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Sample records for alien insect species

  1. Canopy and knowledge gaps when invasive alien insects remove foundation species

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lawrence, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui invaded the northern range of the cycad Cycas micronesica in 2003, and epidemic tree mortality ensued due to a lack of natural enemies of the insect. We quantified cycad demographic responses to the invasion, but the ecological responses to the selective removal of this foundation species have not been addressed. We use this case to highlight information gaps in our understanding of how alien invasive phytophagous insects force cascading adverse ecosystem changes. The mechanistic role of unique canopy gaps, oceanic island examples and threatened foundation species with distinctive traits are three issues that deserve research efforts in a quest to understand this facet of ecosystem change occurring across multiple settings globally. PMID:23847712

  2. Invasion and Management of Agricultural Alien Insects in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang-Hao; Yang, Nian-Wan

    2016-01-01

    China is the world's fourth-largest country in terms of landmass. Its highly diverse biogeography presents opportunities for many invasive alien insects. However, physical and climate barriers sometimes prevent locally occurring species from spreading. China has 560 confirmed invasive alien species; 125 are insect pests, and 92 of these damage the agricultural ecosystem. The estimated annual economic loss due to alien invasive species is more than $18.9 billion. The most harmful invasive insects exhibit some common characteristics, such as high reproduction, competitive dominance, and high tolerance, and benefit from mutualist facilitation interactions. Regional cropping system structure adjustments have resulted in mono-agricultural ecosystems in cotton and other staple crops, providing opportunities for monophagous insect pests. Furthermore, human dietary shifts to fruits and vegetables and smallholder-based farming systems result in highly diverse agricultural ecosystems, which provide resource opportunities for polyphagous insects. Multiple cropping and widespread use of greenhouses provide continuous food and winter habitats for insect pests, greatly extending their geographic range. The current management system consists of early-warning, monitoring, eradication, and spread blocking technologies. This review provides valuable new synthetic information on integrated management practices based mainly on biological control for a number of invasive species. We encourage farmers and extension workers to be more involved in training and further research for novel protection methods that takes into consideration end users' needs.

  3. Alien insects in Italy: comparing patterns from the regional to European level.

    PubMed

    Inghilesi, Alberto F; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species.

  4. Alien Insects in Italy: Comparing Patterns from the Regional to European Level

    PubMed Central

    Inghilesi, Alberto F.; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species. PMID:24219427

  5. ALIEN SPECIES: THEIR ROLE IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...

  6. Gaps in Border Controls Are Related to Quarantine Alien Insect Invasions in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Steven James; Bacher, Sven; Aebi, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Alien insects are increasingly being dispersed around the world through international trade, causing a multitude of negative environmental impacts and billions of dollars in economic losses annually. Border controls form the last line of defense against invasions, whereby inspectors aim to intercept and stop consignments that are contaminated with harmful alien insects. In Europe, member states depend on one another to prevent insect introductions by operating a first point of entry rule – controlling goods only when they initially enter the continent. However, ensuring consistency between border control points is difficult because there exists no optimal inspection strategy. For the first time, we developed a method to quantify the volume of agricultural trade that should be inspected for quarantine insects at border control points in Europe, based on global agricultural trade of over 100 million distinct origin-commodity-species-destination pathways. This metric was then used to evaluate the performance of existing border controls, as measured by border interception results in Europe between 2003 and 2007. Alarmingly, we found significant gaps between the trade pathways that should be inspected and actual number of interceptions. Moreover, many of the most likely introduction pathways yielded none or very few insect interceptions, because regular interceptions are only made on only a narrow range of pathways. European countries with gaps in border controls have been invaded by higher numbers of quarantine alien insect species, indicating the importance of proper inspections to prevent insect invasions. Equipped with an optimal inspection strategy based on the underlying risks of trade, authorities globally will be able to implement more effective and consistent border controls. PMID:23112835

  7. Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Jane C.; Casey, Leanne M.

    2014-02-01

    Invasive alien flowering plants may affect native plant pollinator interactions and have knock on impacts on populations of native plants and animals. The magnitude of these impacts, however, may be modified by the relative abundance of the invasive plant and the number of flowers it presents.We tested this by examining the structure of insect-flower interaction networks in six sites with increasing levels of invasion by Rhododendron ponticum in Ireland.Neither flower-visiting insect abundance, species richness nor diversity were related to R. ponticum flower abundance, but the composition of insect communities was. The total number of flowers in a site increased with the relative abundance of R. ponticum flowers but the number of co-flowering native plant species in these sites was low (<6), making interaction networks relatively small.As a result, changes in interaction network properties (connectance, interaction evenness and network level specialisation), which correlated with R. ponticum flower abundance, were a result of the small network size rather than due to changes in the resilience of networks.Overall, we conclude that the impacts of invasive alien plants on native plant-pollinator interactions are not only species specific, but site specific, according to the abundance of flowers produced by both the invasive and the native plants.

  8. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  9. Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions.

    PubMed

    Bellard, Céline; Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the IUCN Red List. Our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since AD 1500. Aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall. PMID:26888913

  10. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  11. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Alien interference: disruption of infochemical networks by invasive insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Desurmont, Gaylord A; Harvey, Jeff; van Dam, Nicole M; Cristescu, Simona M; Schiestl, Florian P; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Anderson, Peter; Larsson, Mattias C; Kindlmann, Pavel; Danner, Holger; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-08-01

    Insect herbivores trigger various biochemical changes in plants, and as a consequence, affect other organisms that are associated with these plants. Such plant-mediated indirect effects often involve herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that can be used as cues for foraging herbivores and their natural enemies, and are also known to affect pollinator attraction. In tightly co-evolved systems, the different trophic levels are expected to display adaptive response to changes in HIPVs caused by native herbivores. But what if a new herbivore invades such a system? Current literature suggests that exotic herbivores have the potential to affect HIPV production, and that plant responses to novel herbivores are likely to depend on phylogenetic relatedness between the invader and the native species. Here we review the different ways exotic herbivores can disrupt chemically mediated interactions between plants and the key users of HIPVs: herbivores, pollinators, and members of the third (i.e. predators and parasitoids) and fourth (i.e. hyperparasitoids) trophic levels. Current theory on insect invasions needs to consider that disruptive effects of invaders on infochemical networks can have a short-term impact on the population dynamics of native insects and plants, as well as exerting potentially negative consequences for the functioning of native ecosystems.

  13. Uncertainty in invasive alien species listing.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, Melodie A; Spear, Dian; Kleynhans, Elizabeth J; Marais, Elrike

    2012-04-01

    Lists of invasive alien species (IAS) are essential for preventing, controlling, and reporting on the state of biological invasions. However, these lists suffer from a range of errors, with serious consequences for their use in science, policy, and management. Here we (1) collated and classified errors in IAS listing using a taxonomy of uncertainty; and (2) estimated the size of these errors using data from a completed listing exercise, with the purpose of better understanding, communicating, and dealing with them. Ten errors were identified. Most result from a lack of knowledge or measurement error (epistemic uncertainty), although two were a result of context dependence and vagueness (linguistic uncertainty). Estimates of the size of the effects of these errors were substantial in a number of cases and unknown in others. Most errors, and those with the largest estimated effect, result in underestimates of IAS numbers. However, there are a number of errors where the size and direction of the effect remains poorly understood. The effect of differences in opinion between specialists is potentially large, particularly for data-poor taxa and regions, and does not have a clearly directional or consistent effect on the size and composition of IAS lists. Five tactics emerged as important for reducing uncertainty in IAS lists, and while uncertainty will never be removed entirely, these approaches will significantly improve the transparency, repeatability, and comparability of IAS lists. Understanding the errors and uncertainties that occur during the process of listing invasive species, as well as the potential size and nature of their effects on IAS lists, is key to improving the value of these lists for governments, management agencies, and conservationists. Such understanding is increasingly important given positive trends in biological invasion and the associated risks to biodiversity and biosecurity.

  14. Uncertainty in invasive alien species listing.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, Melodie A; Spear, Dian; Kleynhans, Elizabeth J; Marais, Elrike

    2012-04-01

    Lists of invasive alien species (IAS) are essential for preventing, controlling, and reporting on the state of biological invasions. However, these lists suffer from a range of errors, with serious consequences for their use in science, policy, and management. Here we (1) collated and classified errors in IAS listing using a taxonomy of uncertainty; and (2) estimated the size of these errors using data from a completed listing exercise, with the purpose of better understanding, communicating, and dealing with them. Ten errors were identified. Most result from a lack of knowledge or measurement error (epistemic uncertainty), although two were a result of context dependence and vagueness (linguistic uncertainty). Estimates of the size of the effects of these errors were substantial in a number of cases and unknown in others. Most errors, and those with the largest estimated effect, result in underestimates of IAS numbers. However, there are a number of errors where the size and direction of the effect remains poorly understood. The effect of differences in opinion between specialists is potentially large, particularly for data-poor taxa and regions, and does not have a clearly directional or consistent effect on the size and composition of IAS lists. Five tactics emerged as important for reducing uncertainty in IAS lists, and while uncertainty will never be removed entirely, these approaches will significantly improve the transparency, repeatability, and comparability of IAS lists. Understanding the errors and uncertainties that occur during the process of listing invasive species, as well as the potential size and nature of their effects on IAS lists, is key to improving the value of these lists for governments, management agencies, and conservationists. Such understanding is increasingly important given positive trends in biological invasion and the associated risks to biodiversity and biosecurity. PMID:22645824

  15. Interspecific competition between alien and native congeneric species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Serrano, H.; Sans, F. X.; Escarré, J.

    2007-01-01

    A good way to check hypotheses explaining the invasion of ecosystems by exotic plants is to compare alien and native congeneric species. To test the hypothesis that invasive alien plants are more competitive than natives, we designed a replacement series experiment to evaluate interspecific competition between three Senecio species representing the same bushy life form: two alien species ( S. inaequidens and S. pterophorus, both from South Africa) and a native species from the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula and Maghreb ( S. malacitanus). While S. inaequidens is widespread throughout western Europe and is expanding towards the south of Spanish-French border, the geographical distribution of the recently introduced S. pterophorus is still limited to north-eastern Spain. Plants from each species were grown in pure and in mixed cultures with one of their congeners, and water availability was manipulated to evaluate the effects of water stress on competitive abilities. Our results show that the alien S. inaequidens is the most competitive species for all water conditions. The native S. malacitanus is more competitive that the alien S. pterophorus in water stress conditions, but this situation is reversed when water availability is not limiting.

  16. Alien molluscan species established along the Italian shores: an update, with discussions on some Mediterranean "alien species" categories.

    PubMed

    Crocetta, Fabio; Macali, Armando; Furfaro, Giulia; Cooke, Samantha; Guido Villani; Valdés, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the alien marine Mollusca in Italy is reviewed and updated. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), Polycera hedgpethi Er. Marcus, 1964 and Haminoea japonica Pilsbry, 1895are here considered as established on the basis of published and unpublished data, and recent records of the latter considerably expand its known Mediterranean range to the Tyrrhenian Sea. COI sequences obtained indicate that a comprehensive survey of additional European localities is needed to elucidate the dispersal pathways of Haminoea japonica.Recent records and interpretation of several molluscan taxa as alien are discussed both in light of new Mediterranean (published and unpublished) records and of four categories previously excluded from alien species lists. Within this framework, ten taxa are no longer considered as alien species, or their records from Italy are refuted. Furthermore, Trochocochlea castriotae Bellini, 1903 is considered a new synonym for Gibbula albida (Gmelin, 1791). Data provided here leave unchanged as 35 the number of alien molluscan taxa recorded from Italy as well as the percentage of the most plausible vectors of introduction, but raise to 22 the number of established species along the Italian shores during the 2005-2010 period, and backdate to 1792 the first introduction of an alien molluscan species (Littorina saxatilis) to the Italian shores. PMID:23794825

  17. RELATIONSHIPS OF ALIEN PLANT SPECIES ABUNDANCE TO RIPARIAN VEGETATION, ENVIRONMENT, AND DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian ecosystems are often invaded by alien species. We evaluated vegetation, environment, and disturbance conditions and their interrelationships with alien species abundance along reaches of 29 streams in eastern Oregon, USA. Using flexible-BETA clustering, indicator species...

  18. Alien species in a warmer world: risks and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Walther, Gian-Reto; Roques, Alain; Hulme, Philip E; Sykes, Martin T; Pysek, Petr; Kühn, Ingolf; Zobel, Martin; Bacher, Sven; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Bugmann, Harald; Czúcz, Bálint; Dauber, Jens; Hickler, Thomas; Jarosík, Vojtech; Kenis, Marc; Klotz, Stefan; Minchin, Dan; Moora, Mari; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Ott, Jürgen; Panov, Vadim E; Reineking, Björn; Robinet, Christelle; Semenchenko, Vitaliy; Solarz, Wojciech; Thuiller, Wilfried; Vilà, Montserrat; Vohland, Katrin; Settele, Josef

    2009-12-01

    Climate change and biological invasions are key processes affecting global biodiversity, yet their effects have usually been considered separately. Here, we emphasise that global warming has enabled alien species to expand into regions in which they previously could not survive and reproduce. Based on a review of climate-mediated biological invasions of plants, invertebrates, fishes and birds, we discuss the ways in which climate change influences biological invasions. We emphasise the role of alien species in a more dynamic context of shifting species' ranges and changing communities. Under these circumstances, management practices regarding the occurrence of 'new' species could range from complete eradication to tolerance and even consideration of the 'new' species as an enrichment of local biodiversity and key elements to maintain ecosystem services.

  19. Alien species in a warmer world: risks and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Walther, Gian-Reto; Roques, Alain; Hulme, Philip E; Sykes, Martin T; Pysek, Petr; Kühn, Ingolf; Zobel, Martin; Bacher, Sven; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Bugmann, Harald; Czúcz, Bálint; Dauber, Jens; Hickler, Thomas; Jarosík, Vojtech; Kenis, Marc; Klotz, Stefan; Minchin, Dan; Moora, Mari; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Ott, Jürgen; Panov, Vadim E; Reineking, Björn; Robinet, Christelle; Semenchenko, Vitaliy; Solarz, Wojciech; Thuiller, Wilfried; Vilà, Montserrat; Vohland, Katrin; Settele, Josef

    2009-12-01

    Climate change and biological invasions are key processes affecting global biodiversity, yet their effects have usually been considered separately. Here, we emphasise that global warming has enabled alien species to expand into regions in which they previously could not survive and reproduce. Based on a review of climate-mediated biological invasions of plants, invertebrates, fishes and birds, we discuss the ways in which climate change influences biological invasions. We emphasise the role of alien species in a more dynamic context of shifting species' ranges and changing communities. Under these circumstances, management practices regarding the occurrence of 'new' species could range from complete eradication to tolerance and even consideration of the 'new' species as an enrichment of local biodiversity and key elements to maintain ecosystem services. PMID:19712994

  20. Diversity in Protein Glycosylation among Insect Species

    PubMed Central

    Vandenborre, Gianni; Smagghe, Guy; Ghesquière, Bart; Menschaert, Gerben; Nagender Rao, Rameshwaram; Gevaert, Kris; Van Damme, Els J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A very common protein modification in multicellular organisms is protein glycosylation or the addition of carbohydrate structures to the peptide backbone. Although the Class of the Insecta is the largest animal taxon on Earth, almost all information concerning glycosylation in insects is derived from studies with only one species, namely the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, the differences in glycoproteomes between insects belonging to several economically important insect orders were studied. Using GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin) affinity chromatography, different sets of glycoproteins with mannosyl-containing glycan structures were purified from the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), the silkworm (Bombyx mori), the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the fruit fly (D. melanogaster) and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). To identify and characterize the purified glycoproteins, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. For all insect species, it was demonstrated that glycoproteins were related to a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Moreover, the majority of glycoproteins retained on the GNA column were unique to one particular insect species and only a few glycoproteins were present in the five different glycoprotein sets. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that insect glycoproteins can be decorated with mannosylated O-glycans. Conclusions/Significance The results presented here demonstrate that oligomannose N-glycosylation events are highly specific depending on the insect species. In addition, we also demonstrated that protein O-mannosylation in insect species may occur more frequently than currently believed. PMID:21373189

  1. Phylogenetically poor plant communities receive more alien species, which more easily coexist with natives.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Pille; Pärtel, Meelis; Tackenberg, Oliver; Hennekens, Stephan M; Bartish, Igor; Schaminée, Joop H J; Fergus, Alexander J F; Ozinga, Wim A; Prinzing, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Alien species can be a major threat to ecological communities, but we do not know why some community types allow the entry of many more alien species than do others. Here, for the first time, we suggest that evolutionary diversity inherent to the constituent species of a community may determine its present receptiveness to alien species. Using recent large databases from observational studies, we find robust evidence that assemblage of plant community types from few phylogenetic lineages (in plots without aliens) corresponds to higher receptiveness to aliens. Establishment of aliens in phylogenetically poor communities corresponds to increased phylogenetic dispersion of recipient communities and to coexistence with rather than replacement of natives. This coexistence between natives and distantly related aliens in recipient communities of low phylogenetic dispersion may reflect patterns of trait assembly. In communities without aliens, low phylogenetic dispersion corresponds to increased dispersion of most traits, and establishment of aliens corresponds to increased trait concentration. We conclude that if quantified across the tree of life, high biodiversity correlates with decreasing receptiveness to aliens. Low phylogenetic biodiversity, in contrast, facilitates coexistence between natives and aliens even if they share similar trait states. PMID:21508612

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF ALIEN SPECIES INVASIVENESS: AN AID TO ASSESSING RIPARIAN VEGETATION CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many riparian areas are invaded by alien plant species that negatively affect native species composition, community dynamics and ecosystem properties. We sampled vegetation along reaches of 31 low order streams in eastern Oregon, and characterized species assemblages at patch an...

  3. Recommendations on standardizing lists of marine alien species: Lessons from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Agnese; Galil, Bella S; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Analyses of marine alien species based on national/regional datasets are of paramount importance for the success of regulation on the prevention and management of invasive alien species. Yet in the extant data systems the criteria for the inclusion of records are seldom explicit, and frequently inconsistent in their definitions, spatial and temporal frames and comprehensiveness. Agreed-upon uniform guiding principles, based on solid and transparent scientific criteria, are therefore required in order to provide policy makers with validated and comparable data. Following a meta-analysis on the records of marine alien species in the Mediterranean Sea, we recommend a judicious approach to compiling the data. Here, three categories of uncertainty were identified: species' taxonomic identification, species' actual occurrence in the area, and its status as an alien. In proposing guiding principles to standardize such datasets, we aim to encourage discourse on logical, standardized and transparent criteria to substantiate records of alien species.

  4. Essential elements of online information networks on invasive alien species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, A.; Sellers, E.; Grosse, A.; Xie, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to be effective, information must be placed in the proper context and organized in a manner that is logical and (preferably) standardized. Recently, invasive alien species (IAS) scientists have begun to create online networks to share their information concerning IAS prevention and control. At a special networking session at the Beijing International Symposium on Biological Invasions, an online Eastern Asia-North American IAS Information Network (EA-NA Network) was proposed. To prepare for the development of this network, and to provide models for other regional collaborations, we compare four examples of global, regional, and national online IAS information networks: the Global Invasive Species Information Network, the Invasives Information Network of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network, the Chinese Species Information System, and the Invasive Species Information Node of the US National Biological Information Infrastructure. We conclude that IAS networks require a common goal, dedicated leaders, effective communication, and broad endorsement, in order to obtain sustainable, long-term funding and long-term stability. They need to start small, use the experience of other networks, partner with others, and showcase benefits. Global integration and synergy among invasive species networks will succeed with contributions from both the top-down and the bottom-up. ?? 2006 Springer.

  5. Spatial scale and species identity influence the indigenous-alien diversity relationship in springtails.

    PubMed

    Terauds, Aleks; Chown, Steven L; Bergstrom, Dana M

    2011-07-01

    Although theory underlying the invasion paradox, or the change in the relationship between the richness of alien and indigenous species from negative to positive with increasing spatial scale, is well developed and much empirical work on the subject has been undertaken, most of the latter has concerned plants and to a lesser extent marine invertebrates. Here we therefore examine the extent to which the relationships between indigenous and alien species richness change from the local metacommunity to the interaction neighborhood scales, and the influences of abundance, species identity, and environmental favorability thereon, in springtails, a significant component of the soil fauna. Using a suite of modeling techniques, including generalized least squares and geographically weighted regressions to account for spatial autocorrelation or nonstationarity of the data, we show that the abundance and species richness of both indigenous and alien species at the metacommunity scale respond strongly to declining environmental favorability, represented here by altitude. Consequently, alien and indigenous diversity covary positively at this scale. By contrast, relationships are more complex at the interaction neighborhood scale, with the relationship among alien species richness and/or density and the density of indigenous species varying between habitats, being negative in some, but positive in others. Additional analyses demonstrated a strong influence of species identity, with negative relationships identified at the interaction neighborhood scale involving alien hypogastrurid springtails, a group known from elsewhere to have negative effects on indigenous species in areas where they have been introduced. By contrast, diversity relationships were positive with the other alien species. These results are consistent with both theory and previous empirical findings for other taxa, that interactions among indigenous and alien species change substantially with spatial scale and

  6. Spatial scale and species identity influence the indigenous-alien diversity relationship in springtails.

    PubMed

    Terauds, Aleks; Chown, Steven L; Bergstrom, Dana M

    2011-07-01

    Although theory underlying the invasion paradox, or the change in the relationship between the richness of alien and indigenous species from negative to positive with increasing spatial scale, is well developed and much empirical work on the subject has been undertaken, most of the latter has concerned plants and to a lesser extent marine invertebrates. Here we therefore examine the extent to which the relationships between indigenous and alien species richness change from the local metacommunity to the interaction neighborhood scales, and the influences of abundance, species identity, and environmental favorability thereon, in springtails, a significant component of the soil fauna. Using a suite of modeling techniques, including generalized least squares and geographically weighted regressions to account for spatial autocorrelation or nonstationarity of the data, we show that the abundance and species richness of both indigenous and alien species at the metacommunity scale respond strongly to declining environmental favorability, represented here by altitude. Consequently, alien and indigenous diversity covary positively at this scale. By contrast, relationships are more complex at the interaction neighborhood scale, with the relationship among alien species richness and/or density and the density of indigenous species varying between habitats, being negative in some, but positive in others. Additional analyses demonstrated a strong influence of species identity, with negative relationships identified at the interaction neighborhood scale involving alien hypogastrurid springtails, a group known from elsewhere to have negative effects on indigenous species in areas where they have been introduced. By contrast, diversity relationships were positive with the other alien species. These results are consistent with both theory and previous empirical findings for other taxa, that interactions among indigenous and alien species change substantially with spatial scale and

  7. Experimental study to control the upstream migration of invasive alien fish species by submerged weir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Masami; Kunimatsu, Fumihiro; Tsuchiya, Taku; Kawamura, Makiko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    Largemouth bass and Bluegill, major invasive alien fish species in Japan, have been extending their habitat ranges over not only Lake Biwa and the lagoons but also surrounding waters connected to them through small rivers and canals. Their increasing number is bringing about the reduction in the number of native fish species. To prevent the spread of these alien species through small rivers and canals during breeding season of the native fish (crucian carp), this study experimentally examined the effect of a submerged weir on controlling upstream migration of the alien species and the native fish. As a result of the experiment, the ratio of the alien species migrating upstream decreased as the weir height rose, whereas the ratio did not show the same trend in the case of the native fish. The ratio of the alien species also decreased as the overflow velocity over the weir rose. On the other hand, the ratio of the native fish increased as the overflow velocity rose up to 1.0m/s and decreased thereafter. These results suggest that the submerged weir may control upstream migration of the alien species to surrounding waters through small rivers and canals without interfering with the reproductive migration of the native fish.

  8. ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) - a new index for assessing impacts of alien species on benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Melih Ertan; Bakir, Kerem

    2014-10-15

    Biotic indices are mainly aimed at assessing levels of deterioration caused by chemical or organic pollution. However, no biotic index to date has been developed to detect impacts of alien species on benthic communities. In this paper, a new biotic index, namely ALEX, is proposed to address the objectives of the Water Framework Directive and was tested in Mersin Bay (Levantine Sea, Turkey). Species were divided into four biogeographic groups, namely native species, casual species, established species and invasive species, and the metric considers the relative importance of these groups in samples. The index classified the ecological status of some stations which are shallow, and close to harbor and river mouths as bad or poor in February and October. The ALEX values were positively and significantly correlated with total nitrogen, silicate and silt percentage in sediment, and negatively correlated with depth and the distance from the harbor.

  9. Antagonistic interactions between an invasive alien and a native coccinellid species may promote coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hentley, William T; Vanbergen, Adam J; Beckerman, Andrew P; Brien, Melanie N; Hails, Rosemary S; Jones, T Hefin; Johnson, Scott N

    2016-07-01

    Despite the capacity of invasive alien species to alter ecosystems, the mechanisms underlying their impact remain only partly understood. Invasive alien predators, for example, can significantly disrupt recipient communities by consuming prey species or acting as an intraguild predator (IGP). Behavioural interactions are key components of interspecific competition between predators, yet these are often overlooked invasion processes. Here, we show how behavioural, non-lethal IGP interactions might facilitate the establishment success of an invading alien species. We experimentally assessed changes in feeding behaviour (prey preference and consumption rate) of native UK coccinellid species (Adalia bipunctata and Coccinella septempunctata), whose populations are, respectively, declining and stable, when exposed to the invasive intraguild predator, Harmonia axyridis. Using a population dynamics model parameterized with these experimental data, we predicted how intraguild predation, accommodating interspecific behavioural interactions, might impact the abundance of the native and invasive alien species over time. When competing for the same aphid resource, the feeding rate of A. bipunctata significantly increased compared to the feeding in isolation, while the feeding rate of H. axyridis significantly decreased. This suggests that despite significant declines in the UK, A. bipunctata is a superior competitor to the intraguild predator H. axyridis. In contrast, the behaviour of non-declining C. septempunctata was unaltered by the presence of H. axyridis. Our experimental data show the differential behavioural plasticity of competing native and invasive alien predators, but do not explain A. bipunctata declines observed in the UK. Using behavioural plasticity as a parameter in a population dynamic model for A. bipunctata and H. axyridis, coexistence is predicted between the native and invasive alien following an initial period of decline in the native species. We

  10. Antagonistic interactions between an invasive alien and a native coccinellid species may promote coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hentley, William T; Vanbergen, Adam J; Beckerman, Andrew P; Brien, Melanie N; Hails, Rosemary S; Jones, T Hefin; Johnson, Scott N

    2016-07-01

    Despite the capacity of invasive alien species to alter ecosystems, the mechanisms underlying their impact remain only partly understood. Invasive alien predators, for example, can significantly disrupt recipient communities by consuming prey species or acting as an intraguild predator (IGP). Behavioural interactions are key components of interspecific competition between predators, yet these are often overlooked invasion processes. Here, we show how behavioural, non-lethal IGP interactions might facilitate the establishment success of an invading alien species. We experimentally assessed changes in feeding behaviour (prey preference and consumption rate) of native UK coccinellid species (Adalia bipunctata and Coccinella septempunctata), whose populations are, respectively, declining and stable, when exposed to the invasive intraguild predator, Harmonia axyridis. Using a population dynamics model parameterized with these experimental data, we predicted how intraguild predation, accommodating interspecific behavioural interactions, might impact the abundance of the native and invasive alien species over time. When competing for the same aphid resource, the feeding rate of A. bipunctata significantly increased compared to the feeding in isolation, while the feeding rate of H. axyridis significantly decreased. This suggests that despite significant declines in the UK, A. bipunctata is a superior competitor to the intraguild predator H. axyridis. In contrast, the behaviour of non-declining C. septempunctata was unaltered by the presence of H. axyridis. Our experimental data show the differential behavioural plasticity of competing native and invasive alien predators, but do not explain A. bipunctata declines observed in the UK. Using behavioural plasticity as a parameter in a population dynamic model for A. bipunctata and H. axyridis, coexistence is predicted between the native and invasive alien following an initial period of decline in the native species. We

  11. Effect of the Internet Commerce on Dispersal Modes of Invasive Alien Species

    PubMed Central

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J.; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal. PMID:24932498

  12. Effect of the internet commerce on dispersal modes of invasive alien species.

    PubMed

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M H; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal. PMID:24932498

  13. Effect of the internet commerce on dispersal modes of invasive alien species.

    PubMed

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M H; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal.

  14. The generic impact scoring system (GISS): a standardized tool to quantify the impacts of alien species.

    PubMed

    Nentwig, Wolfgang; Bacher, Sven; Pyšek, Petr; Vilà, Montserrat; Kumschick, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    Alien species can exert negative environmental and socio-economic impacts. Therefore, administrations from different sectors are trying to prevent further introductions, stop the spread of established species, and apply or develop programs to mitigate their impact, to contain the most harmful species, or to eradicate them if possible. Often it is not clear which of the numerous alien species are most important in terms of damage, and therefore, impact scoring systems have been developed to allow a comparison and thus prioritization of species. Here, we present the generic impact scoring system (GISS), which relies on published evidence of environmental and socio-economic impact of alien species. We developed a system of 12 impact categories, for environmental and socio-economic impact, comprising all kinds of impacts that an alien species may exert. In each category, the intensity of impact is quantified by a six-level scale ranging from 0 (no impact detectable) to 5 (the highest impact possible). Such an approach, where impacts are grouped based on mechanisms for environmental impacts and receiving sectors for socio-economy, allows for cross-taxa comparisons and prioritization of the most damaging species. The GISS is simple and transparent, can be conducted with limited funds, and can be applied to a large number of alien species across taxa and environments. Meanwhile, the system was applied to 349 alien animal and plant species. In a comparison with 22 other impact assessment methods, the combination of environmental and socio-economic impact, as well as the possibility of weighting and ranking of the scoring results make GISS the most broadly applicable system. PMID:27129597

  15. A comparison of the short-term toxicity of cadmium to indigenous and alien gammarid species.

    PubMed

    Boets, Pieter; Lock, Koen; Goethals, Peter L M; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2012-05-01

    Amphipods play an important role in many aquatic ecosystems and are commonly used in ecotoxicology and ecosystem health assessment. Several alien gammarids have been introduced in many regions of the world during the last decades. In this study, we investigated if differences in cadmium sensitivity occurred between (1) different species belonging to the family Gammaridae and (2) different populations of the same species originating from a polluted or a non-polluted site. The acute cadmium toxicity to two indigenous (Gammarus pulex and Gammarus fossarum) and four alien (Dikerogammarus villosus, Echinogammarus berilloni, Gammarus roeseli and Gammarus tigrinus) gammarids occurring in Belgium was tested. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) were found between the different species, with 72 h-LC50s ranging from 6.3 to 268 μg/l and 96 h-LC50s from 4.7 to 88.9 μg/l. No clear trend in Cd sensitivity was found when comparing indigenous and alien gammarids. D. villosus, an alien invasive species, was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity and E. berilloni, another alien species, the least sensitive. In addition, larger Gammarid species were more sensitive to Cd toxicity than smaller ones. No significant differences were found between populations of the same species originating from metal polluted sites or non-polluted sites. Overall, our results showed that considerable differences in Cd sensitivity exist between gammarid species, which should be taken into consideration in environmental risk assessment and water quality standard setting. Finally, our data suggest that alien gammarids would not have an advantage over indigenous gammarids in Cd contaminated environments.

  16. Evaluation of online information sources on alien species in Europe: the need of harmonization and integration.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites. PMID:23609303

  17. Evaluation of Online Information Sources on Alien Species in Europe: The Need of Harmonization and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites.

  18. Evaluation of online information sources on alien species in Europe: the need of harmonization and integration.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites.

  19. Planting intensity, residence time, and species traits determine invasion success of alien woody species.

    PubMed

    Pysek, Petr; Krivánek, Martin; Jarosík, Vojtech

    2009-10-01

    We studied the relative importance of residence time, propagule pressure, and species traits in three stages of invasion of alien woody plants cultivated for about 150 years in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. The probability of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and invasion was assessed using classification trees. We compared 109 escaped-not-escaped congeneric pairs, 44 naturalized-not-naturalized, and 17 invasive-not-invasive congeneric pairs. We used the following predictors of the above probabilities: date of introduction to the target region as a measure of residence time; intensity of planting in the target area as a proxy for propagule pressure; the area of origin; and 21 species-specific biological and ecological traits. The misclassification rates of the naturalization and invasion model were low, at 19.3% and 11.8%, respectively, indicating that the variables used included the major determinants of these processes. The probability of escape increased with residence time in the Czech Republic, whereas the probability of naturalization increased with the residence time in Europe. This indicates that some species were already adapted to local conditions when introduced to the Czech Republic. Apart from residence time, the probability of escape depends on planting intensity (propagule pressure), and that of naturalization on the area of origin and fruit size; it is lower for species from Asia and those with small fruits. The probability of invasion is determined by a long residence time and the ability to tolerate low temperatures. These results indicate that a simple suite of factors determines, with a high probability, the invasion success of alien woody plants, and that the relative role of biological traits and other factors is stage dependent. High levels of propagule pressure as a result of planting lead to woody species eventually escaping from cultivation, regardless of biological traits. However, the biological traits play a role in later

  20. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species.

  1. Preventing, controlling, and managing alien species introduction for the health of aquatic and marine ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, C.I.; Gross, S.K.; Wilkinson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is an emerging global problem. As economic and ecological impacts continue to grow, there will be an increasing need to develop innovative solutions and global partnerships to combat the increasing rate of invasions and their accompanying impacts. Threats to sustainable fisheries in North America associated with alien species come from many global directions and sources and can be deliberate or the unintended consequence of other actions. Decisions about the role of sustainable fisheries in protecting and restoring the health of aquatic ecosystems become even more complex when economic and social factors are considered along with environmental impacts, because many intentionally introduced species also have associated economic and community costs and benefits. Actions designed to prevent or control alien species in an aquatic ecosystem are often complicated by these nonenvironmental factors as well as public perception and opinion. Aquatic ecosystems are disturbed to varying degrees by alien species, including disease organisms. Prevention is the first and best line of defense. Determining likely pathways and effective countermeasures is more cost-effective than either eradication or control. Our ability to quickly identify new species and their associated risk to ecosystems is critical in designing and implementing effective control and management actions. Lack of infrastructure and necessary resources, clear-cut authority for regulation and action, and scientific information about the biology of alien species and effective control techniques are often limiting factors that prevent the needed action to protect aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Five novel Candida species in insect-associated yeast clades isolated from Neuroptera and other insects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhu H; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts are found commonly in the guts of basidioma-feeding beetles but little is known about their occurrence in the gut of other insects. In this study we isolated 95 yeasts from the gut of adult insects in five neuropteran families (Neuroptera: Corydalidae, Chrysopidae, Ascalaphidae, Mantispidae and Hemerobiidae) and a roach (Blattodea: Blattidae). Based on DNA sequence comparisons and other taxonomic characteristics, they were identified as more than 15 species of Saccharomycetes as well as occasional Cryptococcus-like basidiomycete yeasts. Yeast species such as Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans and Hanseniaspora vineae were isolated repeatedly from the gut of three species of corydalids, suggesting a close association of these species and their insect hosts. Among the yeasts isolated in this study 12 were identified as five novel Candida species that occurred in three phylogenetically distinct clades. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that Candida chauliodes sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27909T) and Candida corydali sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27910T) were sister taxa in the Candida albicans/ Lodderomyces elongisporus clade. Candida dosseyi sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27950T) and Candida blattae sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27698T) were sister taxa in the Candida intermedia clade. Candida ascalaphidarum sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27908T) fell on a basal branch in a clade containing Candida membranifaciens and many other insect-associated species. Descriptions of these novel yeast species are provided as well as discussion of their ecology in relation to their insect hosts.

  3. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species. PMID:26314023

  4. Missing the Boat on Invasive Alien Species: A Review of Post-Secondary Curricula in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrea L.; Bazely, Dawn R.; Yan, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) cause major environmental and economic damage worldwide, and also threaten human food security and health. The impacts of IAS are expected to rise with continued globalization, land use modification, and climate change. Developing effective strategies to deal with IAS requires a collaborative, interdisciplinary…

  5. ALIEN SPECIES IMPORTANTANCE IN NATIVE VEGETATION ALONG WADEABLE STREAMS, JOHN DAY RIVER BASIN, OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the importance of alien species in existing vegetation along wadeable streams of a large, topographically diverse river basin in eastern Oregon, USA; sampling 165 plots (30 × 30 m) across 29 randomly selected 1-km stream reaches. Plots represented eight streamside co...

  6. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Liang; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡ Cordyceps sinensis) is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. The fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. Since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. In the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with Ophiocordyceps sinensis is briefly reviewed and an extensive literature survey is presented. Ninety-one insect names, spanning 13 genera, related to host insects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis are investigated. The relationships between the reported insect species and Ophiocordyceps sinensis are analyzed. Fifty-seven of these are considered as recognizable potential host species of the fungus distributed throughout the Tibetan Plateau, whilst eight are considered as indeterminate hosts and 26 as non-hosts. Among the names of recognizable potential host insects, three are invalid (nomen nudum) and require further study. This work provides basic information for management of the insect resources and for the conservation and sustainable use of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. PMID:21998547

  7. Four arguments why so many alien species settle into estuaries, with special reference to the German river Elbe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehring, Stefan

    2006-05-01

    In one of the largest European rivers, the Elbe, from its source in the Czech Republic to the German North Sea, 31 alien macrozoobenthic species have been recorded in total. Most of these species have been introduced by shipping activities. With a total number of 21 species, many of the established aliens occur—partly exclusively—in the brackish area of the Elbe estuary. In order to explain this observed settlement characteristic, four main arguments come into consideration: (1) estuaries with intensive international shipping have a higher potential infection rate than other aquatic zones; (2) brackish water species have, due to specific physiological characteristics, a better chance of being transported alive than euhaline or freshwater species and they also probably have a higher perennation and establishment potential after release; (3) brackish waters have the greatest natural ‘indigenous species minimum’, so that more alien species can potentially establish; and (4) salt-tolerant limnetic alien species introduced into inland water reached the coast at first in the estuaries. It seems that the combination of brackish water with its unsaturated ecological niches and intensive international ship traffic has the highest potential infection rate for aquatic systems with alien macrozoobenthic species. And, estuaries are subjected to a two-sided invasion pressure by alien species, via the ocean (mainly shipping) and via inland waters (mainly shipping canal construction). The identification of such patterns is an important prerequisite for the development of a forward-looking alien monitoring and management strategy.

  8. Are Photosynthetic Characteristics and Energetic Cost Important Invasive Traits for Alien Sonneratia Species in South China?

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Lan; Zan, Qi-Jie; Hu, Zheng-Yu; Shin, Paul-K S; Cheung, Siu-Gin; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Lei, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A higher photosynthesis and lower energetic cost are recognized as important characteristics for invasive species, but whether these traits are also important for the ability of alien mangrove species to become invasive has seldom been reported. A microcosm study was conducted to compare the photosynthetic characteristics, energetic cost indices and other growth traits between two alien species (Sonneratia apetala and S. caseolaris) and four native mangrove species over four seasons in a subtropical mangrove nature reserve in Shenzhen, South China. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invasive potential of Sonneratia based on these physiological responses. The annual average net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and total carbon assimilation per unit leaf area (Atotal) of the two alien Sonneratia species were significantly higher than the values of the native mangroves. In contrast, the opposite results were obtained for the leaf construction cost (CC) per unit dry mass (CCM) and CC per unit area (CCA) values. The higher Atotal and lower CC values resulted in a 72% higher photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) for Sonneratia compared to native mangroves, leading to a higher relative growth rate (RGR) of the biomass and height of Sonneratia with the respective values being 51% and 119% higher than those of the native species. Higher photosynthetic indices for Sonneratia compared to native species were found in all seasons except winter, whereas lower CC values were found in all four seasons. The present findings reveal that alien Sonneratia species may adapt well and become invasive in subtropical mangrove wetlands in Shenzhen due to their higher photosynthetic characteristics coupled with lower costs in energy use, leading to a higher PEUE. The comparison of these physiological responses between S. apetala and S. caseolaris reveal that the former species is more invasive than the latter one, thus requiring more attention in future.

  9. Are Photosynthetic Characteristics and Energetic Cost Important Invasive Traits for Alien Sonneratia Species in South China?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Lan; Zan, Qi-Jie; Hu, Zheng-Yu; Shin, Paul-K. S.; Cheung, Siu-Gin; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Lei, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A higher photosynthesis and lower energetic cost are recognized as important characteristics for invasive species, but whether these traits are also important for the ability of alien mangrove species to become invasive has seldom been reported. A microcosm study was conducted to compare the photosynthetic characteristics, energetic cost indices and other growth traits between two alien species (Sonneratia apetala and S. caseolaris) and four native mangrove species over four seasons in a subtropical mangrove nature reserve in Shenzhen, South China. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invasive potential of Sonneratia based on these physiological responses. The annual average net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and total carbon assimilation per unit leaf area (Atotal) of the two alien Sonneratia species were significantly higher than the values of the native mangroves. In contrast, the opposite results were obtained for the leaf construction cost (CC) per unit dry mass (CCM) and CC per unit area (CCA) values. The higher Atotal and lower CC values resulted in a 72% higher photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) for Sonneratia compared to native mangroves, leading to a higher relative growth rate (RGR) of the biomass and height of Sonneratia with the respective values being 51% and 119% higher than those of the native species. Higher photosynthetic indices for Sonneratia compared to native species were found in all seasons except winter, whereas lower CC values were found in all four seasons. The present findings reveal that alien Sonneratia species may adapt well and become invasive in subtropical mangrove wetlands in Shenzhen due to their higher photosynthetic characteristics coupled with lower costs in energy use, leading to a higher PEUE. The comparison of these physiological responses between S. apetala and S. caseolaris reveal that the former species is more invasive than the latter one, thus requiring more attention in future. PMID

  10. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    PubMed

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  11. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lembrechts, Jonas J; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  12. A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Essl, Franz; Evans, Thomas; Hulme, Philip E; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Kühn, Ingolf; Kumschick, Sabrina; Marková, Zuzana; Mrugała, Agata; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Anthony; Richardson, David M; Sendek, Agnieszka; Vilà, Montserrat; Wilson, John R U; Winter, Marten; Genovesi, Piero; Bacher, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Species moved by human activities beyond the limits of their native geographic ranges into areas in which they do not naturally occur (termed aliens) can cause a broad range of significant changes to recipient ecosystems; however, their impacts vary greatly across species and the ecosystems into which they are introduced. There is therefore a critical need for a standardised method to evaluate, compare, and eventually predict the magnitudes of these different impacts. Here, we propose a straightforward system for classifying alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts, based on the mechanisms of impact used to code species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Invasive Species Database, which are presented here for the first time. The classification system uses five semi-quantitative scenarios describing impacts under each mechanism to assign species to different levels of impact-ranging from Minimal to Massive-with assignment corresponding to the highest level of deleterious impact associated with any of the mechanisms. The scheme also includes categories for species that are Not Evaluated, have No Alien Population, or are Data Deficient, and a method for assigning uncertainty to all the classifications. We show how this classification system is applicable at different levels of ecological complexity and different spatial and temporal scales, and embraces existing impact metrics. In fact, the scheme is analogous to the already widely adopted and accepted Red List approach to categorising extinction risk, and so could conceivably be readily integrated with existing practices and policies in many regions.

