Science.gov

Sample records for alien minors dream

  1. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  2. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  3. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(c) of 8 CFR chapter I. (b) Service custody and cost of maintenance. An alien confined because of... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  9. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  10. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1 of this chapter upon the person or persons specified by 8 CFR 103.8(c). (b) Service custody and... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION...

  11. Navigating the Waves of Social and Political Capriciousness: Inspiring Perspectives from DREAM-Eligible Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Amanda; Herrera, Socorro; Murry, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the psychological and sociological impacts of the proposed Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act and in-state tuition legislation on DREAM-eligible students in the Midwestern United States. The researchers sought to capture the lived experiences of undocumented immigrant students through their rich…

  12. Big Dreams, Serious Implications: How the DREAM Act can Help America Meet its Workforce Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, James

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act will help undocumented students by: (1) establishing a path to legal status and eventually earn legal residency through two years of higher education or military service; and (2) repealing a provision of federal law that bars states from granting in-state…

  13. Appendix: The Dream Act of 2009--111th Congress, 1st Session, S.729

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Directions for Student Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Development, Relief, and Educational for Alien Minors Act of 2009 or the "DREAM Act of 2009." The authors of the bill aim to amend the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 to permit States to determine State residency for higher education purposes and to authorize the cancellation of…

  14. Alien Abductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  15. Reaching parity for minority medical students: a possibility or a pipe dream?

    PubMed Central

    Foster, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which under-represented minorities are entering medical school and whether the gap between them and other ethnic groups is narrowing. The issues of genesis of the problem, rationale for redress, assessment of current status, and mechanisms for reaching parity are examined. The current status of underrepresented minority applicants to medical school is made and mechanisms for catalyzing the effort to reach parity with other ethnic groups in the United States are presented. PMID:8583486

  16. "It's Every Family's Dream": Choice of a Medical Career Among the Arab Minority in Israel.

    PubMed

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael

    2016-10-01

    Application to medical studies and the choice of medicine as a career are influenced by many factors, some internal (academic ability, intellectual curiosity, interests) and some external (parental pressure, peer pressure, teacher and school expectations). Ethnicity plays a role in motivational orientation and belonging to an ethnic minority group may influence both internal and external motives and priorities in choosing medicine as a career. In this article, we present a qualitative study of the motives that impel Arab physicians in Israel to choose a medical career. As a theoretical framework, we apply self-determination theory (SDT) (Ryan and Deci in Am Psychol 55:68-78, 2000), consisting of three principal categories situated along a continuum: Amotivation, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. We show that extrinsic motivation is dominant among Arab physicians in Israel, demonstrating specifically the unique political context and cultural characteristics of Arab society in Israel. These findings, and the attention to the unique motivations of people from different ethnic minority groups who choose medical career, may increase the number of physicians from minority groups, a step known to decrease health gaps in multi-cultural contexts. PMID:26175137

  17. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  18. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: How Teachers' Perceptions Shape the Academic Outcomes of Immigrant and Language-Minority Students

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the students' hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. PMID:25769866

  19. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: how teachers' perceptions shape the academic outcomes of immigrant and language-minority students.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the student's hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. PMID:25769866

  20. Japanese dreams: culture and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Koyama, S

    1995-05-01

    Attitudes to dream evaluation vary depending on culture. Dreams are considered important, real, and public in some cultures, but absurd, irrational and personal in others. Japan has its own history of dreaming, which can be well reconstructed due to rich sources of archeological and documentary material. In this paper dream evolution in Japan is described. Phase 1 is the prehistoric Jomon period, where people believed dreams were part of reality. From Phase 2, the sophisticated philosophies of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism were introduced and changed the social and mental system of Japan in phase 3. At phase 4, the amalgamation of local and alien cultures occurred and supernatural beliefs prevailed. In this society dreams played a very important role. Phase 5 is the period when the Samurai class ruled Japan. The pragmatic thinking of the Samurai succeeded in fostering good preconditions for the receipt of scientific Western culture in phase 6. The importance of dreams in Japan evolved in such a way. However, the elements of each phase continued and accumulated similar layers. Thus, a majority of the phases seemed to retain animism from the Jomon period. PMID:8726122

  1. Recurrent dreams: Recurring threat simulations?

    PubMed

    Valli, K; Revonsuo, A

    2006-06-01

    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte (2006) have made a valuable contribution to the empirical testing of the Threat Simulation Theory (TST) (Revonsuo, 2000a) in recurrent dreams. For the most part, their results are in accordance with the theory, while some findings seem to conflict with the predictions of TST. In our commentary, we consider some alternative ways to interpret the results, and we conclude that many prominent features of most recurrent dreams seem to be manifestations of a threat simulation function, leading to repeated rehearsal of threat perception and avoidance, but a minority of recurrent dreams seem to have origins unrelated to threat simulation. PMID:16019227

  2. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  3. The Dream

    PubMed Central

    Glucksman, Myron L.

    2001-01-01

    The dream is a unique psychodynamically informative instrument for evaluating the subjective correlates of brain activity during REM sleep. These include feelings, percepts, memories, wishes, fantasies, impulses, conflicts, and defenses, as well as images of self and others. Dream analysis can be used in a variety of clinical settings to assist in diagnostic assessment, psychodynamic formulation, evaluation of clinical change, and the management of medically ill patients. Dreams may serve as the initial indicators of transference, resistance, impending crisis, acting-out, conflict resolution, and decision-making. A clinically functional categorization of dreams can facilitate an understanding of psychopathology, psychodynamics, personality structure, and various components of the psychotherapeutic process. Examples of different types of dreams are provided to illustrate their relevance and use in various clinical situations. PMID:11696648

  4. Dream controller

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  5. Alienation Incident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Louis

    1979-01-01

    Critiques Marxian "cures" for alienation as discussed in Karl Marx's "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts." Also traces the activity of a former student who joined the revolution in Cuba. Journal available from 7 Harwood Drive, Amherst, New York, 14226. (KC)

  6. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  7. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  8. California Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, California. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…

  9. Dream Weavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This article shares the success story of Hamissou Samari, an immigrant from Togo, who realized his dream through the help of the Kaplan Foundation scholarship and leadership program for nontraditional students enrolled in community colleges. Designed for underserved community college students in New York, the comprehensive, first-of-its-kind…

  10. Just Dreaming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Many of the nation's colleges and universities are not sure what the proposed DREAM Act would mean for their institutions--and a number of them are operating amid confusion in trying to serve undocumented students legally in light of the defeat of the measure in the Senate last year to pass the legislation. It would have allowed some immigrants…

  11. [Unusual dreams in epileptics].

    PubMed

    Boldyrev, A I

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses bizarre dreams characteristic of epileptics and never occurring in normal subjects which have an important practical implication especially for early detection of epilepsy and the prevention of severe forms of the disease. This group of dreams includes vivid nightmares with vital fear, dreams not infrequently transforming into pro-dream states; persistently repeated stereotyped dreams and dreams with invariably the same unpleasant sensations representing an isolated aura of subsequent epileptic attacks. Diagnostically important may also be dreams with the symptoms of derealization and depersonalization, vague dream images and the deja vu phenomenon. PMID:6464602

  12. Descartes' dreams.

    PubMed

    Withers, Robert

    2008-11-01

    René Descartes is often regarded as the 'father of modern philosophy'. He was a key figure in instigating the scientific revolution that has been so influential in shaping our modern world. He has been revered and reviled in almost equal measure for this role; on the one hand seen as liberating science from religion, on the other as splitting soul from body and man from nature. He dates the founding of his philosophical methods to the night of 10(th) November 1619 and in particular to three powerful dreams he had that night. This article utilizes Descartes' own interpretations of the dreams, supported by biographical material, as well as contemporary neuroscientific and psychoanalytic theory, to reach a new understanding of them. It is argued that the dreams can be understood as depicting Descartes' personal journey from a state of mind-body dissociation to one of mind-body deintegration. This personal journey may have implications for a parallel journey from Renaissance to modern culture and from modernity to post-modern culture. PMID:19012586

  13. Affect integration in dreams and dreaming.

    PubMed

    Grenell, Gary

    2008-03-01

    The processes by which dreaming aids in the ongoing integration of affects into the mind are approached here from complementary psychoanalytic and nonpsychoanalytic perspectives. One relevant notion is that the dream provides a psychological space wherein overwhelming, contradictory, or highly complex affects that under waking conditions are subject to dissociation, splitting, or disavowal may be brought together for observation by the dreaming ego. This process serves the need for psychological balance and equilibrium. A brief discussion of how the mind processes information during dreaming is followed by a consideration of four component aspects of the integrative process: the nature and use of the dream-space, the oscillating "me / not me" quality of the dream, the apparent reality of the dream, and the use of nonpathological projective identification in dreaming. Three clinical illustrations are offered and discussed. PMID:18430709

  14. The Dream of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    Due to the indeterminacy inherent to anthropology and the necessity of human self-design, the dream of education is as necessary as education itself. The dream swirls about the realities of life and education; the dream supplements reality, corrects it, satisfies its unfulfilled desires; the dream penetrates reality, evades it, transcends it; it…

  15. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  16. DREAM DIAGNOSTICS: FRITZ MORGENTHALER'S WORK ON DREAMS.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams. PMID:27428586

  17. Einsteins dream

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein.

  18. The Dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, D.

    2010-12-01

    Models have become a routine research output over the past decade. They are used by many scientific disciplines in order to understand and analyses the processes and conditions within their domain of interest. This has resulted in a significant increase in scientific understanding and in a multitude of discipline specific models, modelling system software and workflows. There is now a growing realisation that to address the most pertinent questions of the age, such as climate change and the sustainable use of natural resources, we need to bringing together climate, ecological, hydrological, hydrogeological, geological and socio-economic models in order to provide the necessary framework to make truly informed decisions. At the British Geological Survey our vision is to provide scientists with the data, tools, techniques and support to address trans-disciplinary environmental questions impacting on human society. We hope to achieve this by being a leading member of an open community that will share data, applications and environmental models thus enabling collaboration and achieving sustainable solutions. The British Geological Survey has recently completed a scoping study with the aim of planning the implementation of the vision and preparing the organisation for the changes that are required to enable it to engage more effectively in trans-disciplinary modelling. This has resulted in the launch of a cross-cutting project call Data and Research for Environmental Applications and Models: The DREAM. The scoping study recognised that the investment and knowledge captured within the many existing scientific models represent a significant resource and not one that could be easily replicated in more centralised environmental modelling software. The only viable option in a ‘linked models’ approach which enables models to pass parameters between each other at runtime. This is perceived to be a pragmatic, achievable and cost-effective solution. This solution brings

  19. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    PubMed

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level. PMID:11811128

  20. Creativity and Dream Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creative interests and dream recall frequency (DRF) by having 44 adults complete dream recall journals as well as a verbal creativity test. Results indicate that persons with both visual and verbal creative skills remember their dreams more. Visual memory may be a mediating variable between…

  1. Dreams and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Reami, D O; Silva, D F; Albuquerque, M; Campos, C J

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between dreams and epilepsy is illustrated by two patients whose awake epileptic seizures and recurrent dreams during night sleep had similar content. In both of our cases the EEG showed right anterior temporal spike discharge, suggesting a role for the temporal lobe in the association between dreams and seizures. PMID:1985830

  2. Alienation, Dogmatism and Acquiescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, John J.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the issue of acquiescence by administering a balanced dogmatism scale and a balanced alienation scale to a random sample of Australians (N=118). Results showed that dogmatism and alienation did not correlate when acquiescence was controlled. (LLL)

  3. Ethnic Groups and the American Dream(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    Examines what the American dream means to ethnic Americans. Specifically discussed are: (1) how official documents of the dream have dealt with ethnicity; (2) how ethnic groups have interpreted the dream; (3) how the 1960s redefined the dream; and (4) the future of the dream in terms of changing American ethnicity. (RM)

  4. [Neurological interpretation of dreams] .

    PubMed

    Pareja, J A; Gil-Nagel, A

    2000-10-01

    Cerebral cortical activity is constant throughout the entire human life, but substantially changes during the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle (wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep), as well as in relation to available information. In particular, perception of the environment is closely linked to the wake-state, while during sleep perception turns to the internal domain or endogenous cerebral activity. External and internal information are mutually exclusive. During wakefulness a neuronal mechanism allows attention to focus on the environment whereas endogenous cortical activity is ignored. The opposite process is provided during sleep. The function external attention-internal attention is coupled with the two modes of brain function during wakefulness and during sleep, providing two possible cortical status: thinking and dreaming. Several neurological processes may influence the declaration of the three states of being or may modify their orderly oscillation through the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, endogenous information and its perception (dreams) may be modified. Disturbances of dreaming may configurate in different general clinical scenarios: lack of dreaming, excess of dreaming (epic dreaming), paroxysmal dreaming (epileptic), nightmares, violent dreaming, daytime-dreaming (hallucinations), and lucid dreaming. Sensorial deprivation, as well as the emergence of internal perception may be the underlying mechanism of hallucinations. The probable isomorphism between hallucinations and dreaming is postulated, analyzed and discussed. PMID:11143502

  5. Music in dreams.

    PubMed

    Uga, Valeria; Lemut, Maria Chiara; Zampi, Chiara; Zilli, Iole; Salzarulo, Piero

    2006-06-01

    Music in dreams is rarely reported in scientific literature, while the presence of musical themes in dreams of famous musicians is anecdotally reported. We did a systematic investigation to evaluate whether the occurrence of musical dreams could be related to musical competence and practice, and to explore specific features of dreamt pieces. Thirty-five professional musicians and thirty non-musicians filled out a questionnaire about the characteristics of their musical activity and a structured dream log on the awakening for 30 consecutive days. Musicians dream of music more than twice with respect to non-musicians; musical dreams frequency is related to the age of commencement of musical instruction, but not to the daily load of musical activity. Nearly half of the recalled music was non-standard, suggesting that original music can be created in dreams. PMID:16243543

  6. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  7. The coregulator Alien

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Maria; Melle, Christian; Baniahmad, Aria

    2007-01-01

    Alien has characteristics of a corepressor for selected members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily and also for transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Alien mediates gene silencing and represses the transactivation of specific NHRs and other transcription factors to modulate hormone response and cell proliferation. Alien is a highly conserved protein and is expressed in a wide variety of tissues. Knockout of the gene encoding Alien in mice is embryonic lethal at a very early stage, indicating an important evolutionary role in multicellular organisms. From a mechanistic perspective, the corepressor function of Alien is in part mediated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, Alien seems to modulate nucleosome assembly activity. This suggests that Alien is acting on chromatin not only through recruitment of histone-modifying activities, but also through enhancing nucleosome assembly. PMID:18174916

  8. Consciousness in dreams.

    PubMed

    Kahn, David; Gover, Tzivia

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that dreaming is an important state of consciousness and that it has many features that complement consciousness in the wake state. The chapter discusses consciousness in dreams and how it comes about. It discusses the changes that occur in the neuromodulatory environment and in the neuronal connectivity of the brain as we fall asleep and begin our night journeys. Dreams evolve from internal sources though the dream may look different than any one of these since something entirely new may emerge through self-organizing processes. The chapter also explores characteristics of dreaming consciousness such as acceptance of implausibility and how that might lead to creative insight. Examples of studies, which have shown creativity in dream sleep, are provided to illustrate important characteristics of dreaming consciousness. The chapter also discusses the dream body and how it relates to our consciousness while dreaming. Differences and similarities between wake, lucid, non-lucid and day dreaming are explored and the chapter concludes with a discussion on what we can learn from each of these expressions of consciousness. PMID:20870068

