Science.gov

Sample records for alien life forms

  1. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  2. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  3. The prospect of alien life in exotic forms on other worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.

    2006-04-01

    The nature of life on Earth provides a singular example of carbon-based, water-borne, photosynthesis-driven biology. Within our understanding of chemistry and the physical laws governing the universe, however, lies the possibility that alien life could be based on different chemistries, solvents, and energy sources from the one example provided by Terran biology. In this paper, we review some of these possibilities. Silanes may be used as functional analogs to carbon molecules in environments very different from Earth; solvents other than water may be compatible for life-supporting processes, especially in cold environments, and a variety of energy sources may be utilized, some of which have no Terran analog. We provide a detailed discussion of two possible habitats for alien life which are generally not considered as such: the lower cloud level of the Venusian atmosphere and Titan’s surface environment.

  4. The prospect of alien life in exotic forms on other worlds.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N

    2006-04-01

    The nature of life on Earth provides a singular example of carbon-based, water-borne, photosynthesis-driven biology. Within our understanding of chemistry and the physical laws governing the universe, however, lies the possibility that alien life could be based on different chemistries, solvents, and energy sources from the one example provided by Terran biology. In this paper, we review some of these possibilities. Silanes may be used as functional analogs to carbon molecules in environments very different from Earth; solvents other than water may be compatible for life-supporting processes, especially in cold environments, and a variety of energy sources may be utilized, some of which have no Terran analog. We provide a detailed discussion of two possible habitats for alien life which are generally not considered as such: the lower cloud level of the Venusian atmosphere and Titan's surface environment.

  5. The prospect of alien life in exotic forms on other worlds.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N

    2006-04-01

    The nature of life on Earth provides a singular example of carbon-based, water-borne, photosynthesis-driven biology. Within our understanding of chemistry and the physical laws governing the universe, however, lies the possibility that alien life could be based on different chemistries, solvents, and energy sources from the one example provided by Terran biology. In this paper, we review some of these possibilities. Silanes may be used as functional analogs to carbon molecules in environments very different from Earth; solvents other than water may be compatible for life-supporting processes, especially in cold environments, and a variety of energy sources may be utilized, some of which have no Terran analog. We provide a detailed discussion of two possible habitats for alien life which are generally not considered as such: the lower cloud level of the Venusian atmosphere and Titan's surface environment. PMID:16525788

  6. Alien Life Imagined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  7. Chemistry, life, and the search for aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Steven A.

    2010-09-01

    While "life" may universally be a self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution, alien life may be quite different in its chemistry from the terran life that we know here on Earth. In this case, it will be difficult to recognize, especially if it has not advanced beyond the single cell life forms that have dominated much of the terran biosphere. This review summarizes what we might infer from general physical and chemical law about how such "weird" life might be structured, what solvents other than water it might inhabit, what genetic molecules it might contain, and what metabolism it might exploit.

  8. The search for alien life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M.

    Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life on our own planet, expanding the habitable range of salinity, pressure, temperature, and radiation of our world. Given the relatively recent discoveries about life on Earth, how then can we expect to look for alien life that may use completely different sets of molecules for structure and activity? Astrobiology has taken on the challenge of developing the intellectual basis, target identification, instrument capabilities, and operational procedures for the search for life elsewhere. The research aims to develop general principles of how life maintains itself, how life interacts with its environment, and how the signatures of life may be preserved and recognized. The approach has been to move from the laboratory, to the environment, to robotic exploration of planetary analogs. To date, generic evidence for life can be perceived through life's creation and utilization of disequilibria, multiple uses of a relatively few sets of molecules, a preference for chiral compounds, and a predilection for lighter isotopes. It is through application of life detection instrumentation in environmental extremes that we hope to develop a catalogue of generic biosignatures, robust instrumentation capable of revealing the unexpected, and effective exploration strategies for robotic platforms in the search for signs of life. In 2009, Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars may be the first beneficiaries of this approach.

  9. Alien life: how would we know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Margaret A.

    2003-04-01

    To recognize alien life, we would have to be clear about the defining criteria of "life". Metabolism - in other words, biochemical fine-tuning - is one of these criteria. Three senses of metabolism are distinguished. The weakest allows strong artificial life (A-life): virtual creatures having physical existence in computer electronics, but not bodies, are classed as "alive". The second excludes strong A-life but allows that some non-biochemical A-life robots could be classed as alive. The third, which stresses the body's self-production by energy budgeting and self-equilibrating energy exchanges of some (necessary) complexity, excludes both strong A-life and living non-biochemical robots.

  10. Creating Aliens: The Ultimate Life Sciences Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltramo, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Describes a seven-week project completed by the author's eighth-grade science students (as they studied "the chemistry of living things") in which they designed an alien and its world using the scientific concepts that they learned in class. Compares class presentations using PowerPoint software to presentations using posterboard. (SR)

  11. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... has arranged for the alien's continued presence under 28 CFR 1100.35, or by submitting sufficient... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons. 214.11 Section 214.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  12. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... has arranged for the alien's continued presence under 28 CFR 1100.35, or by submitting sufficient... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons. 214.11 Section 214.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  13. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... has arranged for the alien's continued presence under 28 CFR 1100.35, or by submitting sufficient... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons. 214.11 Section 214.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  14. 77 FR 65706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice... Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... information furnished on Form I-140 will be used by USCIS to classify aliens under sections 203(b)(1),...

  15. Relationship between Quality of Work Life and Work Alienation: Research on Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetinkanat, Ayse Canan; Kösterelioglu, Meltem Akin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is examined primary school teachers' quality of work life and work alienation perceptions. The sample of the study was composed of teachers (N = 426) employed in Bolu province central and district state primary schools in 2010-2011 academic year. For data collection purposes, "Personal Information Form" was used…

  16. 77 FR 71432 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form I-526...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form I-526, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day... information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur. (3) Agency... the USCIS to determine if an alien can enter the U.S. to engage in commercial enterprise. (5)...

  17. 77 FR 61776 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for Alien Fiancé(e), Form I-129F, Revision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Alien Fianc (e), Form I-129F, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The...) Title of the Form/Collection: Petition for Alien Fianc (e). (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... citizen of the United States in order to petition for an alien fianc (e), spouse, or his/her children....

  18. 78 FR 5477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I-854, Extension Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the...: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring...

  19. 77 FR 74487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for Alien Fiance(e), Form Number I-129F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on October 11, 2012, at 77 FR 61776... Alien Fiance(e), Form Number I-129F; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 30-day notice... Alien Fiance(e). (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the DHS sponsoring...

  20. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  1. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  2. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  3. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  4. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REVIEW OF... pending immigration proceedings. (a) Applications for T visas while in proceedings. Individuals...

  5. The Level of Quality of Work Life to Predict Work Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The current research aims to determine the level of elementary school teachers' quality of work life (QWL) to predict work alienation. The study was designed using the relational survey model. The research population consisted of 1096 teachers employed at 25 elementary schools within the city of Van in the academic year 2010- 2011, and 346…

  6. Alien To Me? Science in Search for Life Beyond Earth and Perceptions of Alien Life in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, K. A.

    2013-09-01

    The paper will introduce an original piece of research that is devoted to the socio-cultural aspects of scientifi c search for life in outer space and it draws from doctoral research in anthropology of science. In this piece of research the extraterrestrial life hypothesis is conceptualized as a significant part of the general world-view, constantly shaped by the work and discoveries of science. The paper presents data from qualitative ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the UK as well as uses quantitative data from public from the USA, UK and other countries.

  7. Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimnes, Karin A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…

  8. Searching for an alternative form of life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2007-09-01

    Biologists tacitly assume that all life on Earth descended from a common origin. This assumption is based on biochemical similarities and gene sequencing, which enables organisms to be positioned on a common tree of life. However, most terrestrial organisms are microbes, and it is impossible to deduce their biochemical nature from morphology alone. The vast majority of microbes remain unclassified, leaving open the possibility that some of them might be an alternative form of life, arising either from an independent origin, or representing a hitherto overlooked very ancient branch of the known tree. Thus there may exist an extinct, or even extant, shadow biosphere. I discuss various research proposals for locating and identifying "alien" organisms on Earth, both ecologically separate and ecologically integrated.

  9. Desperately seeking aliens.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, B W

    2001-02-22

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable--elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  10. Desperately seeking aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Brian W.

    2001-02-01

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable - elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  11. Desperately seeking aliens.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, B W

    2001-02-22

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable--elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary? PMID:11234021

  12. 8 CFR 214.11 - Alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... application of these terms in 28 CFR part 1100 and the provisions of chapter 77 of title 18, United States... has arranged for the alien's continued presence under 28 CFR 1100.35, or by submitting sufficient... CFR 1100.35 will be considered as primary evidence that the applicant has been the victim of a...

  13. Reconstructing Ancient Forms of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in the past three months has occurred in two areas, reconstruction of ancestral proteins and improved understanding of chemical features that are likely to be universal in generic matter regardless of its genesis. Ancestral ribonucleases have been reconstructed, and an example has been developed that shows how physiological function can be assigned to in vitro behaviors observed in biological systems. Sequence data have been collected to permit the reconstruction of src homology 2 domains that underwent radiative divergence at the time of the radiative divergence of chordates. New studies have been completed that show how genetic matter (or its remnants) might be detected on Mars (or other non-terrean locations.) Last, the first in vitro selection experiments have been completed using a nucleoside library carrying positively charged functionality, illustrating the importance of non-standard nucleotides to those attempting to obtain evidence for an "RNA world" as an early episode of life on earth.

  14. [Portrait of an alien enemy].

    PubMed

    Molnar, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Official documents and photographs are forms of alienation yet they carry imprints of the inner life of their subjects. An identity paper and photograph of the eighteen-year-old Anna Freud (August 1914) serves as the basis for an investigation of various aspects of her identity at the time - firstly her position in England as an "alien enemy"; secondly her emotional and sexual predicament, brought to light primarily through her father's response to Ernest Jones' supposed advances; and finally her own sense of self as deduced from the expression in the portrait, backed up by the evidence of her poetry.

  15. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  16. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  17. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  18. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  19. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  20. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  1. Solving the problems with chirality as a biomarker for alien life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2010-09-01

    The basis for chiral biomarkers that have been increasingly proposed to obtain evidence for life is reviewed. Specific problems in accepting them and other biomarkers as proof of life are cited. A new chiral method is offered to overcome these difficulties, a method that can make an unambiguous determination of extant microbial life.

  2. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today.

  3. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today. PMID:21809508

  4. Horizontal transfer - imperative mission of acellular life forms, Acytota

    PubMed Central

    Kejnovsky, Eduard; Trifonov, Edward N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acytota is a kingdom of life covering satellites, plasmids, transposable elements, viroids and viruses, all outside the conventional tree of life but satisfying most life definitions. This review focuses on some aspects of Acytota, their “genomes” and life styles, the dominance of transposable elements and their evolutionary influence on other life forms in order to vindicate the Acytota as a life kingdom no more polyphyletic than other kingdoms and its members no more parasitic than other life forms. PMID:27141324

  5. Southwest Caves Reveal New Forms of Life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynne, J. Judson; Drost, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Caves in northern Arizona and western New Mexico are being researched and inventoried by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies. Southwestern caves have been little studied, and scientists are now finding that these lightless and nutrient-poor natural systems are home to life forms found nowhere else on Earth. This research has identified unique communities of arthropods (insects, arachnids, and crustaceans) that include 3 new genera, or groups of species, and at least 15 new species - some only known to exist in a single cave. This exciting research is yielding information that will be used by resource managers to better understand and protect fragile and important Southwestern cave ecosystems.

  6. The Search for Alien Life in Our Solar System: Strategies and Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Robert; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2009-05-01

    With the assumption that future attempts to explore our Solar System for life will be limited by economic constraints, we have formulated a series of principles to guide future searches: (1) the discovery of life that has originated independently of our own would have greater significance than evidence for panspermia; (2) an unambiguous identification of living beings (or the fully preserved, itact remains of such beings) is more desirable than the discovery of markers or fossils that would inform us of the presence of life but not its composition; (3) we should initially seek carbon-based life that employs a set of monomers and polymers substantially different than our own, which would effectively balance the need for ease of detection with that of establishing a separate origin; (4) a "follow-the-carbon" strategy appears optimal for locating such alternative carbon-based life. In following this agenda, we judge that an intensive investigation of a small number of bodies in our Solar System is more likely to succeed than a broad-based survey of a great number of worlds. Our priority for investigation is (1) Titan, (2) Mars, (3) Europa. Titan displays a rich organic chemistry and offers several alternative possibilities for the discovery of extant life or the early stages that lead to life. Mars has already been subjected to considerable study through landers and orbiters. Although only small amounts of methane testify to the inventory of reduced carbon on the planet, a number of other indicators suggest that the presence of microbial life is a possibility. Care will be needed, of course, to distinguish indigenous life from that which may have spread by panspermia. Europa appears to contain a subsurface ocean with the possibility of hydrothermal vents as an energy source. Its inventory of organic carbon is not yet known.

  7. The search for alien life in our solar system: strategies and priorities.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Robert; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2009-05-01

    With the assumption that future attempts to explore our Solar System for life will be limited by economic constraints, we have formulated a series of principles to guide future searches: (1) the discovery of life that has originated independently of our own would have greater significance than evidence for panspermia; (2) an unambiguous identification of living beings (or the fully preserved, intact remains of such beings) is more desirable than the discovery of markers or fossils that would inform us of the presence of life but not its composition; (3) we should initially seek carbon-based life that employs a set of monomers and polymers substantially different than our own, which would effectively balance the need for ease of detection with that of establishing a separate origin; (4) a "follow-the-carbon" strategy appears optimal for locating such alternative carbon-based life. In following this agenda, we judge that an intensive investigation of a small number of bodies in our Solar System is more likely to succeed than a broad-based survey of a great number of worlds. Our priority for investigation is (1) Titan, (2) Mars, (3) Europa. Titan displays a rich organic chemistry and offers several alternative possibilities for the discovery of extant life or the early stages that lead to life. Mars has already been subjected to considerable study through landers and orbiters. Although only small amounts of methane testify to the inventory of reduced carbon on the planet, a number of other indicators suggest that the presence of microbial life is a possibility. Care will be needed, of course, to distinguish indigenous life from that which may have spread by panspermia. Europa appears to contain a subsurface ocean with the possibility of hydrothermal vents as an energy source. Its inventory of organic carbon is not yet known.

  8. The search for alien life in our solar system: strategies and priorities.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Robert; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2009-05-01

    With the assumption that future attempts to explore our Solar System for life will be limited by economic constraints, we have formulated a series of principles to guide future searches: (1) the discovery of life that has originated independently of our own would have greater significance than evidence for panspermia; (2) an unambiguous identification of living beings (or the fully preserved, intact remains of such beings) is more desirable than the discovery of markers or fossils that would inform us of the presence of life but not its composition; (3) we should initially seek carbon-based life that employs a set of monomers and polymers substantially different than our own, which would effectively balance the need for ease of detection with that of establishing a separate origin; (4) a "follow-the-carbon" strategy appears optimal for locating such alternative carbon-based life. In following this agenda, we judge that an intensive investigation of a small number of bodies in our Solar System is more likely to succeed than a broad-based survey of a great number of worlds. Our priority for investigation is (1) Titan, (2) Mars, (3) Europa. Titan displays a rich organic chemistry and offers several alternative possibilities for the discovery of extant life or the early stages that lead to life. Mars has already been subjected to considerable study through landers and orbiters. Although only small amounts of methane testify to the inventory of reduced carbon on the planet, a number of other indicators suggest that the presence of microbial life is a possibility. Care will be needed, of course, to distinguish indigenous life from that which may have spread by panspermia. Europa appears to contain a subsurface ocean with the possibility of hydrothermal vents as an energy source. Its inventory of organic carbon is not yet known. PMID:19355818

  9. Aging and Alienation: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Tso Sang

    Alienation has been a key concept and major area of empirical studies in sociology and psychology; however, most alienation studies have not dealt with the elderly. In an attempt to explore the effects of the aging process and the major events of later life on the aging person's vulnerability to alienation, older residents (50 years or more) in a…

  10. Alienation Incident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Louis

    1979-01-01

    Critiques Marxian "cures" for alienation as discussed in Karl Marx's "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts." Also traces the activity of a former student who joined the revolution in Cuba. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York, 14226. (KC)

  11. Aliens and atheism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Sergio; de Muynck, Willem; Virginia; Peerally, Abed; Tyler, David; Stephen

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Aliens and atheists" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CQzu4), about a survey that found that atheists are more likely than religious people to believe that life exists on other planets.

  12. NASA Examines New Forms of Life

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video is a montage about life released in conjunction with the finding by researchers working in the harsh environment of Mono Lake, Calif. They discovered microorganisms able to thrive and re...

  13. Europa Lander Mission: A Challenge to Find Traces of Alien Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Korablev, Oleg; Vorobyova, Elena; Martynov, Maxim; Akim, Efraim L.; Zakahrov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    An international effort dedicated to science exploration of Jupiter system planned by ESA and NASA in the beginning of next decade includes in-depth science investigation of Europa. In parallel to EJSM (Europa-Jupiter System Mission) Russian Space Agency and the academy of Science plan Laplace-Europa Lander mission, which will include the small telecommunication and science orbiter and the surface element: Europa Lander. In-situ methods on the lander provide the only direct possibility to assess environmental conditions, and to perform the search for signatures of life. A critical advantage of such in situ analysis is the possibility to enhance concentration and detection limits and to provide ground truth for orbital measurements. The science mission of the lander is biological, geophysical, chemical, and environmental characterizations of the Europa surface. Remote investigations from the orbit around Europa would not be sufficient to address fully the astrobiology, geodesy, and geology goals. The science objectives of the planned mission, the synergy between the Europa Lander and EJSM mission elements, and a brief description of the Laplace-Europa Lander mission are presented.

  14. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    PubMed

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  15. Alien Abductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  16. Biofilms: an emergent form of bacterial life.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Steinberg, Peter; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2016-08-11

    Bacterial biofilms are formed by communities that are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Importantly, bacteria in biofilms exhibit a set of 'emergent properties' that differ substantially from free-living bacterial cells. In this Review, we consider the fundamental role of the biofilm matrix in establishing the emergent properties of biofilms, describing how the characteristic features of biofilms - such as social cooperation, resource capture and enhanced survival of exposure to antimicrobials - all rely on the structural and functional properties of the matrix. Finally, we highlight the value of an ecological perspective in the study of the emergent properties of biofilms, which enables an appreciation of the ecological success of biofilms as habitat formers and, more generally, as a bacterial lifestyle. PMID:27510863

  17. Astrobiological Research on Tardigrades: Implications for Extraterrestrial Life Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, D. D.

    2013-11-01

    Tardigrades have been considered as a model for astrobiological studies based on their tolerance to extreme environments. Future research on tardigrades might provide important insight into the possibilities of existence of multicellular life forms.