  13. Counting animal species with DNA barcodes: Canadian insects

    PubMed Central

    Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Zakharov, Evgeny V.; Telfer, Angela C.; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Milton, Megan A.; Pedersen, Stephanie; Jannetta, Paul; deWaard, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that the global insect fauna includes fewer than six million species, but this projection is very uncertain because taxonomic work has been limited on some highly diverse groups. Validation of current estimates minimally requires the investigation of all lineages that are diverse enough to have a substantial impact on the final species count. This study represents a first step in this direction; it employs DNA barcoding to evaluate patterns of species richness in 27 orders of Canadian insects. The analysis of over one million specimens revealed species counts congruent with earlier results for most orders. However, Diptera and Hymenoptera were unexpectedly diverse, representing two-thirds of the 46 937 barcode index numbers (=species) detected. Correspondence checks between known species and barcoded taxa showed that sampling was incomplete, a result confirmed by extrapolations from the barcode results which suggest the occurrence of at least 94 000 species of insects in Canada, a near doubling from the prior estimate of 54 000 species. One dipteran family, the Cecidomyiidae, was extraordinarily diverse with an estimated 16 000 species, a 10-fold increase from its predicted diversity. If Canada possesses about 1% of the global fauna, as it does for known taxa, the results of this study suggest the presence of 10 million insect species with about 1.8 million of these taxa in the Cecidomyiidae. If so, the global species count for this fly family may exceed the combined total for all 142 beetle families. If extended to more geographical regions and to all hyperdiverse groups, DNA barcoding can rapidly resolve the current uncertainty surrounding a species count for the animal kingdom. A newly detailed understanding of species diversity may illuminate processes important in speciation, as suggested by the discovery that the most diverse insect lineages in Canada employ an unusual mode of reproduction, haplodiploidy. This article is part of the

  14. Counting animal species with DNA barcodes: Canadian insects.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Paul D N; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Telfer, Angela C; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Milton, Megan A; Pedersen, Stephanie; Jannetta, Paul; deWaard, Jeremy R

    2016-09-01

    Recent estimates suggest that the global insect fauna includes fewer than six million species, but this projection is very uncertain because taxonomic work has been limited on some highly diverse groups. Validation of current estimates minimally requires the investigation of all lineages that are diverse enough to have a substantial impact on the final species count. This study represents a first step in this direction; it employs DNA barcoding to evaluate patterns of species richness in 27 orders of Canadian insects. The analysis of over one million specimens revealed species counts congruent with earlier results for most orders. However, Diptera and Hymenoptera were unexpectedly diverse, representing two-thirds of the 46 937 barcode index numbers (=species) detected. Correspondence checks between known species and barcoded taxa showed that sampling was incomplete, a result confirmed by extrapolations from the barcode results which suggest the occurrence of at least 94 000 species of insects in Canada, a near doubling from the prior estimate of 54 000 species. One dipteran family, the Cecidomyiidae, was extraordinarily diverse with an estimated 16 000 species, a 10-fold increase from its predicted diversity. If Canada possesses about 1% of the global fauna, as it does for known taxa, the results of this study suggest the presence of 10 million insect species with about 1.8 million of these taxa in the Cecidomyiidae. If so, the global species count for this fly family may exceed the combined total for all 142 beetle families. If extended to more geographical regions and to all hyperdiverse groups, DNA barcoding can rapidly resolve the current uncertainty surrounding a species count for the animal kingdom. A newly detailed understanding of species diversity may illuminate processes important in speciation, as suggested by the discovery that the most diverse insect lineages in Canada employ an unusual mode of reproduction, haplodiploidy.This article is part of the

  15. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  16. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas. PMID:26565700

  17. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas. PMID:26565700

  18. Discovery pattern and species number of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun; Li, Kunming; Chen, Cui; Wu, Sanan

    2016-01-01

    Few investigations have been made of the species description trend of scale insects. The present study reports the discovery pattern and taxonomic efforts for this group based on global species and a literature dataset. In addition, three asymptotic models (Logistic, Gompertz, and Extreme Value) based on a discovery curve were used to predict the species number of scale insects. Our results showed that the species description rate has been changing over time, with certain peaks and valleys in the past 250 years. The mean number of species described per year was 30, with the highest number of 195 described species in 1985. The increasing number of authors and the almost constant proportion of species described by 10% most prolific authors since the 1900s suggested that taxonomic effort has been increasing over time. The Gompertz model with lowest AIC value suggested that there are about 10,450 species of scale insects on Earth, nearly 30% of which remain to be described. Our study offers insights into the discovery pattern of scale insect diversity. PMID:27703864

  19. Alien species in aquaculture and biodiversity: a paradox in food production.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Sena S; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Turchini, Giovanni M; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Abery, Nigel W

    2009-02-01

    Aquaculture is seen as an alternative to meeting the widening gap in global rising demand and decreasing supply for aquatic food products. Asia, the epicenter of the global aquaculture industry, accounts for over 90% of the global aquaculture production quantity and about 80% of the value. Asian aquaculture, as with global aquaculture, is dependent to a significant extent on alien species, as is the case for all the major food crops and husbanded terrestrial animals. However, voluntary and or accidental introduction of exotic aquatic species (alien species) is known to negatively impact local biodiversity. In this relatively young food production industry, mitigating the dependence on alien species, and thereby minimizing potential negative impacts on biodiversity, is an imperative for a sustainable future. In this context an attempt is made in this synthesis to understand such phenomena, especially with reference to Asian inland finfish, the mainstay of global aquaculture production. It is pointed out that there is potential for aquaculture, which is becoming an increasingly important food production process, not to follow the past path of terrestrial food crops and husbanded animals in regard to their negative influences on biodiversity.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  1. Screening Allelochemical-Resistant Species of the Alien Invasive Mikania micrantha for Restoration in South China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Ping; Li, Zi-Li; He, Fei-Fei; Wang, Yan-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2015-01-01

    To screen allelochemical-resistant species of the alien invasive weed Mikania micrantha, we studied the allelopathic inhibition effects of the leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mikania on seed germination and seedling growth of the 26 species native or naturalized in the invaded region in South China. Seed germination was more strongly negatively affected by LAE than seedling growth. Responses of seed germination and seed growth to LAE differed differently among the target species. LAE more strongly negatively affected seed germination, but less strongly negatively affected seedling growth, in non-legume species than in legume species. LAE more strongly negatively affected seed germination and seedling growth in native species than naturalized exotic species. Therefore, naturalized exotic non-legume seedlings are more suitable than seeds of native legume species for restoration of Mikania-invaded habitats. PMID:26177031

  2. Dispersal limitation does not control high elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rundel, Philip W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada of California were used to test the hypothesis that alien plant species invading high elevations around the world are typically climate generalists capable of growing across a wide elevational range. The Sierra Nevada has been heavily impacted for more than a century and a half, first by heavy grazing up into high elevation meadows, followed by major logging, and finally, by impacts associated with recreational use. The comparative elevational patterns of distribution and growth form were compared for native and alien plant species in the four families (Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) that contribute the majority of naturalized aliens in the study area. The distribution of realized climatic niche breadth, as measured by elevational range of occurrence, was virtually identical for alien and native species, with both groups showing a roughly Gaussian distribution peaking with species whose range covers a span of 1500–1999 m. In contrast to alien species, which only rarely occurred at higher elevations, native species showed a distribution of upper elevation limits peaking at 3000–3499 m, an elevation that corresponds to the zone of upper montane and subalpine forests. Consistent with a hypothesis of abiotic limitations, only a few alien species have been ecologically successful invaders at subalpine and alpine elevations above 2500 m. The low diversity of aliens able to become established in these habitats is unlikely due to dispersal limitations, given the long history of heavy grazing pressure at high elevations across this region. Instead, this low diversity is hypothesized to be a function of life history traits and multiple abiotic stresses that include extremes of cold air and soil temperature, heavy snowfall, short growing seasons, and low resource availability. These findings have significant implications for resource managers.

  3. A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Essl, Franz; Evans, Thomas; Hulme, Philip E; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Kühn, Ingolf; Kumschick, Sabrina; Marková, Zuzana; Mrugała, Agata; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Anthony; Richardson, David M; Sendek, Agnieszka; Vilà, Montserrat; Wilson, John R U; Winter, Marten; Genovesi, Piero; Bacher, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Species moved by human activities beyond the limits of their native geographic ranges into areas in which they do not naturally occur (termed aliens) can cause a broad range of significant changes to recipient ecosystems; however, their impacts vary greatly across species and the ecosystems into which they are introduced. There is therefore a critical need for a standardised method to evaluate, compare, and eventually predict the magnitudes of these different impacts. Here, we propose a straightforward system for classifying alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts, based on the mechanisms of impact used to code species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Invasive Species Database, which are presented here for the first time. The classification system uses five semi-quantitative scenarios describing impacts under each mechanism to assign species to different levels of impact-ranging from Minimal to Massive-with assignment corresponding to the highest level of deleterious impact associated with any of the mechanisms. The scheme also includes categories for species that are Not Evaluated, have No Alien Population, or are Data Deficient, and a method for assigning uncertainty to all the classifications. We show how this classification system is applicable at different levels of ecological complexity and different spatial and temporal scales, and embraces existing impact metrics. In fact, the scheme is analogous to the already widely adopted and accepted Red List approach to categorising extinction risk, and so could conceivably be readily integrated with existing practices and policies in many regions. PMID:24802715

  4. A Unified Classification of Alien Species Based on the Magnitude of their Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Tim M.; Essl, Franz; Evans, Thomas; Hulme, Philip E.; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Kühn, Ingolf; Kumschick, Sabrina; Marková, Zuzana; Mrugała, Agata; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Anthony; Richardson, David M.; Sendek, Agnieszka; Vilà, Montserrat; Wilson, John R. U.; Winter, Marten; Genovesi, Piero; Bacher, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Species moved by human activities beyond the limits of their native geographic ranges into areas in which they do not naturally occur (termed aliens) can cause a broad range of significant changes to recipient ecosystems; however, their impacts vary greatly across species and the ecosystems into which they are introduced. There is therefore a critical need for a standardised method to evaluate, compare, and eventually predict the magnitudes of these different impacts. Here, we propose a straightforward system for classifying alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts, based on the mechanisms of impact used to code species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Invasive Species Database, which are presented here for the first time. The classification system uses five semi-quantitative scenarios describing impacts under each mechanism to assign species to different levels of impact—ranging from Minimal to Massive—with assignment corresponding to the highest level of deleterious impact associated with any of the mechanisms. The scheme also includes categories for species that are Not Evaluated, have No Alien Population, or are Data Deficient, and a method for assigning uncertainty to all the classifications. We show how this classification system is applicable at different levels of ecological complexity and different spatial and temporal scales, and embraces existing impact metrics. In fact, the scheme is analogous to the already widely adopted and accepted Red List approach to categorising extinction risk, and so could conceivably be readily integrated with existing practices and policies in many regions. PMID:24802715

  5. Niche dynamics of alien species do not differ among sexual and apomictic flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Agnes S; Essl, Franz; Hojsgaard, Diego; Kirchheimer, Bernhard; Klatt, Simone; Dawson, Wayne; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Winter, Marten; Hörandl, Elvira; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Biological invasions can be associated with shifts of the species' climatic niches but the incidence of such shifts is under debate. The reproductive system might be a key factor controlling such shifts because it influences a species' evolutionary flexibility. However, the link between reproductive systems and niche dynamics in plant invasions has been little studied so far. We compiled global occurrence data sets of 13 congeneric sexual and apomictic species pairs, and used principal components analysis (PCA) and kernel smoothers to compare changes in climatic niche optima, breadths and unfilling/expansion between native and alien ranges. Niche change metrics were compared between sexual and apomictic species. All 26 species showed changes in niche optima and/or breadth and 14 species significantly expanded their climatic niches. However, we found no effect of the reproductive system on niche dynamics. Instead, species with narrower native niches showed higher rates of niche expansion in the alien ranges. Our results suggest that niche shifts are frequent in plant invasions but evolutionary potential may not be of major importance for such shifts. Niche dynamics rather appear to be driven by changes of the realized niche without adaptive change of the fundamental climatic niche. PMID:26508329

  6. Niche dynamics of alien species do not differ among sexual and apomictic flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Agnes S; Essl, Franz; Hojsgaard, Diego; Kirchheimer, Bernhard; Klatt, Simone; Dawson, Wayne; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Winter, Marten; Hörandl, Elvira; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Biological invasions can be associated with shifts of the species' climatic niches but the incidence of such shifts is under debate. The reproductive system might be a key factor controlling such shifts because it influences a species' evolutionary flexibility. However, the link between reproductive systems and niche dynamics in plant invasions has been little studied so far. We compiled global occurrence data sets of 13 congeneric sexual and apomictic species pairs, and used principal components analysis (PCA) and kernel smoothers to compare changes in climatic niche optima, breadths and unfilling/expansion between native and alien ranges. Niche change metrics were compared between sexual and apomictic species. All 26 species showed changes in niche optima and/or breadth and 14 species significantly expanded their climatic niches. However, we found no effect of the reproductive system on niche dynamics. Instead, species with narrower native niches showed higher rates of niche expansion in the alien ranges. Our results suggest that niche shifts are frequent in plant invasions but evolutionary potential may not be of major importance for such shifts. Niche dynamics rather appear to be driven by changes of the realized niche without adaptive change of the fundamental climatic niche.

  7. Competition with wind-pollinated plant species alters floral traits of insect-pollinated plant species.

    PubMed

    Flacher, Floriane; Raynaud, Xavier; Hansart, Amandine; Motard, Eric; Dajoz, Isabelle

    2015-09-03

    Plant traits related to attractiveness to pollinators (e.g. flowers and nectar) can be sensitive to abiotic or biotic conditions. Soil nutrient availability, as well as interactions among insect-pollinated plants species, can induce changes in flower and nectar production. However, further investigations are needed to determine the impact of interactions between insect-pollinated species and abiotically pollinated species on such floral traits, especially floral rewards. We carried out a pot experiment in which three insect-pollinated plant species were grown in binary mixtures with four wind-pollinated plant species, differing in their competitive ability. Along the flowering period, we measured floral traits of the insect-pollinated species involved in attractiveness to pollinators (i.e. floral display size, flower size, daily and total 1) flower production, 2) nectar volume, 3) amount of sucrose allocated to nectar). Final plant biomass was measured to quantify competitive interactions. For two out of three insect-pollinated species, we found that the presence of a wind-pollinated species can negatively impact floral traits involved in attractiveness to pollinators. This effect was stronger with wind-pollinated species that induced stronger competitive interactions. These results stress the importance of studying the whole plant community (and not just the insect-pollinated plant community) when working on plant-pollinator interactions.

  8. Competition with wind-pollinated plant species alters floral traits of insect-pollinated plant species

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Floriane; Raynaud, Xavier; Hansart, Amandine; Motard, Eric; Dajoz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits related to attractiveness to pollinators (e.g. flowers and nectar) can be sensitive to abiotic or biotic conditions. Soil nutrient availability, as well as interactions among insect-pollinated plants species, can induce changes in flower and nectar production. However, further investigations are needed to determine the impact of interactions between insect-pollinated species and abiotically pollinated species on such floral traits, especially floral rewards. We carried out a pot experiment in which three insect-pollinated plant species were grown in binary mixtures with four wind-pollinated plant species, differing in their competitive ability. Along the flowering period, we measured floral traits of the insect-pollinated species involved in attractiveness to pollinators (i.e. floral display size, flower size, daily and total 1) flower production, 2) nectar volume, 3) amount of sucrose allocated to nectar). Final plant biomass was measured to quantify competitive interactions. For two out of three insect-pollinated species, we found that the presence of a wind-pollinated species can negatively impact floral traits involved in attractiveness to pollinators. This effect was stronger with wind-pollinated species that induced stronger competitive interactions. These results stress the importance of studying the whole plant community (and not just the insect-pollinated plant community) when working on plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:26335409

  9. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship. PMID:27436735

  10. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, A.; Jarnevich, C.; Madsen, J.; Westbrooks, R.; Fournier, C.; Mehrhoff, L.; Browne, M.; Graham, J.; Sellers, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  11. Complete nutrient content of four species of feeder insects.

    PubMed

    Finke, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A variety of insects are commonly fed to captive insectivores but detailed nutritional analyses are only available for the most commonly fed species. Soldier fly larvae, Turkestan cockroach nymphs, tebo worms, and adult house flies were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and selected carotenoids. The acid detergent fiber was analyzed for amino acids to estimate chitin content. Nutrient content varied widely between the four insect species. Ranges for the macronutrients were as follows: moisture (60.2-74.8%), crude protein (15.5-19.7%), crude fat (1.9%-29.4%), acid detergent fiber (1.4-3.0%), neutral detergent fiber (2.6-3.8%), and ash (0.8-3.5%). Energy content ranged from a low of 918 kcal/kg for house flies to 2,977 kcal/kg for tebo worms. The chitin content of these four species ranged from 6.7 to 21.0 mg/kg. The nutrients most likely to be deficient when these species of insects are used as food for insectivores are vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, vitamin E, thiamine, iodine, and vitamin B(12) . The number of nutrients deficient vs. the NRC requirements for rats on an energy basis by insect species was as follows: soldier fly larvae (3), tebo worms (15), Turkestan cockroach nymphs (5), and adult house flies (6). These data are valuable in helping assess the nutrient intake of captive insectivores and in developing gut-loading diets to improve the nutrient intake of captive insectivores.

  12. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius in a mountain tourist destination

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hanyu, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Alien species expand their distribution by transportation network development. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius was examined in a mountain tourist destination in central Japan. The three taxa were morphologically identified in the field. Stem height and leaf area were greater in R. longifolius than R. obtusifolius; hybrids were intermediate between the two Rumex species. R. longifolius and the hybrids grew mainly in wet land and the river tributary; R. obtusifolius grew mainly at the roadside and in meadows. Hybrid germination rates of pollen and seeds were much lower than for the two Rumex species. Clustering analysis showed the three taxa each formed a cluster. Most hybrids were F1 generation; the possibility was low of introgression into the two Rumex species by backcross. This study clarified that (1) hybridization occurred between R. obtusifolius and R. longifolius because they occurred together in a small area, but grew in different water habitat conditions, and (2) hybridization was mostly F1 generation because hybrid pollen and seed fertility was low. However, we need caution about introgression into R. longifolius by R. obtusifolius in this area because of the slight possibility of F2 generation and backcrosses. PMID:26354180

  13. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius in a mountain tourist destination.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hanyu, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Alien species expand their distribution by transportation network development. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius was examined in a mountain tourist destination in central Japan. The three taxa were morphologically identified in the field. Stem height and leaf area were greater in R. longifolius than R. obtusifolius; hybrids were intermediate between the two Rumex species. R. longifolius and the hybrids grew mainly in wet land and the river tributary; R. obtusifolius grew mainly at the roadside and in meadows. Hybrid germination rates of pollen and seeds were much lower than for the two Rumex species. Clustering analysis showed the three taxa each formed a cluster. Most hybrids were F1 generation; the possibility was low of introgression into the two Rumex species by backcross. This study clarified that (1) hybridization occurred between R. obtusifolius and R. longifolius because they occurred together in a small area, but grew in different water habitat conditions, and (2) hybridization was mostly F1 generation because hybrid pollen and seed fertility was low. However, we need caution about introgression into R. longifolius by R. obtusifolius in this area because of the slight possibility of F2 generation and backcrosses. PMID:26354180

  14. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius in a mountain tourist destination.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hanyu, Masaaki

    2015-09-10

    Alien species expand their distribution by transportation network development. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius was examined in a mountain tourist destination in central Japan. The three taxa were morphologically identified in the field. Stem height and leaf area were greater in R. longifolius than R. obtusifolius; hybrids were intermediate between the two Rumex species. R. longifolius and the hybrids grew mainly in wet land and the river tributary; R. obtusifolius grew mainly at the roadside and in meadows. Hybrid germination rates of pollen and seeds were much lower than for the two Rumex species. Clustering analysis showed the three taxa each formed a cluster. Most hybrids were F1 generation; the possibility was low of introgression into the two Rumex species by backcross. This study clarified that (1) hybridization occurred between R. obtusifolius and R. longifolius because they occurred together in a small area, but grew in different water habitat conditions, and (2) hybridization was mostly F1 generation because hybrid pollen and seed fertility was low. However, we need caution about introgression into R. longifolius by R. obtusifolius in this area because of the slight possibility of F2 generation and backcrosses.

  15. When does an alien become a native species? A vulnerable native mammal recognizes and responds to its long-term alien predator.

    PubMed

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    The impact of alien predators on native prey populations is often attributed to prey naiveté towards a novel threat. Yet evolutionary theory predicts that alien predators cannot remain eternally novel; prey species must either become extinct or learn and adapt to the new threat. As local enemies lose their naiveté and coexistence becomes possible, an introduced species must eventually become 'native'. But when exactly does an alien become a native species? The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) was introduced to Australia about 4000 years ago, yet its native status remains disputed. To determine whether a vulnerable native mammal (Perameles nasuta) recognizes the close relative of the dingo, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), we surveyed local residents to determine levels of bandicoot visitation to yards with and without resident dogs. Bandicoots in this area regularly emerge from bushland to forage in residential yards at night, leaving behind tell-tale deep, conical diggings in lawns and garden beds. These diggings were less likely to appear at all, and appeared less frequently and in smaller quantities in yards with dogs than in yards with either resident cats (Felis catus) or no pets. Most dogs were kept indoors at night, meaning that bandicoots were not simply chased out of the yards or killed before they could leave diggings, but rather they recognized the threat posed by dogs and avoided those yards. Native Australian mammals have had thousands of years experience with wild dingoes, which are very closely related to domestic dogs. Our study suggests that these bandicoots may no longer be naïve towards dogs. We argue that the logical criterion for determining native status of a long-term alien species must be once its native enemies are no longer naïve. PMID:22355396

  16. When does an alien become a native species? A vulnerable native mammal recognizes and responds to its long-term alien predator.

    PubMed

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    The impact of alien predators on native prey populations is often attributed to prey naiveté towards a novel threat. Yet evolutionary theory predicts that alien predators cannot remain eternally novel; prey species must either become extinct or learn and adapt to the new threat. As local enemies lose their naiveté and coexistence becomes possible, an introduced species must eventually become 'native'. But when exactly does an alien become a native species? The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) was introduced to Australia about 4000 years ago, yet its native status remains disputed. To determine whether a vulnerable native mammal (Perameles nasuta) recognizes the close relative of the dingo, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), we surveyed local residents to determine levels of bandicoot visitation to yards with and without resident dogs. Bandicoots in this area regularly emerge from bushland to forage in residential yards at night, leaving behind tell-tale deep, conical diggings in lawns and garden beds. These diggings were less likely to appear at all, and appeared less frequently and in smaller quantities in yards with dogs than in yards with either resident cats (Felis catus) or no pets. Most dogs were kept indoors at night, meaning that bandicoots were not simply chased out of the yards or killed before they could leave diggings, but rather they recognized the threat posed by dogs and avoided those yards. Native Australian mammals have had thousands of years experience with wild dingoes, which are very closely related to domestic dogs. Our study suggests that these bandicoots may no longer be naïve towards dogs. We argue that the logical criterion for determining native status of a long-term alien species must be once its native enemies are no longer naïve.

  17. [Application of mtDNA polymorphism in species identification of sarcosaphagous insects].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2011-04-01

    Species identification of sarcosaphagous insects is one of the important steps in forensic research based on the knowledge of entomology. Recent studies reveal that the application of molecular biology, especially the mtDNA sequences analysis, works well in the species identification of sarcosaphagous insects. The molecular biology characteristics, structures, polymorphism of mtDNA of sarcosaphagous insects, and the recent studies in species identification of sarcosaphagous insects are reviewed in this article.

  18. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities.

    PubMed

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lawler, Joshua J; Olden, Julian D; Blumenthal, Dana M; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P; Sorte, Cascade J B; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  19. BIOGEOGRAPHY. The dispersal of alien species redefines biogeography in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Capinha, César; Essl, Franz; Seebens, Hanno; Moser, Dietmar; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-06-12

    It has been argued that globalization in human-mediated dispersal of species breaks down biogeographic boundaries, yet empirical tests are still missing. We used data on native and alien ranges of terrestrial gastropods to analyze dissimilarities in species composition among 56 globally distributed regions. We found that native ranges confirm the traditional biogeographic realms, reflecting natural dispersal limitations. However, the distributions of gastropods after human transport are primarily explained by the prevailing climate and, to a smaller extent, by distance and trade relationships. Our findings show that human-mediated dispersal is causing a breakdown of biogeographic barriers, and that climate and to some extent socioeconomic relationships will define biogeography in an era of global change.

  20. BIOGEOGRAPHY. The dispersal of alien species redefines biogeography in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Capinha, César; Essl, Franz; Seebens, Hanno; Moser, Dietmar; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-06-12

    It has been argued that globalization in human-mediated dispersal of species breaks down biogeographic boundaries, yet empirical tests are still missing. We used data on native and alien ranges of terrestrial gastropods to analyze dissimilarities in species composition among 56 globally distributed regions. We found that native ranges confirm the traditional biogeographic realms, reflecting natural dispersal limitations. However, the distributions of gastropods after human transport are primarily explained by the prevailing climate and, to a smaller extent, by distance and trade relationships. Our findings show that human-mediated dispersal is causing a breakdown of biogeographic barriers, and that climate and to some extent socioeconomic relationships will define biogeography in an era of global change. PMID:26068851

  1. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    PubMed Central

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  2. Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales

    PubMed Central

    Le Maitre, D. C.; Gush, M. B.; Dzikiti, S.

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies of the diverse impacts of invasions by alien plants but few have assessed impacts on water resources. We reviewed the information on the impacts of invasions on surface runoff and groundwater resources at stand to catchment scales and covering a full annual cycle. Most of the research is South African so the emphasis is on South Africa's major invaders with data from commercial forest plantations where relevant. Catchment studies worldwide have shown that changes in vegetation structure and the physiology of the dominant plant species result in changes in surface runoff and groundwater discharge, whether they involve native or alien plant species. Where there is little change in vegetation structure [e.g. leaf area (index), height, rooting depth and seasonality] the effects of invasions generally are small or undetectable. In South Africa, the most important woody invaders typically are taller and deeper rooted than the native species. The impacts of changes in evaporation (and thus runoff) in dryland settings are constrained by water availability to the plants and, thus, by rainfall. Where the dryland invaders are evergreen and the native vegetation (grass) is seasonal, the increases can reach 300–400 mm/year. Where the native vegetation is evergreen (shrublands) the increases are ∼200–300 mm/year. Where water availability is greater (riparian settings or shallow water tables), invading tree water-use can reach 1.5–2.0 times that of the same species in a dryland setting. So, riparian invasions have a much greater impact per unit area invaded than dryland invasions. The available data are scattered and incomplete, and there are many gaps and issues that must be addressed before a thorough understanding of the impacts at the site scale can be gained and used in extrapolating to watershed scales, and in converting changes in flows to water supply system yields. PMID:25935861

  3. Which Factors Affect the Success or Failure of Eradication Campaigns against Alien Species?

    PubMed Central

    Pluess, Therese; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Cannon, Ray; Pergl, Jan; Breukers, Annemarie; Bacher, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Although issues related to the management of invasive alien species are receiving increasing attention, little is known about which factors affect the likelihood of success of management measures. We applied two data mining techniques, classification trees and boosted trees, to identify factors that relate to the success of management campaigns aimed at eradicating invasive alien invertebrates, plants and plant pathogens. We assembled a dataset of 173 different eradication campaigns against 94 species worldwide, about a half of which (50.9%) were successful. Eradications in man-made habitats, greenhouses in particular, were more likely to succeed than those in (semi-)natural habitats. In man-made habitats the probability of success was generally high in Australasia, while in Europe and the Americas it was higher for local infestations that are easier to deal with, and for international campaigns that are likely to profit from cross-border cooperation. In (semi-) natural habitats, eradication campaigns were more likely to succeed for plants introduced as an ornamental and escaped from cultivation prior to invasion. Averaging out all other factors in boosted trees, pathogens, bacteria and viruses were most, and fungi the least likely to be eradicated; for plants and invertebrates the probability was intermediate. Our analysis indicates that initiating the campaign before the extent of infestation reaches the critical threshold, starting to eradicate within the first four years since the problem has been noticed, paying special attention to species introduced by the cultivation pathway, and applying sanitary measures can substantially increase the probability of eradication success. Our investigations also revealed that information on socioeconomic factors, which are often considered to be crucial for eradication success, is rarely available, and thus their relative importance cannot be evaluated. Future campaigns should carefully document socioeconomic factors to

  4. Which factors affect the success or failure of eradication campaigns against alien species?

    PubMed

    Pluess, Therese; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Cannon, Ray; Pergl, Jan; Breukers, Annemarie; Bacher, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Although issues related to the management of invasive alien species are receiving increasing attention, little is known about which factors affect the likelihood of success of management measures. We applied two data mining techniques, classification trees and boosted trees, to identify factors that relate to the success of management campaigns aimed at eradicating invasive alien invertebrates, plants and plant pathogens. We assembled a dataset of 173 different eradication campaigns against 94 species worldwide, about a half of which (50.9%) were successful. Eradications in man-made habitats, greenhouses in particular, were more likely to succeed than those in (semi-)natural habitats. In man-made habitats the probability of success was generally high in Australasia, while in Europe and the Americas it was higher for local infestations that are easier to deal with, and for international campaigns that are likely to profit from cross-border cooperation. In (semi-) natural habitats, eradication campaigns were more likely to succeed for plants introduced as an ornamental and escaped from cultivation prior to invasion. Averaging out all other factors in boosted trees, pathogens, bacteria and viruses were most, and fungi the least likely to be eradicated; for plants and invertebrates the probability was intermediate. Our analysis indicates that initiating the campaign before the extent of infestation reaches the critical threshold, starting to eradicate within the first four years since the problem has been noticed, paying special attention to species introduced by the cultivation pathway, and applying sanitary measures can substantially increase the probability of eradication success. Our investigations also revealed that information on socioeconomic factors, which are often considered to be crucial for eradication success, is rarely available, and thus their relative importance cannot be evaluated. Future campaigns should carefully document socioeconomic factors to

  5. Alien species and their zoonotic parasites in native and introduced ranges: The raccoon dog example.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Davison, John; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-03-30

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid that is indigenous in East Asia and alien in Europe, where it was introduced more than half a century ago. The aim of this study was to compare the parasite faunas associated with raccoon dogs in their native and introduced ranges, and to identify zoonotic parasite species. We examined 255 carcasses of hunted raccoon dogs from Estonia and recorded a total of 17 helminth species: 4 trematodes, 4 cestodes and 9 nematodes. The most prevalent parasite species were Uncinaria stenocephala (97.6%) and Alaria alata (68.3%). Average parasite species richness was 2.86 (the highest was 9) and only two animals were not parasitized at all. Although the infection intensity was determined by weight and not by sex, all animals infected with more than five helminth species were males. We also found that animals infected with higher numbers of helminth species fed significantly more on natural plants. Intentional consumption of grass may represent a self-medicating behaviour among raccoon dogs. We included the Estonian data into a wider comparison of raccoon dog parasite faunas and found a total of 54 helminth taxa, including 28 of zoonotic potential. In Europe, raccoon dogs are infected with a minimum of 32 helminth species of which 19 are zoonotic; in the native range they are infected with 26 species of which 17 are zoonotic. Most species were nematodes or trematodes, with fewer cestodes described. The recent increase in the number and range of raccoon dogs in Europe and the relatively high number of zoonotic parasite taxa that it harbours suggests that this species should be considered an important source of environmental contamination with zoonotic agents in Europe.

  6. Alien species and their zoonotic parasites in native and introduced ranges: The raccoon dog example.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Davison, John; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-03-30

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid that is indigenous in East Asia and alien in Europe, where it was introduced more than half a century ago. The aim of this study was to compare the parasite faunas associated with raccoon dogs in their native and introduced ranges, and to identify zoonotic parasite species. We examined 255 carcasses of hunted raccoon dogs from Estonia and recorded a total of 17 helminth species: 4 trematodes, 4 cestodes and 9 nematodes. The most prevalent parasite species were Uncinaria stenocephala (97.6%) and Alaria alata (68.3%). Average parasite species richness was 2.86 (the highest was 9) and only two animals were not parasitized at all. Although the infection intensity was determined by weight and not by sex, all animals infected with more than five helminth species were males. We also found that animals infected with higher numbers of helminth species fed significantly more on natural plants. Intentional consumption of grass may represent a self-medicating behaviour among raccoon dogs. We included the Estonian data into a wider comparison of raccoon dog parasite faunas and found a total of 54 helminth taxa, including 28 of zoonotic potential. In Europe, raccoon dogs are infected with a minimum of 32 helminth species of which 19 are zoonotic; in the native range they are infected with 26 species of which 17 are zoonotic. Most species were nematodes or trematodes, with fewer cestodes described. The recent increase in the number and range of raccoon dogs in Europe and the relatively high number of zoonotic parasite taxa that it harbours suggests that this species should be considered an important source of environmental contamination with zoonotic agents in Europe. PMID:26921035

  7. Effects of invasive alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) on native plant species regeneration in a Hawaiian rainforest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minden, V.; Jacobi, J.D.; Porembski, S.; Boehmer, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Does the invasive alien Hedychium gardnerianum (1) replace native understory species, (2) suppress natural regeneration of native plant species, (3) increase the invasiveness of other non-native plants and (4) are native forests are able to recover after removal of H. gardnerianum. Location: A mature rainforest in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawai'i (about 1200 m. a.s.l.; precipitation approximately 2770mm yr-1). Study sites included natural plots without effects of alien plants, ginger plots with a H. gardnerianum-domimted herb layer and cleared plots treated with herbicide to remove alien plants. Methods: Counting mature trees, saplings and seedlings of native and alien plant species. Using nonparametric H-tests to compare impact of H. gardnerianum on the structure of different sites. Results: Results confirmed the hypothesis that H. gardnerianum has negative effects on natural forest dynamics. Lower numbers of native tree seedlings and saplings were found on ginger-dominated plots. Furthermore, H. gardnerianum did not show negative effects on the invasive alien tree species Psidium cattleianum. Conclusions: This study reveals that where dominance of H. gardnerianum persists, regeneration of the forest by native species will be inhibited. Furthermore, these areas might experience invasion by P. cattleianum, resulting in displacement of native canopy species in the future, leading to a change in forest structure and loss of other species dependent on natural rainforest, such as endemic birds. However, if H. gardnerianum is removed the native Hawaiian forest is likely to regenerate and regain its natural structure. ?? 2009 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  8. Jack-of-all-trades: phenotypic plasticity facilitates the invasion of an alien slug species.

    PubMed

    Knop, Eva; Reusser, Nik

    2012-11-22

    Invasive alien species might benefit from phenotypic plasticity by being able to (i) maintain fitness in stressful environments ('robust'), (ii) increase fitness in favourable environments ('opportunistic'), or (iii) combine both abilities ('robust and opportunistic'). Here, we applied this framework, for the first time, to an animal, the invasive slug, Arion lusitanicus, and tested (i) whether it has a more adaptive phenotypic plasticity compared with a congeneric native slug, Arion fuscus, and (ii) whether it is robust, opportunistic or both. During one year, we exposed specimens of both species to a range of temperatures along an altitudinal gradient (700-2400 m a.s.l.) and to high and low food levels, and we compared the responsiveness of two fitness traits: survival and egg production. During summer, the invasive species had a more adaptive phenotypic plasticity, and at high temperatures and low food levels, it survived better and produced more eggs than A. fuscus, representing the robust phenotype. During winter, A. lusitanicus displayed a less adaptive phenotype than A. fuscus. We show that the framework developed for plants is also very useful for a better mechanistic understanding of animal invasions. Warmer summers and milder winters might lead to an expansion of this invasive species to higher altitudes and enhance its spread in the lowlands, supporting the concern that global climate change will increase biological invasions.

  9. Modeling potential habitats for alien species Dreissena polymorpha in continental USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mingyang, Li; Yunwei, Ju; Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The effective measure to minimize the damage of invasive species is to block the potential invasive species to enter into suitable areas. 1864 occurrence points with GPS coordinates and 34 environmental variables from Daymet datasets were gathered, and 4 modeling methods, i.e., Logistic Regression (LR), Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Prediction (GARP), and maximum entropy method (Maxent), were introduced to generate potential geographic distributions for invasive species Dreissena polymorpha in Continental USA. Then 3 statistical criteria of the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), Pearson correlation (COR) and Kappa value were calculated to evaluate the performance of the models, followed by analyses on major contribution variables. Results showed that in terms of the 3 statistical criteria, the prediction results of the 4 ecological niche models were either excellent or outstanding, in which Maxent outperformed the others in 3 aspects of predicting current distribution habitats, selecting major contribution factors, and quantifying the influence of environmental variables on habitats. Distance to water, elevation, frequency of precipitation and solar radiation were 4 environmental forcing factors. The method suggested in the paper can have some reference meaning for modeling habitats of alien species in China and provide a direction to prevent Mytilopsis sallei on the Chinese coast line.

  10. Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Roy, Helen E; Peyton, Jodey; Aldridge, David C; Bantock, Tristan; Blackburn, Tim M; Britton, Robert; Clark, Paul; Cook, Elizabeth; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Dines, Trevor; Dobson, Michael; Edwards, François; Harrower, Colin; Harvey, Martin C; Minchin, Dan; Noble, David G; Parrott, Dave; Pocock, Michael J O; Preston, Chris D; Roy, Sugoto; Salisbury, Andrew; Schönrogge, Karsten; Sewell, Jack; Shaw, Richard H; Stebbing, Paul; Stewart, Alan J A; Walker, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change. Horizon scanning, the systematic examination of future potential threats and opportunities, leading to prioritization of IAS threats is seen as an essential component of IAS management. Our aim was to consider IAS that were likely to impact on native biodiversity but were not yet established in the wild in Great Britain. To achieve this, we developed an approach which coupled consensus methods (which have previously been used for collaboratively identifying priorities in other contexts) with rapid risk assessment. The process involved two distinct phases: Preliminary consultation with experts within five groups (plants, terrestrial invertebrates, freshwater invertebrates, vertebrates and marine species) to derive ranked lists of potential IAS. Consensus-building across expert groups to compile and rank the entire list of potential IAS. Five hundred and ninety-one species not native to Great Britain were considered. Ninety-three of these species were agreed to constitute at least a medium risk (based on score and consensus) with respect to them arriving, establishing and posing a threat to native biodiversity. The quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, received maximum scores for risk of arrival, establishment and impact; following discussions the unanimous consensus was to rank it in the top position. A further 29 species were considered to constitute a high risk and were grouped according to their ranked risk. The remaining 63 species were considered as medium risk, and included in an unranked long list. The information collated through this novel extension of the consensus method for horizon scanning provides evidence for underpinning and prioritizing management both for the species and, perhaps more importantly, their pathways of arrival. Although our study focused on Great Britain, we suggest

  11. Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E; Peyton, Jodey; Aldridge, David C; Bantock, Tristan; Blackburn, Tim M; Britton, Robert; Clark, Paul; Cook, Elizabeth; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Dines, Trevor; Dobson, Michael; Edwards, François; Harrower, Colin; Harvey, Martin C; Minchin, Dan; Noble, David G; Parrott, Dave; Pocock, Michael J O; Preston, Chris D; Roy, Sugoto; Salisbury, Andrew; Schönrogge, Karsten; Sewell, Jack; Shaw, Richard H; Stebbing, Paul; Stewart, Alan J A; Walker, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change. Horizon scanning, the systematic examination of future potential threats and opportunities, leading to prioritization of IAS threats is seen as an essential component of IAS management. Our aim was to consider IAS that were likely to impact on native biodiversity but were not yet established in the wild in Great Britain. To achieve this, we developed an approach which coupled consensus methods (which have previously been used for collaboratively identifying priorities in other contexts) with rapid risk assessment. The process involved two distinct phases: Preliminary consultation with experts within five groups (plants, terrestrial invertebrates, freshwater invertebrates, vertebrates and marine species) to derive ranked lists of potential IAS.Consensus-building across expert groups to compile and rank the entire list of potential IAS. Five hundred and ninety-one species not native to Great Britain were considered. Ninety-three of these species were agreed to constitute at least a medium risk (based on score and consensus) with respect to them arriving, establishing and posing a threat to native biodiversity. The quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, received maximum scores for risk of arrival, establishment and impact; following discussions the unanimous consensus was to rank it in the top position. A further 29 species were considered to constitute a high risk and were grouped according to their ranked risk. The remaining 63 species were considered as medium risk, and included in an unranked long list. The information collated through this novel extension of the consensus method for horizon scanning provides evidence for underpinning and prioritizing management both for the species and, perhaps more importantly, their pathways of arrival. Although our study focused on Great Britain, we suggest that

  12. Newly emergent and future threats of alien species to Pacific birds and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd L.; Howarth, Francis G.; Kraus, Frederick; Pratt, Thane K.

    2001-01-01

    Although the devastating effects of established alien species to Pacific birds and ecosystems are generally well recognized by the avian conservation community, we raise the under appreciated issue of effects of incipient and future invasions. Although special attention to Pacific bird species “on the brink” is to a certain extent appropriate and necessary, a comparable focus on stopping new invasions appears desperately needed. All indications suggest that introductions will escalate with the trend toward ever increasing commerce and unrestricted trade unless stronger preventative measures are implemented very soon. The threat to Pacific island avifaunas from the brown tree snake (Bniga irregularis) is well-known, but as many as several hundred of the world’s snake species, some of which are repeatedly smuggled illegally as pets, might have similar impacts on native birds if transported to Pacific islands. We touch upon a sampling of obviously severe potential future threats, with the hope of raising awareness and resolve to fix the current woefully inadequate system for prevention of and rapid response to new invasions.

