit indiscriminate sociability. Three explanations for this divergence of recovery curves are considered. It is likely that future systematic studies will illuminate many areas that are unclear at this time.

  3. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  4. Recruiting adoptive parents for children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brown, E

    1988-01-01

    One agency describes a systematic approach to recruitment of prospective adoptive families for children with developmental disabilities. The recruitment methodology, preliminary conclusions, and implications for future recruitment of families are presented.

  5. Mitigating Effects of the Adoptive Caregiving Environment on Inattention/Overactivity in Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Karyn; Le Mare, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    We examined inattention/overactivity (I/O) over time and in relation to caregiving in three matched groups: (1) Romanian Orphans (RO) with a minimum of eight months' deprivation prior to adoption, (2) Early Adopted (EA) children adopted from Romania prior to age four months, and (3) Canadian Born (CB) non-adopted children. Comparisons among groups…

  6. Parental alignments and rejection: an empirical study of alienation in children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Janet R

    2003-01-01

    This study of family relationships after divorce examined the frequency and extent of child-parent alignments and correlates of children's rejection of a parent, these being basic components of the controversial idea of "parental alienation syndrome." The sample consisted of 215 children from the family courts and general community two to three years after parental separation. The findings indicate that children's attitudes toward their parents range from positive to negative, with relatively few being extremely aligned or rejecting. Rejection of a parent has multiple determinants, with both the aligned and rejected parents contributing to the problem, in addition to vulnerabilities within children themselves.

  7. Parenting Stress in Families Adopting Children from Romanian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainemer, Henry; Gilman, Lorraine C.; Ames, Elinor W.

    1998-01-01

    Parenting stress was found to be greater in families that adopted children who had been institutionalized for eight months or more in a Romanian orphanage than those in two comparison groups. Aspects of child behavior and family factors which contributed to stress, and implications for special needs adoptions are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  8. Language development in preschool-age children adopted from China.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jenny A; Pollock, Karen E; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C; Wang, Paul P

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However, the vast majority scored within or well above the average range on 2 or more measures. Contrary to other reports on the language development of internationally adopted children, the results suggest that "second first language" acquisition proceeds rapidly in the majority of preschool-age children adopted as infants and toddlers. For the children in the sample who scored below average, results indicated that they were among the children who had been exposed to English for the least amount of time. The results of this study demonstrate both the robustness of the language system in the majority of adopted children from China as well as slower growth in a small subset of lower performers in the 1st years after adoption.

  9. Adoptive and Birth Family Adjustment to Rearing Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bush, Beverly A.

    The study identified 81 families who adopted children with mental retardation or at risk for mental retardation, and compared them with 61 matched families with similar birth children. For birth families, the initial diagnosis was a time of crisis, with high depression scores, while scores at follow-up (an average of 5.3 years later) indicated no…

  10. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  11. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  12. Experiences of School Bullying among Internationally Adopted Children: Results from the Finnish Adoption (FINANDO) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs…

  13. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Adoption KidsHealth > For Teens > Adoption Print A A A ... of Adoption en español La adopción What Is Adoption? Caz knew she'd been adopted as a ...

  14. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2014-11-07

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4-15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  15. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  16. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  17. Cultural socialization in families with internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard M; Grotevant, Harold D; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Gunnar, Megan R

    2006-12-01

    Cultural socialization attitudes, beliefs, and parenting behaviors were examined in families with internationally adopted children. The authors hypothesized that parents with lower color-blind racial attitudes would be more likely to engage in enculturation and racialization parenting behaviors because they hold stronger beliefs in the value and importance of cultural socialization. Using data from the Minnesota International Adoption Project, the results support this mediation model of cultural socialization. Individual variations in cultural socialization also are discussed in terms of child development and shifting adoption attitudes and practices.

  18. Relational Trauma and Its Impact on Late-Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes work with two children, placed for late adoption who have suffered relational trauma. The paper explores the long-term consequences of such trauma, which includes problems with affect regulation, difficulties in generalising from one experience to another and shifts between phantasies of omnipotent control and sudden…

  19. Modern Family: Adoption and Foster Care in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Ruth Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often have no preparation for handling the questions and conversations that arise in the classroom when discussing literature having adoption or foster care themes. Instead of relying on personal experiences or stereotypes portrayed through the media, teachers are advised to understand the developmental tasks of children from families…

  20. "Adopt-a-School"--Program of Eye Care for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Virginia H.; Truelove, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    Describes a program in which community organizations (such as the Lions Club) adopted 20 Ohio schools for six weeks to teach primary grade children the importance of eye care and safety. Materials used in the program (developed by the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness) are outlined. (PHR)

  1. Beyond Adoption Status: Post-Adoptive Parental Involvement and Children's Reading and Math Performance From Kindergarten to First Grade.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing; Kim, Eun Sook; Baggerly, Jennifer; Mahoney, E Emily; Rice, Jessica

    2016-09-12

    In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no group difference in reading scores at all 3 Waves but adopted children scored lower than nonadopted children in math at Wave 2 (Spring of kindergarten) and Wave 3 (Spring of first grade). However, controlling for 6 covariates, latent growth modeling showed that adoption status was unrelated to Wave 1 reading and math scores or subsequent growth rate. Rather, parents' beliefs on skills needed to succeed in kindergarten were a significant predictor of reading and math performance at Wave 1 and subsequent growth rates, and parents' educational expectation was a significant predictor of growth rate in reading and math. Our findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in adopted children's learning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consultation service for chemical exposure during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight and head circumference at birth and at follow-up, and achievement on standard tests of cognitive and language development. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children exposed in utero to cocaine had an 8-fold increased risk for microcephaly (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 42.3); they also had a lower mean birth weight (p = 0.005) and a lower gestational age (p = 0.002). In follow-up the cocaine-exposed children caught up with the control subjects in weight and stature but not in head circumference (mean 31st percentile v. 63rd percentile) (p = 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in global IQ, the cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower scores than the control subjects on the Reynell language test for both verbal comprehension (p = 0.003) and expressive language (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document that intrauterine exposure to cocaine is associated with measurable and clinically significant toxic neurologic effects, independent of postnatal home and environmental confounders. Because women who use cocaine during pregnancy almost invariably smoke cigarettes and often use alcohol, it is impossible to attribute the measured toxic effects to cocaine alone. PMID:7954158

  3. Adoption of romanian children in The Netherlands: behavior problems and parenting burden of upbringing for adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Hoksbergen, René; Rijk, Kathinka; Van Dijkum, Cor; Ter Laak, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Seventy-two Dutch adoptive parents of 80 Romanian children completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Nijmegen Questionnaire for the Upbringing Situation (NQUS), and participated in a semistructured interview (response 83%). Thirty-four percent of the adopted children scored in the clinical range on Externalizing and 36 % on Total Problems scales. Significantly more children who were at least two years at placement and had stayed less than five years in the adoptive family received scores in the clinical range on almost all CBCL clinical clusters. Nevertheless, the adoptive parents judge their upbringing situation positive (NQUS).

  4. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  5. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  6. Medical problems of foreign-born adopted children.

    PubMed

    Jenista, J A; Chapman, D

    1987-03-01

    Over 8000 foreign-born children, almost all from third-world countries, are adopted by citizens of the United States each year. Most primary care practitioners do not have enough experience to evaluate and manage their problems efficiently. We reviewed the medical care of the foreign-born adoptees followed up in a single pediatric group practice. The 128 children arrived from one of eight countries in Asia or Latin America at ages ranging from 1 month to 10 years; 57% were female. The median duration of follow-up was 20 months. The most common problems identified included deficient immunizations (37%), intestinal parasites (29%), emotional or behavioral problems (22%), skin diseases (16%), estimated age (12%), scabies and/or lice (10%), and congenital anomales (10%). Twenty-one other classes of problems were identified, including developmental delay, lactose intolerance, vision and hearing deficits, and chronic hepatitis B carrier status. At arrival or within one month, 49% of the children had acute infectious diseases, including upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, rubeola, varicella, and mumps. Nineteen percent of the children underwent surgical procedures ranging from circumcision to cleft lip-palate repair; 46% of these children were never screened for hepatitis B. Fourteen percent were hospitalized at least once, 5% within the first month after arrival. We developed a simple protocol to screen foreign-born adopted children, allowing rapid identification of treatable problems at the least cost and inconvenience to the family. Thirty-six percent of the families made at least one preadoption visit, permitting an explanation of the protocol and potential problems before the child's arrival.

  7. The Roots Of Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1973-01-01

    Alienation in our society takes several forms--withdrawal, hostility, or efforts to reform. The author traces the roots of alienation to our neglect of many of the needs of children, particularly their need for interaction with adults. Among his many recommendations are: modified work schedules to permit more time with children and systems for…

  8. Adoption of Children with Disabilities: An Exploration of the Issues for Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Gretchen A.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review is an exploration of issues for adoptive families throughout the adoption process and into the various phases of the life of the adoptive family. Although there has been much recent research related to adoption, in general, very little adoption literature addresses the often unspoken needs of families who want to…

  9. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  10. Pre-placement risk and longitudinal cognitive development for children adopted from foster care.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Jill M; Nadeem, Erum; Paczkowski, Emilie; Foster, Jared Cory; Lavner, Justin A; Belin, Thomas; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the trajectory of cognitive development over the first five years of adoptive placement among children adopted from foster care and how pre-adoption risk factors relate to this development. Overall, children's cognitive scores increased significantly, with the most rapid improvement occurring in the first year post-placement. By five years post-placement, children's mean cognitive and achievement scores were in the average range. Adoption is a positive intervention for children's cognitive development.

  11. Families Who Adopt Mentally Retarded Children: Who, Why, and What Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters

    Demographic and background characteristics, pre-adoption motivation, and post-adoptive adjustment of 20 British families who had, among them, adopted 23 mentally retarded children were explored through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Children in the sample had been in their adoptive homes an average of 17 months; 48% were under 5…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Service Use in Families of Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mare, Lucy; Audet, Karyn; Kurytnik, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Post-adoption service use and unmet service needs were examined longitudinally in three matched groups of children: children adopted from Romanian orphanages following a minimum of eight months' institutional experience (RO: n = 36); children from Romania who were destined for orphanages but were adopted early in infancy (EA: n = 25); and Canadian…

  13. Scholastic Attainment Following Severe Early Institutional Deprivation: A Study of Children Adopted from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between severe early institutional deprivation and scholastic attainment at age 11 in 127 children (68 girls and 59 boys) adopted from institutions in Romania was compared to the attainment of 49 children (17 girls and 32 boys) adopted within the UK from a non-institutional background. Overall, children adopted from Romania had…

  14. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia S.; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Method: Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4–9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled for. Results: Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure–insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Discussion: Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  15. Aliens behaving badly: children's acquisition of novel purity-based morals.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    The traditional cognitive developmental perspective on moral acquisition posits that children actively construct moral beliefs by assessing the negative impacts of antisocial behaviors. This account is not easily applied to actions that are considered immoral despite lacking consequences for others' welfare. We studied the moralization of behaviors without tangible impacts, specifically examining the independent and joint roles of feelings and norms in children's acquisition of purity-based morals. Seven-year-olds were shown pictures of anthropomorphic aliens engaged in unfamiliar activities and were asked to judge whether these actions were wrong or OK. Relative to a control condition matched for valence and informational complexity, children made elevated wrongness judgments when they were either disgusted or led to believe that the behaviors were unnatural. However, it was only in a condition that included both disgust induction and information about unnaturalness that children exhibited robust tendencies to judge the actions as wrong. This research therefore demonstrates that feelings and norms work in concert such that purity morals are most readily acquired when both factors are involved. The implications for accounts of moral development are discussed.

  16. Malaria in Children Adopted from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sollai, Sara; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Data are lacking regarding asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria prevalence in internationally adopted children. Among 20 children from Democratic Republic of the Congo evaluated in Florence, Italy, in April 2016, malaria prevalence was 80%; 50% of infected children had symptomatic malaria. Adopted children from areas of high malaria endemicity should be screened for malaria. PMID:28322706

  17. The Effect of Placement Instability on Adopted Children's Inhibitory Control Abilities and Oppositional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Erin E.; Dozier, Mary; Ackerman, John; Sepulveda-Kozakowski, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed relations among placement instability, inhibitory control, and caregiver-rated child behavior. The sample included 33 adopted children who had experienced placement instability, 42 adopted children who had experienced 1 stable placement, and 27 children never placed in foster care. Five- and 6-year-old children completed the…

  18. [Motives and wishes to adopt children in a social change: results of a longitudinal view].

    PubMed

    Dörwald, Yvonne; Walger, Petra; Oelsner, Wolfgang; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    150 files of adopted children chosen from the archive of the protestant association for adopted and foster children in Duesseldorf-Wittlaer, being mediated to families between 1947 and 1987, were evaluated with a special evaluation document, regarding the motives and wishes to adopt children. The results indicate that the expectation of adoptive parents of their potential adopted child has changed essentially during the period that was regarded. Possible causes could be norms and values being in a social and historical change, but also changes in the adoption processes.

  19. [Coping strategies adopted by parents of children with intellectual disabilities].

    PubMed

    Santos, Manoel Antonio Dos; Pereira-Martins, Maria Laura de Paula Lopes

    2016-10-01

    The tasks of caregiving for children with disabilities involve contextual life stressors. The study aimed to investigate the coping strategies used by parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The search included articles published between 2001 and 2015 on the PubMed, LILACS and PsycINFO databases, using the following key words: intellectual disability, coping, parents, caregivers, family. Thirteen articles were selected, the majority of which adopt a cross-sectional, comparative and quantitative approach. Results indicated that caring for a person with ID is stressful for the family. Parental stress generates changes in the family dynamic and coping strategies are used to facilitate the interaction of the caregiver with the person with ID. Seeking social support in family and professional services, the union of spouses, and search for information, among others, are the main strategies used. Social support was strongly associated with strengthening of the family unit. In contrast, wishful thinking, self-blame, distancing and social isolation were negatively associated with family unity. It is necessary to sensitize health professionals and educators to embrace the theme in public policies and preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  20. How Well Do Children Who Are Internationally Adopted Acquire Language? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathleen A.; Roberts, Jenny A.; Glennen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors present the results of a systematic and meta-analytic examination of the language outcomes of children who are internationally adopted. The study examined the questions of whether the early life experiences of children who are internationally adopted and the language switch that occurs after adoption hinder…

  1. Reflection of Foster Parents on Caring for Foster and Adopted Children and Their Suggestions to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Helinski, Monica; Buchstein, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this research project we investigated the process of adoption of foster children by foster parents and the foster parents' ideas of how to help foster children going through the process of adoption or those who have been adopted. We sent questionnaires to 200 foster parents living in the Cleveland area, but just 23 foster parents replied.…

  2. Predicting re-involvement for children adopted out of a public child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Some of the approximately 400,000 children currently placed out-of-home in a public child welfare system will not reunify with their family of origin. They may instead be adopted into a new family. Adoption placements can be characterized by poor adjustment for children; some such placements even result in disruption or dissolution. We conducted a stratified Cox regression of 4,016 children from the Colorado public child welfare system. All of the children had a finalized adoption during the years 2002 through 2006. The two outcomes analyzed were new child protection and youth-in-conflict referrals and assessments for these previously adopted children. New child welfare referrals and assessments may be early indicators of poor adjustment for adopted children within the adoptive family. Study results indicate that older children and Hispanic children had higher rates of referral and assessment. Children with a pre-adoption history including longer time out-of-home or a larger number of out-of-home placements also experienced higher referral and assessment rates. Additional factors which predicted subsequent system re-involvement included presence of paid adoption assistance, adoption by a non-relative foster parent and younger adoptive parent age. Several study results were moderated by the presence or absence of an ethnic match between the child and the adoptive parents. We provide an overview of the statistical model used for analysis and we discuss implications of the study results for child welfare practice.

