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Sample records for alien annual grasses

  1. Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Alien annual grasses in the genera Bromus and Schismus are widespread and abundant in the Mojave Desert, and negative correlations between these aliens and native annual plants suggest that competition may occur between them. Effects of competition were evaluated by thinning alien annual grass seedlings and measuring the responses of native annual plants at three sites in the central, southcentral and southwestern Mojave Desert during 2 y of contrasting plant productivity. Effects of Bromus and Schismus were evaluated separately in the microhabitat where each was most abundant, beneath the north side of creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata) for Bromus and in the open interspace between shrubs for Schismus. Thinning of Bromus and Schismus significantly increased density and biomass of native annuals at all three sites, only during a year of high annual plant productivity and species richness. Effects of thinning were greatest for Amsinckia tesselata and for a group of relatively uncommon native annuals. Thinning also significantly increased the density and biomass of the alien forb, Erodium cicutarium. These results show that alien annual grasses can compete with native annual plants and an alien forb in the Mojave Desert and that effects can vary among years.

  2. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: Effects of vegetation type and anthropogenic disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Newton, W.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of

  3. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    1. Deserts are one of the least invaded ecosystems by plants, possibly due to naturally low levels of soil nitrogen. Increased levels of soil nitrogen caused by atmospheric nitrogen deposition may increase the dominance of invasive alien plants and decrease the diversity of plant communities in desert regions, as it has in other ecosystems. Deserts should be particularly susceptible to even small increases in soil nitrogen levels because the ratio of increased nitrogen to plant biomass is higher compared with most other ecosystems.2. The hypothesis that increased soil nitrogen will lead to increased dominance by alien plants and decreased plant species diversity was tested in field experiments using nitrogen additions at three sites in the in the Mojave Desert of western North America.3. Responses of alien and native annual plants to soil nitrogen additions were measured in terms of density, biomass and species richness. Effects of nitrogen additions were evaluated during 2 years of contrasting rainfall and annual plant productivity. The rate of nitrogen addition was similar to published rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in urban areas adjacent to the Mojave Desert (3·2 g N m−2 year−1). The dominant alien species included the grasses Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus) and the forb Erodium cicutarium.4. Soil nitrogen addition increased the density and biomass of alien annual plants during both years, but decreased density, biomass and species richness of native species only during the year of highest annual plant productivity. The negative response of natives may have been due to increased competitive stress for soil water and other nutrients caused by the increased productivity of aliens.5. The effects of nitrogen additions were significant at both ends of a natural nutrient gradient, beneath creosote bush Larrea tridentata canopies and in the interspaces between them, although responses varied among

  4. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    1. Deserts are one of the least invaded ecosystems by plants, possibly due to naturally low levels of soil nitrogen. Increased levels of soil nitrogen caused by atmospheric nitrogen deposition may increase the dominance of invasive alien plants and decrease the diversity of plant communities in desert regions, as it has in other ecosystems. Deserts should be particularly susceptible to even small increases in soil nitrogen levels because the ratio of increased nitrogen to plant biomass is higher compared with most other ecosystems. 2. The hypothesis that increased soil nitrogen will lead to increased dominance by alien plants and decreased plant species diversity was tested in field experiments using nitrogen additions at three sites in the in the Mojave Desert of western North America. 3. Responses of alien and native annual plants to soil nitrogen additions were measured in terms of density, biomass and species richness. Effects of nitrogen additions were evaluated during 2 years of contrasting rainfall and annual plant productivity. The rate of nitrogen addition was similar to published rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in urban areas adjacent to the Mojave Desert (3.2 g N m-2 year-1). The dominant alien species included the grasses Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus) and the forb Erodium cicutarium. 4. Soil nitrogen addition increased the density and biomass of alien annual plants during both years, but decreased density, biomass and species richness of native species only during the year of highest annual plant productivity. The negative response of natives may have been due to increased competitive stress for soil water and other nutrients caused by the increased productivity of aliens. 5. The effects of nitrogen additions were significant at both ends of a natural nutrient gradient, beneath creosote bush Larrea tridentata canopies and in the interspaces between them, although responses varied among individual

  5. Habitat invasibility and dominance by alien annual plants in the western Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Patterns of habitat invasibility and alien dominance, respectively measured as species richness and biomass of alien annual plants, were evaluated in association with four habitat factors at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA) in the western Mojave Desert, USA. Habitat factors varied in levels of disturbance outside (high) and inside (low) the DTNA, and in levels of soil nutrients in washlet (high) and hummock (low) topographic positions, in Larrea-north (high), Larrea-south (medium), and interspace (low) microhabitats near creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata), and during 1995 when rainfall was 207% (high) and 1994 when rainfall was 52% (low) of the long-term average. Dominant alien plants included the annual grasses Bromus rubens, Bromus trinii, and Schismus spp., and the forb Erodium cicutarium. Species richness and dominance of alien annual plants were slightly higher where disturbance was high, and much higher where soil nutrients were high. B. rubens and B. trinii were most dominant in washlets and in the Larrea-north microhabitats during both years. These two species evolved in mesic ecosystems, and appeared to be particularly limited by soil nutrients at this site. Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium were also most dominant in washlets, but their dominance varied between interspaces in 1994 and the Larrea-south microhabitat in 1995. Monitoring to detect the invasion of new annual plants should focus on regions of high rainfall and nitrogen deposition and on washes and beneath-canopy microhabitats. The ecological range of each alien species should be evaluated separately, because their evolutionary origins may greatly affect their patterns of invasion and dominance in the Mojave Desert.

  6. Grazing invasive annual grasses: the green and brown guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of rangeland by annual grasses has become one of the most serious and catastrophic problems in the western United States. Annual grasses displace desired plants and create monocultures that do not provide adequate plant cover for the entire year. Using the ecologically-based invasive plant ...

  7. Weed-suppressive bacteria to reduce annual grass weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica L.) are exotic, annual grasses that negatively affect cereal production in cropland; reduce protein-rich forage for cattle; choke out native plants in the shrub-steppe habi...

  8. Risk of exotic annual grass-fire cycle in Goose Creek milkvetch habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a concern that habitats surrounding Goose Creek milkvetch populations are at risk of exotic annual grass invasion leading to an exotic annual grass-fire cycle. We sampled plant community and site characteristics to evaluate the risk of these habitats developing an exotic annual grass-fire ...

  9. Dominance and environmental correlates of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Land managers are concerned about the negative effects of alien annual plants on native plants, threatened and endangered species such as the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), and ecosystem integrity in the Mojave Desert. Management of alien plants is hampered by a lack of information regarding the dominance and environmental correlates of these species. The results of this study indicate that alien plant species comprised a small fraction of the total annual plant flora, but most of the annual plant community biomass. When rainfall was high in 1995, aliens comprised 6% of the flora and 66% of the biomass. When rainfall was low in 1999, aliens comprised 27% of the flora and 91% of the biomass. Bromus rubens, Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus), and Erodium cicutarium were the predominant alien species during both years, comprising 99% of the alien biomass. B. rubens was more abundant in relatively mesic microhabitats beneath shrub canopies and at higher elevations above 800-1000 m, whereas Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium were more abundant in the relatively arid interspaces between shrubs, and, for Schismus spp., at lower elevations as well. Disturbance variables were more reliable indicators of alien dominance than were productivity or native plant diversity variables, although relationships often varied between years of contrasting rainfall. The strongest environmental correlates occurred between dirt road density and alien species richness and biomass of E. cicutarium, and between frequency and size of fires and biomass of B. rubens.

  10. From the Lab Bench: Differences in annual and perennial grasses in meeting cattle production goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written that provided the advantages and disadvantages of annual warm- and cool-season grasses. Warm-season annual grasses can increase the supply of forage during the summer slump in cool-season perennial grass growth. Utilization of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures can ...

  11. Effects of livestock watering sites on alien and native plants in the Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.; Matchett, J.R.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Increased livestock densities near artificial watering sites create disturbance gradients called piospheres. We studied responses of alien and native annual plants and native perennial plants within 9 piospheres in the Mojave Desert of North America. Absolute and proportional cover of alien annual plants increased with proximity to watering sites, whereas cover and species richness of native annual plants decreased. Not all alien species responded the same, as the alien forb Erodium cicutarium and the alien grass Schismus spp. increased with proximity to watering sites, and the alien annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens decreased. Perennial plant cover and species richness also declined with proximity to watering sites, as did the structural diversity of perennial plant cover classes. Significant effects were focused within 200 m of the watering sites, suggesting that control efforts for alien annual plants and restoration efforts for native plants should optimally be focused within this central part of the piosphere gradient.

  12. Aminopyrald and Picloram reduce seed production of the invasive annual grasses Medusahead and Ventenata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses are negatively impacting millions of hectares of U.S. rangelands. Sulfonylurea, amino acid synthesis inhibitor and photosynthesis inhibitor herbicides are sometimes used to control invasive annual grasses. On the other hand, growth regulator herbicides are widely used to co...

  13. USDA area-wide project for annual grasses: outcomes and impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides a record of the research, outreach, education and technology transfer that was completed as part of the area-wide project for invasive annual grasses from 2007-2012. The overall goal of the project was to catalyze a holistic integrated management program for invasive annual g...

  14. Controls over native perennial grass exclusion and persistence in California grasslands invaded by annuals.

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Erin A; Molinari, Nicole A; Stahlheber, Karen A; Gross, Kevin; D'Antonio, Carla

    2015-10-01

    Despite obvious impacts of nonnative species in many ecosystems, the long-term outcome of competition between native and exotic species often remains unclear. Demographic models can resolve the outcome of competition between native and exotic species and provide insight into conditions favoring exclusion vs. coexistence. California grasslands are one of the most heavily invaded ecosystems in North America. Although California native perennial bunchgrasses are thought to be restricted to a fraction of their original abundance, the eventual outcome of competition with invasive European annual grasses at a local scale (competitive exclusion, stable persistence, or priority effects) remains unresolved. Here, we used a two-species discrete time population growth model to predict the outcome of competition between exotic annual and native perennial grasses in California, and to determine the demographic traits responsible for the outcome. The model is parameterized with empirical data from several field experiments. We found that, once introduced, annual grasses persist stably with little uncertainty. Although perennial grasses are competitively excluded on average, the most likely range of model predictions also includes stable coexistence with annual grasses. As for many other perennial plants, native bunchgrass population growth is highly sensitive to the survival of adults. Management interventions that improve perennial adult survival are likely to be more effective than those that reduce exotic annual seed production or establishment, reduce competition, or increase perennial seedling establishment. Further empirical data on summer survival of bunchgrass adults and competitive effects of annuals on perennials would most improve model predictions because they contribute most to the uncertainty in the predicted outcome for the perennial grass. This work demonstrates how demographic approaches can clarify the outcome of competition between native and exotic species

  15. Controls over native perennial grass exclusion and persistence in California grasslands invaded by annuals.

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Erin A; Molinari, Nicole A; Stahlheber, Karen A; Gross, Kevin; D'Antonio, Carla

    2015-10-01

    Despite obvious impacts of nonnative species in many ecosystems, the long-term outcome of competition between native and exotic species often remains unclear. Demographic models can resolve the outcome of competition between native and exotic species and provide insight into conditions favoring exclusion vs. coexistence. California grasslands are one of the most heavily invaded ecosystems in North America. Although California native perennial bunchgrasses are thought to be restricted to a fraction of their original abundance, the eventual outcome of competition with invasive European annual grasses at a local scale (competitive exclusion, stable persistence, or priority effects) remains unresolved. Here, we used a two-species discrete time population growth model to predict the outcome of competition between exotic annual and native perennial grasses in California, and to determine the demographic traits responsible for the outcome. The model is parameterized with empirical data from several field experiments. We found that, once introduced, annual grasses persist stably with little uncertainty. Although perennial grasses are competitively excluded on average, the most likely range of model predictions also includes stable coexistence with annual grasses. As for many other perennial plants, native bunchgrass population growth is highly sensitive to the survival of adults. Management interventions that improve perennial adult survival are likely to be more effective than those that reduce exotic annual seed production or establishment, reduce competition, or increase perennial seedling establishment. Further empirical data on summer survival of bunchgrass adults and competitive effects of annuals on perennials would most improve model predictions because they contribute most to the uncertainty in the predicted outcome for the perennial grass. This work demonstrates how demographic approaches can clarify the outcome of competition between native and exotic species

  16. Implementing EBIPM In The Field: Tackling Invasive Annual Grasses With Science-based Solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rapid expansion of invasive annual grasses on rangeland fuels the need for action on the part of resource and land managers. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) is a new management method and it will require multiple media platforms to disseminate with various means of instructi...

  17. Ecology, genetics, and biological control of invasive annual grasses in the Great Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several annual grass species native to Eurasia, including cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), red brome (B. rubens), and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) have become invasive in the western USA. These invasive species degrade rangelands by compromising forage, outcompeting native flora, and exacerb...

  18. Invasion of Mediterranean Annual Grasses in Western North America Ecosystems: Kids in a Candy Store

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this issue of Plant and Soil, Blank and Sforza (2007) contribute to a growing body of work focused on describing mechanisms by which exotic annual grasses invade ecosystems in the western United States. Their findings, that medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) was most pro...

  19. Positive Effects of Non-Native Grasses on the Growth of a Native Annual in a Southern California Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Pec, Gregory J.; Carlton, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem. PMID:25379790

  20. Positive effects of non-native grasses on the growth of a native annual in a southern california ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Pec, Gregory J; Carlton, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern California. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern California ecosystem.

  1. The effects of precipitation and soil type on three invasive annual grasses in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in the Great Basin are highly susceptible to annual grass invasion. Large regions are covered by Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), but there has been a recent upsurge in the abundance and distribution of Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) and Ventenata dubia (ventenata)....

  2. Government success in partnerships: The USDA-ARS areawide ecologically-based invasive annual grass management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areawide partnership of researchers, educators and ranchers have been implementing an Areawide Pest Management project over the past three years to catalyze the adoption of ecologically-based invasive annual grass management across the western US. The program includes the establishment of watershed-...