  18. On the Frontier of Knowledge: A Discussion of Alien Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Shelley

    Possible States Theory discusses change in the abstract; it has a single description of change, equally applicable to acts of mind and physical phenomena. Change is defined as an interaction between collections of possible states, which include past, future and possible outcomes. All possible outcomes coincide in the complex present. This allows a competent observer to participate in possible states interactions that are unconstrained by time, distance or conservation laws. The technique of coordinate remote viewing was used in a study of technologically advanced alien life forms. The primary focus of the study was on two specific species but general knowledge of multiple others was also obtained. One of the two major species may be characterized as well disposed while the other may be classed as exploitative. Both species maintain facilities on Earth. The differences between the human species and these species are profound and go well beyond levels of technological development. Both alien species are forms of collective intelligence, which was true of all intelligent species studied. The human decision to militarize interaction with alien species may be characterized as inappropriate and potentially counterproductive. Unsuccessful efforts to communicate were made by all sides prior to this study. Substantial obstacles to communication exist based upon attitudes and beliefs of both humans and aliens. Among the most important findings are the unusual, perhaps unique biodiversity found on the Earth and the value aliens place on sentience. To the extent that the conclusions are correct, these findings hold significant implications for the future of humanity.

  19. Life without Carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Williams, Peter E.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon is the centerpiece of all life on Earth and one of the most abundant elements in the Solar System and Sun-like stars. Yet alien biochemistries and one's choice of a definition of life offer possibility for other forms of life.

  20. Interspecific competition between alien and native congeneric species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Serrano, H.; Sans, F. X.; Escarré, J.

    2007-01-01

    A good way to check hypotheses explaining the invasion of ecosystems by exotic plants is to compare alien and native congeneric species. To test the hypothesis that invasive alien plants are more competitive than natives, we designed a replacement series experiment to evaluate interspecific competition between three Senecio species representing the same bushy life form: two alien species ( S. inaequidens and S. pterophorus, both from South Africa) and a native species from the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula and Maghreb ( S. malacitanus). While S. inaequidens is widespread throughout western Europe and is expanding towards the south of Spanish-French border, the geographical distribution of the recently introduced S. pterophorus is still limited to north-eastern Spain. Plants from each species were grown in pure and in mixed cultures with one of their congeners, and water availability was manipulated to evaluate the effects of water stress on competitive abilities. Our results show that the alien S. inaequidens is the most competitive species for all water conditions. The native S. malacitanus is more competitive that the alien S. pterophorus in water stress conditions, but this situation is reversed when water availability is not limiting.

  1. Captured by Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  2. Following a New Path Along the Search for Life in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonna, Thomas E.; Thomas, Desencia E.

    2000-05-01

    Imagined by several generations of science fiction authors as smooth-talking aliens envious of our blue-water world, extraterrestrial life on Earth's planetary siblings may take the form of bacteria or other microbial life.

  3. 27 CFR 478.120 - Firearms or ammunition imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... imported by or for a nonimmigrant alien. 478.120 Section 478.120 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms... nonimmigrant alien. (a) Any nonimmigrant alien who completes an ATF Form 6 to import firearms or ammunition... for a nonimmigrant alien, must attach applicable documentation to the Form 6 (e.g., a hunting...

  4. Reaching the Alienated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gary

    1970-01-01

    A comparison made of personal and impersonal Extension contacts made by alienated farmers revealed that farmers with high alienation scores, as measured by the Srole Scale, avoided personal contacts with Extension personnel. Alienation was not a factor in the use of impersonal contacts. (DM)

  5. [A life of the cell: forms and space].

    PubMed

    Misslin, René

    2003-01-01

    The , elaborated during the 19th century by researchers such as Lorenz Oken, Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow, greatly modified the conception of life that Man had had up to then, since it asserted that the cell is the basic organic unit of all living beings and that every living being stems from a cell. Indeed, the study of the unicellular paramecium shows that a cell must be considered as a complete living form insofar as it illustrates by feeding, growing, defending and reproducing the general fate of all living creatures. Its living space, generated by its movements, is relative to its needs and therefore to its behaviour.

  6. In the Event of Learning: Alienation and Participative Thinking in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay begins with Karl Marx's notion of alienation, and then explores a form of alienation specific to education. It examines Mikhail Bakhtin's treatment of alienation in connection with his participative thinking theory and suggests strategies for overcoming educational alienation that are based on Bakhtin's notion of the eventness of Being.…

  7. [A life of the cell: forms and space].

    PubMed

    Misslin, René

    2003-01-01

    The , elaborated during the 19th century by researchers such as Lorenz Oken, Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow, greatly modified the conception of life that Man had had up to then, since it asserted that the cell is the basic organic unit of all living beings and that every living being stems from a cell. Indeed, the study of the unicellular paramecium shows that a cell must be considered as a complete living form insofar as it illustrates by feeding, growing, defending and reproducing the general fate of all living creatures. Its living space, generated by its movements, is relative to its needs and therefore to its behaviour. PMID:16193635

  8. Alienation and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimanis, Gunars

    This paper reviews the author's research on the role of certain aspects of alienation in education. The first part of the paper discusses similarities between anomie and locus of reinforcement control, as they assess the normlessness and powerlessness aspects of alienation. The second part reports results from studies attempting to modify one's…

  9. Alienation from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hascher, Tina; Hagenauer, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aimed at understanding the time course of alienation from school and school factors that may influence alienation from school during early adolescence. In Study 1, 434 students from grade 5-8 participated (cross-sectional design). In Study 2, we followed 356 students from grade 6-7 (longitudinal design). The results confirm the…

  10. The aliens are hiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Trail goes cold on alien hotspots, for now” (28 April, http://ow.ly/MeOpZ; see also p5), which described the results of a survey that looked for unexplained pockets of infrared radiation that could have been produced by advanced alien civilizations.

  11. Physician orders for life-sustaining treatment form: honoring end-of-life directives for nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Judy L; Moore, Crystal; McGrory, Alice; Sparr, Jennifer; Ahern, Melissa

    2004-09-01

    Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) form provides choices about end-of-life care and gives these choices the power of physician orders. The POLST form assures end-of-life choices can be implemented in all settings, from the home through the health-care continuum. The use of the POLST form was evaluated in a pilot study in nursing homes in two eastern Washington counties. Chart reviews and template analysis of interviews revealed the POLST form accurately conveyed end-of-life wishes in 19 of 21 cases. An informed consent process was evidenced in 16 of 21 cases, and the POLST form was congruent with residents' existing advance directives for health care. The findings support the continued use, development, and evaluation of this promising tool for improving end-of-life care. PMID:15471062

  12. Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

  13. 76 FR 10913 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Application to Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman (Form I-408). This request for...: Title: Application to Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman. OMB Number: 1651-0106. Form Number:...

  14. Dispersal limitation does not control high elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rundel, Philip W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada of California were used to test the hypothesis that alien plant species invading high elevations around the world are typically climate generalists capable of growing across a wide elevational range. The Sierra Nevada has been heavily impacted for more than a century and a half, first by heavy grazing up into high elevation meadows, followed by major logging, and finally, by impacts associated with recreational use. The comparative elevational patterns of distribution and growth form were compared for native and alien plant species in the four families (Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) that contribute the majority of naturalized aliens in the study area. The distribution of realized climatic niche breadth, as measured by elevational range of occurrence, was virtually identical for alien and native species, with both groups showing a roughly Gaussian distribution peaking with species whose range covers a span of 1500–1999 m. In contrast to alien species, which only rarely occurred at higher elevations, native species showed a distribution of upper elevation limits peaking at 3000–3499 m, an elevation that corresponds to the zone of upper montane and subalpine forests. Consistent with a hypothesis of abiotic limitations, only a few alien species have been ecologically successful invaders at subalpine and alpine elevations above 2500 m. The low diversity of aliens able to become established in these habitats is unlikely due to dispersal limitations, given the long history of heavy grazing pressure at high elevations across this region. Instead, this low diversity is hypothesized to be a function of life history traits and multiple abiotic stresses that include extremes of cold air and soil temperature, heavy snowfall, short growing seasons, and low resource availability. These findings have significant implications for resource managers.

  15. College as a Source of Black Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes college and precollege explanations of alienation and indicates how they intertwine in the case of Black college students. A multivariate analysis of Black students is then used to control for precollege experiences and isolate the independent impact of college life on Black students at a predominantly White university.…

  16. While We Wait for Life, Life Passes: The Time Metaphors Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Sobol-Kwapinska, Malgorzata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Nosal, Czeslaw

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a short version of the Time Metaphors Questionnaire (TMQ; Sobol-Kwapinska & Nosal, 2009 ). The original TMQ consists of 95 items and was designed to measure time conceiving. Because completing the TMQ is very time-consuming, this research develops a short form of this questionnaire-Time Metaphors Questionnaire-Short Form (TMQ-SF). A sample of 990 Polish adults completed the TMQ. One-half of the sample was used to construct the TMQ-SF by selecting items based on the exploratory factor analysis. The other half of the sample was used to cross-validate the factorial structure of the TMQ-SF by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The TMQ-SF presented high internal consistency and a clear three-factor structure. The convergent and discriminant validity were assessed based on comparison with the Big Five factors of personality, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, time perspective, and mindfulness. PMID:27410054

  17. From Caterpillar to Butterfly: A Window for Looking into Students' Ideas about Life Cycle and Life Forms of Insects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was a qualitative analysis of high school students' ideas about life cycle and life forms of the butterfly. For this purpose, open-ended questions and drawing methods were applied to 194 high school students from the ninth to eleventh grades and 14 to 16 years of age in Erzurum, Turkey. Students' drawings were categorised…

  18. 14 CFR 47.7 - United States citizens and resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States citizens and resident aliens... AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.7 United States citizens and resident aliens. (a) U.S. citizens... the Aircraft Registration Application, AC Form 8050-1. (b) Resident aliens. An applicant for...

  19. 14 CFR 47.7 - United States citizens and resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States citizens and resident aliens... AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.7 United States citizens and resident aliens. (a) U.S. citizens... the Aircraft Registration Application, AC Form 8050-1. (b) Resident aliens. An applicant for...

  20. 76 FR 36583 - Submission for Review: Life Insurance Election, Standard Form 2817

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Life Insurance Election, Standard Form 2817 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0230, Life Insurance Election. As...'s coverage through an assignment or ``transfer'' of the ownership of the life insurance)....

  1. Plant/life form considerations in the rangeland hydrology and erosion model (RHEM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...

  2. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  3. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  4. Footprints of alien technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2012-04-01

    If alien civilizations do, or did, exist, their technology will impact their environment. Some consideration has been given to the detection of large-scale astro-engineering, such as Dyson spheres. However, a very advanced technology might leave more subtle footprints requiring sophisticated scientific methods to uncover. We must not overlook the possibility that alien technology has impacted our immediate astronomical environment, even Earth itself, but probably a very long time ago. This raises the question of what traces, if anything, might remain today. I shall consider the possibilities of biological, geological and physical traces, and suggest ways that we might search for them.

  5. Living strategies of unusual life forms on Earth and the relevance to astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesch, Patrick J.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the astrobiological importance of various viruses, nanobacteria, Archaea and bacteria. Viruses and nanobacteria challenge the current definitions of life, but we consider them here as life forms. Nanobacteria have interesting mode of fossilization and have a potential for creating biosignatures. Archaea and some bacteria make unique lipid-related compounds that can be used as biosignatures. We focus on the organisms and life forms that seem to be well suited for the life on Mars or other extraterrestrial environments that are harsh. Many of these organisms and life forms share their genetic material freely with other organisms and species. Such an altruistic approach may have been typical for the early life on Earth.

  6. Alien invasive birds.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  7. 26 CFR 514.6 - Private pensions and life annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... annuities, the nonresident alien who is a resident of France shall file Form 1001A-F, in duplicate, with the... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Private pensions and life annuities. 514.6...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS FRANCE Withholding of Tax § 514.6 Private pensions and life annuities....

  8. Phylogenetically poor plant communities receive more alien species, which more easily coexist with natives.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Pille; Pärtel, Meelis; Tackenberg, Oliver; Hennekens, Stephan M; Bartish, Igor; Schaminée, Joop H J; Fergus, Alexander J F; Ozinga, Wim A; Prinzing, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Alien species can be a major threat to ecological communities, but we do not know why some community types allow the entry of many more alien species than do others. Here, for the first time, we suggest that evolutionary diversity inherent to the constituent species of a community may determine its present receptiveness to alien species. Using recent large databases from observational studies, we find robust evidence that assemblage of plant community types from few phylogenetic lineages (in plots without aliens) corresponds to higher receptiveness to aliens. Establishment of aliens in phylogenetically poor communities corresponds to increased phylogenetic dispersion of recipient communities and to coexistence with rather than replacement of natives. This coexistence between natives and distantly related aliens in recipient communities of low phylogenetic dispersion may reflect patterns of trait assembly. In communities without aliens, low phylogenetic dispersion corresponds to increased dispersion of most traits, and establishment of aliens corresponds to increased trait concentration. We conclude that if quantified across the tree of life, high biodiversity correlates with decreasing receptiveness to aliens. Low phylogenetic biodiversity, in contrast, facilitates coexistence between natives and aliens even if they share similar trait states. PMID:21508612

  9. A hypothesis about cellular signaling with nitric oxide in the earliest life forms in evolution.

    PubMed

    Murad, Ferid; Barber, Roger

    2009-11-01

    We propose that nitric oxide participated as an extracellular and intracellular messenger in the early evolution of life. From a toxic and noxious substance it evolved into an important material for cellular communication and regulation with unique chemistry and properties. The presence of some nitric oxide complexes in extraterrestrial samples may support evidence for life forms in the past or present. Although nitric oxide probably participated in the evolution and maintenance of life, if pollution continues at an ever-increasing rate, it could also end life on the planet as we know it today.

  10. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  11. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  12. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  13. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  14. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  15. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  16. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  17. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  18. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  19. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  20. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  1. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  2. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  3. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  4. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  5. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  6. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  7. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  8. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  9. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  10. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  11. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  12. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  13. Mars life: how Darwinian pressures might have shaped its form and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2005-09-01

    The possible existence of life on Mars is now gaining credence. Evidence consistent with or supporting the presence of extant microbial life, as reported by a life detection experiment on the Viking Mission in 1976, has been rapidly accumulating from spacecraft orbital and lander operations, and from terrestrial observations. Vast oceans of frozen water near the planet's surface are being discovered, with strong indications of recent or present liquid flows, and theory and laboratory experiment have demonstrated that liquid water should exist on the surface of Mars. The biosphere on Earth has been extended into extreme environments until recently thought inimical to life. Places void of life have become rare. No life requirement has been found lacking on Mars. It is possible that, by the time of this 50th Anniversary SPIE Meeting, the paradigm shift accepting life beyond the Earth may have been made. Mankind will then emerge from its ancient fear of loneliness into a new fear of anticipation of what that still unidentified life might portend. The author attempts to apply Darwinian principles of evolution to life on Mars under the selection pressures, opportunities and constraints that have been imposed by past and present Martian conditions. Starting with the type of cell believed to have begun the evolutionary process on Earth, he speculates on what the current life on Mars may be like in form and function, including what threat or promise it might hold for Earth life.

  14. [Life Forms of Lampreys (Petromyzontidae) as a Manifestation of Intraspecific Diversity of Ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Makhrova, A A; Popov, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    Some lamprey genera include the forms that have significantly different life cycles (the most well-known are the "anadromous" and "resident," or the "parasitic" and "nonparasitic" forms). The analysis of data on the genetic characteristics of these forms shows that, in some cases, the nonparasitic lampreys independently derived from the parasitic ones in different aqueous systems. These data, together with the results of morphological analysis as well as data on the distribution, ecology, hybridization, and observations ofjoint spawning of parasitic and nonparasitic forms show that these forms belong to the same species (except the resident forms that were isolated long ago).

  15. Functional Differences in Water-Use Patterns of Contrasting Life Forms in Great Basin Steppelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal patterns of evapotranspiration were monitored for 2 years for four species of differing life form that currently form near monoculture communities in the Great Basin, USA, a region with a growing season spanning early spring to autumn and predictable overwinter water accumulation in the...

  16. Alien Earths: A Traveling Science Exhibit and Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.

    2004-05-01

    Where did we come from? Are we alone? These age-old questions form the basis of NASA's Origins Program, a series of missions spanning the next twenty years that will use a host of space- and ground-based observatories to understand the origin and development of galaxies, stars, planets, and the conditions necessary to support life. The Space Science Institute in Boulder, CO, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths will have four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in all regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005 at the Lawrence Hall of Science in Berkeley, California. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. In addition to the exhibit, the project includes workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public website that will use exhibit content to delve deeper into origins research. Current partners in the Alien Earths project include ASTC, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (Navigator, SIRTF, and Kepler), the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute

  17. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  18. 8 CFR 233.2 - Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LINES § 233.2 Transportation lines bringing aliens to the United States from or through foreign contiguous territory or adjacent islands. Form I-420 shall be signed in duplicate and forwarded to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation lines bringing aliens to...

  19. Correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system.

  20. Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system. PMID:25525810

  1. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  2. ET versus Alien : Popular Attitudes to bringing back Biological Material from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D.

    The general public tend to react to radical scientific innovation in extreme ways, seeing them alternatively as a passport to utopia or a ticket to hell. The possible discovery of alien life forms has generated both types of reaction, as a brief survey of Hollywood movies shows. In this fanciful world, alens are either the friendly beings of ET and Close Encounters, who show us a way to improve ourselves, or the frightening monsters of Alien and Independence Day, who are bent on our destruction. Yet most astrobiologists would agree that both types of scenario are extremely unlikely. If we do encounter other life forms, the scientific consensus is that such life is vastly more likely to be microbial than to be an advanced, intelligent multicellular species. The public focus on the improbable stories of Hollywood means that they are little prepared to engage in sensible dialogue about plans for sample return missions from Mars and other planets. Unless scientific organisations take steps to encourage a more realistic understanding of the kinds of life we are most likely to encounter in space, we risk seeing public debate on these matters degenerate into the same hysteria and idiocy as that which has surrounded the use of GM foods and stem cell research.

  3. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions.

  4. Asteroids and Aliens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of extraterrestrial life (ETL) and extraterrestrial intelligent life (ETI) is extraordinarily complex and mulitidisciplinary, in part because relevant questions involve both the origin/evolution of terrestrial life and the future of human civilization.

  5. Tobacyk's sex differences in the experiences of ego-alien intrusions.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A; Richards, P

    1991-12-01

    Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and an inventory that infers temporal lobe signs were administered to 44 men and 54 women who were enrolled in first-year university courses. Women believed more in psi phenomena, witchcraft, and spiritualism than did men, who believed more in extraterrestrial life forms. Although complex partial epileptic-like signs were moderately (0.40) correlated with total beliefs for both sexes, these signs were dominated by experiences of ego-alien intrusions for women only. The results support the concept of greater interhemispheric coherence in women compared to men and emphasize the importance of limbic processes in the formation and maintenance of religious and paranormal beliefs.

  6. What Possible Life Forms Could Exist on Other Planets: A Historical Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author’s suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe.

  7. What possible life forms could exist on other planets: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author's suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe.