  13. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  14. Zorotypus weiweii (Zoraptera: Zorotypidae), a new species of angel insects, from Sabah, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the insect order Zoraptera, Zorotypus weiweii, is described and figured from Sabah, East Malaysia. The new species represents the second angel insect from Borneo. Z. caudelli Karny was also collected near the type locality of Z. weiweii. Methods of specimen collection and a brief note of angel insects in Malaysia were provided based on new materials and biological observations. PMID:27615990

  15. Efficacy of Dinotefuran (Alpine® spray and dust) on six species of stored product insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dinotefuran, an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, was evaluated both as a 0.5% active ingredient aerosol spray and a dust combined with diatomaceous earth (DE), 5 g/m2 and 10g/m2), at 45% r.h. and 75% r.h. Target species were six adult stored product insect species: Tribolium cast...

  16. The Homogeneity of Optimal Sensor Placement Across Multiple Winged Insect Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Abigail L.

    Taking inspiration from biology, control algorithms can be implemented to imitate the naturally occurring control systems present in nature. This research is primarily concerned with insect flight and optimal wing sensor placement. Many winged insects with halteres are equipped with mechanoreceptors termed campaniform sensilla. Although the exact information these receptors provide to the insect's nervous system is unknown, it is thought to have the capability of measuring inertial rotation forces. During flight, when the wing bends, the information measured by the campaniform sensilla is received by the central nervous system, and provides the insect necessary data to control flight. This research compares three insect species - the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, the honeybee Apis mellifera, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Using an observability-based sensor placement algorithm, the optimal sensor placement for these three species is determined. Simulations resolve if this optimal sensor placement corresponds to the insect's campaniform sensilla, as well as if placement is homogeneous across species.

  17. Optimal and robust control of invasive alien species spreading in homogeneous landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, L. R.; Baker, R.; MacLeod, A.; Knight, J. D.; Mumford, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Government agencies lack robust modelling tools to manage the spread of invasive alien species (IAS). In this paper, we combine optimal control and simulation methods with biological invasion spread theory to estimate the type of optimal policy and switching point of control efforts against a spreading IAS. We employ information-gap (info-gap) theory to assess how the optimal solutions differ from a policy that is most robustly immune to unacceptable outcomes. The model is applied to the potential invasion of the Colorado potato beetle in the UK. Under no uncertainty, we demonstrate that for many of the parameter combinations the optimal control policy corresponds to slowing down the invasion. The info-gap analysis shows that eradication policies identified as optimal under no uncertainty are robustly the best policies even under severe uncertainty, i.e. even if they are likely to turn into slowing down policies. We also show that the control of satellite colonies, if identified as optimal under no uncertainty, will also be a robust slowing down policy for IAS that can spread by long distance dispersal even for relatively ineffective control measures. The results suggest that agencies adopt management strategies that are robustly optimal, despite the severe uncertainties they face. PMID:19740923

  18. Analyzing the Social Factors That Influence Willingness to Pay for Invasive Alien Species Management Under Two Different Strategies: Eradication and Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Llorente, Marina; Martín-López, Berta; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; González, José A.; Alcorlo, Paloma; Montes, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Biological invasions occur worldwide, and have been the object of ecological and socio-economic research for decades. However, the manner in which different stakeholder groups identify the problems associated with invasive species and confront invasive species management under different policies remains poorly understood. In this study, we conducted an econometric analysis of the social factors influencing willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different regimes: eradication and prevention in the Doñana Natural Protected Area (SW Spain). Controlling for the participation of local residents, tourists and conservationists, email and face-to-face questionnaires were conducted. Results indicated that respondents were more willing to pay for eradication than prevention; and public support for invasive alien species management was influenced by an individual's knowledge and perception of invasive alien species, active interest in nature, and socio-demographic attributes. We concluded that invasive alien species management research should confront the challenges to engage stakeholders and accept any tradeoffs necessary to modify different conservation policies to ensure effective management is implemented. Finally, our willingness to pay estimates suggest the Department of Environment of Andalusian Government has suitable social support to meet the budgetary expenditures required for invasive alien species plans and adequate resources to justify an increase in the invasive alien species management budget.

  19. Analyzing the social factors that influence willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different strategies: eradication and prevention.

    PubMed

    García-Llorente, Marina; Martín-López, Berta; Nunes, Paulo A L D; González, José A; Alcorlo, Paloma; Montes, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Biological invasions occur worldwide, and have been the object of ecological and socio-economic research for decades. However, the manner in which different stakeholder groups identify the problems associated with invasive species and confront invasive species management under different policies remains poorly understood. In this study, we conducted an econometric analysis of the social factors influencing willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different regimes: eradication and prevention in the Doñana Natural Protected Area (SW Spain). Controlling for the participation of local residents, tourists and conservationists, email and face-to-face questionnaires were conducted. Results indicated that respondents were more willing to pay for eradication than prevention; and public support for invasive alien species management was influenced by an individual's knowledge and perception of invasive alien species, active interest in nature, and socio-demographic attributes. We concluded that invasive alien species management research should confront the challenges to engage stakeholders and accept any tradeoffs necessary to modify different conservation policies to ensure effective management is implemented. Finally, our willingness to pay estimates suggest the Department of Environment of Andalusian Government has suitable social support to meet the budgetary expenditures required for invasive alien species plans and adequate resources to justify an increase in the invasive alien species management budget.

  20. Terrestrial insects along elevation gradients: species and community responses to altitude.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Ian D

    2005-08-01

    The literature on the response of insect species to the changing environments experienced along altitudinal gradients is diverse and widely dispersed. There is a growing awareness that such responses may serve as analogues for climate warming effects occurring at a particular fixed altitude or latitude over time. This review seeks, therefore, to synthesise information on the responses of insects and allied groups to increasing altitude and provide a platform for future research. It focuses on those functional aspects of insect biology that show positive or negative reaction to altitudinal changes but avoids emphasising adaptation to high altitude per se. Reactions can be direct, with insect characteristics or performance responding to changing environmental parameters, or they can be indirect and mediated through the insect's interaction with other organisms. These organisms include the host plant in the case of herbivorous insects, and also competitor species, specific parasitoids, predators and pathogens. The manner in which these various factors individually and collectively influence the morphology, behaviour, ecophysiology, growth and development, survival, reproduction, and spatial distribution of insect species is considered in detail. Resultant patterns in the abundance of individual species populations and of community species richness are examined. Attempts are made throughout to provide mechanistic explanations of trends and to place each topic, where appropriate, into the broader theoretical context by appropriate reference to key literature. The paper concludes by considering how montane insect species will respond to climate warming.

  1. Alien plant species with a wider global distribution are better able to capitalize on increased resource availability.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Wayne; Rohr, Rudolf P; van Kleunen, Mark; Fischer, Markus

    2012-05-01

    • A high ability of alien plant species to capitalize on increases in resource availability has been suggested as an explanation for being globally successful. Here, we tested this hypothesis meta-analytically using existing data from experiments manipulating plant resources (light, water and nutrients). • From these studies we extracted the response to resource increase of biomass, as an indicator of plant performance, and the responses of two traits related to resource capture: root : shoot ratio and specific leaf area (SLA). For 211 species recorded in the Global Compendium of Weeds, we assessed the relationship between effect sizes from such studies and the number of global regions where a species was established. • We found that globally widespread species exhibited greater biomass responses to increases in resources overall, compared to less widespread species. Root : shoot ratio and SLA responses to increased resource availability were not related to species global distribution. • In general, globally widespread alien plant species were better able to capitalize on increased availability of resources, through achieving increased growth and biomass accumulation, while greater plasticity of key resource-capture traits per se did not appear to be related to greater success.

  2. Scale insect species names combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Williams, D J

    2015-01-30

    Species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus, 1758, are listed. This list supplements a list published already for the Sternorrhyncha but that was restricted to names of species that had been described originally in the genus. The present list includes, in addition, all species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the name Chermes. 

  3. The amathiiform Ctenostomata (phylum Bryozoa) of New Zealand--including four new species, two of them of probable alien origin.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Spencer-Jones, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The status of the vesiculariid ctenostome genus Amathia in New Zealand has been evaluated on the basis of all known material, including historic specimens in museums and those newly collected during formal surveillance of ports, harbours and vessels for possible alien species. Eight species are recognised, four of them new to science. Amathia gracei n. sp. and Amathia zealandica n. sp. are the only apparently endemic species. Amathia chimonidesi n. sp. appears to be a previously unrecognised alien species and is known only from shipping harbours and/or yacht marinas and some nearby beaches. Amathia similis n. sp. has been known in the Auckland area since the 1960s but was confused with A. distans Busk. Amathia bicornis (Tenison-Woods), A. biseriata Krauss, A. lamourouxi Chimonides and A. wilsoni Kirkpatrick are Australasian species that occur naturally on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Of this latter group, A. bicornis was discovered only at a single locality on the southwest coast of North Island in 1983 on a fucoid seaweed and it may be relatively re-cently self-introduced. A specimen of A. lendigera (Linnaeus) in the Museum of New Zealand, purportedly from Napier, is considered to be based on a misunderstanding or a labelling error and does not represent a failed alien introduction. The Amathia-like vesiculariid Bowerbankia citrina (Hincks) sensu lato is newly recorded for New Zealand. Keys are provided to the amathiiform (i.e. Amathia and Amathia-like) Ctenostomata of New Zealand and to the worldwide species of Amathia and Bowerbankia with zooid clusters spiralled on stoloniform axes.

  4. The amathiiform Ctenostomata (phylum Bryozoa) of New Zealand--including four new species, two of them of probable alien origin.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Spencer-Jones, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The status of the vesiculariid ctenostome genus Amathia in New Zealand has been evaluated on the basis of all known material, including historic specimens in museums and those newly collected during formal surveillance of ports, harbours and vessels for possible alien species. Eight species are recognised, four of them new to science. Amathia gracei n. sp. and Amathia zealandica n. sp. are the only apparently endemic species. Amathia chimonidesi n. sp. appears to be a previously unrecognised alien species and is known only from shipping harbours and/or yacht marinas and some nearby beaches. Amathia similis n. sp. has been known in the Auckland area since the 1960s but was confused with A. distans Busk. Amathia bicornis (Tenison-Woods), A. biseriata Krauss, A. lamourouxi Chimonides and A. wilsoni Kirkpatrick are Australasian species that occur naturally on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Of this latter group, A. bicornis was discovered only at a single locality on the southwest coast of North Island in 1983 on a fucoid seaweed and it may be relatively re-cently self-introduced. A specimen of A. lendigera (Linnaeus) in the Museum of New Zealand, purportedly from Napier, is considered to be based on a misunderstanding or a labelling error and does not represent a failed alien introduction. The Amathia-like vesiculariid Bowerbankia citrina (Hincks) sensu lato is newly recorded for New Zealand. Keys are provided to the amathiiform (i.e. Amathia and Amathia-like) Ctenostomata of New Zealand and to the worldwide species of Amathia and Bowerbankia with zooid clusters spiralled on stoloniform axes. PMID:26295099

  5. Nitrogen in insects: implications for trophic complexity and species diversification.

    PubMed

    Fagan, William F; Siemann, Evan; Mitter, Charles; Denno, Robert F; Huberty, Andrea F; Woods, H Arthur; Elser, James J

    2002-12-01

    Disparities in nutrient content (nitrogen and phosphorus) between herbivores and their plant resources have lately proven to have major consequences for herbivore success, consumer-driven nutrient cycling, and the fate of primary production in ecosystems. Here we extend these findings by examining patterns of nutrient content between animals at higher trophic levels, specifically between insect herbivores and predators. Using a recently compiled database on insect nutrient content, we found that predators exhibit on average 15% greater nitrogen content than herbivores. This difference persists after accounting for variation from phylogeny and allometry. Among herbivorous insects, we also found evidence that recently derived lineages (e.g., herbivorous Diptera and Lepidoptera) have, on a relative basis, 15%-25% less body nitrogen than more ancient herbivore lineages (e.g., herbivorous Orthoptera and Hemiptera). We elaborate several testable hypotheses for the origin of differences in nitrogen content between trophic levels and among phylogenetic lineages. For example, interspecific variation in insect nitrogen content may be directly traceable to differences in dietary nitrogen (including dilution by gut contents), selected for directly in response to the differential scarcity of dietary nitrogen, or an indirect consequence of adaptation to different feeding habits. From some functional perspectives, the magnitude rather than the source of the interspecific differences in nitrogen content may be most critical. We conclude by discussing the implications of the observed patterns for both the trophic complexity of food webs and the evolutionary radiation of herbivorous insects. PMID:18707465

  6. Spatial distribution and temporal trends of soft-bottom marine benthic alien species collected during the period 1989-2008 in the Nervión estuary (southeastern Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Solaun, Oihana; Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier; Muxika, Iñigo; Pascual, Marta

    2013-10-01

    As the introduction of alien species represents one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss, it is crucial to study the distribution of alien species in order to control or eradicate their introduction and spread. Thus, the present study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution and temporal trends of soft-bottom marine benthic alien species collected during 20 years in the Nervión estuary, southeastern Bay of Biscay. Results indicated that, from a total of 6688 species records, 117 corresponded to alien species. Likewise, from a total of 742 different species identified, 23 species were classified as alien species. The two most frequently recorded alien species, Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata and Monocorophium acherusicum, appeared mainly at the intermediate part of the estuary that suffered historically an intense pollution. The presence and abundance of soft-bottom alien species became more evident since the mid-nineties, when the widening of the Bilbao Harbour occurred, together with a water quality improvement and the industry decline. Finally, although the identified alien species are considered as not invasive, the spread of alien species in the estuary might be considered as a threat.

  7. Thermal pollution and settlement of new tropical alien species: The case of Grateloupia yinggehaiensis (Rhodophyta) in the Venice Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. A.; Sfriso, A.; Moro, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Venice Lagoon has become increasingly affected by the introduction of allochthonous macroalgae mainly coming from the Indo-Pacific area. In consequence to the recent climate changes and temperature increase, such species could simply find numerous habitats suitable for their growth. One local process that contributes to water temperature changes is thermal pollution. In this study we used the DNA barcoding method to identify a new alien macroalgal species, Grateloupia yinggehaiensis Wang et Luan (Rhodophyta), found near the industrial area of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) hosting the Fusina thermoelectric power plant. The microclimate of this area has enabled the spread of this species native of the tropical area of the Hainan Province (China) and probably introduced in the Mediterranean Sea via shellfish transfers.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic effects on two species of insects with economic importance to stored food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayesteh, N.; Barthakur, N. N.

    1996-09-01

    An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system which generated air ions within a strong electric field was used to study responses of stored-product insects Tribolium confusum (du Val) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Larval mortality of both species generally increased with increased exposure time to ions of either polarity. The larvae and pupae of T. confusum suffered a higher mortality rate than the adults. The insects initially exhibited distinct avoiding motions away from regions of high towards low fluxes of air ions of both polarity. Insects moved vigorously, tumbled, flipped, curled up, and aggregated when the EHD system was turned on. The control insects not exposed to air ions survived and showed a total absence of such behaviour. For bipolar exposures, the insects occupied the neutral zone where the effects were minimal due to cancellation of the fields. Prolonged exposures of more than 20 min produced a quiescent state. EHD-enhanced mass transfer of the liquid component from physical objects established in fluid mechanics was invoked as a possible cause for insect mortality and avoiding behaviour to ions. Body fluid losses increased linearly with time of exposure ( R 2≥0.97) for all biological stages of insect growth. The larvae and pupae of T. confusum lost 12 and 15% of their body fluids, respectively, after 80 min of exposure to negative air ions. Fluid losses of such a magnitude are likely to have contributed to insect fatality.

  9. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address the

  10. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address the

  11. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O.; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests’ biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host’s defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address

  12. Cascade effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Shi, PeiJian; Hui, Cang; Men, XingYuan; Zhao, ZiHua; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng; Jin, XianShi; Cao, HaiFeng; Li, B Larry

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how plant species richness influences the diversity of herbivorous and predatory/parasitic arthropods is central to community ecology. We explore the effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies. Using data from a four-year experiment with five levels of crop species richness, we found that crop species richness significantly affected the pest species richness, but there were no significant effects on richness of the pests' natural enemies. In contrast, the species richness of pest insects significantly affected their natural enemies. These findings suggest a cascade effect where trophic interactions are strong between adjacent trophic levels, while the interactions between connected but nonadjacent trophic levels are weakened by the intermediate trophic level. High crop species richness resulted in a more stable arthropod community compared with communities in monoculture crops. Our results highlight the complicated cross-trophic interactions and the crucial role of crop diversity in the food webs of agro-ecosystems.

  13. Does Mutualism Drive the Invasion of Two Alien Species? The Case of Solenopsis invicta and Phenacoccus solenopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    Although mutualism between ants and honeydew-producing hemipterans has been extensively recognized in ecosystem biology, however few attempts to test the hypothesis that mutualism between two alien species leads to the facilitation of the invasion process. To address this problem, we focus on the conditional mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis by field investigations and indoor experiments. In the laboratory, ant colony growth increased significantly when ants had access to P. solenopsis and animal-based food. Honeydew produced by P. solenopsis also improved the survival of ant workers. In the field, colony density of P. solenopsis was significantly greater on plots with ants than on plots without ants. The number of mealybug mummies on plants without fire ants was almost three times that of plants with fire ants, indicating a strong effect of fire ants on mealybug survival. In addition, the presence of S. invicta successfully contributed to the spread of P. solenopsis. The quantity of honeydew consumption by S. invicta was significantly greater than that of a presumptive native ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum. When compared with the case without ant tending, mealybugs tended by ants matured earlier and their lifespan and reproduction increased. T. melanocephalum workers arrived at honeydew more quickly than S. invicta workers, while the number of foraging S. invicta workers on plants steadily increased, eventually exceeding that number of T. melanocephalum foragers. Overall, these results suggest that the conditional mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis facilitates population growth and fitness of both species. S. invicta tends to acquire much more honeydew and drive away native ants, promoting their predominance. These results suggest that the higher foraging tempo of S. invicta may provide more effective protection of P. solenopsis than native ants. Thus mutualism between these two alien species may facilitate the invasion success of both

  14. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth.

    PubMed

    Finke, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet. PMID:26366856

  15. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  16. Insect Herbivores Associated With Ludwigia Species, Oligospermum Section, in Their Argentine Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M. Cristina; Cabrera Walsh, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The South American water primroses, Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet, L. grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven, and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (Spreng.) P.H. Raven (Onagraceae, Section Oligospermum), have become invasive in several watersheds of the United States and Europe. Surveys were carried out in center-east of Argentina to find insect species that might serve as biological control agents for L. g. subsp. hexapetala in California and elsewhere. Stems (0.5–0.6 m) of Ludwigia species, Sect. Oligospermum, were collected in 41 sites and analyzed in the laboratory; immature insects were reared to adults. The plant species found in the area were L. grandiflora (2 sites), L. g. subsp. hexapetala (33 sites), and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (4 sites). There was a variety of insect guilds feeding on L. g. subsp. hexapetala, including six species with stem-borer larvae, one species with fruit-feeding larvae, four species with defoliating larvae, two species with defoliating larvae on young leaves and axil meristems, one species of cell content feeder, and three species of sap feeders. Nine of these species also have defoliating adults. Biological information on most of them is provided. Of these insect herbivores, only two species were also found on L. grandiflora, and one on L. peploides. Several of the species found on L. g. hexapetala, such as the cell-content feeder Liothrips ludwigi (Thysanoptera), the stem-borers Merocnemus binotatus (Boheman) and Tyloderma spp. (Coleoptera), are promising candidates for biocontrol agents. PMID:25502037

  17. Which insect species numerically respond to allochthonous inputs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Herons (Ardeidae) frequently breed in inland forests and provide organic material in the form of carcasses of prey (that they drop) and chicks (that die) to the forest floor. Such allochthonous inputs of organic materials are known to increase arthropod populations in forests. However, the exact species that show numerical responses to allochthonous inputs in heron breeding colonies remains unclear. Very few studies have clarified which factors determine numerical responses in individual species. We used pitfall and baited traps to compare the densities of arthropods between forest patches in heron breeding colonies (five sites) and areas outside of colonies (five sites) in central Japan. The density of all arthropods was not significantly different between colonies and non-colony areas. However, significant differences between colonies and non-colony areas were found in four arthropod groups. Earwigs (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae), hister beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae), and carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were more abundant in colonies, while ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were less abundant in colonies. We detected numerical responses to heron breeding in two earwig, one histerid, five silphid, and one ant species. Chick and prey carcasses from herons may have directly led to increases in consumer populations such as earwigs, histerids, and silphids in colonies, while microenvironmental changes caused by heron breeding may have reduced ant abundance. In the Silphidae, five species showed numerical responses to allochthonous inputs, and the other two species did not. Numerical responses in individual species may have been determined by life history traits such as reproductive behaviour.

  18. Season and light affect constitutive defenses of understory shrub species against folivorous insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karolewski, Piotr; Giertych, Marian J.; Żmuda, Michał; Jagodziński, Andrzej M.; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2013-11-01

    Understory shrubs contribute to overall species diversity, providing habitat and forage for animals, influence soil chemistry and forest microclimate. However, very little is known about the chemical defense of various shrub species against folivorous insects. Using six shrub species, we tested how seasonal changes and light conditions affect their constitutive defense to insect damage. We monitored leaf perforation, concentrations of total phenols, condensed tannins, nitrogen (N), and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC). Leaf damage caused by insects was low in Sambucus nigra, Cornus sanguinea, and Frangula alnus, intermediate in Corylus avellana and Prunus serotina, and high in Prunus padus. Leaves of all the species, when growing in high light conditions, had high concentrations of defense metabolites. Except for C. avellana, leaves of the other shrub species growing in full sun were less injured than those in shade. This may be due to higher concentrations of defense metabolites and lower concentrations of nitrogen. Similar patterns of the effects of light on metabolites studied and N were observed for leaves with varying location within the crown of individual shrubs (from the top of the south direction to the bottom of the north), as for leaves from shrubs growing in full sun and shrubs in the shade of canopy trees. A probable cause of the greater damage of more sunlit leaves of C. avellana was the fact that they were herbivorized mostly by Altica brevicollis, a specialist insect that prefers plant tissues with a high TNC level and is not very sensitive to a high level of phenolic compounds.

  19. Male-killing Wolbachia in two species of insect

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, G. D. D.; Jiggins, F. M.; Schulenburg, J. H. G. von der; Bertrand, D.; West, S. A.; Goriacheva, I. I.; Zakharov, I. A.; Werren, J. H.; Stouthamer, R.; Majerus, M. E. N.

    1999-01-01

    The inherited bacterium Wolbachia spreads through the manipulation of host reproduction, and has been suggested to be an important factor in arthropod evolution, from host speciation to the evolution of sex-determination systems. Past work has shown that members of this group may produce cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminize genetically male hosts, and induce host parthenogenesis. Here, we report an expansion of the range of reproductive manipulations produced by members of this clade, recording Wolbachia strains that kill male hosts during embryogenesis in two host species, the ladybird Adalia bipunctata, and the butterfly Acraea encedon. Both male-killing bacteria belong to the B group of Wolbachia. However, phylogenetic analyses were unable to resolve whether the bacteria in the two species are monophyletic, or represent independent origins of male-killing among the B-group Wolbachia. We also found significant divergence within the wsp gene of Wolbachia strains found in different A. bipunctata individuals, suggesting this host species contains two Wolbachia strains, diverged in wsp sequence but monophyletic. Our observations reinforce the notion that Wolbachia may be an important agent driving arthropod evolution, and corroborates previous suggestions that male-killing behaviour is easily evolved by invertebrate symbionts.

  20. Quantifying the Establishment Likelihood of Invasive Alien Species Introductions Through Ports with Application to Honeybees in Australia.

    PubMed

    Heersink, Daniel K; Caley, Peter; Paini, Dean R; Barry, Simon C

    2016-05-01

    The cost of an uncontrolled incursion of invasive alien species (IAS) arising from undetected entry through ports can be substantial, and knowledge of port-specific risks is needed to help allocate limited surveillance resources. Quantifying the establishment likelihood of such an incursion requires quantifying the ability of a species to enter, establish, and spread. Estimation of the approach rate of IAS into ports provides a measure of likelihood of entry. Data on the approach rate of IAS are typically sparse, and the combinations of risk factors relating to country of origin and port of arrival diverse. This presents challenges to making formal statistical inference on establishment likelihood. Here we demonstrate how these challenges can be overcome with judicious use of mixed-effects models when estimating the incursion likelihood into Australia of the European (Apis mellifera) and Asian (A. cerana) honeybees, along with the invasive parasites of biosecurity concern they host (e.g., Varroa destructor). Our results demonstrate how skewed the establishment likelihood is, with one-tenth of the ports accounting for 80% or more of the likelihood for both species. These results have been utilized by biosecurity agencies in the allocation of resources to the surveillance of maritime ports.

  1. Cuticular hydrocarbons as a tool for the identification of insect species: puparial cases from Sarcophagidae.

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria; Matsumoto, Nana; Blomquist, Gary James

    2013-12-01

    The external surface of all insects is covered by a species-specific complex mixture of highly stable, very long chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify CHCs from four species of Sarcophagidae, Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma, Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans, Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis and Sarcodexia lambens. The identified CHCs were mostly a mixture of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with linear chain lengths varying from 23 to 33 carbons. Only two alkenes were found in all four species. S. lambens had a composition of CHCs with linear chain lengths varying from C23 to C33, while the other three species linear chain lengths from 24 to 31 carbons. n-Heptacosane, n-nonacosane and 3-methylnonacosane, n-triacontane and n-hentriacontane occurred in all four species. The results show that these hydrocarbon profiles may be used for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and are a useful additional tool for taxonomic classification, especially when only parts of the insect specimen are available.

  2. Cuticular hydrocarbons as a tool for the identification of insect species: Puparial cases from Sarcophagidae

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria; Matsumoto, Nana; Blomquist, Gary James

    2013-01-01

    The external surface of all insects is covered by a species-specific complex mixture of highly stable, very long chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify CHCs from four species of Sarcophagidae, Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma, Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans, Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis and Sarcodexia lambens. The identified CHCs were mostly a mixture of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with linear chain lengths varying from 23 to 33 carbons. Only two alkenes were found in all four species. S. lambens had a composition of CHCs with linear chain lengths varying from C23 to C33, while the other three species linear chain lengths from 24 to 31 carbons. n-Heptacosane, n-nonacosane and 3-methylnonacosane, n-triacontane and n-hentriacontane occurred in all four species. The results show that these hydrocarbon profiles may be used for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and are a useful additional tool for taxonomic classification, especially when only parts of the insect specimen are available. PMID:23932943

  3. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  4. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  5. Capturing natural-colour 3D models of insects for species discovery and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chuong V; Lovell, David R; Adcock, Matt; La Salle, John

    2014-01-01

    Collections of biological specimens are fundamental to scientific understanding and characterization of natural diversity-past, present and future. This paper presents a system for liberating useful information from physical collections by bringing specimens into the digital domain so they can be more readily shared, analyzed, annotated and compared. It focuses on insects and is strongly motivated by the desire to accelerate and augment current practices in insect taxonomy which predominantly use text, 2D diagrams and images to describe and characterize species. While these traditional kinds of descriptions are informative and useful, they cannot cover insect specimens "from all angles" and precious specimens are still exchanged between researchers and collections for this reason. Furthermore, insects can be complex in structure and pose many challenges to computer vision systems. We present a new prototype for a practical, cost-effective system of off-the-shelf components to acquire natural-colour 3D models of insects from around 3 mm to 30 mm in length. ("Natural-colour" is used to contrast with "false-colour", i.e., colour generated from, or applied to, gray-scale data post-acquisition.) Colour images are captured from different angles and focal depths using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera rig and two-axis turntable. These 2D images are processed into 3D reconstructions using software based on a visual hull algorithm. The resulting models are compact (around 10 megabytes), afford excellent optical resolution, and can be readily embedded into documents and web pages, as well as viewed on mobile devices. The system is portable, safe, relatively affordable, and complements the sort of volumetric data that can be acquired by computed tomography. This system provides a new way to augment the description and documentation of insect species holotypes, reducing the need to handle or ship specimens. It opens up new opportunities to collect data for research

  6. Capturing natural-colour 3D models of insects for species discovery and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chuong V; Lovell, David R; Adcock, Matt; La Salle, John

    2014-01-01

    Collections of biological specimens are fundamental to scientific understanding and characterization of natural diversity-past, present and future. This paper presents a system for liberating useful information from physical collections by bringing specimens into the digital domain so they can be more readily shared, analyzed, annotated and compared. It focuses on insects and is strongly motivated by the desire to accelerate and augment current practices in insect taxonomy which predominantly use text, 2D diagrams and images to describe and characterize species. While these traditional kinds of descriptions are informative and useful, they cannot cover insect specimens "from all angles" and precious specimens are still exchanged between researchers and collections for this reason. Furthermore, insects can be complex in structure and pose many challenges to computer vision systems. We present a new prototype for a practical, cost-effective system of off-the-shelf components to acquire natural-colour 3D models of insects from around 3 mm to 30 mm in length. ("Natural-colour" is used to contrast with "false-colour", i.e., colour generated from, or applied to, gray-scale data post-acquisition.) Colour images are captured from different angles and focal depths using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera rig and two-axis turntable. These 2D images are processed into 3D reconstructions using software based on a visual hull algorithm. The resulting models are compact (around 10 megabytes), afford excellent optical resolution, and can be readily embedded into documents and web pages, as well as viewed on mobile devices. The system is portable, safe, relatively affordable, and complements the sort of volumetric data that can be acquired by computed tomography. This system provides a new way to augment the description and documentation of insect species holotypes, reducing the need to handle or ship specimens. It opens up new opportunities to collect data for research

  7. Capturing Natural-Colour 3D Models of Insects for Species Discovery and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chuong V.; Lovell, David R.; Adcock, Matt; La Salle, John

    2014-01-01

    Collections of biological specimens are fundamental to scientific understanding and characterization of natural diversity—past, present and future. This paper presents a system for liberating useful information from physical collections by bringing specimens into the digital domain so they can be more readily shared, analyzed, annotated and compared. It focuses on insects and is strongly motivated by the desire to accelerate and augment current practices in insect taxonomy which predominantly use text, 2D diagrams and images to describe and characterize species. While these traditional kinds of descriptions are informative and useful, they cannot cover insect specimens “from all angles” and precious specimens are still exchanged between researchers and collections for this reason. Furthermore, insects can be complex in structure and pose many challenges to computer vision systems. We present a new prototype for a practical, cost-effective system of off-the-shelf components to acquire natural-colour 3D models of insects from around 3 mm to 30 mm in length. (“Natural-colour” is used to contrast with “false-colour”, i.e., colour generated from, or applied to, gray-scale data post-acquisition.) Colour images are captured from different angles and focal depths using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera rig and two-axis turntable. These 2D images are processed into 3D reconstructions using software based on a visual hull algorithm. The resulting models are compact (around 10 megabytes), afford excellent optical resolution, and can be readily embedded into documents and web pages, as well as viewed on mobile devices. The system is portable, safe, relatively affordable, and complements the sort of volumetric data that can be acquired by computed tomography. This system provides a new way to augment the description and documentation of insect species holotypes, reducing the need to handle or ship specimens. It opens up new opportunities to collect data

  8. Developmental database for phenology models: related insect and mite species have similar thermal requirements.

    PubMed

    Jarosík, Vojtech; Honek, Alois; Magarey, Roger D; Skuhrovec, Jirí

    2011-12-01

    Two values of thermal requirements, the lower developmental threshold (LDT), that is, the temperature at which development ceases, and the sum of effective temperatures, that is, day degrees above the LDT control the development of ectotherms and are used in phenology models to predict time at which the development of individual stages of a species will be completed. To assist in the rapid development of phenology models, we merged a previously published database of thermal requirements for insects, gathered by online search in CAB Abstracts, with independently collected data for insects and mites from original studies. The merged database comprises developmental times at various constant temperatures on 1,054 insect and mite species, many of them in several populations, mostly pests and their natural enemies, from all over the world. We show that closely related species share similar thermal requirements and therefore, for a species with unknown thermal requirements, the value of LDT and sum of effective temperatures of its most related species from the database can be used. PMID:22299347

  9. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions.

  10. Antennal development in the praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) highlights multitudinous processes in hemimetabolous insect species.

    PubMed

    Carle, Thomas; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Insects possess antennae equipped with a large number of segments (flagellomeres) on which sensory organs (sensilla) are located. Hemimetabolous insects grow by molting until they reach adulthood. In these species, the sensory structures develop and mature during each stage of development; new flagellomeres are generated at each molt elongating the antennae, and new sensilla appear. The praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) is a hemimetabolous insect with 7 different instars before it reaches adulthood. Because their antennae are provided with an atypical sensillar distribution, we previously suggested that their antennae develop with a different mechanism to other hemimetaboulous insect species. In the present study, we measured the number, length and width of flagellomeres along the antennae in nymph and adult mantis Tenodera aridifolia. For this study, we developed a new and innovative methodology to reconstruct the antennal development based on the length of flagellomeres. We observed and confirmed that the antennae of mantises develop with the addition of new segments at two distinct sites. In addition, we constructed a complete database of the features of the flagellum for each stage of development. From our data, we found that sexual dimorphism appears from the 6 instar (larger number and wider flagellomeres in males) in accordance with the appearance of their genital apparatus. The antennal sexual dimorphism completes at adulthood with longer flagellomeres and the emergence of a huge number of grooved peg sensilla in males during the last molting, which suggests once again their function as sex-pheromone receptive sensilla. PMID:24896610

  11. Antennal Development in the Praying Mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) Highlights Multitudinous Processes in Hemimetabolous Insect Species

    PubMed Central

    Carle, Thomas; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Insects possess antennae equipped with a large number of segments (flagellomeres) on which sensory organs (sensilla) are located. Hemimetabolous insects grow by molting until they reach adulthood. In these species, the sensory structures develop and mature during each stage of development; new flagellomeres are generated at each molt elongating the antennae, and new sensilla appear. The praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) is a hemimetabolous insect with 7 different instars before it reaches adulthood. Because their antennae are provided with an atypical sensillar distribution, we previously suggested that their antennae develop with a different mechanism to other hemimetaboulous insect species. In the present study, we measured the number, length and width of flagellomeres along the antennae in nymph and adult mantis Tenodera aridifolia. For this study, we developed a new and innovative methodology to reconstruct the antennal development based on the length of flagellomeres. We observed and confirmed that the antennae of mantises develop with the addition of new segments at two distinct sites. In addition, we constructed a complete database of the features of the flagellum for each stage of development. From our data, we found that sexual dimorphism appears from the 6 instar (larger number and wider flagellomeres in males) in accordance with the appearance of their genital apparatus. The antennal sexual dimorphism completes at adulthood with longer flagellomeres and the emergence of a huge number of grooved peg sensilla in males during the last molting, which suggests once again their function as sex-pheromone receptive sensilla. PMID:24896610

  12. Differential parasitism of seed-feeding Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by native and alien wasp species relative to elevation in subalpine Sophora (Fabaceae) forests on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Banko, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control agent for pepper weevil, did not vary significantly with elevation. Results are contrasted with a previous study of this system with implications for the conservation of an endangered bird species that feed on Cydia larvae. Interpretation of results is hindered by lack of knowledge of autecology of moths and wasps, origins, phylogeny, systematics, competitive ability, and physiological limitations of each wasp species. These factors should be incorporated into risk analysis for biological control introductions and invasive species programs. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  13. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion.

    PubMed

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20-40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species.

  14. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion.

    PubMed

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20-40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species. PMID:24363899

  15. Discovery of an alien species of mayfly in South America (Ephemeroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Frederico F.; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Angeli, Kamila B.; De-Souza, Márcia R.; Gonçalves, Inês C.; Nessimian, Jorge L.; Sartori, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite its wide, almost worldwide distribution, the mayfly genus Cloeon Leach, 1815 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) is restricted in the Western hemisphere to North America, where a single species is reported. In the Neotropics, except for some species wrongly attributed to the genus in the past, there are no records of Cloeon. Recently, however, specimens of true Cloeon were collected along the coast of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. In order to verify the hypothesis that this species was recently introduced to Brazil, our aim was to identify the species based on morphological and molecular characters and to confirm the presence of true representatives of the genus in the Neotropics. Our results revealed that the specimens found in Brazil belong to the Afrotropical species C. smaeleni Lestage, 1924. The identity of the species, its distribution, along with its previous absence in regularly sampled sites, is a clear sign that the specimens of C. smaeleni found in Espírito Santo are introduced, well established, and that the colonization took place very recently. PMID:24843249

  16. Cascade effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Shi, PeiJian; Hui, Cang; Men, XingYuan; Zhao, ZiHua; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng; Jin, XianShi; Cao, HaiFeng; Li, B Larry

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how plant species richness influences the diversity of herbivorous and predatory/parasitic arthropods is central to community ecology. We explore the effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies. Using data from a four-year experiment with five levels of crop species richness, we found that crop species richness significantly affected the pest species richness, but there were no significant effects on richness of the pests' natural enemies. In contrast, the species richness of pest insects significantly affected their natural enemies. These findings suggest a cascade effect where trophic interactions are strong between adjacent trophic levels, while the interactions between connected but nonadjacent trophic levels are weakened by the intermediate trophic level. High crop species richness resulted in a more stable arthropod community compared with communities in monoculture crops. Our results highlight the complicated cross-trophic interactions and the crucial role of crop diversity in the food webs of agro-ecosystems. PMID:24907938

  17. New approaches narrow global species estimates for beetles, insects, and terrestrial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Stork, Nigel E; McBroom, James; Gely, Claire; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2015-06-16

    It has been suggested that we do not know within an order of magnitude the number of all species on Earth [May RM (1988) Science 241(4872):1441-1449]. Roughly 1.5 million valid species of all organisms have been named and described [Costello MJ, Wilson S, Houlding B (2012) Syst Biol 61(5):871-883]. Given Kingdom Animalia numerically dominates this list and virtually all terrestrial vertebrates have been described, the question of how many terrestrial species exist is all but reduced to one of how many arthropod species there are. With beetles alone accounting for about 40% of all described arthropod species, the truly pertinent question is how many beetle species exist. Here we present four new and independent estimates of beetle species richness, which produce a mean estimate of 1.5 million beetle species. We argue that the surprisingly narrow range (0.9-2.1 million) of these four autonomous estimates--derived from host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, plant:beetle ratios, and a completely novel body-size approach--represents a major advance in honing in on the richness of this most significant taxon, and is thus of considerable importance to the debate on how many species exist. Using analogous approaches, we also produce independent estimates for all insects, mean: 5.5 million species (range 2.6-7.8 million), and for terrestrial arthropods, mean: 6.8 million species (range 5.9-7.8 million), which suggest that estimates for the world's insects and their relatives are narrowing considerably. PMID:26034274

  18. New approaches narrow global species estimates for beetles, insects, and terrestrial arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Stork, Nigel E.; McBroom, James; Gely, Claire; Hamilton, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that we do not know within an order of magnitude the number of all species on Earth [May RM (1988) Science 241(4872):1441–1449]. Roughly 1.5 million valid species of all organisms have been named and described [Costello MJ, Wilson S, Houlding B (2012) Syst Biol 61(5):871–883]. Given Kingdom Animalia numerically dominates this list and virtually all terrestrial vertebrates have been described, the question of how many terrestrial species exist is all but reduced to one of how many arthropod species there are. With beetles alone accounting for about 40% of all described arthropod species, the truly pertinent question is how many beetle species exist. Here we present four new and independent estimates of beetle species richness, which produce a mean estimate of 1.5 million beetle species. We argue that the surprisingly narrow range (0.9–2.1 million) of these four autonomous estimates—derived from host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, plant:beetle ratios, and a completely novel body-size approach—represents a major advance in honing in on the richness of this most significant taxon, and is thus of considerable importance to the debate on how many species exist. Using analogous approaches, we also produce independent estimates for all insects, mean: 5.5 million species (range 2.6–7.8 million), and for terrestrial arthropods, mean: 6.8 million species (range 5.9–7.8 million), which suggest that estimates for the world’s insects and their relatives are narrowing considerably. PMID:26034274

  19. New approaches narrow global species estimates for beetles, insects, and terrestrial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Stork, Nigel E; McBroom, James; Gely, Claire; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2015-06-16

    It has been suggested that we do not know within an order of magnitude the number of all species on Earth [May RM (1988) Science 241(4872):1441-1449]. Roughly 1.5 million valid species of all organisms have been named and described [Costello MJ, Wilson S, Houlding B (2012) Syst Biol 61(5):871-883]. Given Kingdom Animalia numerically dominates this list and virtually all terrestrial vertebrates have been described, the question of how many terrestrial species exist is all but reduced to one of how many arthropod species there are. With beetles alone accounting for about 40% of all described arthropod species, the truly pertinent question is how many beetle species exist. Here we present four new and independent estimates of beetle species richness, which produce a mean estimate of 1.5 million beetle species. We argue that the surprisingly narrow range (0.9-2.1 million) of these four autonomous estimates--derived from host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, plant:beetle ratios, and a completely novel body-size approach--represents a major advance in honing in on the richness of this most significant taxon, and is thus of considerable importance to the debate on how many species exist. Using analogous approaches, we also produce independent estimates for all insects, mean: 5.5 million species (range 2.6-7.8 million), and for terrestrial arthropods, mean: 6.8 million species (range 5.9-7.8 million), which suggest that estimates for the world's insects and their relatives are narrowing considerably.

  20. No trade-off between growth rate and temperature stress resistance in four insect species.

    PubMed

    Karl, Isabell; Stoks, Robby; Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Dierks, Anneke; Franke, Kristin; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Although fast growth seems to be generally favored by natural selection, growth rates are rarely maximized in nature. Consequently, fast growth is predicted to carry costs resulting in intrinsic trade-offs. Disentangling such trade-offs is of great ecological importance in order to fully understand the prospects and limitations of growth rate variation. A recent study provided evidence for a hitherto unknown cost of fast growth, namely reduced cold stress resistance. Such relationships could be especially important under climate change. Against this background we here investigate the relationships between individual larval growth rate and adult heat as well as cold stress resistance, using eleven data sets from four different insect species (three butterfly species: Bicyclus anynana, Lycaena tityrus, Pieris napi; one Dipteran species: Protophormia terraenovae). Despite using different species (and partly different populations within species) and an array of experimental manipulations (e.g. different temperatures, photoperiods, feeding regimes, inbreeding levels), we were not able to provide any consistent evidence for trade-offs between fast growth and temperature stress resistance in these four insect species.