  9. Dreaming and insight

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  10. Dreaming and insight.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher L; Ruby, Perrine M; Malinowski, Josie E; Bennett, Paul D; Blagrove, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish "aha" experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from "aha" experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  11. Dream Work in Grief Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Konrad Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Working with dreams is useful with grief and loss clients who present with dreams. Adlerian dream analysis is one-way of exploring dreams. It incorporates the life-style of the client. This case report demonstrates how Adlerian dream analysis was used with a client. Progress was noted in improved life-style once the client began to talk about her dream. PMID:25035561

  12. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus). PMID:22812163

  13. Adolph Gottlieb: "Forgotten Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols-Dietrich, Penny

    1987-01-01

    This lesson uses a full-color reproduction of Adolph Gottlieb's 1946 painting, "Forgotten Dream," to introduce students to the ideas of symbolic imagery in abstract expressionist art, and to help students discover reasons and ways artists communicate their memories, dreams, and fantasies. (JDH)

  14. Dreams, Daydreams and Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. A.; Luckcock, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    It has been discovered that dreams and daydreams can be productive states in the process of scientific innovation. An attempt is made to provide some typical examples of insights which have come to scientists during dream-like states and in sleep. (Author/MA)

  15. [Dreams and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Tögel, C

    1983-08-01

    This paper deals with the internal relationship between dream and schizophrenia, which has been a subject of discussion in philosophy and medicine since Kant and Griesinger, and shows that it can be supported by Marxist epistemology. A psychological theory of dream and schizophrenia would therefore have an integrative function with regard to psychotherapy and psychiatry. PMID:6635036

  16. The Reality of Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    As the author and her colleagues were working on this issue of "Teaching Tolerance" magazine, they were brainstorming connections between Congressman John Lewis's essay, "Reflections on a Dream Deferred" and the legacy of Dr. King's dream. The author commented that while the six of them (three white and three black) were a realization of the…

  17. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments. PMID:2717365

  18. Dream recall and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Frauscher, S; Shendi, A

    1995-08-01

    The present study estimated correlations for 50 subjects among frequency of dream recall, length of dream report, and visual memory. Whereas the results confirmed the previously found relationship between frequency of dream recall and visual memory, influence of visual memory on length of dream report was not found. PMID:8532466

  19. Dreams: Traditional or Contemporary Technology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEachren, Zabe

    2003-01-01

    The Anishinabe use of dreams to guide raiding parties and of dream catchers to catch bad dreams guides a discussion of whether dreams are technology. The larger question is how the technology we use places us in relation to the land. Does technology immerse us in nature, or does it separate us from nature so we can measure and control it? (TD)

  20. Using Dreams in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Connie M.

    1997-01-01

    States that current literature suggests that dreams are seldom used by marriage and family therapists, yet dreams can be powerful tools in therapeutic treatment. Includes clinical examples that demonstrate the effective use of dreams in marriage and family therapy. Discusses the interface between dream interpretation and systems therapy. (MKA)

  1. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  2. The aliens are hiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Trail goes cold on alien hotspots, for now” (28 April, http://ow.ly/MeOpZ; see also p5), which described the results of a survey that looked for unexplained pockets of infrared radiation that could have been produced by advanced alien civilizations.

  3. Alienation from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hascher, Tina; Hagenauer, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aimed at understanding the time course of alienation from school and school factors that may influence alienation from school during early adolescence. In Study 1, 434 students from grade 5-8 participated (cross-sectional design). In Study 2, we followed 356 students from grade 6-7 (longitudinal design). The results confirm the…

  4. Dreaming in the Classroom: Practices, Methods, and Resources in Dream Education. SUNY Series in Dream Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Philip; Bulkeley, Kelly; Welt, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Dreaming in the Classroom" provides teachers from virtually all fields with a uniquely informative guidebook for introducing their students to the universal human phenomenon of dreaming. Although dreaming may not be held in high esteem in mainstream Western society, students at all education levels consistently enjoy learning about dreams and…

  5. Higher Education and the "American Dream": Why the Status Quo Won't Get Us There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Sara E.

    2008-01-01

    The community college represents the only form of universal access to education, and is thus purported to be the gateway to low-income and minority students' realization of the "American Dream." That dream is growing more and more elusive for a substantial number of people. Instead of breaking down ethnic and class barriers to economic and social…

  6. Consciousness during dreams.

    PubMed

    Cicogna, P C; Bosinelli, M

    2001-03-01

    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some particular experiences of self-reflectiveness) with the major exception of lucid dreaming. Consciousness as strategic control may also be present in dreams. The functioning of consciousness is then analyzed, following a cognitive model of dream production. In such a model, the dream is supposed to be the product of the interaction of three components: (a) the bottom-up activation of mnemonic elements coming from LTM systems, (b) interpretative and elaborative top-down processes, and (c) monitoring of phenomenal experience. A feedback circulation is activated among the components, where the top-down interpretative organization and the conscious monitoring of the oneiric scene elicitates other mnemonic contents, according to the requirements of the dream plot. This dream productive activity is submitted to unconscious and conscious processes. PMID:11273624

  7. When dreaming is believing: the (motivated) interpretation of dreams.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2009-02-01

    This research investigated laypeople's interpretation of their dreams. Participants from both Eastern and Western cultures believed that dreams contain hidden truths (Study 1) and considered dreams to provide more meaningful information about the world than similar waking thoughts (Studies 2 and 3). The meaningfulness attributed to specific dreams, however, was moderated by the extent to which the content of those dreams accorded with participants' preexisting beliefs--from the theories they endorsed to attitudes toward acquaintances, relationships with friends, and faith in God (Studies 3-6). Finally, dream content influenced judgment: Participants reported greater affection for a friend after considering a dream in which a friend protected rather than betrayed them (Study 5) and were equally reluctant to fly after dreaming or learning of a plane crash (Studies 2 and 3). Together, these results suggest that people engage in motivated interpretation of their dreams and that these interpretations impact their everyday lives. PMID:19159131

  8. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex. PMID:23722398

  9. Alienation Attitudes and Exploratory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddi, Salvatore R.

    In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…

  10. Dreaming and Neuroesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Barcaro, Umberto; Paoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper, which is limited to the art of painting, aims to support the idea that a substantial insertion of concepts and methods drawn on dream psychology and dream neuroscience can contribute to the advancements of Neuroesthetics. The historical and scientific reasons are discussed that have determined the so far poor role played by the dream phenomenon in the developments of Neuroesthetics. In the light of recent advancements in psychophysiological research, a method of analyzing artistic products is proposed that is based on the recognition of precise features proper of the dreaming experience. Four examples are given for application of this method, regarding works by Giorgione, Leonardo da Vinci, Vermeer, and Millais, respectively. PMID:26157373

  11. Enhancing Dream Pleasure with Senoi Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Marie C.

    1984-01-01

    Implemented a thought-control strategy to increase pleasure and reduce displeasure in dreaming and dream-related behaviors in college students (N=63). Results indicated that dreaming and behaviors associated with dreaming were significantly more pleasurable 12 weeks after the dream interventions and maintenance of a daily dream record. (LLL)

  12. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  13. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  14. Reading dream literature: frequency, influencing factors, and self-rated benefit.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Dream books have a very long history, but systematic research on how many people have read magazine articles or books on dreams and whether reading such literature is beneficial to the dreamer is scarce. In the present sample of 444 people (mostly psychology students), about 75% of the participants stated that they had read at least one magazine article on dreams, and more than 40% had read at least one book about dreams. The main factor associated with the frequency of reading dream literature was a positive attitude toward dreaming, whereas personality factors play a minor role in explaining interindividual differences in this variable. The self-rated benefit of reading dream literature varied greatly, from not helpful at all to very helpful, and was associated with dream recall frequency and positive attitude toward dreaming. Using this approach in a more sophisticated way, eliciting details about the kinds of information participants have read would help researchers learn more about what techniques of dream work are effective and thus complement the research carried out in therapist-guided sessions. PMID:21834407

  15. Lucid Dreaming in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy Settings: University hospital sleep disorder unit Design: Case-control study Participants: Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls Methods: Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Results: Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P < 0.05), with an average of 7.6 ± 11 vs. 0.3 ± 0.8 lucid dreams/month (P < 0.0001). The frequency of cataplexy, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, dyssomnia, HLA positivity, and the severity of sleepiness were similar in narcolepsy with and without lucid dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Conclusion: Narcoleptics have a high propensity for lucid dreaming without differing in REM sleep characteristics from people without narcolepsy. This suggests narcolepsy patients may provide useful information in future studies on the nature of lucid dreaming. Citation: Dodet P, Chavez M, Leu-Semenescu S, Golmard JL, Arnulf I. Lucid dreaming in

  16. The Dreaming Child: Dreams, Religion and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Dreaming is an integral part of human life. Whilst psychology has generated extensive knowledge and understanding about dreams, it was in religious contexts that they were originally understood. This relationship between dreams and religion is still evident in contemporary society in the scriptures of the Abrahamic faiths, which narrate dreams…

  17. Social dreaming: competition or complementation to individual dreaming?

    PubMed

    Noack, Amélie

    2010-11-01

    Social dreaming is presented as a method to explore the unconscious dimension of the social world. The theoretical position of social dreaming and its historical development is described. Two examples are given for the practical application of social dreaming, a professional meeting of psychotherapists and an experiential workshop dealing with the aftermath of trauma. It is suggested that social dreaming is complementary to individual dreaming and offers insights and explanations, as well as guidance on various levels for applications in clinical, organizational, institutional and social settings. PMID:20961320

  18. The use of dreams in modern psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Clara E; Knox, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    We review theories of dream work. We also review the empirical research about how dreams are used in psychotherapy, as well as the process and outcome of different models of dream work. Finally, we review how dream content can be used to understand client, the role of culture in dream work, client and therapist dreams about each other, and training therapists to do dream work. PMID:20870072

  19. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  20. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the...

  1. Dreaming without REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dealberto, Marie-José; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Tafti, Mehdi; Garma, Lucile; Schwartz, Sophie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50mg (an antidepressant) or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked (81%, range 39-98%) REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall (report length, complexity, bizarreness, pleasantness and self-perception of dream or thought-like mentation). Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage. PMID:22647346

  2. Capturing Darwin's dream.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Travis C; Faircloth, Brant C

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary biologists from Darwin forward have dreamed of having data that would elucidate our understanding of evolutionary history and the diversity of life. Sequence capture is a relatively old DNA technology, but its use is growing rapidly due to advances in (i) massively parallel DNA sequencing approaches and instruments, (ii) massively parallel bait construction, (iii) methods to identify target regions and (iv) sample preparation. We give a little historical context to these developments, summarize some of the important advances reported in this special issue and point to further advances that can be made to help fulfill Darwin's dream. PMID:27454358

  3. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-21

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams. PMID:25609624

  4. Chronobiological features of dream production.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore A

    2004-10-01

    A review of the scientific literature clarifies several chronobiological features of dreaming. The literature supports the conclusions that dreaming 'intensity' and, to a lesser extent dream-like quality, is modulated by (1) a sinusoidal, 90-min ultradian oscillation, (2) a 'switch-like' circadian oscillation, (3) a 12-h circasemidian rhythm, and (4) a 28-day circatrigintan rhythm (for women). Further, access to dream memory sources appears to be modulated by (5) a 7-day circaseptan rhythm. Further study of these rhythmic influences on dreaming may help to explain diverse and often contradictory findings in the dream research literature, to clarify relationships between dreaming and waking cognitive processes, to explain relationships between disturbed phase relationships and dream disturbances and to shed new light on the problems of dreaming's functions and biological markers. Further chronobiological studies of dreaming will likely enable the development of theoretical models that explain how interactions between and within major levels of oscillation determine the variable characteristics of dreaming. PMID:15336239

  5. The Possible Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James C.; And Others

    The "Possible Dream Scholarship Program" was developed at San Juan College (SJC) in New Mexico to encourage students to complete high school and attend college. Every 8th grader in San Juan County, regardless of their academic performance, receives a scholarship certificate of $125 to attend San Juan College and an invitation to enroll in the…

  6. Television: Stuff of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    The fluctuating effects of media can be observed by a data collection technique which reveals patterns of audience response similar to those which C.G. Jung observed in his analyses on word association and dreaming. The technique is known as Continuous Response Movement (CRM). A typical CRM training session automates the audience feedback process…

  7. A Dream Realized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    This article features the Center for Inquiry, a school where the teachers are making their dreams come true. As a school designed wholly by teachers, the Center for Inquiry (CFI) in Indianapolis, Indiana, is teaching kids how to take ownership of learning. Originally designed to be a school within a school for exchange and preservice teachers, the…

  8. Sabotaging the California Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piland, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education, the California dream for well over 2 million undergraduate students, is turning into a nightmare. The Golden State's promise of unparalleled access to community colleges and universities is fast becoming a tarnished relic of the past. And this state of affairs is occurring at a time when the demand for higher education has never…

  9. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  10. Delaware's Dream Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    To librarians at the Delaware Division of Libraries, Governor Ruth Ann Minner, Secretary of State Harriet Smith Windsor, and Assistant Secretary of State Rick Geisenberger are "the Delaware Dream Team." The governor and her team supported funding for the 2004 statewide effort that resulted in the Delaware Master Plan for Library Services and…

  11. Alien Life Imagined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  12. Aliens and atheism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Sergio; de Muynck, Willem; Virginia; Peerally, Abed; Tyler, David; Stephen

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Aliens and atheists" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CQzu4), about a survey that found that atheists are more likely than religious people to believe that life exists on other planets.

  13. Alien invasive birds.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  14. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today. PMID:21809508

  15. Dreaming of science: Undocumented Latin[a]s' testimonios across the borderlands of high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Valdez, Jean Rockford

    Comprehensive Immigration Reform (CIR) or the DREAM (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) Act. These students' lived realities, identifying as undocumented and DREAM Act eligible, also known as "DREAMers," show that more work must be done, beyond the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) permits some have received, before these students' dreams can be realized. The students' testimonios call for a space in the U.S. where their talents and dreams in science are welcome and can thrive. These students speak to the injustice inherent in shutting out talented youth with potential contributions to make to science due to an immigrant status that was never their choice. Given the dearth of highly skilled and committed contributors to the field of science in the U.S., especially scarce in Latin representation, these students' prospects are vital in an increasingly globalized scientific world. This study makes this case as a deliberate appeal to interest convergence, while also attending to issues of social justice and problematizing the culture of school power that these students must navigate and assimilate into to "prove" themselves. This study adds to the science education research by providing insights into the lives of students who are Latin and undocumented, a considerable population in many science classes yet rarely discussed in science education literature, and elucidating how they negotiate science and science education framed by the larger structures they must face. Implications of this study suggest new ways of understanding this population in non-deficit ways that advocate changing the public dialogue and taking educational and political steps towards social change in solidarity with this group of students.

  16. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports. PMID:18982941

  17. The function of dream sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crick, Francis; Mitchison, Graeme

    1983-07-01

    We propose that the function of dream sleep (more properly rapid-eye movement or REM sleep) is to remove certain undesirable modes of interaction in networks of cells in the cerebral cortex. We postulate that this is done in REM sleep by a reverse learning mechanism (see also p. 158), so that the trace in the brain of the unconscious dream is weakened, rather than strengthened, by the dream.