  3. Educational Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe, Now Ages 8-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal data on the cognitive and physical outcomes of children adopted from Eastern Europe by American families is limited. While there is clear evidence that many children adopted from Eastern European countries are more at risk for medical concerns and developmental delay, research that follows these children into their elementary school…

  4. Adoptive parent hostility and children's peer behavior problems: examining the role of genetically informed child attributes on adoptive parent behavior.

    PubMed

    Elam, Kit K; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-05-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation [rGE]) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative rGE while examining the associations between family processes and children's peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children's later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn links to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed.

  5. The Adoption Experience: Families Who Give Children a Second Chance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ann

    This book examines the adoption process in Great Britain, recounting first-hand experiences to take the reader through each stage of the process from the adopter's point of view. The book also examines the success and failure of several types of adoption. The chapters are: (1) "You Want to Adopt"; (2) "First Meetings, First Months,…

  6. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses

  7. A comparative study of behaviour problems between adopted and nonadopted children in India.

    PubMed

    Dhavale, Hs; Bhagat, Vinaya; Thakkar, Poornima

    2005-01-01

    A review of existing literature concludes that there is an increased risk for the development of behaviour problems among adopted children compared to non-adopted children. This study was conducted with the objective of finding out whether the findings are consistent within the Indian context, which offers a different psycho-cultural setting to most western settings in which the previous studies were carried out. We compared groups of adopted children and non-adopted children on various parameters i.e. Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ), ADHD rating scale, Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). The Malin's intelligence scale for Indian children (MISIC) was administered to the children for assessing IQ while the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) was used to diagnose psychopathology. We found that adopted children had more behaviour problems on the PSQ. On SAICA, adopted children showed less social competence. The parenting practices as revealed by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire did not differ between the two groups. The IQ of the children in both groups was within the normal range. We concluded that the psycho-social consequences of adoption in India do not differ from those of other countries, all of which show a higher incidence of behaviour problems in adopted children.

  8. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    PubMed

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se.

  9. Executive function and mental health in adopted children with a history of recreational drug exposures.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Gray, Hilary M; Corbett, Selena M; Birkett, Melissa A; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems) with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents). Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures.

  10. Executive Function and Mental Health in Adopted Children with a History of Recreational Drug Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Brian J.; Gray, Hilary M.; Corbett, Selena M.; Birkett, Melissa A.; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive children are at increased risk for problematic behaviors but the origin of these individual differences in neurobehavioral function is unclear. This investigation examined whether adopted children with prenatal exposure to a wide variety of recreational drugs exhibited higher scores (i.e. more problems) with executive function and psychiatric symptomology. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 18 completed an online survey with items about use of alcohol, nicotine, or methamphetamine during pregnancy followed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, N = 437 including 59 adoptive parents) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, N = 549 including 54 adoptive parents). Relative to a comparison group of children raised by their biological parents, adoptive children that were polysubstance exposed during prenatal development exhibited higher rates of academic difficulties and were behind their classmates in math and reading. Adoptive children had statistically and clinically significant higher BRIEF ratings and this pattern was similar for boys and girls. CBCL ratings were significantly increased in adoptive children, particularly for Externalizing and Attention problems. Adoptive children with a history of polysubstance exposures including alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine are at heightened risk for difficulties with executive function as well as various psychopathologies. These findings suggest that increased monitoring to identify and implement remediation strategies may be warranted for adopted children with a history of in utero drug exposures. PMID:25337917

  11. Real Parents, Real Children: Parenting the Adopted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gulden, Holly; Bartels-Rabb, Lisa M.

    Parenting an adopted child is, for the most part, the same as parenting any other child, but is different in some unique and critical ways related to the child's separation from birth parents and genetic roots. Understanding how a child interprets, understands, and feels about adoption, and why, can help the parent guide the adopted child…

  12. Atypical EEG Power Correlates With Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, post-institutionalized children (n = 37) and comparison groups of non-adopted children (n = 47) and children internationally adopted from foster care (n = 39). For their age, post-institutionalized children had an atypical EEG power distribution, with relative power concentrated in lower frequency bands compared to non-adopted children. Both internationally adopted groups had lower absolute alpha power than non-adopted children. EEG power was not related to growth at adoption or to global cognitive ability. Atypical EEG power distribution at 18 months predicted indiscriminate friendliness and poorer inhibitory control at 36 months. Both post-institutionalized and foster care children were more likely than non-adopted children to exhibit indiscriminate friendliness. Results are consistent with a cortical hypoactivation model of the effects of early deprivation on neural development and provide initial evidence associating this atypical EEG pattern with indiscriminate friendliness. Outcomes observed in the foster care children raise questions about the specificity of institutional rearing as a risk factor and emphasize the need for broader consideration of the effects of early deprivation and disruptions in care. PMID:21171750

  13. A matter of attachment? How adoptive parents foster post-institutionalized children's social and emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Barone, Lavinia; Lionetti, Francesca; Green, Jonathan

    2017-03-22

    The current study investigates the contribution of children's age at adoption (M = 46.52 months, SD = 11.52 months) and parents' attachment on post-institutionalized children's attachment and social-emotional adjustment. A total of 132 subjects, 48 post-institutionalized children aged 3-5 years, and their adoptive parents, took part in the study. One year from adoption, children's attachment distribution was as follows: 31% secure, 42% disorganized, and 27% insecure. Parents' secure attachment increased children's probability of presenting a secure attachment pattern; specifically, mothers' attachment patterns were most strongly associated with those of their adopted children, with fathers' making an additional contribution. Two years from adoption, secure children showed more adequate social competences than their insecure and disorganized peers and presented better emotional comprehension. The effect of age at adoption was delimited to a marginal association with behavioral problems. This pattern of associations suggests that attachment - both of adoptive parents and of children - substantially fosters social-emotional adjustment of post-institutionalized children who have experienced a period in emotionally neglecting environments beyond their first year of life, regardless of their age at adoption. Implications for policies and practices are discussed.

  14. Language development in internationally adopted children: a special case of early second language learning.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Karine; Genesee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The French language development of children adopted (n=24) from China was compared with that of control children matched for socioeconomic status, sex, and age. The children were assessed at 50 months of age, on average, and 16 months later. The initial assessment revealed that the 2 groups did not differ with respect to socioemotional adjustment or intellectual abilities. However, the adopted children's expressive language skills were significantly lower than those of the nonadopted children at both assessments. The receptive language skills were also significantly weaker for the adopted children at the second assessment. The results are discussed in terms of possible early age-of-acquisition effects that might affect adopted children's ability to acquire a second first language.

  15. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children

    PubMed Central

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the USA, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he/she knows who his/her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with non-adopted children. Objectives This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 non-adopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the non-adopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher’s report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Conclusion Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. PMID:25985112

  16. Parental Satisfaction in the Adoption of Children with Learning Disorders: The Role of Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Ryan, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which children's behavior problems would mediate the relationship between children's learning disorders and adoption satisfaction using nationally representative data from 1,865 adoptive parents. We found that high levels of behavior problems, operationalized as internalizing and externalizing behaviors,…

  17. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  18. Triple Jeopardy: Family Stresses and Subsequent Divorce Following the Adoption of Racially and Ethnically Mixed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Perihan Aral

    1981-01-01

    Focused on the special problems encountered by 15 Black, Black-Vietnamese, and American Indian children adopted by five White middle-class American families. Results indicated families who adopted racially and ethnically different children proved to have negative racial attitudes and more severe emotional difficulties than were initially apparent.…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  20. Parent Ratings of Executive Functioning in Children Adopted from Psychosocially Depriving Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that post-institutionalized (PI) children are particularly susceptible to attention problems and perform poorly on executive functioning (EF) lab tasks. Methods Parent ratings of EF were examined in 288 school-age and 130 preschool-age children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that provided adequate physical resources but not one-on-one interactions with a consistent set of responsive caregivers. Results Results revealed a step-like association between age at adoption and EF deficits; school-age children adopted after 18 months of age had greater EF difficulties than younger-adopted children and the never-institutionalized normative sample. The onset of adolescence was associated with a greater increase in EF deficits for children adopted after 18 months than for younger-adopted children. Preschool-age children were not found to have greater EF difficulties than the normative sample. Conclusions These findings suggest that prolonged early psychosocial deprivation may increase children's risk of EF deficits and that the developmental stresses of adolescence may be particularly challenging for older-adopted PI children. PMID:20955189

  1. Psychopathology in adopted-out children of alcoholics. The Stockholm Adoption Study.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R; Bohman, M; Sigvardsson, S; von Knorring, A L

    1985-01-01

    The inheritance of alcohol abuse and other psychopathology was studied in 862 men and 913 women adopted by nonrelatives at an early age in Sweden. Both male and female adoptees had a greater risk of alcohol abuse if their biologic, but not adoptive, parents were alcoholic. We distinguished two types of alcoholism that have distinct genetic and environmental causes and that differ in frequency of alcohol abuse and somatoform disorders in women. The combination of both genetic and environmental risk factors is required for development of alcoholism in the most common type. In contrast, in families with the less common type of susceptibility, alcohol abuse is highly heritable in the men, but the women have multiple somatic complaints without alcohol abuse. The implications of these findings of genetic heterogeneity and gene-environment interaction are discussed in relation to research, prevention, and treatment.

  2. The Role of Faith in Adoption: Achieving Positive Adoption Outcomes for African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Kathleen; Copeland, Sam; Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    African American children are overrepresented in foster care by more than twice their proportion in the population (U.S. Government Accountability Office [USGAO], 2007). Building upon research relating faith (religiosity) to positive health and mental health, this study utilized cognitive and religious coping theories to examine the influence of…

  3. Social Skills in Children Adopted from Socially-Emotionally Depriving Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.; McCall, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed social skills in post-institutionalized (PI) children with respect to age-at-adoption, age-at-assessment, and gender. Parent ratings of social skills (Social Skills Rating System) and behavior problems (Child Behavior Checklist) were obtained for 214 children and 127 adolescents who were adopted from socially-emotionally depriving Russian institutions. Results showed that children adopted before 18 months of age have better social skills than those adopted after this age; those assessed in childhood demonstrate better social skills than those assessed in adolescence. PI females, especially later-adopted adolescents, have particularly poor social skills. Children with poor social skills tend to have higher rates of behavior problems. PMID:27087772

  4. Timeliness in the Adoptive Placement of Photolisted Children: The New York State Blue Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Rosemary J.; Butler, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Studied characteristics of hardest-to-place children, factors related to timeliness in the adoptive placement of listed children, and the efficacy of photolisting updates in improving placement probabilities. Found that children experiencing significant delays in placement are most likely male, black, older at first listing, and possessing mild to…

  5. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.

  6. Predictors of psychological adjustment in early placed adopted children with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2013-06-01

    Little research has focused on predictors of psychological adjustment among early placed adopted children. Additionally, the research on adopted children in lesbian or gay parent-families is sparse. The current study examined 40 female same-sex, 35 male same-sex, and 45 different-sex parent families with adopted children, all of whom were placed in their adoptive homes under the age of 18 months. We explored aspects of children's preadoptive and postadoptive contexts (measured at 3 months postplacement) in relation to children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms (measured at 2 years postplacement; M age = 2.33 years). Findings revealed that lack of parental preparation for the adoption, and parental depressive symptoms, were associated with higher parent-reported levels of both externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Additionally, parents' relationship conflict was associated with higher levels of parent- and partner-reported internalizing symptoms. Children's adjustment outcomes did not differ by family type. Our findings point to the importance of considering the adoptive family context (including parent and couple subsystems) in predicting later adjustment in early placed adopted children, in diverse family contexts.

  7. [Attachment and Cognitive and Motor Development in the First Years after Adoption: A Review of Studies on Internationally Adopted Children from China].

    PubMed

    Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group.

  8. Comparative morality judgments about lesbians and gay men teaching and adopting children.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Brenda J; Michaelson, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare morality judgments of American Catholics and the general public about lesbians and gay men adopting and teaching children. The general sample endorsed higher agreement that lesbians and gay men should be allowed to adopt and to teach children compared to the Catholic only sample. Older participants were less accepting than all other age groups, and there was an interaction effect between education and political ideology such that those with less education and with more politically conservative beliefs were generally less accepting of lesbians and gay men adopting and teaching children.

  9. Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity.

  10. A Critical Analysis of IQ Studies of Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ken; Norgate, Sarah H.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of parent-child correlations in adoption studies has long been interpreted to suggest substantial additive genetic variance underlying variance in IQ. The studies have frequently been criticized on methodological grounds, but those criticisms have not reflected recent perspectives in genetics and developmental theory. Here we apply…

  11. Recommendations for the medical evaluation of children prior to adoption in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad F; du Plessis, Nicolette M; Lumb, Janet; Feucht, Ute D; Myburgh, Marcelle; Mayaphi, Simnikiwe H; Lekalakala, Molebogeng R; Swanepoel, De Wet; Georgakis, Hellen; Avenant, Theunis

    2014-06-19

    The current legislative framework in South Africa (SA) supports adoption as the preferred form of care for children with inadequate or no parental or family support. There are an estimated 3.8 million orphans in SA, with approximately 1.5 - 2 million children considered adoptable. As a means of improving services, newly drafted adoption guidelines from the National Department of Social Development will in future require both non-profit and private sector adoption agencies to obtain a medical report on a child prior to placement. However, no local guidelines specify what an appropriate medical examination entails or how it should be reported. For the purposes of proposing and developing such guidelines, an open forum was convened at the Institute of Pathology, University of Pretoria, in March 2013. These 'Recommendations for the medical evaluation of children prior to adoption in South Africa' emanate from this meeting.

  12. Adoptive parents can be unprepared for the challenges in caring for children with reactive attachment disorder.

    PubMed

    Smyke, Anna T

    2015-04-01

    Implications for practice and research: Adoptive parents experience significant challenges in caring for children diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder. Informing prospective adoptive parents about attachment issues and providing concrete assistance to develop healthy attachment relationships may decrease some of the frustration experienced by parents and children affected with the disorder. Future research could address factors contributing to the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder as well as best practices for ameliorating the disorder.

  13. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  14. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  15. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments...

  16. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  17. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments...

  18. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  19. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made under title IV-E of...

  20. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made under title IV-E of...

  1. 42 CFR 435.145 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Coverage of the Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Adoption Assistance and Foster Care Children § 435.145 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments...