  1. No Trade-Off between Growth Rate and Temperature Stress Resistance in Four Insect Species

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Isabell; Stoks, Robby; Bauerfeind, Stephanie S.; Dierks, Anneke; Franke, Kristin; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Although fast growth seems to be generally favored by natural selection, growth rates are rarely maximized in nature. Consequently, fast growth is predicted to carry costs resulting in intrinsic trade-offs. Disentangling such trade-offs is of great ecological importance in order to fully understand the prospects and limitations of growth rate variation. A recent study provided evidence for a hitherto unknown cost of fast growth, namely reduced cold stress resistance. Such relationships could be especially important under climate change. Against this background we here investigate the relationships between individual larval growth rate and adult heat as well as cold stress resistance, using eleven data sets from four different insect species (three butterfly species: Bicyclus anynana, Lycaena tityrus, Pieris napi; one Dipteran species: Protophormia terraenovae). Despite using different species (and partly different populations within species) and an array of experimental manipulations (e.g. different temperatures, photoperiods, feeding regimes, inbreeding levels), we were not able to provide any consistent evidence for trade-offs between fast growth and temperature stress resistance in these four insect species. PMID:23638084

  2. Alien invasive birds.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  3. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Brissey, Courtney L.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K.

    2015-01-02

    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  4. Alienation Incident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Louis

    1979-01-01

    Critiques Marxian "cures" for alienation as discussed in Karl Marx's "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts." Also traces the activity of a former student who joined the revolution in Cuba. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York, 14226. (KC)

  5. Seasonal changes in the critical thermal maxima of four species of aquatic insects (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C; Shoup, Logan

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal changes in the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) of four species of aquatic insects were determined from February 2012 to February 2013 from a first-order stream in northern Lower Michigan. Three of these species: Stenonema femoratum (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae), Hydropsyche slossonae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae), and Dolophilodes distinctus (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) exhibited seasonal changes in CTmax, increasing through the spring and summer and then decreasing into the subsequent fall and winter. CTmax of these species correlated strongly with both the seasonal ambient stream temperature and with a series of different laboratory acclimation temperatures, suggesting that organisms adapt to laboratory acclimation in a similar manner as they adapt to seasonal changes. In contrast, the CTmax of Parapsyche apicalis (Trichoptera: Arctopsychidae) remained constant regardless of ambient or acclimation temperature. All species exhibited greater thermal sensitivity relative to ambient temperature during the summer than the winter. Our study indicates that thermal tolerance patterns can be different among species in the same environment. It also provides the first winter and year-round thermal tolerance data for aquatic insects.

  6. Macroparasite Fauna of Alien Grey Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): Composition, Variability and Implications for Native Species

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G.; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur. PMID:24505348

  7. Macroparasite fauna of alien grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): composition, variability and implications for native species.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur. PMID:24505348

  8. Macroparasite fauna of alien grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): composition, variability and implications for native species.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur.

  9. Border control for stowaway alien species should be prioritised based on variations in establishment debt.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Katelyn T; Robertson, Mark P; Rouget, Mathieu; Wilson, John R U

    2016-09-15

    Border control is one of the major approaches used by countries to limit the number of organisms introduced as stowaways. However, it is not feasible to inspect all passengers, cargo and vehicles entering a country, and so efforts need to be prioritised. Here we use South Africa as a case study to assess, based on tourism and trade data and climate matching techniques, the number of stowaway species that might be introduced ('colonisation pressure') and the likelihood that once introduced, these organisms will establish ('likelihood of establishment'). These results were used to explore how the number of species that are likely to establish ('establishment debt') varies across donor regions and seasons. A simple theoretical model was then used to compare four strategies for prioritising border control inspections: no prioritisation; based on colonisation pressure; based on likelihood of establishment; and based on both colonisation pressure and likelihood of establishment. Establishment debt was greatest in southern hemisphere spring and autumn when South Africa is climatically similar to northern hemisphere countries with which there are strong, consistent trade and tourism links (i.e. colonisation pressure varied little seasonally, but likelihood of establishment did vary across the seasons). Prioritising inspections based on both colonisation pressure and the likelihood of establishment was clearly the most effective strategy, with this strategy detecting at least 6% more potential invaders than the other strategies. While there are many practical limitations to the implementation of such prioritised inspection strategies, the results highlight the importance of national and regional studies of establishment debt. PMID:27240206

  10. Border control for stowaway alien species should be prioritised based on variations in establishment debt.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Katelyn T; Robertson, Mark P; Rouget, Mathieu; Wilson, John R U

    2016-09-15

    Border control is one of the major approaches used by countries to limit the number of organisms introduced as stowaways. However, it is not feasible to inspect all passengers, cargo and vehicles entering a country, and so efforts need to be prioritised. Here we use South Africa as a case study to assess, based on tourism and trade data and climate matching techniques, the number of stowaway species that might be introduced ('colonisation pressure') and the likelihood that once introduced, these organisms will establish ('likelihood of establishment'). These results were used to explore how the number of species that are likely to establish ('establishment debt') varies across donor regions and seasons. A simple theoretical model was then used to compare four strategies for prioritising border control inspections: no prioritisation; based on colonisation pressure; based on likelihood of establishment; and based on both colonisation pressure and likelihood of establishment. Establishment debt was greatest in southern hemisphere spring and autumn when South Africa is climatically similar to northern hemisphere countries with which there are strong, consistent trade and tourism links (i.e. colonisation pressure varied little seasonally, but likelihood of establishment did vary across the seasons). Prioritising inspections based on both colonisation pressure and the likelihood of establishment was clearly the most effective strategy, with this strategy detecting at least 6% more potential invaders than the other strategies. While there are many practical limitations to the implementation of such prioritised inspection strategies, the results highlight the importance of national and regional studies of establishment debt.

  11. Salinity and temperature tolerance of an emergent alien species, the Amazon fish Astronotus ocellatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrel, Silvia M M; Schofield, Pam; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Astronotus ocellatus (oscar), is native to the Amazon basin and, although it has been introduced to many countries, little is known regarding its tolerances for salinity and temperature. In this report, we provide data on the tolerance of A. ocellatus to abrupt and gradual changes in salinity, its high and low temperature tolerance, and information on how salinity, temperature, and fish size interact to affect survival. Fish were able to survive abrupt transfer to salinities as high as 16 ppt with no mortality. When salinity change was gradual (2 ppt/day), fish in the warm-temperature experiment (28°C) survived longer than fish in the cool-temperature experiment (18°C). Larger fish survived longer than smaller ones at the higher salinities when the temperature was warm, but when the temperature was cool fish size had little effect on survival. In the temperature-tolerance experiments, fish survived from 9 to 41°C for short periods of time. Overall, the species showed a wide range of temperature and salinity tolerance. Thus, in spite of the tropical freshwater origin of this species, physiological stress is not likely to hinder its dispersal to brackish waters, especially when temperatures are warm.

  12. Effect of Landscape Pattern on Insect Species Density within Urban Green Spaces in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhimin; Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban areas. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between the landscape pattern of green spaces and biodiversity to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. In this study, we collected insects from 45 green patches in Beijing during July 2012 using suction sampling. The green patches were dominated by managed lawns, mixed with scattered trees and shrubs. We examined the effects of landscape pattern on insect species density using hierarchical partitioning analysis and partial least squares regression. The results of the hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that five explanatory variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects), connectivity (13.9%), distance to nearest patch (13.8%), diversity for patch types (11.0%), and patch shape (8.3%), significantly contributed to insect species density. With the partial least squares regression model, we found species density was negatively related to patch area, shape, connectivity, diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p < 0.05 and positively related to proportion of vegetated land. Regression tree analysis further showed that the highest species density was found in green patches with an area <500 m2. Our results indicated that improvement in habitat quality, such as patch area and connectivity that are typically thought to be important for conservation, did not actually increase species density. However, increasing compactness (low-edge) of patch shape and landscape composition did have the expected effect. Therefore, it is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality. PMID:25793897

  13. Effect of landscape pattern on insect species density within urban green spaces in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhimin; Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban areas. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between the landscape pattern of green spaces and biodiversity to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. In this study, we collected insects from 45 green patches in Beijing during July 2012 using suction sampling. The green patches were dominated by managed lawns, mixed with scattered trees and shrubs. We examined the effects of landscape pattern on insect species density using hierarchical partitioning analysis and partial least squares regression. The results of the hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that five explanatory variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects), connectivity (13.9%), distance to nearest patch (13.8%), diversity for patch types (11.0%), and patch shape (8.3%), significantly contributed to insect species density. With the partial least squares regression model, we found species density was negatively related to patch area, shape, connectivity, diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p < 0.05 and positively related to proportion of vegetated land. Regression tree analysis further showed that the highest species density was found in green patches with an area <500 m2. Our results indicated that improvement in habitat quality, such as patch area and connectivity that are typically thought to be important for conservation, did not actually increase species density. However, increasing compactness (low-edge) of patch shape and landscape composition did have the expected effect. Therefore, it is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality.

  14. Effect of landscape pattern on insect species density within urban green spaces in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhimin; Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban areas. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between the landscape pattern of green spaces and biodiversity to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. In this study, we collected insects from 45 green patches in Beijing during July 2012 using suction sampling. The green patches were dominated by managed lawns, mixed with scattered trees and shrubs. We examined the effects of landscape pattern on insect species density using hierarchical partitioning analysis and partial least squares regression. The results of the hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that five explanatory variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects), connectivity (13.9%), distance to nearest patch (13.8%), diversity for patch types (11.0%), and patch shape (8.3%), significantly contributed to insect species density. With the partial least squares regression model, we found species density was negatively related to patch area, shape, connectivity, diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p < 0.05 and positively related to proportion of vegetated land. Regression tree analysis further showed that the highest species density was found in green patches with an area <500 m2. Our results indicated that improvement in habitat quality, such as patch area and connectivity that are typically thought to be important for conservation, did not actually increase species density. However, increasing compactness (low-edge) of patch shape and landscape composition did have the expected effect. Therefore, it is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality. PMID:25793897

  15. Naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungi infecting stored grain insect species in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wakil, Waqas; Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad; Yasin, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from stored grain insect pests sampled from various geographical regions of Punjab, Pakistan, was investigated. In total, 25,720 insects from six different species were evaluated, and 195 isolates from 24 different fungal species were recovered. These included the Ascomycetes Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thorn) Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae), and Lecanicillium attenuatum (Zare and W. Gams) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The cadavers of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were significantly infected with the fungi followed by rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), rusty grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae), and cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae); however, the least were recovered from khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The geographical attributes (altitude, longitude, and latitude) greatly influenced the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi with highest number of isolates found from >400 (m) altitude, 33°-34' N latitude, and 73°-74' E longitude. The findings of the current surveys clearly indicated that the entomopathogenic fungi are widely distributed in the insect cadavers, which may later be used in successful Integrated Pest Management programs.

  16. Spread of phosphine resistance among brazilian populations of three species of stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Marco A G; Faroni, Lêda R D'A; Silva, Felipe H da; Batista, Maurílio D; Guedes, Raul N C

    2010-01-01

    The resistance to fumigant insecticides in stored-products insects is often recorded. Several factors influence the evolution of insecticide resistance. Among these, the frequency of applications and the migration of resistant populations are of primary importance for the stored-product insects. The aim of this study was to characterize the spectrum and investigate the status of phosphine resistance in Brazil, in 13 populations of the Coleoptera Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Tenebrionidae), ten populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabr.) (Bostrichidae), and eight populations of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Silvanidae). The pattern of resistance dispersion in the populations of these species was also verified. The bioassays for the detection of phosphine resistance followed the FAO standard method. To test the influence of migration in the evolution of the phosphine resistance, the difference of mortality in the discriminating concentration and the geographical distance among each pair wise combination of collection sites were correlated. None of the populations exhibited mortality above 90% in the discriminating concentration, for the three species. Mortality in the discriminating concentration increased with the geographical distance for R.dominica and O.surinamensis. However, no significant linear response was observed among the variables for T.castaneum populations. These results suggest that the dispersion of insects and the local selection are relevant in the evolution of the phosphine resistance in populations of R.dominica and O.surinamensis. In contrast, grain trade and local selection are probably the factors that determine the evolution of the phosphine resistance in populations of T. castaneum.

  17. Efficacy of spinosad and methoprene, applied alone or in combination, against six stored-product insect species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of the insecticides spinosad and methoprene, applied alone or in combination to wheat, was evaluated against six stored-product insect species, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, S. granarius, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and Liposcelis bostrychophila. The conc...

  18. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage) or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species. PMID:27185266

  19. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage) or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species. PMID:27185266

  20. The effects of spinosad on Culex quinquefasciatus and three nontarget insect species.

    PubMed

    Jones, Owen M; Ottea, James

    2013-12-01

    Spinosad is a relatively new insecticide with a unique mode of action that is being evaluated for control of larval mosquitoes. Whereas a number of toxicological studies have measured effects of spinosad on various animals, few have been conducted on the effects of spinosad on nontarget, aquatic insect species. Such studies are important as these species might be found in the same environments as mosquito larvae targeted for control. A neighborhood pond was surveyed to find a representative species of mosquito as well as other common aquatic insects with which to examine susceptibility to spinosad and nontarget effects. The mosquito species chosen was Culex quinquefasciatus and the most common nontarget taxa were immature stages of a mayfly (Caenis sp., Ephemeroptera: Caenidae), a damselfly (Ischnura sp., Odonata: Coenagrionidae), and a dragonfly (Pachydiplax longipennis, Odonata: Libellulidae). Bioassays of mosquitoes from a reference susceptible strain (Sebring-S) and field collections of Cx. quinquefasciatus were used to determine susceptibility to spinosad. In addition, susceptibility was examined in nontarget taxa using spinosad concentrations corresponding to the LC50 of field-collected mosquitoes (0.031 ppm) and the maximum label rate (1.6 ppm) of spinosad (Natular EC). Susceptibility to spinosad did not differ between Sebring-S and field-collected mosquitoes. However, there was a marked difference in susceptibility among nontarget taxa. Susceptibility was greatest in Caenis sp., followed by Ischnura sp., and then P. longipennis. PMID:24551967

  1. Selecting Species Traits for Biomonitoring Applications in light of Phylogenetic Relationships among Lotic Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poff, N.; Vieira, N. K.; Simmons, M. P.; Olden, J. D.; Kondratieff, B. C.; Finn, D. S.

    2005-05-01

    The use of species traits as indicators of environmental disturbance is being considered for biomonitoring programs globally. As such, methods to select relevant and informative traits for inclusion in biometrics need to be developed. In this research, we identified 20 traits of aquatic insects within six trait groups: morphology, mobility, life-history strategy, thermal tolerance, feeding guild and ecology (e.g., habitat preference). We constructed phylogenetic trees for 1) all lotic insect species of North America and 2) all Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera species based on morphology- and molecular-based analyses and classifications. We then measured variability (i.e., plasticity) of the 20 traits and six trait groups across the two phylogenetic trees. Traits with higher degrees of plasticity indicated traits that were less phylogenetically constrained, and were considered informative for biomonitoring purposes. Thermal tolerance, rheophily, body size at maturity and feeding guild showed the highest plasticity across both phylogenetic trees. Two mobility traits, occurrence in drift and adult dispersal distance, showed moderate plasticity. By contrast, adult exiting ability, degree of attachment, adult lifespan and body shape showed low variability and were thus less informative. Plastic species traits that are less phylogenetically constrained may be most useful in detecting community change along environmental gradients.

  2. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-06-15

    Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage) or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species.

  3. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-01-01

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed. PMID:25283672

  4. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-09-25

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.

  5. Long-term differences in annual litter production between alien (Sonneratia apetala) and native (Kandelia obovata) mangrove species in Futian, Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Li, Fenglan; Yang, Qiong; Tam, Nora F Y; Liao, Wenbo; Zan, Qijie

    2014-08-30

    Annual litter production in alien (Sonneratia apetala) and native (Kandelia obovata) mangrove forests in Shenzhen, China were compared from 1999 to 2010. S. apetala had significantly higher litter production than K. obovata, with mean annual total litter of 18.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 15.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. The higher litter production in S. apetala forest indicates higher productivity and consequently more nutrient supply to the estuarine ecosystems but may be more invasive due to positive plant-soil feedbacks and nutrient availability to this alien species. Two peaks were recorded in S. apetala (May and October), while only one peak was observed in K. obovata, in early spring (March and April). Leaf and reproductive materials were the main contributors to litter production (>80%) in both forests. These results suggest that the ecological function of S. apetala and its invasive potential can be better understood based on a long-term litter fall analysis.

  6. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range. PMID:27203687

  7. Lack of sex-specific movement patterns in an alien species at its invasion front - consequences for invasion speed.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Melis, Claudia; Åhlén, Per-Arne; Dahl, Fredrik

    2016-08-01

    Efficient targeting of actions to reduce the spread of invasive alien species relies on understanding the spatial, temporal, and individual variation of movement, in particular related to dispersal. Such patterns may differ between individuals at the invasion front compared to individuals in established and dense populations due to differences in environmental and ecological conditions such as abundance of conspecifics or sex-specific dispersal affecting the encounter rate of potential mates. We assessed seasonal and diurnal variation in movement pattern (step length and turning angle) of adult male and female raccoon dog at their invasion front in northern Sweden using data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked adult individuals and assessed whether male and female raccoon dog differed in their movement behavior. There were few consistent sex differences in movement. The rate of dispersal was rather similar over the months, suggesting that both male and female raccoon dog disperse during most of the year, but with higher speed during spring and summer. There were diurnal movement patterns in both sexes with more directional and faster movement during the dark hours. However, the short summer nights may limit such movement patterns, and long-distance displacement was best explained by fine-scale movement patterns from 18:00 to 05:00, rather than by movement patterns only from twilight and night. Simulation of dispersing raccoon dogs suggested a higher frequency of male-female encounters that were further away from the source population for the empirical data compared to a scenario with sex differences in movement pattern. The lack of sex differences in movement pattern at the invasion front results in an increased likelihood for reproductive events far from the source population. Animals outside the source population should be considered potential reproducing individuals, and a high effort to capture such individuals is needed throughout the year to prevent

  8. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range. PMID:27203687

  9. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range.

  10. Faunal assemblages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in and around Alsancak Harbour (Izmir Bay, eastern Mediterranean) with special emphasis on alien species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çinar, Melih Ertan; Katağan, Tuncer; Koçak, Ferah; Öztürk, Bilal; Ergen, Zeki; Kocatas, Ahmet; Önen, Mesut; Kirkim, Fevzi; Bakir, Kerem; Kurt, Güley; Dağli, Ertan; Açik, Sermin; Doğan, Alper; Özcan, Tahir

    The faunal assemblages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were examined seasonally at four stations located in and around Alsancak Harbour between January and September 2004. A total of 155 species belonging to 14 systematic groups were found in the assemblages, of which Polychaeta had the highest number of species and individuals. The assemblages were mainly composed of species tolerant to pollution. The number of individuals (maximum 209,000 ind m - 2 ) and biomass (maximum 24,563 g m - 2 ) of the assemblage were generally higher at the stations located in the harbours, whereas the station not located in the harbours had the highest number of species and diversity index values (maximum 4.19). The mussel faunal assemblages differed mainly according to seasons and locations (ANOSIM test), but seasonal samples collected at each station constituted separate groups in the MDS plot, which are moderately correlated with a combination of environmental variables such as temperature, the concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphate phosphorus ( ρr = 0.46, BIOENV test). The environmental conditions at each station, the structure of substratum to which the mussel was attached and the biotic interactions among the associated faunal components seemed to be main factors influencing the faunal assemblages of the mussel in the area. The combined effect of season and location significantly changed the community parameters such as the number of species and individuals, and the values of diversity, evenness and biomass (two-way ANOVA test). The factors significantly influencing these community parameters were the algae biomass on mussels, total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen concentrations. The density of the mussel was negatively correlated with the diversity and evenness values of samples. The mussel community included ten alien species: Pseudonereis anomala, Polydora cornuta, Streblospio gynobranchiata, Hydroides dianthus, Hydroides elegans, Maera hamigera, Stenothoe

  11. Multiple Ant Species Tending Lac Insect Kerria yunnanensis (Hemiptera: Kerriidae) Provide Asymmetric Protection against Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiao; Hoffmann, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ant attendance on the parasitoid community and parasitism of lac insect Kerria yunnanensis aggregations in Yunnan province, China. We manipulated ant attendance to establish three treatments: (1) ant exclusion; (2) low ant attendance by several ant species; and (3) high ant attendance by Crematogaster macaoensis. Five parasitoid species were collected, with two species contributing 82.7 and 13.2% of total abundance respectively. Total parasitoid abundance was lowest in the February sample when K. yunnanensis was in its younger life stage, being significantly lower in the ant exclusion treatment. In April, all three treatments had significantly different parasitoid abundances, being highest in the ant exclusion treatment and the lowest in the high ant attendance treatment. When ants were present, there were strong negative relationships between total parasitoid abundance and ant abundance, with the relationships being dependent upon the ant species composition and abundance. The patterns of total parasitoid abundance were driven by the two most abundant parasitoid species. Parasitoid species richness did not differ among treatments or between sample times, however, multivariate analysis confirmed that overall parasitoid community structure differed significantly among treatments and between sample times, with the high ant attendance treatment differing most from the other two treatments. Interestingly the absence of ants did not result in increased parasitism from four of the five parasitoids. Ants in lac insect farming systems have a clear role for agricultural pest management. A full understanding of the asymmetric abilities of ants to influence parasitoid communities, and affect parasitism of hosts will require further experimental manipulation to assess the relative roles of 1) the abundance of each individual ant species on parasitoid access to hosts, 2) competition among parasitoids, and 3) the interaction between the

  12. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm. PMID:27245423

  13. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  14. An Australian webspinner species makes the finest known insect silk fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Shoko; Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Haritos, Victoria S.; Sutherland, Tara D.

    2009-01-15

    Aposthonia gurneyi, an Australian webspinner species, is a primitive insect that constructs and lives in a silken tunnel which screens it from the attentions of predators. The insect spins silk threads from many tiny spines on its forelegs to weave a filmy sheet. We found that the webspinner silk fibers have a mean diameter of only 65 nm, an order of magnitude smaller than any previously reported insect silk. The purpose of such fine silk may be to reduce the metabolic cost of building the extensive tunnels. At the molecular level, the A. gurneyi silk has a predominantly beta-sheet protein structure. The most abundant clone in a cDNA library produced from the webspinner silk glands encoded a protein with extensive glycine-serine repeat regions. The GSGSGS repeat motif of the A. gurneyi silk protein is similar to the well-known GAGAGS repeat motif found in the heavy fibroin of silkworm silk, which also has beta-sheet structure. As the webspinner silk gene is unrelated to the silk gene of the phylogenetically distant silkworm, this is a striking example of convergent evolution.

  15. Alien Abductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  16. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  17. Differential expression of microRNA species in a freeze tolerant insect, Eurosta solidaginis.

    PubMed

    Courteau, Lynn A; Storey, Kenneth B; Morin, Pier

    2012-12-01

    Freeze tolerance in insects is associated with a variety of adaptations including production of cryoprotectants, specialized proteins that regulate ice formation, and energy-saving mechanisms that strongly suppress the rates of metabolic processes in the oxygen-limited frozen state. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding transcripts that bind to mRNA, could play a role in the global regulation of energy-expensive mRNA translation in frozen insects and would be modulated at subzero temperatures. Expression levels of miRNA species were evaluated in control (5 °C) and frozen (-15 °C) goldenrod gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis, using a miRNA microarray. Levels of miR-11, miR-276, miR-71, miR-3742, miR-277-3p, miR-2543b and miR-34 were significantly reduced in frozen larvae whereas miR-284, miR-3791-5p and miR-92c-3p rose significantly in frozen larvae. Target prediction for two miRNAs, miR-277-3p and miR-284, revealed potential regulation of transcripts involved in translation and the Krebs cycle. These data constitute the first report that differential expression of miRNAs occurs in a freeze tolerant insect and suggest a mechanism for reversible gene regulation during prolonged periods of freezing over the winter months, a mechanism that can be rapidly reversed to allow renewed translation of mRNA when temperatures rise and insects thaw.

  18. Wax, sex and the origin of species: Dual roles of insect cuticular hydrocarbons in adaptation and mating.

    PubMed

    Chung, Henry; Carroll, Sean B

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary changes in traits that affect both ecological divergence and mating signals could lead to reproductive isolation and the formation of new species. Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are potential examples of such dual traits. They form a waxy layer on the cuticle of the insect to maintain water balance and prevent desiccation, while also acting as signaling molecules in mate recognition and chemical communication. Because the synthesis of these hydrocarbons in insect oenocytes occurs through a common biochemical pathway, natural or sexual selection on one role may affect the other. In this review, we explore how ecological divergence in insect CHCs can lead to divergence in mating signals and reproductive isolation. We suggest that the evolution of insect CHCs may be ripe models for understanding ecological speciation.

  19. Wax, sex and the origin of species: Dual roles of insect cuticular hydrocarbons in adaptation and mating

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Henry; Carroll, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in traits that affect both ecological divergence and mating signals could lead to reproductive isolation and the formation of new species. Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are potential examples of such dual traits. They form a waxy layer on the cuticle of the insect to maintain water balance and prevent desiccation, while also acting as signaling molecules in mate recognition and chemical communication. Because the synthesis of these hydrocarbons in insect oenocytes occurs through a common biochemical pathway, natural or sexual selection on one role may affect the other. In this review, we explore how ecological divergence in insect CHCs can lead to divergence in mating signals and reproductive isolation. We suggest that the evolution of insect CHCs may be ripe models for understanding ecological speciation. PMID:25988392

  20. Molecular signatures of plastic phenotypes in two eusocial insect species with simple societies.

    PubMed

    Patalano, Solenn; Vlasova, Anna; Wyatt, Chris; Ewels, Philip; Camara, Francisco; Ferreira, Pedro G; Asher, Claire L; Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Bachman, Martin; González-Navarrete, Irene; Minoche, André E; Krueger, Felix; Lowy, Ernesto; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Rodriguez-Ales, Jose Luis; Nascimento, Fabio S; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Gabaldon, Toni; Tarver, James E; Andrews, Simon; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Hughes, William O H; Guigó, Roderic; Reik, Wolf; Sumner, Seirian

    2015-11-10

    Phenotypic plasticity is important in adaptation and shapes the evolution of organisms. However, we understand little about what aspects of the genome are important in facilitating plasticity. Eusocial insect societies produce plastic phenotypes from the same genome, as reproductives (queens) and nonreproductives (workers). The greatest plasticity is found in the simple eusocial insect societies in which individuals retain the ability to switch between reproductive and nonreproductive phenotypes as adults. We lack comprehensive data on the molecular basis of plastic phenotypes. Here, we sequenced genomes, microRNAs (miRNAs), and multiple transcriptomes and methylomes from individual brains in a wasp (Polistes canadensis) and an ant (Dinoponera quadriceps) that live in simple eusocial societies. In both species, we found few differences between phenotypes at the transcriptional level, with little functional specialization, and no evidence that phenotype-specific gene expression is driven by DNA methylation or miRNAs. Instead, phenotypic differentiation was defined more subtly by nonrandom transcriptional network organization, with roles in these networks for both conserved and taxon-restricted genes. The general lack of highly methylated regions or methylome patterning in both species may be an important mechanism for achieving plasticity among phenotypes during adulthood. These findings define previously unidentified hypotheses on the genomic processes that facilitate plasticity and suggest that the molecular hallmarks of social behavior are likely to differ with the level of social complexity. PMID:26483466

  1. Molecular signatures of plastic phenotypes in two eusocial insect species with simple societies.

    PubMed

    Patalano, Solenn; Vlasova, Anna; Wyatt, Chris; Ewels, Philip; Camara, Francisco; Ferreira, Pedro G; Asher, Claire L; Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Bachman, Martin; González-Navarrete, Irene; Minoche, André E; Krueger, Felix; Lowy, Ernesto; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Rodriguez-Ales, Jose Luis; Nascimento, Fabio S; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Gabaldon, Toni; Tarver, James E; Andrews, Simon; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Hughes, William O H; Guigó, Roderic; Reik, Wolf; Sumner, Seirian

    2015-11-10

    Phenotypic plasticity is important in adaptation and shapes the evolution of organisms. However, we understand little about what aspects of the genome are important in facilitating plasticity. Eusocial insect societies produce plastic phenotypes from the same genome, as reproductives (queens) and nonreproductives (workers). The greatest plasticity is found in the simple eusocial insect societies in which individuals retain the ability to switch between reproductive and nonreproductive phenotypes as adults. We lack comprehensive data on the molecular basis of plastic phenotypes. Here, we sequenced genomes, microRNAs (miRNAs), and multiple transcriptomes and methylomes from individual brains in a wasp (Polistes canadensis) and an ant (Dinoponera quadriceps) that live in simple eusocial societies. In both species, we found few differences between phenotypes at the transcriptional level, with little functional specialization, and no evidence that phenotype-specific gene expression is driven by DNA methylation or miRNAs. Instead, phenotypic differentiation was defined more subtly by nonrandom transcriptional network organization, with roles in these networks for both conserved and taxon-restricted genes. The general lack of highly methylated regions or methylome patterning in both species may be an important mechanism for achieving plasticity among phenotypes during adulthood. These findings define previously unidentified hypotheses on the genomic processes that facilitate plasticity and suggest that the molecular hallmarks of social behavior are likely to differ with the level of social complexity.

  2. Molecular signatures of plastic phenotypes in two eusocial insect species with simple societies

    PubMed Central

    Patalano, Solenn; Vlasova, Anna; Wyatt, Chris; Ewels, Philip; Camara, Francisco; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Asher, Claire L.; Jurkowski, Tomasz P.; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Bachman, Martin; González-Navarrete, Irene; Minoche, André E.; Krueger, Felix; Lowy, Ernesto; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Rodriguez-Ales, Jose Luis; Nascimento, Fabio S.; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Gabaldon, Toni; Tarver, James E.; Andrews, Simon; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Hughes, William O. H.; Guigó, Roderic; Reik, Wolf; Sumner, Seirian

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is important in adaptation and shapes the evolution of organisms. However, we understand little about what aspects of the genome are important in facilitating plasticity. Eusocial insect societies produce plastic phenotypes from the same genome, as reproductives (queens) and nonreproductives (workers). The greatest plasticity is found in the simple eusocial insect societies in which individuals retain the ability to switch between reproductive and nonreproductive phenotypes as adults. We lack comprehensive data on the molecular basis of plastic phenotypes. Here, we sequenced genomes, microRNAs (miRNAs), and multiple transcriptomes and methylomes from individual brains in a wasp (Polistes canadensis) and an ant (Dinoponera quadriceps) that live in simple eusocial societies. In both species, we found few differences between phenotypes at the transcriptional level, with little functional specialization, and no evidence that phenotype-specific gene expression is driven by DNA methylation or miRNAs. Instead, phenotypic differentiation was defined more subtly by nonrandom transcriptional network organization, with roles in these networks for both conserved and taxon-restricted genes. The general lack of highly methylated regions or methylome patterning in both species may be an important mechanism for achieving plasticity among phenotypes during adulthood. These findings define previously unidentified hypotheses on the genomic processes that facilitate plasticity and suggest that the molecular hallmarks of social behavior are likely to differ with the level of social complexity. PMID:26483466

  3. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex currently harbors approximately 90 different members. The species complex has undergone many revisions in the past decades, and there is still an ongoing debate about the species limits. The availability of a variety of tools and approaches, such as molecular-genomic and cytogenetic analyses, are expected to shed light on the rather complicated issues of species complexes and incipient speciation. The clarification of genetic relationships among the different members of this complex is a prerequisite for the rational application of sterile insect technique (SIT) approaches for population control. Results Colonies established in the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) (Seibersdorf, Vienna), representing five of the main economic important members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex were cytologically characterized. The taxa under study were B. dorsalis s.s., B. philippinensis, B. papayae, B. invadens and B. carambolae. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analyses did not reveal any chromosomal characteristics that could be used to distinguish between the investigated members of the B. dorsalis complex. Therefore, their polytene chromosomes can be regarded as homosequential with the reference maps of B. dorsalis s.s.. In situ hybridization of six genes further supported the proposed homosequentiallity of the chromosomes of these specific members of the complex. Conclusions The present analysis supports that the polytene chromosomes of the five taxa under study are homosequential. Therefore, the use of the available polytene chromosome maps for B. dorsalis s.s. as reference maps for all these five biological entities is proposed. Present data provide important insight in the genetic relationships among the different members of the B. dorsalis complex, and, along with other studies in the field, can facilitate SIT applications targeting this complex. Moreover, the availability of 'universal' reference polytene chromosome

  4. Seasonal fluctuations of sap-feeding insect species infected by Xylella fastidiosa in apulian olive groves of southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on seasonal abundance and infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa of Auchenorrhyncha species in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were mon...

  5. Scale insect species names that have been combined with the genus name Dactylopius Costa (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Williams, Douglas J; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2015-08-21

    The genus Dactylopius is the only genus at present in the family Dactylopiidae. Since the name Dactylopius was proposed in 1829, however, numerous other species names belonging to different families of scale insects have been combined with it and these are also listed. The present status and the family placement are also given for each species.

  6. Scale insect species names that have been combined with the genus name Dactylopius Costa (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Williams, Douglas J; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The genus Dactylopius is the only genus at present in the family Dactylopiidae. Since the name Dactylopius was proposed in 1829, however, numerous other species names belonging to different families of scale insects have been combined with it and these are also listed. The present status and the family placement are also given for each species. PMID:26623763

  7. Egg morphology, laying behavior and record of the host plants of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851), a new alien species for Europe (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elisabetta; Stroiński, Adam; Lucchi, Andrea

    2015-11-17

    The exotic planthopper, Ricania speculum (Ricaniidae) was recently detected in Liguria, in northern Italy, and recorded as a first alert for Europe. The first morphological description of eggs and laying behavior are given. Eggs are inserted into the woody tissue of a wide range of different host plants in such a unique manner among native and alien planthoppers of Italy that it can be used to describe the prevalence and diffusion of the species in new environments, though in the absence of juveniles and/or adults. In addition, the paper lists the host plants utilized for egg laying and describes the eggs.

  8. Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Bilton, David T.; Arribas, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Methods We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae) with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters). We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate) under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Results Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens’ initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Discussion Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:27635346

  9. Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Bilton, David T.; Arribas, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Methods We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae) with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters). We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate) under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Results Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens’ initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Discussion Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin.

  10. New species and first records of trichomycetes from immature aquatic insects in Idaho.

    PubMed

    Bench, Molly E; White, Merlin M

    2012-01-01

    Trichomycetes, or gut fungi, are currently recognized as an ecological group of fungi and protists that inhabit the guts of immature insects or other stages and types of arthropods. The geographic distribution of these endosymbionts is worldwide. However trichomycete data from the Pacific Northwest are limited and this is the first account of gut fungi in Idaho. We report on the trichomycetes from a single site, Cottonwood Creek at Military Reserve Park, Boise, Idaho, where periodic surveys for more than a year resulted in the discovery of four newly named, three probably new but unnamed and 15 previously known species. Among the Harpellales three new species, Capniomyces sasquatchoides, Harpella torus and Lancisporomyces lampetriformis, are described, with two possibly new species of Smittium detailed but unnamed at this time pending further collections. A Genistelloides cf. hibernus also is included as a possible new species. One new species of Amoebidiales, Paramoebidium hamatum, is described as well. Hosts in which the gut fungi were recovered include larvae or nymphs of Diptera (Chironomidae and Simuliidae), Ephemeroptera (Baetidae) and Plecoptera (Capniidae and Taeniopterygidae). We hope to demonstrate that future surveys or bioprospecting investigations into the biodiversity of these early-diverging fungi in this region and worldwide remain promising.

  11. Differences in insect resistance between tomato species endemic to the Galapagos Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Galapagos Islands constitute a highly diverse ecosystem and a unique source of variation in the form of endemic species. There are two endemic tomato species, Solanum galapagense and S. cheesmaniae and two introduced tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum. Morphologically the two endemic tomato species of the Galapagos Islands are clearly distinct, but molecular marker analysis showed no clear separation. Tomatoes on the Galapagos are affected by both native and exotic herbivores. Bemisia tabaci is an important introduced insect species that feeds on a wide range of plants. In this article, we address the question whether the differentiation between S. galapagense and S. cheesmaniae may be related to differences in susceptibility towards phloem-feeders and used B. tabaci as a model to evaluate this. Results We have characterized 12 accessions of S. galapagense, 22 of S. cheesmaniae, and one of S. lycopersicum as reference for whitefly resistance using no-choice experiments. Whitefly resistance was found in S. galapagense only and was associated with the presence of relatively high levels of acyl sugars and the presence of glandular trichomes of type I and IV. Genetic fingerprinting using 3316 SNP markers did not show a clear differentiation between the two endemic species. Acyl sugar accumulation as well as the climatic and geographical conditions at the collection sites of the accessions did not follow the morphological species boundaries. Conclusion Our results suggest that S. galapagense and S. cheesmaniae might be morphotypes rather than two species and that their co-existence is likely the result of selective pressure. PMID:23972016

  12. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M; Braun, Caroline L; Davis, Lawrence C; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

    2015-04-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surprising because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  13. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T.; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M.; Braun, Caroline L.; Davis, Lawrence C.; Kanost, Michael R.; Gorman, Maureen J.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surpring because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  14. Toxicity of microcystin-LR, isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, against various insect species.

    PubMed

    Delaney, J M; Wilkins, R M

    1995-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), isolated from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Kuetzing emend. Elenkin strain CCAP 1450/4 was tested for biological activity against four species of insect and the invertebrate Artemia salina. The efficacy of pesticidal activity was compared with various insecticides. The 24 hr LD50 value for third instar diamond-backed moth, Plutella xylostella, on ingestion from a treated leaf surface was 1.0 micrograms cm2, compared with a 72 hr LD50 value for rotenone of 2.0 micrograms cm-2. The 24 hr LD50 values of MC-LR and malathion on intrathoracic injection into adult house flies (Musca domestica) were 0.5 and 3.7 mg kg-1, respectively. MC-LR had no effect on M. domestica when applied topically at dosages up to 32 mg kg-1. MC-LR and malathion gave 24 hr LD50 values of 4.7 and 13.1 mg kg-1, respectively when injected into third instar cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). In fourth instar cabbage white butterfly larvae (Pieris brassicae) MC-LR injected gave 24 and 48 hr LD50 values of 3.9 and 1.9 mg kg-1, respectively, whilst the 24 and 48 hr LD50 values for carbofuran were 0.4 and 0.3 mg kg-1, respectively. An immersion bioassay with 1-day-old brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) gave 24 hr LD50 values of 3.8 micrograms ml-1 for MC-LR and 1.8 micrograms ml-1 for carbofuran. MC-LR has appreciable insect toxicity, comparable to the three insecticides tested. The toxin look 24-48 hr to exert its full lethal effect in insects, much longer than the 1-3 hr it takes in mammals. The potential use of MC-LR as an insecticide is discussed. PMID:7676468

  15. Patterns of species richness and diversity of insects associated with cucurbit fruits in the southern part of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mokam, Didi Gaëlle; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Bilong Bilong, Charles-Félix

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of species diversity and community structure of insects associated with fruits of domesticated cucurbits were investigated from January 2009 to 2011 in three localities from two agroecological zones in the southern part of Cameroon. Rarefaction curves combined with nonparametric estimators of species richness were used to extrapolate species richness beyond our own data. Sampling efforts of over 92% were reached in each of the three study localities. Data collected revealed a total of 66 insect morphospecies belonging to 37 families and five orders, identified from a set of 57,510 insects. The orders Diptera (especially Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and Hymenoptera (mainly Braconidae and Eulophidae) were the most important, in terms of both abundance and species richness on the one hand, and effects on agronomic performance on the other. Values for both the species diversity (Shannon and Simpson) and the species richness indices (Margalef and Berger-Parker) calculated showed that the insect communities were species-rich but dominated, all to a similar extent, by five main species (including four fruit fly species and one parasitoid). Species abundance distributions in these communities ranged from the Zipf-Mandelbrot to Mandelbrot models. The communities are structured as tritrophic networks, including cucurbit fruits, fruit-feeding species (fruit flies) and carnivorous species (parasitoids). Within the guild of the parasitoids, about 30% of species, despite their low abundance, may potentially be of use in biological control of important pests. Our field data contribute in important ways to basic knowledge of biodiversity patterns in agrosystems and constitute baseline data for the planned implementation of biological control in Integrated Pest Management. PMID:25525110

  16. Responses of aquatic insects to Cu and Zn in stream microcosms: understanding differences between single species tests and field responses.

    PubMed

    Clements, William H; Cadmus, Pete; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2013-07-01

    Field surveys of metal-contaminated streams suggest that some aquatic insects, particularly mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera), are highly sensitive to metals. However, results of single species toxicity tests indicate these organisms are quite tolerant, with LC50 values often several orders of magnitude greater than those obtained using standard test organisms (e.g., cladocerans and fathead minnows). Reconciling these differences is a critical research need, particularly since water quality criteria for metals are based primarily on results of single species toxicity tests. In this research we provide evidence based on community-level microcosm experiments to support the hypothesis that some aquatic insects are highly sensitive to metals. We present results of three experiments that quantified effects of Cu and Zn, alone and in combination, on stream insect communities. EC50 values, defined as the metal concentration that reduced abundance of aquatic insects by 50%, were several orders of magnitude lower than previously published values obtained from single species tests. We hypothesize that the short duration of laboratory toxicity tests and the failure to evaluate effects of metals on sensitive early life stages are the primary factors responsible for unrealistically high LC50 values in the literature. We also observed that Cu alone was significantly more toxic to aquatic insects than the combination of Cu and Zn, despite the fact that exposure concentrations represented theoretically similar toxicity levels. Our results suggest that water quality criteria for Zn were protective of most aquatic insects, whereas Cu was highly toxic to some species at concentrations near water quality criteria. Because of the functional significance of aquatic insects in stream ecosystems and their well-established importance as indicators of water quality, reconciling differences between field and laboratory responses and understanding the mechanisms responsible

  17. Responses of aquatic insects to Cu and Zn in stream microcosms: understanding differences between single species tests and field responses.