  8. What possible life forms could exist on other planets: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    2010-04-01

    Speculations on living beings existing on other planets are found in many written works since the Frenchman Bernard de Fontenelle spoke to the Marquise about the inhabitants of the solar system in his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes (1686). It was an entertainment used to teach astronomy more than real considerations about the habitability of our solar system, but it opened the way to some reflections about the possible life forms on other planets. The nineteenth century took up this idea again in a context of planetary studies showing the similarities as well as the differences of the celestial bodies orbiting our Sun. Astronomers attempted to look deeper into the problem of habitability such as Richard Proctor or Camille Flammarion, also well-known for their fine talent in popular writings. While the Martian canals controversy was reaching its height, they imagined how the living forms dwelling in other planets could be. Nowadays, no complex exo-life is expected to have evolved in our solar system. However, the famous exobiologist Carl Sagan and later other scientists, formulated audacious ideas about other forms of life in the light of recent discoveries in planetology. Through these few examples, this paper underlines the originality of each author's suggestions and the evolution and contrast of ideas about the possible life forms in the universe. PMID:20186488

  9. Promoting Respect for All Forms of Life: A Model Primary School Program in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuman, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes the progress of the Costa Rican Humane Education Project after four years of work to educate children to protect the environment and to develop a genuine respect for all forms of life. Evaluation results indicate children have developed positive attitudes about animals and their environment. (MDH)

  10. Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

  11. The search for life in our Solar System and the implications for science and society.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher P

    2011-02-13

    The search for another type of life in the Solar System addresses the fundamental question of life in the Universe. To determine if life forms we discover represent a second genesis, we must find biological material that would allow us to compare that life to the Earth's phylogenetic tree of life. An organism would be alien if, and only if, it did not link to our tree of life. In our Solar System, the worlds of interest for a search for life are Mars, Europa, Enceladus and, for biochemistry based on a liquid other than water, Titan. If we find evidence for a second genesis of life, we will certainly learn from the comparative study of the biochemistry, organismal biology and ecology of the alien life. The discovery of alien life, if alive or revivable, will pose fundamentally new questions in environmental ethics. We should plan our exploration strategy such that we conduct biologically reversible exploration. In the long term we would do well, ethically and scientifically, to strive to support any alien life discovered as part of an overall commitment to enhancing the richness and diversity of life in the Universe.

  12. The search for life in our Solar System and the implications for science and society.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher P

    2011-02-13

    The search for another type of life in the Solar System addresses the fundamental question of life in the Universe. To determine if life forms we discover represent a second genesis, we must find biological material that would allow us to compare that life to the Earth's phylogenetic tree of life. An organism would be alien if, and only if, it did not link to our tree of life. In our Solar System, the worlds of interest for a search for life are Mars, Europa, Enceladus and, for biochemistry based on a liquid other than water, Titan. If we find evidence for a second genesis of life, we will certainly learn from the comparative study of the biochemistry, organismal biology and ecology of the alien life. The discovery of alien life, if alive or revivable, will pose fundamentally new questions in environmental ethics. We should plan our exploration strategy such that we conduct biologically reversible exploration. In the long term we would do well, ethically and scientifically, to strive to support any alien life discovered as part of an overall commitment to enhancing the richness and diversity of life in the Universe. PMID:21220283

  13. Alienation: A Cause of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Adams, Jane

    1990-01-01

    Investigated alienation by administering Dean Alienation Scale to 157 incarcerated and 1,318 nonincarcerated adolescents. Found that incarcerated adolescents had significantly higher levels of total alienation, isolation, and powerlessness. Given high recidivism rates, results suggest reduction of both alienation and rejection of societal norms…

  14. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  15. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  16. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  17. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  18. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  19. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  20. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  1. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  2. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  3. Key genes involved in desiccation tolerance and dormancy across life forms.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Cecília D; Farrant, Jill M; Oliver, Melvin J; Ligterink, Wilco; Buitink, Julia; Hilhorst, Henk M W

    2016-10-01

    Desiccation tolerance (DT, the ability of certain organisms to survive severe dehydration) was a key trait in the evolution of life in terrestrial environments. Likely, the development of desiccation-tolerant life forms was accompanied by the acquisition of dormancy or a dormancy-like stage as a second powerful adaptation to cope with variations in the terrestrial environment. These naturally stress tolerant life forms may be a good source of genetic information to generate stress tolerant crops to face a future with predicted higher occurrence of drought. By mining for key genes and mechanisms related to DT and dormancy conserved across different species and life forms, unique candidate key genes may be identified. Here we identify several of these putative key genes, shared among multiple organisms, encoding for proteins involved in protection, growth and energy metabolism. Mutating a selection of these genes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in clear DT-, dormancy- and other seed-associated phenotypes, showing the efficiency and power of our approach and paves the way for the development of drought-stress tolerant crops. Our analysis supports a co-evolution of DT and dormancy by shared mechanisms that favour survival and adaptation to ever-changing environments with strong seasonal fluctuations. PMID:27593474

  4. The Political Economy of Longevity: Developing New Forms of Solidarity for Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Aging populations now exert influence on all aspects of social life. This article examines changes to major social and economic institutions linked with old age, taking the period from the mid-20th century to the opening decades of the 21st century. These developments are set within the context of the influence of globalization as well as the impact of the 2008 financial crisis, these restructuring debates around the longevity revolution. The article examines how the basis for a new framework for accommodating longevity can be built, outlining ways of securing new forms of solidarity in later life. PMID:25678722

  5. An Exploratory Look at Alienation in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jean M.

    The ongoing work life of four classes of elementary school children from relatively affluent families was examined for approximately 2 years by a participant observer/classroom teacher in an attempt to identify possible causes of student alienation, i.e., negative, unproductive or disruptive behaviors. Examples of such behaviors include hostility,…

  6. The alienation of the sufferer.

    PubMed

    Younger, J B

    1995-06-01

    Suffering is a particularly human experience that often brings with it loneliness or alienation from others. The theory described in this article explains the mechanisms through which suffering affects an individual's sense of community and connectedness with others. The intricate patterns are explained to provide a basis for prescriptive nursing to prevent or reverse this loss of connectedness. First, the article develops the concept of suffering and its influences on relationship with the self and with others and the relationship of others with the sufferer. Then, the concept of alienation is developed in this context, its philosophical roots explored, and a continuum described that encompasses alienation through connectedness. Related concepts of separation, shame, and stigma are briefly described as partial cases of alienation of the sufferer that also show the pervasiveness of the phenomenon. Next, the personal characteristics of an individual who might help are developed through the concept of wisdom. Last, an explanation is given as to why care is the contextual framework through which alienation is reversed and connectedness achieved. Although suffering, alienation, and care have gone by many names, the essences of these phenomena have been recurrent theme in descriptions of human response.

  7. Toleration of traffic by vegetation: Life form conclusions and summary extracts from a comprehensive data base

    SciTech Connect

    Yorks, T.P.; West, N.E.; Mueller, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    An exhaustive search of the literature for foot and vehicle traffic impacts on vegetation has yielded more than 400 citations, two thirds of which held sufficient detail to be usefully distilled into a personal-computer data base. A total of 1444 individual observations involving 737 species that were trampled are included. Compromises were made in the depth of entry detail and to allow comparability among data. Inconsistent, generally short-term, experimental practices disallowed formal statistical analyses. Within those constraints, graminoids emerged with the highest mean resistance and resilience among life-forms. Climbers and cactoids ranked lowest in these categories. The herbaceous, typically broader-leaved (forb) life-form appeared most likely to suffer immediate losses. Shrubs and trees had the longest-lasting decreases in diversity following traffic impact. All life-forms had sensitive species. The greatest general species and individual plant losses take place in the first few passes by feet, wheels, or tracks. Plant and soil damage increases with the amount of weight and power applied. Greater soil moisture and/or deeper overstory shading magnify those impacts. Additional precepts may become apparent to data-base users through increased ease in making comparisons. 59 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Life Form and Life History Explain Variation in Population Processes in a Grassland Community Invaded by Exotic Plants and Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Nelis, Lisa Castillo

    2012-01-01

    The existence of general characteristics of plant invasiveness is still debated. One reason we may not have found these characteristics is because we do not yet understand how processes underlying population dynamics contribute to community composition in invaded communities. Here I modify Ricker stock-recruitment models to parameterize processes important to community dynamics in an invaded grassland community: immigration, maximum intrinsic growth rate, self-regulation, and limitation by other species. I then used the parameterized models in a multi-species stochastic simulation to determine how processes affected long-term community dynamics. By parameterizing the models using the frequency of the 18 most common species in the grassland, I determined that life history and life form are stronger predictors of underlying processes than is native status. Immigration maintains exotic annual grasses and the dominant native perennial grass in the community. Growth rate maintains other perennial species. While the model mirrors the frequency of native species well, exotic species have lower observed than parameterized frequencies, suggesting that they are not reaching their potential frequency. These results, combined with results from past research, suggest that disturbance may be key to maintaining exotic species in the community. Here I showed that a continuous modified Ricker model fit discrete grassland frequency data well. This allowed me to model the dominant species in the community simultaneously and gain insight into the processes that determine community composition. PMID:22916178

  9. 76 FR 27080 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Pay Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... proposed information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 10913) on February... Off or Discharge an Alien Crewman AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Discharge an Alien Crewman (Form I-408). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that...

  10. L-form bacteria, chronic diseases and the origins of life.

    PubMed

    Errington, Jeff; Mickiewicz, Katarzyna; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Wu, Ling Juan

    2016-11-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall is widely conserved across the bacterial domain, suggesting that it appeared early in the evolution of bacteria. It is normally essential but under certain conditions wall-deficient or 'L-form' bacteria can be isolated. In Bacillus subtilis this normally requires two genetic changes. The first, exemplified by mutations shutting down wall precursor synthesis, works by increasing membrane synthesis. This promotes the unusual form of proliferation used by L-forms, involving a range of relatively disorganized membrane blebbing or vesiculation events. The secondary class of mutations probably work by relieving oxidative stress that L-forms may incur due to their unbalanced metabolism. Repression or inhibition of cell wall precursor synthesis can stimulate the L-form transition in a wide range of bacteria, of both Gram-positive and -negative lineages. L-forms are completely resistant to most antibiotics working specifically on cell wall synthesis, such as penicillins and cephalosporins, consistent with the many reports of their involvement in various chronic diseases. They are potentially important in biotechnology, because lack of a wall can be advantageous in a range of production or strain improvement applications. Finally, L-forms provide an interesting model system for studying early steps in the evolution of cellular life.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'. PMID:27672147

  11. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    PubMed

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture.

  12. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    PubMed

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture. PMID:26196471

  13. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    PubMed

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question's contribution to children's quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child's quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  14. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    PubMed

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question's contribution to children's quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child's quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care.

  15. L-form bacteria, chronic diseases and the origins of life

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall is widely conserved across the bacterial domain, suggesting that it appeared early in the evolution of bacteria. It is normally essential but under certain conditions wall-deficient or ‘L-form’ bacteria can be isolated. In Bacillus subtilis this normally requires two genetic changes. The first, exemplified by mutations shutting down wall precursor synthesis, works by increasing membrane synthesis. This promotes the unusual form of proliferation used by L-forms, involving a range of relatively disorganized membrane blebbing or vesiculation events. The secondary class of mutations probably work by relieving oxidative stress that L-forms may incur due to their unbalanced metabolism. Repression or inhibition of cell wall precursor synthesis can stimulate the L-form transition in a wide range of bacteria, of both Gram-positive and -negative lineages. L-forms are completely resistant to most antibiotics working specifically on cell wall synthesis, such as penicillins and cephalosporins, consistent with the many reports of their involvement in various chronic diseases. They are potentially important in biotechnology, because lack of a wall can be advantageous in a range of production or strain improvement applications. Finally, L-forms provide an interesting model system for studying early steps in the evolution of cellular life. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672147

  16. L-form bacteria, cell walls and the origins of life.

    PubMed

    Errington, Jeff

    2013-01-08

    The peptidoglycan wall is a defining feature of bacterial cells and was probably already present in their last common ancestor. L-forms are bacterial variants that lack a cell wall and divide by a variety of processes involving membrane blebbing, tubulation, vesiculation and fission. Their unusual mode of proliferation provides a model for primitive cells and is reminiscent of recently developed in vitro vesicle reproduction processes. Invention of the cell wall may have underpinned the explosion of bacterial life on the Earth. Later innovations in cell envelope structure, particularly the emergence of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, possibly in an early endospore former, seem to have spurned further major evolutionary radiations. Comparative studies of bacterial cell envelope structure may help to resolve the early key steps in evolutionary development of the bacterial domain of life.

  17. A Gene, ALCA, Affecting the Life Cycle Form Expressed in PHYSARUM POLYCEPHALUM.

    PubMed

    Truitt, C L; Hoffman, C S; Holt, C E

    1982-05-01

    The usual sequence of forms in the Physarum polycephalum life cycle is plasmodium-spore-amoeba-plasmodium. So-called "amoebaless life cycle" or alc mutants of this Myxomycete undergo a simplified plasmodium-spore-plasmodium life cycle. We have analyzed three independently isolated alc mutants and found in each case that the failure of the spores to give rise to amoebae is due to a recessive Mendelian allele. The three mutations are tightly linked to one another and belong to a single complementation group, alcA. The mutations are pleiotropic, not only interfering with the establishment of the amoebal form at spore germination, but also affecting the phenotype of alc amoebae, which occasionally arise from alc spores. The alc amoebae (1) grow more slowly than wild type, particularly at elevated temperatures; (2) tend to transform directly into plasmodia, circumventing the sexual fusion of amoebae that usually accompanies plasmodium formation; and (3) form plasmodia by the sexual mechanism less efficiently than wild-type amoebae. The various effects of an alc mutation seem to derive from mutation of a single gene, since reversion for one effect is always accompanied by reversion for the other effects. Moreover, a mutation, aptA1, that blocks direct plasmodium formation by alcA amoebae, also increases their growth rate to near normal. The manner of plasmodium formation in alcA strains differs significantly from that in another class of mutants, the gad mutants. Unlike gad amoebae, alcA amoebae need not reach a critical density in order to differentiate directly into plasmodia and do not respond to the extracellular inducer of differentiation. In addition, alcA differentiation is not prevented by a mutation, npfA1, that blocks direct differentiation by most gad amoebae.

  18. Nutrient Foraging Traits in Ten Co-occurring Plant Species of Contrasting Life Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Einsmann, J.C.; Jones, R.H.; Pu, M.; Mitchell, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Morphological responses of the root system were tested by assessing scale, precision, discrimination, and sensitivity. Observations of high variation between species in scale, precision and sensitivity. In herbaceous species alone, scale and precision were positively correlated. Sensitivity was not closely related to precision, indicating that proliferation of roots in fertile patches does not always yield growth benefits in heterogeneous soils. Plant life form was not correlated with precision or sensitivity; however, scale of response was greater in herbs than in woody plants-possibly due to different root growth rates.

  19. Validity and reliability of the Food-Life Questionnaire. Short form.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Prichard, Ivanka; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-11-01

    Measures of beliefs and attitudes towards food need to be valid, and easy to use and interpret. The present study aimed to establish the validity and reliability of a short-form of the Food-Life Questionnaire (FLQ). Participants (247 females; 118 males), recruited in South Australia, completed a questionnaire in 2012 incorporating the original FLQ, a revised short form (FLQ-SF), and measures of food choice and consumption. Validity (construct, criterion-related, and incremental) and reliability (internal consistency and short-form) were assessed. Factor analysis established that short-form items loaded onto five factors consistent with the original FLQ and explained 60% of variance. Moderate correlations were observed between the FLQ-SF and a measure of food choices (r=.32-.64), and the FLQ-SF predicted unhealthy food consumption over and above the full FLQ demonstrating criterion-related and incremental validity respectively. The final FLQ-SF included 21 items and had a Cronbach's alpha of .75. Short-form reliability was established with correlations between corresponding subscales of the FLQ and FLQ-SF ranging from r=.64-.84. Overall, the FLQ-SF is brief, psychometrically robust, and easy to administer. It should be considered an important tool in research informing public policies and programs that aim to improve food choices.

  20. Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions. PMID:25165531

  1. Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions. PMID:25165531

  2. Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions.

  3. An open question on the origin of life: the first forms of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-11-01

    The general framework of the origin of life on Earth is outlined, emphasizing that the so-called prebiotic 'RNA world' is as yet on shaky scientific ground, and that one should any way ask the question of the structure of the first protocellular compartments capable of the initial forms of metabolism. This question is the basis of the research project on the minimal cells, containing the minimal and sufficient complexity capable of leading to life. Such research is briefly summarized, highlighting experiments with liposome-based semisynthetic cells which are capable of ribosomal protein synthesis with a very minimal number of enzymes. The most recent finding in this area of research is the unexpected observation that the formation and closure of liposomes in situ acts as an attractor for the solute molecules in solution, bringing about a very high local concentration in some of the liposomes. It is argued that this spontaneous overcrowding, which permits reactions which are not possible in the original dilute solution, might be the origin of cellular metabolism for the origin of life on Earth.

  4. Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1993-01-01

    Because parental alienation syndrome is newly recognized, it must be redefined as new cases are observed. Evidence suggests that alienation may be provoked by other than custodial matters, cases of alleged sexual abuse may be hinted, slow judgments by courts exacerbate problem, prolonged alienation of child may trigger mental illness, and little…

  5. Graffiti and "Film School" Culture: Displaying Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibel, Dean

    1994-01-01

    Examines graffiti created by students in "film school" as an organizational document. Finds themes related to alienation and the discourse that counters the sources of that alienation. Shows how the humorous communicative style of graffiti creates tension among cultural meanings that mediates between alienation and liberation. (SR)

  6. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  7. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  8. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  9. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  10. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  11. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  12. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  13. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  14. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  15. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  16. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  17. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  18. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  19. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  20. Jellyfish life histories: role of polyps in forming and maintaining scyphomedusa populations.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Cathy H; Graham, William M; Widmer, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Large population fluctuations of jellyfish occur over a variety of temporal scales, from weekly to seasonal, inter-annual and even decadal, with some regions of the world reported to be experiencing persistent seasonal bloom events. Recent jellyfish research has focussed on understanding the causes and consequences of these population changes, with the vast majority of studies considering the effect of changing environmental variables only on the pelagic medusa. But many of the bloom-forming species are members of the Scyphozoa with complex metagenic life cycles consisting of a sexually reproducing pelagic medusa and asexually reproducing benthic polyp. Recruitment success during the juvenile (planula, polyp and ephyrae) stages of the life cycle can have a major effect on the abundance of the adult (medusa) population, but until very recently, little was known about the ecology of the polyp or scyphistoma phase of the scyphozoan life cycle. The aim of this review is to synthesise the current state of knowledge of polyp ecology by examining (1) the recruitment and metamorphosis of planulae larvae into polyps, (2) survival and longevity of polyps, (3) expansion of polyp populations via asexual propagation and (4) strobilation and recruitment of ephyrae (juvenile medusae). Where possible, comparisons are made with the life histories of other bentho-pelagic marine invertebrates so that further inferences can be made. Differences between tropical and temperate species are highlighted and related to climate change, and populations of the same species (in particular Aurelia aurita) inhabiting different habitats within its geographic range are compared. The roles that polyps play in ensuring the long-term survival of jellyfish populations as well as in the formation of bloom populations are considered, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  1. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek

    PubMed Central

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D.K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach’s alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question’s contribution to children’s quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child’s quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  2. Limits in the evolution of biological form: a theoretical morphologic perspective.