  2. 42 CFR 436.118 - Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....118 Children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are made. The agency must provide Medicaid to children for whom adoption assistance or foster care maintenance payments are... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Children for whom adoption assistance or...

  3. [Adoption in China of children with special needs: the "green passage"].

    PubMed

    Oliván Gonzalvo, G

    2007-10-01

    Requests of international adoption in China can be processed by the ordinary way and by the so-called way "green passage" (GP). All the children for adoption by the GP have special needs because to suffer from congenital malformations, chronic diseases or development disabilities that will need medical or surgical treatment and a specialized monitoring in the adoptive country. The medical literature warns that the preadoptive medical records from China do not offer absolute guarantee of veracity. This problem has been observed in adoptions by the ordinary way of children diagnosed like healthy, but also it can happen in children for adoption by the GP. The clinical cases of three children with special needs recently assigned to Spanish families are presented. We think that in all the assignations of children with special needs from China, the Adoption Organizations must offer to the families the complete medical records, the certified results of the laboratory tests and the pictures so that, of exclusive and absolutely confidential manner, they consult with specialized doctors in order to obtain the highest information of the health problems and to value the medical prognosis before taking a decision on the acceptance of the adoption.

  4. Children's Drawings: Self-Perception and Family Function in International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Brittany L.; Tirella, Linda G.; Miller, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    No comprehensive studies have examined the utility of family drawings within the context of international adoption. We examined the relationship of Kinetic Family Drawings by 54 internationally adopted children in the USA (65% female; M age = 8.57 years, SD = 2.1) to demographics, child competencies (Child Behavior Checklist: CBCL/6-18) and…

  5. Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphology by Internationally Adopted Children from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Lara J.; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results…

  6. The Adoption of Children from Public Care: A Prospective Study of Outcome in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Alan; Dance, Cherilyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discover the outcomes for children placed late for adoption (between 5 and 11 years old) from public care and to establish which factors predict poorer outcome. Method: Data were collected prospectively (1993-2003) from a representative sample of domestic U.K. adoptive placements (N = 108) at the start of placement, at 1 year, and 6…

  7. Adopted children and education: the experiences of a specialist CAMHS team.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The education system makes special provision for "looked after children". However, once adopted these children become invisible. Adopted children are often placed in their new families when they are already of school age. School is yet another transition alongside that of home, food, language and social milieu which an adopted child has to manage together the pain of the loss of the biological family and its culture. This article focuses on the importance for CAMHS practitioners to work closely with schools and adoptive parents to help children manage their lives in school. Alongside the difficulties they face in learning, many adopted children need help in managing friendships and in concentrating on what is required of them in school. Adults may be ignorant of the day to day experiences of racism and questions about mothers, fathers, brothers and sisters that can throw an adopted child into confusion. This chapter draws on clinical experience to describe some of the difficulties that arise for parents and children in managing the education system.

  8. Twenty american families' stories of adaptation: adoption of children from Russian and Romanian institutions.

    PubMed

    Linville, Deanna; Lyness, Anne Prouty

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how 20 families have adapted after adopting children between the ages of 3 and 5 years from eastern European institutions. The researcher visited a Romanian orphanage and then interviewed 20 families about their experiences with the adoption process and with family adaptation postadoption. Several themes emerged from the parents' stories regarding their search for support and resources to aid in parenting their children. Family therapists who are interested in working with families who adopt internationally from institutional settings can learn from the stories of parents.

  9. Determinants of Parental Stress in Families Adopting Children from Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Investigates sources of variation in parents' assessment of parental stress and the effects of early institutionalization. Participants included 109 mother-father pairs who adopted children from Eastern Europe. Significant differences between mothers and fathers were obtained on child- and parent-related stress. Results indicated that children's…

  10. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  11. Language and Reading Outcomes in Young Children Adopted from Eastern European Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Susan D.; Kaczmarek, Louise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many children from Eastern European orphanages have been adopted by families in the United States. When children begin life with their new families, they experience an abrupt language shift in which the learning of their native language halts as the learning of the new language commences. Without the support of their native…

  12. Communication Patterns between Internationally Adopted Children and Their Mothers: Implications for Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Dubois, M. E.; Kasparian K.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings on patterns of communication between internationally adopted children and their mothers in order to better understand the nature of these interactions and their influence on language learning. We examined maternal language use and joint attention behaviors of mothers and their children in 21 mother-child pairs: 10…

  13. Far Away from the Tigers: A Year in the Classroom with Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, more than a quarter of a million children have become citizens of the United States through international adoption. Kindergarten teacher Jane Katch recently found herself with three such children in her class: Katya, born in Russia, Jasper, from Cambodia, and Caleb, from Romania. Each child had spent early years in an…

  14. The developmental outcome of children born to heroin-dependent mothers, raised at home or adopted.

    PubMed

    Ornoy, A; Michailevskaya, V; Lukashov, I; Bar-Hamburger, R; Harel, S

    1996-05-01

    In the present investigation we were interested to study the possible role of in-utero exposure to heroin and of the home environmental in the etiology of long-term developmental problems in children born to heroin-dependent parents in comparison to matched controls. The children were examined at .5-6 years of age by a developmental pediatrician and a developmental psychologist using, for the children up to 2.5 years of age, the Bayley Developmental Scales, and for children aged 3-6 years the McCarthy Scales for Children's Abilities. We examined 83 children born to heroin-dependent mothers, and compared the results to those of 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to three control groups; 50 children with environmental deprivation, 50 normal children from families of moderate or high socioeconomic class, without environmental deprivation, and 80 healthy children from kindergartens in Jerusalem. There were five children (6.0%) with significant neurological damage among the children born to heroin-dependent mothers and six (7.9%) children among those born to heroin-dependent fathers. The children born to heroin-dependent mothers had a lower birth weight and a lower head circumference at examination when compared to controls. The children born to heroin-dependent parents also had a high incidence of hyperactivity, inattention, and behavioral problems. The lowest DQ or IQ among the children with cognitive levels above 70 was found in the children with environmental deprivation, next was the DQ or IQ of children born to heroin-dependent fathers, then the DQ or IQ of the children born to heroin-dependent mothers. When the children born to heroin-dependent mothers were divided to those that were adopted at a very young age and to those raised at home, the adopted children were found to function similarly to the controls while those not adopted functioned significantly lower. Our results show that the developmental delay and behavioral disorders observed among

  15. Cultural Identity and Internationally Adopted Children: Qualitative Approach to Parental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  16. Disinhibited Attachment Disorder in UK Adopted Children During Middle Childhood: Prevalence, Validity and Possible Developmental Origin.

    PubMed

    Kay, Catherine; Green, Jonathan; Sharma, Kishan

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the prevalence, specificity and possible aetiology of Disinhibited Attachment Disorder (DAD) in adopted children without a history of institutional care. Sixty children adopted from UK out-of-home care (AD; mean age 102 months, 45 % male); 26 clinic-referred children with externalizing disorder (ED; mean age 104 months, 77 % male) but no history of maltreatment or disrupted care; and 55 matched low-risk comparison controls (LR; mean age 108 months, 49 % male) were assessed for DAD using a triangulation of parent, teacher, and research observations. Maltreatment history and child psychiatric symptoms were obtained from parent report and child language development was assessed. DAD was identified in 49 % of AD, 4 % of ED and 6 % of LR children. Seventy-two percent of AD children had suffered maltreatment. DAD was not associated with degree of risk exposure, demographics, or language. A significant association with ADHD did not explain variance in DAD prevalence across groups. DAD was significantly more common in children first admitted to out-of-home care between 7 and 24 months, independent of maltreatment severity, age at adoption and number of care placements. Implications for developmental theory, adoption policy and clinical application are discussed.

  17. Radiological pitfalls of age estimation in adopted children: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, D; De Angelis, D; Cattaneo, C

    2015-04-01

    Age estimation has a relevant importance in assessing adopted children, also in cases where the age of the minor seems unquestioned, since pathological conditions may radically alter bodily growth. This may lead to an incorrect age evaluation, with consequent social and psychological problems linked to an inadequate collocation in public school. This study aims at exposing a case report concerning age estimation for a newly adopted child from Cambodia; previous clinical documentation reported information suggesting possible malnutrition, which was verified by the observation of a general disalignment of bone and dental structures. This example shows the importance of a thorough forensic evaluation of adopted children from other countries in order to verify the possible environmental modification of physiological growth even where it seems not to be needed, and represents a caveat for clinical and social personnel dealing with adoption procedures.

  18. Language difficulties in children adopted internationally: neuropsychological and functional neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Helder, E J; Behen, M E; Wilson, B; Muzik, O; Chugani, H T

    2014-01-01

    Children who have experienced deprivation as a result of orphanage care during early development are at increased risk for a number of cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties (MacLean, 2003). This study examined the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of internationally adopted children with language difficulties, one of the most common cognitive challenges (Behen et al., 2008). In addition to neuropsychological testing, fMRI was utilized to examine activation patterns during expressive fluency and receptive language tasks. In comparison to internationally adopted children without language difficulties and nonadopted controls, participants with language difficulty had worse performance on tasks of verbal memory and reasoning, academic skills, and working memory. Behaviorally, all internationally adopted participants, regardless of language ability, had more parent-reported hyperactivity and impulsivity compared with controls. The fMRI tasks revealed reduced activation in traditional language areas in participants with language difficulty. The impact of early adverse experience on later development is discussed.

  19. Early Adversity, Hypocortisolism, and Behavior Problems at School Entry: A Study of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Mliner, Shanna B.; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children’s cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  20. Vitamin D Status and Predictors of Hypovitaminosis D in Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Vierucci, Francesco; Ghetti, Francesca; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate vitamin D status in internationally adopted children at first medical evaluation in Italy and to identify possible risk factors for hypovitaminosis D in this population. Methods 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were analyzed in internationally adopted children consecutively recruited at one Italian Center between 2010 and 2014 as part of the first screening protocol. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected. Serum 25(OH)D levels <10 ng/mL, <20 ng/mL, and <30 ng/mL were used to define severe vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D deficiency and hypovitaminosis D, respectively. Results 962 internationally adopted children (median age: 5.47 years; IQR:3.14–7.93) were included in the study. Median 25(OH)D level was 22.0 ng/mL (IQR:15.0–30.0 ng/mL); 710/962 (73.8%) children showed hypovitaminosis D (<30 ng/mL), 388/962 (40.3%) had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/dL), and 92/962 (9.6%) had severe vitamin D deficiency (<10ng/mL). No case of clinical rickets was observed. Hypovitaminosis D was particularly frequent (>90%) in children adopted from Ethiopia, Peru, India, Bulgaria and Lithuania. At multivariate analysis an increased risk of hypovitaminosis D was found to be associated with: age ≥ 6 years, time spent in Italy ≥ 3 months, blood sample taken in winter, spring or fall, compared to summer. Gender, ethnicity/continent of origin, tubercular infection, intestinal parassitosis and BMI-z-score < -2 were not associated with vitamin D status. Conclusion Hypovitaminosis D is common in internationally adopted children, from all ethnic group. The evaluation of serum 25(OH)D level could be useful early after the adoption to promptly start vitamin D supplementation/treatment if needed. PMID:27685941

  1. Human adoption in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Silk, J B

    1990-03-01

    Exploitation is a fundamental element of the parental strategies of many species of birds. Cuckoos, for example, lay their eggs in the nest of other birds, who often unwittingly rear the alien nestlings as their own. Nest parasitism is an efficient reproductive strategy for cuckoos, who do not have to worry about building a nest, incubating their eggs, or feeding their nestlings. But not all hosts respond passively to such intrusions. In response to parasitic cowbirds, for example, robins have evolved the ability to detect and selectively eject alien young from their nests. Human parenting strategies differ sharply from the strategies of cuckoos and robins. Unlike cuckoos, we are reluctant to allow our children to be raised by others. Unlike robins, we knowingly rear strange young. What makes human behavior toward children so different from that of cuckoos and robins? Humans seem to share a number of predispositions that facilitate successful adoptive relationships, and the desire to raise children seems to be pervasive among modern humans. Despite these commonalities, patterns of adoption transactions vary greatly among contemporary human societies. This paper considers the origins and causes of cross-cultural variation in human adoptive behavior from an evolutionary perspective.

  2. Microaggressions, Feelings of Difference, and Resilience Among Adopted Children with Sexual Minority Parents.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Crain, Emily E; Oakley, M K; Cashen, Krystal K; Garber, Karin J

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists about the unique experiences and possible marginalization of children with sexual minority parents. From a larger longitudinal project of diverse adoptive families, we examined cross-sectional data using mixed methods from interviews with 49 adopted children (M age = 8 years; 47% female) in 27 two-father and 22 two-mother families. Using thematic analysis, we coded themes of awareness of difference, microaggressions, and resilience (i.e., coping and positive family conceptualizations). Children experienced "feeling different" and microaggressions from peers, but generally at a low to medium intensity and with neutral (not negative) emotion. More instances of resilience and positive family conceptualizations were reported than microaggressions or feelings of difference, suggesting that children develop positive perceptions of their family and navigate experiences of difference with resilience. Filling important gaps in the literature, we discuss implications of our results for practice and policy.

  3. Alien associations.

    PubMed

    Planck, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    This story is a highly fictionalized account of events that took place during a year of Fellowship in Forensic Psychiatry, 1997-1998, at the Yale University School of Medicine, Division of Psychiatry and the Law. It is dedicated to my co-fellow, Theresa Stathas, MD, whose kindness, warmth, and support were appreciated during my fellowship year. She generously provided me with alien-themed items, such as a ballpoint pen decorated with 23 alien heads and 56 alien eyes, throughout that year.

  4. Alienation Incident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Louis

    1979-01-01

    Critiques Marxian "cures" for alienation as discussed in Karl Marx's "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts." Also traces the activity of a former student who joined the revolution in Cuba. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York, 14226. (KC)

  5. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed.

  6. Are Associations between Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment Genetically Mediated? An Adoption Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Caspi, Avshalom; DeFries, John C.; Plomin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Data from Colorado Adoption Project were used to examine hypothesis that association between parental divorce and children's adjustment is mediated by genetic factors. Findings for psychopathology were consistent with an environmentally mediated explanation for the association. Findings for achievement and social adjustment were consistent with a…

  7. Look out! "Looked after"! Look Here! Supporting "Looked after" and Adopted Children in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children who are "looked after" or adopted. Specifically it explores some of the possible effects of early life traumas and insecure attachments on brain development and subsequent learning in primary school. The article draws on a range of research which helps to outline possible difficulties which these…

  8. Linguistic interference between L1 and L2 in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon; Rosinsky-Grunhut, Ariella; Tracy, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    Bilingual children learning two languages either simultaneously or successively experience patterns of cross-language interference or facilitation due to similarities and differences between the languages. Internationally adopted toddlers are only truly bilingual for a short period of time because the first language disappears quickly after adoption. Yet residual effects of the disappearing first language might impact patterns of learning the new language. To determine if cross-language patterns affected language learning in very young children, language samples were collected from 23 children adopted from Eastern Europe between 11 and 23 months of age. Samples were collected at 6-month intervals during the first year after adoption, then annually up through age 4. Age and order of acquisition of several grammatical morphemes including V + ing, articles, contracted and uncontracted copulas, and contracted and uncontracted auxiliary were explored. These morphological structures developed in the same sequence observed in monolingual children speaking English and were not notably impacted by cross-linguistic factors from language 1. Guidelines for professionals and parents are discussed.