    PubMed

    Clements, William H; Cadmus, Pete; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2013-07-01

    Field surveys of metal-contaminated streams suggest that some aquatic insects, particularly mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera), are highly sensitive to metals. However, results of single species toxicity tests indicate these organisms are quite tolerant, with LC50 values often several orders of magnitude greater than those obtained using standard test organisms (e.g., cladocerans and fathead minnows). Reconciling these differences is a critical research need, particularly since water quality criteria for metals are based primarily on results of single species toxicity tests. In this research we provide evidence based on community-level microcosm experiments to support the hypothesis that some aquatic insects are highly sensitive to metals. We present results of three experiments that quantified effects of Cu and Zn, alone and in combination, on stream insect communities. EC50 values, defined as the metal concentration that reduced abundance of aquatic insects by 50%, were several orders of magnitude lower than previously published values obtained from single species tests. We hypothesize that the short duration of laboratory toxicity tests and the failure to evaluate effects of metals on sensitive early life stages are the primary factors responsible for unrealistically high LC50 values in the literature. We also observed that Cu alone was significantly more toxic to aquatic insects than the combination of Cu and Zn, despite the fact that exposure concentrations represented theoretically similar toxicity levels. Our results suggest that water quality criteria for Zn were protective of most aquatic insects, whereas Cu was highly toxic to some species at concentrations near water quality criteria. Because of the functional significance of aquatic insects in stream ecosystems and their well-established importance as indicators of water quality, reconciling differences between field and laboratory responses and understanding the mechanisms responsible

  18. Effect of within-species plant genotype mixing on habitat preference of a polyphagous insect predator.

    PubMed

    Ninkovic, Velemir; Al Abassi, Sate; Ahmed, Elham; Glinwood, Robert; Pettersson, Jan

    2011-06-01

    The effects of within-species plant genotype mixing on the habitat preference of a polyphagous ladybird were studied. Plant species diversity is often claimed to positively affect habitat preferences of insect predators, but the effects of within-species genotype diversity have not been extensively studied. In a field experiment with different barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes in mixed and pure stands, adult seven-spot ladybird Coccinella septempunctata, a polyphagous predator, preferred a specific combination of genotypes over the single genotypes alone before aphids had arrived in the crop, and again when aphids were emigrating. In laboratory experiments on adult ladybird orientation to odour from barley, ladybirds were attracted/arrested by the mixed odour of the same barley genotype mixture that was preferred in the field. Exposure of one barley genotype to volatiles from the other also caused the odour of the exposed plants to become more attractive to ladybirds. The results support the hypothesis that plant volatiles may attract or arrest foraging adult ladybirds, contributing to the selection of favourable habitats, and they show that within-species plant genotype mixing can shape interactions within multitrophic communities.

  19. Are Tree Species Diversity and Genotypic Diversity Effects on Insect Herbivores Mediated by Ants?

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarrete, María José; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Plant diversity can influence predators and omnivores and such effects may in turn influence herbivores and plants. However, evidence for these ecological feedbacks is rare. We evaluated if the effects of tree species (SD) and genotypic diversity (GD) on the abundance of different guilds of insect herbivores associated with big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were contingent upon the protective effects of ants tending extra-floral nectaries of this species. This study was conducted within a larger experiment consisting of mahogany monocultures and species polycultures of four species and -within each of these two plot types- mahogany was represented by either one or four maternal families. We selected 24 plots spanning these treatment combinations, 10 mahogany plants/plot, and within each plot experimentally reduced ant abundance on half of the selected plants, and surveyed ant and herbivore abundance. There were positive effects of SD on generalist leaf-chewers and sap-feeders, but for the latter group this effect depended on the ant reduction treatment: SD positively influenced sap-feeders under ambient ant abundance but had no effect when ant abundance was reduced; at the same time, ants had negative effects on sap feeders in monoculture but no effect in polyculture. In contrast, SD did not influence specialist stem-borers or leaf-miners and this effect was not contingent upon ant reduction. Finally, GD did not influence any of the herbivore guilds studied, and such effects did not depend on the ant treatment. Overall, we show that tree species diversity influenced interactions between a focal plant species (mahogany) and ants, and that such effects in turn mediated plant diversity effects on some (sap-feeders) but not all the herbivores guilds studied. Our results suggest that the observed patterns are dependent on the combined effects of herbivore identity, diet breadth, and the source of plant diversity.

  20. Are Tree Species Diversity and Genotypic Diversity Effects on Insect Herbivores Mediated by Ants?

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarrete, María José; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Plant diversity can influence predators and omnivores and such effects may in turn influence herbivores and plants. However, evidence for these ecological feedbacks is rare. We evaluated if the effects of tree species (SD) and genotypic diversity (GD) on the abundance of different guilds of insect herbivores associated with big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were contingent upon the protective effects of ants tending extra-floral nectaries of this species. This study was conducted within a larger experiment consisting of mahogany monocultures and species polycultures of four species and -within each of these two plot types- mahogany was represented by either one or four maternal families. We selected 24 plots spanning these treatment combinations, 10 mahogany plants/plot, and within each plot experimentally reduced ant abundance on half of the selected plants, and surveyed ant and herbivore abundance. There were positive effects of SD on generalist leaf-chewers and sap-feeders, but for the latter group this effect depended on the ant reduction treatment: SD positively influenced sap-feeders under ambient ant abundance but had no effect when ant abundance was reduced; at the same time, ants had negative effects on sap feeders in monoculture but no effect in polyculture. In contrast, SD did not influence specialist stem-borers or leaf-miners and this effect was not contingent upon ant reduction. Finally, GD did not influence any of the herbivore guilds studied, and such effects did not depend on the ant treatment. Overall, we show that tree species diversity influenced interactions between a focal plant species (mahogany) and ants, and that such effects in turn mediated plant diversity effects on some (sap-feeders) but not all the herbivores guilds studied. Our results suggest that the observed patterns are dependent on the combined effects of herbivore identity, diet breadth, and the source of plant diversity. PMID:26241962

  1. Are Tree Species Diversity and Genotypic Diversity Effects on Insect Herbivores Mediated by Ants?

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Navarrete, María José; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Plant diversity can influence predators and omnivores and such effects may in turn influence herbivores and plants. However, evidence for these ecological feedbacks is rare. We evaluated if the effects of tree species (SD) and genotypic diversity (GD) on the abundance of different guilds of insect herbivores associated with big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were contingent upon the protective effects of ants tending extra-floral nectaries of this species. This study was conducted within a larger experiment consisting of mahogany monocultures and species polycultures of four species and –within each of these two plot types– mahogany was represented by either one or four maternal families. We selected 24 plots spanning these treatment combinations, 10 mahogany plants/plot, and within each plot experimentally reduced ant abundance on half of the selected plants, and surveyed ant and herbivore abundance. There were positive effects of SD on generalist leaf-chewers and sap-feeders, but for the latter group this effect depended on the ant reduction treatment: SD positively influenced sap-feeders under ambient ant abundance but had no effect when ant abundance was reduced; at the same time, ants had negative effects on sap feeders in monoculture but no effect in polyculture. In contrast, SD did not influence specialist stem-borers or leaf-miners and this effect was not contingent upon ant reduction. Finally, GD did not influence any of the herbivore guilds studied, and such effects did not depend on the ant treatment. Overall, we show that tree species diversity influenced interactions between a focal plant species (mahogany) and ants, and that such effects in turn mediated plant diversity effects on some (sap-feeders) but not all the herbivores guilds studied. Our results suggest that the observed patterns are dependent on the combined effects of herbivore identity, diet breadth, and the source of plant diversity. PMID:26241962

  2. Cross-scale modelling of alien and native vascular plant species richness in Great Britain: where is geodiversity information most relevant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Joseph; Field, Richard; Boyd, Doreen

    2016-04-01

    We assess the scale-dependency of the relationship between biodiversity and novel geodiversity information by studying spatial patterns of native and alien (archaeophytes and neophytes) vascular plant species richness at varying spatial scales across Great Britain. Instead of using a compound geodiversity metric, we study individual geodiversity components (GDCs) to advance our understanding of which aspects of 'geodiversity' are most important and at what scale. Terrestrial native (n = 1,490) and alien (n = 1,331) vascular plant species richness was modelled across the island of Great Britain at two grain sizes and several extent radii. Various GDCs (landforms, hydrology, geology) were compiled from existing national datasets and automatically extracted landform coverage information (e.g. hollows, valleys, peaks), the latter using a digital elevation model (DEM) and geomorphometric techniques. More traditional predictors of species richness (climate, widely-used topography metrics, land cover diversity, and human population) were also incorporated. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) models were produced at all grain sizes and extents for each species group and the dominant predictors were assessed. Models with and without geodiversity data were compared. Overarching patterns indicated a clear dominance of geodiversity information at the smallest study extent (12.5km radius) and finest grain size (1x1km), which substantially decreased for each increase in extent as the contribution of climatic variables increased. The contribution of GDCs to biodiversity models was chiefly driven by landform information from geomorphometry, but hydrology (rivers and lakes), and to a lesser extent materials (soil, superficial deposits, and geology), were important, also. GDCs added significantly to vascular plant biodiversity models in Great Britain, independently of widely-used topographic metrics, particularly for native species. The wider consideration of geodiversity alongside

  3. EXCEPTIONS TO THE PREVAILING PATTERN OF TUBULES (9 + 9 + 2) IN THE SPERM FLAGELLA OF CERTAIN INSECT SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, David M.

    1969-01-01

    Various deviations from classical 9 + 2 flagellar structure are found in sperm of insect species. In mature spermatozoa of a psocid, Psocus, the outer flagellar tubules are not straight, but are disposed in a long-pitched helix such that they form an angle of about 8° with a single dense rod located in the position usually occupied by the central pair. In young spermatids of Psocus the outer tubules are straight; thus, spiraling of the flagellar tubules occurs during the course of spermiogenesis. Spiraling of flagella also occurs in the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. Variations in the number and morphology of the central element or elements occur in other insect species besides Psocus. Among the observed deviations from a central pair of tubules are a 9 + 0 tubule pattern in the sperm of three species of mayflies, a 9 + 1 tubule pattern in the sperm of two species of mosquitoes, and 9 + 7 tubules in sperm of two species of caddis flies. Spermatozoa of treehoppers vary in yet another respect from the typical 9 + 9 + 2 insect flagellum. These sperm tails branch into four long tails, three of which each contain two doublet and two singlet tubules while the fourth branch contains three doublet and three singlet tubules. The wide distribution of insects with aberrant flagella suggests that the variant forms have evolved independently. PMID:5812428

  4. Variation in RNAi efficacy among insect species is attributable to dsRNA degradation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangxu; Peng, Yingchuan; Pu, Jian; Fu, Wenxi; Wang, Jiale; Han, Zhaojun

    2016-10-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an essential technique in entomology research. However, RNAi efficiency appears to vary significantly among insect species. Here, the sensitivity of four insect species from different orders to RNAi was compared to understand the reason for this variation. A previously reported method was modified to monitor trace amounts of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). After the administration of dsRNA, the dynamics of its content was determined in the hemolymph, in addition to the capability of its degradation in both the hemolymph and the midgut juice. The results showed that injection of dsRNA targeting the homologous chitinase gene in Periplaneta americana, Zophobas atratus, Locusta migratoria, and Spodoptera litura, with doses (1.0, 2.3, 11.5, and 33.0 μg, respectively) resulting in the same initial hemolymph concentration, caused 82%, 78%, 76%, and 20% depletion, respectively, whereas feeding doses based on body weight (24, 24, 36, and 30 μg) accounted for 47%, 28%, 5%, and 1% depletion. The sensitivity of insects to RNAi was observed to be as follows: P. americana > Z. atratus >L. migratoria >S. litura. In vivo monitoring revealed that RNAi effects among these insect species were highly correlated with the hemolymph dsRNA contents. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that the hemolymph contents after dsRNA injection were dependent on hemolymph degradation capacities, and on the degradation capabilities in the midgut juice, when dsRNA was fed. In conclusion, the RNAi efficacy in different insect species was observed to depend on the enzymatic degradation of dsRNA, which functions as the key factor determining the inner target exposure dosages. Thus, enzymatic degradation in vivo should be taken into consideration for efficient use of RNAi in insects. PMID:27449967

  5. Insect phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Behura, S K

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenomics, the integration of phylogenetics with genome data, has emerged as a powerful approach to study the evolution and systematics of species. Recently, several studies employing phylogenomic tools have provided better insights into insect evolution. Next-generation sequencing methods are now increasingly used by entomologists to generate genomic and transcript sequences of various insect species and strains. These data provide opportunities for comparative genomics and large-scale multigene phylogenies of diverse lineages of insects. Phy-logenomic investigations help us to better understand systematic and evolutionary relationships of insect species that play important roles as herbivores, predators, detritivores, pollinators and disease vectors. It is important that we critically assess the prospects and limitations of phylogenomic methods. In this review, I describe the current status, outline the major challenges and remark on potential future applications of phylogenomic tools in studying insect systematics and evolution.

  6. Within-species diversity of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in haplodiploid insects.

    PubMed

    Vavre, F; Dedeine, F; Quillon, M; Fouillet, P; Fleury, F; Bouletreau, M

    2001-08-01

    Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) can have two consequences in haplodiploid insects: fertilized eggs either die (female mortality, FM) or they develop into haploid males (male development, MD). Origin of this diversity remains poorly understood, but current hypotheses invoke variation in damage suffered by paternal chromosomes in incompatible eggs, thus intermediate CI types should be expected. Here, we show the existence of such a particular CI type. In the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma, we compared CI effects in crosses involving lines derived from a single inbred line with various Wolbachia infection statuses (natural tri-infection, mono-infection, or no infection). Tri-infected males induce a FM CI type when crossed with either uninfected or mono-infected females. Crossing mono-infected males with uninfected females results in almost complete CI with both reduced offspring production, indicating partial mortality of fertilized eggs, and increased number of sons, showing haploid male development of others. Mono-infected males thus induce an intermediate Cl type when mated with uninfected females. The first evidence of this expected particular CI type demonstrates that no discontinuity separates MD and FM CI types, which appear to be end points of a phenotypic continuum. Second, different CI types can occur within a given species and even within offspring of a single pair. Third, phenotypic expression of the particular CI type induced by a given Wolbachia variant depends on other bacterial variants that co-infect the same tissues. These results support the idea that haplodiploids should be helpful in clarifying evolutionary pathways of insect-Wolbachia associations. PMID:11580031

  7. Tolerance and resistance of invasive and native Eupatorium species to generalist herbivore insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Fang; Feng, Yu-Long

    2016-11-01

    Invasive plants are exotic species that escape control by native specialist enemies. However, exotic plants may still be attacked by locally occurring generalist enemies, which can influence the dynamics of biological invasions. If invasive plants have greater defensive (resistance and tolerance) capabilities than indigenous plants, they may experience less damage from native herbivores. In the present study, we tested this prediction using the invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum and two native congeners under simulated defoliation and generalist herbivore insect (Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura) treatments. E. adenophorum was less susceptible and compensated more quickly to damages in biomass production from both treatments compared to its two congeners, exhibiting greater herbivore tolerance. This strong tolerance to damage was associated with greater resource allocation to aboveground structures, leading to a higher leaf area ratio and a lower root: crown mass ratio than those of its native congeners. E. adenophorum also displayed a higher resistance index (which integrates acid detergent fiber, nitrogen content, carbon/nitrogen ratio, leaf mass per area, toughness, and trichome density) than its two congeners. Thus, H. armigera and S. litura performed poorly on E. adenophorum, with less leaf damage, a lengthened insect developmental duration, and decreased pupating: molting ratios compared to those of the native congeners. Strong tolerance and resistance traits may facilitate the successful invasion of E. adenophorum in China and may decrease the efficacy of leaf-feeding biocontrol agents. Our results highlight both the need for further research on defensive traits and their role in the invasiveness and biological control of exotic plants, and suggest that biocontrol of E. adenophorum in China would require damage to the plant far in excess of current levels.

  8. Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host trees and performance of two outbreak insect species.

    PubMed

    Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Lindroth, Richard L

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) on the foliar quality of two deciduous trees species and the performance of two outbreak herbivore species. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE research site in northern Wisconsin, USA, under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO(2) and O(3). We measured the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on aspen and birch phytochemistry and on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) performance. Elevated CO(2) nominally affected foliar quality for both tree species. Elevated O(3) negatively affected aspen foliar quality, but only marginally influenced birch foliar quality. Elevated CO(2) slightly improved herbivore performance, while elevated O(3) decreased herbivore performance, and both responses were stronger on aspen than birch. Interestingly, elevated CO(2) largely offset decreased herbivore performance under elevated O(3). Nitrogen, lignin, and C:N were identified as having strong influences on herbivore performance when larvae were fed aspen, but no significant relationships were observed for insects fed birch. Our results support the notion that herbivore performance can be affected by atmospheric change through altered foliar quality, but how herbivores will respond will depend on interactions among CO(2), O(3), and tree species. An emergent finding from this study is that tree age and longevity of exposure to pollutants may influence the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on plant-herbivore interactions, highlighting the need to continue long-term atmospheric change research.

  9. Divergence of cuticular hydrocarbons in two sympatric grasshopper species and the evolution of fatty acid synthases and elongases across insects

    PubMed Central

    Finck, Jonas; Berdan, Emma L.; Mayer, Frieder; Ronacher, Bernhard; Geiselhardt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation between insect species. The CHC profiles of two closely related sympatric grasshopper species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, differ mainly in the position of the first methyl group in major methyl-branched CHCs. The position of methyl branches is determined either by a fatty acid synthase (FAS) or by elongases. Both protein families showed an expansion in insects. Interestingly, the FAS family showed several lineage-specific expansions, especially in insect orders with highly diverse methyl-branched CHC profiles. We found five putative FASs and 12 putative elongases in the reference transcriptomes for both species. A dN/dS test showed no evidence for positive selection acting on FASs and elongases in these grasshoppers. However, one candidate FAS showed species-specific transcriptional differences and may contribute to the shift of the methyl-branch position between the species. In addition, transcript levels of four elongases were expressed differentially between the sexes. Our study indicates that complex methyl-branched CHC profiles are linked to an expansion of FASs genes, but that species differences can also mediated at the transcriptional level. PMID:27677406

  10. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  11. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability.

  12. A new and alien species of ``oyster leech'' (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida, Stylochidae) from the brackish North Sea Canal, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluys, Ronald; Faubel, Anno; Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; Velde, Gerard Van Der

    2005-11-01

    A new species of polyclad flatworm, Imogine necopinata Sluys, sp. nov., is described from a brackish habitat in The Netherlands. Taxonomic affinities with Asian species and the ecology of the animals suggest that the species is an introduced, exotic component of the Dutch fauna. The new species belongs to a group of worms with species that are known to predate on oysters.

  13. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  14. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA.

  15. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

  16. Seasonal Fluctuations of Sap-Feeding Insect Species Infected by Xylella fastidiosa in Apulian Olive Groves of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ben Moussa, Issam Eddine; Mazzoni, Valerio; Valentini, Franco; Yaseen, Thaer; Lorusso, Donato; Speranza, Stefano; Digiaro, Michele; Varvaro, Leonardo; Krugner, Rodrigo; D'Onghia, Anna Maria

    2016-08-01

    A study on seasonal abundance of Auchenorrhyncha species and their infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were monitored monthly over a 2-yr period from five olive groves. A total of 15 species were captured, identified, and tested for presence of X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For three species, Philaenus spumarius L., Neophilaenus campestris (Fallèn), and Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, positive reactions to X. fastidiosa were obtained, on average, in 16.3, 15.9 and 18.4% of adult insects, respectively. Philaneous spumarius was the dominant species (39.8% of total Auchenorrhyncha captured) with the highest adult abundance in summer months. Adult P. spumarius and N. campestris were first detected between March and May in both years, and all insects tested during these periods (year 1: n = 42, year 2: n = 132) gave negative reactions to X. fastidiosa by PCR. Similarly, first adults of E. lineolatus that appeared from October to November (year 1: n = 20, year 2: n = 15) tested negative for presence of X. fastidiosa Given the lack of transstadial and transovarial transmission of X. fastidiosa and considering that P. spumarius is univoltine, control measures against nymphal stages of P. spumarius should be investigated as means of population suppression to reduce spread of X. fastidiosa in olive groves. PMID:27401111

  17. Dietary silver nanoparticles reduce fitness in a beneficial, but not, pest insect species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial and insecticidal properties and they have been considered for their potential use as insecticides. While they do, indeed, kill some insects, two broader issues have not been considered in a critical way. First, reports of insect-lethal AgNPs are often ...

  18. Historical experience (1850-1950 and 1961-2014) of insect species responsible for forest damages in Sweden: influence of environmental and land management changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudoran, Mihaela-Mariana; Marquer, Laurent; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing climate change can influence the dynamic of insect populations and therefore the Insect species Responsible for Forest Damages ("insects-RFD" hereafter). Investigations of how much insects-RFD respond to environmental changes is necessary for control measures to prevent the spread of specific insects-RFD. These investigations are of critical importance to forestry and ecosystem services today. The present study aims at identifying the main insects-RFD in Sweden, and exploring the relationships between insects-RFD and environmental and land management changes. The recorded insect attacks based on historical reports, literature and databases, were synthesized for North, Central and South of Sweden, and for two periods at yearly time scales: 1850-1950 and 1961-2014. A series of analyses has been carried out based on this dataset: 1-Principal component analyses to assess which insect species have caused the major forest damages, 2-Ratios broadleaved versus conifer insect host trees to estimate the main types of damaged forests, and 3- Canonical correspondence analysis to evaluate how much environmental (temperature, precipitation and storms) and land management (land areas for wood production and standing volume) changes have affected insects-RFD. The results show a general increase and high diversity in insects-RFD between 1911 and 1950 in all Sweden. From 1961 insects-RFD decrease in all regions and then they become stable from 1991 to 2014, excepted in the South after 1991 when insects-RFD decrease. Conifers (pine and spruce) are the most attacked trees since at least 1850 in all Sweden. Ips typographus (spruce host tree) is confirmed to be the major insects-RFD to entire Sweden, following by Blastophagus piniperda and minor (pine host tree) before 1950 and Microdiprion pallipes (pine host tree) from 1961. Canonical correspondence analysis shows that the spread of insects-RFD might be related to environmental changes. More particularly, the temporal

  19. Insect Seed Predators in Erythrina falcata (Fabaceae): Identification of Predatory Species and Ecological Consequences of Asynchronous Flowering.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C M; Moura, M O; Da-Silva, P R

    2014-06-01

    Seed predation by insects exerts negative effects on plant reproduction by limiting the supply of seeds and preventing germination. Seed predators of the family Fabaceae are usually generalists, which increases the rate of predation. One strategy to minimize seed predation, developed by plants from temperate regions, is "escape in time," i.e., flowering before or after the peak of predation. For tropical species, few studies have investigated the strategies used by plants to minimize seed predation. Here, using Erythrina falcata, a tropical species of Fabaceae, we test three main hypotheses: (i) escape in time is a mechanism used by E. falcata to minimize seed predation, (ii) the predators of E. falcata seeds are generalists, and (iii) the biometric variables of the pods can influence seed predation. In order to test these hypotheses, we determined the flowering time of E. falcata, rate of seed predation, the predators insects, and biometric variables of the pods. The analyzed trees were grouped into three classes: "early," "peak," and "late" flowering. The average seed predation rates on trees in the early and late classes were 65% and 50%, respectively, and in the peak class, 80%; thus, our first hypothesis can be accepted. Three species of Lepidoptera and two of Coleoptera were found preying on E. falcata seeds. These species were observed to be generalist predators; thus, our second hypothesis can be accepted. The biometric variables of the pods cannot influence seed predation rate. The ecological consequences of asynchronous flowering on plants and insects are discussed.

  20. Toxicity of propylene oxide at low pressure against life stages of four species of stored product insects.

    PubMed

    Isikber, Ali A; Navarro, Shlomo; Finkelman, Simcha; Rindner, Miriam; Azrieli, Avi; Dias, Refael

    2004-04-01

    The relative toxicity of propylene oxide (PPO) at a low pressure of 100 mm Hg to four species of stored product insect at 30 degrees C over a 4-h exposure period was investigated. PPO at 100 mm Hg was toxic to all four species tested: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Ephestia cautella (Wlk.), and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). There were differences in susceptibility between the life stages of the tested insect species. Mortality tests on all life stages of the insects resulted in LD99 values ranging from 4.7 to 26.1 mg/liter. The pupal stage of E. cautella, O. surinamensis, and T. castaneum was the most tolerant stage with LD99 values of 14.4, 26.1, and 25.7 mg/liter, respectively. For P. interpunctella, the egg stage was most tolerant, with a LD99 value of 15.3 mg/liter. Generally, PPO at 100 mm Hg was more toxic to P. interpunctella and E. cautella than to O. surinamensis and T. castaneum. A 99% mortality of all life stages of the tested species was achieved at a concentrations x time product of 104.4 mg h/liter. These findings indicate that a combination of PPO with low pressure can render the fumigant a potential alternative to methyl bromide for rapid disinfestation of commodities.

  1. Do local processes scale to global patterns? The role of drought and the species pool in determining treehole insect diversity.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Diane S

    2005-09-01

    Global patterns in community species richness may represent limitations operating at the local scale, such as competitive exclusion and habitat suitability, or, in the case of unsaturated communities, limitations to the species pool of biogeographic regions. Separating the effects of local and regional processes on community richness requires combining small-scale experiments with broad surveys. I examine limitations to the number of aquatic insect species per treehole at the scale of a single woodland, and between eight biogeographic regions. Variation in species richness at the woodland scale can largely be explained by small-scale differences between treeholes in drought disturbance, as shown for British treehole insects for 2 years. At the global scale, drought disturbance is a relatively poor predictor of patterns in the local richness of treehole mosquitoes. Instead, regional differences in the species pool explain most of the variation in local mosquito richness. Treeholes in at least the most species-poor regions appear to be unsaturated with mosquito species. In this system, therefore, local processes do not necessarily scale to global patterns.

  2. Coexistence of Insect Species Competing for a Pulsed Resource: Toward a Unified Theory of Biodiversity in Fluctuating Environments

    PubMed Central

    Venner, Samuel; Pélisson, Pierre-François; Bel-Venner, Marie-Claude; Débias, François; Rajon, Etienne; Menu, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background One major challenge in understanding how biodiversity is organized is finding out whether communities of competing species are shaped exclusively by species-level differences in ecological traits (niche theory), exclusively by random processes (neutral theory of biodiversity), or by both processes simultaneously. Communities of species competing for a pulsed resource are a suitable system for testing these theories: due to marked fluctuations in resource availability, the theories yield very different predictions about the timing of resource use and the synchronization of the population dynamics between the competing species. Accordingly, we explored mechanisms that might promote the local coexistence of phytophagous insects (four sister species of the genus Curculio) competing for oak acorns, a pulsed resource. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the time partitioning of the exploitation of oak acorns by the four weevil species in two independent communities, and we assessed the level of synchronization in their population dynamics. In accordance with the niche theory, overall these species exhibited marked time partitioning of resource use, both within a given year and between different years owing to different dormancy strategies between species, as well as distinct demographic patterns. Two of the four weevil species, however, consistently exploited the resource during the same period of the year, exhibited a similar dormancy pattern, and did not show any significant difference in their population dynamics. Conclusions/Significance The marked time partitioning of the resource use appears as a keystone of the coexistence of these competing insect species, except for two of them which are demographically nearly equivalent. Communities of consumers of pulsed resources thus seem to offer a promising avenue for developing a unifying theory of biodiversity in fluctuating environments which might predict the co-occurrence, within the same community

  3. Bergmann's Body Size Rule Operates in Facultatively Endothermic Insects: Evidence from a Complex of Cryptic Bumblebee Species

    PubMed Central

    Whitehorn, Penelope R.; Goulson, Dave; Tinsley, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    According to Bergmann’s rule we expect species with larger body size to inhabit locations with a cooler climate, where they may be well adapted to conserve heat and resist starvation. This rule is generally applied to endotherms. In contrast, body size in ectothermic invertebrates has been suggested to follow the reverse ecogeographic trend: these converse Bergmann’s patterns may be driven by the ecological constraints of shorter season length and lower food availability in cooler high latitude locations. Such patterns are particularly common in large insects due to their longer development times. As large and facultatively endothermic insects, bumblebees could thus be expected to follow either trend. In this investigation, we studied body size of three bumblebee species over a large spatial area and investigated whether interspecific trends in body size correspond to differences in their distribution consistent with either Bergmann’s or a converse Bergmann’s rule. We examined the body size of queens, males and workers of the Bombus lucorum complex of cryptic bumblebee species from across the whole of Great Britain. We found interspecific differences in body size corresponding to Bergmann’s rule: queens and males of the more northerly distributed, cool-adapted, species were largest. In contrast, the mean body size of the worker caste did not vary between the three species. These differences in body size may have evolved under selection pressures for thermoregulation or starvation resistance. We suggest that this case study in facultatively endothermic insects may help clarify the selection pressures governing Bergmann rule trends more generally. PMID:27741245

  4. Patchy Invasion of Stage-Structured Alien Species with Short-Distance and Long-Distance Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Luiz Alberto Díaz; Mistro, Diomar Cristina; Cara, Elisa Regina; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-08-01

    Understanding of spatiotemporal patterns arising in invasive species spread is necessary for successful management and control of harmful species, and mathematical modeling is widely recognized as a powerful research tool to achieve this goal. The conventional view of the typical invasion pattern as a continuous population traveling front has been recently challenged by both empirical and theoretical results revealing more complicated, alternative scenarios. In particular, the so-called patchy invasion has been a focus of considerable interest; however, its theoretical study was restricted to the case where the invasive species spreads by predominantly short-distance dispersal. Meanwhile, there is considerable evidence that the long-distance dispersal is not an exotic phenomenon but a strategy that is used by many species. In this paper, we consider how the patchy invasion can be modified by the effect of the long-distance dispersal and the effect of the fat tails of the dispersal kernels. PMID:26438447

  5. Insect transgenesis and the sterile insect technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of broadly applicable insect transgenesis systems will enable the analyses of gene function in diverse insect species. This will greatly increase our understanding of diverse aspects of biology so far not functionally addressable. Moreover, insect transgenesis will provide novel st...

  6. Wickerhamomyces mori sp. nov., an anamorphic yeast species found in the guts of wood-boring insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Hui, Feng-Li; Chen, Liang; Chu, Xue-Ying; Niu, Qiu-Hong; Ke, Tao

    2013-03-01

    A novel anamorphic yeast species is described to accommodate three isolates recovered from the guts of three different wood-boring insect larvae collected in Henan, central China. On the basis of sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer regions, the three strains are assigned to a novel species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, although the formation of ascospores was not observed. These strains also exhibited a number of distinct morphological and physiological characteristics that clearly differentiated them from Wickerhamomyces mucosus, Candida odintsovae and Wickerhamomyces rabaulensis, the most closely related species. In view of the phenotypic differences and unique rRNA gene sequences, we consider that these three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, Wickerhamomyces mori sp. nov. The type strain is NYNU 1216(T) ( = CICC 1983(T)  = CBS 12678(T)).

  7. Reaching the Alienated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gary

    1970-01-01

    A comparison made of personal and impersonal Extension contacts made by alienated farmers revealed that farmers with high alienation scores, as measured by the Srole Scale, avoided personal contacts with Extension personnel. Alienation was not a factor in the use of impersonal contacts. (DM)

  8. Armored scale insect endosymbiont diversity at the species level: genealogical patterns of Uzinura diasipipdicola in the Chionaspis pinifoliae-Chionaspis heterophyllae species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Andersen, J C; Gwiazdowski, R A; Gdanetz, K; Gruwell, M E

    2015-02-01

    Armored scale insects and their primary bacterial endosymbionts show nearly identical patterns of co-diversification when viewed at the family level, though the persistence of these patterns at the species level has not been explored in this group. Therefore we investigated genealogical patterns of co-diversification near the species level between the primary endosymbiont Uzinura diaspidicola and its hosts in the Chionaspis pinifoliae-Chionaspis heterophyllae species complex. To do this we generated DNA sequence data from three endosymbiont loci (rspB, GroEL, and 16S) and analyzed each locus independently using statistical parsimony network analyses and as a concatenated dataset using Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions. We found that for two endosymbiont loci, 16S and GroEL, sequences from U. diaspidicola were broadly associated with host species designations, while for rspB this pattern was less clear as C. heterophyllae (species S1) shared haplotypes with several other Chionaspis species. We then compared the topological congruence of the phylogenetic reconstructions generated from a concatenated dataset of endosymbiont loci (including all three loci, above) to that from a concatenated dataset of armored scale hosts, using published data from two nuclear loci (28S and EF1α) and one mitochondrial locus (COI-COII) from the armored scale hosts. We calculated whether the two topologies were congruent using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. We found no significant differences (P = 0.4892) between the topologies suggesting that, at least at this level of resolution, co-diversification of U. diaspidicola with its armored scale hosts also occurs near the species level. This is the first such study of co-speciation at the species level between U. diaspidicola and a group of armored scale insects.

  9. The role of global trade and transport network topology in the human-mediated dispersal of alien species.

    PubMed

    Banks, Natalie Clare; Paini, Dean Ronald; Bayliss, Kirsty Louise; Hodda, Michael

    2015-02-01

    More people and goods are moving further and more frequently via many different trade and transport networks under current trends of globalisation. These networks can play a major role in the unintended introduction of exotic species to new locations. With the continuing rise in global trade, more research attention is being focused on the role of networks in the spread of invasive species. This represents an emerging field of research in invasion science and the substantial knowledge being generated within other disciplines can provide ecologists with new tools with which to study invasions. For the first time, we synthesise studies from several perspectives, approaches and disciplines to derive the fundamental characteristics of network topology determining the likelihood of spread of organisms via trade and transport networks. These characteristics can be used to identify critical points of vulnerability within these networks and enable the development of more effective strategies to prevent invasions.

  10. The role of global trade and transport network topology in the human-mediated dispersal of alien species.

    PubMed

    Banks, Natalie Clare; Paini, Dean Ronald; Bayliss, Kirsty Louise; Hodda, Michael

    2015-02-01

    More people and goods are moving further and more frequently via many different trade and transport networks under current trends of globalisation. These networks can play a major role in the unintended introduction of exotic species to new locations. With the continuing rise in global trade, more research attention is being focused on the role of networks in the spread of invasive species. This represents an emerging field of research in invasion science and the substantial knowledge being generated within other disciplines can provide ecologists with new tools with which to study invasions. For the first time, we synthesise studies from several perspectives, approaches and disciplines to derive the fundamental characteristics of network topology determining the likelihood of spread of organisms via trade and transport networks. These characteristics can be used to identify critical points of vulnerability within these networks and enable the development of more effective strategies to prevent invasions. PMID:25529499

  11. Insect Phylogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing methods, phylogenetics has taken a new turn in the recent years. Phylogenomics, the integration of phylogenetics with genome data, has emerged as a powerful approach to study systematics and evolution of species. Recently, breakthrough researches employing phylogenomic tools have provided better insights into the timing and pattern of insect evolution. The next-generation sequencing methods are now increasingly used by entomologists to generate genomic and transcript sequences of various insect species and strains. These data provide opportunities for comparative genomics and large-scale multigene phylogenies of diverse lineages of insects. Phylogenomic investigations help us better understand systematic and evolutionary relationships of insect species that play important roles as herbivores, predators, detritivores, pollinators, or disease vectors. It is important that we critically assess the prospects and limitations of phylogenomic methods. In this review, I describe the current status, outline the major challenges, and remark on potential future applications of phylogenomic tools in studying insect systematics and evolution. PMID:25963452

  12. Host-specific assemblages typify gut microbial communities of related insect species.

    PubMed

    Sabree, Zakee L; Moran, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    Mutualisms between microbes and insects are ubiquitous and facilitate exploitation of various trophic niches by host insects. Dictyopterans (mantids, cockroaches and termites) exhibit trophisms that range from omnivory to strict wood-feeding and maintain beneficial symbioses with the obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium, and/or diverse gut microbiomes that include cellulolytic and diazotrophic microbes. While Blattabacterium in omnivorous Periplaneta is fully capable of provisioning essential amino acids, in wood-feeding dictyopterans it has lost many genes for their biosynthesis (Mastotermes and Cryptocercus) or is completely absent (Heterotermes). The conspicuous functional degradation and absence of Blattabacterium in most strict wood-feeding dictyopteran insects suggest that alternative means of acquiring nutrients limited in their diet are being employed. A 16S rRNA gene amplicon resequencing approach was used to deeply sample the composition and diversity of gut communities in related dictyopteran insects to explore the possibility of shifts in symbiont allegiances during termite and cockroach evolution. The gut microbiome of Periplaneta, which has a fully functional Blattabacterium, exhibited the greatest within-sample operational taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity and abundance variability than those of Mastotermes and Cryptocercus, whose Blattabacterium have shrunken genomes and reduced nutrient provisioning capabilities. Heterotermes lacks Blattabacterium and a single OTU that was 95% identical to a Bacteroidia-assigned diazotrophic endosymbiont of an anaerobic cellulolytic protist termite gut inhabitant samples consistently dominates its gut microbiome. Many host-specific OTUs were identified in all host genera, some of which had not been previously detected, indicating that deep sampling by pyrotag sequencing has revealed new taxa that remain to be functionally characterized. Further analysis is required to uncover how consistently detected taxa in the

  13. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Atalantia guillauminii against Three Species Stored Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Lei, Ning; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Ma, Ping; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The toxic and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Atalantia guillauminii Swingle were evaluated against three stored product insects, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne) and booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were β-thujene (27.18%), elemicin (15.03%), eudesma-3, 7(11)-diene (9.64%), followed by (-)-4-terpeniol (6.70%) and spathulenol (5.25%). The crude oil showed remarkable contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults and L. bostrychophila with LD50 values of 17.11, 24.07 µg/adult and 55.83 µg/cm(2) respectively and it also displayed strong fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults with LC50 values of 17.60 and 12.06 mg/L respectively, while weak fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with a LC50 value of 16.75 mg/L. Moreover, the essential oil also exhibited the same level repellency against the three stored product insects, relative to the positive control, DEET. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne. Thus, the essential oil of A. guillauminii may be potential to be developed as a new natural fumigant/repellent in the control of stored product insects. PMID:26369599

  14. Entomopathogens of Amazonian stick insects and locusts are members of the Beauveria species complex (Cordyceps sensu stricto).

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Tatiana; Tabima, Javier; Restrepo, Silvia; Læssøe, Thomas; Spatafora, Joseph W; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon the only described species of Cordyceps sensu stricto (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) that parasitize insects of Orthopterida (orders Orthoptera and Phasmida) are Cordyceps locustiphila and C. uleana. However, the type specimens for both taxa have been lost and the concepts of these species are uncertain. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the systematics of these species, collections of Cordyceps from the Amazon regions of Colombia, Ecuador and Guyana were subjected to morphological, ecological and molecular phylogenetic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partial sequences of SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1 and RPB2 nuclear loci. Two new species are proposed including C. diapheromeriphila, a parasite of Phasmida, and C. acridophila, a parasite of the superfamily Acridomorpha (Orthoptera), which is broadly distributed across the Amazon. For C. locustiphila a lectotypification and an epitypification are made. Cordyceps locustiphila is host specific with Colpolopha (Acridomorpha: Romaleidae), and its distribution coincides with that of its host. The phylogenetic placement of these three species was resolved with strong support in the Beauveria clade of Cordyceps s. str. (Cordycipitaceae). This relationship and the morphological similarity of their yellow stromata with known teleomorphs of the clade, suggest that the holomorphs of these species may include Beauveria or Beauveria-like anamorphs. The varying host specificity of the beauverioid Cordyceps species suggest the potential importance of identifying the natural host taxon before future consideration of strains for use in biological control of pest locusts. PMID:24782494

  15. Influence of certain forces on evolution of synonymous codon usage bias in certain species of three basal orders of aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Selva Kumar, C; Nair, Rahul R; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Ganesh, D; Janarthanan, S; Arunachalam, M; Sivaruban, T

    2012-12-01

    Forces that influence the evolution of synonymous codon usage bias are analyzed in six species of three basal orders of aquatic insects. The rationale behind choosing six species of aquatic insects (three from Ephemeroptera, one from Plecoptera, and two from Odonata) for the present analysis is based on phylogenetic position at the basal clades of the Order Insecta facilitating the understanding of the evolution of codon bias and of factors shaping codon usage patterns in primitive clades of insect lineages and their subtle differences in some of their ecological and environmental requirements in terms of habitat-microhabitat requirements, altitudinal preferences, temperature tolerance ranges, and consequent responses to climate change impacts. The present analysis focuses on open reading frames of the 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of six carefully chosen insect species to get a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary intricacies of codon bias. In all the six species, A and T contents are observed to be significantly higher than G and C, and are used roughly equally. Since transcription hypothesis on codon usage demands A richness and T poorness, it is quite likely that mutation pressure may be the key factor associated with synonymous codon usage (SCU) variations in these species because the mutation hypothesis predicts AT richness and GC poorness in the mitochondrial DNA. Thus, AT-biased mutation pressure seems to be an important factor in framing the SCU variation in all the selected species of aquatic insects, which in turn explains the predominance of A and T ending codons in these species. This study does not find any association between microhabitats and codon usage variations in the mitochondria of selected aquatic insects. However, this study has identified major forces, such as compositional constraints and mutation pressure, which shape patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes in the primitive clades of insect lineages.

  16. Invasive alien species water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes as abode for macroinvertebrates in hypertrophic Ramsar Site, Lake Xochimilco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Ramirez, A; Robles-Valderrama, E; Ramirez-Flores, E

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents information on the density, diversity and functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with water hyacinth in Antiguo Canal Cuemanco, part of Lake Xochimilco in Mexico City. Rare (low frequency and density) and dominant (high frequency and density) taxa prevailed in the assemblages, with the most predominant being Hyalella azteca, Chironomus plumosus and Ischnura denticollis. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling confirmed two climatic seasons: warm-rainy and cold-dry; the former with the highest diversity and density of taxa. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that conductivity, nitrates and turbidity explained the density variations of taxa. Antiguo Canal Cuemanco waters are spatially homogeneous with the characteristics of hypertrophic shallow lakes, inhabited by scrapers and gathering-collectors. The species found were tolerant to organic pollution.