    PubMed

    McGhee, George R

    2015-12-01

    Limits in the evolution of biological form can be empirically demonstrated by using theoretical morphospace analyses, and actual analytic examples are given for univalved ammonoid shell form, bivalved brachiopod shell form and helical bryozoan colony form. Limits in the evolution of form in these animal groups can be shown to be due to functional and developmental constraints on possible evolutionary trajectories in morphospace. Future evolutionary-limit research is needed to analyse the possible existence of temporal constraint in the evolution of biological form on Earth, and in the search for the possible existence of functional alien life forms on Titan and Triton that are developmentally impossible for Earth life.

  3. Limits in the evolution of biological form: a theoretical morphologic perspective.

    PubMed

    McGhee, George R

    2015-12-01

    Limits in the evolution of biological form can be empirically demonstrated by using theoretical morphospace analyses, and actual analytic examples are given for univalved ammonoid shell form, bivalved brachiopod shell form and helical bryozoan colony form. Limits in the evolution of form in these animal groups can be shown to be due to functional and developmental constraints on possible evolutionary trajectories in morphospace. Future evolutionary-limit research is needed to analyse the possible existence of temporal constraint in the evolution of biological form on Earth, and in the search for the possible existence of functional alien life forms on Titan and Triton that are developmentally impossible for Earth life. PMID:26640645

  4. ALIENATED YOUTH HERE AND ABROAD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KVARACEUS, WILLIAM C.

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE "SECOND-CLASS CITIZENSHIP" OF YOUTH FROM ALL SOCIAL CLASSES AND COUNTRIES, AND PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND ABROAD WHICH PROVIDE YOUTH WITH A RESPONSIBLE, MEANINGFUL ROLE IN SOCIETY. IT IS FELT THAT IF SOCIETY FAILS TO CONSTRUCTIVELY TAP THE ENERGIES OF YOUTH, THEIR LATENT ENERGY AND SUBSEQUENT SOCIAL ALIENATION MAY…

  5. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  6. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  7. [Cytochemical study of different stages in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. VII. Oxidation--reduction enzymes in the cyst forms].

    PubMed

    Beyer, T V; Siim, J C; Hutchison, U M

    1977-11-01

    Dehydrogenases of glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and pentose-phosphate shunt were detected in cystozoites of Toxoplasma gondii strain SS-119 with various degrees of activity. A mixed oxidative metabolism may be postulated on this stage of the toxoplasma life cycle. Besides, the activity of cytochrome oxidase was detected in cystozoites; the addition of cytochrome c to the incubation medium significantly intensified the reaction intensity. Of interest seems the observation of a layer of higher enzymatic activity in the host brain tissue in the immediate neighbourhood with the cyst body. This may be regarded as the host cells' (or tissue') response to the presence of the parasite's alien body.

  8. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology.

  9. School, Alienation, and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liazos, Alexander

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter states that social scientists and others have argued that schools contribute to delinquency by their failure to prepare students properly for later life. It follows that the solution is better schools and better education. The author argues that schools make…

  10. 26 CFR 1.6052-1 - Information returns regarding payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in the form of group-term life insurance. 1.6052-1 Section 1.6052-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.6052-1 Information returns regarding payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance. (a... employees remuneration for services in the form of group-term life insurance on the life of such...

  11. Life form-specific variations in leaf water oxygen-18 enrichment in Amazonian vegetation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Ometto, Jean P H B; Berry, Joseph A; Martinelli, Luiz A; Domingues, Tomas F; Ehleringer, James R

    2008-08-01

    Leaf water (18)O enrichment (Delta(o)) influences the isotopic composition of both gas exchange and organic matter, with Delta(o) values responding to changes in atmospheric parameters. In order to examine possible influences of plant parameters on Delta(o) dynamics, we measured oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of leaf and stem water on plant species representing different life forms in Amazonia forest and pasture ecosystems. We conducted two field experiments: one in March (wet season) and another in September (dry season) 2004. In each experiment, leaf and stem samples were collected at 2-h intervals at night and hourly during the day for 50 h from eight species including upper-canopy forest trees, upper-canopy forest lianas, and lower-canopy forest trees, a C(4) pasture grass and a C(3) pasture shrub. Significant life form-related differences were detected in (18)O leaf water values. Initial modeling efforts to explain these observations over-predicted nighttime Delta(o) values by as much as 10 per thousand. Across all species, errors associated with measured values of the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor (delta(v)) appeared to be largely responsible for the over-predictions of nighttime Delta(o) observations. We could not eliminate collection or storage of water vapor samples as a possible error and therefore developed an alternative, plant-based method for estimating the daily average delta(v) value in the absence of direct (reliable) measurements. This approach differs from the common assumption that isotopic equilibrium exists between water vapor and precipitation water, by including transpiration-based contributions from local vegetation through (18)O measurements of bulk leaf water. Inclusion of both modified delta(v) and non-steady state features resulted in model predictions that more reliably predicted both the magnitude and temporal patterns observed in the data. The influence of life form-specific patterns of Delta(o) was incorporated through

  12. Progress in the Use of Rapid Molecular Techniques to Detect Life Forms in Soil: Implications for Interplanetary Astrobiology Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmflash, D.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Fox, G. E.; McKay, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of two promising technologies, we have applied Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as well as probes that target the 16S rRNA molecule to search for life in terrestrial soil samples, known to contain numerous life forms. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Xenobiology: A new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biologists try to engineer useful biological systems that do not exist in nature. One of their goals is to design an orthogonal chromosome different from DNA and RNA, termed XNA for xeno nucleic acids. XNA exhibits a variety of structural chemical changes relative to its natural counterparts. These changes make this novel information-storing biopolymer “invisible” to natural biological systems. The lack of cognition to the natural world, however, is seen as an opportunity to implement a genetic firewall that impedes exchange of genetic information with the natural world, which means it could be the ultimate biosafety tool. Here I discuss, why it is necessary to go ahead designing xenobiological systems like XNA and its XNA binding proteins; what the biosafety specifications should look like for this genetic enclave; which steps should be carried out to boot up the first XNA life form; and what it means for the society at large. PMID:20217844

  14. Xenobiology: a new form of life as the ultimate biosafety tool.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Markus

    2010-04-01

    Synthetic biologists try to engineer useful biological systems that do not exist in nature. One of their goals is to design an orthogonal chromosome different from DNA and RNA, termed XNA for xeno nucleic acids. XNA exhibits a variety of structural chemical changes relative to its natural counterparts. These changes make this novel information-storing biopolymer "invisible" to natural biological systems. The lack of cognition to the natural world, however, is seen as an opportunity to implement a genetic firewall that impedes exchange of genetic information with the natural world, which means it could be the ultimate biosafety tool. Here I discuss, why it is necessary to go ahead designing xenobiological systems like XNA and its XNA binding proteins; what the biosafety specifications should look like for this genetic enclave; which steps should be carried out to boot up the first XNA life form; and what it means for the society at large. PMID:20217844

  15. Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-03-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the best-preserved records of fluvial sedimentation on an Archaean continent. The basin hosts the worlds biggest gold resource in thin pebble beds, but the process for gold enrichment is debated. Mechanical accumulation of gold particles from flowing river water is the prevailing hypothesis, yet there is evidence for hydrothermal mobilization of gold by fluids invading the metasedimentary rocks after their burial. Earth's atmosphere three billion years ago was oxygen free, but already sustained some of the oldest microbial life on land. Here I use thermodynamic modelling and mass-balance calculations to show that these conditions could have led to the chemical transport and precipitation of gold in anoxic surface waters, reconciling the evidence for fluvial deposition with evidence for hydrothermal-like chemical reactions. I suggest that the release of sulphurous gases from large volcanic eruptions created acid rain that enabled the dissolution and transport of gold in surface waters as sulphur complexes. Precipitation of the richest gold deposits could have been triggered by chemical reduction of the dissolved gold onto organic material in shallow lakes and pools. I conclude that the Witwatersrand gold could have formed only during the Archaean, after the emergence of continental life but before the rise of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere.

  16. Soil moisture mediates alpine life form and community productivity responses to warming.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Daniel E; Chapin, Kenneth J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to alter primary production and community composition in alpine ecosystems, but the direction and magnitude of change is debated. Warmer, wetter growing seasons may increase productivity; however, in the absence of additional precipitation, increased temperatures may decrease soil moisture, thereby diminishing any positive effect of warming. Since plant species show individual responses to environmental change, responses may depend on community composition and vary across life form or functional groups. We warmed an alpine plant community at Niwot Ridge, Colorado continuously for four years to test whether warming increases or decreases productivity of life form groups and the whole community. We provided supplemental water to a subset of plots to alleviate the drying effect of warming. We measured annual above-ground productivity and soil temperature and moisture, from which we calculated soil degree days and adequate soil moisture days. Using an information-theoretic approach, we observed that positive productivity responses to warming at the community level occur only when warming is combined with supplemental watering; otherwise we observed decreased productivity. Watering also increased community productivity in the absence of warming. Forbs accounted for the majority of the productivity at the site and drove the contingent community response to warming, while cushions drove the generally positive response to watering and graminoids muted the community response. Warming advanced snowmelt and increased soil degree days, while watering increased adequate soil moisture days. Heated and watered plots had more adequate soil moisture days than heated plots. Overall, measured changes in soil temperature and moisture in response to treatments were consistent with expected productivity responses. We found that available soil moisture largely determines the responses of this forb-dominated alpine community to simulated climate warming. PMID

  17. Life form dependent impacts of macrophyte vegetation on the ratio of resuspended nutrients.

    PubMed

    Nurminen, Leena; Horppila, Jukka

    2009-07-01

    The effects of floating-leaved and submerged macrophytes on sediment resuspension and on the ratio of resuspended nitrogen and phosphorus were studied by sediment traps in the Kirkkojärvi basin in southern Finland. The effect of submerged macrophytes on preventing sediment resuspension was stronger than the effect of floating-leaved plants. On average, among submerged plants the resuspension rate of suspended solids was 43%, and among floating-leaved plants 87% of that in the open water. The floating-leaved Nuphar lutea had a reductive effect on P resuspension but no significant effect on N resuspension. The impact on P resuspension was strong, because root uptake by Nuphar lutea reduced the P content of the sediment. N:P ratio in resuspended nutrients was 6.7 among the plants and 4.1 in the open water. Among suzbmerged plants, sediment N content was strongly increased but P content was not affected due to the pleustophytic life form of the dominant plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Ranunculus circinatus). The effect of pleustophytes on sediment nutrients was weak, because their nutrient uptake is mostly foliar. The N:P ratio of resuspended nutrients was 7.9 among the submerged plants and 7.0 in the open water. The results suggested that depending on the life form, macrophytes can modify the flux of N and/or P to the water column through their effects on nutrient resuspension and possibly modify phytoplankton communities via their effects on the N:P ratio. If the overall nutrient level is the most important factor for the dominance of cyanobacteria, submerged macrophytes can have stronger effects on phytoplankton community structure than floating-leaved species. If N:P ratio is of importance, the effects of floating-leaved species may be more pronounced. PMID:19505709

  18. Soil moisture mediates alpine life form and community productivity responses to warming.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Daniel E; Chapin, Kenneth J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to alter primary production and community composition in alpine ecosystems, but the direction and magnitude of change is debated. Warmer, wetter growing seasons may increase productivity; however, in the absence of additional precipitation, increased temperatures may decrease soil moisture, thereby diminishing any positive effect of warming. Since plant species show individual responses to environmental change, responses may depend on community composition and vary across life form or functional groups. We warmed an alpine plant community at Niwot Ridge, Colorado continuously for four years to test whether warming increases or decreases productivity of life form groups and the whole community. We provided supplemental water to a subset of plots to alleviate the drying effect of warming. We measured annual above-ground productivity and soil temperature and moisture, from which we calculated soil degree days and adequate soil moisture days. Using an information-theoretic approach, we observed that positive productivity responses to warming at the community level occur only when warming is combined with supplemental watering; otherwise we observed decreased productivity. Watering also increased community productivity in the absence of warming. Forbs accounted for the majority of the productivity at the site and drove the contingent community response to warming, while cushions drove the generally positive response to watering and graminoids muted the community response. Warming advanced snowmelt and increased soil degree days, while watering increased adequate soil moisture days. Heated and watered plots had more adequate soil moisture days than heated plots. Overall, measured changes in soil temperature and moisture in response to treatments were consistent with expected productivity responses. We found that available soil moisture largely determines the responses of this forb-dominated alpine community to simulated climate warming.

  19. 8 CFR 1299.1 - Use of immigration forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of immigration forms. 1299.1 Section 1299.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 8 CFR 1299.1 - Use of immigration forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of immigration forms. 1299.1 Section 1299.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 8 CFR 1299.1 - Use of immigration forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of immigration forms. 1299.1 Section 1299.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 8 CFR 1299.1 - Use of immigration forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of immigration forms. 1299.1 Section 1299.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 8 CFR 1299.1 - Use of immigration forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of immigration forms. 1299.1 Section 1299.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. Sociological correlates of alienation among adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Wenz, F V

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to assess the relationship between adolescent alienation and a number of sociological factors in a sample adolescent suicide attempts from a northern metropolitan area. First, Dean's alienation scale is employed and the distribution of responses of the adolescent suicide attempts are analyzed. Second a number of sociological variables are examined by means of multiple regression procedures. In the regression analysis, eight variables were found to be statistically significant-in descending order: social contact with peers in the neighborhood, conflict with parents, broken romance, economic status of parents, communication blockage with parents, school performance, stepparents, and broken romance, These variables have been salient in previous research and theorizing about adolescent suicidal behavior. The fact that adolescence, by itself, seems to be a good predictor of whether or not a person will attempt suicide strongly suggests that there is something about the condition of adolescence which underlies this type of behavior. One possibility is that biological maturation is itself the crucial variable. Alternatively, the argument which follows concentrates on a major sociological aspect of adolescence-the adolescent's relative alienation from institutionalized social life. Alienation may be endemic to the period of adolescence.

  5. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. PMID:26168348

  6. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID.

  7. 8 CFR 299.1 - Prescribed forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prescribed forms. 299.1 Section 299.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.1 Prescribed forms. A listing of USCIS, ICE, and CBP approved forms referenced in chapter I can be viewed...

  8. 8 CFR 299.1 - Prescribed forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prescribed forms. 299.1 Section 299.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.1 Prescribed forms. A listing of USCIS, ICE, and CBP approved forms referenced in chapter I can be viewed...

  9. 8 CFR 299.1 - Prescribed forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prescribed forms. 299.1 Section 299.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.1 Prescribed forms. A listing of USCIS, ICE, and CBP approved forms referenced in chapter I can be viewed...

  10. [A case of parental alienation].

    PubMed

    Menz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical term "Parental Alienation Syndrome" (PAS) was introduced in 1984 by Richard Gardner, an American psychiatrist. Gardner described PAS and its symptoms, as a personality disorder, which appears chiefly in connection to child custody disputes wherein a child turns suddenly and massively against the non-custodial parent without reasonable grounds for doing so. This action by the child is a result of the custodial parent's emotionally abusive attempts to incite the child against the non-custodial parent.Where the child's rejection is based on some real past experience, there is not PAS. PAS only occurs as a result of the custodial parent's actions. Despite intensive effort, PAS was not included in the new DSM-V. In this case, a particularly impressive case history of parental alienation is described and discussed.

  11. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  12. Modeling rates of life form cover change in burned and unburned alpine heathland subject to experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Camac, James S; Williams, Richard J; Wahren, Carl-Henrik; Jarrad, Frith; Hoffmann, Ary A; Vesk, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Elevated global temperatures are expected to alter vegetation dynamics by interacting with physiological processes, biotic relationships and disturbance regimes. However, few studies have explicitly modeled the effects of these interactions on rates of vegetation change, despite such information being critical to forecasting temporal patterns in vegetation dynamics. In this study, we build and parameterize rate-change models for three dominant alpine life forms using data from a 7-year warming experiment. These models allowed us to examine how the interactions between experimental warming, the abundance of bare ground (a measure of past disturbance) and neighboring life forms (a measure of life form interaction) affect rates of cover change in alpine shrubs, graminoids and forbs. We show that experimental warming altered rates of life form cover change by reducing the negative effects of neighboring life forms and positive effects of bare ground. Furthermore, we show that our models can predict the observed direction and rate of life form cover change at burned and unburned long-term monitoring sites. Model simulations revealed that warming in unburned vegetation is expected to result in increased forb and shrub cover and decreased graminoid cover. In contrast, in burned vegetation, warming is predicted to slow post-fire regeneration in both graminoids and forbs and facilitate rapid expansion in shrub cover. These findings illustrate the applicability of modeling rates of vegetation change using experimental data. Our results also highlight the need to account for both disturbance and the abundance of other life forms when examining and forecasting vegetation dynamics under climatic change. PMID:25694042

  13. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commissioner for Examinations as provided in 8 CFR 103.3. (7) Requirements for alien entrepreneurs. An alien... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  14. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  15. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  16. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  17. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  18. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  19. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  20. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  1. Breeding new forms of life: a critical reflection on extreme variances of bareback sex.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Chad; Holmes, Dave; Mercier, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) express feeling marginalized by discourses within public health and sexual health nursing that determine bareback sex is deviant and unsafe. Their resistance to risk-based discourses can be seen within radical sex practices such as deliberately becoming-infected with HIV (bug-chasing) and breeding-infection (gift-giving). The metaphors of bug-chasing and gift-giving, particularly those spread across global online spaces, can influence the sexual experiences and practices of MSM. A metaphor analysis was conducted of Internet forums discussing HIV chasing and gifting metaphors, and showed a variety of discursive meanings, tactics and effects to the radical sex practice. A radical research approach was used to explore the processes of becoming-infected and breeding-infection as determinant steps in the symbolic resistance of risk-based discourses, as well as the creation of new forms of life and community among MSM. Our analyses demonstrate how the gifting/chasing metaphors express MSM's marginalization as well as their lines of flight from having their practices captured within public health discourses. We hope to offer alternative nursing approaches for thinking through and engaging with transgressive and queer sexual practices.