  9. A Developmental Study of Children's Ability to Adopt Perspectives and Find Errors in Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Hall, Vernon C.

    1991-01-01

    Children's ability to adopt perspectives and then apply schematic information on-line while listening to stories was investigated in 2 experiments with 59 second graders and 60 fourth graders. Although both subject groups had the knowledge to identify errors, fourth graders were more likely to apply such knowledge on-line during comprehension.…

  10. Atypical EEG Power Correlates with Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2011-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children (n = 37)…

  11. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households.

  12. Growing up with Distant Parents: Socialization and Alienation of "Left-Behind" Children in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of left-behind children has emerged in rural China as a result of the large-scale migration of rural farmers to urban cities since the 1990s. With the absence of parent(s) from the family, the left-behind children face crises in socialization and their relationships with their parents are threatened by physical distance. This…

  13. Structural language, pragmatic communication, behavior, and social competence in children adopted internationally: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Petranovich, Christine L; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Staat, Mary Allen; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter; Wade, Shari L

    2016-05-23

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association of structural language and pragmatic communication with behavior problems and social competence in girls adopted internationally. Participants included girls between 6-12 years of age who were internationally adopted from China (n = 32) and Eastern-Europe (n = 25) and a control group of never-adopted girls (n = 25). Children completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Parents completed the Child Communication Checklist- second edition, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales. Compared to the controls, parents in the Eastern European group reported more problems with social competence, externalizing behaviors, structural language, and pragmatic communication. The Chinese group evidenced more internalizing problems. Using generalized linear regression, interaction terms were examined to determine if the associations of pragmatic communication and structural language with behavior problems and social competence varied across groups. Controlling for general intellectual functioning, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more externalizing problems and poorer social competence. In the Chinese group, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more internalizing problems. Post-adoption weaknesses in pragmatic communication are associated with behavior problems and social competence. Internationally adopted children may benefit from interventions that target pragmatic communication.

  14. Alien Abductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  15. Measles imported to the United States by children adopted from China.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiru; Zhang, Yanyang; Ma, Yating; Zheng, Xiang; Han, Tongwu; Li, Feng; Hao, Lixin; Ma, Chao; Wang, Huaqing; Li, Li; Luo, Huiming

    2015-04-01

    In July 2013, the National Immunization Program of China was notified by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that measles was detected in 3 newly adopted, special needs children with cerebral palsy (CP) from China. We report an investigation of measles transmission in China that led to infection of these children. Interviews were conducted with welfare institute staff and panel physicians; health records of the potentially exposed population were reviewed; and immunization coverage was assessed among institute residents. Five residents with CP, all unvaccinated against measles, among who were the 3 adoptees, were linked epidemiologically into 3 generations of measles transmission antecedent to the US outbreak. In a random sample of residents, first dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV1) and MCV2 coverage was 16 of 17 (94%) and 7 of 11 (64%) among children with CP, and 100% (32 of 32) and 96% (21 of 22) among children without CP. Vaccinators reported reluctance to vaccinate children with CP because the China pharmacopeia lists encephalopathy as a contraindication to vaccination. Panel physicians reported to investigators no necessity of vaccination for adoptees to the United States if US parents sign an affidavit exempting the child from vaccination. We recommend that the China pharmacopeia vaccine contraindications be reviewed and updated, the United States should reconsider allowing vaccination exemptions for internationally adopted children unless there are true medical contraindications to vaccination, and US pediatricians should counsel adopting parents to ensure that their child is up-to-date on recommended vaccinations before coming to the United States.

  16. Acquisition of English grammatical morphology by internationally adopted children from China.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Lara J; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-11-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results from spontaneous and elicited speech showed that IA children acquired grammatical morphemes similarly to L1 learners; namely, (1) non-tense-marking morphemes were acquired earlier than tense-marking morphemes; (2) BE was acquired in synchrony with other tense-marking morphemes; and (3) a high percentage of omission errors and a low percentage of commission errors were observed.

  17. Mental health, attachment and breastfeeding: implications for adopted children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding an adopted child has previously been discussed as something that is nice to do but without potential for significant benefit. This paper reviews the evidence in physiological and behavioural research, that breastfeeding can play a significant role in developing the attachment relationship between child and mother. As illustrated in the case studies presented, in instances of adoption and particularly where the child has experienced abuse or neglect, the impact of breastfeeding can be considerable. Breastfeeding may assist attachment development via the provision of regular intimate interaction between mother and child; the calming, relaxing and analgesic impact of breastfeeding on children; and the stress relieving and maternal sensitivity promoting influence of breastfeeding on mothers. The impact of breastfeeding as observed in cases of adoption has applicability to all breastfeeding situations, but may be especially relevant to other at risk dyads, such as those families with a history of intergenerational relationship trauma; this deserves further investigation. PMID:16722597

  18. Adversity and Adjustment in Children in Institutions, Family Foster Care, and Adoption.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morago, Jesús M; León, Esperanza; Román, Maite

    2015-06-22

    This study's objective was to identify the adversity profiles of children in different childcare placements, and to analyze their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment. We studied a group of 230 children 4 to 10 years old indifferent childcare placements (international adoption, institutional care, non-kin foster care, and kinship care), as well as a control group. Information was collected from parent or caregiver interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that children in the child welfare system had experienced significant adversity before their current placement, especially among institutional care cases and international adoptees. Meanwhile, children in kinship care had experienced less adversity (p .50 to d > .80). After a period of time in their respective placements, children's psychological adjustment was generally positive, but children living in institutional care exhibited the most problems and difficulties, followed by non-kin foster care cases (p .50 to d > .80). Finally, we found that children's early adversity levels (p < .05; r = .16), age of current placement (p < .01; r = .23), and duration of current placement (p < .05: r = -.19) were all tied to current psychological adjustment.

  19. Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

  20. Aliens Behaving Badly: Children's Acquisition of Novel Purity-Based Morals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The traditional cognitive developmental perspective on moral acquisition posits that children actively construct moral beliefs by assessing the negative impacts of antisocial behaviors. This account is not easily applied to actions that are considered immoral despite lacking consequences for others' welfare. We studied the moralization of…

  1. A Three Year Follow-up of Attachment and Indiscriminate Friendliness in Children Adopted from Romanian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Assessed attachment/indiscriminate friendliness in children who spent at least eight months in Romanian orphanages (RO); a nonadopted, never-institutionalized Canadian group; and an early-adopted Romanian group. Found that RO children showed more insecure attachment and indiscriminate friendliness than others. Insecure RO children had more…

  2. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children's Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and…

  3. Adoption as an intervention for institutionally reared children: HPA functioning and developmental status.

    PubMed

    Kroupina, Maria G; Fuglestad, Anita J; Iverson, Sandra L; Himes, John H; Mason, Patrick W; Gunnar, Megan R; Miller, Bradley S; Petryk, Anna; Johnson, Dana E

    2012-12-01

    Institutional care, particularly when experienced early in life, is associated with delays in social and emotional development that often persist years after adoption. It has been hypothesized that compromise of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis due to adverse condition in institutions is a mediator of later emotional and behavioral problems. The first goal of our project was to investigate whether improvements in the social and emotional environment are associated with changes in HPA axis function. The second goal was to explore whether HPA alterations related to early social adversity were associated with more compromised general development and social and emotional functioning post adoption. Children adopted from Eastern European orphanages (N = 76, mean age was 17 months, SD = 5) were followed as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Data, including diurnal cortisol patterns, were collected at two time points: baseline (within one month of adoption) and follow-up (six months later). Cortisol values were averaged over two days of saliva sampling after wake-up and before bedtime. We found that morning cortisol values increased between the baseline assessment (M = 0.27 μg/dl, SD = 0.13) and follow-up (M = 0.33 μg/dl, SD = 0.20), t(76) = -2.1, p<0.05. HPA functioning was not associated with general developmental level at either the initial or six months post-adoption assessments. However, dysregulation of the HPA axis (i.e., flatter diurnal pattern) at follow-up was associated with more behavioral and emotional problems. Overall, these results suggest that investigating specific physiological mechanisms is important in identifying children at risk for persistent social and emotional problems and in understanding the long-term consequences of early adversity. Future work should investigate whether disturbance in the HPA system is a heightened risk for long-term negative developmental outcomes.

  4. The right to have a family: 'legal trafficking of children', adoption and birth control in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardarello, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one of the 'child-trafficking scandals' that occurred in Brazil in the 1990s. Ethnographic research was carried out between 2000 and 2001 within a movement of poor families formed in São Paulo to put pressure on the authorities to review the legal procedures that had led to their children being placed for national and international adoption. Fieldwork was supplemented by other data, including reports by legislative bodies, articles in the press, and case files involving the termination of parental rights. This paper explores views on international adoption among members of the Brazilian elites such as judges, agents in the field of child protection and journalists, in the context of old but persistent neo-Malthusian ideas. Although the Brazilian birth rate is now below the replacement level, it is still common to blame 'irresponsible' reproduction among the urban poor for violence in large cities. Drawing a parallel with the routine sterilization of women that prevailed for decades and was encouraged by Brazilian physicians, the paper examines how, in a 'struggle against poverty', judicial agents took it upon themselves to enforce 'birth control' through adoption, bypassing family consent and the law in the process. The paper concludes by arguing that discrimination against poor families who are viewed as disorganized, immoral and irresponsible - characteristics frequently associated with criminality by a sector of the elites - has contributed to the view that lower-class families do not have the right to bear children, or to keep them.

  5. Early deprivation and home basal cortisol levels: a study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Kertes, Darlene A; Gunnar, Megan R; Madsen, Nicole J; Long, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that early deprivation impairs regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, potentially increasing vulnerability to stressors throughout life. To examine early deprivation effects on basal HPA axis activity in humans, basal cortisol levels were examined in 164 internationally adopted children who had experienced varying degrees of preadoption deprivation. Duration of institutional care, age at adoption, and parent ratings of preadoption neglect indexed a latent factor of Deprived Care. Adoption measures of height and weight standardized to World Health Organisation norms indexed a latent factor of Growth Delay that was viewed as another reflection of deprivation. Cortisol samples were collected 3.3-11.6 years postadoption (Md = 7.3 years) at home on 3 days approximately 30 min after wakeup and before bedtime. Both early a.m. levels and the decrease in cortisol across the day were examined. A structural equation model revealed that preadoption Deprived Care predicted Growth Delay at adoption and Growth Delay predicted higher morning cortisol levels and a larger diurnal cortisol decrease.

  6. The negative consequences of over-diagnosing attachment disorders in adopted children: the importance of comprehensive formulations.

    PubMed

    Woolgar, Matt; Scott, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    In many child services across health, education and social care, 'attachment disorder' is a popular description and explanation for complex presentations of children who have been neglected or maltreated and is frequently used to describe fostered and adopted children. Very often the use of this term bears little resemblance to the established diagnostic systems, nor indeed to attachment theory as conceptualised by Bowlby. Its misuse can lead professionals to overlook commoner and more treatable conditions, to the detriment of the children. In fact both reactive and disinhibited attachment disorders are rare, but are becoming better characterised by high quality research. Poor understanding about the attachment disorder construct can pose particular problems for clinicians working with adopted children. The current paper briefly reviews the practical difficulties with the attachment disorder diagnosis as applied to adopted children and uses four case studies taken from a specialist Adoption and Fostering Service to highlight some of the problems for services working with adopted children. Finally, we propose some provisional recommendations for the assessment and treatment of adopted children and their families, which aim to be consistent with attachment theory as well as with the existing evidence base on wider child mental health problems.

  7. Health Care Support Issues for Internationally Adopted Children: A Qualitative Approach to the Needs and Expectations of Families

    PubMed Central

    Lesens, Olivier; Schmidt, Anna; De Rancourt, Florence; Poirier, Véronique; Labbe, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Marty, Laurent; Beytout, Jean; Vorilhon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Families of internationally adopted children may face specific problems with which general practitioners (GPs) may not be familiar. The aim of the study was to explore problems faced by families before, during and after the arrival of their internationally adopted child and to assess the usefulness of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the GP. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study using individual semistructured guided conversations and interviewed 21 families that had adopted a total of 26 children internationally in the Puy de Dome department, France, in 2003. Quantitative data were used to describe the pathologies diagnosed and the investigations performed.Our study showed that the history of these families, from the start of the adoption project to its achievement, is complex and warrants careful analysis. Health-care providers should not only consider the medical aspects of adoption, but should also be interested in the histories of these families, which may play a role in the forming of attachments between the adoptee and their adoptive parents and prevent further trouble during the development of the child. We also showed that adoptive parents have similar fears or transient difficulties that may be resolved quickly by listening and reassurance. Most such families would support the existence of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the general practitioner. However, the health-care providers interviewed were divided on the subject and expressed their fear that a special consultation could be stigmatizing to children and families. Conclusions/Significance A specific consultation with well-trained and experienced practitioners acting in close collaboration with GPs and paediatricians may be of help in better understanding and supporting adopted children and their families. PMID:22363614

  8. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent–Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  9. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development.

  10. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  11. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  12. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  13. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  14. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  15. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  16. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Davey, Mark E.; Sullivan, James R.; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V.; Liu, L. J. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Methods: Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Measurements and Main Results: Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10–50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (−16% [95% confidence interval (CI), −21 to −10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, −0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (−8% [95% CI, −16.0 to −0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. Conclusions: National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children’s exposures and improved health. PMID:25867003

  17. Clinical improvements in adopted children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders through neurodevelopmentally informed clinical intervention: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zarnegar, Zohreh; Hambrick, Erin P; Perry, Bruce D; Azen, Stanley P; Peterson, Cassandra

    2016-10-01

    Research on early intervention for young children (infants and toddlers) with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), particularly children with comorbid maltreatment experiences, is limited. Existing research has primarily focused on structuring environments to be responsive to the needs experienced by children with FASD rather than improving their functioning. The purpose of this study is to present outcomes from an early psychosocial intervention with 10 adopted, maltreated young children diagnosed with FASD, aged 10-53 months (M = 35 months), and their adoptive parents. The potential for early, targeted interventions to improve developmental outcomes for children with prenatal alcohol exposure was examined, as well as improving the skills of and reducing stress experienced by their adoptive parents. Based on the outcomes of a neurodevelopmentally informed assessment protocol, the 10 children whose data are presented were recommended to receive a range of regulatory, somatosensory, relational, and cognitive enrichments. As part of their treatment, children and caregivers received Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP), and caregivers (here, adoptive parents) also received Mindful Parenting Education (MPE). Related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank tests indicated that scores of several measures of child developmental functioning improved from pre- to post-intervention and that parents' caregiving skills improved while their caregiving stress decreased. Reliable change analyses indicated that change observed from pre- to post-intervention was reliable. The promise of using neurodevelopmentally informed assessment strategies to sequence interventions for young children with diverse neurodevelopmental insults is discussed.