  17. The Effect of Host-Plant Phylogenetic Isolation on Species Richness, Composition and Specialization of Insect Herbivores: A Comparison between Native and Exotic Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Grandez-Rios, Julio Miguel; Lima Bergamini, Leonardo; Santos de Araújo, Walter; Villalobos, Fabricio; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of plant-insect interactions is still a key issue in terrestrial ecology. Here, we used 30 well-defined plant-herbivore assemblages to assess the effects of host plant phylogenetic isolation and origin (native vs. exotic) on the species richness, composition and specialization of the insect herbivore fauna on co-occurring plant species. We also tested for differences in such effects between assemblages composed exclusively of exophagous and endophagous herbivores. We found a consistent negative effect of the phylogenetic isolation of host plants on the richness, similarity and specialization of their insect herbivore faunas. Notably, except for Jaccard dissimilarity, the effect of phylogenetic isolation on the insect herbivore faunas did not vary between native and exotic plants. Our findings show that the phylogenetic isolation of host plants is a key factor that influences the richness, composition and specialization of their local herbivore faunas, regardless of the host plant origin. PMID:26379159

  18. Molecular identification of Fusarium species isolated from transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants in Mexicali valley, Baja California.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Soto, T; González-Mendoza, D; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Morales-Trejo, A; Ceceña-Duran, C; Garcia-Lopez, A; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2015-10-02

    Cotton production in the Mexicali valley is adversely affected by wilt and root rot disease associated with Fusarium species. In the present study, we sought to isolate and identify the Fusarium species in the rhizosphere of transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants grown in the Mexicali valley. Our analyses isolated four native fungi from the rhizosphere of cotton plants, namely, T-ICA01, T-ICA03, T-ICA04, and T-ICA08. These fungal isolates were categorized as belonging to Fusarium solani using their phenotypic characteristics and ITS region sequence data. Examination of the infection index showed that T-ICA03 and T-ICA04 caused systemic colonization (90%) of seeds followed by the occurrence of radicle and coleoptile decay. In contrast, T-ICA08 strain was less pathogenic against seed tissues (40%) in comparison to the other strains isolated. Our study showed that in transgenic insect-resistant cotton the disease "Fusarium wilt" is caused by the fungus, F. solani. Future studies are necessary to characterize the F. solani populations to determine whether phenological stages might influence the genetic diversity of the fungal populations present.

  19. Inferring the Provenance of an Alien Species with DNA Barcodes: The Neotropical Butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Noah A.; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M.; Morban, Emely Z.; Zhen, Erica W.; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

  20. Inferring the provenance of an alien species with DNA barcodes: the neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Burg, Noah A; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M; Morban, Emely Z; Zhen, Erica W; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

  1. Inferring the provenance of an alien species with DNA barcodes: the neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Burg, Noah A; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M; Morban, Emely Z; Zhen, Erica W; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful.

  2. Status of Two Species of Lac Insects in the Genus Kerria from China Based on Morphological, Cellular, and Molecular Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoming; Chen, Hang; Feng, Ying; He, Rui; Yang, Zixiang

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the Chinese lac insects Kerria yunnanensis (Ou and Hong) (Hemiptera: Kerridae) and K. ruralis (Wang, Yao, Teiu and Liang) were analyzed in this paper by comparing morphological, cellular, and molecular data. Cladistic analysis showed K. yunnanensis and K. ruralis to be distinct from other Kerria species such as K. lacca and K. chinensis. The karyotype of K. yunnanensis was 3A and the chromosome structure was K = 6m + 2sm + 10T, while in K. ruralis the karyotype was 3B and the chromosome structure was K = 8m + 10T. Kerria ruralis and K. yunnanensis had the closest relationship among species in the genus as they had the most similar karyotype homology. Based on the karyotype analysis, K. sindica and K. lacca formed a sister group with K. ruralis and K. yunnanensis. Kerria pusana and K. nepalensis were clustered as a sister branch, indicating the close relationship of these taxa. The karyotype of K. chinensis was however, different from the other six species and formed a separate branch. RAPD analysis also showed that K. yunnanensis and K. ruralis had distinct differences from other species of Kerria, although they did not form sister taxa. Molecular analysis based on the EF1α gene using ML, MP, and Mr. Bayes' methods indicated that seven species of lac insects cluster in two major groups. In group 1, K. sindica and K. lacca formed a sister clade and were primitive members of the genus. In group 2, K. chinensis formed the earliest diverging branch followed by K. ruralis. Kerria yunnanensis was the next to diverge followed by the cluster containing K. pusana and K. nepalensis. Hybridization testing showed that crosses neither between K. yunnanensis and K. sindica, nor between K. yunnanensis and K. lacca could produce first generation larvae. This was indicative that K. yunnanensis had a distant genetic relationship from the other species. Morphological, cellular, molecular, and hybridization results confirmed the independent status of the

  3. Making Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, A.

    During the next few decades, the decisions we make will determine the future of our biosphere and our species. In this context, space exploration will literally answer a question that has preoccupied us ever since we became self-aware: What is going to happen to us? Reaching and inhabiting other planets is often considered an extension of human exploration and occupation of Earth but the analogy is useful only as a metaphor. Whatever the extremes of Earth, we can live almost everywhere on it because we started and evolved here. Given the vagaries of chance in every event of planetmaking, we will never find an Earth twin. To live under strange skies will require courage, ingenuity and stamina ­ but above all, it will require a hard look at our assumptions, including what it means to be human.

  4. The Afrotropical Miomantis caffra Saussure 1871 and Miomantis paykullii Stal 1871: first records of alien mantid species in Portugal and Europe, with an updated checklist of Mantodea in Portugal (Insecta: Mantodea)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The recent growing interest on the Mantodea fauna of southern Europe and Portugal in particular, has enabled the discovery of two geographically separated populations of hitherto unknown species in Europe. Analysis of specimens shows that they belong to two Afrotropical mantids: Miomantis caffra Saussure, 1871 and Miomantis paykullii Stal, 1871, thus raising the number of known species in Europe to 39 and in Portugal to 11. While these are remarkable findings, they also represent the first alien mantis species recorded from this continent. As yet, these species appear to be confined to artificial humanised gardened areas but call for more attention to the problem of biological invasions and the need for better bio-security measures for the conservation of natural ecosystems. In the absence of recent revisionary work on the Mantodea of Portugal and given the need to provide an accessible identification tool, both a checklist and a key to species are provided for all species in the country. PMID:25425938

  5. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.W.; Banko, P.C.; Schwarzfeld, M.; Euaparadorn, M.; Brinck, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera) have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai'i Island. For >1 year, malaise traps were used to continuously monitor parasitoid abundance and species richness in nine sites over three elevations. A total of 18,996 individuals from 16 subfamilies were collected. Overall, the fauna was dominated by aliens, with 44 of 58 species foreign to the Hawaiian Islands. Ichneumonidae was dominant over Braconidae in terms of both diversity and abundance, comprising 67.5% of individuals and 69.0% of species collected. Parasitoid abundance and species richness varied significantly with elevation: abundance was greater at mid and high elevations compared to low elevation while species richness increased with increasing elevation, with all three elevations differing significantly from each other. Nine species purposely introduced to control pest insects were found, but one braconid, Meteorus laphygmae, comprised 98.0% of this assemblage, or 28.3% of the entire fauna. Endemic species, primarily within the genera Spolas and Enicospilus, were collected almost exclusively at mid- and high-elevation sites, where they made up 22.1% and 36.0% of the total catch, respectively. Overall, 75.9% of species and 96.0% of individuals are inferred to parasitize Lepidoptera larvae and pupae. Our results support previous data indicating that alien parasitoids have deeply penetrated native forest habitats and may have substantial impacts on Hawaiian ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Ultrastructure and description of the first immature stage of four different scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Beshr, Sahar M; Abdel-Razak, I Soad; Mourad, A K; Moursi, S Khadiga

    2009-01-01

    The first stage of four different species belonging to three families of the super family; Coccoidea were described and illustrated by using the scanning electron microscope. These species: Mycetaspis personata (Comstock) and Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni Tozzetti), pertaining to the family Diaspididae; Pulvinaria psidii (Maskell) (Family: Coccidae) and lcerya seychellarum seychellarum (Westw.) of the family Margarodidae. The dimensions of the first stage (crawler), as well as some taxonomical aspects were examined and discussed. The obtained data showed that the first instar of the mealybug, I. seychellarum seychellarum gave the largest diameter of 299.33 +/- 0.94 pm in length and 183.44 +/- 0.17 microm in width followed by the diaspidid species, F. fioriniae recorded 208.1 +/- 0.78 microm in length and 178.96 +/- 2.34 pm in width; while the coccid species, P. psidii measured 119.17 +/- 0.85 microm in length and 74.83 +/- 1.03 microm in width and the smallest first stage crawler was for the diaspidid, M. personata measured 85.50 +/- 0.41 microm in length and 63.88 +/- 0.27 microm in width. The modes of assigned insects in protecting their eggs were also discussed briefly.

  7. Exploring Genetic Divergence in a Species-Rich Insect Genus Using 2790 DNA Barcodes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaolong; Stur, Elisabeth; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI) has proven to be successful for species-level identification in many animal groups. However, most studies have been focused on relatively small datasets or on large datasets of taxonomically high-ranked groups. We explore the quality of DNA barcodes to delimit species in the diverse chironomid genus Tanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae) by using different analytical tools. The genus Tanytarsus is the most species-rich taxon of tribe Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) with more than 400 species worldwide, some of which can be notoriously difficult to identify to species-level using morphology. Our dataset, based on sequences generated from own material and publicly available data in BOLD, consist of 2790 DNA barcodes with a fragment length of at least 500 base pairs. A neighbor joining tree of this dataset comprises 131 well separated clusters representing 121 morphological species of Tanytarsus: 77 named, 16 unnamed and 28 unidentified theoretical species. For our geographically widespread dataset, DNA barcodes unambiguously discriminate 94.6% of the Tanytarsus species recognized through prior morphological study. Deep intraspecific divergences exist in some species complexes, and need further taxonomic studies using appropriate nuclear markers as well as morphological and ecological data to be resolved. The DNA barcodes cluster into 120-242 molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) depending on whether Objective Clustering, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC), Poisson Tree Process (PTP), subjective evaluation of the neighbor joining tree or Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) are used. We suggest that a 4-5% threshold is appropriate to delineate species of Tanytarsus non-biting midges. PMID:26406595

  8. Exploring Genetic Divergence in a Species-Rich Insect Genus Using 2790 DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaolong; Stur, Elisabeth; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI) has proven to be successful for species-level identification in many animal groups. However, most studies have been focused on relatively small datasets or on large datasets of taxonomically high-ranked groups. We explore the quality of DNA barcodes to delimit species in the diverse chironomid genus Tanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae) by using different analytical tools. The genus Tanytarsus is the most species-rich taxon of tribe Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) with more than 400 species worldwide, some of which can be notoriously difficult to identify to species-level using morphology. Our dataset, based on sequences generated from own material and publicly available data in BOLD, consist of 2790 DNA barcodes with a fragment length of at least 500 base pairs. A neighbor joining tree of this dataset comprises 131 well separated clusters representing 121 morphological species of Tanytarsus: 77 named, 16 unnamed and 28 unidentified theoretical species. For our geographically widespread dataset, DNA barcodes unambiguously discriminate 94.6% of the Tanytarsus species recognized through prior morphological study. Deep intraspecific divergences exist in some species complexes, and need further taxonomic studies using appropriate nuclear markers as well as morphological and ecological data to be resolved. The DNA barcodes cluster into 120–242 molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) depending on whether Objective Clustering, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC), Poisson Tree Process (PTP), subjective evaluation of the neighbor joining tree or Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) are used. We suggest that a 4–5% threshold is appropriate to delineate species of Tanytarsus non-biting midges. PMID:26406595

  9. Exploring Genetic Divergence in a Species-Rich Insect Genus Using 2790 DNA Barcodes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaolong; Stur, Elisabeth; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI) has proven to be successful for species-level identification in many animal groups. However, most studies have been focused on relatively small datasets or on large datasets of taxonomically high-ranked groups. We explore the quality of DNA barcodes to delimit species in the diverse chironomid genus Tanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae) by using different analytical tools. The genus Tanytarsus is the most species-rich taxon of tribe Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) with more than 400 species worldwide, some of which can be notoriously difficult to identify to species-level using morphology. Our dataset, based on sequences generated from own material and publicly available data in BOLD, consist of 2790 DNA barcodes with a fragment length of at least 500 base pairs. A neighbor joining tree of this dataset comprises 131 well separated clusters representing 121 morphological species of Tanytarsus: 77 named, 16 unnamed and 28 unidentified theoretical species. For our geographically widespread dataset, DNA barcodes unambiguously discriminate 94.6% of the Tanytarsus species recognized through prior morphological study. Deep intraspecific divergences exist in some species complexes, and need further taxonomic studies using appropriate nuclear markers as well as morphological and ecological data to be resolved. The DNA barcodes cluster into 120-242 molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) depending on whether Objective Clustering, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC), Poisson Tree Process (PTP), subjective evaluation of the neighbor joining tree or Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) are used. We suggest that a 4-5% threshold is appropriate to delineate species of Tanytarsus non-biting midges.

  10. Recreational trails as corridors for alien plants in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Floye H.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Alien plant species often use areas of heavy human activity for habitat and dispersal. Roads and utility corridors have been shown to harbor more alien species than the surrounding vegetation and are therefore believed to contribute to alien plant persistence and spread. Recreational trails represent another corridor that could harbor alien species and aid their spread. Effective management of invasive species requires understanding how alien plants are distributed at trailheads and trails and how their dispersal may be influenced by native vegetation. Our overall goal was to investigate the distribution of alien plants at trailheads and trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. At trailheads, we found that although the number of alien species was less than the number of native species, alien plant cover ( x̄=50%) did not differ from native plant cover, and we observed a large number of alien seedlings in the soil seed bank, suggesting that alien plants are a large component of trailhead communities and will continue to be so in the future. Along trails, we found higher alien species richness and cover on trail (as opposed to 4 m from the trail) in 3 out of 4 vegetation types, and we observed higher alien richness and cover in meadows than in other vegetation types. Plant communities at both trailheads and trails, as well as seed banks at trailheads, contain substantial diversity and abundance of alien plants. These results suggest that recreational trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado may function as corridors that facilitate the spread of alien species into wildlands. Our results suggest that control of alien plants should begin at trailheads where there are large numbers of aliens and that control efforts on trails should be prioritized by vegetation type.

  11. Negeviruses found in multiple species of mosquitoes from southern Portugal: Isolation, genetic diversity, and replication in insect cell culture.

    PubMed

    Carapeta, Sara; do Bem, Beatriz; McGuinness, James; Esteves, Aida; Abecasis, Ana; Lopes, Ângela; de Matos, António P; Piedade, João; de Almeida, António P G; Parreira, Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    In this report, an RT-PCR approach based on the use of degenerate primers allowed the identification of negeviruses in four different species of mosquitoes (Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri and Cx. univittatus) collected in southern Portugal. The genomes of two of these viruses, sequenced to full completion, were shown to encode all the proteins encoded by previously described negeviruses. One of these viruses induces exuberant cytopathic effect in insect cell culture, with no obvious signs of apoptosis induction, replicating very rapidly and allowing for the detection of viral genomes in the infected culture supernatant as soon as 4h post-infection. This virus was also shown to use a dsRNA intermediate, which was found to be fully formed and active 3h after infection. Phylogenetic analysis of two products encoded by the viral ORF1 placed both viruses among Negev virus cluster, in the recently proposed Nelorpivirus taxon.

  12. Alienation and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimanis, Gunars

    This paper reviews the author's research on the role of certain aspects of alienation in education. The first part of the paper discusses similarities between anomie and locus of reinforcement control, as they assess the normlessness and powerlessness aspects of alienation. The second part reports results from studies attempting to modify one's…

  13. Alienation from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hascher, Tina; Hagenauer, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aimed at understanding the time course of alienation from school and school factors that may influence alienation from school during early adolescence. In Study 1, 434 students from grade 5-8 participated (cross-sectional design). In Study 2, we followed 356 students from grade 6-7 (longitudinal design). The results confirm the…

  14. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  15. The aliens are hiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Trail goes cold on alien hotspots, for now” (28 April, http://ow.ly/MeOpZ; see also p5), which described the results of a survey that looked for unexplained pockets of infrared radiation that could have been produced by advanced alien civilizations.

  16. An assessment of the antibacterial activity in larval excretion/secretion of four species of insects recorded in association with corpses, using Lucilia sericata Meigen as the marker species.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K M; Gennard, D E; Dixon, R A

    2010-12-01

    The relative antibacterial activities of excretion/secretion (ES) from two carrion-feeding insects, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Dermestes maculatus DeGeer, and a detritivore, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, were compared to that of Lucilia sericata Meigen, a species with ES of known antibacterial capacity, in order to explore the antimicrobial potential of other carrion and detritivore species. Viable counts were used to assess time-kill of ES against five bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Antibacterial activity was recorded in all four insect species although T. molitor and D. maculatus were the most effective in controlling growth of P. mirabilis. The blowflies were more effective in controlling a wider range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The larval ES from all species was shown to reduce bacterial growth rate although differences in antibacterial spectrum were noted and the degree of potency varied between the four species. These differences may be explained ecologically by the different colonisation times of each insect species on the corpse. Overall, this study demonstrates that research into other carrion-feeding insect species has potential to provide an increased source of antimicrobial chemicals to broaden the range of bacterial species beyond that currently controlled using L. sericata. PMID:20307342

  17. Autonomous self-pollination and insect visitors in partially and fully mycoheterotrophic species of Cymbidium (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the reproductive ecology of mycoheterotrophic plants, but the existing literature hypothesizes that they adopt a self-pollinating strategy. Although growing evidence indicates that some rewarding mycoheterotrophic plants depend (at least partially) on an insect-mediated pollination system, it remains unclear whether some mycoheterotrophic plants can attract pollinators without nectar or other rewards. Moreover, in a broader evolutionary/ecological context, the question of whether the evolution of mycoheterotrophy induces a shift in pollination pattern is still unknown. Here I present a comparative investigation into the breeding system of two fully mycoheterotrophic orchids, Cymbidium macrorhizon and C. aberrans, and their closest extant relative, the mixotrophic C. lancifolium. Pollination experiments were conducted to determine the breeding system of these plants. In addition, flower visitors that might contribute to pollination were recorded. Flowers at different maturity stages were examined to investigate mechanisms enabling or limiting self-fertilization. While nectarless flowers of C. lancifolium and C. macrorhizon can successfully attract potential pollinator honeybees, all three Cymbidium possess an effective self-pollination system in which the rostellum that physically separates the stigma and pollinia is absent. Because mixotrophic and mycoheterotrophic Cymbidium occupy low-light niches, pollinator foraging would be negatively influenced by low-light intensity. In partial and fully mycoheterotrophic Cymbidium, autogamy would likely be favoured as a reproductive assurance to compensate for pollinator limitation due to their lack of nectar and pollinators' hostile habitat preferences.

  18. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis.

  19. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  20. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  1. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  2. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. and Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov., two sexual yeast species associated with insects and rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-09-01

    Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)).

  3. Testing the enemy release hypothesis in a native insect species with an expanding range

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) predicts that the spread of (invasive) species will be facilitated by release from their enemies as they occupy new areas. However, the ERH is rarely tested on native (non-invasive, long established) species with expanding or shifting ranges. I tested the ERH for a native damselfly (Enallagma clausum) whose range has recently expanded in western Canada, with respect to its water mite and gregarine parasites. Parasitism levels (prevalence and intensity) were also compared between E. clausum and a closely related species, Enallagma boreale, which has long been established in the study region and whose range is not shifting. A total of 1,150 damselflies were collected at three ‘old’ sites for E. clausum in Saskatchewan, and three ‘new’ sites in Alberta. A little more than a quarter of the damselflies collected were parasitized with, on average, 18 water mite individuals, and 20% were parasitized by, on average, 10 gregarine individuals. I assessed whether the differences between levels of infection (prevalence and intensity) were due to site type or host species. The ERH was not supported: Enallagma clausum has higher or the same levels of parasitism in new sites than old sites. However, E. boreale seems to be benefitting from the recent range expansion of a native, closely related species through ecological release from its parasites because the parasites may be choosing to infest the novel, potentially naïve, host instead of the well-established host. PMID:26618085

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Vespa affinis L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Prachurjya; Dey, Tapan; Manna, Prasenjit; Kalita, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of health disorders, like arthritis. Traditionally, Vespa affinis L., a common edible insect among many tribes in North-East India, is believed to have a beneficial role in extenuating health disorders, such as arthritis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying medicinal benefit of the Aqueous Extract of Vespa affinis L. (AEVA) against oxidative stress pathophysiology. Methods The free radical scavenging activities of AEVA were examined against DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals and the effect on the activities of antioxidant enzyme (GST and CAT) was determined using both recombinant proteins and human plasma. The antioxidant potential of AEVA was again investigated using THP-1 monocytes. Results AEVA possesses a significant free radical scavenging activity as evident from the DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Incubation of AEVA (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) with the recombinant antioxidant enzymes, rGST and rCAT significantly increased the enzyme activities compared to those observed in corresponding enzyme alone or AEVA itself. AEVA supplementation (5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) also stimulates the activities of GST and CAT when incubated with human plasma. A cell culture study also confirmed the beneficial role of AEVA (0.8 and 1.2 μg/μL) which enhances the activities of GST and CAT, and also reduces the intercellular ROS production in monocytes treated with or without H2O2 and the effects are at par with what is observed in N-acetyl cysteine-treated cells. Conclusion The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vespa affinis L. may mediate its therapeutic activities in oxidative stress-associated health disorders. PMID:27195807

  5. Odor Uniformity among Tomato Individuals in Response to Herbivore Depends on Insect Species

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Lozada, Alicia; Espinosa-García, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce specific volatile organic compound (VOC) blends in response to herbivory. Herbivore-induced blends may prime the plant for future attack or attract carnivorous insects; these responses have been considered adaptive for plants. If herbivores differentially modify the VOC emission among individuals within a group of plants they feed upon, then plant responses to herbivores will not only produce specific blends but also variation in odor among individuals, i.e. individuals smell the same, then having a uniform odor. We investigated the VOC emission variation or uniformity among tomato individuals (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Castlemart) in response to moderate wounding by (1) nymphs of the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.) (TP); (2) Lepidoptera chewing-feeding larvae of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda Smith) (FAW) and (3) of Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner) (CL), and (4) mechanical damage (MD). We used a ratio-based analysis to compare the fold-change in concentration from constitutive to induced VOC emission. We also used size and shape analysis to compare the emission of damaged and non-damaged individuals. Aside of finding herbivore-specific blends in line with other studies, we found patterns not described previously. We detected constitutive and induced odor variation among individuals attacked by the same herbivore, with the induced odor uniformity depending on the herbivore identity. We also showed that the fold-change of VOCs from constitutive to induced state differed among individuals independently of the uniformity of the blends before herbivore attack. We discuss our findings in the context of the ecological roles of VOCs in plant-plant and plant-carnivore insects’ interactions. PMID:24130855

  6. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    PubMed

    Makino, Takashi T; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  7. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  8. Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

  9. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.

  10. Characterization of maspardin, responsible for human Mast syndrome, in an insect species and analysis of its evolution in metazoans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertemps, Thomas; Montagné, Nicolas; Bozzolan, Françoise; Maria, Annick; Durand, Nicolas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2012-07-01

    Mast syndrome is a complicated form of human hereditary spastic paraplegias, caused by a mutation in the gene acid cluster protein 33, which encodes a protein designated as "maspardin." Maspardin presents similarity to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily, but might lack enzymatic activity and rather be involved in protein-protein interactions. Association with the vesicles of the endosomal network also suggested that maspardin may be involved in the sorting and/or trafficking of molecules in the endosomal pathway, a crucial process for maintenance of neuron health. Despite a high conservation in living organisms, studies of maspardin in other animal species than mammals were lacking. In the cotton armyworm Spodoptera littoralis, an insect pest model, analysis of an expressed sequence tag collection from antenna, the olfactory organ, has allowed identifying a maspardin homolog ( SlMasp). We have investigated SlMasp tissue distribution and temporal expression by PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. Noteworthy, we found that maspardin was highly expressed in antennae and associated with the structures specialized in odorant detection. We have, in addition, identified maspardin sequences in numerous "nonmammalian" species and described here their phylogenetic analysis in the context of metazoan diversity. We observed a strong conservation of maspardin in metazoans, with surprisingly two independent losses of this gene in two relatively distant ecdysozoan taxa that include major model organisms, i.e., dipterans and nematodes.

  11. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  12. Characterization of maspardin, responsible for human Mast syndrome, in an insect species and analysis of its evolution in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Chertemps, Thomas; Montagné, Nicolas; Bozzolan, Françoise; Maria, Annick; Durand, Nicolas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2012-07-01

    Mast syndrome is a complicated form of human hereditary spastic paraplegias, caused by a mutation in the gene acid cluster protein 33, which encodes a protein designated as "maspardin." Maspardin presents similarity to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily, but might lack enzymatic activity and rather be involved in protein-protein interactions. Association with the vesicles of the endosomal network also suggested that maspardin may be involved in the sorting and/or trafficking of molecules in the endosomal pathway, a crucial process for maintenance of neuron health. Despite a high conservation in living organisms, studies of maspardin in other animal species than mammals were lacking. In the cotton armyworm Spodoptera littoralis, an insect pest model, analysis of an expressed sequence tag collection from antenna, the olfactory organ, has allowed identifying a maspardin homolog (SlMasp). We have investigated SlMasp tissue distribution and temporal expression by PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. Noteworthy, we found that maspardin was highly expressed in antennae and associated with the structures specialized in odorant detection. We have, in addition, identified maspardin sequences in numerous "nonmammalian" species and described here their phylogenetic analysis in the context of metazoan diversity. We observed a strong conservation of maspardin in metazoans, with surprisingly two independent losses of this gene in two relatively distant ecdysozoan taxa that include major model organisms, i.e., dipterans and nematodes.

  13. Release of alien populations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Palme, Anna; Josefsson, Melanie; Utter, Fred; Ryman, Nils

    2006-08-01

    Introduction of alien species is a major threat to biological diversity. Although public attention typically focuses on the species level, guidelines from the Convention of Biological Diversity define alien species to include entities below species level. This inclusion recognizes that release of nonlocal populations of native species may also result in negative effects on biodiversity. In practice, little is known about the extent, degree of establishment, or the effects on natural gene pools of such releases. Existing information on the releases in Sweden shows that alien populations are spread to a great extent. The most commonly released species include brown trout, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, common whitefish, Scots pine, Norway spruce, mallard duck, gray partridge, and pheasant. Although millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually, poor documentation makes the geographic and genetic origin of these populations, as well as the sites where they have been released, largely unclear. We provide recommendations for urgently needed first steps relating to the risks and problems associated with release of alien populations.

  14. Decoupling of Host–Symbiont–Phage Coadaptations Following Transfer Between Insect Species

    PubMed Central

    Chafee, Meghan E.; Zecher, Courtney N.; Gourley, Michelle L.; Schmidt, Victor T.; Chen, John H.; Bordenstein, Sarah R.; Clark, Michael E.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2011-01-01

    Transferring endosymbiotic bacteria between different host species can perturb the coordinated regulation of the host and bacterial genomes. Here we use the most common maternally transmitted bacteria, Wolbachia pipientis, to test the consequences of host genetic background on infection densities and the processes underlying those changes in the parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia. Introgressing the genome of Nasonia giraulti into the infected cytoplasm of N. vitripennis causes a two-order-of-magnitude increase in bacterial loads in adults and a proliferation of the infection to somatic tissues. The host effect on W. pipientis distribution and densities is associated with a twofold decrease in densities of the temperate phage WO-B. Returning the bacteria from the new host species back to the resident host species restores the bacteria and phage to their native densities. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a host–microbe genetic interaction that affects the densities of both W. pipientis and bacteriophage WO-B. The consequences of the increased bacterial density include a reduction in fecundity, an increase in levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and unexpectedly, male-to-female transfer of the bacteria to uninfected females and an increased acceptance of densely infected females to interspecific mates. While paternal inheritance of the W. pipientis was not observed, the high incidence of male-to-female transfer in the introgressed background raises the possibility that paternal transmission could be more likely in hybrids where paternal leakage of other cytoplasmic elements is also known to occur. Taken together, these results establish a major change in W. pipientis densities and tissue tropism between closely related species and support a model in which phage WO, Wolbachia, and arthropods form a tripartite symbiotic association in which all three are integral to understanding the biology of this widespread endosymbiosis. PMID:20944019

  15. Species-specific recognition of the carrier insect by dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis japonica.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Etsuko; Tanaka, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi

    2013-02-15

    Host recognition is crucial during the phoretic stage of nematodes because it facilitates their association with hosts. However, limited information is available on the direct cues used for host recognition and host specificity in nematodes. Caenorhabditis japonica forms an intimate association with the burrower bug Parastrachia japonensis. Caenorhabditis japonica dauer larvae (DL), the phoretic stage of the nematode, are mainly found on adult P. japonensis females but no other species. To understand the mechanisms of species-specific and female carrier-biased ectophoresy in C. japonica, we investigated whether C. japonica DL could recognize their hosts using nematode loading and chemoattraction experiments. During the loading experiments, up to 300 C. japonica DL embarked on male and female P. japonensis, whereas none or very few utilized the other shield bugs Erthesina fullo and Macroscytus japonensis or the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. In the chemoattraction experiments, hexane extracts containing the body surface components of nymphs and both adult P. japonensis sexes attracted C. japonica DL, whereas those of other shield bugs did not. Parastrachia japonensis extracts also arrested the dispersal of C. japonica DL released at a site where hexane extracts were spotted on an agar plate; i.e. >50% of DL remained at the site even 60 min after nematode inoculation whereas M. japonensis extracts or hexane alone did not have the same effect. These results suggest that C. japonica DL recognize their host species using direct chemical attractants from their specific host to maintain their association. PMID:23077159

  16. Fire and grazing impacts on plant diversity and alien plant invasions in the southern Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Lubin, Daniel; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of native and alien plant diversity in response to disturbance were examined along an elevational gradient in blue oak savanna, chaparral, and coniferous forests. Total species richness, alien species richness, and alien cover declined with elevation, at scales from 1 to 1000 m2. We found no support for the hypothesis that community diversity inhibits alien invasion. At the 1-m2 point scale, where we would expect competitive interactions between the largely herbaceous flora to be most intense, alien species richness as well as alien cover increased with increasing native species richness in all communities. This suggests that aliens are limited not by the number of native competitors, but by resources that affect establishment of both natives and aliens.Blue oak savannas were heavily dominated by alien species and consistently had more alien than native species at the 1-m2 scale. All of these aliens are annuals, and it is widely thought that they have displaced native bunchgrasses. If true, this means that aliens have greatly increased species richness. Alternatively, there is a rich regional flora of native annual forbs that could have dominated these grasslands prior to displacement by alien grasses. On our sites, livestock grazing increased the number of alien species and alien cover only slightly over that of sites free of livestock grazing for more than a century, indicating some level of permanency to this invasion.In chaparral, both diversity and aliens increased markedly several years after fire. Invasive species are rare in undisturbed shrublands, and alien propagules fail to survive the natural crown fires in these ecosystems. Thus, aliens necessarily must colonize after fire and, as a consequence, time since fire is an important determinant of invasive presence. Blue oak savannas are an important propagule source for alien species because they maintain permanent populations of all alien species encountered in postfire chaparral, and because the

  17. Response of benthic insect species to changes in stream velocity resulting from stripmining disturbance

    SciTech Connect

    Stair, Jr., D. M.; Tolbert, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    Increased stream velocity resulting from increased runoff may cause considerable alterations in benthic communities. Stream velocity in disturbed watersheds can exceed tolerance limits of even the most resistant species. Increased velocities may also adversely impact benthic communities by increasing bedload movement, thus destroying habitats or physically abrading individuals. Studies are underway to document bedload movement and effects on benthic communities in mining disturbed streams. Additional studies are being initiated to determine if there are additive effects from the combination of increased stream velocity and sediment movement.

  18. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  19. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets.

    PubMed

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L; Kress, W John

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleiakuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairniaarcuata and Pitcairniabrittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleiakuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleiahistrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleiakuprewiczae from Cephaloleiahistrionica as a new species. PMID:25685006

  20. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets

    PubMed Central

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L.; Kress, W. John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleia kuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairnia arcuata and Pitcairnia brittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleia kuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleia histrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleia kuprewiczae from Cephaloleia histrionica as a new species. PMID:25685006

  1. A comparative genomic analysis of targets of Hox protein Ultrabithorax amongst distant insect species.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Naveen; Tarikere, Shreeharsha; Khanale, Dhanashree; Habib, Farhat; Shashidhara, L S

    2016-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the differential development of wing and haltere is dependent on the function of the Hox protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx). Here we compare Ubx-mediated regulation of wing patterning genes between the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the silkmoth, Bombyx mori and Drosophila. Orthologues of Ubx are expressed in the third thoracic segment of Apis and Bombyx, although they make functional hindwings. When over-expressed in transgenic Drosophila, Ubx derived from Apis or Bombyx could suppress wing development, suggesting evolutionary changes at the level of co-factors and/or targets of Ubx. To gain further insights into such events, we identified direct targets of Ubx from Apis and Bombyx by ChIP-seq and compared them with those of Drosophila. While majority of the putative targets of Ubx are species-specific, a considerable number of wing-patterning genes are retained, over the past 300 millions years, as targets in all the three species. Interestingly, many of these are differentially expressed only between wing and haltere in Drosophila but not between forewing and hindwing in Apis or Bombyx. Detailed bioinformatics and experimental validation of enhancer sequences suggest that, perhaps along with other factors, changes in the cis-regulatory sequences of earlier targets contribute to diversity in Ubx function. PMID:27296678

  2. A comparative genomic analysis of targets of Hox protein Ultrabithorax amongst distant insect species

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Naveen; Tarikere, Shreeharsha; Khanale, Dhanashree; Habib, Farhat; Shashidhara, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the differential development of wing and haltere is dependent on the function of the Hox protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx). Here we compare Ubx-mediated regulation of wing patterning genes between the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the silkmoth, Bombyx mori and Drosophila. Orthologues of Ubx are expressed in the third thoracic segment of Apis and Bombyx, although they make functional hindwings. When over-expressed in transgenic Drosophila, Ubx derived from Apis or Bombyx could suppress wing development, suggesting evolutionary changes at the level of co-factors and/or targets of Ubx. To gain further insights into such events, we identified direct targets of Ubx from Apis and Bombyx by ChIP-seq and compared them with those of Drosophila. While majority of the putative targets of Ubx are species-specific, a considerable number of wing-patterning genes are retained, over the past 300 millions years, as targets in all the three species. Interestingly, many of these are differentially expressed only between wing and haltere in Drosophila but not between forewing and hindwing in Apis or Bombyx. Detailed bioinformatics and experimental validation of enhancer sequences suggest that, perhaps along with other factors, changes in the cis-regulatory sequences of earlier targets contribute to diversity in Ubx function. PMID:27296678

  3. Establishment and characterization of insect cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C L; El Sayed, G N; McIntosh, A H; Grasela, J J; Stiles, B

    2001-06-01

    Cell lines from selected lepidopteran species were established for the overall purpose of use in baculovirus production. A total of 36 new cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species were generated, including cell lines from a pyralid, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a plutellid, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, as well as eight noctuids: the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Tissues used for cell line establishment included fat bodies, ovaries, testes, or whole embryos/larvae/pupae. All the cell lines were subcultured numerous times, characterized by isoenzyme analysis and/or deoxyribonucleic acid amplification fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Many of the cell lines were adapted to grow in serum-free medium, with cell lines from A. ipsilon and H. virescens being adapted to suspension culture using shaker flasks. The potential use for these cell lines in baculovirus production is discussed. PMID:11515970

  4. The invasion route for an insect pest species: the tobacco aphid in the New World.

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Paulo, F A; Simon, J-C; Ramírez, C C; Fuentes-Contreras, E; Margaritopoulos, J T; Wilson, A C C; Sorenson, C E; Briones, L M; Azevedo, R; Ohashi, D V; Lacroix, C; Glais, L; Figueroa, C C

    2010-11-01

    Biological invasions are rapid evolutionary events in which populations are usually subject to a founder event during introduction followed by rapid adaptation to the new environment. Molecular tools and Bayesian approaches have shown their utility in exploring different evolutionary scenarios regarding the invasion routes of introduced species. We examined the situation for the tobacco aphid, Myzus persicae nicotianae, a recently introduced aphid species in Chile. Using seven microsatellite loci and approximate Bayesian computation, we studied populations of the tobacco aphid sampled from several American and European countries, identifying the most likely source populations and tracking the route of introduction to Chile. Our population genetic data are consistent with available historical information, pointing to an introduction route of the tobacco aphid from Europe and/or from other putative populations (e.g. Asia) with subsequent introduction through North America to South America. Evidence of multiple introductions to North America from different genetic pools, with successive loss of genetic diversity from Europe towards North America and a strong bottleneck during the southward introduction to South America, was also found. Additionally, we examined the special case of a widespread multilocus genotype that was found in all American countries examined. This case provides further evidence for the existence of highly successful genotypes or 'superclones' in asexually reproducing organisms.

  5. A natural M RNA reassortant arising from two species of plant- and insect-infecting bunyaviruses and comparison of its sequence and biological properties to parental species.

    PubMed

    Webster, Craig G; Reitz, Stuart R; Perry, Keith L; Adkins, Scott

    2011-05-10

    Reassortment allows multicomponent viruses to exchange genome segments, a process well-documented in the vertebrate- and arthropod-infecting members of the family Bunyaviridae but not between distinct species of the plant- and insect-infecting members of the genus Tospovirus. Genome sequence comparisons of a virus causing severe tospovirus-like symptoms in Florida tomato with Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) demonstrated that reassortment has occurred, with the large (L) and small (S) RNAs coming from GRSV and the medium (M) RNA coming from TCSV (i.e. L(G)M(T)S(G)). Neither parental genotype is known to occur in the U.S. suggesting that L(G)M(T)S(G) was introduced as a reassortant. L(G)M(T)S(G) was transmitted by western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis [Pergande]), and was not able to overcome the Sw5 resistance gene of tomato. Our demonstration of reassortment between GRSV and TCSV suggests caution in defining species within the family Bunyaviridae based on their ability to reassort.

  6. Insecticidal Activity and Insect Repellency of Four Species of Sea Lily (Comatulida: Comatulidae) From Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shih-Wei; Lee, Tse-Min; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Chio, Eddie Hang

    2016-01-01

    The methanol and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of four species of sea lily (Himerometra magnipinna, Comaster multifidus, Comanthina sp., and Comatella maculata) were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Yellow-fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and their repellency against adult Asian Tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus). The 24-hr minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) data revealed that the extracts from H. magnipinna and the C. maculata were the most active, killing mosquito larvae at 12.5 ppm. The toxicity of the extracts from these four sea lilies in descending order was H. magnipinna (12.5 ppm), C. maculata (12.5 ppm), C. multifidus (100 ppm), and Comanthina sp. (200 ppm). Furthermore, no significant difference in toxicity was found using either EA or methanol as the extraction solvent. The MIC at 12.5 ppm is promising as an insecticide lead. The repellency study results show that EA is a better solvent for one species (H. magnipinna), but the methanol is a better solvent overall. The repellency of these sea lily extracts in descending order was Comanthina sp. MeOH (ED50 at 0.32%), followed by H. magnipinna EA (ED50 at 0.38%), C. multifidus MeOH (ED50 at 0.57%), C. maculata MeOH (ED50 at 0.76%), C. multifidus EA (ED50 at 1.25%), and H. magnipinna MeOH (ED50 at 1.67%). A compound with ED50 <0.5% is considered to be a promising repellant. Among the studied sea lilies, both Comanthina sp. and H. magnipinna have potential to be further developed as mosquito control agents due to their favorable toxicity and repellency. PMID:26798137

  7. Insecticidal Activity and Insect Repellency of Four Species of Sea Lily (Comatulida: Comatulidae) From Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Wei; Lee, Tse-Min; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Chio, Eddie Hang

    2016-01-01

    The methanol and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of four species of sea lily (Himerometra magnipinna, Comaster multifidus, Comanthina sp., and Comatella maculata) were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Yellow-fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and their repellency against adult Asian Tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus). The 24-hr minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) data revealed that the extracts from H. magnipinna and the C. maculata were the most active, killing mosquito larvae at 12.5 ppm. The toxicity of the extracts from these four sea lilies in descending order was H. magnipinna (12.5 ppm), C. maculata (12.5 ppm), C. multifidus (100 ppm), and Comanthina sp. (200 ppm). Furthermore, no significant difference in toxicity was found using either EA or methanol as the extraction solvent. The MIC at 12.5 ppm is promising as an insecticide lead. The repellency study results show that EA is a better solvent for one species (H. magnipinna), but the methanol is a better solvent overall. The repellency of these sea lily extracts in descending order was Comanthina sp. MeOH (ED50 at 0.32%), followed by H. magnipinna EA (ED50 at 0.38%), C. multifidus MeOH (ED50 at 0.57%), C. maculata MeOH (ED50 at 0.76%), C. multifidus EA (ED50 at 1.25%), and H. magnipinna MeOH (ED50 at 1.67%). A compound with ED50 <0.5% is considered to be a promising repellant. Among the studied sea lilies, both Comanthina sp. and H. magnipinna have potential to be further developed as mosquito control agents due to their favorable toxicity and repellency. PMID:26798137

  8. Effects of livestock watering sites on alien and native plants in the Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.; Matchett, J.R.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Increased livestock densities near artificial watering sites create disturbance gradients called piospheres. We studied responses of alien and native annual plants and native perennial plants within 9 piospheres in the Mojave Desert of North America. Absolute and proportional cover of alien annual plants increased with proximity to watering sites, whereas cover and species richness of native annual plants decreased. Not all alien species responded the same, as the alien forb Erodium cicutarium and the alien grass Schismus spp. increased with proximity to watering sites, and the alien annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens decreased. Perennial plant cover and species richness also declined with proximity to watering sites, as did the structural diversity of perennial plant cover classes. Significant effects were focused within 200 m of the watering sites, suggesting that control efforts for alien annual plants and restoration efforts for native plants should optimally be focused within this central part of the piosphere gradient.