  3. Lack of Host Specialization on Winter Annual Grasses in the Fungal Seed Bank Pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda

    PubMed Central

    Beckstead, Julie; Meyer, Susan E.; Ishizuka, Toby S.; McEvoy, Kelsey M.; Coleman, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Generalist plant pathogens may have wide host ranges, but many exhibit varying degrees of host specialization, with multiple pathogen races that have narrower host ranges. These races are often genetically distinct, with each race causing highest disease incidence on its host of origin. We examined host specialization in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda by reciprocally inoculating pathogen strains from Bromus tectorum and from four other winter annual grass weeds (Bromus diandrus, Bromus rubens, Bromus arvensis and Taeniatherum caput-medusae) onto dormant seeds of B. tectorum and each alternate host. We found that host species varied in resistance and pathogen strains varied in aggressiveness, but there was no evidence for host specialization. Most variation in aggressiveness was among strains within populations and was expressed similarly on both hosts, resulting in a positive correlation between strain-level disease incidence on B. tectorum and on the alternate host. In spite of this lack of host specialization, we detected weak but significant population genetic structure as a function of host species using two neutral marker systems that yielded similar results. This genetic structure is most likely due to founder effects, as the pathogen is known to be dispersed with host seeds. All host species were highly susceptible to their own pathogen races. Tolerance to infection (i.e., the ability to germinate even when infected and thereby avoid seed mortality) increased as a function of seed germination rate, which in turn increased as dormancy was lost. Pyrenophora semeniperda apparently does not require host specialization to fully exploit these winter annual grass species, which share many life history features that make them ideal hosts for this pathogen. PMID:26950931

  4. How does altered precipitation and annual grass invasion affect plant N uptake in a native semi-arid shrub community?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritz, M.; Lipson, D.; Cleland, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns, which will change the timing and amount of plant resources. Precipitation patterns determine water and nitrogen (N) availability, because water stimulates microbial N turnover and N transport. In order for plants to utilize water and N, they must coincide with the phenology and meet physiological requirements of the plant. As resource supply shifts, differences in species' ability to acquire resources will affect plant community composition. Semiarid ecosystems, such as shrublands in Southern California, are particularly sensitive to shifts in precipitation because they are severely water limited. This study takes advantage of the altered phenology and resource demands presented by invasive annual grasses in a native semiarid shrubland. The goal is to understand how altered precipitation patterns affect plant N uptake. Rainfall levels were manipulated to 50% and 150% of ambient levels. It is expected that higher rainfall levels promote annual grass invasion because grasses have higher water and N requirements and begin to grow earlier in the season than shrubs. A 15N tracer was added with the first rain event and plant samples were collected regularly to track the movement of N into the plants. Net soil N accumulation was determined using resin bags. Invasive grasses altered the timing and amount of N uptake but amount of rainfall had less effect on N distribution. 15N was detected sooner and at higher level in grasses than shrubs. 24hours after the first rain event 15N was detectable in grasses, 15N accumulated rapidly and peaked 2 months earlier than shrubs. Shrub 15N levels remained at pre-rain event levels for the first 2 months and began to increase at the beginning of spring, peak mid-spring and decline as the shrubs entered summer dormancy. One year later 15N levels in annual grass litter remained high, while 15N levels in shrubs returned to initial background levels as a result of resorption. 15N

  5. Fire and grazing impacts on plant diversity and alien plant invasions in the southern Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Lubin, Daniel; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of native and alien plant diversity in response to disturbance were examined along an elevational gradient in blue oak savanna, chaparral, and coniferous forests. Total species richness, alien species richness, and alien cover declined with elevation, at scales from 1 to 1000 m2. We found no support for the hypothesis that community diversity inhibits alien invasion. At the 1-m2 point scale, where we would expect competitive interactions between the largely herbaceous flora to be most intense, alien species richness as well as alien cover increased with increasing native species richness in all communities. This suggests that aliens are limited not by the number of native competitors, but by resources that affect establishment of both natives and aliens.Blue oak savannas were heavily dominated by alien species and consistently had more alien than native species at the 1-m2 scale. All of these aliens are annuals, and it is widely thought that they have displaced native bunchgrasses. If true, this means that aliens have greatly increased species richness. Alternatively, there is a rich regional flora of native annual forbs that could have dominated these grasslands prior to displacement by alien grasses. On our sites, livestock grazing increased the number of alien species and alien cover only slightly over that of sites free of livestock grazing for more than a century, indicating some level of permanency to this invasion.In chaparral, both diversity and aliens increased markedly several years after fire. Invasive species are rare in undisturbed shrublands, and alien propagules fail to survive the natural crown fires in these ecosystems. Thus, aliens necessarily must colonize after fire and, as a consequence, time since fire is an important determinant of invasive presence. Blue oak savannas are an important propagule source for alien species because they maintain permanent populations of all alien species encountered in postfire chaparral, and because the

  6. Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Sam

    2013-03-01

    Sam Hazen of the University of Massachusetts on "Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  7. Variation in the establishment of a non-native annual grass influences competitive interactions with Mojave Desert perennials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, L.A.; Fernandez, G.C.J.; Nowak, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts, the highly variable timing of resource availability also influences non-native plant establishment, thus modulating their impacts on native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native Mojave Desert perennials-Larrea tridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida-in either winter or spring. For comparison, additional plots were prepared for the same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species as neighbors. Growth of perennials declined when Bromus was established in winter because Bromus stands had 2-3 months of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, water potentials for the perennials were not significantly reduced, suggesting that direct competition for water may not be the major mechanism driving reduced perennial growth. The impact of Bromus on Larrea was lower than for the two perennial grasses, likely because Larrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This result contrasts with the perennial grasses, whose phenology completely overlaps with (Achnatherum) or closely follows (Pleuraphis) that of Bromus. In comparison, Bromus plants established in spring were smaller than those established in winter and thus did not effectively reduce growth of the perennials. Growth of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors also did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but stands of these native annuals did not achieve the high biomass of Bromus stands that were necessary to reduce perennial growth. Seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship of native annuals produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus; thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert

  8. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  9. Effects of simulated acid rain on nutrient uptake in annual rye grass grown in surface mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1984-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on the growth, along with the Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations found in a common revegetation species, annual rye grass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. Annual rye grass seeds were planted in two sets of pots. One set was filled with potting soil and the other with surface mine soil. Both sets were divided into three groups, each receiving applications of simulated acid rain of either pH 5.7, 4.0, or 3.0. After five weeks of growth, grasses from each pot were harvested. Dry weight, root length, leaf blade length, plant number, and concentrations of Al, Mn, and Fe were determined for each sample. There was an observable decrease in plant growth and number as the pH decreased. Seed germination ranged from six to ten days longer in pots receiving waterings of pH 3.0 compared to those with a pH of 5.7. The concentrations of Al and Fe increased in the plants between treatments 4.0 and 3.0. Mn concentrations were unaffected by pH. Plants grown in mine soil produced less biomass and showed an increase in Al, Mn, and Fe content as compared to those plants grown in potting soil.

  10. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  11. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    SciTech Connect

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  12. Long-term differences in annual litter production between alien (Sonneratia apetala) and native (Kandelia obovata) mangrove species in Futian, Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Li, Fenglan; Yang, Qiong; Tam, Nora F Y; Liao, Wenbo; Zan, Qijie

    2014-08-30

    Annual litter production in alien (Sonneratia apetala) and native (Kandelia obovata) mangrove forests in Shenzhen, China were compared from 1999 to 2010. S. apetala had significantly higher litter production than K. obovata, with mean annual total litter of 18.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 15.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. The higher litter production in S. apetala forest indicates higher productivity and consequently more nutrient supply to the estuarine ecosystems but may be more invasive due to positive plant-soil feedbacks and nutrient availability to this alien species. Two peaks were recorded in S. apetala (May and October), while only one peak was observed in K. obovata, in early spring (March and April). Leaf and reproductive materials were the main contributors to litter production (>80%) in both forests. These results suggest that the ecological function of S. apetala and its invasive potential can be better understood based on a long-term litter fall analysis.

  13. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  14. Annual grass invasion in sagebrush-steppe: The relative importance of climate, soil properties and biotic interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bansal, Sheel; Sheley, Roger L.

    2016-01-01

    The invasion by winter-annual grasses (AGs) such as Bromus tectorum into sagebrush steppe throughout the western USA is a classic example of a biological invasion with multiple, interacting climate, soil and biotic factors driving the invasion, although few studies have examined all components together. Across a 6000-km2 area of the northern Great Basin, we conducted a field assessment of 100 climate, soil, and biotic (functional group abundances, diversity) factors at each of 90 sites that spanned an invasion gradient ranging from 0 to 100 % AG cover. We first determined which biotic and abiotic factors had the strongest correlative relationships with AGs and each resident functional group. We then used regression and structural equation modeling to explore how multiple ecological factors interact to influence AG abundance. Among biotic interactions, we observed negative relationships between AGs and biodiversity, perennial grass cover, resident species richness, biological soil crust cover and shrub density, whereas perennial and annual forb cover, tree cover and soil microbial biomass had no direct linkage to AG. Among abiotic factors, AG cover was strongly related to climate (increasing cover with increasing temperature and aridity), but had weak relationships with soil factors. Our structural equation model showed negative effects of perennial grasses and biodiversity on AG cover while integrating the negative effects of warmer climate and positive influence of belowground processes on resident functional groups. Our findings illustrate the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate on invasive abundance, while soil properties appear to have stronger relationships with resident biota than with invasives.

  15. Growth Regulator Herbicides Prevent Invasive Annual grass Seed Production Under Field Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth regulator herbicides, such as 2,4-D, dicamba, picloram, and aminopyralid, are commonly used to control broadleaf weeds in grasslands, non-croplands and cereal crops (e.g. wheat, barley). If applied to cereals at late growth stages, while the grasses are developing reproductive parts, the her...

  16. Fire-driven alien invasion in a fire-adapted ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Jon E; Brennan, Teresa J

    2012-08-01

    Disturbance plays a key role in many alien plant invasions. However, often the main driver of invasion is not disturbance per se but alterations in the disturbance regime. In some fire-adapted shrublands, the community is highly resilient to infrequent, high-intensity fires, but changes in the fire regime that result in shorter fire intervals may make these communities more susceptible to alien plant invasions. This study examines several wildfire events that resulted in short fire intervals in California chaparral shrublands. In one study, we compared postfire recovery patterns in sites with different prefire stand ages (3 and 24 years), and in another study we compared sites that had burned once in four years with sites that had burned twice in this period. The population size of the dominant native shrub Adenostoma fasciculatum was drastically reduced following fire in the 3-year sites relative to the 24-year sites. The 3-year sites had much greater alien plant cover and significantly lower plant diversity than the 24-year sites. In a separate study, repeat fires four years apart on the same sites showed that annual species increased significantly after the second fire, and alien annuals far outnumbered native annuals. Aliens included both annual grasses and annual forbs and were negatively correlated with woody plant cover. Native woody species regenerated well after the first fire but declined after the second fire, and one obligate seeding shrub was extirpated from two sites by the repeat fires. It is concluded that some fire-adapted shrublands are vulnerable to changes in fire regime, and this can lead to a loss of native diversity and put the community on a trajectory towards type conversion from a woody to an herbaceous system. Such changes result in alterations in the proportion of natives to non-natives, changes in functional types from deeply rooted shrubs to shallow rooted grasses and forbs, increased fire frequency due to the increase in fine fuels

  17. Fire-driven alien invasion in a fire-adapted ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance plays a key role in many alien plant invasions. However, often the main driver of invasion is not disturbance per se but alterations in the disturbance regime. In some fire-adapted shrublands, the community is highly resilient to infrequent, high-intensity fires, but changes in the fire regime that result in shorter fire intervals may make these communities more susceptible to alien plant invasions. This study examines several wildfire events that resulted in short fire intervals in California chaparral shrublands. In one study, we compared postfire recovery patterns in sites with different prefire stand ages (3 and 24 years), and in another study we compared sites that had burned once in four years with sites that had burned twice in this period. The population size of the dominant native shrub Adenostoma fasciculatum was drastically reduced following fire in the 3-year sites relative to the 24-year sites. The 3-year sites had much greater alien plant cover and significantly lower plant diversity than the 24-year sites. In a separate study, repeat fires four years apart on the same sites showed that annual species increased significantly after the second fire, and alien annuals far outnumbered native annuals. Aliens included both annual grasses and annual forbs and were negatively correlated with woody plant cover. Native woody species regenerated well after the first fire but declined after the second fire, and one obligate seeding shrub was extirpated from two sites by the repeat fires. It is concluded that some fire-adapted shrublands are vulnerable to changes in fire regime, and this can lead to a loss of native diversity and put the community on a trajectory towards type conversion from a woody to an herbaceous system. Such changes result in alterations in the proportion of natives to non-natives, changes in functional types from deeply rooted shrubs to shallow rooted grasses and forbs, increased fire frequency due to the increase in fine fuels

  18. Contribution of relative growth rate to root foraging by annual and perennial grasses from California oak woodlands.

    PubMed

    Aanderud, Zachary T; Bledsoe, Caroline S; Richards, James H

    2003-08-01

    Plants forage for nutrients by increasing their root length density (RLD) in nutrient-rich soil microsites through root morphological changes resulting in increased root biomass density (RBD), specific root length (SRL), or branching frequency (BF). It is commonly accepted that fast-growing species will forage more than slow-growing species. However, foraging responses may be due solely to differences in relative growth rates (RGR). There is little evidence, after the effects of RGR are removed, that the fast versus slow foraging theory is correct. In a pot study, we evaluated foraging of four grass species that differed in RGR: one fast-growing annual species, Bromus diandrus, two intermediate-growing species, annual Bromus hordeaceus and perennial Elymus glaucus, and one slow-growing perennial species, Nassella pulchra. We harvested plants either at a common time (plants varied in size) or at a common leaf number (plants similar size, surrogate for common biomass). By evaluating species at a common time, RGR influenced foraging. Conversely, by evaluating species at a common leaf number, foraging could be evaluated independent of RGR. When RGR was allowed to contribute to foraging (common time harvest), foraging and RGR were positively correlated. B. diandrus (fast RGR) foraged to a greater extent than did E. glaucus (intermediate RGR) and N. pulchra (slow RGR). E. glaucus (intermediate RGR) foraged to a greater extent than N. pulchra (slow RGR). Root growth within nutrient-rich microsites was due to significant increases in RBD, not to modifications of SRL or BF. However, when RGR was not allowed to influence foraging (common leaf number harvest), none of the four species significantly enhanced RLD in nutrient-rich compared to control microsites. This suggests that RGR strongly influenced the ability of these grass species to forage and also supports the need to evaluate plastic root traits independent of RGR.

  19. Seed germination ecology of the annual grass Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata and a comparison with L. panicoides and L. fusca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Chester, Edward W.

    1999-09-01

    Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata is an annual grass that grows in relatively dry habitats. Requirements for dormancy loss and germination were determined for seeds of this species and compared to those of two species from wet habitats. Seeds of L. panicea were dormant at maturity in autumn, but when exposed to actual or simulated autumn temperatures (e.g. 20/10, 15/6 °C), they entered conditional dormancy and thus germinated to high percentages in light at 35/20 °C. Seeds buried in non-flooded soil exposed to natural seasonal temperature changes in Kentucky (USA) were non-dormant by the following summer and germinated to 80-100 % in light at 25/15, 30/15 and 35/20 °C. Seeds buried in non-flooded soil exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, with seeds mostly germinating to 80-100 % in light at 30/15 and 35/20 °C throughout the year but to 80-100 % in light at 25/15 °C only in summer. Results for L. panicea were compared to published data for L. panicoides and L. fusca. Whereas seeds of L. panicea buried in flooded soil failed to come out of dormancy, those of L. panicoides, an annual of moist habitats such as mudflats, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, and those of L. fusca, a semi-aquatic, required flooding for both dormancy loss and germination. Differences in dormancy breaking and germination responses of seeds of Leptochloa species may help to explain why this genus occupies a wide range of habitats with regard to soil moisture conditions.

  20. Invasion of a semi-arid shrubland by annual grasses increases autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration rates due to altered soil moisture and temperature patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritz, M.; Hale, I.; Lipson, D.

    2010-12-01

    Shrub <-> grassland conversions are a globally occurring phenomenon altering habitat structure, quality and nutrient cycling. Grasses and shrubs differ in their above and belowground biomass allocation, root architecture, phenology, litter quality and quantity. Conversion affects soil microbial communities, soil moisture and temperature and carbon (C) allocation patterns. However, the effect of conversion on C storage is regionally variable and there is no consistent direction of change. In Southern California invasion by annual grasses is a major threat to native shrub communities and it has been proposed that grass invasion increases NPP and ecosystem C storage (Wolkovich et al, 2009). In order to better understand how this shrub <-> grassland conversion changes ecosystem C storage it is important to understand the partitioning of soil respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Respiration was measured in plots under shrubs and grasses from February when it was cold and wet to July when it was hot and dry, capturing seasonal transitions in temperature and water availability. Roots were excluded under shrubs and grasses with root exclusion cores to quantify heterotrophic respiration. Using total soil respiration (Rt) = autotrophic respiration (root) (Ra)+ heterotrophic respiration (microbial) (Rh) the components contributing to total soil respiration can be evaluated. Respiration, soil moisture and temperature were measured daily at four hour intervals using Licor 8100 automated chamber measurements. Throughout the measurement period, Rt under grasses exceeded Rt under shrubs. Higher Rt levels under grasses were mainly due to higher Ra in grasses rather than changes in Rh. On average grass Ra was almost double shrub Ra. Higher grass respiration levels are partially explained by differences in soil moisture and temperature between shrubs and grasses. Respiration rates responded similarly to seasonal transitions regardless of treatment although Ra

  1. Denitrification and N2O emissions in annual croplands, perennial grass buffers, and restored perennial grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of perennial vegetation filter strips (PFS) in the toeslope of annual cropland watersheds can decrease nitrate (NO3) losses to ground and surface waters. Although PFS are similar to riparian buffers, PFS are a relatively new conservation tool and the processes responsible for NO3 removal f...

  2. Functional diversity in summer annual grass and legume intercrops in the Northeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A warm-season annual intercropping experiment was conducted across the Northeastern United States with four trials in 2013 and five trials in 2014 with four crop species selected based on differences in stature and nitrogen acquisition traits: 1) pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.); 2) sorghum suda...