  18. Does parental sexual orientation matter? A longitudinal follow-up of adoptive families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H

    2017-02-01

    Controversy continues to surround parenting by lesbian and gay (LG) adults and outcomes for their children. As sexual minority parents increasingly adopt children, longitudinal research about child development, parenting, and family relationships is crucial for informing such debates. In the psychological literature, family systems theory contends that children's healthy development depends upon healthy family functioning more so than family structure. From the framework of family stress theory, it was expected that longitudinal outcomes for school-age children adopted in infancy could be distinct among those with same-sex versus other-sex parents (N = 96 families). Similar findings were hypothesized in terms of parent adjustment, couple relationships, and family functioning in comparing same-sex and other-sex parent families. Results indicated that adjustment among children, parents, and couples, as well as family functioning, were not different on the basis of parental sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, or heterosexual) when children were school-age. Rather, children's behavior problems and family functioning during middle childhood were predicted by earlier child adjustment issues and parenting stress. These findings are consistent with and extend previous literature about families headed by LG parents, particularly those that have adopted children. The results have implications for advancing supportive policies, practices, and laws related to adoption and parenting by sexual minority adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Communication and Academic Challenges in Early Adolescence for Children Who Have Been Adopted from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Brenda L.; McGuinness, Teena M.; Blanton, Debra J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a Time II survey of outcomes for children, now ages 9 to 13 years, who were almost 4 years old on average when they were adopted from the former Soviet Union. Method: As part of a larger study (see T. McGuinness, R. Ryan, & C. Broadus Robinson, 2005), parents of 55 children (M age = 11 years) were surveyed regarding their…

  20. Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter? A Longitudinal Follow-Up of Adoptive Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Rachel H.

    2017-01-01

    Controversy continues to surround parenting by lesbian and gay (LG) adults and outcomes for their children. As sexual minority parents increasingly adopt children, longitudinal research about child development, parenting, and family relationships is crucial for informing such debates. In the psychological literature, family systems theory contends…

  1. Behavior problems, foster home integration, and evidence-based behavioral interventions: What predicts adoption of foster children?

    PubMed Central

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Spielfogel, Jill E.; Gleeson, James P.; Rolock, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adoption is particularly important for foster children with special mental health needs who are unable to return home, as adoption increases parental support often critically needed by youth with mental health issues. Unfortunately, significant behavior problems frequently inhibit foster parents from adopting, and little is known about factors that predict adoption when a child has behavior problems. Previous research suggests that foster parent behavioral training could potentially increase rates of successful adoptions for pre-school-aged foster children with behavior problems (Fisher, Kim, & Pears, 2009), but this has not been previously tested in older samples. In older children, effective treatment of behavior problems might also increase adoption by reducing the interference of behavior problems and strengthening the child’s foster home integration. This pilot study focused on this question by testing associations between behavior problems, foster home integration, an evidence-based foster parent intervention, and adoption likelihood. Methods This study used an intent-to-treat design to compare foster home integration and adoption likelihood for 31 foster children with histories of abuse and neglect whose foster parents received a foster behavioral parenting intervention (see Chamberlain, 2003) or usual services. Random effect regression analyses were used to estimate outcomes across four time points. Results As expected, externalizing behavior problems had a negative effect on both integration and adoption, and foster home integration had an independent positive effect on adoption. Internalizing behavior problems (e.g., depression/anxiety) were not related to adoption or integration. However, the intervention did not have a direct effect on either foster home integration or adoption despite its positive effect on behavior problems. Conclusions Results from this preliminary study provide further evidence of the negative effect of externalizing

  2. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to

  3. Undocumented Aliens: A Study of Mexican Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcido, Ramon M.

    1979-01-01

    The personal histories described here confirm that the primary impetus of undocumented aliens to emigrate is the desire for jobs and better socioeconomic opportunities. Amnesty, aid to families with dependent children, and increased social services are recommended. (Author/BEF)

  4. IN DEFENSE OF ALIENATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KENISTON, KENNETH

    THE TERM ALIENATION IS IN IMMINENT DANGER OF BECOMING PART OF THE VOCABULARY OF POLITE ABUSE. ONE OF THE WORD'S VIRTUES IS ITS AMBIGUITY. IN THE SOCIOLOGICAL TRADITION, ALIENATION REFERS TO A STRUCTURAL CONDITION. PEOPLE ARE ALIENATED MORE OR LESS AGAINST THEIR WILL. IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL MEANING, ALIENATION PRESUPPOSES SOME INNER ATTITUDE,…

  5. A Structural and Developmental Analysis of Symptomatic Adopted Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talen, Mary R.; Lehr, Maura L.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the unique differences of 34 adoptive families from other family systems. Defines the context of the adopted child's symptoms and the families' characteristics. The relationship between adoption and the family's structure and development are analyzed. (Author/JAC)

  6. Gender-Typed Play Behavior in Early Childhood: Adopted Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Smith, JuilAnna Z.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the gender-typed play of young children varies as a function of family structure. Using a sample of 126 couples (44 lesbian couples, 34 gay male couples, and 48 heterosexual couples) located throughout the United States, with an adopted child between the age of 2 and 4 years old (mean = 2.5 years), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior utilizing the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993). Findings revealed that the perceived play behaviors of boys and girls in same-gender parent families were more similar (i.e., less gender-stereotyped) than the perceived play behavior of boys and girls in heterosexual-parent families (which were more divergent; that is, gender-stereotyped). Sons of lesbian mothers were less masculine in their play behavior than sons of gay fathers and sons of heterosexual parents. Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents. PMID:23420542

  7. The psychosocial treatment of parental alienation.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Douglas

    2011-07-01

    Parental alienation occurs in divorces when one parent indoctrinates the child to dislike, fear, and avoid contact with the other parent. Mental health professionals who treat children and adolescents are likely to encounter victims of parental alienation in clinical practice, and it is important to identify and treat these youngsters earlier, when the condition is mild, rather than later, when the parental alienation is almost intractable. This article presents an overview of the treatment of parental alienation, which is called reunification therapy. All the parties involved in the case have a role in the prevention and treatment of parental alienation.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course.

  9. 76 FR 26302 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Reunification Procedures for Unaccompanied Alien...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; Reunification Procedures for Unaccompanied Alien Children Description Following the passage of the 2002 Homeland... Resettlement (ORR), is charged with the care and placement of unaccompanied alien children in Federal custody... unaccompanied alien. Annual Burden Estimates Number of Average Instrument Number of responses per burden...

  10. Closing the Research-Practice Gap: Factors Affecting Adoption and Implementation of a Children's Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joanna L.; MacKay, Sherri; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective interventions, they are not widely used in community mental health centers. This study examined the adoption and implementation of The Arson Prevention Program for Children (TAPP-C), a program for juvenile firesetters developed at a teaching hospital and disseminated to community settings. Questionnaire data…

  11. Adopted Children's Language Difficulties and Their Relation to Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder: FinAdo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Stolt, Suvi; Jalonen, Iina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential association between symptoms of reactive attachment disorder and language difficulties among internationally adopted children in Finland (the FinAdo study). The language difficulties were assessed using a standardised Five to Fifteen (FTF) parental questionnaire and the symptoms of reactive attachment disorder…

  12. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity Among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception.

    PubMed

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about self-label). The sample comprised 44 U.S.-based parents and their daughters ages 6 to 9 who were adopted from China. Correlation analyses revealed that parents' role variables and CS behaviors were related, and children's ethnic self-label was related to family ethnic identity and CS behaviors. Qualitative analyses point to complexities in children's ethnic identity and between family and children's ethnic identities. Together, these findings provide support for the theoretical model and suggest that although ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs) has similarities to that of nonadopted ethnic minority children, their internal experiences are more complex.

  13. Alien Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hateley, Elliott

    2010-01-01

    It has been the author's experience that children are most engaged and eager to investigate, discover and learn when immersed in creativity, be it their own or that of other people. In this article, the author describes how he created a unique way to engage his class in learning about the solar system using reality television. The theme of the…

  14. Additional Compensation on Account of Children Adopted Out of Veteran's Family. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-13

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its adjudication regulations to clarify that a veteran will not receive the dependent rate of disability compensation for a child who is adopted out of the veteran's family. This action is necessary because applicable VA adjudication regulations are currently construed as permitting a veteran, whose former child was adopted out of the veteran's family, to receive the dependent rate of disability compensation for the adopted-out child, which constitutes an unwarranted award of benefits not supported by the applicable statute and legislative history. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on December 2, 2014.

  15. 'She was a foster mother who said she didn't give cuddles': The adverse early foster care experiences of children who later struggle with adoptive family life.

    PubMed

    Meakings, Sarah; Selwyn, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Foster care remains a valuable and safe intervention for many children unable to live with their birth family. When birth family reunification is not considered possible, a small proportion of children in foster care will go on to achieve permanency by way of adoption. This article reports on some unexpected findings to emerge from two national adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. Focussing on a subset of families who had experienced or were at risk of an adoption disruption, the findings revealed that not only did children carry elevated risks for disruption due to their older age at entry to care, multiple foster care placements and traumatic early histories, but once in care, many of the children whose placements had disrupted were considered by their adoptive parents to have had very poor, even harmful fostering experiences before being placed for adoption. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, together with the implications for social work practice.

  16. Are Adopted Children and Their Parents at Greater Risk for Negative Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne; Black, Lynda K.; Pasley, B. Kay

    1998-01-01

    Adoptive (n=72) and biological (n=72) parents' responses on items related to their own well-being, attitudes toward family life, parenting behaviors and values, and perceptions of their child's behaviors were compared. No differences were found. Findings challenge pathological assumptions about adoptive families, suggesting that deficiency models…

  17. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to the Longitudinal Psychosocial Well-Being of Adopted Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmel, Cassandra

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on a statewide longitudinal sample of adopted foster youth and explores the relationship between early pre-adoption risk factors and subsequent elevated levels of psychopathology symptomatology. One central goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of preadoption stressors (prenatal drug/nicotine exposure, early…

  18. The Developmental Outcome of Children Born to Heroin-Dependent Mothers, Raised at Home or Adopted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornoy, Asher; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children born to heroin-dependent mothers (n=83) were compared to 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to 3 control groups with and without environmental deprivation and health problems. Results found that developmental delays and behavioral disorders found among heroin-exposed children resulted primarily from severe environmental…

  19. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    PubMed

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  20. Black Adoption Placement and Research Center at 25: placing African-American children in permanent homes (1983-2008).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Black Adoption Research and Placement Center is a nonprofit organization delivering culturally specific adoption and foster care services. The organization developed as a response to concerns in the African-American community about the high numbers of African-American children entering and not exiting the public foster care system. The organization has undergone significant transformations over its 25-year history in relation to social, political, and economic changes that have altered the ways that the agency finances and delivers services. The history of Black Adoption Research and Placement Center presents an organization that has weathered many challenges because of its strong leadership, its committed governing body, its external relationships, and its internal operations.

  1. Predicting Portuguese Psychology Students' Attitudes Toward the Psychological Development of Children Adopted by Lesbians and Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2016-11-01

    The present study seeks to ascertain the attitudes of Portuguese psychology students (future psychologists) toward the development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Each participant (N = 182) read a vignette describing an adoption of a child by lesbian and gay persons. After reading the vignette, participants rated four different aspects of the future development of the adopted child (psychosocial adjustment, victimization, psychological disturbance, and normative sexuality). Furthermore, participants were asked about their gender, interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men, gender role attitudes, and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Future psychologists' attitudes toward the developmental outcomes of children adopted by lesbians and gay men were associated with negative attitudes toward non-heterosexuals, which in turn correlated to interpersonal contact with lesbians and gay men and adherence to gender conservative values. These results clearly highlight the central role of social attitudes and the need for cultural competence training of future psychologists that encourages interpersonal contact with non-heterosexuals and discourages traditional gender roles and negative attitudes toward lesbian and gay men.

  2. Helping Foster and Adopted Children to Grieve the Loss of Birthparents: A Case Study Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineran, Kerrie R.

    2012-01-01

    Working with children and adolescents in the foster care system whose biological parents' parental rights have been, or are soon to be, terminated can present numerous challenges for counselors. Children in these situations often struggle with identification of conflicting feelings, grief resulting from the absence of the parent/parents, and…

  3. Children Who Lose Their Parents to HIV/AIDS: Agency Guidelines for Adoptive and Kinship Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkel-Holguin, Lisa

    Across the United States and world, children who lose their parents to HIV/AIDS are one of the fasted emerging groups affected by this epidemic. Increasingly, child welfare and family service agencies are helping infected parents to secure legal and permanent care arrangements for their children. These guidelines address the issues of placing…

  4. What leads children to adopt new strategies? A microgenetic/cross-sectional study of class inclusion.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Svetina, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Learning of class inclusion by 5-year-olds in response to empirical and logical explanations of an adult's answers was examined. Contrary to the view that young children possess an empirical bias, 5-year-olds learned more, and continued learning for longer, when given logical explanations of correct answers than when given empirical explanations. Once children discovered how to solve the problems, they showed few regressions. Many children in the microgenetic experiment followed the path of change anticipated from previous cross-sectional studies, but children in the cross-sectional part of the study seemed to follow a different path. Reasons for the superior effectiveness of the logical explanations were discussed.

  5. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  6. Coparenting among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples: Associations with Adopted Children's Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Rachel H.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2013-01-01

    Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment ("M[subscript age]" = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed…

  7. The aliens are hiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Trail goes cold on alien hotspots, for now” (28 April, http://ow.ly/MeOpZ; see also p5), which described the results of a survey that looked for unexplained pockets of infrared radiation that could have been produced by advanced alien civilizations.

  8. Alienation and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimanis, Gunars

    This paper reviews the author's research on the role of certain aspects of alienation in education. The first part of the paper discusses similarities between anomie and locus of reinforcement control, as they assess the normlessness and powerlessness aspects of alienation. The second part reports results from studies attempting to modify one's…

  9. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  10. Alienation from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hascher, Tina; Hagenauer, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aimed at understanding the time course of alienation from school and school factors that may influence alienation from school during early adolescence. In Study 1, 434 students from grade 5-8 participated (cross-sectional design). In Study 2, we followed 356 students from grade 6-7 (longitudinal design). The results confirm the…

  11. Life With the Alien: Role Casting and Face-Saving Techniques in Family Conversation with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatigante, Marilena; Fasulo, Alessandra; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    1998-01-01

    A qualitative study analyzed the distribution of participation by young children (ages 3-5) in family dinnertime conversation, focusing on "backstage talk," sequences adjacent to those in which the child is involved and within his auditory range, so that the child-projected participation-role alternates between that of addressee and overhearer.…

  12. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  13. A Study of the Adjustment of Adopted Children in Air Force Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    result from the adoptions. Supportive counseling could be helpful to these couples in their transition from a childless state to that of nurturing ...1. occasional 2. somewhat 3. very often nceer often Vd 12Y ju L 121 (15). Obesity or underweight: 0. rareJy or I. occasional 2. somewhat 3. very often...York: John Wiley & Sons. Erikson, E. H. (1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York: W. W. Norton. Erikson, E. H. (1985). Childhood and society

  14. "A Space to Float with Someone": Recovering Play as a Field of Repair in Work with Parents of Late-Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Research has increasingly focused on play as a social rather than a solitary domain. Play is a stage on which conflicts and wishes may be expressed to a responsive and containing other. As a group, late-adopted latency children show high levels of inhibition, regression and catastrophe in play, and adoptive parents may find this hard to engage…

  15. Race and bicultural socialization in the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States of America in the adoptions of children from India.