  9. Population fluctuation in phytophagous insects

    SciTech Connect

    Redfearn, A.; Pimm, S.L. )

    1994-06-01

    We examined how community interactions affect year-to-year population variability in three groups of phytophagous insects: British aphids and moths, and Canadian moths. We first examined how the number of host plant species on which a given phytophagous insect species feeds affects its population variability. Specialist insect species showed a weak tendency to be more variable than generalist species. We then examined how the number of species of parasitoids from which a given phytophagous insects species suffers affects its population variability. Species that are host to few parasitoid species showed a weak tendency to be more variable than species with many parsitoid species. These relationships also depend on other aspects of the life histories of the phytophagous insect species.

  10. Observing Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbel, Ilil

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to observe and study the fascinating world of insects in public parks, backyards, and gardens. Discusses the activities and habits of several common insects. Includes addresses for sources of beneficial insects, seeds, and plants. (nine references) (JJK)

  11. Insect evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    It goes without saying that insects epitomize diversity, and with over a million documented species they stand out as one of the most remarkable lineages in the 3.5-billion-year history of life on earth (Figure 1). This reality is passé to even the layperson and is taken for granted in the same way none of us think much of our breathing as we go about our day, and yet insects are just as vital to our existence. Insects are simultaneously familiar and foreign to us, and while a small fraction are beloved or reviled, most are simply ignored. These inexorable evolutionary overachievers outnumber us all, their segmented body plan is remarkably labile, they combine a capacity for high rates of speciation with low levels of natural extinction, and their history of successes eclipses those of the more familiar ages of dinosaurs and mammals alike. It is their evolution - persisting over vast expanses of geological time and inextricably implicated in the diversification of other lineages - that stands as one of the most expansive subjects in biology. PMID:26439349

  12. Insect evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    It goes without saying that insects epitomize diversity, and with over a million documented species they stand out as one of the most remarkable lineages in the 3.5-billion-year history of life on earth (Figure 1). This reality is passé to even the layperson and is taken for granted in the same way none of us think much of our breathing as we go about our day, and yet insects are just as vital to our existence. Insects are simultaneously familiar and foreign to us, and while a small fraction are beloved or reviled, most are simply ignored. These inexorable evolutionary overachievers outnumber us all, their segmented body plan is remarkably labile, they combine a capacity for high rates of speciation with low levels of natural extinction, and their history of successes eclipses those of the more familiar ages of dinosaurs and mammals alike. It is their evolution - persisting over vast expanses of geological time and inextricably implicated in the diversification of other lineages - that stands as one of the most expansive subjects in biology.

  13. Insects: Bugged Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  14. A preliminary study on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Khalil, Mohammed W.; Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Hassan H. Fadl; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level) belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. Two of these species are described as new, namely: Monomorium sarawatensis Sharaf & Aldawood, sp. n. [Formicidae, Hymenoptera] and Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry sp. n. [Bombyliidae, Diptera]. Another eight species are recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia, namely: Xiphoceriana arabica (Uvarov, 1922) [Pamphagidae, Orthoptera], Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791) [Pyrgomorphidae, Orthoptera], Catopsilia florella (Fabricius, 1775) [Pieridae, Lepidoptera], Anthrax chionanthrax (Bezzi, 1926) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Spogostylum near tripunctatum Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Cononedys dichromatopa (Bezzi, 1925) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Mydas sp. [Mydidae, Diptera], and Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758 [Hippoboscidae, Diptera]. Al-Baha Province is divided by huge and steep Rocky Mountains into two main sectors, a lowland coastal plain at the west, known as “Tihama”, and a mountainous area with an elevation of 1500 to 2450 m above sea level at the east, known as “Al-Sarat or Al-Sarah” which form a part of Al-Sarawat Mountains range. Insect species richness in the two sectors (Tihama and Al-Sarah) was compared, and the results showed that each of the two sectors of Al-Baha Province has a unique insect community. The study generally concluded that the insect faunal composition in Al-Baha Province has an Afrotropical flavor, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. Consequently, we tend to agree with those biogeographers who consider that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, should be included in the Afrotropical region rather than in the Palaearctic

  15. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets.

  16. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets. PMID:26101608

  17. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  18. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  19. Introduction of the alien Xenostrobus securis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) into Hong Kong, China: interactions with and impacts upon native species and the earlier introduced Mytilopsis sallei (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae).

    PubMed

    Morton, Brian; Leung, K F

    2015-03-15

    This constitutes the first record of the Australian alien mytilid Xenostrobus securis in China. The introduction occurred prior to 2010 probably via shipping arriving at Yantian in Mirs Bay, China, close to Hong Kong. Point sources of infection could be Australia or Korea or Japan where it has similarly been introduced. Analysis of X. securis in Hong Kong shows that it tolerates a wide range of salinities from 5.4‰ to 28.7‰. Water temperatures in Hong Kong match those in its native range. In Hong Kong, X. securis co-occurs with the similarly introduced Mytilopsis sallei and a native bivalve community. The population structure of X. securis suggests a lifespan of >2 years with new generations produced by conspecifics. Such a life history strategy is also exhibited by M. sallei. Now established in China, northern Asia, the Mediterranean and, most recently, the Iberian Atlantic, the invasion of other locations by X. securis seems probable. PMID:25599632

  20. Footprints of alien technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2012-04-01

    If alien civilizations do, or did, exist, their technology will impact their environment. Some consideration has been given to the detection of large-scale astro-engineering, such as Dyson spheres. However, a very advanced technology might leave more subtle footprints requiring sophisticated scientific methods to uncover. We must not overlook the possibility that alien technology has impacted our immediate astronomical environment, even Earth itself, but probably a very long time ago. This raises the question of what traces, if anything, might remain today. I shall consider the possibilities of biological, geological and physical traces, and suggest ways that we might search for them.

  1. Insects and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, S.A. )

    1991-09-01

    In this article the author describes some of the significant late glacial and Holocene changes that occurred in the Rocky Mountains, including the regional extirpation of certain beetle species. The fossil data presented here summarize what is known about regional insect responses to climate change in terms of species stability and geographic distribution. To minimize potential problems of species interactions (i.e., insect-host plant relationships, host-parasite relationships, and other interactions that tie a particular insect species' distribution to that of another organism), only predators and scavengers are discussed. These insects respond most rapidly to environmental changes, because for the most part they are not tied to any particular type of vegetation.

  2. Aliens and atheism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Sergio; de Muynck, Willem; Virginia; Peerally, Abed; Tyler, David; Stephen

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Aliens and atheists" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CQzu4), about a survey that found that atheists are more likely than religious people to believe that life exists on other planets.

  3. Alien Life Imagined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  4. A New Severity Rating System for Evaluating and Predicting the Impacts of a Nonnative Invasive Forest Insect on Two Pacific Northwest Fir Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrinkevich, K.; Progar, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) is a nonnative invasive forest insect introduced from Europe to North America around 1900. The insect established and spread in the northeast, infesting and causing mortality of balsam fir and has since established infestations in all true firs in eastern and western North America. There are several indicators of the presence and severity of BWA, and mortality can occur rapidly or trees may persist for many decades depending on the type and intensity of infestation. Severity ratings to describe damage have largely been based on a system developed for balsam fir in Newfoundland. Modifications to this system, also developed in eastern North America, used similar characteristics, but reduced the number of classes using qualitative damage assessments. Quantitative rating systems have been developed in the western United States, however much of the research in the Pacific Northwest is based on long-term monitoring studies that describe damage patterns for host species and quantify mortality rates. Results are inconsistent geographically and between tree species, and do not incorporate stand-specific information with individual tree ratings. This emphasizes the need for a species-specific, stand-level rating system, particularly in the west where the insect is expanding its range into novel habitat, likely as a result of climatic changes. We developed a new, more comprehensive rating system for grand fir and subalpine fir in the northwest US that combines all the symptoms of BWA-related tree damage with stand-level information about species composition and structure. Our scale identifies differences between each species and quantitatively differentiates between damage classes, identifying the symptoms defining each class. This rating system allows for more efficient classification of stand-level risk for BWA and will be used to develop a predictive risk model that identifies factors that can assist land managers with damage mitigation

  5. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  6. The Generalist Inside the Specialist: Gut Bacterial Communities of Two Insect Species Feeding on Toxic Plants Are Dominated by Enterococcus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Cristina; Baixeras, Joaquín; Latorre, Amparo; Porcar, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Some specialist insects feed on plants rich in secondary compounds, which pose a major selective pressure on both the phytophagous and the gut microbiota. However, microbial communities of toxic plant feeders are still poorly characterized. Here, we show the bacterial communities of the gut of two specialized Lepidoptera, Hyles euphorbiae and Brithys crini, which exclusively feed on latex-rich Euphorbia sp. and alkaloid-rich Pancratium maritimum, respectively. A metagenomic analysis based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the gut microbiota of both insects is dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, and especially by the common gut inhabitant Enterococcus sp. Staphylococcus sp. are also found in H. euphorbiae though to a lesser extent. By scanning electron microscopy, we found a dense ring-shaped bacterial biofilm in the hindgut of H. euphorbiae, and identified the most prominent bacterium in the biofilm as Enterococcus casseliflavus through molecular techniques. Interestingly, this species has previously been reported to contribute to the immobilization of latex-like molecules in the larvae of Spodoptera litura, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran. The E. casseliflavus strain was isolated from the gut and its ability to tolerate natural latex was tested under laboratory conditions. This fact, along with the identification of less frequent bacterial species able to degrade alkaloids and/or latex, suggest a putative role of bacterial communities in the tolerance of specialized insects to their toxic diet. PMID:27446044

  7. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties. PMID:21469658

  8. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today.

  9. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today. PMID:21809508

  10. On the Frontier of Knowledge: A Discussion of Alien Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Shelley

    Possible States Theory discusses change in the abstract; it has a single description of change, equally applicable to acts of mind and physical phenomena. Change is defined as an interaction between collections of possible states, which include past, future and possible outcomes. All possible outcomes coincide in the complex present. This allows a competent observer to participate in possible states interactions that are unconstrained by time, distance or conservation laws. The technique of coordinate remote viewing was used in a study of technologically advanced alien life forms. The primary focus of the study was on two specific species but general knowledge of multiple others was also obtained. One of the two major species may be characterized as well disposed while the other may be classed as exploitative. Both species maintain facilities on Earth. The differences between the human species and these species are profound and go well beyond levels of technological development. Both alien species are forms of collective intelligence, which was true of all intelligent species studied. The human decision to militarize interaction with alien species may be characterized as inappropriate and potentially counterproductive. Unsuccessful efforts to communicate were made by all sides prior to this study. Substantial obstacles to communication exist based upon attitudes and beliefs of both humans and aliens. Among the most important findings are the unusual, perhaps unique biodiversity found on the Earth and the value aliens place on sentience. To the extent that the conclusions are correct, these findings hold significant implications for the future of humanity.

  11. Stable isotope investigation of insect and plant use in the diets of two Puerto Rican bat species

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analysis to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Stable carbon and nit...

  12. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T A; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species"; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest "attack rates" a, shortest "handling times" h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach.

  13. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  14. How Far Could the Alien Boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis Spread? Worldwide Estimation of Its Current and Future Potential Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Guareschi, Simone; Coccia, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, David; Carbonell, José Antonio; Velasco, Josefa; Boyero, Luz; Green, Andy J.; Millán, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Invasions of alien species are considered among the least reversible human impacts, with diversified effects on aquatic ecosystems. Since prevention is the most cost-effective way to avoid biodiversity loss and ecosystem problems, one challenge in ecological research is to understand the limits of the fundamental niche of the species in order to estimate how far invasive species could spread. Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis (Tvv) is a corixid (Hemiptera) originally distributed in North America, but cited as an alien species in three continents. Its impact on native communities is under study, but it is already the dominant species in several saline wetlands and represents a rare example of an aquatic alien insect. This study aims: i) to estimate areas with suitable environmental conditions for Tvv at a global scale, thus identifying potential new zones of invasion; and ii) to test possible changes in this global potential distribution under a climate change scenario. Potential distributions were estimated by applying a multidimensional envelope procedure based on both climatic data, obtained from observed occurrences, and thermal physiological data. Our results suggest Tvv may expand well beyond its current range and find inhabitable conditions in temperate areas along a wide range of latitudes, with an emphasis on coastal areas of Europe, Northern Africa, Argentina, Uruguay, Australia, New Zealand, Myanmar, India, the western boundary between USA and Canada, and areas of the Arabian Peninsula. When considering a future climatic scenario, the suitability area of Tvv showed only limited changes compared with the current potential distribution. These results allow detection of potential contact zones among currently colonized areas and potential areas of invasion. We also identified zones with a high level of suitability that overlap with areas recognized as global hotspots of biodiversity. Finally, we present hypotheses about possible means of spread, focusing on

  15. Captured by Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  16. Dominance and environmental correlates of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Land managers are concerned about the negative effects of alien annual plants on native plants, threatened and endangered species such as the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), and ecosystem integrity in the Mojave Desert. Management of alien plants is hampered by a lack of information regarding the dominance and environmental correlates of these species. The results of this study indicate that alien plant species comprised a small fraction of the total annual plant flora, but most of the annual plant community biomass. When rainfall was high in 1995, aliens comprised 6% of the flora and 66% of the biomass. When rainfall was low in 1999, aliens comprised 27% of the flora and 91% of the biomass. Bromus rubens, Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus), and Erodium cicutarium were the predominant alien species during both years, comprising 99% of the alien biomass. B. rubens was more abundant in relatively mesic microhabitats beneath shrub canopies and at higher elevations above 800-1000 m, whereas Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium were more abundant in the relatively arid interspaces between shrubs, and, for Schismus spp., at lower elevations as well. Disturbance variables were more reliable indicators of alien dominance than were productivity or native plant diversity variables, although relationships often varied between years of contrasting rainfall. The strongest environmental correlates occurred between dirt road density and alien species richness and biomass of E. cicutarium, and between frequency and size of fires and biomass of B. rubens.

  17. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  18. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  19. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  20. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  1. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  2. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  3. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  4. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  5. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  6. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  7. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  8. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  9. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  10. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  11. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  12. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  13. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  14. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  15. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  16. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  17. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  18. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  19. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  20. Expression of Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA-I') from elderberry bark in transgenic tobacco plants results in enhanced resistance to different insect species.

    PubMed

    Shahidi-Noghabi, Shahnaz; Van Damme, Els J M; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-04-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun NN) have been transformed with the gene encoding the type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) SNA-I' from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) under the control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter. Previous research confirmed that these plants synthesize, correctly process and assemble a fully active RIP. Variability in protein expression was observed within the transgenic lines. The effects of the type-2 RIP SNA-I' delivered through a leaf feeding assay were evaluated in the laboratory on two economically important pest insects belonging to the orders of Hemiptera, the tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) and Lepidoptera, the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). In the experiment with aphids, significant effects were observed on the life parameters, such as survival, intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time and mean daily offspring, whereas with caterpillars significant reduction in fresh weight as well as retardation in development were observed. In addition, significant increases in mortality were noted for insects fed on the transgenic lines as compared to wild type plants. This information provides further support for RIPs having a role in plant resistance to insect pest species.

  1. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    PubMed

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  2. Special Plant Species Determines Diet Breadth of Phytophagous Insects: A Study on Host Plant Expansion of the Host-Specialized Aphis gossypii Glover

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Liang, Xin Li; Zhao, Hai Yang; Xu, Ting Ting; Liu, Xiang Dong

    2013-01-01

    Host specialization is a ubiquitous character of phytophagous insects. The polyphagous population is usually composed of some subpopulations that can use only a few closely related plants. Cotton-melon aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover exhibited strong host specialization, and the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized biotypes had been clearly identified. However, the experimental work that addressed the roles of plant species in determining diet breadth of phytophagous insects is rare. In the present study, we took the artificial host transfer method to assess the role of two special plants, zucchini Cucurbita zucchini L. and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (Linn.) Walp, in regulating diet breadth of cotton- and cucurbits-specialized A. gossypii collected from cotton and cucumber fields and reared separately on the native host plant for ten years. The results showed that the cotton-specialized aphids did not directly use cucumber whereas the cucurbits-specialized did not use cotton regardless of the coexistence or separation of cotton and cucumber plants. Neither of the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized aphids could use capsicum Capsicum annuum, eggplant Solanum melongenahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus, tomato Solanum lycopersicum, maize Zea mayshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus, and radish Raphanus sativus, however, both of them could use zucchini and cowpea. Moreover, the feeding experience on zucchini led the cotton-specialized aphids to use cucumber well and finally to be transformed into the cucurbits-specialized biotype. The short-term feeding experience on cowpea resulted in the diet breadth expansion of the cucurbits-specialized aphids to use cotton. On the other hand, the diet breadth expansion of the cucurbits- and cotton-specialized aphids was only realized by different species of plant. It concluded that the special host plant did induce the conversion of feeding habits in the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized aphids, and consequently broke the

  3. Special plant species determines diet breadth of phytophagous insects: a study on host plant expansion of the host-specialized Aphis gossypii Glover.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Liang, Xin Li; Zhao, Hai Yang; Xu, Ting Ting; Liu, Xiang Dong

    2013-01-01

    Host specialization is a ubiquitous character of phytophagous insects. The polyphagous population is usually composed of some subpopulations that can use only a few closely related plants. Cotton-melon aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover exhibited strong host specialization, and the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized biotypes had been clearly identified. However, the experimental work that addressed the roles of plant species in determining diet breadth of phytophagous insects is rare. In the present study, we took the artificial host transfer method to assess the role of two special plants, zucchini Cucurbita zucchini L. and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (Linn.) Walp, in regulating diet breadth of cotton- and cucurbits-specialized A. gossypii collected from cotton and cucumber fields and reared separately on the native host plant for ten years. The results showed that the cotton-specialized aphids did not directly use cucumber whereas the cucurbits-specialized did not use cotton regardless of the coexistence or separation of cotton and cucumber plants. Neither of the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized aphids could use capsicum Capsicum annuum, eggplant Solanum melongenahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus, tomato Solanum lycopersicum, maize Zea mayshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus, and radish Raphanus sativus, however, both of them could use zucchini and cowpea. Moreover, the feeding experience on zucchini led the cotton-specialized aphids to use cucumber well and finally to be transformed into the cucurbits-specialized biotype. The short-term feeding experience on cowpea resulted in the diet breadth expansion of the cucurbits-specialized aphids to use cotton. On the other hand, the diet breadth expansion of the cucurbits- and cotton-specialized aphids was only realized by different species of plant. It concluded that the special host plant did induce the conversion of feeding habits in the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized aphids, and consequently broke the

  4. Facile functional analysis of insect odorant receptors expressed in the fruit fly: Validation with receptors from taxonomically distant and closely related species

    PubMed Central

    Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Kimbrell, Deborah A.; de Carvalho, Washington J.; Leal, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of genomic sequences and next generation sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq), multiple repertoires of olfactory proteins in various insect species are being unraveled. However, functional analyses are lagging behind due in part to the lack of simple and reliable methods for heterologous expression of odorant receptors (ORs). While the Xenopus oocyte recording system fulfills some of this lacuna, this system is devoid of other olfactory proteins thus testing only the “naked” ORs. Recently, a moth OR was expressed in the majority of neurons in the antennae of the fruit fly by using Orco-GAL4 to drive expression of the moth OR. Electroantennogram (EAG) was used to de-orphanize the moth OR, but generic application of this approach was brought to question. Here, we describe that this system works with ORs not only from taxonomically distant insect species (moth), but also closely related species (mosquito), even when the fruit fly has highly sensitive innate ORs for the odorant being tested. We demonstrate that Orco-GAL4 flies expressing the silkworm pheromone receptor, BmorOR1, showed significantly higher responses to the sex pheromone bombykol than the control lines used to drive expression. Additionally, we show that flies expressing an OR from the Southern house mosquito, CquiOR2, gave significantly stronger responses to the cognate odorants indole and 2-methylphenol than the “background noise” recorder from control lines. In summary, we validate the use of Orco-GAL4 driven UAS-OR lines along with EAG analysis as a simple alternative for de-orphanization and functional studies of insect ORs in an intact olfactory system. PMID:24816944

  5. Special plant species determines diet breadth of phytophagous insects: a study on host plant expansion of the host-specialized Aphis gossypii Glover.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Liang, Xin Li; Zhao, Hai Yang; Xu, Ting Ting; Liu, Xiang Dong

    2013-01-01

    Host specialization is a ubiquitous character of phytophagous insects. The polyphagous population is usually composed of some subpopulations that can use only a few closely related plants. Cotton-melon aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover exhibited strong host specialization, and the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized biotypes had been clearly identified. However, the experimental work that addressed the roles of plant species in determining diet breadth of phytophagous insects is rare. In the present study, we took the artificial host transfer method to assess the role of two special plants, zucchini Cucurbita zucchini L. and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (Linn.) Walp, in regulating diet breadth of cotton- and cucurbits-specialized A. gossypii collected from cotton and cucumber fields and reared separately on the native host plant for ten years. The results showed that the cotton-specialized aphids did not directly use cucumber whereas the cucurbits-specialized did not use cotton regardless of the coexistence or separation of cotton and cucumber plants. Neither of the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized aphids could use capsicum Capsicum annuum, eggplant Solanum melongenahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus, tomato Solanum lycopersicum, maize Zea mayshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus, and radish Raphanus sativus, however, both of them could use zucchini and cowpea. Moreover, the feeding experience on zucchini led the cotton-specialized aphids to use cucumber well and finally to be transformed into the cucurbits-specialized biotype. The short-term feeding experience on cowpea resulted in the diet breadth expansion of the cucurbits-specialized aphids to use cotton. On the other hand, the diet breadth expansion of the cucurbits- and cotton-specialized aphids was only realized by different species of plant. It concluded that the special host plant did induce the conversion of feeding habits in the cotton- and cucurbits-specialized aphids, and consequently broke the

  6. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated solid rocket exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from solid rocket fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.; Knott, W. M.; Stahel, E. P.; Ambrose, J. T.; Mccrimmon, J. N.; Engle, M.; Romanow, L. A.; Sawyer, A. G.; Tyson, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of solid rocket fuel (SRF) exhaust on selected plant and and insect species in the Merritt Island, Florida area was investigated in order to determine if the exhaust clouds generated by shuttle launches would adversely affect the native, plants of the Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, the citrus production, or the beekeeping industry of the island. Conditions were simulated in greenhouse exposure chambers and field chambers constructed to model the ideal continuous stirred tank reactor. A plant exposure system was developed for dispensing and monitoring the two major chemicals in SRF exhaust, HCl and Al203, and for dispensing and monitoring SRF exhaust (controlled fuel burns). Plants native to Merritt Island, Florida were grown and used as test species. Dose-response relationships were determined for short term exposure of selected plant species to HCl, Al203, and mixtures of the two to SRF exhaust.

  7. How Do Insects Help the Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevel, Gary

    2005-01-01

    There are some 5 to 30 million insect species estimated in the world--and the majority of these have yet to be collected or named by science! Of course, the most well known insects are those that cause disease or compete for human agricultural products, but these insects represent only a small fraction of the world's insect population. In reality,…

  8. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

  9. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  10. The taxonomy of the Japanese oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kuwaniidae), with a generic diagnosis, a key to species and description of a new species from California.

    PubMed

    San'An, Wu; Nan, Nan; Gullan, Penny; Deng, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana), was described from specimens collected from the bark of oak trees (Quercus species) in Japan. More recently, the species has been identified from California and China, but Californian specimens differ morphologically from Japanese material and are considered here to be a new species based on both morphological and molecular data. In this paper, an illustrated redescription of K. quercus is provided based on type specimens consisting of adult females, first-instar nymphs and intermediate-stage females, and a lectotype is designated for Sasakia quercus Kuwana. The new Californian species, Kuwania raygilli Wu & Gullan, is described and illustrated based on the adult female, first-instar nymph and intermediate-stage female. A new generic diagnosis for Kuwania Cockerell based on adult females and first-instar nymphs, and a key to species based on adult females are included.

  11. A tool to assess potential for alien plant establishment and expansion under climate change.

    PubMed

    Roger, Erin; Duursma, Daisy Englert; Downey, Paul O; Gallagher, Rachael V; Hughes, Lesley; Steel, Jackie; Johnson, Stephen B; Leishman, Michelle R

    2015-08-15

    Predicting the influence of climate change on the potential distribution of naturalised alien plant species is an important and challenging task. While prioritisation of management actions for alien plants under current climatic conditions has been widely adopted, very few systems explicitly incorporate the potential of future changes in climate conditions to influence the distribution of alien plant species. Here, we develop an Australia-wide screening tool to assess the potential of naturalised alien plants to establish and spread under both current and future climatic conditions. The screening tool developed uses five spatially explicit criteria to establish the likelihood of alien plant population establishment and expansion under baseline climate conditions and future climates for the decades 2035 and 2065. Alien plants are then given a threat rating according to current and future threat to enable natural resource managers to focus on those species that pose the largest potential threat now and in the future. To demonstrate the screening tool, we present results for a representative sample of approximately 10% (n = 292) of Australia's known, naturalised alien plant species. Overall, most alien plant species showed decreases in area of habitat suitability under future conditions compared to current conditions and therefore the threat rating of most alien plant species declined between current and future conditions. Use of the screening tool is intended to assist natural resource managers in assessing the threat of alien plant establishment and spread under current and future conditions and thus prioritise detailed weed risk assessments for those species that pose the greatest threat. The screening tool is associated with a searchable database for all 292 alien plant species across a range of spatial scales, available through an interactive web-based portal at http://weedfutures.net/.

  12. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, M; Wang, C; Saha, S; Hutmacher, R B; Stelly, D M; Jenkins, J N; Burke, J; Roberts, P A

    2016-04-01

    resistance. CS lines carrying small alien chromosome segments with favorable QTL alleles could be used for effective introgression of biotic stress resistance or many other desirable traits by targeting gene interactions and reducing linkage drag effects. PMID:26882892

  13. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, M; Wang, C; Saha, S; Hutmacher, R B; Stelly, D M; Jenkins, J N; Burke, J; Roberts, P A

    2016-04-01

    resistance. CS lines carrying small alien chromosome segments with favorable QTL alleles could be used for effective introgression of biotic stress resistance or many other desirable traits by targeting gene interactions and reducing linkage drag effects.

  14. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: Effects of vegetation type and anthropogenic disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Newton, W.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of

  15. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies. PMID:26922585

  16. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies.

  17. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE)

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Darren; Edney-Browne, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE). Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae). However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286), and major differences include: i) the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe); and ii) the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%). The disharmonic ‘island’ nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36%) have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60%) compared to Europe (~30%), and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950). Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour) during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment. PMID:26147445

  18. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Dibyendu; Tiwary, Raghuvar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species. PMID:26230513

  19. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Dibyendu; Tiwary, Raghuvar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species. PMID:26230513

  20. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Dibyendu; Tiwary, Raghuvar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species.

  1. Analysis of plant leaf metabolites reveals no common response to insect herbivory by Pieris rapae in three related host-plant species.

    PubMed

    Riach, A C; Perera, M V L; Florance, H V; Penfield, S D; Hill, J K

    2015-05-01

    Studying the biochemical responses of different plant species to insect herbivory may help improve our understanding of the evolution of defensive metabolites found in host plants and their role in plant-herbivore interactions. Untargeted metabolic fingerprints measured as individual mass features were used to compare metabolite reactions in three Brassicales host-plant species (Cleome spinosa, Brassica oleracea, and Lunaria annua) to larval herbivore attack (Pieris rapae; Lepidoptera). Principal component analyses of metabolic fingerprints were able to distinguish among the three plant species and between uneaten control plants and plants that had been eaten. A large number of mass features (1186, 13% of mass features measured in control plants) were common to the three plant species. However, there were few similarities in the mass features that were induced (i.e. changed in abundance) following herbivory. Of the 87 and 68 induced mass features in B. oleracea and C. spinosa, respectively, there were only three that were induced in both plant species. By contrast, L. annua only had one mass feature induced by herbivory, and this was not induced in the other two plant species. The growth of the P. rapae larvae was poorer on the host plant L. annua than on B. oleracea and C. spinosa. The absence of common metabolites among the plants meant these induced responses could not be related to the performance of the herbivore. Thus, the response to herbivory by the same herbivore in these three host plants has evolved to be idiosyncratic in terms of the specific metabolites induced.

  2. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations.

  3. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations. PMID:6559112

  4. Wolbachia and the insect immune system: what reactive oxygen species can tell us about the mechanisms of Wolbachia–host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zug, Roman; Hammerstein, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that infect a vast range of arthropod species, making them one of the most prevalent endosymbionts in the world. Wolbachia’s stunning evolutionary success is mostly due to their reproductive parasitism but also to mutualistic effects such as increased host fecundity or protection against pathogens. However, the mechanisms underlying Wolbachia phenotypes, both parasitic and mutualistic, are only poorly understood. Moreover, it is unclear how the insect immune system is involved in these phenotypes and why it is not more successful in eliminating the bacteria. Here we argue that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely to be key in elucidating these issues. ROS are essential players in the insect immune system, and Wolbachia infection can affect ROS levels in the host. Based on recent findings, we elaborate a hypothesis that considers the different effects of Wolbachia on the oxidative environment in novel vs. native hosts. We propose that newly introduced Wolbachia trigger an immune response and cause oxidative stress, whereas in coevolved symbioses, infection is not associated with oxidative stress, but rather with restored redox homeostasis. Redox homeostasis can be restored in different ways, depending on whether Wolbachia or the host is in charge. This hypothesis offers a mechanistic explanation for several of the observed Wolbachia phenotypes. PMID:26579107

  5. Desperately seeking aliens.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, B W

    2001-02-22

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable--elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  6. Desperately seeking aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Brian W.

    2001-02-01

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable - elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  7. Desperately seeking aliens.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, B W

    2001-02-22

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable--elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary? PMID:11234021

  8. Alien plant dynamics following fire in mediterranean-climate California shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Baer-Keeley, M.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 75 species of alien plants were recorded during the first five years after fire in southern California shrublands, most of which were European annuals. Both cover and richness of aliens varied between years and plant association. Alien cover was lowest in the first postfire year in all plant associations and remained low during succession in chaparral but increased in sage scrub. Alien cover and richness were significantly correlated with year (time since disturbance) and with precipitation in both coastal and interior sage scrub associations. Hypothesized factors determining alien dominance were tested with structural equation modeling. Models that included nitrogen deposition and distance from the coast were not significant, but with those variables removed we obtained a significant model that gave an R2 = 0.60 for the response variable of fifth year alien dominance. Factors directly affecting alien dominance were (1) woody canopy closure and (2) alien seed banks. Significant indirect effects were (3) fire intensity, (4) fire history, (5) prefire stand structure, (6) aridity, and (7) community type. According to this model the most critical factor influencing aliens is the rapid return of the shrub and subshrub canopy. Thus, in these communities a single functional type (woody plants) appears to the most critical element controlling alien invasion and persistence. Fire history is an important indirect factor because it affects both prefire stand structure and postfire alien seed banks. Despite being fire-prone ecosystems, these shrublands are not adapted to fire per se, but rather to a particular fire regime. Alterations in the fire regime produce a very different selective environment, and high fire frequency changes the selective regime to favor aliens. This study does not support the widely held belief that prescription burning is a viable management practice for controlling alien species on semiarid landscapes. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of

  9. Insects and low temperatures: from molecular biology to distributions and abundance.

    PubMed Central

    Bale, J S

    2002-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse fauna on earth, with different species occupying a range of terrestrial and aquatic habitats from the tropics to the poles. Species inhabiting extreme low-temperature environments must either tolerate or avoid freezing to survive. While much is now known about the synthesis, biochemistry and function of the main groups of cryoprotectants involved in the seasonal processes of acclimatization and winter cold hardiness (ice-nucleating agents, polyols and antifreeze proteins), studies on the structural biology of these compounds have been more limited. The recent discovery of rapid cold-hardening, ice-interface desiccation and the daily resetting of critical thermal thresholds affecting mortality and mobility have emphasized the role of temperature as the most important abiotic factor, acting through physiological processes to determine ecological outcomes. These relationships are seen in key areas such as species responses to climate warming, forecasting systems for pest outbreaks and the establishment potential of alien species in new environments. PMID:12171648

  10. Enterococci in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jonathan D.; Mundt, J. Orvin

    1972-01-01

    Enterococci were obtained from 213 of 403 insects cultured during a 14-month period, in numbers from 103 to 3 × 107/g of insect. Insects were taken only from nonurban, wild, and cultivated fields and woods. In species of insects carrying them, enterococci were not always present in every individual cultured, and often more than one species of enterococcus occurred within a species. Enterococci were obtained from certain insects taken in the field during the dormant season, suggesting their role as overwintering agents. They were generally present in species feeding on nectar, succulent plant parts, and on and ir forest litter, but not from insects feeding on less succulent leaves and stems. Streptococcus faecalis was recovered from 32%, Streptococcus faecium from 22.4%, and Streptococcus faecium var. casseliflavus from 43.5% of members of the 37 taxa of insects. S. faecalis and S. faecium var. casseliflavus exhibit a high percent of conformity to the properties published for them. The heterogeneity in properties of S. faecium is similar to that found for the species taken from plants. Many fail to grow in broth at 45 C or in broth containing 6.5% NaCl; 50% of the cultures ferment both melezitose and melibiose, and a few ferment neither sugar. The remainder ferment melibiose only. Failure to reduce methylene blue in milk by S. faecalis and S. faecium is correlated with the inability to ferment lactose. More than 93% of the cultures of S. faecalis digest casein in milk from the top downward, following the production of a soft, flowing curd. Because this property is not characteristic of S. faecalis taken from humans, the reaction in litmus milk is suggested as a means of differentiation between cultures of remote and innocent origin in nature and recent, human pollution. PMID:4628796

  11. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    PubMed

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward.

  12. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Emer, Carine; Vaughan, Ian P.; Hiscock, Simon; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet) and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam) and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward. PMID:26633170

  13. Effects of fruit position on fruit mass and seed germination in the alien species Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) and the implications for its invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravcová, Lenka; Perglová, Irena; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan

    2005-07-01

    The aims of this paper are to determine whether the effect of position of fruit on a plant affects the germination characteristics of seed of Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae), a Caucasian species invasive in Europe, and the germination potential of this species. Reproductive characteristics of H. mantegazzianum were studied at seven sites in the Czech Republic where this species is abundant. Fruits were collected and weighed from eight plants at each site, from three umbel types (terminal, satellite and branch) and two fruit positions within an umbel (central or marginal). Characteristics of individual umbels (duration of flowering, size) and plants (fecundity, age, height, basal diameter) were recorded. Percentage germination and germination rate (time to when 50% of the seeds had germinated) were assessed. At each site, fruit mass and percentage germination varied greatly among plants. Fruits from terminal inflorescences were heavier than those from satellites and branches, and those produced in the centre of an umbel were heavier than those from the margin. Mean percentage germination was 91%, which varied among sites but was not affected by fruit position on a plant. Germination rate increased with fruit mass. Neither umbel size nor time of flowering had a significant effect on germination characteristics. At some sites, there was a negative relationship between fruit mass and plant height. A combination of reproductive traits (high fecundity, high germination capacity, opportunistic behaviour associated with limited effect of fruit position on a plant on germination characteristics) might determine this species ability to successfully invade new habitats.

  14. A Study of the Species of Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) Deposited in the Smithsonian USNM Insect & Mite Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are not complete, and important information necessary for a correct identification is missing. The objective of this study was to re-describe species of...

  15. Insect Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Mackey, Regina

    2016-09-01

    Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has several different protocols. VIT is highly effective in reducing systemic reactions and anaphylaxis.

  16. Insect Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Mackey, Regina

    2016-09-01

    Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has several different protocols. VIT is highly effective in reducing systemic reactions and anaphylaxis. PMID:27545732

  17. Evolution of the Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  18. Insect hemolymph clotting.

    PubMed

    Dushay, Mitchell S

    2009-08-01

    The clot's appearance in different large-bodied insects has been described, but until recently, little was known about any insect clot's molecular makeup, and few experiments could directly test its function. Techniques have been developed in Drosophila (fruit fly) larvae to identify clotting factors that can then be tested for effects on hemostasis, healing, and immunity. This has revealed unanticipated complexity in the hemostatic mechanisms in these larvae. While the clot's molecular structure is not yet fully understood, progress is being made, and the loss of clotting factors has been shown to cause subtle immune defects. The few similarities between coagulation in different insect species and life stages, and the current state of knowledge about coagulation in insects are discussed. PMID:19418022

  19. Response of selected plant and insect species to simulated SRM exhaust mixtures and to exhaust components from SRM fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible biologic effects of exhaust products from solid rocket motor (SRM) burns associated with the space shuttle are examined. The major components of the exhaust that might have an adverse effect on vegetation, HCl and Al2O3 are studied. Dose response curves for native and cultivated plants and selected insects exposed to simulated exhaust and component chemicals from SRM exhaust are presented. A system for dispensing and monitoring component chemicals of SRM exhaust (HCl and Al2O3) and a system for exposing test plants to simulated SRM exhaust (controlled fuel burns) are described. The effects of HCl, Al2O3, and mixtures of the two on the honeybee, the corn earworm, and the common lacewing and the effects of simulated exhaust on the honeybee are discussed.

  20. Methionine-enkephalin immunoreactivity in the gonads and nervous system of two insect species: Locusta migratoria and Sarcophaga bullata.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, L; Schrooten, S; Huybrechts, R; De Loof, A

    1988-01-01

    Methionine(met)-enkephalin immunoreactivity as visualized by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase procedure, is present in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, and young ovarian follicles of Locusta (panoistic type) and Sarcophaga (polytrophic type). Follicle cells and mature spermatozoa are always immunonegative as are locust vitellogenic follicles. In oocytes and in trophocytes, the met-enkephalin-like material first appears around the nucleus and is then dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Later, it is present only in the periphery. In the ovary of both insects, no immunoreactivity is found with antisera against adrenocorticotrophic hormone, melanophore stimulating hormone, beta-endorphin, corticotropin releasing factor, or leucine-enkephalin. All these antisera yield a positive reaction when applied to the central nervous system as does the met-enkephalin antiserum. This study indicates that the met-enkephalin-like peptide may play a role in reproductive physiology.

  1. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:21282022

  2. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis.

  3. Alienation: A Cause of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Adams, Jane

    1990-01-01

    Investigated alienation by administering Dean Alienation Scale to 157 incarcerated and 1,318 nonincarcerated adolescents. Found that incarcerated adolescents had significantly higher levels of total alienation, isolation, and powerlessness. Given high recidivism rates, results suggest reduction of both alienation and rejection of societal norms…

  4. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  5. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  6. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  7. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  8. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  9. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  10. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  11. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  12. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  13. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  14. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  15. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  16. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  17. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  18. Insect Keepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  19. Incredible Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes an Insect an Insect?," including…

  20. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  1. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  2. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  3. New species of aquatic insects from Europe (Insecta: Trichoptera): Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON; PREVIŠIĆ, ANA; MALICKY, HANS

    2016-01-01

    New species are described from the following genera: Consorophylax and Anisogamus, (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Additionally the larvae of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri nov. sp. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs distinctly from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, A. waringeri sp. nov. develops more slender superior appendages; a more rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on the 1st abdominal segment, a unique feature among Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The recovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess a biodiversity under threat of extinction that has yet to be fully described. PMID:25661619

  4. Analysis of plant leaf metabolites reveals no common response to insect herbivory by Pieris rapae in three related host-plant species

    PubMed Central

    Riach, A. C.; Perera, M. V. L.; Florance, H. V.; Penfield, S. D.; Hill, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Studying the biochemical responses of different plant species to insect herbivory may help improve our understanding of the evolution of defensive metabolites found in host plants and their role in plant–herbivore interactions. Untargeted metabolic fingerprints measured as individual mass features were used to compare metabolite reactions in three Brassicales host-plant species (Cleome spinosa, Brassica oleracea, and Lunaria annua) to larval herbivore attack (Pieris rapae; Lepidoptera). Principal component analyses of metabolic fingerprints were able to distinguish among the three plant species and between uneaten control plants and plants that had been eaten. A large number of mass features (1186, 13% of mass features measured in control plants) were common to the three plant species. However, there were few similarities in the mass features that were induced (i.e. changed in abundance) following herbivory. Of the 87 and 68 induced mass features in B. oleracea and C. spinosa, respectively, there were only three that were induced in both plant species. By contrast, L. annua only had one mass feature induced by herbivory, and this was not induced in the other two plant species. The growth of the P. rapae larvae was poorer on the host plant L. annua than on B. oleracea and C. spinosa. The absence of common metabolites among the plants meant these induced responses could not be related to the performance of the herbivore. Thus, the response to herbivory by the same herbivore in these three host plants has evolved to be idiosyncratic in terms of the specific metabolites induced. PMID:25711707

  5. Is the timing of scent emission correlated with insect visitor activity and pollination in long-spurred Satyrium species?

    PubMed

    van der Niet, T; Jürgens, A; Johnson, S D

    2015-01-01

    Plants are expected to emit floral scent when their pollinators are most active. In the case of long-tubed flowers specialised for pollination by crepuscular or nocturnal moths, scent emissions would be expected to peak during dawn. Although this classic idea has existed for decades, it has rarely been tested quantitatively. We investigated the timing of flower visitation, pollination and floral scent emissions in six long-spurred Satyrium species (Orchidaceae). We observed multiple evening visits by pollinaria-bearing moths on flowers of all study species, but rarely any diurnal visits. The assemblages of moth pollinators differed among Satyrium species, even those that co-flowered, and the lengths of moth tongues and floral nectar spurs were strongly correlated, suggesting that the available moth pollinator fauna is partitioned by floral traits. Pollinarium removal occurred more frequently during the night than during the day in four of the six species. Scent emission, however, was only significantly higher at dusk than midday in two species. Analysis of floral volatiles using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry yielded 168 scent compounds, of which 112 were species-specific. The scent blends emitted by each species occupy discrete clusters in two-dimensional phenotype space, based on multivariate analysis. We conclude that these long-spurred Satyrium species are ecologically specialised for moth pollination, yet the timing of their scent emission is not closely correlated with moth pollination activity. Scent composition was also more variable than expected from a group of closely related plants sharing the same pollinator functional group. These findings reveal a need for greater understanding of mechanisms of scent production and their constraints, as well as the underlying reasons for divergent scent chemistry among closely related plants.

  6. Chapter 21: Microsporidia in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The science of microsporidiology encompasses a diverse assemblage of pathogens from a large and varied group of hosts. Microsporidia, pathogenic protists related to the Fungi, are considered to be primary pathogens of many aquatic and terrestrial insect species and have important roles in insect po...

  7. A black-and-red stick insect from the Philippines - observations on the external anatomy and natural history of a new species of Orthomeria.