  18. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  19. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  20. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  1. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  2. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  3. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  4. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  5. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  6. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  7. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  8. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  9. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  10. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  11. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  12. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  13. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  14. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  15. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  16. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable...

  17. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is...

  18. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  19. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be made in accordance with 8 CFR 264.5. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent...

  20. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for...

  1. [Dumb August. Freud's "dream interpretation" as a critique of traditional common sense].

    PubMed

    Gekle, H

    1992-10-01

    Freud's profound scepticism about philosophy and its fondness for philosophical "systems" is well-known. From an early stage, the author of the "Interpretation of Dreams" was convinced that philosophy--like animism--was nothing other than a narcissistic attempt to explain the world systematically from one single point. That point is the ego, synthesising everything manifold, alien and threatening into an intelligible mould and subjecting it to the intellectual censorship of the cogito. Gekle shows that Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" undercuts and decentralizes the imperialist claims of the ego, thus opening up vistas on the areas where the ego is not sole and undisputed master. At the same time, however, it becomes apparent that the decentralizing work of dream interpretation is itself confronted by a paradox. The insights gained in the process cannot be presented in any other than a theoretical, systematic and hence ego-oriented form. PMID:1410530

  2. Modeling Dream and Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1989-01-01

    Modifying a proposal of Crick and Mitchison, a possible use of dream sleep is suggested to be the refreshment of a bounded short-term memory through the elimination of accidental weak memories, by reinforcing randomly retrieved strong ones. The extreme sensitivity of random retrieval to the pattern amplitude is explained by an infinite-slope change of the attraction basin size. External fields, representing pulse trains of external origin, cause a proliferation of fixed points, helping or disturbing computation.

  3. Captured by Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  4. From the dreams of a generation to the theory of dreams: Freud's Roman dreams.

    PubMed

    Meghnagi, David

    2011-06-01

    In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud's interpretation of oedipal desires does not occur at the expense of historical and personal desires, which are always there as a backdrop. In the relentless examination of his own dreams that Freud makes in order to show the mechanisms inherent in all oneiric deformation, we are also led to another, specifically historical, aspect of the issue of Jewish emancipation, which he experiences at first hand. By analysing his own dreams, Freud not only shows us the mechanisms governing dream formation, but also develops a pointed critique of his contemporary society and its prejudices. PMID:21702751

  5. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

  6. Dr. King's Dream. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This lesson plan teaches students about the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Students listen to a brief biography, view photographs of the March on Washington, hear a portion of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, and discuss what King's words mean to them. Finally, they will create picture books about their own dreams of freedom for Americans…

  7. The Case for Dreaming Big

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    The American educational system is no fairy tale. Students who think that it takes nothing more than a wish upon a star to make their educational dreams come true are sure to be disappointed. The authors agree with Professor Rosenbaum: In order to realize their educational dreams, students must invest considerable effort. Rather than encouraging…

  8. Beyond DreamWeaving: Honoring Our Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Martha M.

    DreamWeavers listen for the dreams within themselves and within others. The process of career counseling, career management coaching and career/life planning invites practitioners to consistently listen for the dreams, understand that dreams are visions and that visions guide us to action. This paper highlights how career practitioners are called…

  9. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  10. Daydreams and nap dreams: Content comparisons.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-11-01

    Differences between nighttime REM and NREM dreams are well-established but only rarely are daytime REM and NREM nap dreams compared with each other or with daydreams. Fifty-one participants took daytime naps (with REM or NREM awakenings) and provided both waking daydream and nap dream reports. They also provided ratings of their bizarreness, sensory experience, and emotion intensity. Recall rates for REM (96%) and NREM (89%) naps were elevated compared to typical recall rates for nighttime dreams (80% and 43% respectively), suggesting an enhanced circadian influence. All attribute ratings were higher for REM than for NREM dreams, replicating findings for nighttime dreams. Compared with daydreams, NREM dreams had lower ratings for emotional intensity and sensory experience while REM dreams had higher ratings for bizarreness and sensory experience. Results support using daytime naps in dream research and suggest that there occurs selective enhancement and inhibition of specific dream attributes by REM, NREM and waking state mechanisms. PMID:26164253

  11. The use of dreams in spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Stranahan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions. PMID:21534069

  12. Desperately seeking aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Brian W.

    2001-02-01

    Belief that intelligent life is commonplace in the Universe was taken for granted by scholars and scientists until well into the nineteenth century. Space travel since the late 1950s reignited the debate, which even now attracts discussion by serious, professional scientists. And although statisticians might lobby that life must surely exist somewhere in the Universe, the evolution of what we perceive as 'intelligent life' seems utterly improbable - elsewhere as well as on Earth. Can we free ourselves of our animist fantasies and accept that all alien forms of intelligent life are, and always have been, imaginary?

  13. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions. PMID:25421056

  14. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth. PMID:25257392

  15. An assessment of DREAM, appendix E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design realization, evaluation and modelling (DREAM) system is evaluated. A short history of the DREAM research project is given as well as the significant characteristics of DREAM as a development environment. The design notation which is the basis for the DREAM system is reviewed, and the development tools envisioned as part of DREAM are discussed. Insights into development environments and their production are presented and used to make suggestions for future work in the area of development environments.

  16. Drug dreams: a neuropsychoanalytic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the ventral tegmental pathway stimulates both dreaming and drug craving. To investigate a possible clinical link between these two psychic phenomena, psychotherapy notes from the first six months of an addicted patient's treatment were reviewed, together with verbatim notes from the four years of psychoanalysis that followed. Of 240 dreams reported by the patient,58 had manifest content involving the seeking or using of drugs. There was no particular temporal or emotional thematic pattern to these "drug dreams,"which persisted through four and a half years of sobriety. Drug dreams are observable phenomena that reflect both the innate structure of the brain and neural changes produced by exposure to addictive drugs. In some addicted persons, exposure to drugs produces a fixed change in neurological functioning with which they must contend for years, possibly the rest of their lives. Drug craving meets Freud's defining characteristics for a drive: it is a constant pressure, originating from within the organism, to do work, and it constantly demands satisfaction. Because ego and libidinal drives share a common neural pathway, they should not be separated conceptually. Solms's finding (in press) that the activating systems for dreaming and for craving are identical, a finding based on observations of tumor- or stroke-provoked brain lesions, is confirmed by observation of the dreams of a patient whose brain changes were created by drug exposure. This study provides further evidence that the origin of the dream is a wish. PMID:11379730

  17. The uncanny in a dream.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2012-07-01

    In previous publications, the author has focused on particular types of inclusions in dreams (Mahon 2002a, 2002b, 2005a, 2007). In this paper, the author explores an instance of the uncanny in a dream and speculates on the particular function such an inclusion might have served. A patient dreamed about the name of an author, Thomas B. Costain, which he believed at first to be a fictitious dream concoction. In fact, all his initial associations dealt with this dream inclusion as if it had no connection to reality. When he later Googled the name, he was surprised to uncannily discover that the "fictitious" name was in fact the real name of a moderately well-known author. His subsequent discovery-that one of the author's books, The Silver Chalice, "re-minded" him of silver paper chalices that his father used to make for him as a child-jolted him further. This revived repression of not only the author's name, but also of its significant connection to repressed genetic memories, filled him with a sense of awe, as though he had suddenly been awakened from a hypnotic spell. If dream experience in general can be considered uncanny, the dream work deployed this particular inclusion of an uncanny, "fictitious" representation of reality for complex dynamic reasons, the author maintains. PMID:23038905

  18. Dr. Barnett's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.

    1990-04-01

    In 1986, AstroPower was a tiny R D company located at the University of Delaware. Like many other entrepreneurs in the field at that time, the company's president, Dr. Allen Barnett, had a good idea, a good research staff, and the dream of becoming a successful manufacturer of photovoltaic (PV) cells. If the Newark, Del. company's projections remain on track, Barnett plans to become the third largest PV manufacturer in the United States by the end of next year. Were it not for the company's performance to date, such a claim might well be dismissed as idle dreaming. AstroPower Inc. is pursuing a two-pronged strategy: to rapidly bring a new thin-crystal silicon PV cell to commercialization; and, in the meantime, to gain experience in manufacturing and distributing conventional single-crystal and polycrystal silicon cells. The company sold approximately 200 kilowatts (kWp) of cells last year (about half single-crystal and half polycrystal). Its current production capacity is 360 kWp. The company and its products are described.

  19. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    PubMed Central

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested. PMID:24223542

  20. From Freud's dream-work to Bion's work of dreaming: the changing conception of dreaming in psychoanalytic theory.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John A

    2010-06-01

    Bion moved psychoanalytic theory from Freud's theory of dream-work to a concept of dreaming in which dreaming is the central aspect of all emotional functioning. In this paper, I first review historical, theoretical, and clinical aspects of dreaming as seen by Freud and Bion. I then propose two interconnected ideas that I believe reflect Bion's split from Freud regarding the understanding of dreaming. Bion believed that all dreams are psychological works in progress and at one point suggested that all dreams contain elements that are akin to visual hallucinations. I explore and elaborate Bion's ideas that all dreams contain aspects of emotional experience that are too disturbing to be dreamt, and that, in analysis, the patient brings a dream with the hope of receiving the analyst's help in completing the unconscious work that was entirely or partially too disturbing for the patient to dream on his own. Freud views dreams as mental phenomena with which to understand how the mind functions, but believes that dreams are solely the 'guardians of sleep,' and not, in themselves, vehicles for unconscious psychological work and growth until they are interpreted by the analyst. Bion extends Freud's ideas, but also departs from Freud and re-conceives of dreaming as synonymous with unconscious emotional thinking - a process that continues both while we are awake and while we are asleep. From another somewhat puzzling perspective, he views dreams solely as manifestations of what the dreamer is unable to think. PMID:20590926

  1. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  2. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  3. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  4. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  5. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  6. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  7. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  8. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  9. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  10. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  11. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  12. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  13. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An...

  14. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  15. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens....

  16. Dream Content and Adaptation to a Stressful Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Koninck, Joseph M.; Koulack, David

    1975-01-01

    The present study considered whether it is better to dream about a stressful presleep experience and have anxious dreams, or is it better to dream about something else and have pleasant dreams. (Author/RK)

  17. Theoretical trajectories: Dreams and dreaming from Freud to Bion.

    PubMed

    Vinocur Fischbein, Susana; Miramón, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims at comparing Freud's and Bion's conceptual models on dreams and dreaming. Beyond both authors' shared disposition vis-à-vis problems posed by knowledge, a critical gap opens regarding their differing clinical practices. It is hypothesized that their ideas do not belong to irreconcilable paradigms, but that there are continuities besides discontinuities more frequently highlighted between Freudian statements on psychic functioning--described in his theory on dreams--and Bion's findings in his development of both the original theory and the connections between dreaming and thinking. Firstly, Freud's and Bion's epistemological sources are examined as well as their creative use and historical environment. Then certain general theoretical and clinical issues are considered concerning their theories on dreams, the evolution of their ideas and corresponding clinical contexts. In a third section, their confluences and dissimilarities are dealt with, including clinical vignettes belonging to the authors to illustrate their interpretative modes of working. This is meant to show both an implicit theoretical-clinical complementarity and the fact that, though their routes bifurcate about the function of dreams, there remain connecting paths. Lastly, the final remarks review certain issues that have frequently been controversial between these lines of thought. PMID:25885119

  18. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    PubMed

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  19. Studying dream content using the archive and search engine on DreamBank.net.

    PubMed

    Domhoff, G William; Schneider, Adam

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows how the dream archive and search engine on DreamBank.net, a Web site containing over 22,000 dream reports, can be used to generate new findings on dream content, some of which raise interesting questions about the relationship between dreaming and various forms of waking thought. It begins with studies that draw dream reports from DreamBank.net for studies of social networks in dreams, and then demonstrates the usefulness of the search engine by employing word strings relating to religious and sexual elements. Examples from two lengthy individual dream series are used to show how the dreams of one person can be studied for characters, activities, and emotions. A final example shows that accurate inferences about a person's religious beliefs can be made on the basis of reading through dreams retrieved with a few keywords. The overall findings are similar to those in studies using traditional forms of content analysis. PMID:18682331

  20. ISS Update: Dream Chaser Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Michael Curie talks with Cheryl McPhillips, Commercial Crew Program Partner Manager for the Sierra Nevada Corporation, the company developing the Dream Chaser spacecraft...

  1. The artifice of literary dreams.

    PubMed

    Raper, Julius R

    2005-01-01

    When it comes to interpreting dreams, literary critics have a distinct advantage, it would appear, over practicing analysts. Readers would assume that storytellers have crafted dreams in fictions to illuminate their characters and have provided the elements that analysts must struggle to collect and select: especially the day residue, the larger contextual associations, and an overarching narrative. The dream of a 23-year old woman from Ellen Glasgow's 1925 novel, Barren Ground, should illustrate the critic's advantage. Consideration, however, of the larger context, shrouded associations, and multiple master narratives (formulated by Freud, Jung, and Kohut) that the critic can profitably employ in understanding the young woman's dream raises fundamental questions about the critic's presumed advantage. PMID:15953786

  2. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    PubMed

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. PMID:26399220

  3. The Dreams of Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Maryanne

    1972-01-01

    Few heroin addicts get high'' in their dreams. An exploration of the reasons for this failure provides some clues to the conflicts and other problems that retard an addict's progress in therapy. (Author)

  4. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  5. Dreams, teachers, and legislation.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F

    2010-11-01

    When I accepted the James D. Mills Award from The American College of Emergency Physicians, I had three goals in mind, which I wanted to share with those attending the commemorative dinner meeting. My first goal was to remind those in attendance that each of us must make our academic dreams come true. My next goal was to acknowledge two of my empowering teachers at the dinner, Dr. Peter Rosen and Dr. William Sacco, who have made revolutionary advances in health care; and finally, I wished to remind the membership of the need to work with Congressional leaders to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009. I warned the leaders in emergency medicine of the necessity to pass the Access to Emergency Medical Services Act of 2009 to ensure that our emergency medical patients receive prompt and responsible care. This has been our quest. PMID:20466505

  6. Group Counseling for Sexual Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Lynne E.; Hartman, Joyce

    1998-01-01

    The issues facing sexual minority youth are reviewed. A group-counseling model tested at a public high school is presented. Counseling issues include homophobia, loneliness, isolation, identity issues, alienation from family, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. The structure and process for support-group operation is presented; sensitive issues…

  7. The phantom limb in dreams.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Mulder and colleagues [Mulder, T., Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. (2008). Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266-1271.] report that a majority of amputees continue to experience a normally-limbed body during their night dreams. They interprete this observation as a failure of the body schema to adapt to the new body shape. The present note does not question this interpretation, but points to the already existing literature on the phenomenology of the phantom limb in dreams. A summary of published investigations is complemented by a note on phantom phenomena in the dreams of paraplegic patients and persons born without a limb. Integration of the available data allows the recommendation for prospective studies to consider dream content in more detail. For instance, "adaptation" to the loss of a limb can also manifest itself by seeing oneself surrounded by amputees. Such projective types of anosognosia ("transitivism") in nocturnal dreams should also be experimentally induced in normally-limbed individuals, and some relevant techniques are mentioned. PMID:18313942

  8. Dream Recall and Dream Content in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Sartorius, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep is widely investigated in children with ADHD, dream studies in this group are completely lacking. The continuity hypothesis of dreaming stating that waking life is reflected in dreams would predict that waking-life symptoms are reflected in the dreams of such children. 103 children with ADHD and 100 controls completed a dream…

  9. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  10. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  11. Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser Model Assembly

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time lapse video shows the assembly of a scale model of Sierra Nevada Space Systems' Dream Chaser vehicle. The Dream Chaser model is undergoing final preparations for buffet tests at the Trans...