  3. Candidate perennial bioenergy grasses have a higher albedo than annual row crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy presents the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biogeophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observational and model based approaches have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biogeophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo (α), which could alter the local energy balance and cause local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. Here, we established paired fields of Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional annual row crops in the highly productive "Corn-belt". Our results show that miscanthus did and switchgrass did not have an overall higher α than current row crops but a strong seasonal pattern existed. Both perennials had consistently higher growing season α than row crops and winter α did not differ. The lack of observed differences in winter α, however, masked an interaction between snow cover and species differences, with the perennial species, compared with the row crops, having a higher α when snow was absent and a much lower α when snow was present. Overall, these changes resulted in an average net reduction in annual absorbed energy of about 5 W/m2 for switchgrass and about 8 W/m2 for miscanthus relative to annual crops. Therefore, the conversion from annual row to perennial crops alters the radiative balance of the surface via changes in α and could lead to regional cooling.

  4. Alienation Incident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Louis

    1979-01-01

    Critiques Marxian "cures" for alienation as discussed in Karl Marx's "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts." Also traces the activity of a former student who joined the revolution in Cuba. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York, 14226. (KC)

  5. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  6. In Defense of the Alien. Volume II. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on Alien's Rights: Options for the 1980s (Washington, D.C., March 29-30, 1979). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    This collection of papers from a 1979 legal symposium presents the views of government representatives and experts from the private sector concerning the rights of legal and illegal aliens in the United States, international trends in aliens' rights, and immigration/refugee policy options and issues for the l980s. Issues considered include: (1)…

  7. In Defense of the Alien. Volume I. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on the Representation of Aliens (Washington, D.C., March 2-3, 1978). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The articles in this volume present the views of government representatives and others on law and policy affecting aliens, especially undocumented aliens, in the United States. Part 1 of the volume deals with legal rights and legal representation. Individual papers discuss the role and activities of the Immigration and Naturalization Service;…

  8. Alien Abductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  9. Effect of species of cool-season annual grass interseeded into Bermudagrass sod on the performance of growing calves.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Stewart, C B; Phillips, J M; Watkins, K B; Gunter, S A

    2007-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of species of cool-season annual grass on the growth of stocker cattle over 3 yr. In Exp. 1, the small grains (SG) oat (O), rye (R), and wheat (W), or combinations of SG and annual ryegrass (RG), were interseeded into Bermudagrass sod in a completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 2, RG was planted alone or with O, R, triticale (T), or W in a completely randomized design. Pastures were planted in late October of each year, and seeding rates were 134.4 and 22.4 kg/ha for SG and RG, respectively. In Exp. 1, grazing was initiated on December 18. In Exp. 2, grazing was initiated on December 23 for SG pastures and January 21 or February 16 for RG pastures in yr 1 and on December 8 for all pastures in yr 2. Grazing was managed using the put-and-take method, in which additional calves were added as needed to maintain equal grazing pressure among pastures. In Exp. 1, no interactions (P > or = 0.28) were detected, so the main effects of SG species and RG addition are discussed. From December 18 to March 12, there were no differences in ADG (P > or = 0.17), whereas during the spring (from March 12 to May 7), addition of RG increased (P = 0.05) ADG. Using RG increased (P < or = 0.01) animal grazing-days/hectare and BW gain/hectare. Wheat tended (P = 0.08) to increase BW gain/hectare compared with the other SG, and O tended (P = 0.09) to produce less BW gain/hectare than the other SG. The treatment x year interaction was significant (P < or = 0.05) in Exp. 2. In yr 1, no differences (P = 0.25) were observed for ADG from December 23 to March 8, but during the spring grazing period (from March 8 to May 5), ADG of calves grazing TRG was less (P < or = 0.04) than that of those grazing RG, RRG, or WRG. The RRG combination produced more (P < or = 0.03) BW gain/hectare than ORG, RG, or TRG and tended (P = 0.06) to produce more BW gain/hectare than WRG. The WRG combination produced more

  10. Grass allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Although the grass itself may not be harmful, fertilizers, insecticides , and herbicides applied to the grass can ... with a chemical of any sort such as fertilizer, insecticide, or herbicide, find out the product name ...

  11. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  12. Are Mojave Desert annual species equal? Resource acquisition and allocation for the invasive grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (Poaceae) and two native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Defalco, Lesley A.; Bryla, David R.; Smith-Longozo, Vickie; Nowak, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Abundance of invasive plants is often attributed to their ability ot outcompete native species. We compared resource acquisition and allocation of the invasive annual grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens with that of two native Mojave Desert annuals, Vulpia octoflora and Descurainia pinnata, in a glasshouse experiment. Each species was grown in monoculture at two densities and two levels of N availability to compare how these annuals capture resources and to understand their relative sensitivities to environmental change. During >4 mo of growth, Bromus used water more rapidly and had greater biomass and N content than the natives, partly because of its greater root-surface area and its exploitation of deep soils. Bromus also had greater N uptake, net assimilation and transpiration rates, and canopy area than Vulpia. Resource use by Bromuswas less sensitive to changes in N availability or density than were the natives. The two native species in this study produced numerous small seeds that tended to remain dormant, thus ensuring escape of offspring from unfavorable germination conditions; Bromus produced fewer but larger seeds that readily germinated. Collectively, these traits give Bromus the potential to rapidly establish in diverse habitats of the Mojave Desert, thereby gaining an advantage over coexisting native species.

  13. Repeated landscape-scale treatments following fire suppress a non-native annual grass and promote recovery of native perennial vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Long, A. Lexine; Decker, Cheryl E.; Johnson, Katie A.; Walsh, Kathleen; Miller, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive non-native species pose a large threat to restoration efforts following large-scale disturbances. Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is a non-native annual grass in the western U.S. that both spreads quickly following fire and accelerates the fire cycle. Herbicide and seeding applications are common restoration practices to break the positive fire-invasion feedback loop and recover native perennial species, but their interactive effects have infrequently been tested at the landscape-scale and repeated in time to encourage long-lasting effects. We determined the efficacy of repeated post-fire application of the herbicide imazapic and seeding treatments to suppressBromus abundance and promote perennial vegetation recovery. We found that the selective herbicide reduced Bromus cover by ~30 % and density by >50 % across our study sites, but had a strong initial negative effect on seeded species. The most effective treatment to promote perennial seeded species cover was seeding them alone followed by herbicide application 3 years later when the seeded species had established. The efficacy of the treatments was strongly influenced by water availability, as precipitation positively affected the density and cover of Bromus; soil texture and aspect secondarily influenced Bromus abundance and seeded species cover by modifying water retention in this semi-arid region. Warmer temperatures positively affected the non-native annual grass in the cool-season, but negatively affected seeded perennial species in the warm-season, suggesting an important role of seasonality in a region projected to experience large increases in warming in the future. Our results highlight the importance of environmental interactions and repeated treatments in influencing restoration outcomes at the landscape-scale.

  14. A common-garden study of resource-island effects on a native and an exotic, annual grass after fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Amber N.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-soil variation related to perennial-plant resource islands (coppices) interspersed with relatively bare interspaces is a major source of heterogeneity in desert rangelands. Our objective was to determine how native and exotic grasses vary on coppice mounds and interspaces (microsites) in unburned and burned sites and underlying factors that contribute to the variation in sagebrush-steppe rangelands of the Idaho National Lab, where interspaces typically have abiotic crusts. We asked how the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and native bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Löve) were distributed among the microsites and measured their abundances in three replicate wildfires and nearby unburned areas. We conducted a common-garden study in which soil cores from each burned microsite type were planted with seed of either species to determine microsite effects on establishment and growth of native and exotic grasses. We assessed soil physical properties in the common-garden study to determine the intrinsic properties of each microsite surface and the retention of microsite soil differences following transfer of soils to the garden, to plant growth, and to wetting/drying cycles. In the field study, only bluebunch wheatgrass density was greater on coppice mounds than interspaces, in both unburned and burned areas. In the common-garden experiment, there were microsite differences in soil physical properties, particularly in crust hardness and its relationship to moisture, but soil properties were unaffected by plant growth. Also in the experiment, both species had equal densities yet greater dry mass production on coppice-mound soils compared to interspace soils, suggesting microsite differences in growth but not establishment (likely related to crust weakening resulting from watering). Coppice-interspace patterning and specifically native-herb recovery on coppices is likely important for postfire resistance of this rangeland to cheatgrass.

  15. Reaching the Alienated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gary

    1970-01-01

    A comparison made of personal and impersonal Extension contacts made by alienated farmers revealed that farmers with high alienation scores, as measured by the Srole Scale, avoided personal contacts with Extension personnel. Alienation was not a factor in the use of impersonal contacts. (DM)

  16. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses, the assessment of their genetic and cytogenetic effects and biomass production from grass. Annual progress report, November 1, 1979 to October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G W; Hanna, W W

    1980-01-01

    New techniques are described for using irradiation and chemical mutagens in the genetic improvement of several warm season grasses. Genetic and cytogenetic effects of these treatments are also being studied. (ACR)

  17. 76 FR 26302 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Reunification Procedures for Unaccompanied Alien...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; Reunification Procedures for Unaccompanied Alien Children Description Following the passage of the 2002 Homeland... Resettlement (ORR), is charged with the care and placement of unaccompanied alien children in Federal custody... unaccompanied alien. Annual Burden Estimates Number of Average Instrument Number of responses per burden...

  18. How Plant Functional-Type, Weather, Seasonal Drought, and Soil Physical Properties Alter Water and Energy Fluxes of an Oak-Grass Savanna and an Annual Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldocchi, D.; Xu, L.

    2003-12-01

    Savannas and open grasslands often co-exist in semi-arid regions. How these contrasting landscapes affect the exchanges of energy remain to be quantified. Here we examine how a number of abiotic, biotic and edaphic factors modulate water and energy flux densities over an oak/grass savanna and an annual grassland that coexist in the same climate but on soils with different hydraulic properties. The net radiation balance was greater over the oak woodland than the grassland despite the fact that both canopies received similar sums of incoming short and long wave radiation. The lower albedo and lower surface temperature of the transpiring woodland caused it to intercept and retain more long and shortwave energy during the dry period. The observed differences in net energy exchange had profound impacts on canopy evaporation and sensible heat exchange. The woodland evaporated about 380 mm per year and the grassland evaporated about 300 mm per year. Differences in the water holding characteristics of the soils at the two sites account for this difference in evaporation, and provide a partial explanation why the vegetation differs at the two sites. The response of evaporation to diminishing soil moisture was quantified using information on volumetric water content, soil water potential of the root zone and predawn water potential. When soil moisture was ample, after recharging winter rains, values of latent heat flux density, normalized by the equilibrium evaporation rate, were greater for the grassland than for the oak savanna. The grassland died and quit evaporating when the water content of the soil dropped below the permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa). The oak trees, on the other hand, were able to transpire, at low rates, under very dry soil conditions (soil water potentials down to -4.0 MPa). The trees were able to endure such low water potentials and maintain basal levels of metabolism because a few exploratory roots tapped deep water sources during the dry season

  19. Alienation and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimanis, Gunars

    This paper reviews the author's research on the role of certain aspects of alienation in education. The first part of the paper discusses similarities between anomie and locus of reinforcement control, as they assess the normlessness and powerlessness aspects of alienation. The second part reports results from studies attempting to modify one's…

  20. Alienation from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hascher, Tina; Hagenauer, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aimed at understanding the time course of alienation from school and school factors that may influence alienation from school during early adolescence. In Study 1, 434 students from grade 5-8 participated (cross-sectional design). In Study 2, we followed 356 students from grade 6-7 (longitudinal design). The results confirm the…

  1. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  2. The aliens are hiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Trail goes cold on alien hotspots, for now” (28 April, http://ow.ly/MeOpZ; see also p5), which described the results of a survey that looked for unexplained pockets of infrared radiation that could have been produced by advanced alien civilizations.

  3. Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

  4. Allergy to grass juice.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, A

    1977-06-01

    Crushed, fresh grass did not produce positive skin reactions in 149 patients with grass pollen allergy, six of whom suffered from rhinitis and conjunctival discharge while cutting grass. An additional patient without an allergy to grass pollens but with clear-cut symptoms from newly cut grass showed a negative result in the scratch-chamber test and in the scrubbing test.

  5. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  6. Grass Lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  7. Release of alien populations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Palme, Anna; Josefsson, Melanie; Utter, Fred; Ryman, Nils

    2006-08-01

    Introduction of alien species is a major threat to biological diversity. Although public attention typically focuses on the species level, guidelines from the Convention of Biological Diversity define alien species to include entities below species level. This inclusion recognizes that release of nonlocal populations of native species may also result in negative effects on biodiversity. In practice, little is known about the extent, degree of establishment, or the effects on natural gene pools of such releases. Existing information on the releases in Sweden shows that alien populations are spread to a great extent. The most commonly released species include brown trout, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, common whitefish, Scots pine, Norway spruce, mallard duck, gray partridge, and pheasant. Although millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually, poor documentation makes the geographic and genetic origin of these populations, as well as the sites where they have been released, largely unclear. We provide recommendations for urgently needed first steps relating to the risks and problems associated with release of alien populations.

  8. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  9. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  10. Footprints of alien technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2012-04-01

    If alien civilizations do, or did, exist, their technology will impact their environment. Some consideration has been given to the detection of large-scale astro-engineering, such as Dyson spheres. However, a very advanced technology might leave more subtle footprints requiring sophisticated scientific methods to uncover. We must not overlook the possibility that alien technology has impacted our immediate astronomical environment, even Earth itself, but probably a very long time ago. This raises the question of what traces, if anything, might remain today. I shall consider the possibilities of biological, geological and physical traces, and suggest ways that we might search for them.

  11. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as livestock nutritive energy sources and potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass, Brachypodium distanchyon, has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agricultur...

  12. Aliens and atheism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Sergio; de Muynck, Willem; Virginia; Peerally, Abed; Tyler, David; Stephen

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Aliens and atheists" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CQzu4), about a survey that found that atheists are more likely than religious people to believe that life exists on other planets.

  13. Alien Life Imagined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  14. Alien invasive birds.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  15. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today.

  16. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today. PMID:21809508

  17. Captured by Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  18. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  19. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  20. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  1. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  2. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  3. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  4. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  5. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  6. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  7. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  8. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  9. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  10. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  11. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  12. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  13. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  14. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  15. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  16. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  17. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  18. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  19. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  20. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  1. Alien plant dynamics following fire in mediterranean-climate California shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Baer-Keeley, M.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 75 species of alien plants were recorded during the first five years after fire in southern California shrublands, most of which were European annuals. Both cover and richness of aliens varied between years and plant association. Alien cover was lowest in the first postfire year in all plant associations and remained low during succession in chaparral but increased in sage scrub. Alien cover and richness were significantly correlated with year (time since disturbance) and with precipitation in both coastal and interior sage scrub associations. Hypothesized factors determining alien dominance were tested with structural equation modeling. Models that included nitrogen deposition and distance from the coast were not significant, but with those variables removed we obtained a significant model that gave an R2 = 0.60 for the response variable of fifth year alien dominance. Factors directly affecting alien dominance were (1) woody canopy closure and (2) alien seed banks. Significant indirect effects were (3) fire intensity, (4) fire history, (5) prefire stand structure, (6) aridity, and (7) community type. According to this model the most critical factor influencing aliens is the rapid return of the shrub and subshrub canopy. Thus, in these communities a single functional type (woody plants) appears to the most critical element controlling alien invasion and persistence. Fire history is an important indirect factor because it affects both prefire stand structure and postfire alien seed banks. Despite being fire-prone ecosystems, these shrublands are not adapted to fire per se, but rather to a particular fire regime. Alterations in the fire regime produce a very different selective environment, and high fire frequency changes the selective regime to favor aliens. This study does not support the widely held belief that prescription burning is a viable management practice for controlling alien species on semiarid landscapes. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of

  2. Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales

    PubMed Central

    Le Maitre, D. C.; Gush, M. B.; Dzikiti, S.