    PubMed

    Vallotto, Davide; Bresseel, Joachim; Heitzmann, Thierry; Gottardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A new stick insect of the genus Orthomeria Kirby, 1904 (Phasmatodea, Aschiphasmatidae) is described from the Philippines. Orthomeria (Orthomeria) kangi sp. n. is readily distinguished from all other congeners by the distinctive blood red colouration of the costal region of the hind wings. Major features of the external morphology of adults, eggs, and first-instar nymphs are illustrated. Locomotory attachment pads are of the smooth type with irregular microgrooves on the contact surface. An unusual condition of male terminalia is the absence of tergal thorn pads on segment 10. The male clasping organs are represented by an elongated vomer terminating in a prominent spine, and by incurved cerci featuring a bilobed apex equipped with a sharp blade-like ridge. Intraspecific variation in body colouration and hind wing length occurs in females. The new species lives at 400-650 m elevation in the surroundings of the Sablang and Tuba regions, in the Benguet Province of Luzon island. Host plants include Ficus spp. (Moraceae), and Pipturus spp. and Leucosyke spp. (Urticaceae). Observations on the mating and defensive behaviour are presented. Orthomeria (Orthomeria) catadromus (Westwood, 1859) is recognised as a junior synonym of Orthomeria (Orthomeria) pandora (Westwood, 1859), syn. n. A lectotype is designated for both species. Finally, an updated identification key to the species of the subgenus Orthomeria is provided. PMID:27006604

  8. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms

    PubMed Central

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference “Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms” convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants. PMID:24637519

  9. A black-and-red stick insect from the Philippines – observations on the external anatomy and natural history of a new species of Orthomeria

    PubMed Central

    Vallotto, Davide; Bresseel, Joachim; Heitzmann, Thierry; Gottardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new stick insect of the genus Orthomeria Kirby, 1904 (Phasmatodea, Aschiphasmatidae) is described from the Philippines. Orthomeria (Orthomeria) kangi sp. n. is readily distinguished from all other congeners by the distinctive blood red colouration of the costal region of the hind wings. Major features of the external morphology of adults, eggs, and first-instar nymphs are illustrated. Locomotory attachment pads are of the smooth type with irregular microgrooves on the contact surface. An unusual condition of male terminalia is the absence of tergal thorn pads on segment 10. The male clasping organs are represented by an elongated vomer terminating in a prominent spine, and by incurved cerci featuring a bilobed apex equipped with a sharp blade-like ridge. Intraspecific variation in body colouration and hind wing length occurs in females. The new species lives at 400-650 m elevation in the surroundings of the Sablang and Tuba regions, in the Benguet Province of Luzon island. Host plants include Ficus spp. (Moraceae), and Pipturus spp. and Leucosyke spp. (Urticaceae). Observations on the mating and defensive behaviour are presented. Orthomeria (Orthomeria) catadromus (Westwood, 1859) is recognised as a junior synonym of Orthomeria (Orthomeria) pandora (Westwood, 1859), syn. n. A lectotype is designated for both species. Finally, an updated identification key to the species of the subgenus Orthomeria is provided. PMID:27006604

  10. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants.

  11. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, FangHao; Zhang, GuiFen; Liu, ShuSheng; Luo, Chen; Chu, Dong; Zhang, YouJun; Zang, LianSheng; Jiu, Min; Lü, ZhiChuang; Cui, XuHong; Zhang, LiPing; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, QingWen; Liu, WanXue; Liang, Pei; Lei, ZhongRen; Zhang, YongJun

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  12. The alienation of the sufferer.

    PubMed

    Younger, J B

    1995-06-01

    Suffering is a particularly human experience that often brings with it loneliness or alienation from others. The theory described in this article explains the mechanisms through which suffering affects an individual's sense of community and connectedness with others. The intricate patterns are explained to provide a basis for prescriptive nursing to prevent or reverse this loss of connectedness. First, the article develops the concept of suffering and its influences on relationship with the self and with others and the relationship of others with the sufferer. Then, the concept of alienation is developed in this context, its philosophical roots explored, and a continuum described that encompasses alienation through connectedness. Related concepts of separation, shame, and stigma are briefly described as partial cases of alienation of the sufferer that also show the pervasiveness of the phenomenon. Next, the personal characteristics of an individual who might help are developed through the concept of wisdom. Last, an explanation is given as to why care is the contextual framework through which alienation is reversed and connectedness achieved. Although suffering, alienation, and care have gone by many names, the essences of these phenomena have been recurrent theme in descriptions of human response.

  13. Species-specific patterns of swimming escape performance and cholinesterase activity in a guild of aquatic insects exposed to endosulfan.

    PubMed

    Trekels, Hendrik; Van de Meutter, Frank; Stoks, Robby

    2012-04-01

    Next to imposing direct lethal effects, pollutants may also indirectly impose mortality by making prey organisms more vulnerable to predation. We report that four water boatmen species differed strongly in direct endosulfan-imposed mortality, and only the species that suffered highest mortality, Sigara iactans, also showed a reduction in escape swimming speed. While head AChE activity was inhibited in all four species, body ChE was only inhibited in S. iactans where it covaried with escape swimming speed, indicating a mechanistic link between body ChE and swimming speed. Our study underscores the need for risk assessment to consider sublethal pollutant effects, which may considerably affect survival rates under natural conditions, also when testing concentrations of a pesticide that cause direct mortality. Such sublethal effects may generate discrepancies between laboratory and field studies and should be considered when designing safety factors for toxicants where the risk assessment is solely based on LC50 values.

  14. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  15. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  16. Edible insects are the future?

    PubMed

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  17. Edible insects are the future?

    PubMed

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy. PMID:26908196

  18. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Platypodinae) alien to Europe

    PubMed Central

    R. Kirkendall, Lawrence; Faccoli, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Invasive bark beetles are posing a major threat to forest resources around the world. DAISIE’s web-based and printed databases of invasive species in Europe provide an incomplete and misleading picture of the alien scolytines and platypodines. We present a review of the alien bark beetle fauna of Europe based on primary literature through 2009. We find that there are 18 Scolytinae and one Platypodinae species apparently established in Europe, from 14 different genera. Seventeen species are naturalized. We argue that Trypodendron laeve, commonly considered alien in Europe, is a native species; conversely, we hypothesize that Xyleborus pfeilii, which has always been treated as indigenous, is an alien species from Asia. We also point out the possibility that the Asian larch bark beetle Ips subelongatus is established in European Russia. We show that there has been a marked acceleration in the rate of new introductions to Europe, as is also happening in North America: seven alien species were first recorded in the last decade. We present information on the biology, origins, and distributions of the alien species. All but four are polyphagous, and 11 are inbreeders: two traits which increase invasiveness. Eleven species are native to Asia, six to the Americas, and one is from the Canary Islands. The Mediterranean is especially favorable for invasives, hosting a large proportion of the aliens (9/19). Italy, France and Spain have the largest numbers of alien species (14, 10 and 7, respectively). We point out that the low numbers for at least some countries is likely due to under-reporting. Finally, we discuss the difficulties associated with identifying newly invasive species. Lack of good illustrations and keys hinder identification, particularly for species coming from Asia and Oceania. PMID:21594183

  19. Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

  20. Alien Introgression for FHB Resistance in Wheat - Challenges and Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over one thousand accessions of wheat relatives at different ploidy levels and wheat-alien species derivatives with varied chromosome constitutions were evaluated for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. FHB resistance identified from the relatives and derivatives were introgressed into adapted br...

  1. Effects of cadmium and resource quality on freshwater detritus processing chains: a microcosm approach with two insect species.

    PubMed

    Campos, Diana; Alves, Artur; Lemos, Marco F L; Correia, António; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Pestana, João L T

    2014-07-01

    Detritus processing is vital for freshwater ecosystems that depend on the leaf litter from riparian vegetation and is mediated by microorganisms and aquatic invertebrates. Shredder invertebrates transform coarse particulate organic matter into fine particulate organic matter used as food by collector species. Direct and indirect effects of contaminants can impair detritus processing and thus affect the functioning of these ecosystems. Here, we assessed the combined effects of a toxic metal (cadmium) and resource quality (leaf species) on detritus processing and shredder-collector interactions. We considered two types of leaves, alder and eucalyptus that were microbially conditioned under different Cd concentrations in the laboratory. The microbial communities present on leaves were analyzed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and we also measured microbial respiration rates. Sericostoma vittatum (a caddisfly shredder) and Chironomus riparius (a midge collector) were also exposed to Cd and allowed to consume the corresponding alder or eucalyptus leaves. We evaluated C. riparius growth and leaf mass loss in multispecies microcosms. Cadmium exposure affected leaf conditioning and fungal diversity on both leaf species, as assessed by DGGE. Cadmium exposure also affected the mass loss of alder leaves by reductions in detritivore feeding, and impaired C. riparius growth. Chironomus riparius consumed alder leaf discs in the absence of shredders, but S. vittatum appear to promote C. riparius growth in treatments containing eucalyptus. These results show that indirect effects of contaminants along detritus-processing chains can occur through effects on shredder-collector interactions such as facilitation but they also depend on the nutritional quality of detritus and on sensitivity and feeding plasticity of detritivore species. PMID:24648031

  2. Are aliens threatening European aquatic coastal ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, Karsten; Olenin, Sergej; Thieltges, David W.

    2006-05-01

    Inshore waters of European coasts have accumulated a high share of non-indigenous species, where a changeable palaeoenvironment has caused low diversity in indigenous biota. Also strongly transformed modern coastal ecosystems seem to assimilate whatever species have been introduced and tolerate the physical regime. Adding non-native species does not have any directional predetermined effects on recipient coastal ecosystems. The status of being a non-native rather refers to a position in evolutionary history than qualify as an ecological category with distinct and consistent properties. Effects of invaders vary between habitats and with the phase of invasion and also with shifting ambient conditions. Although aliens accelerate change in European coastal biota, we found no evidence that they generally impair biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. More often, invaders expand ecosystem functioning by adding new ecological traits, intensifying existing ones and increasing functional redundancy.

  3. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    PubMed

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence. PMID:27056916

  4. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    PubMed

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence.

  5. Insect-Flower Interaction Network Structure Is Resilient to a Temporary Pulse of Floral Resources from Invasive Rhododendron ponticum

    PubMed Central

    Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Stout, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering), yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H’2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure is robust to

  6. Male courtship song frequency as an indicator of male genetic quality in an insect species, Drosophila montana.

    PubMed

    Hoikkala, A; Aspi, J; Suvanto, L

    1998-03-22

    Most theoretical models on evolution of male secondary sexual characters and female preferences for these characters suggest that the male characters evolve in response to female preferences that may themselves evolve in response to direct or indirect benefits of choice. In Drosophila montana (a species of the D. virilis group), females use male song in their mate choice, preferring males that produce songs with short sound pulses and a high carrier frequency. We demonstrate here that the females get indirect benefits from their choice: in our data the frequency of the male song correlated with the survival rate of the male's progeny from egg to adulthood (indirect benefit for the female), but not with the fecundity of his mating partner (no direct benefit for the female). Male wing centroid asymmetry did not correlate with male wing song characters, nor with female egg production nor the fitness of her progeny, suggesting that fluctuating asymmetry in male wings does not play a major role in sexual signalling. The fact that the male song gives the female information on the male's condition/genetic quality in D. montana suggests that in this species the evolution of female preferences for male song characters could have evolved through condition-dependent viability selection presented in some 'good genes' models.

  7. Climate change and voltinism in Californian insect pest species: sensitivity to location, scenario and climate model choice.

    PubMed

    Ziter, Carly; Robinson, Emily A; Newman, Jonathan A

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies of the impact of climatic change are hampered by their inability to consider multiple climate change scenarios and indeed often consider no more than simple climate sensitivity such as a uniform increase in temperature. Modelling efforts offer the ability to consider a much wider range of realistic climate projections and are therefore useful, in particular, for estimating the sensitivity of impact predictions to differences in geographical location, and choice of climate change scenario and climate model projections. In this study, we used well-established degree-day models to predict the voltinism of 13 agronomically important pests in California, USA. We ran these models using the projections from three Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled Global Circulation Models (AOCGCMs or GCMs), in conjunction with the SRES scenarios. We ran these for two locations representing northern and southern California. We did this for both the 2050s and 2090s. We used anova to partition the variation in the resulting voltinism among time period, climate change scenario, GCM and geographical location. For these 13 pest species, the choice of climate model explained an average of 42% of the total variation in voltinism, far more than did geographical location (33%), time period (17%) or scenario (1%). The remaining 7% of the variation was explained by various interactions, of which the location by GCM interaction was the strongest (5%). Regardless of these sources of uncertainty, a robust conclusion from our work is that all 13 pest species are likely to experience increases in the number of generations that they complete each year. Such increased voltinism is likely to have significant consequences for crop protection and production. PMID:24501055

  8. Climate change and voltinism in Californian insect pest species: sensitivity to location, scenario and climate model choice.

    PubMed

    Ziter, Carly; Robinson, Emily A; Newman, Jonathan A

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies of the impact of climatic change are hampered by their inability to consider multiple climate change scenarios and indeed often consider no more than simple climate sensitivity such as a uniform increase in temperature. Modelling efforts offer the ability to consider a much wider range of realistic climate projections and are therefore useful, in particular, for estimating the sensitivity of impact predictions to differences in geographical location, and choice of climate change scenario and climate model projections. In this study, we used well-established degree-day models to predict the voltinism of 13 agronomically important pests in California, USA. We ran these models using the projections from three Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled Global Circulation Models (AOCGCMs or GCMs), in conjunction with the SRES scenarios. We ran these for two locations representing northern and southern California. We did this for both the 2050s and 2090s. We used anova to partition the variation in the resulting voltinism among time period, climate change scenario, GCM and geographical location. For these 13 pest species, the choice of climate model explained an average of 42% of the total variation in voltinism, far more than did geographical location (33%), time period (17%) or scenario (1%). The remaining 7% of the variation was explained by various interactions, of which the location by GCM interaction was the strongest (5%). Regardless of these sources of uncertainty, a robust conclusion from our work is that all 13 pest species are likely to experience increases in the number of generations that they complete each year. Such increased voltinism is likely to have significant consequences for crop protection and production.

  9. Freshwater Biodiversity and Insect Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B.; Monaghan, Michael T.; Pauls, Steffen U.

    2016-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than one percent of Earth’s surface, but harbor more than six percent of all insect species: nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are exceptionally susceptible to environmental change, and exhibit marked ecological gradients. The amphibiotic lifestyles of aquatic insects result in complex contributions of extinction and allopatric and non-allopatric speciation in species diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bio-indicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification. PMID:24160433

  10. Migration strategies of insects.

    PubMed

    Dingle, H

    1972-03-24

    Physiological and ecological results from a variety of species are consistent with what seem to be valid general statements concerning insect migration. These are as follows: (i)During migration locomotory functions are enhanced and vegetative functions such as feeding and reproduction are suppressed. (ii) Migration usually occurs prereproductively in the life of the adult insect (the oogenesis-flight syndrome). (iii)Since migrant individuals are usually prereproductive, their reproductive values, and hence colonizing abilities, are at or near maximum. (iv) Migrants usually reside in temporary habitats. (v)Migrants have a high potential for population increase, r, which is also advantageous for colonizers. (vi)Both the physiological and ecological parameters of migration are modifiable by environmental factors (that is, phenotypically modifiable)to suit the prevailing conditions. Taken together, these criteria establish a comprehensive theory and adumbrate the basic strategy for migrant insects. This basic strategy is modified to suit the ecological requirements of individual species. Comparative studies of these modifications are of considerable theoretical and practical interest, the more so since most economically important insects are migrants. No satisfactory general statements can as yet be made with respect to the genotype and migration. Certainly we expect colonizing populiations to possess genotypes favoring a high r, but genotypic variation in r depends on the heritabilities of life table statistics, and such measurements are yet to be made (10, 53). The fact that flight duration can be increased by appropriate selection in Oncopeltus fasciatus, and the demonstration of additive genetic variance for this trait in Lygaeus kalmii, suggest that heritability studies of migratory behavior would also be worth pursuing. Most interesting of course, will be possible genetic correlations between migration and life history parameters. Also, migration often

  11. [Portrait of an alien enemy].

    PubMed

    Molnar, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Official documents and photographs are forms of alienation yet they carry imprints of the inner life of their subjects. An identity paper and photograph of the eighteen-year-old Anna Freud (August 1914) serves as the basis for an investigation of various aspects of her identity at the time - firstly her position in England as an "alien enemy"; secondly her emotional and sexual predicament, brought to light primarily through her father's response to Ernest Jones' supposed advances; and finally her own sense of self as deduced from the expression in the portrait, backed up by the evidence of her poetry.

  12. Seed dispersal networks in the Galápagos and the consequences of alien plant invasions

    PubMed Central

    Heleno, Ruben H.; Olesen, Jens M.; Nogales, Manuel; Vargas, Pablo; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Alien plants are a growing threat to the Galápagos unique biota. We evaluated the impact of alien plants on eight seed dispersal networks from two islands of the archipelago. Nearly 10 000 intact seeds from 58 species were recovered from the droppings of 18 bird and reptile dispersers. The most dispersed invaders were Lantana camara, Rubus niveus and Psidium guajava, the latter two likely benefiting from an asynchronous fruit production with most native plants, which facilitate their consumption and spread. Lava lizards dispersed the seeds of 27 species, being the most important dispersers, followed by small ground finch, two mockingbirds, the giant tortoise and two insectivorous birds. Most animals dispersed alien seeds, but these formed a relatively small proportion of the interactions. Nevertheless, the integration of aliens was higher in the island that has been invaded for longest, suggesting a time-lag between alien plant introductions and their impacts on seed dispersal networks. Alien plants become more specialized with advancing invasion, favouring more simplified plant and disperser communities. However, only habitat type significantly affected the overall network structure. Alien plants were dispersed via two pathways: dry-fruited plants were preferentially dispersed by finches, while fleshy fruited species were mostly dispersed by other birds and reptiles. PMID:23173203

  13. Seed dispersal networks in the Galápagos and the consequences of alien plant invasions.

    PubMed

    Heleno, Ruben H; Olesen, Jens M; Nogales, Manuel; Vargas, Pablo; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Alien plants are a growing threat to the Galápagos unique biota. We evaluated the impact of alien plants on eight seed dispersal networks from two islands of the archipelago. Nearly 10 000 intact seeds from 58 species were recovered from the droppings of 18 bird and reptile dispersers. The most dispersed invaders were Lantana camara, Rubus niveus and Psidium guajava, the latter two likely benefiting from an asynchronous fruit production with most native plants, which facilitate their consumption and spread. Lava lizards dispersed the seeds of 27 species, being the most important dispersers, followed by small ground finch, two mockingbirds, the giant tortoise and two insectivorous birds. Most animals dispersed alien seeds, but these formed a relatively small proportion of the interactions. Nevertheless, the integration of aliens was higher in the island that has been invaded for longest, suggesting a time-lag between alien plant introductions and their impacts on seed dispersal networks. Alien plants become more specialized with advancing invasion, favouring more simplified plant and disperser communities. However, only habitat type significantly affected the overall network structure. Alien plants were dispersed via two pathways: dry-fruited plants were preferentially dispersed by finches, while fleshy fruited species were mostly dispersed by other birds and reptiles.

  14. Fluorescence in insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Victoria L.; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Intrater, Nurit; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescent molecules are much in demand for biosensors, solar cells, LEDs and VCSEL diodes, therefore, considerable efforts have been expended in designing and tailoring fluorescence to specific technical applications. However, naturally occurring fluorescence of diverse types has been reported from a wide array of living organisms: most famously, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, but also in over 100 species of coral and in the cuticle of scorpions, where it is the rule, rather than the exception. Despite the plethora of known insect species, comparatively few quantitative studies have been made of insect fluorescence. Because of the potential applications of natural fluorescence, studies in this field have relevance to both physics and biology. Therefore, in this paper, we review the literature on insect fluorescence, before documenting its occurrence in the longhorn beetles Sternotomis virescens, Sternotomis variabilis var. semi rufescens, Anoplophora elegans and Stellognatha maculata, the tiger beetles Cicindela maritima and Cicindela germanica and the weevil Pachyrrhynchus gemmatus purpureus. Optical features of insect fluorescence, including emitted wavelength, molecular ageing and naturally occurring combinations of fluorescence with bioluminescence and colour-producing structures are discussed.

  15. Localization of melanotropin-like peptides in the central nervous system of two insect species, the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, and the fleshfly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, L; Jégou, S; Vaudry, H; Verhaert, P; De Loof, A

    1987-04-01

    By use of well characterized antisera in the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method, we were able to demonstrate alpha MSH and beta MSH immunoreactive cells and nerve fibres within the nervous system of adults and larvae of Locusta migratoria and 3-, 5- and 8-day-old adult Sarcophaga bullata. In neither of these insect species, any immunoreaction was obtained with a gamma 3MSH-antiserum. Double immunohistochemical stainings revealed that alpha MSH-like and beta MSH-like substances are located in different cells. These cells show no immunoreactivity to a number of antisera against other POMC-derivatives (anti-beta lipotropin, anti beta endorphin, anti-ACTH1-24); thus they appear to contain alpha MSH- or beta MSH-like material in a specific way. The function of the immunologically detected peptides remains to be demonstrated. The distribution of the immunoreactive material suggests that, like in amphibians and other lower vertebrates, the synthesis or release of melanotropins might be under the influence of external stimuli. The present observations support the recently developed concept that even some of the smallest neuropeptides, the melanotropins, have been highly conserved during a long period of evolution.

  16. Assessing the importance of alien macro-Crustacea (Malacostraca) within macroinvertebrate assemblages in Belgian coastal harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boets, Pieter; Lock, Koen; Goethals, Peter L. M.

    2012-06-01

    Harbours, which are often characterised by anthropogenic stress in combination with intensive international ship traffic, tend to be very susceptible to aquatic invasions. Since alien macrocrustaceans are known to be very successful across many European waters, a study was made on their distribution and impact in the four Belgian coastal harbours (Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Blankenberge and Zeebrugge). Biological and physical-chemical data were gathered at 43 sampling sites distributed along a salinity gradient in the four harbours. One-fourth of all crustacean species recorded were alien and represented on average 30% of the total macrocrustacean abundance and 65% of the total macrocrustacean biomass. The large share of alien crustaceans in the total macrocrustacean biomass was mainly due to several large alien crab species. Most alien species were found in the oligohaline zone, whereas the number of indigenous species slightly increased with increasing salinity. The low number of indigenous species present at low salinities was probably not only caused by salinity, but also by the lower water quality in this salinity range. Based on the site-specific biocontamination index (SBCI), which was used to assess the ecological water quality, the harbour of Nieuwpoort and Ostend scored best and were classified as good, indicating the limited abundance and the low number of alien macrocrustaceans. Sampling locations situated more inland generally had a higher SBCI and a lower ecological water quality. Zeebrugge and Blankenberge were characterised by a severe biocontamination. For Zeebrugge, this is probably related to the intensive transcontinental commercial ship traffic, whereas for Blankenberge, this could be due to introduction of alien species via recreational crafts or due to its geographical location in the proximity of Zeebrugge. Consistent monitoring of estuarine regions and harbours, which are seen as hotspots for introductions, could help in understanding and

  17. Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1993-01-01

    Because parental alienation syndrome is newly recognized, it must be redefined as new cases are observed. Evidence suggests that alienation may be provoked by other than custodial matters, cases of alleged sexual abuse may be hinted, slow judgments by courts exacerbate problem, prolonged alienation of child may trigger mental illness, and little…

  18. Graffiti and "Film School" Culture: Displaying Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibel, Dean

    1994-01-01

    Examines graffiti created by students in "film school" as an organizational document. Finds themes related to alienation and the discourse that counters the sources of that alienation. Shows how the humorous communicative style of graffiti creates tension among cultural meanings that mediates between alienation and liberation. (SR)

  19. Aging and Alienation: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Tso Sang

    Alienation has been a key concept and major area of empirical studies in sociology and psychology; however, most alienation studies have not dealt with the elderly. In an attempt to explore the effects of the aging process and the major events of later life on the aging person's vulnerability to alienation, older residents (50 years or more) in a…

  20. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  1. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  2. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  3. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  4. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  5. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  6. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  7. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  8. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  9. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  10. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  11. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  12. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  13. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  14. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

    2008-01-01

    The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa's Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular species reflects the likely history of ornamental plantings. Results are used to assess whether past management actions have been appropriately directed. Two hundred and fifty-eight alien species have been recorded in the 36 tourist camps and staff villages. The number of staff housed in villages explains much of the diversity of cultivated alien plant species. Older camps also tend to have more ornamental alien plant species. However, the lack of a strong link between camp age and number of cultivated species suggests that ornamental plants have been widely spread around the KNP by humans. We also show that increased camp activity (either size or age) has led to more ornamental species, while, with the notable exception of Skukuza, camp activity has had a much smaller effect on the number of noncultivated species. Noncultivated species tend to be naturally dispersed, as opposed to directly spread by humans between camps. Past management prioritized certain species on the basis of their potential to invade KNP and on the prevailing national legislation. These species were removed manually and follow-up control was carried out. Once the priority species were deemed to be under control, less invasive species were targeted. All alien species were removed from vacated houses, regardless of the potential invasiveness of the species.

  15. Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R. U.

    2008-01-01

    The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular species reflects the likely history of ornamental plantings. Results are used to assess whether past management actions have been appropriately directed. Two hundred and fifty-eight alien species have been recorded in the 36 tourist camps and staff villages. The number of staff housed in villages explains much of the diversity of cultivated alien plant species. Older camps also tend to have more ornamental alien plant species. However, the lack of a strong link between camp age and number of cultivated species suggests that ornamental plants have been widely spread around the KNP by humans. We also show that increased camp activity (either size or age) has led to more ornamental species, while, with the notable exception of Skukuza, camp activity has had a much smaller effect on the number of noncultivated species. Noncultivated species tend to be naturally dispersed, as opposed to directly spread by humans between camps. Past management prioritized certain species on the basis of their potential to invade KNP and on the prevailing national legislation. These species were removed manually and follow-up control was carried out. Once the priority species were deemed to be under control, less invasive species were targeted. All alien species were removed from vacated houses, regardless of the potential invasiveness of the species.

  16. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Blossom; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H; Gill, Bikram S

    2013-08-01

    Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat were evaluated against 11 field strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), collected mostly from farm-stored grain in Kansas. Adults were exposed to wheat treated with spinosad at 1 mg (active ingredient)/kg or chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin at three plus 0.5 mg (active ingredient)/kg. Adult mortality was assessed after 7 and 14 d and progeny production after 42 d. Spinosad did not provide complete mortality or progeny suppression of T. castaneum and O. surinamensis field strains, but was effective against R. dominica strains. Chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin produced complete mortality and progeny suppression of field strains all three species. The two least susceptible T. castaneum and O. surinamensis strains and the two R. dominica strains were chosen for dose-response tests only with spinosad. The LD99 values for T. castaneum and R. dominica field strains were similar to that of the corresponding laboratory strains. Corresponding values for the two O. sturinamensis field strains were significantly greater (approximately 6 times) than the laboratory strain. The effective dose for progeny reduction (ED99) of only one R. dominica field strain was significantly greater (approximately 2 times) than the laboratory strain. The baseline susceptibility data of field strains of three insect species to spinosad will be useful for monitoring resistance development when this product is commercially released as a grain protectant.

  17. Bayesian analysis of the species-specific lengthening of the growing season in two European countries and the influence of an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Annette; Estrella, Nicole; Heitland, Werner; Susnik, Andreja; Schleip, Christoph; Dose, Volker

    2008-01-01

    A recent lengthening of the growing season in mid and higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere is reported as a clear indicator for climate change impacts. Using data from Germany (1951-2003) and Slovenia (1961-2004), we study whether changes in the start, end, and length of the growing season differ among four deciduous broad-leaved tree species and countries, how the changes are related to temperature changes, and what might be the confounding effects of an insect attack. The functional behaviour of the phenological and climatological time series and their trends are not analysed by linear regression, but by a new Bayesian approach taking into account different models for the functional description (one change-point, linear, constant models). We find advanced leaf unfolding in both countries with the same species order (oak > horse chestnut, beech, and birch). However, this advance is non linear over time and more apparent in Germany with clear change-points in the late 1970s, followed by marked advances (on average 3.67 days decade(-1) in the 2000s). In Slovenia, we find a more gradual advance of onset dates (on average 0.8 days decade(-1) in the 2000s). Leaf colouring of birch, beech, and oak has been slightly delayed in the last 3 decades, especially in Germany, however with no clear functional behaviour. Abrupt changes in leaf colouring dates of horse chestnut with recent advancing onset dates can be linked across countries to damage by a newly emerging pest, the horse chestnut leaf-miner (Cameraria ohridella). The lengthening of the growing season, more distinct in Germany than in Slovenia (on average 4.2 and 1.0 days decade(-1) in the 2000s, respectively), exhibits the same species order in both countries (oak > birch > beech). Damage by horse chestnut leaf-miner leads to reduced lengthening (Germany) and drastic shortening (Slovenia) of the horse chestnut growing season (-12 days decade(-1) in the 2000s). Advanced spring leaf unfolding and lengthening

  18. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study.

  19. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study. PMID:22998613

  20. ALIENATED YOUTH HERE AND ABROAD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KVARACEUS, WILLIAM C.

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE "SECOND-CLASS CITIZENSHIP" OF YOUTH FROM ALL SOCIAL CLASSES AND COUNTRIES, AND PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ABROAD WHICH PROVIDE YOUTH WITH A RESPONSIBLE, MEANINGFUL ROLE IN SOCIETY. IT IS FELT THAT IF SOCIETY FAILS TO CONSTRUCTIVELY TAP THE ENERGIES OF YOUTH, THEIR LATENT ENERGY AND SUBSEQUENT SOCIAL ALIENATION MAY…

  1. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  2. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  3. Space, time and aliens: charting the dynamic structure of Galápagos pollination networks

    PubMed Central

    Traveset, Anna; Chamorro, Susana; Olesen, Jens M.; Heleno, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic archipelagos are threatened by the introduction of alien species which can severely disrupt the structure, function and stability of native communities. Here we investigated the pollination interactions in the two most disturbed Galápagos Islands, comparing the three main habitats and the two seasons, and assessing the impacts of alien plant invasions on network structure. We found that the pollination network structure was rather consistent between the two islands, but differed across habitats and seasons. Overall, the arid zone had the largest networks and highest species generalization levels whereas either the transition between habitats or the humid habitat showed lower values. Our data suggest that alien plants integrate easily into the communities, but with low impact on overall network structure, except for an increase in network selectiveness. The humid zone showed the highest nestedness and the lowest modularity, which might be explained by the low species diversity and the higher incidence of alien plants in this habitat. Both pollinators and plants were also more generalized in the hot season, when networks showed to be more nested. Alien species (both plants and pollinators) represented a high fraction (∼56 %) of the total number of interactions in the networks. It is thus likely that, in spite of the overall weak effect we found of alien plant invasion on pollination network structure, these introduced species influence the reproductive success of native ones, and by doing so, they affect the functioning of the community. This certainly deserves further investigation. PMID:26104283

  4. Space, time and aliens: charting the dynamic structure of Galápagos pollination networks.

    PubMed

    Traveset, Anna; Chamorro, Susana; Olesen, Jens M; Heleno, Ruben

    2015-06-23

    Oceanic archipelagos are threatened by the introduction of alien species which can severely disrupt the structure, function and stability of native communities. Here we investigated the pollination interactions in the two most disturbed Galápagos Islands, comparing the three main habitats and the two seasons, and assessing the impacts of alien plant invasions on network structure. We found that the pollination network structure was rather consistent between the two islands, but differed across habitats and seasons. Overall, the arid zone had the largest networks and highest species generalization levels whereas either the transition between habitats or the humid habitat showed lower values. Our data suggest that alien plants integrate easily into the communities, but with low impact on overall network structure, except for an increase in network selectiveness. The humid zone showed the highest nestedness and the lowest modularity, which might be explained by the low species diversity and the higher incidence of alien plants in this habitat. Both pollinators and plants were also more generalized in the hot season, when networks showed to be more nested. Alien species (both plants and pollinators) represented a high fraction (∼56 %) of the total number of interactions in the networks. It is thus likely that, in spite of the overall weak effect we found of alien plant invasion on pollination network structure, these introduced species influence the reproductive success of native ones, and by doing so, they affect the functioning of the community. This certainly deserves further investigation.

  5. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Behie, Scott W.; Bidochka, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates. PMID:26462427

  6. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates. PMID:26462427

  7. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-07-31

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  8. An Extensive Field Survey Combined with a Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals Rapid and Widespread Invasion of Two Alien Whiteflies in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian; De Barro, Paul; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Jia; Nardi, Francesco; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background To understand the processes of invasions by alien insects is a pre-requisite for improving management. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex that contains some of the most invasive pests worldwide. However, extensive field data to show the geographic distribution of the members of this species complex as well as the invasion by some of its members are scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We used field surveys and published data to assess the current diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in China and relate the indigenous members to other Asian and Australian members of the complex. The survey covered the 16 provinces where indigenous B. tabaci occur and extends this with published data for the whole of China. We used molecular markers to identify cryptic species. The evolutionary relationships between the different Asian B. tabaci were reconstructed using Bayesian methods. We show that whereas in the past the exotic invader Middle East-Asia Minor 1 was predominant across China, another newer invader Mediterranean is now the dominant species in the Yangtze River Valley and eastern coastal areas, and Middle East-Asia Minor 1 is now predominant only in the south and south eastern coastal areas. Based on mtCO1 we identified four new cryptic species, and in total we have recorded 13 indigenous and two invasive species from China. Diversity was highest in the southern and southeastern provinces and declined to north and west. Only the two invasive species were found in the northern part of the country where they occur primarily in protected cropping. By 2009, indigenous species were mainly found in remote mountainous areas and were mostly absent from extensive agricultural areas. Conclusions/Significance Invasions by some members of the whitefly B. tabaci species complex can be rapid and widespread, and indigenous species closely related to the invaders are replaced. PMID:21283707

  9. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  10. Physico-chemical variables determining the invasion risk of freshwater habitats by alien mollusks and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Früh, Denise; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the invasion risk of freshwater habitats and determine the environmental variables that are most favorable for the establishment of alien amphipods, isopods, gastropods, and bivalves. A total of 981 sites located in streams and rivers in Germany. Therefore we analyzed presence-absence data of alien and indigenous amphipods, isopods, gastropods, and bivalves from 981 sites located in small to large rivers in Germany with regard to eight environmental variables: chloride, ammonium, nitrate, oxygen, orthophosphate, distance to the next navigable waterway, and maximum and minimum temperature. Degraded sites close to navigable waters were exposed to an increased invasion risk by all major groups of alien species. Moreover, invaded sites by all four groups of alien species were similar, whereas the sites where indigenous members of the four groups occurred were more variable. Increased temperature and chloride concentration as well as decreased oxygen concentration were identified as major factors for the invasibility of a site. Species-specific analyses showed that chloride was among the three most predictive environmental variables determining species assemblage in all four taxonomic groups. Also distance to the next navigable waterways was similarly important. Additionally, the minimum temperature was among the most important variables for amphipods, isopods, and bivalves. The bias in the occurrence patterns of alien species toward similarly degraded habitats suggests that the members of all four major groups of freshwater alien species are a non-random, more tolerant set of species. Their common tolerance to salinity, high temperature, and oxygen depletion may reflect that most alien species were spread in ballast water tanks, where strong selective pressures, particularly temperature fluctuations, oxygen depletion, and increased salinity may create a bottleneck for successful invasion. Knowledge on the major factors that influence

  11. Physico-chemical variables determining the invasion risk of freshwater habitats by alien mollusks and crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Früh, Denise; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the invasion risk of freshwater habitats and determine the environmental variables that are most favorable for the establishment of alien amphipods, isopods, gastropods, and bivalves. A total of 981 sites located in streams and rivers in Germany. Therefore we analyzed presence–absence data of alien and indigenous amphipods, isopods, gastropods, and bivalves from 981 sites located in small to large rivers in Germany with regard to eight environmental variables: chloride, ammonium, nitrate, oxygen, orthophosphate, distance to the next navigable waterway, and maximum and minimum temperature. Degraded sites close to navigable waters were exposed to an increased invasion risk by all major groups of alien species. Moreover, invaded sites by all four groups of alien species were similar, whereas the sites where indigenous members of the four groups occurred were more variable. Increased temperature and chloride concentration as well as decreased oxygen concentration were identified as major factors for the invasibility of a site. Species-specific analyses showed that chloride was among the three most predictive environmental variables determining species assemblage in all four taxonomic groups. Also distance to the next navigable waterways was similarly important. Additionally, the minimum temperature was among the most important variables for amphipods, isopods, and bivalves. The bias in the occurrence patterns of alien species toward similarly degraded habitats suggests that the members of all four major groups of freshwater alien species are a non-random, more tolerant set of species. Their common tolerance to salinity, high temperature, and oxygen depletion may reflect that most alien species were spread in ballast water tanks, where strong selective pressures, particularly temperature fluctuations, oxygen depletion, and increased salinity may create a bottleneck for successful invasion. Knowledge on the major factors that

  12. Physico-chemical variables determining the invasion risk of freshwater habitats by alien mollusks and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Früh, Denise; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the invasion risk of freshwater habitats and determine the environmental variables that are most favorable for the establishment of alien amphipods, isopods, gastropods, and bivalves. A total of 981 sites located in streams and rivers in Germany. Therefore we analyzed presence-absence data of alien and indigenous amphipods, isopods, gastropods, and bivalves from 981 sites located in small to large rivers in Germany with regard to eight environmental variables: chloride, ammonium, nitrate, oxygen, orthophosphate, distance to the next navigable waterway, and maximum and minimum temperature. Degraded sites close to navigable waters were exposed to an increased invasion risk by all major groups of alien species. Moreover, invaded sites by all four groups of alien species were similar, whereas the sites where indigenous members of the four groups occurred were more variable. Increased temperature and chloride concentration as well as decreased oxygen concentration were identified as major factors for the invasibility of a site. Species-specific analyses showed that chloride was among the three most predictive environmental variables determining species assemblage in all four taxonomic groups. Also distance to the next navigable waterways was similarly important. Additionally, the minimum temperature was among the most important variables for amphipods, isopods, and bivalves. The bias in the occurrence patterns of alien species toward similarly degraded habitats suggests that the members of all four major groups of freshwater alien species are a non-random, more tolerant set of species. Their common tolerance to salinity, high temperature, and oxygen depletion may reflect that most alien species were spread in ballast water tanks, where strong selective pressures, particularly temperature fluctuations, oxygen depletion, and increased salinity may create a bottleneck for successful invasion. Knowledge on the major factors that influence

  13. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  14. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John J; Lapoint, Richard T; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-09-24

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life.

  15. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, John J.; Lapoint, Richard T.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2015-01-01

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life. PMID:26399434

  16. Colour constancy in insects.

    PubMed

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  17. An Assessment of Stakeholder Perceptions and Management of Noxious Alien Plants in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Jara; Vilà, Montserrat; Hulme, Philip E.

    2009-06-01

    Despite biological invasions being a worldwide phenomenon causing significant ecological, economic, and human welfare impacts, there is limited understanding regarding how environmental managers perceive the problem and subsequently manage alien species. Spanish environmental managers were surveyed using questionnaires to (1) analyze the extent to which they perceive plant invasions as a problem; (2) identify the status, occurrence, and impacts of noxious alien plant species; (3) assess current effort and expenditure targeting alien plant management; and, finally, (4) identify the criteria they use to set priorities for management. In comparison to other environmental concerns, plant invasions are perceived as only moderately problematic and mechanical control is the most valued and frequently used strategy to cope with plant invasions in Spain. Based on 70 questionnaires received, 193 species are considered noxious, 109 of which have been the subject of management activities. More than 90% of species are found in at least one protected area. According to respondents, the most frequently managed species are the most widespread across administrative regions and the ones perceived as causing the highest impacts. The perception of impact seems to be independent of their invasion status, since only half of the species identified as noxious are believed to be invasive in Spain, while 43% of species thought to only be casual aliens are causing a high impact. Records of management costs are poor and the few data indicate that the total actual expenditure amounted to 50,492,437 € in the last decade. The majority of respondents stated that management measures are insufficient to control alien plants due to limited economic resources, lack of public awareness and support, and an absence of coordination among different public administrations. Managers also expressed their concern about the fact that much scientific research is concerned with the ecology of alien plants

  18. Transposable elements for insect transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germ-line of more than 35 species from five orders of insects have been genetically transformed, using vectors derived from Class II transposable elements. Initially the P and hobo vector systems developed for D. melanogaster were not applicable to other species, but four transposons found in ot...

  19. Are boreal ecosystems susceptible to alien plant invasion? Evidence from protected areas.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael; Hermanutz, Luise

    2004-05-01

    Although biological invasion by alien species is a major contributor to loss of indigenous biological diversity, few studies have examined the susceptibility of the boreal biome to invasion. Based on studies of other ecosystems, we hypothesized that alien plants will be restricted to disturbed areas near human activity and will not be found in natural areas of boreal ecosystems in Gros Morne National Park (Canada), a protected area experiencing a wide range of disturbance regimes. The distribution of alien plants in the region was evaluated using surveys, and study sites were established in naturally and anthropogenically disturbed habitats that had been invaded. Within study sites, randomization tests evaluated the importance of disturbance to alien plant invasion by examining changes in environmental conditions and species abundance within various disturbance regimes, while the importance of site characteristics limiting the distribution of alien plants were examined using Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Consistent with studies in a variety of biomes, areas of high disturbance and human activity had the greatest abundance of resources and the highest percentage of alien species. However, contrary to our hypothesis, natural areas of boreal ecosystems were found susceptible to alien plant invasion. Vegetation types vulnerable to invasion include forests, riparian areas, fens, and alpine meadows. Natural disturbance occurring in these vegetation types caused increases in bare ground and/or light availability facilitating alien plant invasion. Although high soil pH was associated with alien plants in these areas, disturbance was not found to cause changes in soil pH, suggesting susceptibility to invasion is pre-determined by bedrock geology or other factors influencing soil pH. Moose (Alces alces), a non-native herbivore, acts as the primary conduit for alien plant invasion in GMNP by dispersing propagules and creating or prolonging disturbance by trampling and

  20. [A case of parental alienation].

    PubMed

    Menz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical term "Parental Alienation Syndrome" (PAS) was introduced in 1984 by Richard Gardner, an American psychi