  12. The impact of September 11 on dreaming.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly; Kahan, Tracey L

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on a set of dreams related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and their aftermath, using content analysis and cognitive psychology to explore the interweaving of external public catastrophe and internal psychological processes. The study tests several recent claims in contemporary dream research, including the central image theory of Hartmann [Hartmann, E., & Basile, R. (2003). Dream imagery becomes more intense after 9/11/01. Dreaming, 13(2), 61-66; Hartmann, E., & Brezler, T. (2008). A systematic change in dreams after 9/11/01. Sleep, 31(2), 213-218], the media exposure factor postulated by Propper [Propper, R. E., Stickgold, R., Keeley, R., & Christman, S. D. (2007). Is television traumatic? Dreams, stress, and media exposure in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. Psychological Science, 18(4), 334-340], the continuity hypothesis of Domhoff [Domhoff, W. G. (1996). Finding meaning in dreams: A quantitative approach. New York: Plenum], the cognitive and metacognitive approach of Kahan [Kahan, T. L. (2001). Consciousness in dreaming: A metacognitive approach. In K. Bulkeley (Ed.), Dreams: A reader on the religious, cultural, and psychological dimensions of dreaming (pp. 333-360). New York: Palgrave], and the threat simulation theory of Revonsuo [Revonsuo, A. (2000). The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 877-901]. Our findings suggest the terrorist attacks had a tangible impact on the content of many people's dreams, but did not fundamentally alter the cognitive processing features of their dreaming. The 9/11 attacks affected what they dreamed about, but not the way they dreamed. PMID:18801664

  13. Minding the dream self: perspectives from the analysis of self-experience in dreams.

    PubMed

    Windt, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-12-01

    Can ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles explain the function of dreaming? The analysis of self-experience in dreams suggests that the answer is no: The phenomenal dream self lacks certain dimensions that are crucial for the efficacy of AAOM in wakefulness. However, the comparison between dreams and AAOM may be fruitful by suggesting new perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming as well an altered perspective on the efficacy of AAOM itself. PMID:24304774

  14. Sleep paralysis, sexual abuse, and space alien abduction.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A

    2005-03-01

    Sleep paralysis accompanied by hypnopompic ('upon awakening') hallucinations is an often-frightening manifestation of discordance between the cognitive/perceptual and motor aspects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Awakening sleepers become aware of an inability to move, and sometimes experience intrusion of dream mentation into waking consciousness (e.g. seeing intruders in the bedroom). In this article, we summarize two studies. In the first study, we assessed 10 individuals who reported abduction by space aliens and whose claims were linked to apparent episodes of sleep paralysis during which hypnopompic hallucinations were interpreted as alien beings. In the second study, adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse more often reported sleep paralysis than did a control group. Among the 31 reporting sleep paralysis, only one person linked it to abuse memories. This person was among the six recovered memory participants who reported sleep paralysis (i.e. 17% rate of interpreting it as abuse-related). People rely on personally plausible cultural narratives to interpret these otherwise baffling sleep paralysis episodes. PMID:15881271

  15. Children's Dreams during the Grief Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Catherine A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether grieving children tend to recall dreaming more frequently than nongrieving children. Results reveal that grieving children do tend to recall dreams more frequently and appear to be more aware of their dream worlds. Suggests that counselors interested in creatively assisting clients through the grieving process might utilize this…

  16. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory. PMID:20525540

  17. Children's Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, David

    Noting that scientific observation of children's dreaming offers unparalleled opportunities to study experience of conscious mental states, this book presents findings from two studies on children's dreaming. Following an argument outlining the problems in equating dreaming with perception, the book explains the use of sleep laboratories and…

  18. The Visionary Director: Going for Bigger Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    Notes that child-care-center directors feel trapped by financial limitations, and encourages administrators to dream of changes to their programs and then to creatively achieve their dreams. Presents strategies for securing positive changes: assessing current situation; representing pieces of dream with blocks; reinventing idea of quilting bees;…

  19. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies—through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences—would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus—without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning—within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate—another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a

  20. Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The dream as prediction seems inherently improbable. The bizarre occurrences in dreams never characterize everyday life. Dreams do not come true! But assuming that bizarreness negates expectations may rest on a misunderstanding of how the predictive brain works. In evolutionary terms, the ability to rapidly predict what sensory input implies-through expectations derived from discerning patterns in associated past experiences-would have enhanced fitness and survival. For example, food and water are essential for survival, associating past experiences (to identify location patterns) predicts where they can be found. Similarly, prediction may enable predator identification from what would have been only a fleeting and ambiguous stimulus-without prior expectations. To confront the many challenges associated with natural settings, visual perception is vital for humans (and most mammals) and often responses must be rapid. Predictive coding during wake may, therefore, be based on unconscious imagery so that visual perception is maintained and appropriate motor actions triggered quickly. Speed may also dictate the form of the imagery. Bizarreness, during REM dreaming, may result from a prospective code fusing phenomena with the same meaning-within a particular context. For example, if the context is possible predation, from the perspective of the prey two different predators can both mean the same (i.e., immediate danger) and require the same response (e.g., flight). Prospective coding may also prune redundancy from memories, to focus the image on the contextually-relevant elements only, thus, rendering the non-relevant phenomena indeterminate-another aspect of bizarreness. In sum, this paper offers an evolutionary take on REM dreaming as a form of prospective coding which identifies a probabilistic pattern in past events. This pattern is portrayed in an unconscious, associative, sensorimotor image which may support cognition in wake through being mobilized as a predictive

  1. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39-44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  2. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39–44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  3. Nightmares and disorders of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Pagel, J F

    2000-04-01

    Dreams occur during all stages of sleep. Nightmares are common. They can be associated with poor sleep and diminished daytime performance. Frequent nightmares are not related to underlying psychopathology in most children and in some "creative" adults. However, recurrent nightmares are the most defining symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder and may be associated with other psychiatric illnesses. Night terrors are arousal disorders that occur most often in children and usually occur early in the sleep period. Patients with rapid-eye-movement behavior disorder often present with nocturnal injury resulting from the acting out of dreams. Dream disorders may respond to medication, but behavioral treatment approaches have shown excellent results, particularly in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and recurrent nightmares. PMID:10779247

  4. DREAM: Research to Operations Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Reiner; Reeves, Geoffrey; Zaharia, Sorin; Koller, Josef; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Thomsen, Davis

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a dataassimilative model of the Earth's radiation belts that has, until recently, been used primarily as a re-search tool to understand radiation belt dynamics and to develop Kalman filter techniques for application to magnetospheric modeling. More recently, the emphasis of the DREAM program has shifted toward implementation of an operational prototype for testing and validation at the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Space Weather Forecast Laboratory (SWFL) and NASA's Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). The transition has required significant effort, funding, and shifting of priorities that serve as a recent example of the oppor-tunities and challenges of transitioning a model from research to operations (R2O). DREAM is still in the early stages of transition to operations but we do not see any significant obstacles to success. We present here the BETA version of this model, operating in real-time, using GOES energetic particle data as input.

  5. Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  6. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  7. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  8. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  9. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  10. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens...

  11. Dreams and the temporality of consciousness.

    PubMed

    MacDuffie, Katherine; Mashour, George A

    2010-01-01

    Understanding dreams has long been considered fundamental to the development of a theory of consciousness. Evidence from neurobiology and neuroimaging research has paved the way for new theories of dreaming that are empirically supported. In this article we argue that dreaming is a unique state of consciousness that incorporates 3 temporal dimensions: experience of the present, processing of the past, and preparation for the future. The temporal complexity of dreams is made possible in part by the unique neurobiological environment of sleep, in which stimuli are internally generated and many of the restrictions associated with waking thought are absent. Because dream consciousness is not determined by sensory stimuli, a flexible integration of past experiences and the forging of novel connections are possible. We argue that disparate dream theories may not be mutually exclusive but rather relate to different temporal domains of the dream state. PMID:20518435

  12. Graffiti and "Film School" Culture: Displaying Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibel, Dean

    1994-01-01

    Examines graffiti created by students in "film school" as an organizational document. Finds themes related to alienation and the discourse that counters the sources of that alienation. Shows how the humorous communicative style of graffiti creates tension among cultural meanings that mediates between alienation and liberation. (SR)

  13. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  14. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  15. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  16. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  17. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  18. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  19. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  20. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  1. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  2. Alienation, Dogmatism, and Related Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Miriam E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between alienation and dogmatism, as measured by shared personality characteristics. Scores from the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, the Keniston Alienation Scale, the California Test of Personality, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were obtained for 92 college freshmen. Alienation and dogmatism were positively related…

  3. 43 CFR 3102.2 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aliens. 3102.2 Section 3102.2 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Qualifications of Lessees § 3102.2 Aliens. Leases or interests therein may be acquired and held by aliens only through stock ownership, holding...

  4. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate...

  5. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated...

  6. The Five Star Method: A Relational Dream Work Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Thurston, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a systematic method of dream work called the Five Star Method. Based on cocreative dream theory, which views the dream as the product of the interaction between dreamer and dream, this creative intervention shifts the principal focus in dream analysis from the interpretation of static imagery to the analysis of the dreamer's…

  7. Art Competition Encourages Student Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartel, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In 1971, members of the Naples Art Association (NAA) in Naples, Florida, initiated a scholarship program designed to encourage local young artists to realize their dreams of becoming professionals in the visual arts. Since then, awards have been given annually by the NAA to Collier County high-school students in conjunction with an exhibition of…

  8. Dreaming the Future of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterley, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Articulates "romantic intellectualism" of what graduate work in English might mean and be. Avoids giving a detailed description of a doctoral program. Intends to convey something that might best be called visioning or dreamwork, and offers it in the hope that it may be helpful to others in their individual and collective visioning and dreaming.…

  9. Personality Correlates of Dream Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    The study investigated the capacity of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) to discriminate between those who frequently recall dreams and those who do not. The results are interpreted as indicating that the frequent recaller experiences less and the infrequent recaller experiences more intrapsychic conflict. (Author)

  10. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  11. Educational Dreams and Political Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses key themes in a new book of posthumously published writings by Paulo Freire, "Daring to Dream: Toward a Pedagogy of the Unfinished" (Paradigm Publishers, 2007). The paper comments on the structure and content of the book and places it in the context of Freire's wider corpus of published works. Particular attention is paid to…

  12. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  13. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  14. The Creative Use of Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, James E.

    The process of becoming a world citizen requires, as a first step, personal alienation from the cultural values and social arrangements of nation-states that stand in the way of such an effort. Three interrelated propositions underlie this thesis. First, prevailing cultural values and social arrangements severely limit opportunities for people to…

  15. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  16. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control. PMID:26496477

  17. Mindfulness and dream quality: the inverse relationship between mindfulness and negative dream affect.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Köteles, Ferenc; Sándor, Piroska; Petke, Zsolt; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship of mindfulness to the emotional quality of dreaming. In our questionnaire-based study, comprising the data of 587 undergraduate students we examined the association between trait anxiety, perceived stress, trait mindfulness, negative dream affect and dream anxiety. Our results indicate that mindfulness is inversely related to disturbed dreaming and predicts less severe dream disturbances after controlling for trait anxiety. Moreover, the results of the applied hierarchical regression analysis suggest that mindfulness is associated with reduced dream anxiety by moderating the extent of waking anxiety. Our findings extend previous research relating mindfulness, emotional regulation and sleep quality to the domain of dream research. We suggest that mindfulness is a possible protective factor against dream disturbances. PMID:21504431

  18. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  19. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general. PMID:21466083

  20. A Test of Two Theories of Dream Forgetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Seth Robert

    1980-01-01

    Subjects undergoing assertion training experienced a decrease in dream recall and dream pleasantness. The measures of repression did not account significantly for dream recall or pleasantness variance. Findings are more supportive of interference theory than repression theory. (Author)

  1. The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Revonsuo, A

    2000-12-01

    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream content is consistently and powerfully modulated by certain types of waking experiences. On the basis of this evidence, I put forward the hypothesis that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events, and to rehearse threat perception and threat avoidance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we need to consider the original evolutionary context of dreaming and the possible traces it has left in the dream content of the present human population. In the ancestral environment human life was short and full of threats. Any behavioral advantage in dealing with highly dangerous events would have increased the probability of reproductive success. A dream-production mechanism that tends to select threatening waking events and simulate them over and over again in various combinations would have been valuable for the development and maintenance of threat-avoidance skills. Empirical evidence from normative dream content, children's dreams, recurrent dreams, nightmares, post traumatic dreams, and the dreams of hunter-gatherers indicates that our dream-production mechanisms are in fact specialized in the simulation of threatening events, and thus provides support to the threat simulation hypothesis of the function of dreaming. PMID:11515147

  2. Midsummer's Dream Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    How does the Galaxy in which we live look like? It is almost certain that we will never be able to send a probe out of our Milky Way to take a snapshot, in the same way as the first satellites could do to give us striking images of planet Earth. But astronomers do not need this to imagine what our bigger home resembles. And they have a pretty good idea of it. The Milky Way with its several hundreds of billion stars is thought to be a relatively flat disc - 100,000 light-year across [1] - with a central bulge lying in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius (The Archer) and six spiral arms. The Milky Way has most probably also a central bar made of young, bright stars. If we can't take pictures of the Milky Way, we may photograph others galaxies which astronomers think look similar to it. The two galaxies presented here are just two magnificient examples of barred spiral galaxies. One - Messier 83 - is seen face-on, and the other - NGC 4565 - appears edge-on. Together, they give us a nice idea of how the Milky Way may appear from outer space. These images are based on data obtained with the twin FORS1 and FORS2 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) instruments attached to two ESO's 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the Very Large Telescope Array located on Cerro Paranal. The data were extracted from the ESO Science Archive Facility, which contains approximately 50 Terabytes [2] of scientific data and is, since April 1, 2005, open to the worldwide community. These invaluable data have already led to the publication of more than 1000 scientific papers. They also contains many nice examples of beautiful astronomical objects which could be the theme of as many midsummer's dreams. NGC 4565 The first galaxy pictured here is NGC 4565 [3], which for obvious reasons is also called the Needle Galaxy. First spotted in 1785 by Uranus' discoverer, Sir William Herschel (1738-1822), this is one of the most famous example of an edge-on spiral galaxy and is located some 30 million light

  3. Relation between dream content and eye movements tested by lucid dreams.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1983-06-01

    This experiment illustrates that systematic observations in lucid dreams can be used to test hypotheses concerning the relation between dream content and eye movements. The observations were carried out by 5 students who had learned to induce lucid dreams by using the reflection technique developed by the author. Several hypotheses concerning the relation in question could be rejected. PMID:6877973

  4. Lucid dreaming: correspondence between dreamed and actual events in one subject during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, P; Schatzman, M; Worsley, A; Adams, J; Stone, S; Baker, A

    1984-06-01

    During lucid dreaming, a subject willed movements of his fingers, toes and feet, remembered tasks, and counted sensory stimuli. Dreamed speech was related to respiration. EMG activity corresponding to dreamed actions was greater in flexor than in extensor limb muscles and was never present in axial muscles. PMID:6743729

  5. Dream Logs: Dreams as a Creative Force in Freshman Composition and the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalpin, Lila