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies of the diverse impacts of invasions by alien plants but few have assessed impacts on water resources. We reviewed the information on the impacts of invasions on surface runoff and groundwater resources at stand to catchment scales and covering a full annual cycle. Most of the research is South African so the emphasis is on South Africa's major invaders with data from commercial forest plantations where relevant. Catchment studies worldwide have shown that changes in vegetation structure and the physiology of the dominant plant species result in changes in surface runoff and groundwater discharge, whether they involve native or alien plant species. Where there is little change in vegetation structure [e.g. leaf area (index), height, rooting depth and seasonality] the effects of invasions generally are small or undetectable. In South Africa, the most important woody invaders typically are taller and deeper rooted than the native species. The impacts of changes in evaporation (and thus runoff) in dryland settings are constrained by water availability to the plants and, thus, by rainfall. Where the dryland invaders are evergreen and the native vegetation (grass) is seasonal, the increases can reach 300–400 mm/year. Where the native vegetation is evergreen (shrublands) the increases are ∼200–300 mm/year. Where water availability is greater (riparian settings or shallow water tables), invading tree water-use can reach 1.5–2.0 times that of the same species in a dryland setting. So, riparian invasions have a much greater impact per unit area invaded than dryland invasions. The available data are scattered and incomplete, and there are many gaps and issues that must be addressed before a thorough understanding of the impacts at the site scale can be gained and used in extrapolating to watershed scales, and in converting changes in flows to water supply system yields. PMID:25935861

  3. Desperately seeking aliens.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, B W

    2001-02-22

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable--elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  4. Desperately seeking aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Brian W.

    2001-02-01

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable - elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  5. Desperately seeking aliens.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, B W

    2001-02-22

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable--elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary? PMID:11234021

  6. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions.

  7. Alienation: A Cause of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Adams, Jane

    1990-01-01

    Investigated alienation by administering Dean Alienation Scale to 157 incarcerated and 1,318 nonincarcerated adolescents. Found that incarcerated adolescents had significantly higher levels of total alienation, isolation, and powerlessness. Given high recidivism rates, results suggest reduction of both alienation and rejection of societal norms…

  8. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  9. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  10. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  11. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  12. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  13. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  14. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  15. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  16. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  17. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  18. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  19. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  20. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  1. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  2. Pests in ornamental grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  3. The alienation of the sufferer.

    PubMed

    Younger, J B

    1995-06-01

    Suffering is a particularly human experience that often brings with it loneliness or alienation from others. The theory described in this article explains the mechanisms through which suffering affects an individual's sense of community and connectedness with others. The intricate patterns are explained to provide a basis for prescriptive nursing to prevent or reverse this loss of connectedness. First, the article develops the concept of suffering and its influences on relationship with the self and with others and the relationship of others with the sufferer. Then, the concept of alienation is developed in this context, its philosophical roots explored, and a continuum described that encompasses alienation through connectedness. Related concepts of separation, shame, and stigma are briefly described as partial cases of alienation of the sufferer that also show the pervasiveness of the phenomenon. Next, the personal characteristics of an individual who might help are developed through the concept of wisdom. Last, an explanation is given as to why care is the contextual framework through which alienation is reversed and connectedness achieved. Although suffering, alienation, and care have gone by many names, the essences of these phenomena have been recurrent theme in descriptions of human response.

  4. Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

  5. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  6. [Portrait of an alien enemy].

    PubMed

    Molnar, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Official documents and photographs are forms of alienation yet they carry imprints of the inner life of their subjects. An identity paper and photograph of the eighteen-year-old Anna Freud (August 1914) serves as the basis for an investigation of various aspects of her identity at the time - firstly her position in England as an "alien enemy"; secondly her emotional and sexual predicament, brought to light primarily through her father's response to Ernest Jones' supposed advances; and finally her own sense of self as deduced from the expression in the portrait, backed up by the evidence of her poetry.

  7. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  8. Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1993-01-01

    Because parental alienation syndrome is newly recognized, it must be redefined as new cases are observed. Evidence suggests that alienation may be provoked by other than custodial matters, cases of alleged sexual abuse may be hinted, slow judgments by courts exacerbate problem, prolonged alienation of child may trigger mental illness, and little…

  9. Graffiti and "Film School" Culture: Displaying Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibel, Dean

    1994-01-01

    Examines graffiti created by students in "film school" as an organizational document. Finds themes related to alienation and the discourse that counters the sources of that alienation. Shows how the humorous communicative style of graffiti creates tension among cultural meanings that mediates between alienation and liberation. (SR)

  10. Aging and Alienation: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Tso Sang

    Alienation has been a key concept and major area of empirical studies in sociology and psychology; however, most alienation studies have not dealt with the elderly. In an attempt to explore the effects of the aging process and the major events of later life on the aging person's vulnerability to alienation, older residents (50 years or more) in a…

  11. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  12. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  13. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  14. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  15. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  16. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  17. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  18. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  19. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  20. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  1. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  2. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  3. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  4. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  5. Orally administered grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, E; Weeke, B

    1983-11-01

    In 1900 it was claimed that oral administration of ragweed could be used for the hyposensitization of hay fever patients. Several uncontrolled trials have been published, all showing an effect of oral hyposensitization. Only one study was controlled and showed no effect of oral hyposensitization. It was decided to undertake controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of orally administered enteric-coated grass pollen tablets in patients with hay fever. The actual grass pollen dose in the first trial was 30 times the dose that is normally recommended for preseasonal oral pollen hyposensitization using pollen aqueous solution or pollen powder. The safety study will be described here. Twelve young adults with a history of grass pollen hay fever positive skin prick test and positive nasal provocation test with extracts of timothy grass pollen were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups with four patients in each group taking enteric-coated Conjuvac Timothy tablets or enteric-coated Whole Timothy pollen tablets or enteric-coated placebo tablets. The study was double blind. Preseasonally, the patients received 342,500 PNU and in total they received 4,500,000 PNU during 6 months. The patients receiving active treatment did not have any side effects. No significant changes were shown in the skin and nasal reactivity to grass pollen during the study. Neither were there any changes in timothy-specific IgE, IgG, total IgE nor histamine liberation from basophils.

  6. ALIENATED YOUTH HERE AND ABROAD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KVARACEUS, WILLIAM C.

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE "SECOND-CLASS CITIZENSHIP" OF YOUTH FROM ALL SOCIAL CLASSES AND COUNTRIES, AND PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ABROAD WHICH PROVIDE YOUTH WITH A RESPONSIBLE, MEANINGFUL ROLE IN SOCIETY. IT IS FELT THAT IF SOCIETY FAILS TO CONSTRUCTIVELY TAP THE ENERGIES OF YOUTH, THEIR LATENT ENERGY AND SUBSEQUENT SOCIAL ALIENATION MAY…

  7. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  8. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  9. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  10. In Defense of the Alien. Volume VII. Immigration Reform and Refugee Developments. Proceedings of the Center for Migration Studies Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy (7th, Washington, DC, March 29-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1984 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy are collected in this book. Following a brief introduction, 16 papers are presented under three major headings: Immigration Legislation Reform; Immigration Legislation Practice; and Refugees: Policy and Legal Developments. The papers (and their authors)…

  11. [A case of parental alienation].

    PubMed

    Menz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical term "Parental Alienation Syndrome" (PAS) was introduced in 1984 by Richard Gardner, an American psychiatrist. Gardner described PAS and its symptoms, as a personality disorder, which appears chiefly in connection to child custody disputes wherein a child turns suddenly and massively against the non-custodial parent without reasonable grounds for doing so. This action by the child is a result of the custodial parent's emotionally abusive attempts to incite the child against the non-custodial parent.Where the child's rejection is based on some real past experience, there is not PAS. PAS only occurs as a result of the custodial parent's actions. Despite intensive effort, PAS was not included in the new DSM-V. In this case, a particularly impressive case history of parental alienation is described and discussed.

  12. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  13. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commissioner for Examinations as provided in 8 CFR 103.3. (7) Requirements for alien entrepreneurs. An alien... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  14. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  15. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  16. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  17. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  18. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  19. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  20. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  1. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  2. Invasion and Management of Agricultural Alien Insects in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang-Hao; Yang, Nian-Wan

    2016-01-01

    China is the world's fourth-largest country in terms of landmass. Its highly diverse biogeography presents opportunities for many invasive alien insects. However, physical and climate barriers sometimes prevent locally occurring species from spreading. China has 560 confirmed invasive alien species; 125 are insect pests, and 92 of these damage the agricultural ecosystem. The estimated annual economic loss due to alien invasive species is more than $18.9 billion. The most harmful invasive insects exhibit some common characteristics, such as high reproduction, competitive dominance, and high tolerance, and benefit from mutualist facilitation interactions. Regional cropping system structure adjustments have resulted in mono-agricultural ecosystems in cotton and other staple crops, providing opportunities for monophagous insect pests. Furthermore, human dietary shifts to fruits and vegetables and smallholder-based farming systems result in highly diverse agricultural ecosystems, which provide resource opportunities for polyphagous insects. Multiple cropping and widespread use of greenhouses provide continuous food and winter habitats for insect pests, greatly extending their geographic range. The current management system consists of early-warning, monitoring, eradication, and spread blocking technologies. This review provides valuable new synthetic information on integrated management practices based mainly on biological control for a number of invasive species. We encourage farmers and extension workers to be more involved in training and further research for novel protection methods that takes into consideration end users' needs.

  3. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  4. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

    1995-08-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  5. Waking up the alien hand: rubber hand illusion interacts with alien hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Galazky, Imke

    2013-08-01

    It has been shown that combinations of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive manipulations in healthy subjects may elicit illusory feelings of embodiment (the rubber hand illusion and the somatic rubber hand illusion). We report a case of alien hand syndrome in which the alien hand interacted with the somatic rubber hand illusion to provoke a very strong movement of the alien hand. This effect could be reliably replicated at every application of the experimental procedure. Thus, the illusion seemed to wake up the alien hand. The results demonstrate that the alien hand syndrome can be affected by experimentally induced bodily illusions, which are based on the manipulation of touch and proprioceptive information.

  6. Facilitation or competition? Tree effects on grass biomass across a precipitation gradient.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, Aristides; Kunin, William E; Cameron, Tom C; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP) mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP≤550 mm), with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP = 737 mm), grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

  7. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  8. Alienating Students: Marxist Theory in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Megan; Pan, Yung-Yi Dian; Molina, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Karl Marx's revolutionary call, "Workers of the World Unite," resonates with many in today's society. This article describes and assesses an easily reproducible classroom activity that simulates both alienating, and perhaps more importantly, non-alienating states of production as described by Marx. This hands-on learning activity gives…

  9. Black, White, and Brown Adolescent Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heussenstamm, F. K.; Hoepfner, Ralph

    This study, based on cultural stereotypes, seeks to determine the demographic characteristics which differentiate among young people and correlate with their levels of alienation. A preliminary version of an experimental scale, designed to determine the existence and extent of alienation manifested by in-school adolescents, was developed in a…

  10. Legal Recognition of the Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Nancy Rainey

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the parental alienation syndrome, which is the process by which one parent overtly or covertly speaks or acts in a derogatory manner to or about the other parent during or subsequent to a divorce proceeding, in an attempt to alienate the child or children from that other parent. (Author)

  11. Illegal Aliens: Their Employment and Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    A study examined various characteristics of the employment of illegal aliens, including wages, job training, job mobility, workplace conditions, and employer characteristics. The study was largely based on data transcribed from a sample of Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehension reports on illegal aliens in the Chicago (Illinois)…

  12. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... two or more misdemeanors, as defined in § 1244.1, committed in the United States, or (b) Is an alien described in section 243(h)(2) of the Act. ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  13. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... two or more misdemeanors, as defined in § 1244.1, committed in the United States, or (b) Is an alien described in section 243(h)(2) of the Act. ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  14. Book title: Exotic brome grasses in arid and semi-arid ecosystems of the western US: causes, consequences, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic invasive annual grass research and management in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the western US have historically focused on the outcome of efforts to reduce weed abundance. Given the current impact of invasive annual grasses and their continued spread in this region, we assessed components ...

  15. Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock.

    PubMed

    Cheeke, P R

    1995-03-01

    Plant toxins are the chemical defenses of plants against herbivory. Grasses have relatively few intrinsic toxins, relying more on growth habit to survive defoliation and endophytic fungal toxins as chemical defenses. Forage grasses that contain intrinsic toxins include Phalaris spp. (tryptamine and carboline alkaloids), sorghums (cyanogenic glycosides), and tropical grasses containing oxalates and saponins. Toxic effects of these grasses include neurological damage (Phalaris staggers), hypoxia (sudangrass), saponin-induced photosensitization (Brachiaria and Panicum spp.), and bone demineralization (oxalate-containing grasses). Endophytic toxins in grasses include ergot alkaloids in tall fescue and tremorgens (e.g., lolitrem B) in perennial ryegrass. Lolitrems cause neurological effects, producing the ryegrass staggers syndrome. Annual ryegrass toxicosis is caused by corynetoxins, which are chemically similar to tunicamycin antibiotics. Corynetoxins are produced by Clavibacter bacteria that parasitize a nematode, Anguina agrostis, that may infect annual ryegrass. Corynetoxins inhibit glycoprotein synthesis, causing defective formation of various blood components of the reticulo-endothelial system. Another mycotoxin in ryegrass is sporidesmin, which causes liver damage and secondary photosensitization (facial eczema). Fusarium toxins such as zearalenone and trichothecenes also occur in forage grasses. Kikuyugrass poisoning results in severe damage to the ruminal epithelium and omasal mucosa, and neurological signs. The causative agent, which may be associated with army worm predation of the grass, has not been identified. The properties and significance of these toxins are reviewed.

  16. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  17. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  18. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits issued to an eligible sponsored alien he or she... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  19. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits issued to an eligible sponsored alien he or she... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits issued to an eligible sponsored alien he or she... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  1. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits issued to an eligible sponsored alien he or she... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  2. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  3. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  4. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  5. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  6. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  7. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes of the...

  10. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  11. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  12. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section....6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is required to... gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  13. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  14. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  15. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  16. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  17. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  18. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  19. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  20. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  1. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  3. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  4. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties,...

  5. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  6. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  7. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  8. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  10. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  12. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  13. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  14. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  15. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  16. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  19. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  20. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  1. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  2. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  3. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  4. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  5. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  6. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  7. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  8. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  9. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  10. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  11. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  13. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  14. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  15. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  16. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  17. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  18. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  20. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  1. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  2. The Rural School Environment and Its Effect on Adolescent Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoho, Alan R.; Petrisky, Irene T.

    A number of studies have suggested that school environment and organizational structure contribute to adolescent alienation, but few have analyzed alienation in a specific geographic context. This paper examines adolescent alienation in a rural school context. Dean (1961) defined alienation as an affective construct consisting of isolation…

  3. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    PubMed

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  4. Comparison of a high-density genetic linkage map to genome features in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small annual grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is rapidly emerging as a powerful model system to study questions unique to the grasses. Many Brachypodium resources have been developed including whole genome sequence, highly efficient transformation and a large germplasm collection. Mi...

  5. Mismatch in aeroallergens and airborne grass pollen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Galán, C.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the allergen concentration in the atmosphere is essential for allergy sufferers. The major cause of pollinosis all over Europe is due to grass pollen and Phl p 5 has the highest rates of sensitization (>50%) in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy. However, recent research has shown that airborne pollen does not always offer a clear indicator of exposure to aeroallergens. This study aims to evaluate relations between airborne grass pollen and Phl p 5 concentrations in Córdoba (southern Spain) and to study how meteorological parameters influence these atmospheric records. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Hirst-type volumetric spore trap was used for pollen collection, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA). Aeroallergen sampling was performed using a low-volume cyclone sampler, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Besides, the influence of main meteorological factors on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was surveyed. A significant correlation was observed between grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations during the pollen season, but with some sporadic discrepancy episodes. The cumulative annual Pollen Index also varied considerably. A significant correlation has been obtained between airborne pollen and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation, during the three studied years. However, there is no clear relationship between allergens and weather variables. Our findings suggest that the correlation between grass pollen and aeroallergen Phl p 5 concentrations varies from year-to-year probably related to a complex interplay of meteorological variables.