  2. Breeding new forms of life: a critical reflection on extreme variances of bareback sex.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Chad; Holmes, Dave; Mercier, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) express feeling marginalized by discourses within public health and sexual health nursing that determine bareback sex is deviant and unsafe. Their resistance to risk-based discourses can be seen within radical sex practices such as deliberately becoming-infected with HIV (bug-chasing) and breeding-infection (gift-giving). The metaphors of bug-chasing and gift-giving, particularly those spread across global online spaces, can influence the sexual experiences and practices of MSM. A metaphor analysis was conducted of Internet forums discussing HIV chasing and gifting metaphors, and showed a variety of discursive meanings, tactics and effects to the radical sex practice. A radical research approach was used to explore the processes of becoming-infected and breeding-infection as determinant steps in the symbolic resistance of risk-based discourses, as well as the creation of new forms of life and community among MSM. Our analyses demonstrate how the gifting/chasing metaphors express MSM's marginalization as well as their lines of flight from having their practices captured within public health discourses. We hope to offer alternative nursing approaches for thinking through and engaging with transgressive and queer sexual practices. PMID:27264510

  3. Life cycle strategies of bloom-forming, filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Hällfors, Seija; Huttunen, Maija; Laamanen, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Late-summer blooms of the Nostocalean cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Anabaena spp., occur annually over vast areas of the Baltic Sea. Apart from the planktonic bloom period, the annual cycle of these cyanobacteria is poorly known. With a combination of pelagial monitoring, sedimentation traps and germination experiments, we studied the annual cycle of formation, sedimentation and germination of cyanobacterial akinetes (resting stages) in the northern Baltic Sea during 2005-2006. Akinetes were only rarely encountered in the fall plankton, but they were abundant in the near-bottom sedimentation trap from the middle of July to August. All three taxa formed akinetes, but the numbers of A. flos-aquae akinetes were generally low. Of the three taxa, only Anabaena spp. were regularly found to germinate from the sediment samples. Estimates of Anabaena viable seed bank size ranged from 205 to 1913 akinetes g -1 (ww) of sediment. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae never germinated, and N. spumigena did so only occasionally. It is concluded that the three co-occurring taxa probably have different life cycle strategies, A. flos-aquae being holoplanktonic and Anabaena spp. planktonic during summer, but overwintering as akinetes in the bottom. Summer populations of N. spumigena may originate from both sedimented akinetes and trichomes that overwinter in the water column.

  4. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  5. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  6. The development of the temporal macrostructure of life narratives across adolescence: beginnings, linear narrative form, and endings.

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Ehlert-Lerche, Silvia; de Silveira, Cybèle

    2009-04-01

    The ontogeny of the ability to describe people culminates in adolescence in the development of the life story. An overarching temporal macrostructure and framing by a prehistory and a future-oriented global evaluation of life helps integrate disparate autobiographical memories into a coherent story. Two life narratives each of 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-year-olds (N=102) were analyzed in terms of how well-formed their beginnings and endings are and how much they follow a linear temporal order. By age 12, the majority of life narratives began with birth, ended in the present, and followed a chronological order. In late adolescence and early adulthood, more elaborate birth narratives and retrospective evaluations of life and outlooks into the future were added. These formal characteristics were related to biographical practices, biographical knowledge, and fluid intelligence. Text-analytical methods are proposed as a method for the analysis of biographical and autobiographical reasoning and understanding.

  7. Seed dispersal networks in the Galápagos and the consequences of alien plant invasions

    PubMed Central

    Heleno, Ruben H.; Olesen, Jens M.; Nogales, Manuel; Vargas, Pablo; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Alien plants are a growing threat to the Galápagos unique biota. We evaluated the impact of alien plants on eight seed dispersal networks from two islands of the archipelago. Nearly 10 000 intact seeds from 58 species were recovered from the droppings of 18 bird and reptile dispersers. The most dispersed invaders were Lantana camara, Rubus niveus and Psidium guajava, the latter two likely benefiting from an asynchronous fruit production with most native plants, which facilitate their consumption and spread. Lava lizards dispersed the seeds of 27 species, being the most important dispersers, followed by small ground finch, two mockingbirds, the giant tortoise and two insectivorous birds. Most animals dispersed alien seeds, but these formed a relatively small proportion of the interactions. Nevertheless, the integration of aliens was higher in the island that has been invaded for longest, suggesting a time-lag between alien plant introductions and their impacts on seed dispersal networks. Alien plants become more specialized with advancing invasion, favouring more simplified plant and disperser communities. However, only habitat type significantly affected the overall network structure. Alien plants were dispersed via two pathways: dry-fruited plants were preferentially dispersed by finches, while fleshy fruited species were mostly dispersed by other birds and reptiles. PMID:23173203

  8. Seed dispersal networks in the Galápagos and the consequences of alien plant invasions.

    PubMed

    Heleno, Ruben H; Olesen, Jens M; Nogales, Manuel; Vargas, Pablo; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Alien plants are a growing threat to the Galápagos unique biota. We evaluated the impact of alien plants on eight seed dispersal networks from two islands of the archipelago. Nearly 10 000 intact seeds from 58 species were recovered from the droppings of 18 bird and reptile dispersers. The most dispersed invaders were Lantana camara, Rubus niveus and Psidium guajava, the latter two likely benefiting from an asynchronous fruit production with most native plants, which facilitate their consumption and spread. Lava lizards dispersed the seeds of 27 species, being the most important dispersers, followed by small ground finch, two mockingbirds, the giant tortoise and two insectivorous birds. Most animals dispersed alien seeds, but these formed a relatively small proportion of the interactions. Nevertheless, the integration of aliens was higher in the island that has been invaded for longest, suggesting a time-lag between alien plant introductions and their impacts on seed dispersal networks. Alien plants become more specialized with advancing invasion, favouring more simplified plant and disperser communities. However, only habitat type significantly affected the overall network structure. Alien plants were dispersed via two pathways: dry-fruited plants were preferentially dispersed by finches, while fleshy fruited species were mostly dispersed by other birds and reptiles.

  9. Waking up the alien hand: rubber hand illusion interacts with alien hand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Galazky, Imke

    2013-08-01

    It has been shown that combinations of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive manipulations in healthy subjects may elicit illusory feelings of embodiment (the rubber hand illusion and the somatic rubber hand illusion). We report a case of alien hand syndrome in which the alien hand interacted with the somatic rubber hand illusion to provoke a very strong movement of the alien hand. This effect could be reliably replicated at every application of the experimental procedure. Thus, the illusion seemed to wake up the alien hand. The results demonstrate that the alien hand syndrome can be affected by experimentally induced bodily illusions, which are based on the manipulation of touch and proprioceptive information.

  10. The interactions between plant life form and fungal traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi determine the symbiotic community.

    PubMed

    López-García, Álvaro; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción; Barea, José M

    2014-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have traditionally been considered generalist symbionts. However, an increasing number of studies are pointing out the selectivity potential of plant hosts. Plant life form, determined by plant life history traits, seems to drive the AM fungal community composition. The AM fungi also exhibit a wide diversity of functional traits known to be responsible for their distribution in natural ecosystems. However, little is known about the role of plant and fungal traits driving the resultant symbiotic assemblages. With the aim of testing the feedback relationship between plant and fungal traits on the resulting AM fungal community, we inoculated three different plant life forms, i.e. annual herbs, perennial herbs and perennial semi-woody plants, with AM fungal communities sampled in different seasons. We hypothesized that the annual climate variation will induce changes in the mean traits of the AM fungal communities present in the soil throughout the year. Furthermore, the association of plants with different life forms with AM fungi with contrasting life history traits will show certain preferences according to reciprocal traits of the plants and fungi. We found changes in the AM fungal community throughout the year, which were differentially disrupted by disturbance and altered by plant growth form and plant biomass. Both plant and fungal traits clearly contributed to the resultant AM fungal communities. The revealed process can have implications for the functioning of ecosystems since changes in dominant plant life forms or climatic variables could influence the traits of AM fungal communities in soil and hence ecosystem processes.

  11. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  12. Alienating Students: Marxist Theory in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Megan; Pan, Yung-Yi Dian; Molina, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Karl Marx's revolutionary call, "Workers of the World Unite," resonates with many in today's society. This article describes and assesses an easily reproducible classroom activity that simulates both alienating, and perhaps more importantly, non-alienating states of production as described by Marx. This hands-on learning activity gives…

  13. Black, White, and Brown Adolescent Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heussenstamm, F. K.; Hoepfner, Ralph

    This study, based on cultural stereotypes, seeks to determine the demographic characteristics which differentiate among young people and correlate with their levels of alienation. A preliminary version of an experimental scale, designed to determine the existence and extent of alienation manifested by in-school adolescents, was developed in a…

  14. Legal Recognition of the Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Nancy Rainey

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the parental alienation syndrome, which is the process by which one parent overtly or covertly speaks or acts in a derogatory manner to or about the other parent during or subsequent to a divorce proceeding, in an attempt to alienate the child or children from that other parent. (Author)

  15. Illegal Aliens: Their Employment and Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    A study examined various characteristics of the employment of illegal aliens, including wages, job training, job mobility, workplace conditions, and employer characteristics. The study was largely based on data transcribed from a sample of Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehension reports on illegal aliens in the Chicago (Illinois)…

  16. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... two or more misdemeanors, as defined in § 1244.1, committed in the United States, or (b) Is an alien described in section 243(h)(2) of the Act. ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  17. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... two or more misdemeanors, as defined in § 1244.1, committed in the United States, or (b) Is an alien described in section 243(h)(2) of the Act. ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  18. RECONSTRUCTING THE ORIGINS OF HIGH-ALPINE NICHES AND CUSHION LIFE FORM IN THE GENUS ANDROSACE S.L. (PRIMULACEAE)

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Florian C.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Roquet, Cristina; Douzet, Rolland; Aubert, Serge; Alvarez, Nadir; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Relatively, few species have been able to colonize extremely cold alpine environments. We investigate the role played by the cushion life form in the evolution of climatic niches in the plant genus Androsace s.l., which spreads across the mountain ranges of the Northern Hemisphere. Using robust methods that account for phylogenetic uncertainty, intraspecific variability of climatic requirements and different life-history evolution scenarios, we show that climatic niches of Androsace s.l. exhibit low phylogenetic signal and that they evolved relatively recently and punctually. Models of niche evolution fitted onto phylogenies show that the cushion life form has been a key innovation providing the opportunity to occupy extremely cold environments, thus contributing to rapid climatic niche diversification in the genus Androsace s.l. We then propose a plausible scenario for the adaptation of plants to alpine habitats. PMID:22486702

  19. " Omne Vivum Ex Vivo"? A Study of Middle School Students' Explanations of the Seemingly Sudden Appearance of Some Life Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijapurkar, Jyotsna; Konde, Pooja

    2014-12-01

    This study examined explanations given by a sample of middle school students in India (175 students, grade 8, average age of 12.3 years), of the seemingly sudden appearance of some life forms observed in their day-to-day experience. It uncovered a variety of interesting ideas including, but not limited to, pre-Pasteur notions of some forms of life generating spontaneously from inorganic matter. We analyze these explanations for consistency of frameworks used by students to generate them and discuss them in light of the historical development of ideas on the generation of life. Given that students gave these explanations despite several years of formal instruction in biology, we look at how these ideas persisted despite formal instruction and present some qualitative insights on the treatment of this topic in their curriculum. We believe this study can be useful for curriculum developers and teachers who deal with biology education at the introductory level.

  20. Scientific Encounters of the Curious Kind. Reading Activities that Explore Nature's Most Intriguing Life Forms. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    Most students enjoy reading interesting selections about unusual plants, animals, insects, spiders, and other creatures. This book attempts to capitalize on the natural curiosity of students by introducing them to some of nature's most intriguing forms of life. The document is designed to provide students with background information, including…

  1. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  2. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    complementary biotic indicators of the palaeoenviroments in which they evolved. This strategy extends into the critical zone, to track evolutionary tenures and turnovers of endemics "ecological prisoners" in vadosic and phreatic landforms. Moreover, geoecodynamics of the Critical Zone can logically exploit endemic biota at the microscale in regolith, and also extremophiles to extreme depths; all such populations hold fascinating potential as biotic indicators of otherwise encrypted events in Earth history. Geoecodynamics is an exciting area emerging in geobiology. It opens up with new lines of attack on challenges at the core of geomorphology and palaeoecology. In its abilities to quantify mesoscale phenomena, geoecodynamics injects new life into evolutionary geomorphology. Moreover, the means to quantify mesoscale process and form enables quantification of thresholds and tenures of landform dynamics; we can now scrutinize obscurities, including the scale-dependency of landscape events invoked to have shaped palimpsests (Brunsden D 1996 Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie NF, 40, 273- 288). Analogously, where accumulated packages of evidence survive, we should be able to map out key signals in the tempo and mode of the genomic record through the Critical Zone, and so scrutinize otherwise encrypted events that shaped the inherent emptiness of the Rock Record (Ager D 1993. The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record; Miall AD 2015. Strata and Time: Probing the Gaps in Our Understanding. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 404, http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP404.4). Compared to, and notwithstanding, the episodic turnovers of sediments (and all allied events) that shaped evolving landscapes, the history of Life has been distinctly different; descent with modification links all clades and lineages of the Tree of Life with the present - even at deep nodes - though an unbroken chain of genomic connectivity. The complexity of niche space we see in landscapes reflects the diverse

  3. A Case of Right Alien Hand Syndrome Coexisting with Right-Sided Tactile Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Michael; Denke, Claudia; Apostolova, Ivayla; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Galazky, Imke

    2016-01-01

    The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a fascinating movement disorder. Patients with AHS experience one of their limbs as alien, which acts autonomously and performs meaningful movements without being guided by the intention of the patient. Here, we report a case of a 74-years old lady diagnosed with an atypical Parkinson syndrome by possible corticobasal degeneration. The patient stated that she could not control her right hand and that she felt like this hand had her own life. We tested the patient for ownership illusions of the hands and general tactile processing. Results revealed that when blindfolded, the patient recognized touch to her alien hand only if it was presented separated from touch to the other hand (bilateral asynchronous touch). Delivering touch synchronously to both the alien and the healthy hand resulted in failure of recognizing touch to the alien hand (bilateral synchronous touch). Thus, AHS here co-existed with right-sided tactile extinction and is one of only very few cases in which the alien hand was felt on the right side. We discuss the results in the light of recent research on AHS. PMID:27014036

  4. 26 CFR 1.6052-2 - Statements to be furnished employees with respect to wages paid in the form of group-term life...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... respect to wages paid in the form of group-term life insurance. 1.6052-2 Section 1.6052-2 Internal Revenue... group-term life insurance. (a) Requirement. Every employer filing a return under section 6052(a) and § 1.6052-1 with respect to group-term life insurance on the life of an employee shall furnish to...

  5. [Life form spectra, leaf character, and hierarchical-synusia structure of vascular plants in Thuja sutchuehensis community].

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan-shui; Wang, Xiang-fu; Bar, Guli; Kang, Yi; Hong, Ming; Pei, Shun-xiang; Zhang, Fa-jun

    2009-09-01

    Based on the investigation of the plants in Thuja sutchuenensis community, the life form spectra, leaf character, and hierarchical-synusia structure in the community were analyzed. The life form spectra of the plants in the community were 73.2% of phanemphyte, 18% of hemicryptophyte, 6% of geophyte, 2% of chamaephyte, and 0.8% of annual plants. The leaf quality was mainly of papery and conaceous, which occupied 48. 8% and 36. 4% , respectively. The dominant leaf size was microphy (60.8%), dominant leaf margin was un-entire (56.8%), and dominant leaf form was simple (86%). The T. sutchuenensis community had three sub-layers, i.e., tree layer, shrub layer, and herb layer, with lesser interlayer plants. Each layer was respectively composed by phanemphyte evergreen coniferophyte, broadleaf and deciduous broad-leaf plants, nanophanerophyte evergreen and deciduous broad-leaf plants, as well as hemicryptophyte, geophyte, and annual plants.

  6. 26 CFR 301.6052-1 - Information returns and statements regarding payment of wages in the form of group-term life...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance. 301.6052-1 Section 301.6052-1 Internal Revenue... regarding payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance. For provisions relating to information returns and statements required in connection with the payment of wages in the form of group-term...

  7. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  8. 8 CFR 204.6 - Petitions for employment creation aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions for employment creation aliens. 204.6 Section 204.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.6 Petitions for employment creation aliens. (a)...

  9. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits issued to an eligible sponsored alien he or she... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  10. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits issued to an eligible sponsored alien he or she... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  11. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits issued to an eligible sponsored alien he or she... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  12. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits issued to an eligible sponsored alien he or she... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  13. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  14. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  15. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  16. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  17. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Aliens in the United States (for Hearings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1241.30 Aliens ordered deported. For...

  18. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  20. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes of the...

  1. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  2. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section....6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is required to... gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  4. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  5. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  6. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  8. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  9. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  10. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  11. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  12. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  14. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  15. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties,...

  16. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  17. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  18. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  19. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  1. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  2. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  3. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  4. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  5. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  6. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  7. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  10. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  11. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  12. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  13. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  14. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  15. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  16. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  17. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  18. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  19. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  20. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  1. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  2. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  4. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  5. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  6. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  7. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  8. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  9. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  11. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  12. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  13. The Rural School Environment and Its Effect on Adolescent Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoho, Alan R.; Petrisky, Irene T.

    A number of studies have suggested that school environment and organizational structure contribute to adolescent alienation, but few have analyzed alienation in a specific geographic context. This paper examines adolescent alienation in a rural school context. Dean (1961) defined alienation as an affective construct consisting of isolation…

  14. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    PubMed

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  15. Literatura chicana: Vida en busca de forma (Chicano Literature: Life in Search of Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Tomas

    The Chicano culture is searching for appropriate expression in art forms and literature. The Chicano novel and essay, often written in English, seem directed toward the North American public. The short story is the most varied in viewpoint and most versatile in form. Poetry captures the Chicano sensitivity. It is almost impossible to note the…

  16. 75 FR 52540 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-130; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 130, Petition for Alien Relative; OMB Control No. 1615-0012. The Department...: Petition for Alien Relative. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department... States to petition on behalf of certain alien relatives who wish to immigrate to the United States....

  17. 76 FR 27090 - Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection (Without Revisions): Form ETA 9033-A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Revisions): Form ETA 9033-A, Attestation by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in... collection by Form ETA 9033-A, OMB Control Number 1205-0352, Attestation by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers.... The INA generally prohibits the performance of longshore work by alien crewmembers, however the...

  18. Foliar stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in woody Mediterranean species with different life form and post-fire regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire is an important ecological disturbance factor in most Mediterranean ecosystems. In the Mediterranean Basin, most shrub species can regenerate after fire by resprouting or seeding. Here, we hypothesize that post-fire regenerative syndromes may potentially co-vary with traits directly related to functional properties involved in resource use. Thus, seeders with a shorter life span and smaller size would have lower water-use efficiency (WUE) than re-sprouting species and would take up nutrients such as nitrogen from more superficial parts of the soil. To test this hypothesis, we compared leaf (13)C and (15)N signatures from 29 co-existing species with different post-fire regeneration strategies. We also considered life form as an additional explanatory variable of the differences between post-fire regenerative groups. Our data support the hypothesis that seeder species (which mostly evolved in the Quaternary under a Mediterranean climate) have lower WUE and less stomatal control than non-seeders (many of which evolved under different climatic conditions in the Tertiary) and consequently greater consumption of water per unit biomass. This would be related to their smaller life forms, which tend to have lower WUE and shorter life and leaf lifespan. Differences in (15)N also support the hypothesis that resprouters have deeper root systems than non-resprouters. The study supports the hypothesis of an overlap between plant functional traits and plant attributes describing post-disturbance resilience. PMID:20653895

  19. Gene Flow between Sympatric Life History Forms of Oncorhynchus mykiss Located above and below Migratory Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Van Doornik, Donald M.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Campbell, Lance A.