    The keeping of a dream log can spark the imagination in freshman composition courses, giving students opportunities to be both creative artists and critics. With the emphasis more on using dreams than on interpreting them, students are free to explore the symbols and relevance of their dreams when creating written or musical compositions, films,…

  6. Minority Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    Stephanie Kwader is a white minority at the Bowie State University, a 5,500-student historically black university. Students like her belong to a small but growing group: minority students on the campuses of the nation's 105 historically black colleges and universities. HBCUs, as they are referred in the field, offer competitive academics with…

  7. Increased Lucid Dreaming Frequency in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Michael; Beitinger, Pierre; Steiger, Axel; Schredl, Michael; Dresler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Nightmares are a frequent symptom in narcolepsy. Lucid dreaming, i.e., the phenomenon of becoming aware of the dreaming state during dreaming, has been demonstrated to be of therapeutic value for recurrent nightmares. Data on lucid dreaming in narcolepsy patients, however, is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of recalled dreams (DF), nightmares (NF), and lucid dreams (LDF) in narcolepsy patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, we explored if dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares in narcolepsy patients. Design: We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Setting: Telephone interview. Patients: 60 patients diagnosed with narcolepsy (23–82 years, 35 females) and 919 control subjects (14–93 years, 497 females) Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Logistic regression revealed significant (P < 0.001) differences in DF, NF, and LDF between narcolepsy patients and controls after controlling for age and gender, with effect sizes lying in the large range (Cohen's d > 0.8). The differences in NF and LDF between patients and controls stayed significant after controlling for DF. Comparison of 35 narcolepsy patients currently under medication with their former drug-free period revealed significant differences in DF and NF (z < 0.05, signed-rank test) but not LDF (z = 0.8). Irrespective of medication, 70% of narcolepsy patients with experience in lucid dreaming indicated that dream lucidity provides relief during nightmares. Conclusion: Narcolepsy patients experience a markedly higher lucid dreaming frequency compared to controls, and many patients report a positive impact of dream lucidity on the distress experienced from nightmares. Citation: Rak M, Beitinger P, Steiger A, Schredl M, Dresler M. Increased lucid dreaming frequency in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2015;38(5):787–792. PMID:25325481

  8. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  9. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  10. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  11. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  12. 22 CFR 42.22 - Returning resident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returning resident aliens. 42.22 Section 42.22... Returning resident aliens. (a) Requirements for returning resident status. An alien shall be classifiable as... presented that: (1) The alien had the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence at...

  13. The dream of home ownership.

    PubMed

    Loxterkamp, David

    2009-01-01

    Part of the American Dream involves home ownership and its claim to a stronger investment in one's family, neighborhood, and community. The medical version of that dream is called private practice. Almost overnight, it seems, we have awakened to the reality that most primary care physicians are now employed by large corporations or hospital networks. What does this mean for our patients and the practice of medicine? Did patients lose a sense of ownership when insurance companies began to speak on their behalf? Have boutique practices, Internet sales, and online information banks restored their control? This essay explores the fundamental question, "Does ownership matter?" and suggests what we all can do to retrieve paradise lost. PMID:19433846

  14. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  15. [A case of parental alienation].

    PubMed

    Menz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical term "Parental Alienation Syndrome" (PAS) was introduced in 1984 by Richard Gardner, an American psychiatrist. Gardner described PAS and its symptoms, as a personality disorder, which appears chiefly in connection to child custody disputes wherein a child turns suddenly and massively against the non-custodial parent without reasonable grounds for doing so. This action by the child is a result of the custodial parent's emotionally abusive attempts to incite the child against the non-custodial parent.Where the child's rejection is based on some real past experience, there is not PAS. PAS only occurs as a result of the custodial parent's actions. Despite intensive effort, PAS was not included in the new DSM-V. In this case, a particularly impressive case history of parental alienation is described and discussed. PMID:24464865

  16. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  17. Asymmetrical alien hands in corticobasal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, David B; Drago, Valeria; Jeong, Yong; Chang, Yu-Ling; White, Keith D; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2007-03-15

    There are several forms of alien limb, but alien limb in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is not well understood. We studied a patient with CBD who demonstrated two different types of alien limb. With his right hand he demonstrated a tactile avoidance response with levitation. With his left hand, he demonstrated continuous tactile pursuit of the examiner's hand ("tactile mitgehen"). Mitgehen is often associated with frontal dysfunction, but avoidance response and levitation are often associated with parietal dysfunction. PMID:17230447

  18. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  19. Dreams in Patients Remitted from Reactive Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, Peter

    1976-01-01

    The goal of the study described here was to learn more about dream content in patients who had recovered from serious depression. The question was asked whether these formerly depressed patients still showed depressive traits in their nocturnal dreams, even though their daytime behavior and mood now approached entirely normal levels. (Author)

  20. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  1. Relation of dreams to waking concerns.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Rosalind; Agargun, Mehmet Y; Kirkby, Jennifer; Friedman, Julie Kabat

    2006-03-30

    To test that dreams are influenced by the pre-sleep waking emotional concerns of the sleeper and have an effect on waking adaptation, 20 depressed and 10 control subjects, who were all going through a divorce, were enrolled in a repeated measures study lasting 5 months. A Current Concerns test was administered on three occasions before nights when every REM period was interrupted to record recalled mental content. The degree of waking concern about the ex-spouse correlated significantly with the number of dreams in which the former partner appeared as a dream character. Those who were in remission at the follow-up evaluation had a higher percentage of well-developed dreams than those who remained depressed. Dreams of the former spouse reported by those in remission differed from those who remained depressed in the expression of dream affect and in the within-dream linkage among units of associated memory material. Dreams of the former spouse that are reported by those who are not in remission lack affect and connection to other memories. PMID:16497389

  2. Dreams and Mediation in Music Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    The most extensive use of dream imagery in popular culture occurs in the visual arts, and in the past five years it has become evident that music video (a semi-narrative hybrid of film and television) is the most dreamlike media product of all. The rampant depiction and implication of dreams and media fantasies in music video are often strongly…

  3. Students' Knowledge of Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J.

    1984-01-01

    A 34-item sleep and dream information questionnaire was administered to 232 introductory psychology students to introduce them to the topics of sleep and dreams and to evaluate their knowledge of these areas. A majority of the items were answered correctly by students. Serious misconceptions by students are discussed. (RM)

  4. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Michael G; Friedel, Reiner H

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  5. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Text Size Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  6. Children's Reactions to Dreams Conveyed in Mass Media Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Explores children's ability to understand formal features of television and film by investigating their reactions to a televised dream. Indicates that children are able to recognize dreams in mass media programing and that prior knowledge of an upcoming dream can influence children's interpretations of and emotional reactions to dreamed events in…

  7. Content Analysis of the Dreams of Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth-Marnat, Gary

    1987-01-01

    Investigated dream content of 104 dreams from nine terminally ill patients with estimated life expectancy of one year or less. Found differences between dreams of terminally ill and dreams of physically healthy individuals, suggesting an adaptive withdrawal and process of social and emotional disengagement by terminally ill individuals. (Author/NB)

  8. Age Differences in Dreams. II: Distortion and Other Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold

    1981-01-01

    Age-related change in manifest dream content was assessed in dreams recalled from REM sleep by (N=58) men aged (27-64), and in dreams recalled from sleep at home. Evidence indicated a small age-related decline in dream distortion and family-related content. (Author)

  9. Content Analysis of the Dreams of Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth-Marnat, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Used Hall and Van de Castle dream content scales to score 104 dreams from 9 terminally ill patients. Found subjects had significantly fewer characters, activities, interactions, color descriptions, and less emotional content in their dreams than physically healthy subjects. Dream content suggests adaptive withdrawal and process of social and…

  10. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. PMID:23220345

  11. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women. PMID:15941123

  12. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  13. Minority scholarships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Geological Institute sponsors undergraduate and graduate geoscience scholarships for members of ethnic minority groups. U.S. citizens who are majoring in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, planetary geology, or Earth science education, and who are Black, Hispanic or Native American are eligible. Undergraduate awards can be as large as $10,000 a year; graduate awards, $4000 a year. Application deadline is February 1, 1990. Contact AGI Minority Participation Program Scholarships, American Geological Institute, 4220 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22302-1507; tel. 703-379-2480.

  14. Alienation and Expectation in American Political Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Austin

    The concept of political alienation in American culture is examined in light of evidence gathered by social scientists. Political alienation is interpreted to include a wide variety of attitudes and behaviors such as cynicism, outraged idealism, apathy, violent protest, powerlessness, and revolutionary zeal. To minimize conceptual ambiguities of…

  15. Alienating Students: Marxist Theory in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Megan; Pan, Yung-Yi Dian; Molina, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Karl Marx's revolutionary call, "Workers of the World Unite," resonates with many in today's society. This article describes and assesses an easily reproducible classroom activity that simulates both alienating, and perhaps more importantly, non-alienating states of production as described by Marx. This hands-on learning activity gives…

  16. Alienation and Use of the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietila, Veikko

    Several studies in media viewing have examined the hypothesis that alienation correlates with the consumption of escape-type content from the mass media. In order to interpret this result, alienation was considered as a process beginning with difficiulties in situation definitions. It was assumed in this study that heavy information of the mass…

  17. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  18. Alienation in the Barrio: Eastern New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Jerry D.

    Preliminary to a larger research project on Mexican American attitudes, this report focused on the extent to which feelings of alienation are present in the barrios of 5 eastern New Mexico population centers. The feelings of alienation were analyzed by the degree of powerlessness, normlessness, self-estrangement, and isolation expressed or…

  19. Fear of fat and the dream process: a correlational investigation.

    PubMed

    Kroth, J; Yoneda, D; Hammond, A

    1998-12-01

    Dream characteristics of 27 women from a graduate counseling program were correlated with the Goldfarb Fear of Fat Scale. Significant positive correlations were obtained for scores with recurrent nightmares (.38) and dreaming one is dreaming (.40). An inverse relationship was noted between sexual content of dreams and scores for fear of fat (-.41). Results were discussed in terms of associations among dissociation, body image, and the dream process. PMID:10079715

  20. Alienation, dogmatism, and related personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sexton, M E

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between alienation and dogmatism, as measured by shared personality characteristics. Scores from the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, the Keniston Alienation Scale, the California Test of Personality, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were obtained for a sample of 92 college freshmen. Alienation and dogmatism were found to be positively related concepts. The factors that best predicted alienation from dogmatic responses were intolerance expressed for opposing beliefs and compulsivity in the belief system. Alienation and dogmatism also were found to be associated with several commonly held personality traits, which center around anxiety, low self-esteem, and social estrangement manifested in feelings of hostility, aggression, loneliness, rejection, and isolation. These results were discussed and compared to previous research that explored the two concepts separately. PMID:6826758

  1. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided. PMID:24934010

  2. Using Visual Arts as a Proxy for Language: Addressing the Marginalization of Linguistic Minority Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a school-wide implementation of an arts-based initiative to address the alienation experienced by linguistic minority parents. In order to assuage the prevalent, although unintentional, practices of marginalization, a group of students and teachers established a platform that enabled shared discourse among minority and…

  3. Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model: DREAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Chen, Y.; Cunningham, G. S.; Friedel, R. W. H.; Henderson, M. G.; Jordanova, V. K.; Koller, J.; Morley, S. K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Zaharia, S.

    2012-03-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) was developed to provide accurate, global specification of the Earth's radiation belts and to better understand the physical processes that control radiation belt structure and dynamics. DREAM is designed using a modular software approach in order to provide a computational framework that makes it easy to change components such as the global magnetic field model, radiation belt dynamics model, boundary conditions, etc. This paper provides a broad overview of the DREAM model and a summary of some of the principal results to date. We describe the structure of the DREAM model, describe the five major components, and illustrate the various options that are available for each component. We discuss how the data assimilation is performed and the data preprocessing and postprocessing that are required for producing the final DREAM outputs. We describe how we apply global magnetic field models for conversion between flux and phase space density and, in particular, the benefits of using a self-consistent, coupled ring current-magnetic field model. We discuss some of the results from DREAM including testing of boundary condition assumptions and effects of adding a source term to radial diffusion models. We also describe some of the testing and validation of DREAM and prospects for future development.

  4. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. PMID:21704532

  5. Evolutionary function of dreams: A test of the threat simulation theory in recurrent dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Desjardins, Sophie; Marcotte, Eric

    2006-06-01

    proposed an intriguing and detailed evolutionary theory of dreams which stipulates that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this theory using a sample of 212 recurrent dreams that was scored using a slightly expanded version of the DreamThreat rating scale. Six of the eight hypotheses tested were supported. Among the positive findings, 66% of the recurrent dream reports contained one or more threats, the threats tended to be dangerous and aimed at the dreamer, and when facing a threat, the dreamer tended to take defensive or evasive actions that were possible and reasonable. However, less than 15% of the recurrent dreams depicted realistic and probable situations critical for one's physical survival or reproductive success and the dreamer rarely succeeded in fleeing the threat despite important and appropriate efforts. The findings thus provide mixed support for the threat simulation theory. PMID:16720254

  6. Motorcycling freedom: a paraplegics dream.

    PubMed

    Lomman, D; Kirk, B

    2006-03-01

    People with disabilities have the same rights as other members of society in directing and implementing the decisions which affect their lives, although it is not always afforded them due to physical limitations. A chance encounter by the author, a University of Western Australia mechanical engineering student, with a paraplegic man who expressed his dream of being able to ride a motorcycle again led to the design and build of a specially modified motorcycle that could be ridden safely and comfortably by a person without the use of their legs. The prototype involved several modifications which allow it to be ridden by a paraplegic person. They included, a thumb controlled pneumatic gear shifter, an integrated front and rear brake actuated with a single hand lever, ergonomic supports to hold the riders legs in place and an automatic stabilising system to balance the motorcycle at low speeds. The benefits that result from the inclusion of people with disabilities into regular leisure activities include normalisation as well as a sense of independence and freedom for the individual. It also allowed one man the chance to reach for his dreams. PMID:16623223

  7. [Ketamine--dreams and realities].