  6. Black, White, and Brown Adolescent Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heussenstamm, F. K.; Hoepfner, Ralph

    1972-01-01

    Those demographic characteristics of adolescents that proved to be most highly significant in relationship to alienation are grade point average, parental approval of friends, and solidarity with peers. (Authors)

  7. Family Harmony: An Etiologic Factor in Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Morris J.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Results suggest that recollections of earlier experienced parental attitudes can be retrospective clues of earlier parent-child interaction along the alienation dimension of an Anti-Establishment vs. Establishment philosophy of early child rearing. (Authors/MB)

  8. Undocumented Aliens: A Study of Mexican Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcido, Ramon M.

    1979-01-01

    The personal histories described here confirm that the primary impetus of undocumented aliens to emigrate is the desire for jobs and better socioeconomic opportunities. Amnesty, aid to families with dependent children, and increased social services are recommended. (Author/BEF)

  9. The alien hand and related signs.

    PubMed Central

    Doody, R S; Jankovic, J

    1992-01-01

    Alien limb sign includes failure to recognise ownership of one's limb when visual cues are removed, a feeling that one body part is foreign, personification of the affected body part, and autonomous activity which is perceived as outside voluntary control. Although the hand is most frequently affected, any limb or combination of limbs may fulfil the alien limb criteria. Alien hand sign should be reserved for cases in which the hand feels foreign together with observable involuntary motor activity. To characterise this phenomenon, seven patients with alien hand sign and other motor or behavioural manifestations are described. Aetiologies included multiple infarcts and cortobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBD). In this study, all patients had apraxia in response to verbal commands and problems with bimanual coordination. Most displayed non-goal directed involuntary motor activities, and two had self destructive motor behaviours. Grasp reflex occurred with alien hand due to either aetiology. Cortical reflex myoclonus was frequently seen in CBD patients. The phenomenological spectrum is reviewed, a diagnostic protocol proposed, and possible anatomical bases of alien hand discussed. PMID:1402972

  10. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  11. Case Study: Effects of interseeding date of cool-season annual grasses and pre-plant glyphosate application onto a warm-season sod on forage production, forage quality, performance of stocker cattle, and net-return

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of a pre-plant application of glyphosate and planting date on the performance of growing beef calves grazing interseeded cool-season annual pastures. Twenty 0.81-ha bermudagrass/crabgrass pastures were planted to soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aes...

  12. The chemical control of Shorgum halepense (Johnson grass) in soybean culture in the Danube meadow.

    PubMed

    Poienaru, S; Sarpe, N; Sarpe, I

    2005-01-01

    Soybean cultures, especially those from the Danube Meadow, are very strongly infested with Johnson grass, which causes big damages, by the reduction of production with 40-85%, depending on the infestation degree. Before the synthesis of special herbicides for Johnson grass control, this species was controlled by practicing deep tilling, repeated operations with the disk, and, after the sprouting of soy plants, by mechanical and manual hoeings. In the Danube Waterside, the lack of labour force for the manual hoeing is very sharp. For this reason, it was generalized the enlarged use of herbicides for annual weed control (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous), including Johnson grass. For the control of Johnson grass species, in the conditions of the Danube Meadow, the best results were obtained with the herbicides Fusilade Super, Targa Super, Agil and Select, and for the control of annual dicotyledonous species, with the herbicide Pivot 100LC.

  13. Keystone effects of an alien top-predator stem extinctions of native mammals

    PubMed Central

    Letnic, Mike; Koch, Freya; Gordon, Chris; Crowther, Mathew S.; Dickman, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Alien predators can have catastrophic effects on ecosystems and are thought to be much more harmful to biodiversity than their native counterparts. However, trophic cascade theory and the mesopredator release hypothesis predict that the removal of top predators will result in the reorganization of trophic webs and loss of biodiversity. Using field data collected throughout arid Australia, we provide evidence that removal of an alien top-predator, the dingo, has cascading effects through lower trophic levels. Dingo removal was linked to increased activity of herbivores and an invasive mesopredator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and to the loss of grass cover and native species of small mammals. Using species distribution data, we predict that reintroducing or maintaining dingo populations would produce a net benefit for the conservation of threatened native mammals across greater than 2.42 × 106 km2 of Australia. Our study provides evidence that an alien top predator can assume a keystone role and be beneficial for biodiversity conservation, and also that mammalian carnivores more generally can generate strong trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:19535372

  14. Keystone effects of an alien top-predator stem extinctions of native mammals.

    PubMed

    Letnic, Mike; Koch, Freya; Gordon, Chris; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Christopher R

    2009-09-22

    Alien predators can have catastrophic effects on ecosystems and are thought to be much more harmful to biodiversity than their native counterparts. However, trophic cascade theory and the mesopredator release hypothesis predict that the removal of top predators will result in the reorganization of trophic webs and loss of biodiversity. Using field data collected throughout arid Australia, we provide evidence that removal of an alien top-predator, the dingo, has cascading effects through lower trophic levels. Dingo removal was linked to increased activity of herbivores and an invasive mesopredator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and to the loss of grass cover and native species of small mammals. Using species distribution data, we predict that reintroducing or maintaining dingo populations would produce a net benefit for the conservation of threatened native mammals across greater than 2.42 x 10(6) km(2) of Australia. Our study provides evidence that an alien top predator can assume a keystone role and be beneficial for biodiversity conservation, and also that mammalian carnivores more generally can generate strong trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:19535372

  15. Alien abduction: a medical hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Forrest, David V

    2008-01-01

    In response to a new psychological study of persons who believe they have been abducted by space aliens that found that sleep paralysis, a history of being hypnotized, and preoccupation with the paranormal and extraterrestrial were predisposing experiences, I noted that many of the frequently reported particulars of the abduction experience bear more than a passing resemblance to medical-surgical procedures and propose that experience with these may also be contributory. There is the altered state of consciousness, uniformly colored figures with prominent eyes, in a high-tech room under a round bright saucerlike object; there is nakedness, pain and a loss of control while the body's boundaries are being probed; and yet the figures are thought benevolent. No medical-surgical history was apparently taken in the above mentioned study, but psychological laboratory work evaluated false memory formation. I discuss problems in assessing intraoperative awareness and ways in which the medical hypothesis could be elaborated and tested. If physicians are causing this syndrome in a percentage of patients, we should know about it; and persons who feel they have been abducted should be encouraged to inform their surgeons and anesthesiologists without challenging their beliefs.

  16. Parental Alienation Syndrome vs. Parental Alienation: Which Diagnosis Should Evaluators Use in Child-Custody Disputes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate the sources of controversy between the use of the terms Parental Alienation Syndrome and Parental Alienation and to delineate the advantages and disadvantages of using either term in the context of child-custody disputes. It concludes that families are best served when the more specific term, Parental…

  17. EVOLUTIONS OF A BLACK-GRASS POPULATION SUBMITTED TO DIVERSE CROP SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Henriet, F; Matrheeuws, L; Verbiest, M

    2014-01-01

    Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. The first case of resistance in Belgium was reported by Eelen et al. (1996). Since then, monitoring showed that resistant black-grass was not confined to restricted areas anymore and that all usually effective modes of action could be subject to resistance issue (Henriet and Maréchal, 2009). There is no report that agrochemical companies will soon bring a new mode of action effective against grasses on the market, in a close future. It is therefore important to preserve the still effective actives by integrating them into global weeding strategies. A long-lasting trial was set up in order to study the evolution of a black-grass population when submitted to diverse crop systems. Several factors were studied such as rotation (quadri-annual-bisannual-monoculture winter wheat), sowing date (standard date or delayed), cultivation (inversion tillage or not) and herbicide treatments. During three years, each time winter wheat occurred in the rotation, each plot gets the same factorial combination (rotation excepted). In untreated plots, black-grass head counting's showed no differences between tillage or not and bisannual or quadri-annual rotation. On the other hand, number of black-grass heads was higher in standard sowing date and monoculture than in delayed sowing date and other rotations, respectively. The general efficacy of the herbicide treatments was decreasing over the years.

  18. The search for alien life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M.

    Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life on our own planet, expanding the habitable range of salinity, pressure, temperature, and radiation of our world. Given the relatively recent discoveries about life on Earth, how then can we expect to look for alien life that may use completely different sets of molecules for structure and activity? Astrobiology has taken on the challenge of developing the intellectual basis, target identification, instrument capabilities, and operational procedures for the search for life elsewhere. The research aims to develop general principles of how life maintains itself, how life interacts with its environment, and how the signatures of life may be preserved and recognized. The approach has been to move from the laboratory, to the environment, to robotic exploration of planetary analogs. To date, generic evidence for life can be perceived through life's creation and utilization of disequilibria, multiple uses of a relatively few sets of molecules, a preference for chiral compounds, and a predilection for lighter isotopes. It is through application of life detection instrumentation in environmental extremes that we hope to develop a catalogue of generic biosignatures, robust instrumentation capable of revealing the unexpected, and effective exploration strategies for robotic platforms in the search for signs of life. In 2009, Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars may be the first beneficiaries of this approach.

  19. An introduction to parental alienation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Michelle M

    2011-04-01

    Parental alienation syndrome (PAS) can occur during a tumultuous divorce between embattled parents involved in a bitter child custody dispute. During parental warfare, a child is used as a weapon by one parent (alienating parent) against the other parent (alienated/targeted parent). The targeted parent-child relationship once encased with unconditional love is transformed by an unrelenting campaign of denigration, criticism, and hatred. Since nursing literature on PAS is almost nonexistent, the purpose of this article is to increase nursing awareness and provide basic information. Awareness of PAS symptoms and interpersonal dynamics is important to prompt nurses in recommending treatment for families. Nurses should collaboratively join other professionals in their quest to provide the best treatment possible.

  20. ALIEN SPECIES: THEIR ROLE IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...

  1. Peak fire temperatures and effects on annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    Very little is known about the behavior and effects of fire in the Mojave Desert, because fire was historically uncommon. However, fire has become more frequent since the 1970s with increased dominance of the invasive annual grasses Bromus rubens and Schismus spp., and land managers are concerned about its ecological effect. In this paper, I describe patterns of peak fire temperature and their effect on annual plants in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Temperatures were monitored among microhabitats and distances from the soil surface, and between spring and summer. Microhabitats ranged from high amounts of fuel beneath creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) canopies, to intermediate amounts at the canopy drip line, to low amounts in the interspaces between them. Distances from the soil surface were within the vertical range where most annual plant seeds occur (−2, 0, 5, and 10 cm). I also compare temperature patterns with postfire changes in soil properties and annual plant biomass and species richness to infer potential mechanisms by which fires affect annual plants.Peak fire temperatures were most affected by the microhabitat fuel gradient, and the effects of fire on annual plants varied among microhabitats. Beneath creosote bushes, lethal fire temperatures for annual plant seeds occurred above- and belowground, resulting in four postfire years of reduced annual plant biomass and species richness due most likely to seed mortality, especially of Bromus rubens and native forbs. At the canopy drip line, lethal fire temperatures occurred only aboveground, reducing annual plant biomass for 1 yr and species richness for 2 yr, and increasing biomass of Schismus sp., the alien forb Erodium cicutarium, and native annuals after 3 yr. Negligible changes were caused by fire in interspaces or between spring and summer.Fire effects models for creosote bush scrub vegetation must account for patterns of peak fire temperature along the shrub

  2. The Lost Parents' Perspective on Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiliou, Despina; Cartwright, Glenn F.

    2001-01-01

    Examined alienated fathers' and mothers' perceptions of parental alienation syndrome (PAS). Data were collected via semistructured, open ended interview questionnaires to determine if there were shared characteristics among alienated families; common issues in marital conflicts contributing to marriage dissolution; similarities in experience of…

  3. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... participating in the Program from any demand made under 8 CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  4. Socio-economic Predictors of Alienation among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Thomas J., Jr.; Christian, Ollie

    1990-01-01

    Studied level of alienation and associations between socioeconomic variables and alienation in 200 older senior center clients. Found group isolation and powerlessness were more prevalent than personal isolation or normlessness; health, race, education, and income were strongest predictors of alienation; and older Blacks and those with lower…

  5. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  6. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  7. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  8. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  9. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  11. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  12. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  13. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  14. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  15. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  16. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  17. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  18. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  19. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  1. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  2. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  3. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  4. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  5. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  6. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  7. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  8. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  9. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  10. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section 233... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  11. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  12. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  13. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  14. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  15. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  16. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  17. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  19. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  20. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  2. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  4. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  5. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  6. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  7. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  8. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  9. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  10. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  11. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  12. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  13. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  15. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  16. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  18. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  19. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  1. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  2. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  3. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  4. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  6. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  9. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  10. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  12. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  13. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  14. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  15. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  16. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  17. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  18. A grass-fire cycle eliminates an obligate-seeding tree in a tropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David M J S; MacDermott, Harry J; Nichols, Scott C; Murphy, Brett P

    2014-11-01

    A grass-fire cycle in Australian tropical savannas has been postulated as driving the regional decline of the obligate-seeding conifer Callitris intratropica and other fire-sensitive components of the regional flora and fauna, due to proliferation of flammable native grasses. We tested the hypothesis that a high-biomass invasive savanna grass drives a positive feedback process where intense fires destroy fire-sensitive trees, and the reduction in canopy cover facilitates further invasion by grass. We undertook an observational and experimental study using, as a model system, a plantation of C. intratropica that has been invaded by an African grass, gamba (Andropogon gayanus) in the Northern Territory, Australia. We found that high grass biomass was associated with reduced canopy cover and restriction of foliage to the upper canopy of surviving stems, and mortality of adult trees was very high (>50%) even in areas with low fuel loads (1 t·ha(-1)). Experimental fires, with fuel loads >10 t·ha(-1), typical of the grass-invasion front, caused significant mortality due to complete crown scorch. Lower fuel loads cause reduced canopy cover through defoliation of the lower canopy. These results help explain how increases in grass biomass are coupled with the decline of C. intratropica throughout northern Australia by causing a switch from litter and sparse perennial grass fuels, and hence low-intensity surface fires, to heavy annual grass fuel loads that sustain fires that burn into the midstorey. This study demonstrates that changes in fuel type can alter fire regimes with substantial knock-on effects on the biota. PMID:25505543

  19. The Alienating Influence of the Illusionogens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Andrew I.

    1971-01-01

    The author, based on his discussion, hypothesizes that: (1) the use of marijuana may serve to intensify the tendency toward an adolescent's alienation and (2) attitudinal changes do occur in people who are exposed to the illusionogens and that these changes are more certainly fixed with continued use. (Author/BY)

  20. Processes of Alienation: Marx, Orff and Kodaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Using Marx as a lens through which to interrogate music methodology, in particular those espoused by Orff and Kodaly, this article suggests that rather than the free play and creativity Orff and Kodaly intended, the implementation of these methods in a strict and unmindful manner, often alienates both teacher and student from musicking. Thus these…

  1. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  2. Student Drug Usage and Self-Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Michael L.