    2013-01-01

    Oncorhynchus mykiss have a diverse array of life history types, and understanding the relationship among types is important for management of the species. Patterns of gene flow between sympatric freshwater resident O. mykiss, commonly known as rainbow trout, and anadromous O. mykiss, commonly known as steelhead, populations are complex and poorly understood. In this study, we attempt to determine the occurrence and pathways of gene flow and the degree of genetic similarity between sympatric resident and anadromous O. mykiss in three river systems, and investigate whether resident O. mykiss are producing anadromous offspring in these rivers, two of which have complete barriers to upstream migration. We found that the population structure of the O. mykiss in these rivers appears to be influenced more by the presence of a barrier to upstream migration than by life history type. The sex ratio of resident O. mykiss located above a barrier, and smolts captured in screw traps was significantly skewed in favor of females, whereas the reverse was true below the barriers, suggesting that male resident O. mykiss readily migrate downstream over the barrier, and that precocious male maturation may be occurring in the anadromous populations. Through paternity analyses, we also provide direct confirmation that resident O. mykiss can produce offspring that become anadromous. Most (89%) of the resident O. mykiss that produced anadromous offspring were males. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that shows that gene flow does readily occur between sympatric resident and anadromous O. mykiss life history types, and indicates that resident O. mykiss populations may be a potential repository of genes for the anadromous life history type. PMID:24224023

  20. Black, White, and Brown Adolescent Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heussenstamm, F. K.; Hoepfner, Ralph

    1972-01-01

    Those demographic characteristics of adolescents that proved to be most highly significant in relationship to alienation are grade point average, parental approval of friends, and solidarity with peers. (Authors)

  1. Family Harmony: An Etiologic Factor in Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Morris J.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Results suggest that recollections of earlier experienced parental attitudes can be retrospective clues of earlier parent-child interaction along the alienation dimension of an Anti-Establishment vs. Establishment philosophy of early child rearing. (Authors/MB)

  2. Undocumented Aliens: A Study of Mexican Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcido, Ramon M.

    1979-01-01

    The personal histories described here confirm that the primary impetus of undocumented aliens to emigrate is the desire for jobs and better socioeconomic opportunities. Amnesty, aid to families with dependent children, and increased social services are recommended. (Author/BEF)

  3. Cognitive-Perceptual Factors in the Political Alienation Process: A Test of Six Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The effectiveness of sex research models which measure adolescents' feelings of political alienation is investigated and discussed and a new model is formulated. The six models include life dissatisfaction, personal depreciation, critical perceptions of political reality, irrational beliefs, perceptions of political threat, and cognitive…

  4. Extreme alien light allows survival of terrestrial bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neil; Zhao, Guannan; Caycedo, Felipe; Manrique, Pedro; Qi, Hong; Rodriguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis

    2013-07-01

    Photosynthetic organisms provide a crucial coupling between the Sun's energy and metabolic processes supporting life on Earth. Searches for extraterrestrial life focus on seeking planets with similar incident light intensities and environments. However the impact of abnormal photon arrival times has not been considered. Here we present the counterintuitive result that broad classes of extreme alien light could support terrestrial bacterial life whereas sources more similar to our Sun might not. Our detailed microscopic model uses state-of-the-art empirical inputs including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images. It predicts a highly nonlinear survivability for the basic lifeform Rsp. Photometricum whereby toxic photon feeds get converted into a benign metabolic energy supply by an interplay between the membrane's spatial structure and temporal excitation processes. More generally, our work suggests a new handle for manipulating terrestrial photosynthesis using currently-available extreme value statistics photon sources.

  5. Extreme alien light allows survival of terrestrial bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Neil; Zhao, Guannan; Caycedo, Felipe; Manrique, Pedro; Qi, Hong; Rodriguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms provide a crucial coupling between the Sun's energy and metabolic processes supporting life on Earth. Searches for extraterrestrial life focus on seeking planets with similar incident light intensities and environments. However the impact of abnormal photon arrival times has not been considered. Here we present the counterintuitive result that broad classes of extreme alien light could support terrestrial bacterial life whereas sources more similar to our Sun might not. Our detailed microscopic model uses state-of-the-art empirical inputs including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images. It predicts a highly nonlinear survivability for the basic lifeform Rsp. Photometricum whereby toxic photon feeds get converted into a benign metabolic energy supply by an interplay between the membrane's spatial structure and temporal excitation processes. More generally, our work suggests a new handle for manipulating terrestrial photosynthesis using currently-available extreme value statistics photon sources. PMID:23852157

  6. Extreme alien light allows survival of terrestrial bacteria.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Neil; Zhao, Guannan; Caycedo, Felipe; Manrique, Pedro; Qi, Hong; Rodriguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms provide a crucial coupling between the Sun's energy and metabolic processes supporting life on Earth. Searches for extraterrestrial life focus on seeking planets with similar incident light intensities and environments. However the impact of abnormal photon arrival times has not been considered. Here we present the counterintuitive result that broad classes of extreme alien light could support terrestrial bacterial life whereas sources more similar to our Sun might not. Our detailed microscopic model uses state-of-the-art empirical inputs including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images. It predicts a highly nonlinear survivability for the basic lifeform Rsp. Photometricum whereby toxic photon feeds get converted into a benign metabolic energy supply by an interplay between the membrane's spatial structure and temporal excitation processes. More generally, our work suggests a new handle for manipulating terrestrial photosynthesis using currently-available extreme value statistics photon sources. PMID:23852157

  7. The alien hand and related signs.

    PubMed Central

    Doody, R S; Jankovic, J

    1992-01-01

    Alien limb sign includes failure to recognise ownership of one's limb when visual cues are removed, a feeling that one body part is foreign, personification of the affected body part, and autonomous activity which is perceived as outside voluntary control. Although the hand is most frequently affected, any limb or combination of limbs may fulfil the alien limb criteria. Alien hand sign should be reserved for cases in which the hand feels foreign together with observable involuntary motor activity. To characterise this phenomenon, seven patients with alien hand sign and other motor or behavioural manifestations are described. Aetiologies included multiple infarcts and cortobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBD). In this study, all patients had apraxia in response to verbal commands and problems with bimanual coordination. Most displayed non-goal directed involuntary motor activities, and two had self destructive motor behaviours. Grasp reflex occurred with alien hand due to either aetiology. Cortical reflex myoclonus was frequently seen in CBD patients. The phenomenological spectrum is reviewed, a diagnostic protocol proposed, and possible anatomical bases of alien hand discussed. PMID:1402972

  8. 20 CFR 422.105 - Presumption of authority of nonimmigrant alien to engage in employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... permitting work. (See 8 CFR 274a.12 for Form I-94 classifications.) If you have not been issued a Form I-94... work. (See 8 CFR 274a.12(c)(3).) (b) Exception to presumption for foreign academic students in... alien to engage in employment. 422.105 Section 422.105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...

  9. 20 CFR 422.105 - Presumption of authority of nonimmigrant alien to engage in employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... permitting work. (See 8 CFR 274a.12 for Form I-94 classifications.) If you have not been issued a Form I-94... work. (See 8 CFR 274a.12(c)(3).) (b) Exception to presumption for foreign academic students in... alien to engage in employment. 422.105 Section 422.105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...

  10. Encouraging Multiple Forms of Scholarship in Faculty Reward Systems: Influence on Faculty Work Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2006-01-01

    This article presents findings from a national study of Chief Academic Officers (CAOs) of four-year institutions on the effect of policy efforts that encourage multiple forms of scholarship on faculty involvement and satisfaction. Findings show that institutions that initiated reforms were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have…

  11. The parental alienation debate belongs in the courtroom, not in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Houchin, Timothy M; Ranseen, John; Hash, Phillip A K; Bartnicki, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The DSM-5 Task Force is presently considering whether to adopt parental alienation disorder (PAD) as a mental illness. Although controversy has surrounded PAD since its inception in 1985, pro-PAD groups and individuals have breathed new life into the push to establish it as a mental health diagnosis. In this analysis, we argue that it would be a serious mistake to adopt parental alienation disorder as a formal mental illness in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).

  12. Searching for alien artifacts on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.; Wagner, R. V.

    2013-08-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has a low probability of success, but it would have a high impact if successful. Therefore it makes sense to widen the search as much as possible within the confines of the modest budget and limited resources currently available. To date, SETI has been dominated by the paradigm of seeking deliberately beamed radio messages. However, indirect evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence could come from any incontrovertible signatures of non-human technology. Existing searchable databases from astronomy, biology, earth and planetary sciences all offer low-cost opportunities to seek a footprint of extraterrestrial technology. In this paper we take as a case study one particular new and rapidly-expanding database: the photographic mapping of the Moon's surface by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to 0.5 m resolution. Although there is only a tiny probability that alien technology would have left traces on the moon in the form of an artifact or surface modification of lunar features, this location has the virtue of being close, and of preserving traces for an immense duration. Systematic scrutiny of the LRO photographic images is being routinely conducted anyway for planetary science purposes, and this program could readily be expanded and outsourced at little extra cost to accommodate SETI goals, after the fashion of the SETI@home and Galaxy Zoo projects.

  13. A phylogenomic census of molecular functions identifies modern thermophilic archaea as the most ancient form of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO) definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.

  14. A Phylogenomic Census of Molecular Functions Identifies Modern Thermophilic Archaea as the Most Ancient Form of Cellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO) definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent. PMID:25249790

  15. Alien abduction: a medical hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Forrest, David V

    2008-01-01

    In response to a new psychological study of persons who believe they have been abducted by space aliens that found that sleep paralysis, a history of being hypnotized, and preoccupation with the paranormal and extraterrestrial were predisposing experiences, I noted that many of the frequently reported particulars of the abduction experience bear more than a passing resemblance to medical-surgical procedures and propose that experience with these may also be contributory. There is the altered state of consciousness, uniformly colored figures with prominent eyes, in a high-tech room under a round bright saucerlike object; there is nakedness, pain and a loss of control while the body's boundaries are being probed; and yet the figures are thought benevolent. No medical-surgical history was apparently taken in the above mentioned study, but psychological laboratory work evaluated false memory formation. I discuss problems in assessing intraoperative awareness and ways in which the medical hypothesis could be elaborated and tested. If physicians are causing this syndrome in a percentage of patients, we should know about it; and persons who feel they have been abducted should be encouraged to inform their surgeons and anesthesiologists without challenging their beliefs.

  16. Parental Alienation Syndrome vs. Parental Alienation: Which Diagnosis Should Evaluators Use in Child-Custody Disputes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate the sources of controversy between the use of the terms Parental Alienation Syndrome and Parental Alienation and to delineate the advantages and disadvantages of using either term in the context of child-custody disputes. It concludes that families are best served when the more specific term, Parental…

  17. Translation to Portuguese and cultural adaptation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF).

    PubMed

    Couto, M; Silva, D; Piedade, S; Borrego, Lm; Flokstra-de Blok, B; Dunn Galvin, A; Morais-Almeida, M

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy is a health problem with significant negative impact in Quality of Life (QoL). We aimed to translate into Portuguese and culturally adapt to our population the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). Cross-cultural translation was performed according to guidelines. Linguistic validation consisted in 3 steps: forward translation, backward translation and comprehensibility testing. A consensual version was obtained and tested in parents of food allergic children by cognitive debriefing. Twelve questionnaires were fulfilled, all completed in ≤ 15 min. No comments, doubts or suggestions were posed, except for 2 parents regarding a question about the number of food their children had to avoid. Two gave special positive feedback about the utility of FAQLQ-PF. Changes have been included after this pre-test in accordance to doubts and suggestions of participants, and the Portuguese version is now able to be used in clinics and research.

  18. Assessing the Validity of the RAND Negative Impact of Asthma on Quality of Life Short-Forms

    PubMed Central

    Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Stucky, Brian D.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Kleerup, Eric; Lara, Marielena

    2014-01-01

    Background In response to recommendations from the 2010 NIH Asthma Outcomes Workshop, we developed a system for measuring the negative impact of asthma on Quality of Life (QoL), referred to as the RAND Negative Impact of Asthma on Quality of Life (RAND-IAQL) item bank. The bank contains 65 items that focus on the patient’s perception of the impact or bother of asthma on his or her life. Objective Evidence for the validity of two short-forms, The RAND-IAQL-4 and 12, from the bank is presented. Methods Using a sample of 2032 adults with asthma, we validated our short-forms against the Marks Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (M-AQLQ); The Asthma Control Test; and generic measures of QoL developed by PROMIS®. Discriminant validity was examined by comparing scores of respondents who differed according to multiple health indicators. Results Our sample ranged in age from 18–99 (mean of 43), 14% of whom were Hispanic, 11% Asian, 19% African American and 56% non-Hispanic White. Men had significantly worse impact of asthma on QoL than women. Impact of asthma on QoL was greatest in African Americans and Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Our measures correlated highly with Marks AQLQ and more strongly with the PROMIS® global physical than mental scale. They differentiated between adults with asthma according to their perceived severity, level of control, presence or absence of exacerbations and physical comorbidity. Conclusion The RAND-IAQL item bank, measuring the impact of asthma on QoL, will complement other patient-reported outcomes such as measures of asthma symptoms, functioning and control. PMID:24746752

  19. Health-related Quality of Life and Alternative Forms of Exercise in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) reduces health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but exercise may improve HRQoL. This pilot study compared the effects of Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi and No Intervention on HRQoL in individuals with PD. Seventy-five persons with PD (Hoehn and Yahr I-III) were assigned to twenty lessons of Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi, or an untreated No Intervention group. Participants completed the PDQ-39 before and after participation in 20 classes or within thirteen weeks in the case of the No Intervention group. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between interventions. Tango significantly improved on Mobility (p = 0.03), Social Support (p = 0.05) and the PDQ-39 SI (p < 0.01) at post-testing. No significant changes in HRQoL were noted in the Waltz/Foxtrot, Tai Chi or No Intervention. Tango may be helpful for improving HRQoL in PD because it addresses balance and gait deficits in the context of a social interaction that requires working closely with a partner. PMID:19329350

  20. Precambrian animal life: probable developmental and adult cnidarian forms from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Yuan; Oliveri, Paola; Gao, Feng; Dornbos, Stephen Q; Li, Chia-Wei; Bottjer, David J; Davidson, Eric H

    2002-08-01

    The evolutionary divergence of cnidarian and bilaterian lineages from their remote metazoan ancestor occurred at an unknown depth in time before the Cambrian, since crown group representatives of each are found in Lower Cambrian fossil assemblages. We report here a variety of putative embryonic, larval, and adult microfossils deriving from Precambrian phosphorite deposits of Southwest China, which may predate the Cambrian radiation by 25-45 million years. These are most probably of cnidarian affinity. Large numbers of fossilized early planula-like larvae were observed under the microscope in sections. Though several forms are represented, the majority display remarkable conformity, which is inconsistent with the alternative that they are artifactual mineral inclusions. Some of these fossils are preserved in such high resolution that individual cells can be discerned. We confirm in detail an earlier report of the presence in the same deposits of tabulates, an extinct crown group anthozoan form. Other sections reveal structures that most closely resemble sections of basal modern corals. A large number of fossils similar to modern hydrozoan gastrulae were also observed. These again displayed great morphological consistency. Though only a single example is available, a microscopic animal remarkably similar to a modern adult hydrozoan is also presented. Taken together, the new observations reported in this paper indicate the existence of a diverse and already differentiated cnidarian fauna, long before the Cambrian evolutionary event. It follows that at least stem group bilaterians must also have been present at this time.

  1. Precambrian animal life: probable developmental and adult cnidarian forms from Southwest China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jun-Yuan; Oliveri, Paola; Gao, Feng; Dornbos, Stephen Q.; Li, Chia-Wei; Bottjer, David J.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of cnidarian and bilaterian lineages from their remote metazoan ancestor occurred at an unknown depth in time before the Cambrian, since crown group representatives of each are found in Lower Cambrian fossil assemblages. We report here a variety of putative embryonic, larval, and adult microfossils deriving from Precambrian phosphorite deposits of Southwest China, which may predate the Cambrian radiation by 25-45 million years. These are most probably of cnidarian affinity. Large numbers of fossilized early planula-like larvae were observed under the microscope in sections. Though several forms are represented, the majority display remarkable conformity, which is inconsistent with the alternative that they are artifactual mineral inclusions. Some of these fossils are preserved in such high resolution that individual cells can be discerned. We confirm in detail an earlier report of the presence in the same deposits of tabulates, an extinct crown group anthozoan form. Other sections reveal structures that most closely resemble sections of basal modern corals. A large number of fossils similar to modern hydrozoan gastrulae were also observed. These again displayed great morphological consistency. Though only a single example is available, a microscopic animal remarkably similar to a modern adult hydrozoan is also presented. Taken together, the new observations reported in this paper indicate the existence of a diverse and already differentiated cnidarian fauna, long before the Cambrian evolutionary event. It follows that at least stem group bilaterians must also have been present at this time.