    PubMed

    Arditti, J; Spadari, M; de Haro, L; Brun, A; Bourdon, J H; Valli, M

    2002-01-01

    Ketamine is an anaesthetic used in human medicine and veterinary practice, synthesised on 1962 and marketed on 1970 in France. Recreational uses were described during 1992 in the medical community and in 1996 in the dance settings. The chemical name of ketamine is 2--(2chlorophenyl)2-(methylamine)-cyclohexanone, an aryl cyclohexylamine, structurally related to phencyclidine. Ketamine is known under the following street names: Keta K, Kate, Special K, Vitamin K, la Golden, la Vétérinaire. Ketamine is used intranasally, orally and intramusculary in recreational use. Ketamine is manufactured by the chemical industry. Due to the complicated synthesis, it is sold illicitly for recreational use. Ketamine is a dissociative drug, and the user enters in a psychedelic dream with hallucinations, floating sensation, feeling of dissociation of the mind from the body. The dream is forgotten, the user full in reality with loss of self control, risk of acute intoxication. In long-term exposure, tolerance, dependence, withdrawal signs and flash back are described. Ketamine trademarks are subject to control in France through medicine legislation Ketamine and its salts are subject to control under the national legislation on narcotics and psychotropics substance. From September 2001, the theft of medical and veterinary trademarks have to be declared to police, care health authority Pharmacy control authority and French Health Products Safety Agency. PMID:11974440

  8. REM Sleep Behavioral Events and Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Maria-Lucia; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Walters, Arthur S.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Sixel-Döring, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To clarify whether motor behaviors and/ or vocalizations during REM sleep, which do not yet fulfill diagnostic criteria for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and were defined as REM sleep behavioral events (RBEs), correspond to dream enactments. Methods: 13 subjects (10 patients with Parkinson disease [PD] and 3 healthy controls) originally identified with RBE in a prospective study (DeNoPa cohort) were reinvestigated 2 years later with 2 nights of video-supported polysomnography (vPSG). The first night was used for sleep parameter analysis. During the 2nd night, subjects were awakened and questioned for dream recall and dream content when purposeful motor behaviors and/or vocalizations became evident during REM sleep. REM sleep without atonia (RWA) was analyzed on chin EMG and the cutoff set at 18.2% as specific for RBD. Results: At the time of this investigation 9 of 13 subjects with previous RBE were identified with RBD based upon clinical and EMG criteria. All recalled vivid dreams, and 7 subjects were able to describe dream content in detail. Four of 13 subjects with RBE showed RWA values below cutoff values for RBD. Three of these 4 subjects recalled having non-threatening dreams, and 2 (of these 3) were able to describe these dreams in detail. Conclusion: RBE with RWA below the RBD defining criteria correlate to dreaming in this selected cohort. There is evidence that RBEs are a precursor to RBD. Citation: Muntean ML, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Mollenhauer B, Sixel-Döring F. REM sleep behavioral events and dreaming. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):537–541. PMID:25665694

  9. Lucid Dreaming: A State of Consciousness with Features of Both Waking and Non-Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. Design: 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Setting: Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Participants: Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Measurements and Results: Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands δ and θ, and higher-than-REM activity in the γ band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in α, and lucid dreaming by increased δ and θ band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Conclusions: Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas. Citation: Voss U; Holzmann R; Tuin I; Hobson A. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1191-1200. PMID:19750924

  10. [Dreams in neuroses in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    1996-01-01

    46 children and adolescents with different forms of neuroses at the age of 10-18 years were observed. It is shown that the dreams in neurotic individuals are characterised by both cognitive and affective activation as well as by widening of the limits of time and space, by frequent incompletion and by some imperative tendencies (the "channelization" of colour perception, repeated dreams' rise). There was a dependence of dream's character upon the neurosis form. The data obtained are important for adequate diagnosis and therapy of borderline conditions. PMID:8992831

  11. Dreams for the second half of life.

    PubMed

    Moody, Harry R

    2005-01-01

    Dreams in midlife and old age can reveal a process of spiritual growth described by Tornstam as gerotranscencence. This same process of inner growth has also been described in theoretical terms as self-actualization (Maslow), ego-integrity (Erikson), and individuation (Jung). The process is illustrated through dream symbols of transpersonal development, displaying the duality of self-fulfillment and self- transcendence. In lifespan development terms this process can be studied in detail in the autobiography of Helen Luke. The interpretation of dreams has importance for what has recently come to be known as Conscious Aging. PMID:16172075

  12. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given. PMID:26781553

  13. Hypnotic change in combat dreams of two veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Eichelman, B

    1985-01-01

    The recurrent nocturnal traumatic dreams of two veterans were dispelled with hypnosis. Dream substitutions were rehearsed in hypnotic trance and subsequently dreamed at night, and afterward the original traumatic dreams ceased. PMID:3966569

  14. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  15. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  17. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  18. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  19. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  20. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  1. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  2. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  3. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  4. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  5. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  6. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes of the...

  7. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  9. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  10. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  11. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  12. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  13. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  14. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section....6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is required to... gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  17. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  18. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  19. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  20. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  1. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  2. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  3. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  4. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  5. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  6. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  7. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  8. 45 CFR 1626.5 - Alien status and eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alien status and eligibility. 1626.5 Section 1626... RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.5 Alien status and eligibility. Subject to all other... may provide legal assistance to an alien who is present in the United States and who is within one...

  9. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  10. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  11. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  12. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  13. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties,...

  14. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  15. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  16. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  17. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  18. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  19. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... residing in the same household as the alien at the time of the abuse, an alien whose child has been... residing in the same household as the alien at the time of the abuse, an alien whose child has been... Laotian who is deceased, or (iii) An unmarried dependent child of such Hmong or Highland Laotian who...

  20. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... residing in the same household as the alien at the time of the abuse, an alien whose child has been... residing in the same household as the alien at the time of the abuse, an alien whose child has been... Laotian who is deceased, or (iii) An unmarried dependent child of such Hmong or Highland Laotian who...

  1. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... residing in the same household as the alien at the time of the abuse, an alien whose child has been... residing in the same household as the alien at the time of the abuse, an alien whose child has been... Laotian who is deceased, or (iii) An unmarried dependent child of such Hmong or Highland Laotian who...

  2. 7 CFR 273.4 - Citizenship and alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... residing in the same household as the alien at the time of the abuse, an alien whose child has been... residing in the same household as the alien at the time of the abuse, an alien whose child has been... Laotian who is deceased, or (iii) An unmarried dependent child of such Hmong or Highland Laotian who...

  3. 26 CFR 1.871-3 - Residence of alien seamen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Residence of alien seamen. 1.871-3 Section 1.871... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-3 Residence of alien seamen. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident of the United States for purposes...

  4. 45 CFR 233.52 - Overpayment to aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Overpayment to aliens. 233.52 Section 233.52 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.52 Overpayment to aliens. A State Plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act, shall provide that: (a) Any sponsor of an alien and the alien shall...

  5. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  6. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  7. 22 CFR 40.92 - Aliens unlawfully present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present. 40.92 Section 40.92... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.92 Aliens unlawfully present. (a) 3-year bar. An alien described in INA 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) shall be ineligible for...

  8. 47 CFR 90.115 - Foreign government and alien eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign government and alien eligibility. 90... government and alien eligibility. (a) No station authorization in the radio services governed by this part....9(c) of this chapter) if such entity is: (1) An alien or the representative of any alien; (2)...

  9. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment...

  10. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  12. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  13. 'Reverberation time', dreaming and the capacity to dream.

    PubMed

    Birksted-Breen, Dana

    2009-02-01

    In this paper the author suggests that understanding the roots of the subjective sense of time can throw light on the disturbances in psychic time which are found in particular in the more severe pathologies. She introduces the argument that the roots of the development of the sense of time rest on a primitive sense of time she calls 'reverberation time'. By this notion she refers to the particular quality of the earliest 'back and forth' internalized exchange with the mother in which the auditory dimension plays a significant part. Referring to a wide range of literature and clinical examples, the author thus suggests that the subjective sense of time is created by the reverberation between mother and infant. Disturbances in this area will be reflected in the pathological 'arresting' of time which is observed in the different pathologies and, in particular, around the negotiation of the depressive position and the oedipal situation.Extending this argument, the author goes on to suggest that it is the internalization of this experience of 'reverberation' which lies at the heart of the experience of dreaming; she considers that dreaming understood as an internal dialogue points both to its roots in the relationship to the maternal object and to its fundamental role in psychic life. The author concludes that 'reverberation time' is also the building block of a psychoanalysis, leading to 'unfreezing' psychic time and enabling the reconnection of 'here and now' with 'there and then' in a flexible way which promotes open possibilities, and that this takes place via the analyst's reverie, or time of reverberation. PMID:19245569

  14. Variety and intensity of emotions in nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Donderi, Don C

    2006-04-01

    Nightmares are usually defined as frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper. This study uses the waking criterion to distinguish between nightmares and bad dreams and investigated the variety and intensity of emotions reported in each form of disturbing dream. Ninety participants recorded their dreams for 4 consecutive weeks and, for each dream recalled, noted the emotions present and their intensities on a 9-point scale. Thirty-six participants reported at least one nightmare and one bad dream over the 4 weeks covered by the log, while 29 reported having had at least one bad dream but no nightmares. Nightmares were rated as being significantly (p < 0.001) more intense than bad dreams. Thirty percent of nightmares and 51% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. The findings support the claim that awakening can serve as an indirect measure of nightmare intensity and raise important implications for the operational definition of nightmares. PMID:16614545

  15. NASA Administrator Flies Dream Chaser Simulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden had the opportunity to fly a simulated landing of the Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Dream Chaser while touring the agency's Dryden Flight Research Center in Cali...

  16. The Bourgeoisie Dream Factory: Teaching Marx's Theory of Alienation through an Experiential Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Elroi J.; Carroll, Alana M.

    2015-01-01

    Effectively teaching sociological theories to undergraduate students is challenging. Students often enroll in theory courses due to major requirements, not personal interest. Consequently, many students approach the study of theory with anxiety. This study examined the effectiveness of an experiential learning activity designed to teach Karl…

  17. Amphiphilic Residues 29-44 of DREAM N-Termini Mediate Calmodulin:DREAM Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Walter G; Arango, Andres S; Miksovska, Jaroslava

    2015-07-21

    DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a neuronal calcium sensor that has been shown to modulate gene expression as well as to be involved in numerous neuronal processes. In this report, we show that association of calcium-bound calmodulin (CaM) with DREAM is mediated by a short amphipathic amino acid sequence located between residues 29 and 44 on DREAM. The association of CaM with a peptide analogous to DREAM(29-44) or to full-length DREAM protein is calcium-dependent with a dissociation constant of 136 nM or 3.4 μM, respectively. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies show that the observed decrease in affinity for the native protein is due to electrostatic interactions between the basic N-terminus and an electronegative surface on DREAM. These results are further supported by circular dichroism, binding studies, and molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements show a rotational correlation time of 10.8 ns for a complex of CaM with a DREAM(29-44) peptide, supporting a wraparound semispherical model with 1:1 stoichiometry. Furthermore, the interaction between an IEDANS-labeled CaM construct with DREAM is best modeled as a heterotetramer that adopts an elongated conformation with a correlation time of 45 ns in the presence of Ca(2+). We also demonstrate that association of CaM with DREAM eliminates the nonspecific interaction of DREAM with the DRE double-stranded DNA sequence of the human prodynorphin gene. This work provides molecular insight into the CaM:DREAM complex and its potential role in modulation of gene expression. PMID:26108881

  18. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    PubMed

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  19. The dream as space, time and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Totlis, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    Human beings, like all living organisms, use energy ceaselessly with whatever they do. Nothing at all happens without spending some energy, not even a glance or a dream. The Author proposes that dreams happen automatically in sleep to help us release unresolved frustration energy and emotional dilemmas left over from the day before. Energy administration is the common denominator behind the manifold workings of dreams, as it is behind all operations of our consciousness in daytime, and this is far more important than one might at first suspect. In summary, if in waking reality the day prior to a dream, a specific sensory composition (a perception or picture) frustrates our mind such that the mind is unable or unwilling to accept this sensory composition, it forms and traps within us an emotional energy charge that lingers inside till that same night when the dream uses it in order to energize from memory analogous sensory components that form a spatiotemporally similar overall representational composition of the daytime waking event. This ends up as the dream we may remember the next day. For example, if in a real event yesterday a red apple between two green apples were in front of us and for some reason we were unable or unwilling to see and accept this perception, in a dream the next time we sleep, we may see promptly a red peach between two green peaches, which will be energized temporarily from our memory to serve the need of our psyche to represent the unprocessed emotion(s) and balance the tensions inside us. The dream always produces more acceptable symbolic perceptions for us to see or sense, and in doing so uses and releases at the same time the unacknowledged emotional energy inside us pending since yesterday's event. PMID:22540104

  20. [Recurrent dreams as migraine aura symptoms].

    PubMed

    Podoll, K; Töpper, R; Robinson, D; Sass, H

    2000-04-01

    Elementary geometric imagery seen in the visual aura of migraine can be experienced as incorporated into the content of a dream which precedes the awakening with a migraine headache. Furthermore, recurrent dreams featuring complex visual imagery, often terrifying nightmares, can occur as migraine aura symptoms. The said phenomena are illustrated by two original case reports and discussed against the background of a review of the literature. PMID:10803382

  1. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness. PMID:20695408

  2. Relativistic rocket: Dream and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyonov, Oleg G.

    2014-06-01

    The dream of interstellar flights persists since the first pioneers in astronautics and has never died. Many concepts of thruster capable to propel a rocket to the stars have been proposed and the most suitable among them are thought to be photon propulsion and propulsion by the products of proton-antiproton annihilation in magnetic nozzle. This article addresses both concepts allowing for cross-section of annihilation among other issues in order to show their vulnerability and to indicate the problems. The concept of relativistic matter propulsion is substantiated and discussed. The latter is argued to be the most straightforward way to build-up a relativistic rocket firstly because it is based on the existing technology of ion generators and accelerators and secondly because it can be stepped up in efflux power starting from interplanetary spacecrafts powered by nuclear reactors to interstellar starships powered by annihilation reactors. The problems imposed by thermodynamics and heat disposal are accentuated.

  3. The effects of suppressing intrusive thoughts on dream content, dream distress and psychological parameters.

    PubMed

    Kröner-Borowik, Tana; Gosch, Stefanie; Hansen, Kathrin; Borowik, Benjamin; Schredl, Michael; Steil, Regina

    2013-10-01

    Suppressing unwanted thoughts can lead to an increased occurrence of the suppressed thought in dreams. This is explainable by the ironic control theory, which theorizes why the suppression of thoughts might make them more persistent. The present study examined the influence of thought suppression on dream rebound, dream distress, general psychiatric symptomatology, depression, sleep quality and perceived stress. Thirty healthy participants (good sleepers) were investigated over a period of 1 week. Half were instructed to suppress an unwanted thought 5 min prior to sleep, whereas the other half were allowed to think of anything at all. Dream content was assessed through a dream diary. Independent raters assessed whether or not the dreams were related to the suppressed target thought. The results demonstrated increased target-related dreams and a tendency to have more distressing dreams in the suppression condition. Moreover, the data imply that thought suppression may lead to significantly increased general psychiatric symptomatology. No significant effects were found for the other secondary outcomes. PMID:23679926

  4. Psychodynamic Interpretations of the Immigrant's Dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munteanu, Mircea A.

    1994-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees often experience difficulty adjusting to a strange new environment. This article considers Adler's (1993) article, "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory" but recommends a depth psychology approach, including both Freudian and Jungian perspectives, to incorporating dream analysis as a technique in cross-cultural counseling.…

  5. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, P.R.; Canavan, S.V.; Nahum, L.; Appah, F.; Morgan, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors – a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. Methods. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Results. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. Conclusions. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness. PMID:25028078

  6. Undocumented Aliens: A Study of Mexican Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcido, Ramon M.

    1979-01-01

    The personal histories described here confirm that the primary impetus of undocumented aliens to emigrate is the desire for jobs and better socioeconomic opportunities. Amnesty, aid to families with dependent children, and increased social services are recommended. (Author/BEF)

  7. The multiplicity of dreams: cognitive-affective correlates of lucid, archetypal, and nightmare dreaming.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, A; Hunt, H T

    1990-10-01

    This preliminary research is the first to compare lucid, nightmare, and archetypal-mythological dreams on dimensions important in previous research on each. A first study of 100 subjects showed all three forms significantly correlated with each other and with estimates of dream recall. In a second study, 41 subjects were selected from the above on the basis of relative specialization in each dream form, with a control group equally high on dream recall. Here, the lucid and archetypal dreamers tended to separate themselves from nightmare sufferers on the basis of high imaginativeness, proclivity to waking mystical experience, spatial/analytic skills, and physical balance. It appears that the intensification of dreaming is expressed positively or negatively, depending on variations in these cognitive dimensions. PMID:2251094

  8. [Dream sequences. On the psychodynamic aspects of the dramaturgy of dreams].