    Utilizing responses (a self administered, 15 item questionnaire) of a rural northeastern New England sample of junior high, senior high, and college students, correlation between legal and illegal drug use and perceived self-alienation was examined. Comparison was also made between users and nonusers. Legal users were defined as those who made at…

  3. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alien Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sarva, Harini; Deik, Andres; Severt, William Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a disorder of involuntary, yet purposeful, hand movements that may be accompanied by agnosia, aphasia, weakness, or sensory loss. We herein review the most reported cases, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatments. Methods We performed a PubMed search in July of 2014 using the phrases “alien hand syndrome,” “alien hand syndrome pathophysiology,” “alien hand syndrome treatment,” and “anarchic hand syndrome.” The search yielded 141 papers (reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical studies), of which we reviewed 109. Non-English reports without English abstracts were excluded. Results Accumulating evidence indicates that there are three AHS variants: frontal, callosal, and posterior. Patients may demonstrate symptoms of multiple types; there is a lack of correlation between phenomenology and neuroimaging findings. Most pathologic and functional imaging studies suggest network disruption causing loss of inhibition as the likely cause. Successful interventions include botulinum toxin injections, clonazepam, visuospatial coaching techniques, distracting the affected hand, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Discussion The available literature suggests that overlap between AHS subtypes is common. The evidence for effective treatments remains anecdotal, and, given the rarity of AHS, the possibility of performing randomized, placebo-controlled trials seems unlikely. As with many other interventions for movement disorders, identifying the specific functional impairments caused by AHS may provide the best guidance towards individualized supportive care. PMID:25506043

  4. The Alienated Majority: A Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Marilyn

    The purpose of this study was to test House's and Mason's hypothesis (1975) that only a weak relationship exists between political alienation and traditional demographic definitions of social position. Such demographic variables include age, sex, socioeconomic status, length of residency in the community, and occupational prestige. Data was…

  5. Creating Aliens: The Ultimate Life Sciences Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltramo, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Describes a seven-week project completed by the author's eighth-grade science students (as they studied "the chemistry of living things") in which they designed an alien and its world using the scientific concepts that they learned in class. Compares class presentations using PowerPoint software to presentations using posterboard. (SR)

  6. Temporary Employment of Aliens Working in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    1978-01-01

    Two groups are in conflict regarding the temporary employment of aliens in agriculture. One group is in favor of government planning, and of direct government intervention in the market place. The other group is very reluctant for the government to intervene in the market place, and would prefer free enterprise to operate. (NQ)

  7. Neighborhood Disorder, Subjective Alienation, and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    2009-01-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry…

  8. College as a Source of Black Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes college and precollege explanations of alienation and indicates how they intertwine in the case of Black college students. A multivariate analysis of Black students is then used to control for precollege experiences and isolate the independent impact of college life on Black students at a predominantly White university.…

  9. Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

  10. Aliens Among Us : Are They Already Here ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    2008-03-01

    Popular culture, science fiction and mainstream belief, says they are! What is the evidence? Astronomer, skeptic and retired USAF pilot James McGaha examines this "Space Age" Mythology. From years of investigation of the physical evidence of aliens and there spacecraft (UFO's) here on earth, McGaha presents the scientific facts.

  11. Alienation and Fetish in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Reexamines materials from an ethnographic study of science-education laboratory work in a teacher-educator course through the lens of three Marxist concepts: alienation, reification, and commodity fetish. Concludes that the potential for generating criticism of science in teacher education is squandered because of a fetishized notion of science.…

  12. The Lonely Consumer: Advertising and Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.; Denton, Robert E.

    Advertising plays on the broad feelings of alienation (defined as an individual's frustrated or estranged responses to economic and sociological phenomena which affect that individual's place in society) which are endemic to the American consumer society and are, in Marxist views, symptomatic of any capitalist system. By generating anxieties and…

  13. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  14. Initial success of native grasses is contingent on multiple interactions among exotic grass competition, temporal priority, rainfall and site effects

    PubMed Central

    Young, Truman P.; Zefferman, Emily P.; Vaughn, Kurt J.; Fick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are increasingly being recognized as the products of contemporary drivers and historical legacies that are both biotic and abiotic. In an attempt to unravel multiple layers of ecological contingency, we manipulated (i) competition with exotic annual grasses, (ii) the timing of this competition (temporal priority in arrival/seeding times) and (iii) watering (simulated rainfall) in a restoration-style planting of native perennial grasses. In addition, we replicated this experiment simultaneously at three sites in north-central California. Native perennial grasses had 73–99 % less cover when planted with exotic annuals than when planted alone, but this reduction was greatly ameliorated by planting the natives 2 weeks prior to the exotics. In a drought year, irrigation significantly reduced benefits of early planting so that these benefits resembled those observed in a non-drought year. There were significant differences across the three sites (site effects and interactions) in (i) overall native cover, (ii) the response of natives to competition, (iii) the strength of the temporal priority effect and (iv) the degree to which supplemental watering reduced priority effects. These results reveal the strong multi-layered contingency that underlies even relatively simple communities. PMID:25480888

  15. Initial success of native grasses is contingent on multiple interactions among exotic grass competition, temporal priority, rainfall and site effects.

    PubMed

    Young, Truman P; Zefferman, Emily P; Vaughn, Kurt J; Fick, Stephen

    2014-12-05

    Ecological communities are increasingly being recognized as the products of contemporary drivers and historical legacies that are both biotic and abiotic. In an attempt to unravel multiple layers of ecological contingency, we manipulated (i) competition with exotic annual grasses, (ii) the timing of this competition (temporal priority in arrival/seeding times) and (iii) watering (simulated rainfall) in a restoration-style planting of native perennial grasses. In addition, we replicated this experiment simultaneously at three sites in north-central California. Native perennial grasses had 73-99 % less cover when planted with exotic annuals than when planted alone, but this reduction was greatly ameliorated by planting the natives 2 weeks prior to the exotics. In a drought year, irrigation significantly reduced benefits of early planting so that these benefits resembled those observed in a non-drought year. There were significant differences across the three sites (site effects and interactions) in (i) overall native cover, (ii) the response of natives to competition, (iii) the strength of the temporal priority effect and (iv) the degree to which supplemental watering reduced priority effects. These results reveal the strong multi-layered contingency that underlies even relatively simple communities.

  16. Parental alienation syndrome. A developmental analysis of a vulnerable population.

    PubMed

    Price, J L; Pioske, K S

    1994-11-01

    1. Parental alienation syndrome is the systematic denigration by one parent of the other parent with the intent of alienating the child. 2. Parents who engage in alienating activity have experienced loss, leading to depression, anger, and aggression. The family system experiences loss during divorce and is adversely affected by the alienating activities of one parent. 3. Understanding the dynamics of parental alienation syndrome will position the nurse to recognize it as a symptom of depression and dependence, and bring care to the vulnerable population.

  17. The psychosocial treatment of parental alienation.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Douglas

    2011-07-01

    Parental alienation occurs in divorces when one parent indoctrinates the child to dislike, fear, and avoid contact with the other parent. Mental health professionals who treat children and adolescents are likely to encounter victims of parental alienation in clinical practice, and it is important to identify and treat these youngsters earlier, when the condition is mild, rather than later, when the parental alienation is almost intractable. This article presents an overview of the treatment of parental alienation, which is called reunification therapy. All the parties involved in the case have a role in the prevention and treatment of parental alienation.

  18. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  19. Biomass potential of selected grass and legume crops

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, J.H.; Johnson, K.D.; Volenec, J.J.; Greene, D.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Optimum management strategies for herbaceous biomass crops must be investigated concurrently with the development of cost-effective conversion processes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the agronomic feasibility of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass on sites ranging from good to marginal cropland in the Midwest region of the United States. Of the perennial grasses and legumes investigated, switchgrass showed the most potential as a biomass species. It requires minimum fertilizer inputs for high yield, is very persistent, and is effective in reducing soil erosion. Sorghum double-cropped with winter annual rye was very productive but required more inputs than switchgrass. Interseeding sorghum into perennial grasses was not a viable option, due to its great dependence on environmental variables. Plant composition varied greatly across species but was not greatly affected by environment or management treatmenst.

  20. Assessing the competitive ability of Japanese stilt grass, Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht, S.A.; Silander, J.A.; Greenwood, K.

    2005-01-01

    Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass) is an invasive grass in the eastern half of the United States which can form dense monocultures in forest understories, displacing native species. Although the loss of native species has been observed in the field, the actual competitive ability of this grass has not been examined. Microstegium vimineum was grown under controlled environment, greenhouse conditions in competition with Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum (annual rye grass) and Muhlenbergia mexicana (Mexican muhly) in varying density ratios in full and low light treatments. Microstegium vimineum had a greater aboveground biomass, relative growth rate, and reproductive output than both competitors in both light treatments. The high competitive ability of Microstegium vimineum, especially in low light conditions, reflects its highly aggressive nature in forested or other landscapes of eastern North America.

  1. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  2. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  4. Growth and Quality of Cool-Season Perennial Grass Species in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annually planted winter wheat is the major cool-season livestock forage enterprise in a large part of the southern Great Plains and is a good complement to warm-season perennials. However, gaps in both fall and spring exist in the system. Cool-season perennial grasses that have origins in the Nort...

  5. Autoimmunity vs. cancer: predator vs. alien?

    PubMed

    Berens, Christian; Lauber, Kirsten; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-08-01

    "The enemy of my enemy is my friend." According to this motto, the human protagonists in Paul W. S. Anderson's science-fiction movie "Alien vs. Predator" (2004) solidarize with a predator in order to fight the aliens. Can this ancient and simple logic be transferred to the field of oncology and cancer immunotherapy? Can we utilize mechanisms known from the context of autoimmunity to fight cancer? Here, we summarize immune cell-mediated detection of danger and damage, central and peripheral tolerance, immunoregulation and immune privilege--processes known to be deregulated in the context of autoimmunity. We discuss them with special regard towards their misusage by tumors and pathogens and how they might be instrumentalized in the context of anti-cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Interplanting Annual Ryegrass, Wheat, Oat, and Corn to Mitigate Iron Deficiency in Dry Beans

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal. PMID:25536084

  7. Interplanting annual ryegrass, wheat, oat, and corn to mitigate iron deficiency in dry beans.

    PubMed

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal.

  8. "Naturalization" of the alien hand: case report.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J J; Wichner, M H; Gorelick, P B; Ramsey, M M

    1998-01-01

    The alien hand syndrome is an involuntary motor phenomenon that occurs infrequently and mostly in stroke patients. A case is reported of a 67-year-old man with left hemiparesis whose hand crept and crawled, especially at night, which caused him to awaken by grasping his collar. The disturbing nocturnal activity of the hand was stilled by placing it in a common oven mitt.

  9. Electrophoretic analysis of Allium alien addition lines.

    PubMed

    Peffley, E B; Corgan, J N; Horak, K E; Tanksley, S D

    1985-12-01

    Meiotic pairing in an interspecific triploid of Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, 'Delta Giant', exhibits preferential pairing between the two A. cepa genomes, leaving the A. fistulosum genome as univalents. Multivalent pairing involving A. fistulosum chromosomes occurs at a low level, allowing for recombination between the genomes. Ten trisomies were recovered from the backcross of 'Delta Giant' x A. cepa cv., 'Temprana', representing a minimum of four of the eight possible alien addition lines. The alien addition lines possessed different A. fistulosum enzyme markers. Those markers, Adh-1, Idh-1 and Pgm-1 reside on different A. fistulosum chromosomes, whereas Pgi-1 and Idh-1 may be linked. Diploid, trisomic and hyperploid progeny were recovered that exhibited putative pink root resistance. The use of interspecific plants as a means to introgress A. fistulosum genes into A. cepa appears to be successful at both the trisomic and the diploid levels. If introgression can be accomplished using an interspecific triploid such as 'Delta Giant' to generate fertile alien addition lines and subsequent fertile diploids, or if introgression can be accomplished directly at the diploid level, this will have accomplished gene flow that has not been possible at the interspecific diploid level.

  10. Testing the Amazon savannization hypothesis: fire effects on invasion of a neotropical forest by native cerrado and exotic pasture grasses.

    PubMed

    Silvério, Divino V; Brando, Paulo M; Balch, Jennifer K; Putz, Francis E; Nepstad, Daniel C; Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei; Bustamante, Mercedes M C

    2013-06-01

    Changes in climate and land use that interact synergistically to increase fire frequencies and intensities in tropical regions are predicted to drive forests to new grass-dominated stable states. To reveal the mechanisms for such a transition, we established 50 ha plots in a transitional forest in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon to different fire treatments (unburned, burned annually (B1yr) or at 3-year intervals (B3yr)). Over an 8-year period since the commencement of these treatments, we documented: (i) the annual rate of pasture and native grass invasion in response to increasing fire frequency; (ii) the establishment of Brachiaria decumbens (an African C4 grass) as a function of decreasing canopy cover and (iii) the effects of grass fine fuel on fire intensity. Grasses invaded approximately 200 m from the edge into the interiors of burned plots (B1yr: 4.31 ha; B3yr: 4.96 ha) but invaded less than 10 m into the unburned plot (0.33 ha). The probability of B. decumbens establishment increased with seed availability and decreased with leaf area index. Fine fuel loads along the forest edge were more than three times higher in grass-dominated areas, which resulted in especially intense fires. Our results indicate that synergies between fires and invasive C4 grasses jeopardize the future of tropical forests.

  11. Testing the Amazon savannization hypothesis: fire effects on invasion of a neotropical forest by native cerrado and exotic pasture grasses

    PubMed Central

    Silvério, Divino V.; Brando, Paulo M.; Balch, Jennifer K.; Putz, Francis E.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in climate and land use that interact synergistically to increase fire frequencies and intensities in tropical regions are predicted to drive forests to new grass-dominated stable states. To reveal the mechanisms for such a transition, we established 50 ha plots in a transitional forest in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon to different fire treatments (unburned, burned annually (B1yr) or at 3-year intervals (B3yr)). Over an 8-year period since the commencement of these treatments, we documented: (i) the annual rate of pasture and native grass invasion in response to increasing fire frequency; (ii) the establishment of Brachiaria decumbens (an African C4 grass) as a function of decreasing canopy cover and (iii) the effects of grass fine fuel on fire intensity. Grasses invaded approximately 200 m from the edge into the interiors of burned plots (B1yr: 4.31 ha; B3yr: 4.96 ha) but invaded less than 10 m into the unburned plot (0.33 ha). The probability of B. decumbens establishment increased with seed availability and decreased with leaf area index. Fine fuel loads along the forest edge were more than three times higher in grass-dominated areas, which resulted in especially intense fires. Our results indicate that synergies between fires and invasive C4 grasses jeopardize the future of tropical forests. PMID:23610179

  12. Fire Control – A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Paulsamy, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramaniam, V.; Arumugasamy, K.; Nagarajan, N.

    2001-01-01

    Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis wedd and lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identified as fire threatened species and it has been observed that their sociological attributes were hampered severely by fire. Hence, the conservation of such species is needed through effective fire control measures. PMID:22557019

  13. 45 CFR 1626.4 - Aliens eligible for assistance under anti-abuse laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aliens eligible for assistance under anti-abuse... SERVICES CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.4 Aliens eligible for assistance... alien who is within one of the following categories: (i) An alien who has been battered or subjected...

  14. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  15. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  16. 8 CFR 241.24 - Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion. 241.24 Section 241.24 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for...

  17. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  18. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  19. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  20. Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conversion considerations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Bransby, D.I.; Parrish, D.

    1994-10-01

    The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass. A warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soils by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season gasses.

  1. Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions.

    PubMed

    Bellard, Céline; Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the IUCN Red List. Our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since AD 1500. Aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall. PMID:26888913

  2. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

  3. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  4. [Aliens in the Netherlands as of January 1, 1983].

    PubMed

    Verhoef, R; Tas Rfj

    1984-05-01

    A description of the resident alien population of the Netherlands as of January 1, 1983, is presented. It is noted that the total alien population at this date was 546,000, that most of the aliens arrived in the 1960s and 1970s as foreign workers, and that the major countries of origin are Turkey and Morocco. Differences between the age structure of the alien and native populations are described, and consideration is given to differences in fertility, nuptiality, and mortality. Preliminary data for 1984 are also introduced. (summary in ENG)

  5. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  6. Simplified dynamic models of grass field ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qingcun; Zeng, Xiaodong; Lu, Peisheng

    1994-12-01

    Some simplified dynamic models of grass field ecosystem are developed and investigated. The maximum simplified one consists of two variables, living grass biomass and soil wetness. The analyses of such models show that there exists only desert regime without grasses if the precipitation p is less than a critical value p c ; the grass biomass continuously depends on p if the interaction between grass biomass and the soil wetness is weak, but the strong interaction results in the bifurcation of grass biomass in the vicinity of p c : the grass biomass is rich as p > p c , but it becomes desertification as p

    grass biomass x, the nonliving grass biomass accumulated on the ground surface y and the soil wetness z. The behaviours of such three variables model are more complicated. The initial values of y and z play a very important role.

  7. Multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grasses for allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Gangl, K; Niederberger, V; Valenta, R

    2013-11-01

    Grass pollen allergy affects approximately 40% of allergic patients. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment available. Currently available therapeutic vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy are based on natural grass pollen extracts which are either made from pollen of one cross-reactive grass species or from several related grass species. Clinical studies have shown that SCIT performed with timothy grass pollen extract is effective for the treatment of grass pollen allergy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens contain the majority of relevant epitopes and can be used for SCIT in clinical trials. However, recent in vitro studies have suggested that mixes consisting of allergen extracts from several related grass species may have advantages for SCIT over single allergen extracts. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the disease-relevant allergens in grass pollen allergy, available clinical studies comparing SCIT with allergen extracts from timothy grass or from mixes of several related grass species of the Pooideae subfamily, in vitro cross-reactivity studies performed with natural allergen extracts and recombinant allergens and SCIT studies performed with recombinant timothy grass pollen allergens. In vitro and clinical studies performed with natural allergen extracts reveal no relevant advantages of using multiple grass mixes as opposed to single grass pollen extracts. Several studies analysing the molecular composition of natural allergen extracts and the molecular profile of patients' immune responses after SCIT with allergen extracts indicate that the major limitation for the production of a high quality grass pollen vaccine resides in intrinsic features of natural allergen extracts which can only be overcome with recombinant allergen-based technologies.