  2. Application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cataract is a prevalent disease in the elderly, and negatively influences patients’ quality of life. This study was conducted to study the application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 300 patients with cataract were studied in Neyshabur, Iran from July to October 2014. The Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, the paired t-test, the independent t-test, and a linear regression model were used to analyze the data in SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 68.11±11.98 years, and most were female (53%). The overall observed Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the WHOQOL-BREF was 0.889, ranging from 0.714 to 0.810 in its four domains. The total mean score of the respondents on the WHOQOL-BREF was 13.19. The highest and lowest mean scores were observed in the social relationship domain (14.11) and the physical health domain (12.29), respectively. A backward multiple linear regression model found that duration of disease and marital status were associated with total WHOQOL scores, while age, duration of disease, marital status, and income level were associated with domains one through four, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The reliability analysis conducted in this study indicated that the WHOQOL-BREF scale exhibited an acceptable degree of internal consistency in the measurement of the quality of life of patients with cataract. It was also found that the patients with cataract who were surveyed reported a relatively moderate quality of life. PMID:26883738

  3. Impact of grazing and life forms interactions on plant communities in arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor

    2015-04-01

    community productivity. The experimental defoliation exerted a pronounced effect on plant productivity and modified the nature of interaction between annual grasses and other growth forms. These mechanisms may explain the ability of Avena and Hordeum species to form persistent annual climax grasslands in semi-arid rangelands. These findings may suggest that Avena and Hordeum species may be used in revegetating degraded arid areas

  4. Alien phytogeographic regions of southern Africa: numerical classification, possible drivers, and regional threats.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sanet; Van Rensburg, Berndt J; Van Wyk, Abraham E; Steenkamp, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of naturalised alien plant species that have invaded natural or semi-natural habitat are often geographically restricted by the environmental conditions in their new range, implying that alien species with similar environmental requirements and tolerances may form assemblages and characterise particular areas. The aim of this study was to use objective numerical techniques to reveal any possible alien phytogeographic regions (i.e. geographic areas with characteristic alien plant assemblages) in southern Africa. Quarter degree resolution presence records of naturalised alien plant species of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana were analysed through a divisive hierarchical classification technique, and the output was plotted on maps for further interpretation. The analyses revealed two main alien phytogeographic regions that could be subdivided into eight lower level phytogeographic regions. Along with knowledge of the environmental requirements of the characteristic species and supported by further statistical analyses, we hypothesised on the main drivers of alien phytogeographic regions, and suggest that environmental features such as climate and associated biomes were most important, followed by human activities that modify climatic and vegetation features, such as irrigation and agriculture. Most of the characteristic species are not currently well-known as invasive plant species, but many may have potential to become troublesome in the future. Considering the possibility of biotic homogenization, these findings have implications for predicting the characteristics of the plant assemblages of the future. However, the relatively low quality of the dataset necessitates further more in-depth studies with improved data before the findings could be directly beneficial for management. PMID:22574145

  5. Alien phytogeographic regions of southern Africa: numerical classification, possible drivers, and regional threats.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sanet; Van Rensburg, Berndt J; Van Wyk, Abraham E; Steenkamp, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of naturalised alien plant species that have invaded natural or semi-natural habitat are often geographically restricted by the environmental conditions in their new range, implying that alien species with similar environmental requirements and tolerances may form assemblages and characterise particular areas. The aim of this study was to use objective numerical techniques to reveal any possible alien phytogeographic regions (i.e. geographic areas with characteristic alien plant assemblages) in southern Africa. Quarter degree resolution presence records of naturalised alien plant species of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana were analysed through a divisive hierarchical classification technique, and the output was plotted on maps for further interpretation. The analyses revealed two main alien phytogeographic regions that could be subdivided into eight lower level phytogeographic regions. Along with knowledge of the environmental requirements of the characteristic species and supported by further statistical analyses, we hypothesised on the main drivers of alien phytogeographic regions, and suggest that environmental features such as climate and associated biomes were most important, followed by human activities that modify climatic and vegetation features, such as irrigation and agriculture. Most of the characteristic species are not currently well-known as invasive plant species, but many may have potential to become troublesome in the future. Considering the possibility of biotic homogenization, these findings have implications for predicting the characteristics of the plant assemblages of the future. However, the relatively low quality of the dataset necessitates further more in-depth studies with improved data before the findings could be directly beneficial for management.

  6. Alien Phytogeographic Regions of Southern Africa: Numerical Classification, Possible Drivers, and Regional Threats

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Sanet; Van Rensburg, Berndt J.; Van Wyk, Abraham E.; Steenkamp, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of naturalised alien plant species that have invaded natural or semi-natural habitat are often geographically restricted by the environmental conditions in their new range, implying that alien species with similar environmental requirements and tolerances may form assemblages and characterise particular areas. The aim of this study was to use objective numerical techniques to reveal any possible alien phytogeographic regions (i.e. geographic areas with characteristic alien plant assemblages) in southern Africa. Quarter degree resolution presence records of naturalised alien plant species of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana were analysed through a divisive hierarchical classification technique, and the output was plotted on maps for further interpretation. The analyses revealed two main alien phytogeographic regions that could be subdivided into eight lower level phytogeographic regions. Along with knowledge of the environmental requirements of the characteristic species and supported by further statistical analyses, we hypothesised on the main drivers of alien phytogeographic regions, and suggest that environmental features such as climate and associated biomes were most important, followed by human activities that modify climatic and vegetation features, such as irrigation and agriculture. Most of the characteristic species are not currently well-known as invasive plant species, but many may have potential to become troublesome in the future. Considering the possibility of biotic homogenization, these findings have implications for predicting the characteristics of the plant assemblages of the future. However, the relatively low quality of the dataset necessitates further more in-depth studies with improved data before the findings could be directly beneficial for management. PMID:22574145

  7. Alien in an Unknown World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his life experiences and how difficult it was for him as a Mexican immigrant living in the United States. His life changed when he moved to America, but his character changed when he started middle school. He had been constantly insulted by his classmates, and at the time he wanted to get revenge. The kids he…

  8. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  9. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  10. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  11. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  12. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  13. The mirror world of motor inhibition: the alien hand syndrome in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brainin, M; Seiser, A; Matz, K

    2008-03-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is rare, but important due to its disabling impact on everyday life. The determining characteristic of AHS is intermanual conflict, a type of inhibitory motor behaviour that occurs against willed action. Its components have previously been described as single case reports, but not as a systematic study. This review includes eight chronic cases, all of which are due to infarcts of the anterior cerebral artery. Clinical investigation included testing of motor behaviour related to everyday activities, such as tying shoelaces, lighting a candle and other bimanual tasks. Video-analysis showed that conflicting behaviour occurs in two distinct forms. One consists of interfering, rudimentary, hesitant and repetitive movements of the (alien) hand, often initiated by movements of the other hand. In some instances, disturbance of ongoing action is seen as spacious, ballistic-like extensions of the whole arm. This was most prevalent in three of the eight cases. In one patient, it was also seen as conflict with both feet (eg, when putting on slippers) or as a conflict of intentions (eg, when planning to enter a room). The other form consisted of massive groping and grasping behaviour as the most dominant features, such as a "tug of war between hands", and was seen in five patients. Avoidance behaviour included sitting on the affected arm, holding it under the table or keeping objects out of reach. Enforcement of such strategies was used for rehabilitation and--although beneficial in the training sessions--carried over very little to everyday life. All cases had two distinct brain lesions, one in the genu or anterior rostrum of the corpus callosum and one in the contralateral frontomedial cortical and subcortical region. Chronic AHS is the only clinical syndrome that shows complex inhibitory motor behaviour in a more or less pure form because it has become detached from the control of motor planning and execution. It can best be understood as sequences

  14. 78 FR 48463 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Form ETA 9033, Attestation by Employers Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ..., Attestation by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in U.S. Ports and Form ETA 9033-A, Attestation by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in the State of Alaska; Extension... Attestation by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in U.S. Ports (OMB Control...

  15. Assessment of quality of life in haemodialysis patients: a comparison of the Nottingham Health Profile and the Short Form 36.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Neriman; Ören, Besey; Gül, Asiye; Üstündağ, Hülya

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the psychometric properties of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), which evaluates health-related quality of life in haemodialysis patients. Data were gathered using the NHP and the SF-36. Quality of life scores obtained from the NHP and the SF-36 were compared according to sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that the internal consistency values of the NHP and the SF-36 were similar. The floor effect of the two NHP subscales and the ceiling effect of all the NHP subscales were higher than those pertaining to the. It was observed that the NHP mean subscale scores were higher than those of the SF-36, except for one subscale of the SF-36. There was a significant positive correlation between the similar subscales of the NHP and the SF-36 and between the total scores. These results seem to support the utility of the NHP and the SF-36 in evaluating quality of life in haemodialysis patients.

  16. Potential targets in the search for extraterrestrial life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the potential for increasing understanding of the origins of terrestrial life by examination of other planets. If living organisms should be found on another planet, they could only have been transported from an inhabited planet or originated independently. The fundamental chemical and structural attributes of terrestrial organisms are so remarkably uniform that any living forms outside the terrestrial blueprint would almost certainly be regarded as alien organisms. It has been shown experimentally by various investigators that life can exist in an extremely wide range of temperatures and pressures. The presence of an atmosphere appears to be necessary.

  17. An introduction to parental alienation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Michelle M

    2011-04-01

    Parental alienation syndrome (PAS) can occur during a tumultuous divorce between embattled parents involved in a bitter child custody dispute. During parental warfare, a child is used as a weapon by one parent (alienating parent) against the other parent (alienated/targeted parent). The targeted parent-child relationship once encased with unconditional love is transformed by an unrelenting campaign of denigration, criticism, and hatred. Since nursing literature on PAS is almost nonexistent, the purpose of this article is to increase nursing awareness and provide basic information. Awareness of PAS symptoms and interpersonal dynamics is important to prompt nurses in recommending treatment for families. Nurses should collaboratively join other professionals in their quest to provide the best treatment possible.

  18. ALIEN SPECIES: THEIR ROLE IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...

  19. Life form and water source interact to determine active time and environment in cryptogams: an example from the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2013-09-01

    Antarctica, with its almost pristine conditions and relatively simple vegetation, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the influence of environmental factors on species performance, such information being crucial if the effects of possible climate change are to be understood. Antarctic vegetation is mainly cryptogamic. Cryptogams are poikilohydric and are only metabolically and photosynthetically active when hydrated. Activity patterns of the main life forms present, bryophytes (10 species, ecto- and endohydric), lichens (5 species) and phanerogams (2 species), were monitored for 21 days using chlorophyll a fluorescence as an indicator of metabolic activity and, therefore, of water regime at a mesic (hydration by meltwater) and a xeric (hydration by precipitation) site on Léonie Island/West Antarctic Peninsula (67°36'S). Length of activity depended mainly on site and form of hydration. Plants at the mesic site that were hydrated by meltwater were active for long periods, up to 100 % of the measurement period, whilst activity was much shorter at the xeric site where hydration was entirely by precipitation. There were also differences due to life form, with phanerogams and mesic bryophytes being most active and lichens generally much less so. The length of the active period for lichens was longer than in continental Antarctica but shorter than in the more northern Antarctic Peninsula. Light intensity when hydrated was positively related to the length of the active period. High activity species were strongly coupled to the incident light whilst low activity species were active under lower light levels and essentially uncoupled from incident light. Temperatures were little different between sites and also almost identical to temperatures, when active, for lichens in continental and peninsular Antarctica. Gradients in vegetation cover and growth rates across Antarctica are, therefore, not likely to be due to differences in temperature but more likely to

  20. Life form and water source interact to determine active time and environment in cryptogams: an example from the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2013-09-01

    Antarctica, with its almost pristine conditions and relatively simple vegetation, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the influence of environmental factors on species performance, such information being crucial if the effects of possible climate change are to be understood. Antarctic vegetation is mainly cryptogamic. Cryptogams are poikilohydric and are only metabolically and photosynthetically active when hydrated. Activity patterns of the main life forms present, bryophytes (10 species, ecto- and endohydric), lichens (5 species) and phanerogams (2 species), were monitored for 21 days using chlorophyll a fluorescence as an indicator of metabolic activity and, therefore, of water regime at a mesic (hydration by meltwater) and a xeric (hydration by precipitation) site on Léonie Island/West Antarctic Peninsula (67°36'S). Length of activity depended mainly on site and form of hydration. Plants at the mesic site that were hydrated by meltwater were active for long periods, up to 100 % of the measurement period, whilst activity was much shorter at the xeric site where hydration was entirely by precipitation. There were also differences due to life form, with phanerogams and mesic bryophytes being most active and lichens generally much less so. The length of the active period for lichens was longer than in continental Antarctica but shorter than in the more northern Antarctic Peninsula. Light intensity when hydrated was positively related to the length of the active period. High activity species were strongly coupled to the incident light whilst low activity species were active under lower light levels and essentially uncoupled from incident light. Temperatures were little different between sites and also almost identical to temperatures, when active, for lichens in continental and peninsular Antarctica. Gradients in vegetation cover and growth rates across Antarctica are, therefore, not likely to be due to differences in temperature but more likely to

  1. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    geomorphology characterize Africa's older surfaces, many of which qualify as palimpsests: overwritten and reshaped repeatedly over timescales of 10 000-100 000 000 yr. Inheritance, equifinality, and exhumation are commonly invoked to explain such landscape patterns, but are difficult to measure and thus test; here Africa's vast, deep regoliths epitomize the starkness of these challenges facing researchers across much of the continent. These deficiencies and problems are magnified when we consider the knowledge we seek of African landscape evolution toward resolving the complex history of the African plate since its individuation. The credentials of this knowledge are prescribed by the evidence needed to test competing hypotheses, especially invoking first order determinants of landscape dynamics e.g. membrane tectonics (Oxburgh ER & Turcotte DL 1974. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 22:133-140) versus plumes (Foulger G 2013. Plates vs Plumes: A Geological Controversy. Wiley Blackwell). The evidence needed to test such competing hypotheses demands robust reconstructions of the individuated histories of landforms; in the African context, robustness pertains to the representativeness of events reconstructed in form and space (up to continental scales) and back through time from the Neogene into the Late Mesozoic. The ideal map of quantitative evidence must aim to integrate salient details in the trajectories of individuated landforms representing the principal landscapes of all Africa's margins, basins and watersheds. This in turn demands measurements - in mesoscale detail - of relief, drainage and regolith back though time, wherever keystone packages of evidence have survived Gondwana break up and its aftermath. Such a strategy is indeed ambitious, and it may well be dismissed as impractical. Nevertheless, the alternatives fall short. If it is to be representative of the history it purports to explain, we need the mesoscale facts to inform any narrative of a larger landscape (regional

  2. The Lost Parents' Perspective on Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiliou, Despina; Cartwright, Glenn F.

    2001-01-01

    Examined alienated fathers' and mothers' perceptions of parental alienation syndrome (PAS). Data were collected via semistructured, open ended interview questionnaires to determine if there were shared characteristics among alienated families; common issues in marital conflicts contributing to marriage dissolution; similarities in experience of…

  3. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....” means that the alien is lawfully present as defined at 8 CFR 103.12(a). (b) Reporting illegal aliens. (1... participating in the Program from any demand made under 8 CFR 213a.4(a) for the value of food stamp benefits... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citizenship and alien status. 273.4 Section...

  4. Socio-economic Predictors of Alienation among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Thomas J., Jr.; Christian, Ollie

    1990-01-01

    Studied level of alienation and associations between socioeconomic variables and alienation in 200 older senior center clients. Found group isolation and powerlessness were more prevalent than personal isolation or normlessness; health, race, education, and income were strongest predictors of alienation; and older Blacks and those with lower…

  5. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  6. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  7. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  8. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  9. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  11. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  12. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  13. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  14. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  15. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  16. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  17. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  18. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  19. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  1. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  2. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  3. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  4. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  5. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  6. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  7. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  8. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  9. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  10. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section 233... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  11. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  12. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  13. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  14. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  15. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  16. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  17. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  19. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  20. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  2. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  4. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  5. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  6. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  7. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  8. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  9. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  10. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  11. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  12. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  13. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  15. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  16. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  18. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  19. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  1. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  2. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  3. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  4. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  6. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  9. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  10. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  12. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  13. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  14. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  15. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  16. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  17. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to...

  18. Status of biological control projects on terrestrial invasive alien weeds in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cooperation with foreign scientists, we are currently developing new classical biological control agents for five species of invasive alien terrestrial weeds. Cape-Ivy. A gall-forming fly, Parafreutreta regalis, and a stem-boring moth, Digitivalva delaireae, have been favorably reviewed by TAG...

  19. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  20. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them.

  1. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them. PMID:23013271

  2. 17 CFR 274.303 - Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to... variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-2, see the List of CFR Sections...

  3. 17 CFR 274.302 - Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2... for Exemptions § 274.302 Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). Editorial Note:...

  4. 17 CFR 274.303 - Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant...

  5. 17 CFR 274.303 - Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant...

  6. 17 CFR 274.303 - Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant...

  7. 17 CFR 274.303 - Form N-27I-2, notice of withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2 (§ 270.6e-2 of this chapter). Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... withdrawal right and statement of charges for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant...

  8. Beyond the Drake Equation: On the Probability of the Nature of Extraterrestrial Life Forms in Our Galaxy Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss my research into the issues associated with the nature of any extraterrestrials that may be encountered in the future in our galaxy. This research was sparked by statements made by Stephen Hawking in 2010 regarding his fear of emitting radiation from our Earth so that an extraterrestrial intelligent civilization may be alerted to our existence in the galaxy today. While addressing issues of extraterrestrial altruism, a probabilistic equation was developed which addresses the number of extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that may exist in our galaxy today, who could use our bodies for nourishment or reproductive purposes. The equation begins with the results from a Drake Equation calculation, and proceeds by addressing such biochemical parameters as the fraction of ETIs with: dextro sugar stereo-isomers; levo amino acid stereo-isomers; similar codon interpretation; chromosomal length and, similar cell membrane structure to allow egg penetration.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of the korean version of the minneapolis-manchester quality of life instrument-adolescent form.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Yang, Hyung Kook; Shin, Dong Wook; Kim, Yoon Yi; Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Nam, Byung Ho; Bhatia, Smita; Park, Byung Kiu; Ghim, Thad T; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2013-12-01

    We verified the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Instrument-Adolescent Form (KMMQL-AF) among Korean childhood cancer survivors. A total of 107 childhood cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment and 98 childhood cancer survivors who completed cancer treatment were recruited. To assess the internal structure of the KMMQL-AF, we performed multi-trait scaling analyses and exploratory factor analysis. Additionally, we compared each domains of the KMMQL-AF with those of the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). Internal consistency of the KMMQL-AF was sufficient (Cronbach's alpha: 0.78-0.92). In multi-trait scaling analyses, the KMMQL-AF showed sufficient construct validity. The "physical functioning" domain showed moderate correlation with Karnofsky scores and the "psychological functioning" domain showed moderate-to-high correlation with the RCMAS. The KMMQL-AF discriminated between subgroups of different adolescent cancer survivors depending on treatment completion. The KMMQL-AF is a sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for measuring quality of life among Korean childhood cancer survivors.

  10. The Alienating Influence of the Illusionogens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Andrew I.

    1971-01-01

    The author, based on his discussion, hypothesizes that: (1) the use of marijuana may serve to intensify the tendency toward an adolescent's alienation and (2) attitudinal changes do occur in people who are exposed to the illusionogens and that these changes are more certainly fixed with continued use. (Author/BY)

  11. Processes of Alienation: Marx, Orff and Kodaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Using Marx as a lens through which to interrogate music methodology, in particular those espoused by Orff and Kodaly, this article suggests that rather than the free play and creativity Orff and Kodaly intended, the implementation of these methods in a strict and unmindful manner, often alienates both teacher and student from musicking. Thus these…

  12. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  13. Release of alien populations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Palme, Anna; Josefsson, Melanie; Utter, Fred; Ryman, Nils

    2006-08-01

    Introduction of alien species is a major threat to biological diversity. Although public attention typically focuses on the species level, guidelines from the Convention of Biological Diversity define alien species to include entities below species level. This inclusion recognizes that release of nonlocal populations of native species may also result in negative effects on biodiversity. In practice, little is known about the extent, degree of establishment, or the effects on natural gene pools of such releases. Existing information on the releases in Sweden shows that alien populations are spread to a great extent. The most commonly released species include brown trout, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, common whitefish, Scots pine, Norway spruce, mallard duck, gray partridge, and pheasant. Although millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually, poor documentation makes the geographic and genetic origin of these populations, as well as the sites where they have been released, largely unclear. We provide recommendations for urgently needed first steps relating to the risks and problems associated with release of alien populations.