    PubMed

    Mentzos, S

    1995-07-01

    Unlike Freud with his emphasis on the defensive function of dreams, the author concentrates on the creative aspect and compares the sequencing of dreams with a quasi-dramaturgical "scenic" organization of experience displaying notable analogies to a theatrical "production". Mentzos proceeds from two working hypotheses: dream sequences are not random but organized, in the sense that they reflect the succession of different life-stages or the presence of conflicting tendencies within the dreamer's mind; hence the order of the various sequence mirrors the "staging" of the various conflicts and the various attempts made to resolve them. The author attempts to substantiate this hypothesis with reference to a number of dreams and dream sequences. PMID:7644672

  9. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Targino, Zé H; Souza, Bryan C; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  10. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Targino, Zé H.; Souza, Bryan C.; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  11. Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael; Hobson, J Allan

    2015-04-01

    The idea that dreaming can serve as a model for psychosis has a long and honourable tradition, however it is notoriously speculative. Here we demonstrate that recent research on the phenomenon of lucid dreaming sheds new light on the debate. Lucid dreaming is a rare state of sleep in which the dreamer gains insight into his state of mind during dreaming. Recent electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for the first time allow very specific hypotheses about the dream-psychosis relationship: if dreaming is a reasonable model for psychosis, then insight into the dreaming state and insight into the psychotic state should share similar neural correlates. This indeed seems to be the case: cortical areas activated during lucid dreaming show striking overlap with brain regions that are impaired in psychotic patients who lack insight into their pathological state. This parallel allows for new therapeutic approaches and ways to test antipsychotic medication. PMID:25092021

  12. Recurrent Dreams and Psychosocial Adjustment in Preteenaged Children.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R

    2009-06-01

    Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed. PMID:24976740

  13. Minority Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to increase the number of ethnic minorities on the faculties of American colleges and universities, the Ford Foundation is offering fellowships to members of six groups who have been severely underrepresented in academia.In a program administered by the National Research Council (NRC), the Ford Foundation is offering 50 three-year predoctoral fellowships ($14,000 per year, plus a $6000 annual institutional grant) and 25 one-year dissertation fellowships ($18,000 for one year) to Native American Indians, Alaskan natives (Eskimos, Aleuts), Black/African Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians and Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, life sciences, or interdisciplinary programs composed of two or more of those disciplines. The predoctoral fellowships are intended for beginning graduate students; the dissertation fellowships are designed to provide support for students in their final year.

  14. Aliens in a Beneficient Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Joseph B., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the plight of migrant workers who travel from developing to developed nations in search of jobs and a higher standard of living. Maintains that migrants, especially when they are a visible minority, are often victims of individual and institutional prejudice. Identifies Sweden as a country which has developed widespread government aid…

  15. Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM): Phase 2 Usability Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.; Anwar, Zaeem

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is a virtual space for exchanging information about digital learning tools. The purpose of the present study was to determine how users responded to DREAM in the first four months after its public release. This study is the second phase of usability research on DREAM, and was conducted to guide…

  16. Two Dream Machines: Television and the Human Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Caren J.

    Research into brain physiology and dream psychology have helped to illuminate the biological purposes and processes of dreaming. Physical and functional characteristics shared by dreaming and television include the perception of visual and auditory images, operation in a binary mode, and the encoding of visual information. Research is needed in…

  17. Truthful Fictions: How Dreams Can Help You Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakil, Ardashir

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a case for recording and using dreams in the teaching of writing. Calling on some well-known statements of Freud and on some recent research, I attempt to show how dreams can provide writers with a route to their unconscious. I also illustrate the role of dreams in furnishing writers with inspiration and source material. I…

  18. Dreams of the Dying Patient: An Exploration of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Pamela N.; Hoffmann, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 25 dream reports of individuals in Palliative Care Unit. Content analysis of dream reports supports hypothesis that continuity exists between dreaming and waking experience. Results did not indicate that themes of death and aggression, negative emotion, or infant and child characters were more prevalent among the dying. (Author/NB)

  19. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation process…

  20. Toward a Phenomenology of Dream Imagery and Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elmer S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The author partially describes a few of the immanent qualities of dreaming imagery and metaphor. The concept of the ineluctable modality is introduced to illustrate the spontaneous synthesizing of cognitive and noncognitive elements. A short dream excerpt is shared to clarify the pervasive contrapuntallike depth of dreaming imagery. (Author/SJL)

  1. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. PMID:23838126

  2. The dream's navel between chaos and thought.

    PubMed

    Scalzone, F; Zontini, G

    2001-04-01

    The authors begin by drawing attention to the problem of the transition from the biological to the psychic, noting that Freud himself, with his background in the neurosciences, grappled with it throughout his career. Certain recent paradigms more commonly applied to the natural sciences, such as in particular chaos and complexity theory, can in their view prove fruitful in psychoanalysis too, and it is shown how these notions are inherent in some of Freud's conceptions. The unconscious is stated to operate like a neural network, performing the kind of parallel processing used in the computing of highly complex situations, whereas the conscious mind is sequential. Dreams, in the authors' opinion, are organisers of the mind, imparting order to the turbulence of the underlying wishes and unconscious fantasies and structuring them through the dream work. Through dreams, the structured linearity of conscious thought can emerge out of the non-linear chaos of the drives. The dream's navel can be seen as the chaotic link, or interface, between the unconscious wish, which constitutes an attractor, and the conscious thought. The attractor may be visualised as having an hourglass or clepsydra shape, the narrow section being the dream's navel, and, being the same at any scale of observation, has the property of fractality. PMID:11341062

  3. Reactivation of posttraumatic stress disorder after minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Berthier, M L; Kulisevsky, J; Fernández Benitez, J A; Gironell, A

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the reactivation of a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a minor head injury in two young women who had recovered from extreme stress caused by sexual abuse during adolescence. Intrusive thoughts, images, dreams, and phobic avoidance bear a direct relationship to the specific circumstances of both head injury and sexual abuse, and were associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, generalized anxiety with panic, and depression. These findings suggest that in some individuals minor head injuries may induce not only extreme stress reactions, but also cause the reactivation of symptoms related to previous traumatic experiences. PMID:9750980

  4. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Mateus C.; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T.; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Barbosa, Egberto R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD. PMID:27051076

  5. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD. PMID:27051076

  6. The DREAM Project—Results and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigmans, Richard

    2007-03-01

    High-precision jet spectroscopy will be increasingly important in future high-energy accelerator experiments, particularly at a Linear e+e- Collider. DREAM, a novel type of calorimeter, appears to be well suited for this task. The key aspect of this detector is the simultaneous measurement of the scintillation light and the Cherenkov light generated in the shower development process. By comparing these two signals (which are provided by different types of optical fibers), the electromagnetic shower fraction can be measured event by event, both for single hadrons and for jets, and the effects of fluctuations in this fraction can be eliminated. As a result, the DREAM calorimeter has impressive performance characteristics. The application of the DREAM principles in homogeneous calorimeters, which has the potential of providing ultimate calorimeter performance, is also discussed.

  7. [Dreams and sensoperception in epicurean theory].

    PubMed

    Pangas, Julio César

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the epicurean vision on sensoperception and dreams. This epicurean vision is known to us, specially, from the wrintings of his roman divulger, Titus Lucretius Caro in his work "On the nature of things" ("De rerum natura"), IV Chant. The epicureans adopted the materialistic conception of nature, based upon Democritus of Abdera atomistic theory and, in this way, they distinguished their theories on dreams from the general principles prevailing in the popular greco-roman litterature, as well as from the divinatory perception of oneirocritics like Artemidorus and also from the first steps of the physiological conception of dreams from philosophers as the presocratics and Aristotle. We end this article with some of the more interesting paragraphs from Chant IV of the work by Lucretius, regarding this subjet. PMID:18219404

  8. 8 CFR 274a.12 - Classes of aliens authorized to accept employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classes of aliens authorized to accept employment. 274a.12 Section 274a.12 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employment Authorization § 274a.12 Classes of aliens authorized to accept employment. (a) Aliens...

  9. Reflections on a Dream Deferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John

    2008-01-01

    Americans have come a great distance since the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The African-American middle class has grown. African Americans, women, and other minorities are in positions of leadership today that they could never have aspired to 40 years ago. In the 2008 election season, an African-American man is a serious contender…

  10. Dream recall frequency by socioeconomic status of Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Whereas the effect of sex and age on dream recall have been studied widely, socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated. However, two studies reported that higher socioeconomic status was related to greater frequency of dream recall. In the present sample of 612 Chinese students from three different schools, one elite (high socioeconomic status), one rural (low socioeconomic status) and one intermediate, analysis of variance indicated no significant association between frequency of dream recall and socioeconomic status. Researchers could investigate whether "dream socialization," e.g., encouragement of a child to remember his dreams, depends on socioeconomic background, whether these processes are mediated by culture. PMID:18065085

  11. Effect of certain cerebral hemispheric diseases on dreaming.

    PubMed

    Epstein, A W

    1979-02-01

    Dreaming may be altered by cerebral hemispheric disease. A woman who sustained a probable left posterior cerebral artery thrombosis, with right homonymous hemianopsia and alexia, had virtual cessation of dreaming for at least 9 months. Four individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy experienced recurrent painful (frightening) dreams, which in two patients showed features identical to seizures. Sleep recordings showed abnormalities in all four, including rhythmic temporal epileptiform activity during REM sleep. Lesions in parieto-occipital loci may interfere with production of the visual imagery required for dreaming (negative symptom in the Jacksonian sense) while epileptic activity in temporal loci may produce painful repetitive dream imagery (positive symptom). PMID:217457

  12. ALIEN SPECIES: THEIR ROLE IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...

  13. Thematic and Content Analysis of Idiopathic Nightmares and Bad Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Design: Correlational and descriptive. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. Conclusions: The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer—and more severe—expression of the same basic phenomenon. Citation: Robert G; Zadra A. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams. SLEEP 2014;37(2):409-417. PMID:24497669

  14. Induction of lucid dreams: a systematic review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Schredl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis (11 sleep laboratory and 24 field studies), of which 26 employed cognitive techniques, 11 external stimulation and one drug application. The methodological quality of the included studies was relatively low. None of the induction techniques were verified to induce lucid dreams reliably and consistently, although some of them look promising. On the basis of the reviewed studies, a taxonomy of lucid dream induction methods is presented. Several methodological issues are discussed and further directions for future studies are proposed. PMID:22841958

  15. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R.; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Studies on children’s recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults’ recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15 years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. PMID:26366465

  16. The dream of Irma's injection: a structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuper, A; Stone, A A

    1982-10-01

    Lévi-Strauss developed a radically new, structural approach to the analysis of myth that may be adapted for use in the analysis of dreams. The method provides an alternative to psychoanalytic dream interpretation, focusing particularly on the internal dialectic of the dream--the movement from the initial premise to the resolution. This emphasis on the internal coherence and structured development of the dream contrasts strongly with the Freudian piecemeal decoding of dreams. The method is exemplified by analysis of Freud's classic Irma dream; it reveals a structure and message that have hitherto remained obscure. The interpretation connects the dream to Freud's theoretical ideas rather than to his supposed psychosexual fixations. PMID:6751099

  17. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Studies on children's recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults' recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. PMID:26366465

  18. Dream research in schizophrenia: methodological issues and a dimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Dreaming in patients with schizophrenia was and is of particular interest to researchers and clinicians due to the phenomenological similarities between the dreaming state and schizophrenic daytime symptomatology such as bizarre thoughts or hallucinations. Extensive literature reviews have shown that dream studies in the field of psychopathology often do not fulfill common scientific criteria. The present paper focuses on the methodological issues like sampling methods, the dream collection method, and dream content analysis that are crucial with regard to the validity of the findings. It is also suggested that the so-called dimensional approach (linking severity of daytime symptoms directly to specific dream characteristics) will be very helpful for identifying which psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenia are most closely linked to dream content. PMID:20537924

  19. How early adolescents describe their dreams: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Azzone, P; Freni, S; Maggiolini, A; Provantini, K; Viganó, D

    1998-01-01

    Most empirical research on dreams has focused on content and structure, while linguistic features have received far less attention. The present study investigated dream language in a critical developmental stage: early adolescence. Narratives of the dreams of 145 early adolescents were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the frequencies of various grammar forms and common words were calculated. The most common nouns for the entire sample were house and mother. The most frequent verbs were go and do. Males' dream narratives contained a greater number of such words as animal, long, enter, and kill. Females more often used intransitive verbs and such words as teacher, horse, and put. Several features differentiated older from younger early adolescents' dreams. The results indicate that linguistic features of dream narratives are affected by age and sex, displaying interesting parallels with clinical theories on dreams and early adolescence. PMID:9583674

  20. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  1. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  2. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  4. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  6. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  7. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  8. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  9. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  10. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  11. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  12. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ordered deported, see 8 CFR 241.30 through 241.33. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  14. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section 233... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  15. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ordered deported, see 8 CFR 241.30 through 241.33. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  19. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  20. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  1. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  2. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  3. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ordered deported, see 8 CFR 241.30 through 241.33. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  5. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  6. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  7. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  8. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  9. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  10. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  11. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  12. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  13. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  15. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  16. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  17. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  18. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  19. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  20. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  1. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  2. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  3. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ordered deported, see 8 CFR 241.30 through 241.33. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  5. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  7. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  8. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  9. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  10. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  11. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Socio-economic Predictors of Alienation among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Thomas J., Jr.; Christian, Ollie

    1990-01-01

    Studied level of alienation and associations between socioeconomic variables and alienation in 200 older senior center clients. Found group isolation and powerlessness were more prevalent than personal isolation or normlessness; health, race, education, and income were strongest predictors of alienation; and older Blacks and those with lower…

  13. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  14. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  15. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  16. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a) The following described matters are assigned to, and shall be conducted, handled, or supervised by...

  17. 8 CFR 1241.30 - Aliens ordered deported.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ordered deported, see 8 CFR 241.30 through 241.33. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aliens ordered deported. 1241.30 Section 1241.30 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of...

  19. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., see 8 CFR 241.20 through 241.25. ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section 233... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor...

  1. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  2. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  3. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  4. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of...

  5. 32 CFR 1602.3 - Aliens and nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens and nationals. 1602.3 Section 1602.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.3 Aliens and nationals. (a) The term alien means any person who is not a citizen or national of...

  6. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  7. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  8. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Certain Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency...