    PubMed

    Riley-Behringer, Maureen; Groza, Victor; Tieman, Wendy; Juffer, Femmie

    2014-04-01

    A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues. Country-specific differences were revealed: The United States and Norway (greatest Indian populations) reported the greatest similarity in BCS practices, classmates being a source of negative reactions/racial discrimination, and parental worry. The American sample encountered greater negative reactions to adoption from others; Dutch children experienced the least negative reactions from others overall, yet as in the United States (samples with the greatest minority heterogeneity) they still noted significant experiences of racial discrimination. Country-specific sociopolitical perceptions about adoption, ethnicity/race, and immigration are considered as factors that may have been used to inform parenting practices that facilitate children's biculturalism into family life (i.e., adoptive family stigma, percentages of Indian/minority populations, immigration policy trends). Concluding, cross-national research such as the current study may help intercountry adoption policymakers and practitioners to better understand and inform BCS practices in adoptive families.

  16. Uncovered Coping Strategies Adopted by Children Living in Homes with Marital Conflicts for Their Own Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawuo, Ebenezer A.; Machumu, Haruni J.; Kimaro, Anathe R.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that marital conflict pertains to three particular dimensions of communication including affect, conflict behaviours and conflict management and these affect conflict choice of management strategies. This paper explored the problems and coping strategies of children from homes with marital conflicts in Tanga City, Tanzania. An…

  17. Disassociating Maturation and Language Development: Evidence from Internationally Adopted and Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geren, Joy Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Typically language development in children closely coincides with development in many other areas. This makes it difficult to determine whether observed correlations are coincidental or causal in nature. The three studies presented here explore these relationships by looking at two populations of learners who are delayed in exposure to English,…

  18. Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

  19. After adoption: dissolution or permanence?

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  20. Coparenting among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples: associations with adopted children's outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2013-01-01

    Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment (Mage  = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed by lesbian, gay, or heterosexual couples. Lesbian and gay couples reported sharing child care, whereas heterosexual couples reported specialization (i.e., mothers did more child care than fathers). Observations confirmed this pattern-lesbian and gay parents participated more equally than heterosexual parents during family interaction. Lesbian couples showed the most supportive and least undermining behavior, whereas gay couples showed the least supportive behavior, and heterosexual couples the most undermining behavior. Overall, supportive coparenting was associated with better child adjustment.

  1. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  2. Achieving timely adoption.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  3. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Howard, Amanda R Hiles; Parris, Sheri R; Call, Casey D; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre-post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities.

  4. Infectious diseases prevalence, vaccination coverage, and diagnostic challenges in a population of internationally adopted children referred to a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sollai, Sara; Ghetti, Francesca; Bianchi, Leila; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children (IAC). With the objective to evaluate infectious diseases prevalence in a large cohort of IAC and to explore possible risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and parasitic infections, clinical and laboratory data at first screening visit of all IAC (<18 years) consecutively referred to our Center in 2009 to 2015 were collected and analyzed. In total, 1612 children (median age: 5.40 years; interquartile range: 3.00–7.90) were enrolled, 123/1612 (7.60%) having medical conditions included in the special needs definition. The most frequent cutaneous infections were Molluscum contagiosum (42/1612; 2.60%) and Tinea capitis (37/1612; 2.30%). Viral hepatitis prevalence was <1% (hepatitis B virus [HBV]: 13 children, 0.80%; hepatitis C virus: 1 child, 0.10%; hepatitis A virus: 6 children, 0.40%). A parasitic infection was diagnosed in 372/1612 (23.10%) children. No risk factors for parasitosis were evidenced. Active TB was diagnosed in 4/1355 (0.3%) children, latent TB in 222/1355 (16.40%). Only 3.7% (51/1355) children had concordant positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) results. Risk factors for TST+/QFT-G-IT− results were previous Bacille de Calmette-Guérin vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.18; 96% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26–3.79; P = 0.006), and age ≥5 years (aOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06–2.11; P = 0.02). The proportion of children with nonprotective titers for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) ranged from 15.70% (208/1323) for tetanus to 35.10% (469/1337) for HBV. Infectious diseases were commonly observed in our cohort. The high rate of discordant TST/QFT-G results brings up questions regarding the optimal management of these children, and suggests that, at least in children older than 5 years, only QFT-G-IT results may be reliable. The low proportion of children protected for VPD, confirms importance of a timely screening. PMID

  5. 77 FR 61776 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for Alien Fiancé(e), Form I-129F, Revision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Alien Fianc (e), Form I-129F, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The...) Title of the Form/Collection: Petition for Alien Fianc (e). (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... citizen of the United States in order to petition for an alien fianc (e), spouse, or his/her children....

  6. 77 FR 74487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for Alien Fiance(e), Form Number I-129F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Alien Fiance(e), Form Number I-129F; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 30-day notice... Alien Fiance(e). (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the DHS sponsoring the... citizen of the United States in order to petition for an alien fiance(e), spouse, or his/her children....

  7. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  8. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  9. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  10. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  11. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  12. Paroxysmal alien hand syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Leiguarda, R; Starkstein, S; Nogués, M; Berthier, M; Arbelaiz, R

    1993-01-01

    Four patients are described who presented with a paroxysmal form of the alien hand syndrome. Two patients with damage to one frontomedial cortex had brief episodes of abnormal motor behaviour of the contralateral arm that featured groping, grasping, and apparently purposeful but perseverative movements, which both patients interpreted as alien or foreign. The other two patients, with posterior parietal damage, reported a paroxysmal feeling of unawareness of the location of the contralateral arm, lack of recognition of the arm as their own, purposeless movements, and personification of the arm. These cases represent a new form of the alien hand syndrome manifested by brief, paroxysmal episodes, which may be due to ictal mechanisms. Images PMID:8331355

  13. Footprints of alien technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2012-04-01

    If alien civilizations do, or did, exist, their technology will impact their environment. Some consideration has been given to the detection of large-scale astro-engineering, such as Dyson spheres. However, a very advanced technology might leave more subtle footprints requiring sophisticated scientific methods to uncover. We must not overlook the possibility that alien technology has impacted our immediate astronomical environment, even Earth itself, but probably a very long time ago. This raises the question of what traces, if anything, might remain today. I shall consider the possibilities of biological, geological and physical traces, and suggest ways that we might search for them.

  14. Reconsidering Teacher Alienation: A Critique of "Teacher Burnout in the Public Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Research on teacher burnout, stress, and alienation lacks emphasis on the social milieu in which teachers work. In his book, Anthony Dworkin adopts the subjective approach, eliminating any analysis of actual teacher working conditions. Furthermore, he muddles Marx's theory of alienation of labor. (Author/BJV)

  15. Aliens and atheism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Sergio; de Muynck, Willem; Virginia; Peerally, Abed; Tyler, David; Stephen

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Aliens and atheists" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CQzu4), about a survey that found that atheists are more likely than religious people to believe that life exists on other planets.

  16. Alien Life Imagined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  17. The Origins of Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1974-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in the structure of the American family have led to an increase in the estrangement between young people and adults in the United States. The role of day care services, peer groups, schools, the community, and the organization of work are discussed in terms of their contribution to this alienation as well as possible changes…

  18. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today.

  19. New Help for Children Raised by Grandparents and Other Relatives: Questions and Answers about the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication is intended to help ensure full and prompt implementation of the improvements in the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act for children being raised by grandparents and other relatives. It was prepared by 18 organizations, many of whom have been working individually and together for a number of years to…

  20. Illinois Department of Children and Family Services Text of Adopted Rules. Subchapter e: Requirements for Licensure. Part 407: Licensing Standards for Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.

    Reprinted in this document are day care center licensing standards adopted and codified, effective August 1983, by the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services and amended June 1984 and January 1985. Sections of the report concern purpose, definitions, effective date of standards, application for license and license renewal, provisions…

  1. Adoption: Misunderstood, Mythologized, Marginalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.

    2003-01-01

    Implications are discussed in response to the Major Contribution in this issue reviewing the history, controversies, and theoretical and research literature related to adoption. Practice recommendations for therapists working with adopted children and their families are clustered around three prominent themes in the reviews by Lee, O'Brien and…

  2. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Hiles Howard, Amanda R.; Parris, Sheri R.; Call, Casey D.; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S.; Purvis, Karyn B.; Cross, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre–post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities. PMID:26072917

  3. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  4. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  5. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  6. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  7. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  8. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  9. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  10. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  11. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  12. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  13. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  14. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  15. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  16. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  17. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  18. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  19. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  20. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  1. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  2. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  3. 8 CFR 204.306 - Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption. 204.306 Section 204.306 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee §...

  4. 8 CFR 204.306 - Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption. 204.306 Section 204.306 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee §...

  5. 8 CFR 204.306 - Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption. 204.306 Section 204.306 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee §...

  6. 8 CFR 204.306 - Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption. 204.306 Section 204.306 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee §...

  7. 8 CFR 204.311 - Convention adoption home study requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Convention adoption home study requirements... IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee § 204.311 Convention adoption home study requirements. (a) Purpose. For immigration purposes, a home study is a process for screening and preparing...

  8. 8 CFR 204.311 - Convention adoption home study requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Convention adoption home study requirements... IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee § 204.311 Convention adoption home study requirements. (a) Purpose. For immigration purposes, a home study is a process for screening and preparing...

  9. The alien hand syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Panikkath, Deepa; Mojumder, Deb; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with the complaint of observing her left hand moving without her knowledge while watching television. Her left hand stroked her face and hair as if somebody was controlling it. These movements lasted only half an hour but on recovery, she had left hemiparesis. Alien hand syndrome as the presentation of cardioembolic stroke is extremely rare but can be terrifying to patients. PMID:24982566

  10. Captured by Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  11. Alienation, authenticity and the self.

    PubMed

    Rae, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    While many commentators have held that the concept "alienation" is of crucial importance when attempting to understand human existence, others have held that it is an inherently empty concept that we should abandon. In this article, I refute the latters' charge by showing that each conception of "alienation" is underpinned by a normative ontological conception of the preferable, or authentic, self and show that the concept "alienation" has ethical, existential and socio-political uses. From this I conclude that, when properly understood, the concept "alienation" can provide us with vital insights into human existence.

  12. 22 CFR 99.2 - Reporting requirements for adoption cases involving children emigrating from the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... emigration of a child from the United States to a foreign country: (1) Name, date of birth of child, and place of birth of child; (2) The U.S. State from which the child is emigrating; (3) The country to which... (generally the time the child is matched with adoptive parents); (2) Date of U.S. final adoption or date...

  13. Disentangling the effects of cognitive development and linguistic expertise: a longitudinal study of the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted children.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L

    2012-08-01

    Early language development is characterized by predictable changes in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. In infants, these changes could reflect increasing linguistic expertise or cognitive maturation and development. To disentangle these factors, we compared the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted preschoolers and internationally-adopted infants. Parental reports and speech samples were collected for 1 year. Both groups showed the qualitative shifts that characterize first-language acquisition. Initially, they produced single-word utterances consisting mostly of nouns and social words. The appearance of verbs, adjectives and multiword utterances was predicted by vocabulary size in both groups. Preschoolers did learn some words at an earlier stage than infants, specifically words referring to the past or future and adjectives describing behavior and internal states. These findings suggest that cognitive development plays little role in the shift from referential terms to predicates but may constrain children's ability to learn some abstract words.

  14. Desperately seeking aliens.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, B W

    2001-02-22

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable--elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  15. Desperately seeking aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Brian W.

    2001-02-01

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable - elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  16. Alienation and the Negotiation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Charles F.

    The author makes three assumptions in discussing the effect of collective negotiations on teachers' sense of alienation: first, alienation is a multidimensional concept that, in this context, is taken to derive from within the organizational setting of the school system; second, school systems are organized as bureaucracies containing more or less…

  17. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions.

  18. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  19. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted.

  20. Breaking the Cycle of Educational Alienation: A Multiprofessional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard; Pritchard, Colin

    2006-01-01

    In this groundbreaking book, the authors show how the cycle of educational alienation can be broken, to enable parents and schools to work together to contribute to children's educational, social and emotional well-being. They illustrate this by exploring a highly successful initiative in a school with severe socioeconomic disadvantages, which, in…

  1. Subsidized Adoption across the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm; Triseliotis, John

    1991-01-01

    Notes differences between American and British contexts and formulations of adoption payments. Highlights key findings from a research project that evaluated the impact of adoption allowances in Scotland. Gives particular attention to children's views about being adopted with financial help. (GH)

  2. Parenting Children Who Have Been Prenatally Exposed to Drugs or Alcohol: A Handbook for Foster and Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.; And Others

    This manual provides an overview of the early child development of normal children with low birthweight who have been exposed to drugs before birth. The research on children exposed to cocaine and alcohol during the prenatal period is reviewed, as are the results of studies showing deficiencies in language and social development of drug-exposed…

  3. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  4. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    PubMed

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  5. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Mucchetti, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468–478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5–8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84–96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70 % of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363

  6. Adoption and Single Parents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groze, Vic

    1991-01-01

    Examines the literature about people who choose to become single adoptive parents. Reviews the demographic and personal characteristics of single parents who adopt, and summarizes the experiences of single parents with the children they adopt. Calls for further research on single parents who adopt special needs children. (GH)

  7. 78 FR 66609 - National Adoption Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9049 of October 31, 2013 National Adoption Month, 2013 By the President of... million children and teenagers. During National Adoption Month, we celebrate these families and stand... parents and children. This month, we celebrate adopted children, teenagers, and their diverse families....

  8. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  9. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  10. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  11. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  12. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  13. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  14. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  15. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  16. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  17. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  18. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  19. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  20. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  1. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  2. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  3. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  4. "We're Still Human Beings, We're Not Aliens": Promoting the Citizenship Rights and Cultural Diversity of Traveller Children in Schools--Scottish and English Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuchar, Ross; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of Traveller children in schools. It uses data from two studies (one in Scotland and the other in England) to examine Traveller children's views about attending school (particularly in relation to their values and ambitions), their experiences of racism and prejudice and their views on how teachers perceive…

  5. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS.