  14. Student Drug Usage and Self-Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Michael L.

    Utilizing responses (a self administered, 15 item questionnaire) of a rural northeastern New England sample of junior high, senior high, and college students, correlation between legal and illegal drug use and perceived self-alienation was examined. Comparison was also made between users and nonusers. Legal users were defined as those who made at…

  15. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alien Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sarva, Harini; Deik, Andres; Severt, William Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a disorder of involuntary, yet purposeful, hand movements that may be accompanied by agnosia, aphasia, weakness, or sensory loss. We herein review the most reported cases, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatments. Methods We performed a PubMed search in July of 2014 using the phrases “alien hand syndrome,” “alien hand syndrome pathophysiology,” “alien hand syndrome treatment,” and “anarchic hand syndrome.” The search yielded 141 papers (reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical studies), of which we reviewed 109. Non-English reports without English abstracts were excluded. Results Accumulating evidence indicates that there are three AHS variants: frontal, callosal, and posterior. Patients may demonstrate symptoms of multiple types; there is a lack of correlation between phenomenology and neuroimaging findings. Most pathologic and functional imaging studies suggest network disruption causing loss of inhibition as the likely cause. Successful interventions include botulinum toxin injections, clonazepam, visuospatial coaching techniques, distracting the affected hand, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Discussion The available literature suggests that overlap between AHS subtypes is common. The evidence for effective treatments remains anecdotal, and, given the rarity of AHS, the possibility of performing randomized, placebo-controlled trials seems unlikely. As with many other interventions for movement disorders, identifying the specific functional impairments caused by AHS may provide the best guidance towards individualized supportive care. PMID:25506043

  16. The Alienated Majority: A Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Marilyn

    The purpose of this study was to test House's and Mason's hypothesis (1975) that only a weak relationship exists between political alienation and traditional demographic definitions of social position. Such demographic variables include age, sex, socioeconomic status, length of residency in the community, and occupational prestige. Data was…

  17. Temporary Employment of Aliens Working in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    1978-01-01

    Two groups are in conflict regarding the temporary employment of aliens in agriculture. One group is in favor of government planning, and of direct government intervention in the market place. The other group is very reluctant for the government to intervene in the market place, and would prefer free enterprise to operate. (NQ)

  18. Neighborhood Disorder, Subjective Alienation, and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    2009-01-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry…

  19. Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

  20. Aliens Among Us : Are They Already Here ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    2008-03-01

    Popular culture, science fiction and mainstream belief, says they are! What is the evidence? Astronomer, skeptic and retired USAF pilot James McGaha examines this "Space Age" Mythology. From years of investigation of the physical evidence of aliens and there spacecraft (UFO's) here on earth, McGaha presents the scientific facts.

  1. Alienation and Fetish in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Reexamines materials from an ethnographic study of science-education laboratory work in a teacher-educator course through the lens of three Marxist concepts: alienation, reification, and commodity fetish. Concludes that the potential for generating criticism of science in teacher education is squandered because of a fetishized notion of science.…

  2. The Lonely Consumer: Advertising and Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.; Denton, Robert E.

    Advertising plays on the broad feelings of alienation (defined as an individual's frustrated or estranged responses to economic and sociological phenomena which affect that individual's place in society) which are endemic to the American consumer society and are, in Marxist views, symptomatic of any capitalist system. By generating anxieties and…

  3. Developing an item bank and short forms that assess the impact of asthma on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Eberhart, Nicole K; Lara, Marielena

    2014-02-01

    The present work describes the process of developing an item bank and short forms that measure the impact of asthma on quality of life (QoL) that avoids confounding QoL with asthma symptomatology and functional impairment. Using a diverse national sample of adults with asthma (N = 2032) we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and item response theory and differential item functioning analyses to develop a 65-item unidimensional item bank and separate short form assessments. A psychometric evaluation of the RAND Impact of Asthma on QoL item bank (RAND-IAQL) suggests that though the concept of asthma impact on QoL is multi-faceted, it may be measured as a single underlying construct. The performance of the bank was then evaluated with a real-data simulated computer adaptive test. From the RAND-IAQL item bank we then developed two short forms consisting of 4 and 12 items (reliability = 0.86 and 0.93, respectively). A real-data simulated computer adaptive test suggests that as few as 4-5 items from the bank are needed to obtain highly precise scores. Preliminary validity results indicate that the RAND-IAQL measures distinguish between levels of asthma control. To measure the impact of asthma on QoL, users of these items may choose from two highly reliable short forms, computer adaptive test administration, or content-specific subsets of items from the bank tailored to their specific needs. PMID:24411842

  4. Parental alienation syndrome. A developmental analysis of a vulnerable population.

    PubMed

    Price, J L; Pioske, K S

    1994-11-01

    1. Parental alienation syndrome is the systematic denigration by one parent of the other parent with the intent of alienating the child. 2. Parents who engage in alienating activity have experienced loss, leading to depression, anger, and aggression. The family system experiences loss during divorce and is adversely affected by the alienating activities of one parent. 3. Understanding the dynamics of parental alienation syndrome will position the nurse to recognize it as a symptom of depression and dependence, and bring care to the vulnerable population.

  5. The psychosocial treatment of parental alienation.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Douglas

    2011-07-01

    Parental alienation occurs in divorces when one parent indoctrinates the child to dislike, fear, and avoid contact with the other parent. Mental health professionals who treat children and adolescents are likely to encounter victims of parental alienation in clinical practice, and it is important to identify and treat these youngsters earlier, when the condition is mild, rather than later, when the parental alienation is almost intractable. This article presents an overview of the treatment of parental alienation, which is called reunification therapy. All the parties involved in the case have a role in the prevention and treatment of parental alienation.

  6. A systematic review of analyses of the concept of quality of life in nursing: exploring how form of analysis affects understanding.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Janet S; Miller, Wendy R; Otte, Julie L

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is central to nursing and commonly aimed at the preservation of health-related quality of life. Few rigorous studies address concept development of health-related quality of life. The purpose of this article was to explore quality of life as it is used in nursing by systematically reviewing published concept development. The results found the need for a more robust and rigorous study of the concept and suggest that forms of analysis be used that explicitly explore the concept in context using empirical data along with a broad and clearly defined literature.

  7. 28 CFR 1100.35 - Authority to permit continued presence in the United States for victims of severe forms of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... encounter alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons who are potential witnesses to that... such aliens in the United States. All law enforcement requests for continued presence must be submitted... administering of the requests for continued presence in the United States of eligible aliens. (b) Upon...

  8. 28 CFR 1100.35 - Authority to permit continued presence in the United States for victims of severe forms of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... encounter alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons who are potential witnesses to that... such aliens in the United States. All law enforcement requests for continued presence must be submitted... administering of the requests for continued presence in the United States of eligible aliens. (b) Upon...

  9. 28 CFR 1100.35 - Authority to permit continued presence in the United States for victims of severe forms of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... encounter alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons who are potential witnesses to that... such aliens in the United States. All law enforcement requests for continued presence must be submitted... administering of the requests for continued presence in the United States of eligible aliens. (b) Upon...

  10. 28 CFR 1100.35 - Authority to permit continued presence in the United States for victims of severe forms of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... encounter alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons who are potential witnesses to that... such aliens in the United States. All law enforcement requests for continued presence must be submitted... administering of the requests for continued presence in the United States of eligible aliens. (b) Upon...

  11. 17 CFR 274.302 - Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2... for Exemptions § 274.302 Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable...

  12. 17 CFR 274.302 - Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2... for Exemptions § 274.302 Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable...

  13. 17 CFR 274.302 - Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2... for Exemptions § 274.302 Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable...

  14. 17 CFR 274.302 - Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27I-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... of withdrawal and refund for variable life insurance contractholders required pursuant to Rule 6e-2... for Exemptions § 274.302 Form N-27I-1, notice of right of withdrawal and refund for variable...

  15. Czech alien flora and the historical pattern of its formation: what came first to Central Europe?

    PubMed

    Pysek, Petr; Sádlo, Jirí; Mandák, Bohumil; Jarosík, Vojtech

    2003-03-01

    Temporal patterns of immigration to the country were analysed using 668 alien species in the flora of the Czech Republic for which the dates of the first record were available (64.8% of the total number of 1031 so-called neophytes, i.e. aliens introduced after the year 1500). After a period of initial slow increase lasting to the 1840s, the accumulation of neophytes over time could be best fitted by a linear model that explained 97% of the variance. The intensity of floristic research, which varied between periods, did not significantly affect the overall increase in the number of aliens. The effect of species traits on the year of introduction was evaluated, with continent of origin, introduction type (deliberate or accidental), life history, Grime's life strategy, onset of flowering, mode of dispersal and propagule size as explanatory variables. Species of European origin and CSR strategists arrived earlier than those with other origins and strategies. Deliberately introduced species appeared earlier than accidental arrivals, and those cultivated for utilitary reasons on average arrived earlier than ornamentals. Species capable of early flowering were remarkably more prevalent among early newcomers. A separate analysis of accidentally introduced American species also identified life history as a significant predictor of immigration time, with annuals being introduced earlier than biennials and perennials. The data contribute to an understanding of a crucial stage of the invasion process that has received little attention in the literature. The model "early alien" to Central Europe is a European species with a CSR strategy deliberately brought for cultivation as a utilitary plant. Once it escaped from cultivation, its establishment in the wild was favoured by its ability to flower early and, therefore, complete the life cycle. PMID:12647111

  16. Czech alien flora and the historical pattern of its formation: what came first to Central Europe?

    PubMed

    Pysek, Petr; Sádlo, Jirí; Mandák, Bohumil; Jarosík, Vojtech

    2003-03-01

    Temporal patterns of immigration to the country were analysed using 668 alien species in the flora of the Czech Republic for which the dates of the first record were available (64.8% of the total number of 1031 so-called neophytes, i.e. aliens introduced after the year 1500). After a period of initial slow increase lasting to the 1840s, the accumulation of neophytes over time could be best fitted by a linear model that explained 97% of the variance. The intensity of floristic research, which varied between periods, did not significantly affect the overall increase in the number of aliens. The effect of species traits on the year of introduction was evaluated, with continent of origin, introduction type (deliberate or accidental), life history, Grime's life strategy, onset of flowering, mode of dispersal and propagule size as explanatory variables. Species of European origin and CSR strategists arrived earlier than those with other origins and strategies. Deliberately introduced species appeared earlier than accidental arrivals, and those cultivated for utilitary reasons on average arrived earlier than ornamentals. Species capable of early flowering were remarkably more prevalent among early newcomers. A separate analysis of accidentally introduced American species also identified life history as a significant predictor of immigration time, with annuals being introduced earlier than biennials and perennials. The data contribute to an understanding of a crucial stage of the invasion process that has received little attention in the literature. The model "early alien" to Central Europe is a European species with a CSR strategy deliberately brought for cultivation as a utilitary plant. Once it escaped from cultivation, its establishment in the wild was favoured by its ability to flower early and, therefore, complete the life cycle.

  17. 77 FR 38582 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Domestic Client Life-Cycle... information collection will cover all aspects of a U.S. organization's life-cycle with CS. CS is mandated by... services and trade events to U.S. organizations. The Domestic Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose...

  18. Autoimmunity vs. cancer: predator vs. alien?

    PubMed

    Berens, Christian; Lauber, Kirsten; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-08-01

    "The enemy of my enemy is my friend." According to this motto, the human protagonists in Paul W. S. Anderson's science-fiction movie "Alien vs. Predator" (2004) solidarize with a predator in order to fight the aliens. Can this ancient and simple logic be transferred to the field of oncology and cancer immunotherapy? Can we utilize mechanisms known from the context of autoimmunity to fight cancer? Here, we summarize immune cell-mediated detection of danger and damage, central and peripheral tolerance, immunoregulation and immune privilege--processes known to be deregulated in the context of autoimmunity. We discuss them with special regard towards their misusage by tumors and pathogens and how they might be instrumentalized in the context of anti-cancer immunotherapy.

  19. "Naturalization" of the alien hand: case report.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J J; Wichner, M H; Gorelick, P B; Ramsey, M M

    1998-01-01

    The alien hand syndrome is an involuntary motor phenomenon that occurs infrequently and mostly in stroke patients. A case is reported of a 67-year-old man with left hemiparesis whose hand crept and crawled, especially at night, which caused him to awaken by grasping his collar. The disturbing nocturnal activity of the hand was stilled by placing it in a common oven mitt.

  20. Electrophoretic analysis of Allium alien addition lines.

    PubMed

    Peffley, E B; Corgan, J N; Horak, K E; Tanksley, S D

    1985-12-01

    Meiotic pairing in an interspecific triploid of Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, 'Delta Giant', exhibits preferential pairing between the two A. cepa genomes, leaving the A. fistulosum genome as univalents. Multivalent pairing involving A. fistulosum chromosomes occurs at a low level, allowing for recombination between the genomes. Ten trisomies were recovered from the backcross of 'Delta Giant' x A. cepa cv., 'Temprana', representing a minimum of four of the eight possible alien addition lines. The alien addition lines possessed different A. fistulosum enzyme markers. Those markers, Adh-1, Idh-1 and Pgm-1 reside on different A. fistulosum chromosomes, whereas Pgi-1 and Idh-1 may be linked. Diploid, trisomic and hyperploid progeny were recovered that exhibited putative pink root resistance. The use of interspecific plants as a means to introgress A. fistulosum genes into A. cepa appears to be successful at both the trisomic and the diploid levels. If introgression can be accomplished using an interspecific triploid such as 'Delta Giant' to generate fertile alien addition lines and subsequent fertile diploids, or if introgression can be accomplished directly at the diploid level, this will have accomplished gene flow that has not been possible at the interspecific diploid level.

  1. 45 CFR 1626.4 - Aliens eligible for assistance under anti-abuse laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aliens eligible for assistance under anti-abuse... SERVICES CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.4 Aliens eligible for assistance... alien who is within one of the following categories: (i) An alien who has been battered or subjected...

  2. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  3. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  4. 8 CFR 241.24 - Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to transportation line of alien's exclusion. 241.24 Section 241.24 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for...

  5. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  6. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  7. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings...

  8. Extraterrestrial Life in the Microbial Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronstal, Aaron L.

    Humankind has long been fascinated with the potential for alien civilizations within the Solar System and beyond (e.g., Crowe and Dowd 2013; Sullivan 2013). Despite the early optimism for life beyond Earth, humankind has yet to make first contact with an alien race. Historical discourse on the topic of alien life can provide some useful input into questions about how the people of Earth today might respond to contact with alien life (e.g., Dick 2013). However, this discourse is primarily devoted to understanding humankind's response to intelligent life. We must recognize that the search for life's potential beyond Earth has dramatically changed since the dawn of the Space Age. We now know that advanced civilizations are not common on planets in our solar system. The search for life on nearby worlds is now limited to non-intelligent, microbial life. Any chance we have of contacting intelligent life lies in receiving transmissions from distant worlds, and contact with such cultures would be greatly limited by the vast expanse of space. This chapter discusses the need for more attention paid to the possible social, economic, and legal ramifications that the discovery of non-intelligent, alien microbial life might bring.

  9. Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions.

    PubMed

    Bellard, Céline; Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the IUCN Red List. Our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since AD 1500. Aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall. PMID:26888913

  10. The symbolic constitution of addiction: language, alienation, ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Ryan

    2012-07-01

    The author offers an articulation of addiction, via existential-phenomenology and Lacanian psychoanalysis, where it is argued that the addicted subject is constituted via a symbolic structuring evolving from societal practices, laws and the effects of language. Language carries a heritage, which bears on the knowledge and practices of designated subjects and practitioners of that discourse. Addiction, as one particular form of embodied existence and knowledgeable practice, finds expression through the speech and habits of the addict. Addiction, it is argued, is symbolically saturated with ambivalence and alienation. Also the addict is described as the complete modern technocratic subject, consumed by the ideology of consumption. The clinical implications are briefly explored where it is noted that two major approaches to addiction, namely 12-step fellowships and motivational interviewing, both attend to language as a critical component of their treatment approach.

  11. The Role of Bundle Sheath Extensions and Life Form in Stomatal Responses to Leaf Water Status1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas N.; Sack, Lawren; Gilbert, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure with currently little-understood functions. To test the hypothesis that BSEs reduce the hydraulic resistance from the bundle sheath to the epidermis (rbe) and thereby accelerate hydropassive stomatal movements, we compared stomatal responses with reduced humidity and leaf excision among 20 species with heterobaric or homobaric leaves and herbaceous or woody life forms. We hypothesized that low rbe due to the presence of BSEs would increase the rate of stomatal opening (V) during transient wrong-way responses, but more so during wrong-way responses to excision (Ve) than humidity (Vh), thus increasing the ratio of Ve to Vh. We predicted the same trends for herbaceous relative to woody species given greater hydraulic resistance in woody species. We found that Ve, Vh, and their ratio were 2.3 to 4.4 times greater in heterobaric than homobaric leaves and 2.0 to 3.1 times greater in herbaceous than woody species. To assess possible causes for these differences, we simulated these experiments in a dynamic compartment/resistance model, which predicted larger Ve and Ve/Vh in leaves with smaller rbe. These results support the hypothesis that BSEs reduce rbe. Comparison of our data and simulations suggested that rbe is approximately 4 to 16 times larger in homobaric than heterobaric leaves. Our study provides new evidence that variations in the distribution of hydraulic resistance within the leaf and plant are central to understanding dynamic stomatal responses to water status and their ecological correlates and that BSEs play several key roles in the functional ecology of heterobaric leaves. PMID:21459977

  12. 8 CFR 1208.3 - Form of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of application. 1208.3 Section 1208.3 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... deportation under section 243(h) of the Act, as that section existed prior to April 1, 1997. Where...

  13. 8 CFR 208.3 - Form of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of application. 208.3 Section 208.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR ASYLUM AND... that section existed prior to April 1, 1997. Where a determination is made that an applicant...

  14. 8 CFR 1299.2 - Specific immigration review forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299, which shall be utilized in filings before the immigration judges, the Board... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific immigration review forms. 1299.2 Section 1299.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 8 CFR 1299.2 - Specific immigration review forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299, which shall be utilized in filings before the immigration judges, the Board... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific immigration review forms. 1299.2 Section 1299.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 8 CFR 1299.2 - Specific immigration review forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299, which shall be utilized in filings before the immigration judges, the Board... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific immigration review forms. 1299.2 Section 1299.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 8 CFR 1299.2 - Specific immigration review forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299, which shall be utilized in filings before the immigration judges, the Board... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific immigration review forms. 1299.2 Section 1299.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 8 CFR 1299.2 - Specific immigration review forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I, part 299, which shall be utilized in filings before the immigration judges, the Board... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific immigration review forms. 1299.2 Section 1299.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. [Aliens in the Netherlands as of January 1, 1983].

    PubMed

    Verhoef, R; Tas Rfj

    1984-05-01

    A description of the resident alien population of the Netherlands as of January 1, 1983, is presented. It is noted that the total alien population at this date was 546,000, that most of the aliens arrived in the 1960s and 1970s as foreign workers, and that the major countries of origin are Turkey and Morocco. Differences between the age structure of the alien and native populations are described, and consideration is given to differences in fertility, nuptiality, and mortality. Preliminary data for 1984 are also introduced. (summary in ENG)

  20. 75 FR 38178 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040-C

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040-C AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1040-C, U.S. Departing Alien...: U.S. Departing Alien Income Tax Return. OMB Number: 1545-0086. Form Number: 1040-C. Abstract:...