  8. Non-native competitive perennial grass impedes the spread of an invasive annual grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants are degrading wildlands around the globe by displacing native species, reducing biodiversity, and altering ecological functions. The current approach of applying herbicides to invasive plants in wildlands has not been effective at curtailing their expansion and, in certain circumsta...

  9. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  10. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  11. Are Photosynthetic Characteristics and Energetic Cost Important Invasive Traits for Alien Sonneratia Species in South China?

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Lan; Zan, Qi-Jie; Hu, Zheng-Yu; Shin, Paul-K S; Cheung, Siu-Gin; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Lei, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A higher photosynthesis and lower energetic cost are recognized as important characteristics for invasive species, but whether these traits are also important for the ability of alien mangrove species to become invasive has seldom been reported. A microcosm study was conducted to compare the photosynthetic characteristics, energetic cost indices and other growth traits between two alien species (Sonneratia apetala and S. caseolaris) and four native mangrove species over four seasons in a subtropical mangrove nature reserve in Shenzhen, South China. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invasive potential of Sonneratia based on these physiological responses. The annual average net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and total carbon assimilation per unit leaf area (Atotal) of the two alien Sonneratia species were significantly higher than the values of the native mangroves. In contrast, the opposite results were obtained for the leaf construction cost (CC) per unit dry mass (CCM) and CC per unit area (CCA) values. The higher Atotal and lower CC values resulted in a 72% higher photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) for Sonneratia compared to native mangroves, leading to a higher relative growth rate (RGR) of the biomass and height of Sonneratia with the respective values being 51% and 119% higher than those of the native species. Higher photosynthetic indices for Sonneratia compared to native species were found in all seasons except winter, whereas lower CC values were found in all four seasons. The present findings reveal that alien Sonneratia species may adapt well and become invasive in subtropical mangrove wetlands in Shenzhen due to their higher photosynthetic characteristics coupled with lower costs in energy use, leading to a higher PEUE. The comparison of these physiological responses between S. apetala and S. caseolaris reveal that the former species is more invasive than the latter one, thus requiring more attention in future.

  12. Czech alien flora and the historical pattern of its formation: what came first to Central Europe?

    PubMed

    Pysek, Petr; Sádlo, Jirí; Mandák, Bohumil; Jarosík, Vojtech

    2003-03-01

    Temporal patterns of immigration to the country were analysed using 668 alien species in the flora of the Czech Republic for which the dates of the first record were available (64.8% of the total number of 1031 so-called neophytes, i.e. aliens introduced after the year 1500). After a period of initial slow increase lasting to the 1840s, the accumulation of neophytes over time could be best fitted by a linear model that explained 97% of the variance. The intensity of floristic research, which varied between periods, did not significantly affect the overall increase in the number of aliens. The effect of species traits on the year of introduction was evaluated, with continent of origin, introduction type (deliberate or accidental), life history, Grime's life strategy, onset of flowering, mode of dispersal and propagule size as explanatory variables. Species of European origin and CSR strategists arrived earlier than those with other origins and strategies. Deliberately introduced species appeared earlier than accidental arrivals, and those cultivated for utilitary reasons on average arrived earlier than ornamentals. Species capable of early flowering were remarkably more prevalent among early newcomers. A separate analysis of accidentally introduced American species also identified life history as a significant predictor of immigration time, with annuals being introduced earlier than biennials and perennials. The data contribute to an understanding of a crucial stage of the invasion process that has received little attention in the literature. The model "early alien" to Central Europe is a European species with a CSR strategy deliberately brought for cultivation as a utilitary plant. Once it escaped from cultivation, its establishment in the wild was favoured by its ability to flower early and, therefore, complete the life cycle. PMID:12647111

  13. Are Photosynthetic Characteristics and Energetic Cost Important Invasive Traits for Alien Sonneratia Species in South China?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Lan; Zan, Qi-Jie; Hu, Zheng-Yu; Shin, Paul-K. S.; Cheung, Siu-Gin; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Lei, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A higher photosynthesis and lower energetic cost are recognized as important characteristics for invasive species, but whether these traits are also important for the ability of alien mangrove species to become invasive has seldom been reported. A microcosm study was conducted to compare the photosynthetic characteristics, energetic cost indices and other growth traits between two alien species (Sonneratia apetala and S. caseolaris) and four native mangrove species over four seasons in a subtropical mangrove nature reserve in Shenzhen, South China. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invasive potential of Sonneratia based on these physiological responses. The annual average net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and total carbon assimilation per unit leaf area (Atotal) of the two alien Sonneratia species were significantly higher than the values of the native mangroves. In contrast, the opposite results were obtained for the leaf construction cost (CC) per unit dry mass (CCM) and CC per unit area (CCA) values. The higher Atotal and lower CC values resulted in a 72% higher photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) for Sonneratia compared to native mangroves, leading to a higher relative growth rate (RGR) of the biomass and height of Sonneratia with the respective values being 51% and 119% higher than those of the native species. Higher photosynthetic indices for Sonneratia compared to native species were found in all seasons except winter, whereas lower CC values were found in all four seasons. The present findings reveal that alien Sonneratia species may adapt well and become invasive in subtropical mangrove wetlands in Shenzhen due to their higher photosynthetic characteristics coupled with lower costs in energy use, leading to a higher PEUE. The comparison of these physiological responses between S. apetala and S. caseolaris reveal that the former species is more invasive than the latter one, thus requiring more attention in future. PMID

  14. Czech alien flora and the historical pattern of its formation: what came first to Central Europe?

    PubMed

    Pysek, Petr; Sádlo, Jirí; Mandák, Bohumil; Jarosík, Vojtech

    2003-03-01

    Temporal patterns of immigration to the country were analysed using 668 alien species in the flora of the Czech Republic for which the dates of the first record were available (64.8% of the total number of 1031 so-called neophytes, i.e. aliens introduced after the year 1500). After a period of initial slow increase lasting to the 1840s, the accumulation of neophytes over time could be best fitted by a linear model that explained 97% of the variance. The intensity of floristic research, which varied between periods, did not significantly affect the overall increase in the number of aliens. The effect of species traits on the year of introduction was evaluated, with continent of origin, introduction type (deliberate or accidental), life history, Grime's life strategy, onset of flowering, mode of dispersal and propagule size as explanatory variables. Species of European origin and CSR strategists arrived earlier than those with other origins and strategies. Deliberately introduced species appeared earlier than accidental arrivals, and those cultivated for utilitary reasons on average arrived earlier than ornamentals. Species capable of early flowering were remarkably more prevalent among early newcomers. A separate analysis of accidentally introduced American species also identified life history as a significant predictor of immigration time, with annuals being introduced earlier than biennials and perennials. The data contribute to an understanding of a crucial stage of the invasion process that has received little attention in the literature. The model "early alien" to Central Europe is a European species with a CSR strategy deliberately brought for cultivation as a utilitary plant. Once it escaped from cultivation, its establishment in the wild was favoured by its ability to flower early and, therefore, complete the life cycle.

  15. Growth Regulator Herbicides Prevent Invasive Annual Grass Seed Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Auxinic herbicides, such as 2,4-D and dicamba, that act as plant growth regulators are commonly used for broadleaf weed control in cereal crops (e.g. wheat, barley), grasslands, and non-croplands. If applied at later growth stages, while cereals are developing reproductive parts, the herbicides can...

  16. Alien environments and the hormone of love.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Recent research collaboration between NASA and other agencies has led to the publication of a series of papers reviewing our knowledge about the impact of sex and gender on adaptation to Space. In this article, I look at some of the findings of the review on reproductive health, which considers the effects of radiation, microgravity and stress. The results show that, among other things, Space flight can have a significant effect on the hormones of astronauts and,cosmonauts, and I raise questions about the difference in approach taken in different fields and about how we evaluate the effects of different--and sometimes alien--environments on our health and wellbeing.

  17. Chemistry, life, and the search for aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Steven A.

    2010-09-01

    While "life" may universally be a self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution, alien life may be quite different in its chemistry from the terran life that we know here on Earth. In this case, it will be difficult to recognize, especially if it has not advanced beyond the single cell life forms that have dominated much of the terran biosphere. This review summarizes what we might infer from general physical and chemical law about how such "weird" life might be structured, what solvents other than water it might inhabit, what genetic molecules it might contain, and what metabolism it might exploit.

  18. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  19. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.; Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D.

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  20. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G. ); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  1. Political Disenchantment: A Cognitive-Perceptual Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    An investigation of a cognitive-perceptual model to measure adolescents' feelings of political alienation is reported. The model hypothesizes that fundamental to the political alienation process is a feared actual or potential loss of freedom; this process is called psychological reactance. The sample consisted of 460 senior high school students…

  2. A Dual Standard for State Discrimination against Aliens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Attempts to resolve the dual standard in state treatment of aliens: minimal review of measures limiting participation in important "governmental functions" to citizens, but stringent scrutiny of measures disadvantaging aliens in other contexts. Available from Harvard Law Review Association, Gannett House, Cambridge, Mass. 02138; sc $5.50.…

  3. Alienation in College Students: A Rational and Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.

    This research project examined the relationship between the psycho-social malaise, alienation or anomia, and each of four psycholinguistic or semantic habit patterns: irrational ideation, identity orientation, uncritical inference behavior and allness orientation. In so doing, it sought, generally, to explicate alienation in terms of semantic…

  4. Alienation in Physical Education from the Perspectives of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Rintoul, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the phenomenon of alienation in physical education from the perspectives of children. Of particular interest were children's perspectives about the three constructs of alienation: (a) powerlessness, (b) meaninglessness, and (c) social isolation, as defined by Carlson (1995). A case study…

  5. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of.... Every alien 14 years of age or older who is excluded from admission to the United States by an immigration judge shall be fingerprinted, unless during the preceding year he or she has been fingerprinted...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of.... Every alien 14 years of age or older who is excluded from admission to the United States by an immigration judge shall be fingerprinted, unless during the preceding year he or she has been fingerprinted...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of.... Every alien 14 years of age or older who is excluded from admission to the United States by an immigration judge shall be fingerprinted, unless during the preceding year he or she has been fingerprinted...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of.... Every alien 14 years of age or older who is excluded from admission to the United States by an immigration judge shall be fingerprinted, unless during the preceding year he or she has been fingerprinted...

  9. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of.... Every alien 14 years of age or older who is excluded from admission to the United States by an immigration judge shall be fingerprinted, unless during the preceding year he or she has been fingerprinted...

  10. Legalization of Undocumented Aliens: Lessons from Other Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, Doris M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews experiences of countries with programs to legalize undocumented aliens. The countries had the following in common: (1) concern about the impact on the labor market, less concern about cultural and political issues; (2) educational programs for the citizenry; and (3) publicizing the contributions already made by these aliens. (VM)

  11. Social Alienation and the Learning Disabled School Dropout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, John F.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    This study sought to determine differences in expressed attitudes of social alienation between 20 learning-disabled (LD) school completers and 17 LD school dropouts. Results indicated that dropouts felt more socially alienated toward classmates and teachers than school completers did. Risk models for LD school dropouts should include social…

  12. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  13. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  14. 8 CFR 235.3 - Inadmissible aliens and expedited removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... asylum officer in accordance with 8 CFR 208.30. The examining immigration officer shall record sufficient... the United States in accordance with section 241(c) of the Act and 8 CFR part 241. (9) Waivers of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inadmissible aliens and expedited...

  15. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  16. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  17. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  18. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  19. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Alienation: its impact on adolescents from stable environments.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, R L; Raymond, E J

    1989-07-01

    This research examined the levels of alienation among adolescents from traditional and nontraditional backgrounds to determine whether family variables (religious affiliation or religious commitment) and economic factors were related to levels of alienation. Students (N = 1,064) from Grades 10, 11, and 12 at a large racially balanced urban high school and from Grades 7, 8, and 9 at one feeder junior high school in the Midwest were surveyed with the Dean Alienation Scale. The findings indicated that adolescents from traditional two-parent families with a strong religious commitment were more alienated than their peers. In addition, alienation was directly related to the economic status of the adolescent's parents and to the grade level of the adolescent.

  1. Parental alienation, DSM-5, and ICD-11: response to critics.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable interest among forensic practitioners in the proposals that parental alienation be included in the next editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases (DSM) and The International Classification of Diseases (ICD). However, there has also been a great deal of misunderstanding about the proposals, and misinformation has been expressed in professional meetings, on websites, and in journal articles. In this article we address four common misunderstandings regarding parental alienation: that there is a lack of research to support it as a diagnosis; that adopting parental alienation as a diagnosis will lead to serious adverse consequences; that the advocates of parental alienation are driven by self-serving or malevolent motives; and that Richard Gardner should be criticized for self-publishing his description of parental alienation syndrome.

  2. Memory distortion in people reporting abduction by aliens.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Susan A; McNally, Richard J; Schacter, Daniel L; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Pitman, Roger K

    2002-08-01

    False memory creation was examined in people who reported having recovered memories of traumatic events that are unlikely to have occurred: abduction by space aliens. A variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (J. Deese. 1959; H. L. Roediger III & K. B. McDermott, 1995) was used to examine false recall and false recognition in 3 groups: people reporting recovered memories of alien abduction. people who believe they were abducted by aliens but have no memories, and people who deny having been abducted by aliens. Those reporting recovered and repressed memories of alien abduction were more prone than control participants to exhibit false recall and recognition. The groups did not differ in correct recall or recognition. Hypnotic suggestibility, depressive symptoms, and schizotypic features were significant predictors of false recall and false recognition.

  3. Evolution of "The New Frontier" in "Alien" and "Aliens": Patriarchal Co-optation of the Feminine Archetype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1989-01-01

    Discusses feminine symbolism in the American frontier myth as an evolving cultural/rhetorical manifestation of a developing archetypal process. Analyzes the films "Alien" and "Aliens," in which the lost feminine is encountered, found to be vengeful of exploitation of her domain, and then killed by a patriarchalized heroine. (SR)

  4. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  5. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  6. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  7. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  8. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  9. Political Alienation among Migrant Youths: Exploring the Mechanisms of Political Alienation and Acculturation among Migrant Youths in Norwegian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhaug, Trond

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the following question: What characterizes the mechanisms of political alienation among non-Western immigrant students, and how might these mechanisms be related to student's acculturation attitudes? A theory of political alienation and acculturation is applied. Substantial quantitative data from Norwegian upper secondary…

  10. Key role for a glutathione transferase in multiple-herbicide resistance in grass weeds.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Ian; Wortley, David J; Sabbadin, Federico; He, Zhesi; Coxon, Christopher R; Straker, Hannah E; Sellars, Jonathan D; Knight, Kathryn; Edwards, Lesley; Hughes, David; Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Hutchings, Sarah-Jane; Steel, Patrick G; Edwards, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-herbicide resistance (MHR) in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) and annual rye-grass (Lolium rigidum) is a global problem leading to a loss of chemical weed control in cereal crops. Although poorly understood, in common with multiple-drug resistance (MDR) in tumors, MHR is associated with an enhanced ability to detoxify xenobiotics. In humans, MDR is linked to the overexpression of a pi class glutathione transferase (GSTP1), which has both detoxification and signaling functions in promoting drug resistance. In both annual rye-grass and black-grass, MHR was also associated with the increased expression of an evolutionarily distinct plant phi (F) GSTF1 that had a restricted ability to detoxify herbicides. When the black-grass A. myosuroides (Am) AmGSTF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the transgenic plants acquired resistance to multiple herbicides and showed similar changes in their secondary, xenobiotic, and antioxidant metabolism to those determined in MHR weeds. Transcriptome array experiments showed that these changes in biochemistry were not due to changes in gene expression. Rather, AmGSTF1 exerted a direct regulatory control on metabolism that led to an accumulation of protective flavonoids. Further evidence for a key role for this protein in MHR was obtained by showing that the GSTP1- and MDR-inhibiting pharmacophore 4-chloro-7-nitro-benzoxadiazole was also active toward AmGSTF1 and helped restore herbicide control in MHR black-grass. These studies demonstrate a central role for specific GSTFs in MHR in weeds that has parallels with similar roles for unrelated GSTs in MDR in humans and shows their potential as targets for chemical intervention in resistant weed management.