  6. School Adoption Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Doris

    Zions First National Bank in Utah adopted a local school in Garrison with a student body of 11, and invited them to participate in their Christmas tree program and a field trip to Salt Lake City. The venture proved so popular and rewarding for the children and bank staff that more field trips were funded and later, when the school burned down, the…

  7. A tool to assess potential for alien plant establishment and expansion under climate change.

    PubMed

    Roger, Erin; Duursma, Daisy Englert; Downey, Paul O; Gallagher, Rachael V; Hughes, Lesley; Steel, Jackie; Johnson, Stephen B; Leishman, Michelle R

    2015-08-15

    Predicting the influence of climate change on the potential distribution of naturalised alien plant species is an important and challenging task. While prioritisation of management actions for alien plants under current climatic conditions has been widely adopted, very few systems explicitly incorporate the potential of future changes in climate conditions to influence the distribution of alien plant species. Here, we develop an Australia-wide screening tool to assess the potential of naturalised alien plants to establish and spread under both current and future climatic conditions. The screening tool developed uses five spatially explicit criteria to establish the likelihood of alien plant population establishment and expansion under baseline climate conditions and future climates for the decades 2035 and 2065. Alien plants are then given a threat rating according to current and future threat to enable natural resource managers to focus on those species that pose the largest potential threat now and in the future. To demonstrate the screening tool, we present results for a representative sample of approximately 10% (n = 292) of Australia's known, naturalised alien plant species. Overall, most alien plant species showed decreases in area of habitat suitability under future conditions compared to current conditions and therefore the threat rating of most alien plant species declined between current and future conditions. Use of the screening tool is intended to assist natural resource managers in assessing the threat of alien plant establishment and spread under current and future conditions and thus prioritise detailed weed risk assessments for those species that pose the greatest threat. The screening tool is associated with a searchable database for all 292 alien plant species across a range of spatial scales, available through an interactive web-based portal at http://weedfutures.net/.

  8. 75 FR 68166 - National Adoption Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... countless American lives, and to encourage the adoption of children from foster care. Currently, thousands of children await adoption or are in foster care, looking forward to permanent homes. These children... children out of foster care. Last year, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius was...

  9. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…

  10. Trust-Based Relational Intervention[TM]: Interactive Principles for Adopted Children with Special Social-Emotional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Karyn B.; Cross, David R.; Pennings, Jacquelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Children who experience abuse, neglect, and/or trauma are disproportionately represented among those who deteriorate into challenging and pervasive behavioral disorders. The TrustBased Relational Intervention [TM] Interactive Principles, described in this article, have been used effectively in a variety of settings, including camps, homes,…

  11. Examining Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy as a Treatment for Adopted and Foster Children: A Review of Research and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Dyadic developmental psychotherapy (DDP) is a mental health intervention intended primarily for children with problematic attachment histories. It has received increased attention in the United Kingdom and the United States in the last few years. DDP has been publicized as a research-supported treatment, but a review of research shows that it does…

  12. Enhancing Reading Skills and Reading Self-Concept of Children with Reading Difficulties: Adopting a Dual Approach Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornery, Samantha; Seaton, Marjorie; Tracey, Danielle; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the need for, and the structure and contents of, a reading program to help support children disadvantaged by reading difficulties. The program, delivered by trained and supported volunteers, lasts for 15 weeks. It uses a novel dual approach which aims to improve students' reading skills and simultaneously enhance their…

  13. Parental Alienation Syndrome in Italian legal judgments: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lavadera, Anna Lubrano; Ferracuti, Stefano; Togliatti, Marisa Malagoli

    2012-01-01

    The present study highlights the characteristics of separated families in Italy for whom Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) has been diagnosed during court custody evaluations. The study analyzed the psychological reports of 12 court-appointed expert evaluations of families for whom PAS had been diagnosed. Twelve evaluations that did not receive the PAS diagnosis served as a control group. A specific coding system was used for data analysis. The results indicated that the alienating parents were always the parents who had custody of the children. Children who were diagnosed with PAS were predominantly the only child in the family, had identity problems and manifested manipulative behavior. The consultant in these cases suggested individual psychotherapy for the children and recommended foster care to the Social Services agency.

  14. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  15. Contributions of Parent-Adolescent Negative Emotionality, Adolescent Conflict, and Adoption Status to Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2012-01-01

    Although most adopted children are well adjusted, decades of descriptive research have consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. Yet we have little understanding of the specific contributing factors that help explain this increased risk. Therefore, the present investigation tested a process model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors. The study included 616 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS; McGue et al., 2007). The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Findings support two conflict-mediated family processes that contributed to externalizing behaviors: one initiated by parent-adolescent traits, and one by adoption status. Findings also underscore the salience of conflict in families and the significance of aggressive traits over the other lower order traits (alienation, stress reactivity) and higher order negative emotionality in our proposed process. Contrary to previous research, we found that adoption status did not directly add to our explanation of adolescent externalizing behaviors beyond our proposed process. Instead, adoption status was indirectly associated with externalizing problems through a conflict-mediated relationship. PMID:22023274

  16. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  17. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  18. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  19. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  20. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  1. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  2. Graffiti and "Film School" Culture: Displaying Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibel, Dean

    1994-01-01

    Examines graffiti created by students in "film school" as an organizational document. Finds themes related to alienation and the discourse that counters the sources of that alienation. Shows how the humorous communicative style of graffiti creates tension among cultural meanings that mediates between alienation and liberation. (SR)

  3. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  4. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  5. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  6. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  7. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  8. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  9. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  10. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  11. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  12. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  13. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  14. Peer victimization and social alienation: predicting deviant peer affiliation in middle school.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Lansford, Jennifer E; Agoston, Anna M; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2014-01-01

    Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children's social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K-7th grade; 5-12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd-6th grade; 8-12 years), children, parents, peers, and teachers reported on children's externalizing behavior and internalizing symptoms, peer victimization, social alienation, and DPA. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: Peer victimization predicted social alienation, which then predicted DPA. Early externalizing behavior set this path in motion and made an independent contribution to DPA. This research identifies an important pathway through which externalizing behavior and consequent peer victimization launch children onto a risky social trajectory.

  15. The parental alienation debate belongs in the courtroom, not in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Houchin, Timothy M; Ranseen, John; Hash, Phillip A K; Bartnicki, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The DSM-5 Task Force is presently considering whether to adopt parental alienation disorder (PAD) as a mental illness. Although controversy has surrounded PAD since its inception in 1985, pro-PAD groups and individuals have breathed new life into the push to establish it as a mental health diagnosis. In this analysis, we argue that it would be a serious mistake to adopt parental alienation disorder as a formal mental illness in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).

  16. Connecting the Dots: Exploring Themes in Adoption Picturebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattix, April A.; Crawford, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 1.4 million school-aged children entered their families through adoption. As such, adoption represents a real and complex social issue with which young children--adopted or not--can grapple. Adoption picturebooks provide a medium by which children can explore this complicated concept. This manuscript analyzes a standard library…

  17. Communication Development in Infants and Toddlers Adopted from Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 20,000 children are adopted from foreign countries each year. Of these children, approximately 46% are adopted before they are 12 months old and 43% are adopted between 1 and 4 years of age. The development of children adopted from abroad before or by 2 years of age is the focus of this article. Given the impoverished language input…

  18. 8 CFR 204.306 - Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... based on a Convention adoption. 204.306 Section 204.306 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee § 204.306 Classification as an immediate relative based on a Convention adoption. (a) Unless 8 CFR...

  19. [Adoptive parents' satisfaction with the adoption experience and with its impact on family life].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sandoval, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we discuss the relevance of adoptive families' satisfaction in the assessment of adoption processes. The effects of adoption on a sample group of 272 adoptive families are analyzed. Most families show high levels of satisfaction as to: their decision to adopt, the features of their adopted children and how adoption has affected them as individuals and as a family. Statistical analyses show that these families can have different satisfaction levels depending on certain features of the adoptees, of the adoptive families or of their educational style. Life satisfaction of the adoptees is also related to how their adoptive parents evaluate the adoption.

  20. Adolescent Alienation: Assessment and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetro, Joyce V.

    Adolescents struggle to establish their own identities and become independent in making the transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescent alienation can result from changes in family structure from traditional two-parent families to one-parent families, decreased family stability, increased mobility of society, population increases,…

  1. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  2. Can we Communicate with Aliens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csányi, V.; Kampis, Gy.

    The subject of this paper is: what answer can be given if the aliens are neither animals nor humans of an unknown culture, but specimens of an extraterrestrial intelligence? If we generalize this question, we may ask, how and to what extent is communication possible among intelligent beings?

  3. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  4. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  5. Adoption law: a district nurse's guide.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-04-01

    The Government wants to see a large rise in the use of adoption as a means of giving children a secure, loving and permanent home. Guidance coming into effect from April calls for a more pragmatic approach to adoption placements, and calls for the active promotion of the adoption process by health and social care professionals. District nurses will encounter people interested in becoming prospective adopters, but who are unsure if their background or lifestyle makes them eligible. It is essential that district nurses have a working understanding of the guidance and provisions of the Adoption and Children Act 2002 to confidently advise others about adoption and clarify any issues raised.

  6. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  7. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  8. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  9. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in...

  10. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in...

  11. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  12. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  13. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  14. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  15. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in...

  16. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  17. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  18. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in...

  19. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  20. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in...

  1. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  2. Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions. PMID:25165531

  3. 'Would you eat an alien?'

    PubMed

    2016-12-10

    A novel way of exploring comparative cognition, animal welfare ethics and human-animal relations formed the basis of this year's Wooldridge Memorial Lecture, held during the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show last month. Christine Nicol, of the University of Bristol, shared her experiences of making the BBC Radio 4 series 'Would you eat an alien?' and gave an insight into the ethical dilemmas that formed the basis of the programme. Laura Honey reports.

  4. Soldier Alienation: A Measureable Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    to the general question, "Who is today’s soldier and hoW should she/he be treated in order to maximize performance?" The technology exists to perform...modify expectations (Meglino, Youngblood, Randolph, Mobly , and DeNise, 1979). The approach suggested, then, would involve longitudinal research aired...In W. H. Truitt & G. Lolomons (Eds.), Science, Technology and Freedom. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974. Lee, A. M. An obituary for alienation, Social

  5. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  6. Unauthorized Aliens in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-27

    some two-stage legalization proposals, such as the McCain- Kennedy bill introduced in the 109th Congress (S. 1033), unauthorized aliens would apply...Act of 2005 (S. 1438), also introduced in the 109th Congress, would have authorized DHS to grant a new status—Deferred Mandatory Departure ( DMD ...could have received DMD status. DHS could have granted an alien DMD status for a period of up to five years. Aliens in DMD status could not have

  7. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  8. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  9. Self-acceptance: a factor in the adoption process.

    PubMed

    DiGiulio, J F

    1988-01-01

    This study determined that high self-acceptance of adoptive parents influenced high parental acceptance of their adopted children. A case is made for emphasizing self-acceptance in adoption procedures.

  10. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  11. The Transracial Adoption Debate in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Mary K.

    Transracial adoption, especially the adoption of black children by whites, is a deep and divisive social issue. Critics note the untapped potential for black families to adopt black children and the unaddressed conditions that bring black children to higher incidence of foster care placement. They emphasize the inability of white parents to…

  12. Our Own: Adopting and Parenting the Older Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskew, Trish

    Children adopted when they are older come with histories, fully formed personalities, and intense anger over what they have lost. Drawing on stories of families who have adopted older children, as well as research, interviews with professionals, and opinions of adults who were adopted as children, this book explores the joys and challenges of…

  13. Accepting adoption's uncertainty: the limited ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    An increasing number of children are adopted in the United States from countries where both medical care and environmental conditions are extremely poor. In response to worries about the accuracy of medical histories, prospective adoptive parents increasingly request genetic testing of children prior to adoption. Though a general consensus on the ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing (PAGT) argues against permitting genetic testing on children available for adoption that is not also permitted for children in general, a view gaining traction argues for expanding the tests permitted. The reasoning behind this view is that the State has a duty to provide a child with parents who are the best "match," and thus all information that advances this end should be obtained. While the matching argument aims to promote the best interests of children, I show how it rests on the claim that what is in the best interests of children available for adoption is for prospective adoptive parents to have their genetic preferences satisfied such that the "genetics" of the children they end up adopting accurately reflects those preferences. Instead of protecting a vulnerable population, I conclude, PAGT contributes to the risks of harm such children face as it encourages people with strong genetic preferences to adopt children whose genetic backgrounds will always be uncertain.

  14. Fanon and the Problem of Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessous, Naaman

    1987-01-01

    The notion of alienation as presented in the writings of Frantz Fanon needs a theoretical analysis which considers its economic, racial and political aspects. Marx wrote on alienation in a similar way portraying it as a self-fulfilling prophecy which is fraught with violence and dehumanization. (VM)

  15. Alienating Students: Marxist Theory in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Megan; Pan, Yung-Yi Dian; Molina, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Karl Marx's revolutionary call, "Workers of the World Unite," resonates with many in today's society. This article describes and assesses an easily reproducible classroom activity that simulates both alienating, and perhaps more importantly, non-alienating states of production as described by Marx. This hands-on learning activity gives…

  16. Alienation and the Four Worlds of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the four worlds of childhood and the ways that alienation in adolescents can be counteracted through the creation of interconnecting links. The risks of losing youths to alienating factors caused by institutions, the social structure, and the pressures under which schools and families function is the highest it has ever been. (MD)

  17. Black, White, and Brown Adolescent Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heussenstamm, F. K.; Hoepfner, Ralph

    This study, based on cultural stereotypes, seeks to determine the demographic characteristics which differentiate among young people and correlate with their levels of alienation. A preliminary version of an experimental scale, designed to determine the existence and extent of alienation manifested by in-school adolescents, was developed in a…

  18. Reducing Classroom Alienation: Applications from Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Barbara R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides advice on minimizing classroom alienation (powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and self-estrangement) through specific classroom strategies. Concludes that student alienation effects learning as well as evaluation. A conscious effort to increase student integration improves teaching, student learning, and the…

  19. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  20. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  1. The Social Construction of Adoption: Clinical and Community Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miall, Charlene E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the social construction of adoptive parenting and adopted children as reflected in clinical and adoption triangle research. Although clinicians view adoptive families as second best to biologically related families, a random sample of 150 respondents did not differentiate between the functioning of adoptive and biologically related…

  2. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS;...

  3. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  4. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  5. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  7. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  8. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  9. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  10. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  11. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  12. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  13. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  14. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS;...

  15. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 235.3 Section 235.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.3 Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (a)...

  16. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  17. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS;...

  18. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  19. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section 273.4... Citizenship § 273.4 Citizenship and alien status. (a) Household members meeting citizenship or alien status... alien who has been subjected to a severe form of trafficking in persons and who is certified by...

  20. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties,...

  1. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 235.3 Section 235.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.3 Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. (a)...

  2. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  3. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties,...

  4. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  5. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties,...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  7. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  8. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  9. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded...

  10. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  11. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  12. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  13. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  14. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  15. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  16. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes of the...

  17. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  18. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  19. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  20. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section 273.4... Citizenship § 273.4 Citizenship and alien status. (a) Household members meeting citizenship or alien status... alien who has been subjected to a severe form of trafficking in persons and who is certified by...

  1. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  2. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded...

  3. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  4. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded...

  5. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section 273.4... Citizenship § 273.4 Citizenship and alien status. (a) Household members meeting citizenship or alien status... alien who has been subjected to a severe form of trafficking in persons and who is certified by...

  7. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded...

  8. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  9. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  10. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  11. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  12. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties,...

  13. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  14. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  15. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  16. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  17. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section....6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is required to... gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  19. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded...

  20. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  1. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  2. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  4. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS;...

  5. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  6. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  7. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties,...

  8. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS;...

  9. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  10. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  11. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  12. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section 273.4... Citizenship § 273.4 Citizenship and alien status. (a) Household members meeting citizenship or alien status... alien who has been subjected to a severe form of trafficking in persons and who is certified by...

  13. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  14. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  16. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  18. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  19. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  20. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  1. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  2. "You can always adopt": what clinic staff need to know about adoption and fostering?

    PubMed

    Balen, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents information and research about adoption and fostering, and explains some of the relevant processes. In order that those providing infertility services can play an informed, supportive and empowering role in the decision-making of those whose infertility treatment has been unsuccessful, a number of issues are highlighted. These include the changing profile of children awaiting adoption and fostering; ongoing contact between children and their birth families; the adoption of children from abroad; moving from infertility treatment to adoption or fostering; and the potential ongoing impact of infertility and failed treatment.

  3. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    PubMed

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  4. Parental Bonding in Older-Child Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Examines various factors (such as periods of high emotion, ritual and claiming behaviors and positive interaction) in the attachment process between adoptive parents and older children. Shows that most components parallel those of bonding in biological parents. (Author/RH)

  5. Are You Pregnant and Thinking about Adoption?

    MedlinePlus

    ... place their children for adoption include money problems, personal goals, and family attitudes. Why do some expectant ... your child learn more about his or her personal history, family background, medical information, and the reasons ...

  6. Problems Experienced by Children with Cognitive Visual Dysfunction Due to Cerebral Visual Impairment--and the Approaches Which Parents Have Adopted to Deal with These Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillop, Elisabeth; Bennett, David; McDaid, Gillian; Holland, Barbara; Smith, Garth; Spowart, Katherine; Dutton, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Damage to the brain in children results in a multiplicity of visual difficulties which have to be managed both at home and at school. Parents of such children have detailed knowledge about the nature and characteristics of their child's visual difficulties and develop a range of coping strategies, often without realizing they have done so. The…

  7. Undocumented aliens and uncompensated care: whose responsibility?

    PubMed Central

    Siddharthan, K; Alalasundaram, S

    1993-01-01

    Undocumented aliens concentrated in metropolitan areas and certain Sunbelt states can financially burden local health agencies and may interfere with access to health care for indigent populations that are legally resident. Data collected from Jackson Memorial Hospital, which provides the bulk of indigent medical services in Dade County, Florida, are used to investigate the problem of providing uncompensated care to undocumented aliens. Policy alternatives concerning immigration issues and reimbursement are discussed. PMID:8031329

  8. Undocumented aliens and uncompensated care: whose responsibility?

    PubMed

    Siddharthan, K; Alalasundaram, S

    1993-03-01

    Undocumented aliens concentrated in metropolitan areas and certain Sunbelt states can financially burden local health agencies and may interfere with access to health care for indigent populations that are legally resident. Data collected from Jackson Memorial Hospital, which provides the bulk of indigent medical services in Dade County, Florida, are used to investigate the problem of providing uncompensated care to undocumented aliens. Policy alternatives concerning immigration issues and reimbursement are discussed.

  9. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  10. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  11. Issues in Adoption and Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, H. Philip

    This speech presents an overview of issues and trends in the provision of foster care and adoption services in Canada. The number of children "in care" in Canada (in foster homes, institutions, or adoptive homes) appears to have peaked around 1969 and declined thereafter. Information on contraceptives and the availaibility of abortions…

  12. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  13. Creating Grander Families: Older Adults Adopting Younger Kin and Nonkin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinterlong, James; Ryan, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There is a dearth of research on older adoptive parents caring for minor children, despite a growing number of such adoptions finalized each year. This study offers a large-scale investigation of adoptive families headed by older parents. We describe these families and explore how preadoptive kinship between the adoptive parent and the…

  14. Adoption and the Guatemalan Journey to American Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    Examining the adoption of Guatemalan children by US citizens, this article argues that adoptive parents make meanings and form identities through their participation in the adoption process and in their production of both Internet-based and spoken narratives about adoption. Using theories of globalization and narrative theory, the article…

  15. "You must eat the salad because it is nutritious". Argumentative strategies adopted by parents and children in food-related discussions at mealtimes.

    PubMed

    Bova, Antonio; Arcidiacono, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    At mealtimes, the evaluation of the appropriate (or not appropriate) behavior concerning the food is often assumed as a topic of discourse. The aim of this study is to single out the argumentative strategies used by parents with their children and by children with their parents in order to convince the other party to eat or not to eat a certain food. Within a data corpus constituted by 30 video-recorded meals of 10 middle to upper-middle-class Swiss and Italian families, we selected a corpus of 77 argumentative discussions between parents and children arisen around a food-related issue. Data are presented through discursive excerpts of argumentative discussions that were found within the data corpus and analyzed through the pragma-dialectical model of critical discussion. The results of this study show that the feeding practices in families with young children during mealtimes are argumentatively co-constructed by participants. In most cases parents put forward arguments based on the quality (e.g., very good, nutritious, salty, or not good) and quantity (e.g., too little, quite enough, or too much) of food to convince their children to eat. Similarly, children put forward arguments based on the quality and quantity of food to convince their parents to change their standpoint, although their view on the issue is the opposite of that of their parents.

  16. An Audience for the Aliens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryer, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This account of the making and sharing of self-authored digital videos in a Year 5 classroom focuses on the way that the children appear to be influenced by their awareness of audience. Drawing on evidence of video observation, written and moving image texts produced by the children and semi-structured interviews with them, I examine the factors…

  17. Alien abduction: a medical hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Forrest, David V

    2008-01-01

    In response to a new psychological study of persons who believe they have been abducted by space aliens that found that sleep paralysis, a history of being hypnotized, and preoccupation with the paranormal and extraterrestrial were predisposing experiences, I noted that many of the frequently reported particulars of the abduction experience bear more than a passing resemblance to medical-surgical procedures and propose that experience with these may also be contributory. There is the altered state of consciousness, uniformly colored figures with prominent eyes, in a high-tech room under a round bright saucerlike object; there is nakedness, pain and a loss of control while the body's boundaries are being probed; and yet the figures are thought benevolent. No medical-surgical history was apparently taken in the above mentioned study, but psychological laboratory work evaluated false memory formation. I discuss problems in assessing intraoperative awareness and ways in which the medical hypothesis could be elaborated and tested. If physicians are causing this syndrome in a percentage of patients, we should know about it; and persons who feel they have been abducted should be encouraged to inform their surgeons and anesthesiologists without challenging their beliefs.

  18. Contact Between Adoptive and Birth Families: Perspectives from the Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project

    PubMed Central

    Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Ayers-Lopez, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of adoptive families have contact with their children’s birth relatives. The Minnesota Texas Adoption Research Project is examining longitudinally the consequences of variations in contact arrangements for birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children in domestic infant adoptions, and is studying the dynamics of relationships within these family systems. Individuals who had contact were more satisfied with their arrangements than those who did not have contact. Satisfaction with contact predicted more optimal adjustment among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Adoption-related communication predicted identity development among adopted adolescents and emerging adults. Birth mothers who were more satisfied with their contact arrangements, regardless of level of contact, had less unresolved grief 12 to 20 years after placement. Adoptive and birth relatives who engage in contact need flexibility, strong interpersonal skills, and commitment to the relationship. These skills can be learned, and they can be supported by others, through informal, psychoeducational, and therapeutic means. PMID:23956791

  19. Envisaging the adoption process to strengthen gay- and lesbian-headed families: recommendations for adoption professionals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John D; Cramer, Elizabeth P

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing number of child placement agencies are serving lesbians and gay men, a dearth of literature exists for adoption agency policies and practices related to working with this population. This article explores the unique characteristics and strengths of prospective gay and lesbian adoptive parents throughout each of the three phases of the adoption process-preplacement, placement, and postplacement-as well as provides suggestions for adoption professionals working with gays and lesbians. Data from a recent qualitative study of single, gay adoptive fathers are used to illustrate examples and expose areas of potential strengths of adoptive parents not generally explored in the preplacement or preparatory stage. Special attention also is given to the continuing needs of adoptive families headed by gays and lesbians after adoptive placement. Specifically explored are the needs for developing linkages with similar families, as well as providing resources designed to promote successful outcomes of adopted children raised by gays and lesbians.

  20. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  1. Race-Conscious Adoption Choices, Multiraciality, and Color-Blind Racial Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of interview data illustrates how White adoptive parents rationalize choices regarding adoptee race. Parents who were willing to adopt children of color stressed unwillingness to adopt Black children. The preference for adopting multiracial children goes against the prevalent method of racial classification, hypodescent, by defining…

  2. 76 FR 68613 - National Adoption Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... unconditional love that will help them succeed. And yet, more than 100,000 children in America await this most... celebrate the acts of compassion and love that unite children with adoptive families, and we rededicate..., let us recommit to ensuring every child is given the sustaining love of family, the assurance of...

  3. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  4. 8 CFR 214.15 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the submission of evidence. An alien applying for V nonimmigrant status with the Service should submit... alien does not have such proof, the Service will review other forms of evidence, such as correspondence... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certain spouses and children of...

  5. 8 CFR 214.15 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the submission of evidence. An alien applying for V nonimmigrant status with the Service should submit... alien does not have such proof, the Service will review other forms of evidence, such as correspondence... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certain spouses and children of...

  6. 8 CFR 214.15 - Certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the submission of evidence. An alien applying for V nonimmigrant status with the Service should submit... alien does not have such proof, the Service will review other forms of evidence, such as correspondence... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certain spouses and children of...

  7. Toward a child-centered approach to evaluating claims of alienation in high-conflict custody disputes.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Allison M

    2014-02-01

    Theories of parental alienation abound in high-conflict custody cases. The image of one parent brainwashing a child against the other parent fits with what we think we know about family dynamics during divorce. The concept of a diagnosable "Parental Alienation Syndrome" ("PAS") developed as an attempt to explain this phenomenon, but it has been widely discredited by mental health professionals and thus fails the standard for evidentiary admissibility. Nevertheless, PAS and related theories continue to influence the decisions of family courts, and even in jurisdictions that explicitly reject such theories, judges still face the daunting task of resolving these volatile cases. In the midst of this highly adversarial process, children deserve independent representation to ensure that their interests remain front and center. Mandating the appointment of guardians ad litem in cases involving allegations of abuse or alienation will assist courts in conducting individualized, fact-specific investigations into such allegations to craft custody orders that serve the best interests of children.

  8. Textbook Evaluation and Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marcy; Stuen, Carol; Carnine, Douglas; Long, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages educators to carefully examine the textbook adoption process, especially the way in which adoption committees evaluate and select instructional materials. Reviews the available research literature on the textbook adoption process and includes recommendations for improving the process. Discusses guidelines for designing evaluation…

  9. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  10. International adoption as a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Dyer, Janyce G

    2006-08-01

    International adoption research has been called a natural experiment by many child development researchers. How do studies of severe early deprivation inform us about risk factors experienced by many of these children and their impact on developmental outcomes? Three longitudinal studies conducted by British and American researchers in the 1990s are reviewed. Each year, over 20,000 children are adopted from overseas, and a significant number are now entering adolescence; the impact of their prenatal risk factors, early institutionalization, and ameliorative postadoptive environments is also reviewed. The feasibility of generalizing findings to other children in foster care is also addressed.

  11. The search for alien life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M.

    Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life on our own planet, expanding the habitable range of salinity, pressure, temperature, and radiation of our world. Given the relatively recent discoveries about life on Earth, how then can we expect to look for alien life that may use completely different sets of molecules for structure and activity? Astrobiology has taken on the challenge of developing the intellectual basis, target identification, instrument capabilities, and operational procedures for the search for life elsewhere. The research aims to develop general principles of how life maintains itself, how life interacts with its environment, and how the signatures of life may be preserved and recognized. The approach has been to move from the laboratory, to the environment, to robotic exploration of planetary analogs. To date, generic evidence for life can be perceived through life's creation and utilization of disequilibria, multiple uses of a relatively few sets of molecules, a preference for chiral compounds, and a predilection for lighter isotopes. It is through application of life detection instrumentation in environmental extremes that we hope to develop a catalogue of generic biosignatures, robust instrumentation capable of revealing the unexpected, and effective exploration strategies for robotic platforms in the search for signs of life. In 2009, Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars may be the first beneficiaries of this approach.

  12. ALIEN SPECIES: THEIR ROLE IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...

  13. Using effect size benchmarks to assess when alien impacts are actually alien.

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen M; Dickman, Chris R; Banks, Peter B

    2017-01-27

    Alien predators have on average twice the impact on native prey populations than do native predators, and are a severe threat to wildlife globally. Manipulation experiments can be used to quantify the impact of an alien predator on its prey population/s, but unless the results are compared to benchmarks, it is unclear whether this impact is indeed greater than that of a native predator. Here we use the Australian garden skink Lampropholis delicata and alien black rat Rattus rattus to test if black rats are an additive source of predation for the skink, and to judge whether the effect size of rat-impact on the skink represents that of an alien or native predator. We used replicated experiments to exclude black rats at local and landscape scales to test how rats affect skink activity and trapping frequency. Both manipulations had positive effects on skinks, however, the population-level effect size was lower than that described for alien predators but similar to that expected for native predators. We suggest that Australian skinks may respond appropriately to predatory alien rats because they coevolved with endemic Rattus species. This adds novel insights into the varying levels of impact that alien predators have on native prey.

  14. Using effect size benchmarks to assess when alien impacts are actually alien

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen M.; Dickman, Chris R.; Banks, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Alien predators have on average twice the impact on native prey populations than do native predators, and are a severe threat to wildlife globally. Manipulation experiments can be used to quantify the impact of an alien predator on its prey population/s, but unless the results are compared to benchmarks, it is unclear whether this impact is indeed greater than that of a native predator. Here we use the Australian garden skink Lampropholis delicata and alien black rat Rattus rattus to test if black rats are an additive source of predation for the skink, and to judge whether the effect size of rat-impact on the skink represents that of an alien or native predator. We used replicated experiments to exclude black rats at local and landscape scales to test how rats affect skink activity and trapping frequency. Both manipulations had positive effects on skinks, however, the population-level effect size was lower than that described for alien predators but similar to that expected for native predators. We suggest that Australian skinks may respond appropriately to predatory alien rats because they coevolved with endemic Rattus species. This adds novel insights into the varying levels of impact that alien predators have on native prey. PMID:28128305

  15. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  16. Alienation: A Concept for Understanding Low-Income, Urban Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    The author examines the concept of alienation and how it can be used to understand low-income, urban clients. A description is presented of 4 dimensions of alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, and social isolation. Case illustrations are provided, and recommendations are made for counseling alienated clients. This article…

  17. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  18. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  19. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  20. 8 CFR 1235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal. 1235.3 Section 1235.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.3 Inadmissible...