  11. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  12. Evaluating indigenous grass species as on-site sediment trapping measures, northwest Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Ritsema, Coen; Stroosnijder, Leo; Baartman, Jantiene

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted to evaluate the sediment trapping efficacy (STE) of grass species as an on-site sediment trapping measure, still a lot of grass species are availab1e of which their STE is unknown. Lack of information on the STE of such grass species has a negative influence on their acceptance and practical application by the users. Therefore, this study was conducted at Debre Mewi watershed, northwestern Ethiopian highlands, to evaluate the STE of four locally dominant indigenous grass species (Desho, Senbelet, Akirma and Sebez) and one exotic species (Vetiver) using plot experiments. On average, the annual runoff produced was found to be 79; 64; 69; 71; 74; 75 l m-2, which resulted in 7; 1.7; 2.9; 3.6; 4.5 and 5.6 kg m-2 yr-1 of sediment yield on the Control, Desho, Vetiver, Senbelet, Akirma and Sebez plots, respectively. Desho had a trapping efficacy of 76 % because of its fast growth and lateral spreading nature. Vetiver and Senbelet reduced the transported sediment with 59 % and 49 % STE, respectively. Because of their slow growth nature, Akirma and Sebez showed low STEs, 36 % and 20 %, respectively. The grass species were found to be important sources of livestock feed in addition to trapping sediment and reducing soil loss. Desho, Senbelet, Akirma, Vetiver and Sebez provided 132, 106, 76, 69 and 51 t ha-1 yr-1 fresh biomass, respectively. The indigenous grass species provided a practical means to reduce sediment yield, therefore, it can be concluded that such indigenous grass species can be used as an on-site sediment trapping measure in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia.

  13. An extract of Timothy-grass pollen used as sublingual immunotherapy for summer hay fever.

    PubMed

    Kay, A B

    2007-12-01

    Grazax is a lyophilisate of an extract of Timothy-grass pollen (Phleum pratense) administered by the sublingual route to induce desensitization (or hyposensitization) to grass pollen in subjects with hay fever. Since allergen avoidance measures are limited in hay fever sufferers, present treatment, at least in the United Kingdom, is almost always by symptomatic medication. The effectiveness of symptomatic treatment in hay fever is variable and depends on patient compliance and the judicious prescribing of antihistamines and anti-inflammatory preparations either alone or in combination. Desensitization (hyposensitization or specific immunotherapy) by subcutaneous injection has been shown to be very efficacious and is used for patients who do not adequately respond to drug treatment. A rare side effect of desensitizing injections is anaphylaxis, and so use is limited to specialized centers. For these reasons there has been considerable interest in specific immunotherapy by the sublingual route. Grazax has recently been approved in the United Kingdom. It is commenced at least four months prior to the expected start of the grass pollen season and in line with injection immunotherapy treatment will be recommended for a period of three years with annual reviews to assess patient outcomes. Grazax grass allergen tablets are well tolerated in patients with grass pollen allergy with most adverse events being mild local reactions. There have been no instances of anaphylaxis. In randomized double-blind placebo controlled trials Grazax reduces symptoms and medication scores in adults with hay fever. The long-term effects of Grazax are currently being investigated.

  14. 22 CFR 40.203 - Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant... § 40.203 Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant classification. An alien entitled to nonimmigrant... to receive an immigrant visa until the alien executes a written waiver of all rights,...

  15. In the Event of Learning: Alienation and Participative Thinking in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay begins with Karl Marx's notion of alienation, and then explores a form of alienation specific to education. It examines Mikhail Bakhtin's treatment of alienation in connection with his participative thinking theory and suggests strategies for overcoming educational alienation that are based on Bakhtin's notion of the eventness of Being.…

  16. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... has arranged for the alien's continued presence under 28 CFR 1100.35, or by submitting sufficient... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons. 214.11 Section 214.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  17. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... has arranged for the alien's continued presence under 28 CFR 1100.35, or by submitting sufficient... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons. 214.11 Section 214.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  18. 8 CFR 241.15 - Countries to which aliens may be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Countries to which aliens may be removed. 241.15 Section 241.15 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.15 Countries...

  19. 8 CFR 241.15 - Countries to which aliens may be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Countries to which aliens may be removed. 241.15 Section 241.15 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.15 Countries...

  20. 8 CFR 241.15 - Countries to which aliens may be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Countries to which aliens may be removed. 241.15 Section 241.15 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.15 Countries...

  1. 8 CFR 241.15 - Countries to which aliens may be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Countries to which aliens may be removed. 241.15 Section 241.15 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.15 Countries...

  2. 8 CFR 241.15 - Countries to which aliens may be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Countries to which aliens may be removed. 241.15 Section 241.15 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.15 Countries...

  3. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... has arranged for the alien's continued presence under 28 CFR 1100.35, or by submitting sufficient... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons. 214.11 Section 214.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  4. The Identification of Alienated Parents and Children: Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined predictors of parental alienation in parents of 49 urban midwestern fourth-graders using the Dean Alienation Scale. High levels of alienation were associated with single, unemployed female parents, whose child was a female with few perceived friends. In predicting parental level of alienation, race, achievement, and attendance were not…

  5. 20 CFR 416.1204 - Deeming of resources of the sponsor of an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alien. 416.1204 Section 416.1204 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... of the sponsor of an alien. The resources of an alien who first applies for SSI benefits after September 30, 1980, are deemed to include the resources of the alien's sponsor for 3 years after the...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1204 - Deeming of resources of the sponsor of an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alien. 416.1204 Section 416.1204 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... of the sponsor of an alien. The resources of an alien who first applies for SSI benefits after September 30, 1980, are deemed to include the resources of the alien's sponsor for 3 years after the...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1204 - Deeming of resources of the sponsor of an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alien. 416.1204 Section 416.1204 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... of the sponsor of an alien. The resources of an alien who first applies for SSI benefits after September 30, 1980, are deemed to include the resources of the alien's sponsor for 3 years after the...

  8. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  9. 22 CFR 40.203 - Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant... § 40.203 Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant classification. An alien entitled to nonimmigrant... to receive an immigrant visa until the alien executes a written waiver of all rights,...

  10. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  11. 8 CFR 209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum. 209.2 Section 209.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 209.2 Adjustment of status of...

  12. 8 CFR 209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum. 209.2 Section 209.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 209.2 Adjustment of status of...

  13. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  14. 8 CFR 1244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 1244.5 Section 1244.5 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT... § 1244.5 Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior...

  15. 26 CFR 1.871-2 - Determining residence of alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determining residence of alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-2 Determining residence of alien individuals. (a) General. The term nonresident alien individual means...

  16. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  17. 26 CFR 1.871-2 - Determining residence of alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determining residence of alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-2 Determining residence of alien individuals. (a) General. The term nonresident alien individual means...

  18. 8 CFR 244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 244.5 Section 244.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior to the registration...

  19. 22 CFR 40.203 - Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant... § 40.203 Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant classification. An alien entitled to nonimmigrant... to receive an immigrant visa until the alien executes a written waiver of all rights,...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(6)-1 - Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien... exemptions for nonresident alien individuals. A nonresident alien individual (other than, in regard to wages paid after February 28, 1979, a nonresident alien individual treated as a resident under section...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(6)-1 - Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien... exemptions for nonresident alien individuals. A nonresident alien individual (other than, in regard to wages paid after February 28, 1979, a nonresident alien individual treated as a resident under section...

  2. 8 CFR 244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 244.5 Section 244.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior to the registration...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(6)-1 - Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien... exemptions for nonresident alien individuals. A nonresident alien individual (other than, in regard to wages paid after February 28, 1979, a nonresident alien individual treated as a resident under section...

  4. 26 CFR 1.871-5 - Loss of residence by an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loss of residence by an alien. 1.871-5 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-5 Loss of residence by an alien. An alien who has acquired residence in the United States retains his status as...

  5. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  6. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  7. 8 CFR 241.9 - Notice to transportation line of alien's removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's removal. 241.9 Section 241.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  8. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  9. 26 CFR 1.871-2 - Determining residence of alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determining residence of alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-2 Determining residence of alien individuals. (a) General. The term nonresident alien individual means...

  10. 26 CFR 1.871-5 - Loss of residence by an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of residence by an alien. 1.871-5 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-5 Loss of residence by an alien. An alien who has acquired residence in the United States retains his status as...

  11. 8 CFR 209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum. 209.2 Section 209.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 209.2 Adjustment of status of...

  12. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  13. 8 CFR 1244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 1244.5 Section 1244.5 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT... § 1244.5 Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior...

  14. 8 CFR 1244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 1244.5 Section 1244.5 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT... § 1244.5 Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior...

  15. 8 CFR 244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 244.5 Section 244.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior to the registration...

  16. 27 CFR 478.120 - Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien. 478.120 Section 478.120 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms... nonimmigrant alien. (a) Any nonimmigrant alien who completes an ATF Form 6 to import firearms or ammunition... for a nonimmigrant alien, must attach applicable documentation to the Form 6 (e.g., a hunting...

  17. 8 CFR 1244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 1244.5 Section 1244.5 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT... § 1244.5 Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1204 - Deeming of resources of the sponsor of an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alien. 416.1204 Section 416.1204 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... of the sponsor of an alien. The resources of an alien who first applies for SSI benefits after September 30, 1980, are deemed to include the resources of the alien's sponsor for 3 years after the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.871-5 - Loss of residence by an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of residence by an alien. 1.871-5 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-5 Loss of residence by an alien. An alien who has acquired residence in the United States retains his status as...

  20. 8 CFR 244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 244.5 Section 244.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior to the registration...

  1. 26 CFR 1.871-4 - Proof of residence of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof of residence of aliens. 1.871-4 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-4 Proof of residence of aliens... alien within the United States has acquired residence therein for purposes of the income tax....

  2. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(6)-1 - Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien... exemptions for nonresident alien individuals. A nonresident alien individual (other than, in regard to wages paid after February 28, 1979, a nonresident alien individual treated as a resident under section...

  3. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1204 - Deeming of resources of the sponsor of an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alien. 416.1204 Section 416.1204 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... of the sponsor of an alien. The resources of an alien who first applies for SSI benefits after September 30, 1980, are deemed to include the resources of the alien's sponsor for 3 years after the...

  5. 22 CFR 40.203 - Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant... § 40.203 Alien entitled to A, E, or G nonimmigrant classification. An alien entitled to nonimmigrant... to receive an immigrant visa until the alien executes a written waiver of all rights,...

  6. 26 CFR 1.871-2 - Determining residence of alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determining residence of alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-2 Determining residence of alien individuals. (a) General. The term nonresident alien individual means...

  7. 26 CFR 1.871-2 - Determining residence of alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining residence of alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-2 Determining residence of alien individuals. (a) General. The term nonresident alien individual means an individual...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(6)-1 - Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien... exemptions for nonresident alien individuals. A nonresident alien individual (other than, in regard to wages paid after February 28, 1979, a nonresident alien individual treated as a resident under section...

  9. 26 CFR 1.871-5 - Loss of residence by an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loss of residence by an alien. 1.871-5 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-5 Loss of residence by an alien. An alien who has acquired residence in the United States retains his status as...

  10. 8 CFR 1244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 1244.5 Section 1244.5 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT... § 1244.5 Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior...

  11. 26 CFR 1.871-5 - Loss of residence by an alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of residence by an alien. 1.871-5 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-5 Loss of residence by an alien. An alien who has acquired residence in the United States retains his status as a resident until...

  12. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for...

  13. 8 CFR 244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 244.5 Section 244.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior to the registration...

  14. Are aliens threatening European aquatic coastal ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, Karsten; Olenin, Sergej; Thieltges, David W.

    2006-05-01

    Inshore waters of European coasts have accumulated a high share of non-indigenous species, where a changeable palaeoenvironment has caused low diversity in indigenous biota. Also strongly transformed modern coastal ecosystems seem to assimilate whatever species have been introduced and tolerate the physical regime. Adding non-native species does not have any directional predetermined effects on recipient coastal ecosystems. The status of being a non-native rather refers to a position in evolutionary history than qualify as an ecological category with distinct and consistent properties. Effects of invaders vary between habitats and with the phase of invasion and also with shifting ambient conditions. Although aliens accelerate change in European coastal biota, we found no evidence that they generally impair biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. More often, invaders expand ecosystem functioning by adding new ecological traits, intensifying existing ones and increasing functional redundancy.

  15. Alien life: how would we know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Margaret A.

    2003-04-01

    To recognize alien life, we would have to be clear about the defining criteria of "life". Metabolism - in other words, biochemical fine-tuning - is one of these criteria. Three senses of metabolism are distinguished. The weakest allows strong artificial life (A-life): virtual creatures having physical existence in computer electronics, but not bodies, are classed as "alive". The second excludes strong A-life but allows that some non-biochemical A-life robots could be classed as alive. The third, which stresses the body's self-production by energy budgeting and self-equilibrating energy exchanges of some (necessary) complexity, excludes both strong A-life and living non-biochemical robots.

  16. Alien environments and the hormone of love.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Recent research collaboration between NASA and other agencies has led to the publication of a series of papers reviewing our knowledge about the impact of sex and gender on adaptation to Space. In this article, I look at some of the findings of the review on reproductive health, which considers the effects of radiation, microgravity and stress. The results show that, among other things, Space flight can have a significant effect on the hormones of astronauts and,cosmonauts, and I raise questions about the difference in approach taken in different fields and about how we evaluate the effects of different--and sometimes alien--environments on our health and wellbeing. PMID:26333253

  17. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  18. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison

    This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1).

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present.

    The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight.

    In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.)

    In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  19. [Alienation of a child from one parent in divorce situation].

    PubMed

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    Alienation of a child from one parent refers to the behavior of the parent in a divorce situation in a manner essentially complicating or in some cases completely breaking the interrelationship between the child and the other parent. The process occurs in situations where the separation was preceded by a normal and positively affective relationship between the alienated parent and the child without any indication of the parent being prejudicial to the child. This behavior in usually motivated by hatred and animosity felt by the alienator against the other part.

  20. Hydrogen Isotope Ratios of Leaf Waxes in C3 and C4 Grasses Record Meteoric Water and Aridity Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F. A.; Freeman, K. H.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Helliker, B.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios of sedimentary n-alkanes (C27-C33) from vascular plants potentially provide a valuable record of past hydrologic conditions. To explore this, we analyzed grasses grown in a greenhouse and calculated fractionation factors (epsilon) between source water and n-alkane for each sample. An average difference of 21 permil is observed between C3 and C4 grasses, which is comparable to that determined for grasses collected from the Great Plains. The more positive isotope values in C4 grasses likely reflects smaller interveinal distance compared to C3 grass leaves, allowing greater back-diffusion of transpirationally enriched water from stomata, as documented with the oxygen isotope ratios of grass leaf water and cellulose by Helliker and Ehleringer (2000). The oxygen isotope difference is magnified at low relative humidity, when transpiration rates are higher. A similar effect is expected in hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf water and plant compounds. However, preliminary results from grasses grown hydroponically at different relative humidities suggest that there may be a decoupling of the hydrogen isotope ratio of leaf-wax n-alkanes and the oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water and cellulose. To examine the effects of source water delta D and climate on n-alkane delta D values, we analyzed grasses collected from the Great Plains. We use river water delta D values as a proxy for source water and the epsilon values determined in the greenhouse experiments, to predict expected values for C3 and C4 grass lipids. Measured values compare well to predicted values, with the exception of two semi-arid sites where evapotranspiration may have led to leaf-waters that are enriched in deuterium. Residual delta D values (measured-expected) correspond strongly with measures of aridity, such as annual precipitation and recipitation/evaporation ratios.