  9. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  10. Systemic Disaffection: A Three-Factor Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The paper develops a theory of political alienation based upon interactions among three antecedent conditions. Political alienation is interpreted as combining feelings of inefficacy, discontent, cynicism, estrangement, and hopelessness. The factors evaluated for their contribution to political alienation are: (1) critical perceptions of…

  11. Alienation: A Concept for Understanding Low-Income, Urban Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    The author examines the concept of alienation and how it can be used to understand low-income, urban clients. A description is presented of 4 dimensions of alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, and social isolation. Case illustrations are provided, and recommendations are made for counseling alienated clients. This article…

  12. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F. J.; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I.; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states. PMID:24427149

  13. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Eibl, Leandra; Fischer, Christian F J; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Steiger, Axel; Czisch, Michael; Pawlowski, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a multifaceted concept; its different aspects vary across species, vigilance states, or health conditions. While basal aspects of consciousness like perceptions and emotions are present in many states and species, higher-order aspects like reflective or volitional capabilities seem to be most pronounced in awake humans. Here we assess the experience of volition across different states of consciousness: 10 frequent lucid dreamers rated different aspects of volition according to the Volitional Components Questionnaire for phases of normal dreaming, lucid dreaming, and wakefulness. Overall, experienced volition was comparable for lucid dreaming and wakefulness, and rated significantly higher for both states compared to non-lucid dreaming. However, three subscales showed specific differences across states of consciousness: planning ability was most pronounced during wakefulness, intention enactment most pronounced during lucid dreaming, and self-determination most pronounced during both wakefulness and lucid dreaming. Our data confirm the multifaceted nature of consciousness: different higher-order aspects of consciousness are differentially expressed across different conscious states. PMID:24427149

  14. Waking and dreaming: related but structurally independent. Dream reports of congenitally paraplegic and deaf-mute persons.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Hobson, Allan

    2011-09-01

    Models of dream analysis either assume a continuum of waking and dreaming or the existence of two dissociated realities. Both approaches rely on different methodology. Whereas continuity models are based on content analysis, discontinuity models use a structural approach. In our study, we applied both methods to test specific hypotheses about continuity or discontinuity. We contrasted dream reports of congenitally deaf-mute and congenitally paraplegic individuals with those of non-handicapped controls. Continuity theory would predict that either the deficit itself or compensatory experiences would surface in the dream narrative. We found that dream form and content of sensorially limited persons was indifferent from those of non-handicapped controls. Surprisingly, perceptual representations, even of modalities not experienced during waking, were quite common in the dream reports of our handicapped subjects. Results are discussed with respect to feedforward mechanisms and protoconsciousness theory of dreaming. PMID:21147002

  15. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  16. Life, Love, and Dreams from the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Natalie K.; And Others

    Literature reveals few if any studies made of 90-year-olds, much less those who are alert, analytical, and possible introspective. Through the use of in-depth interviews, this study attempted to add to what little is known about 90-year-olds today, particularly information about the life and thoughts and the love and dreams of a generation which…

  17. Marriage: The Dream and the Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano; L'Abate, Bess L.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major polarizations in marriages of workaholic husbands is their pursuit of the "Great American Dream" while their wives are left to pursue the "Petty Realities of Life." Couples must learn to negotiate realistic and functional objectives for themselves, without avoiding the issues. (JAC)

  18. Education and Social Mobility: Dreams of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Kate; Barker, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    "Education and Social Mobility" examines Government plans to improve upward mobility in England and considers the chances of success in the light of qualitative interviews with 88 school students. The 15- to 19-year-olds in two state secondary schools were invited to reflect on their lives, education and dreams of the future. Their…

  19. Current Research on Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph summarizes an extensive body of sleep and dream research in order to indicate the major trends of work in this area. Although a mosaic of disciplines are represented, a spirit of cooperation has made it possible to knit together data which might have remained unrelated. The research reported here provides knowledge about: (1) the…

  20. Technical Studies Lead to Dream Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraci, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Like many young men, Ty Kropp had no idea what he wanted to do when he graduated from high school. Courses he took as a computer design/manufacturing (CDM) technology student at the Ulster County Career and Technical Education center in Port Ewen, NY, gave him valuable skills that opened the door to his dream job at Orange County Choppers (OCC), a…

  1. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development…

  2. My Galaxy of Memories, Feelings, and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomek, George; Tomek, Marilee

    Young people are encouraged to use this writing journal for kids as a means to think, write, and be creative. The journal helps children to explore their worlds, learn about their families, and record their memories, feelings, and dreams. Following explanatory sections for parents, teachers, and the writer, the journal contains these sections:…

  3. REM sleep and dreaming functions beyond reductionism.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Roumen

    2013-12-01

    Brain activation patterns and mental, electrophysiological, and neurobiological features of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep suggest more functions than only elaborative encoding. Hence, the periodic occurrence of REM sleep episodes and dreaming may be regarded as a recurrent adaptive interference, which incorporates recent memories into a broader vital context comprising emotions, basic needs and individual genetic traits. PMID:24304763

  4. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  5. Chinese Learning Journeys: Chasing the Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Feng, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Eight students from mainland China chart their learning journeys across national and continental boundaries and socio-cultural contexts. The five women and three men structure their experiences of studying in China and the West around the turning points and life changing choices they made in chasing their dreams. They embody its emergent…

  6. How to Make Their Dreams Come True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of January--a fresh start. This presents a brand new opportunity to help students plan a bright future. This article provides a step-by-step guide to ensure a student's dreams come true. Each new year gives students another chance to get it right. The author provides the following 12 steps to ensure students' success in achieving…

  7. What Has Happened to the American Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegley, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    Until very recently, the American dream, and most people's perception of it, was realizable--e.g., owning a home, obtaining a job, and old-age security. Reasons for many citizens' disillusionment include the nuclear threat, high costs of a college education, and the high divorce rate. (RM)

  8. Dialoguing with Dreams in Existential Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for interactive dialogue and analysis of dream images in existential art therapy. In this phenomenological-existential approach, the client and art therapist are regarded as equal partners with respect to sharing in the process of creation and discovery of meaning (Frankl, 1955,…

  9. Eurodisney, French Politics, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Bill

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past, present, and future of Eurodisney in France from cultural awareness and cultural business ethics viewpoints, suggesting that although the French have not bought into the American dream that is Disney, they are so heavily involved in Eurodisney from a financial angle that they can do naught but continue to provide…

  10. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, J. Allan; Hong, Charles C.-H.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity – becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain’s generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  11. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália B; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  12. Psychosis and the Control of Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natália B.; Resende, Adara; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-01-01

    Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic sense perceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD), a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence) and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS, and automated speech analysis) in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms [25 with Schizophrenia (S) and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B) diagnosis] versus 28 non-psychotic control (C) subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B) than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p = 0.0283, B > C with p = 0.0150). Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g., transversal design, large variation of medications), these preliminary results support the notion that LD is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers. Training dream

  13. DREAM: An R2O Success Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Henderson, M. G.; Koller, J.; Chen, Y.; Friedel, R. H.; Zaharia, S. G.; Thomsen, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a data-assimilative model of the Earth’s radiation belts that has, until recently, been used primarily as a research tool to understand radiation belt dynamics and to develop of Kalman filter techniques for application to magnetospheric modeling. More recently, the emphasis of the DREAM program has shifted toward implementation of an operational prototype for testing and validation at the Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) Space Weather Forecast Laboratory (SWFL). The transition has required significant effort, funding, and shifting of priorities that serve as a recent example of the opportunities and challenges of transitioning a model from research to operations (R2O). Two recent technical developments will be discussed: (1) implementation of real-time data-assimilation in DREAM and the associated user interfaces and data products and (2) adapting DREAM for service oriented architectures that enable distributed computation and “easy” integration of services that couple codes without those services even having to be aware of each other. (Google Earth is one example of a highly-developed service oriented architecture.) We will briefly illustrate some of these capabilities but we will also discuss requirements for 24/7 operation, self restarting, direct application of outputs, etc. Of equal importance, we will discuss some of the logistical aspects of our experience with R2O. Those include: How do you fund it? How do you identify a feasible subset of user needs? How do you (or should you) support activities at multiple R2O facilities such as SWFL, SWPT, and CCMC? What inter-agency coordination is required? The transition of DREAM from research to operations has been ongoing for just over one year and is not yet complete. So, it can not yet be called a success - but, it hasn’t failed and it continues to provide an interesting, contemporary test case as it crosses the R2O “valley of death”.

  14. Index of Alien Impact: A Method for Evaluating Potential Ecological Impact of Alien Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Teresa K.; Ringold, Paul L.; Bollman, Michael A.; Ernst, Ted L.

    2010-04-01

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact ( IAI) to estimate the collective ecological impact of in situ alien species. IAI summarizes the frequency of occurrence and potential ecological impact ( Invasiveness-Impact Score ( I i )) of individual alien species for all aliens present in a particular location or community type. A component metric, I i , is based on ecological species traits (life history, ecological amplitude, and ability to alter ecosystem processes) that reflect mechanisms, which can increase impact to ecosystem structure and function. While I i is less complex than some other multi-metric rankings of alien impact, it compares well to these metrics and to qualitative judgments. IAI can be adapted for different ecological settings by modifying the set of species traits incorporated in I i to reflect properties likely to breach biotic and abiotic barriers or alter ecosystem function in a particular region or community type of interest. To demonstrate our approach, we created versions of IAI and I i , applicable to the diverse streamside vegetation of a river basin (19,631 km2) spanning low-elevation arid to mesic montane habitats in eastern Oregon, USA. In this demonstration effort, we (1) evaluate relationships of IAI to metrics describing invasion level, and (2) illustrate the potential utility of IAI for prioritizing alien species management activities and informing restoration goals.

  15. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging. PMID:22036177

  16. The pattern of dreams of a sample of Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Sunmola, A M

    1994-07-01

    In order to highlight the pattern of dreams, the psychosocial factors associated with it, and the meaning attributed to dream contents, 431 Nigerians were interviewed, consisting of undergraduates and government workers. While 6.9% could not recall ever having had a dream experience, over one-third of subjects had had at least three dream experiences in the previous three months. The most important factors associated with increase in frequency of dreams were conditions involving a high degree of expectation, emotional disturbance and happiness. About one-half of subjects claimed their dreams were predictive of what would happen in real life, while 61% claimed that their dreams related to what they were thinking about. The more highly educated and younger subjects dreamt significantly more frequently. Although life events and GHQ-12 scores were not significantly associated with frequency of dreams, those who reported recurrent disturbing dreams had significantly higher GHQ-12 scores. Relating the dream reports to life experiences, we were able to discern the following themes: expectation of positive material rewards; sexual themes; religious themes; sickness and death themes; disappointment and general guilt themes; and abstract manifest contents. Guilt themes were the least frequent. The social and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:7928656

  17. The Lonely Consumer: Advertising and Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.; Denton, Robert E.

    Advertising plays on the broad feelings of alienation (defined as an individual's frustrated or estranged responses to economic and sociological phenomena which affect that individual's place in society) which are endemic to the American consumer society and are, in Marxist views, symptomatic of any capitalist system. By generating anxieties and…

  18. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alien Hand Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sarva, Harini; Deik, Andres; Severt, William Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a disorder of involuntary, yet purposeful, hand movements that may be accompanied by agnosia, aphasia, weakness, or sensory loss. We herein review the most reported cases, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatments. Methods We performed a PubMed search in July of 2014 using the phrases “alien hand syndrome,” “alien hand syndrome pathophysiology,” “alien hand syndrome treatment,” and “anarchic hand syndrome.” The search yielded 141 papers (reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical studies), of which we reviewed 109. Non-English reports without English abstracts were excluded. Results Accumulating evidence indicates that there are three AHS variants: frontal, callosal, and posterior. Patients may demonstrate symptoms of multiple types; there is a lack of correlation between phenomenology and neuroimaging findings. Most pathologic and functional imaging studies suggest network disruption causing loss of inhibition as the likely cause. Successful interventions include botulinum toxin injections, clonazepam, visuospatial coaching techniques, distracting the affected hand, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Discussion The available literature suggests that overlap between AHS subtypes is common. The evidence for effective treatments remains anecdotal, and, given the rarity of AHS, the possibility of performing randomized, placebo-controlled trials seems unlikely. As with many other interventions for movement disorders, identifying the specific functional impairments caused by AHS may provide the best guidance towards individualized supportive care. PMID:25506043

  19. Aliens Among Us : Are They Already Here ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    2008-03-01

    Popular culture, science fiction and mainstream belief, says they are! What is the evidence? Astronomer, skeptic and retired USAF pilot James McGaha examines this "Space Age" Mythology. From years of investigation of the physical evidence of aliens and there spacecraft (UFO's) here on earth, McGaha presents the scientific facts.

  20. Processes of Alienation: Marx, Orff and Kodaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Using Marx as a lens through which to interrogate music methodology, in particular those espoused by Orff and Kodaly, this article suggests that rather than the free play and creativity Orff and Kodaly intended, the implementation of these methods in a strict and unmindful manner, often alienates both teacher and student from musicking. Thus these…

  1. College as a Source of Black Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes college and precollege explanations of alienation and indicates how they intertwine in the case of Black college students. A multivariate analysis of Black students is then used to control for precollege experiences and isolate the independent impact of college life on Black students at a predominantly White university.…

  2. Student Drug Usage and Self-Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Michael L.

    Utilizing responses (a self administered, 15 item questionnaire) of a rural northeastern New England sample of junior high, senior high, and college students, correlation between legal and illegal drug use and perceived self-alienation was examined. Comparison was also made between users and nonusers. Legal users were defined as those who made at…

  3. The Alienating Influence of the Illusionogens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Andrew I.

    1971-01-01

    The author, based on his discussion, hypothesizes that: (1) the use of marijuana may serve to intensify the tendency toward an adolescent's alienation and (2) attitudinal changes do occur in people who are exposed to the illusionogens and that these changes are more certainly fixed with continued use. (Author/BY)

  4. Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

  5. Creating Aliens: The Ultimate Life Sciences Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltramo, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Describes a seven-week project completed by the author's eighth-grade science students (as they studied "the chemistry of living things") in which they designed an alien and its world using the scientific concepts that they learned in class. Compares class presentations using PowerPoint software to presentations using posterboard. (SR)

  6. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  7. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or academic medical center which has been designated an exchange visitor program by the Secretary of... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural...

  8. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or academic medical center which has been designated an exchange visitor program by the Secretary of... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural...

  9. Dream self-reflectiveness as a learned cognitive skill.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S; Mullington, J; Moffitt, A; Hoffmann, R; Pigeau, R

    1986-01-01

    This research was directed toward the contradiction sustained by cognitive dream psychology, which on the one hand regards dreaming as higher symbolic activity and, on the other, sees its organizational and functional characteristics as derivative and/or inferior to those of waking consciousness. Study 1 evaluates the degree of self-reflective meta-cognition in dreams from different sleep stages. Subjects were 24 college students selected such that half were self-reported high-frequency dream recallers and half were low-frequency recallers. Both groups were composed equally of men and women. Greater self-reflectiveness (SR) was found in REM dreams as compared with those from stages 2 and 4, which did not differ. High-frequency recallers showed more dream SR than did low-frequency recallers. Study 2 assessed the extent to which self-reflective and lucid dreaming can be learned as a cognitive skill by varying levels of intention and attention paid to dreaming. After 3 weeks of home dream collection, results showed that four experimental groups had greater dream SR than did a baseline group. The most effective treatment was the mnemonic, wherein attention patterning schemas learned in waking resulted in more self-reflective and lucid dreaming than did either baseline or attention-control conditions. These results provide evidence that dreaming is not single-minded but variable along a self-reflective process continuum, and suggest functional and organizational levels that are consistent with the conception of dreaming as higher order cognitive activity. PMID:3764289

  10. Nightmares in crisis: clinical applications of lucid dreaming techniques.

    PubMed

    Brylowski, A

    1990-06-01

    A patient in crisis was offered treatment with a major focus on alleviating nightmares using lucid dreaming (dreaming while knowing that one is dreaming). Of sixty-eight non-psychotic patients seen consecutively in a psychiatry emergency room, she was one of 16 (23.5%) found to have a concurrent complaint of nightmares (dream anxiety disorder). The benefits of the skills developed with lucid dreaming extended into areas other than nightmares as the patient entered psychotherapy. The techniques appeared to play a role in the reduction of nightmare frequency, intensity, and distress, and to enhance ego growth and personal development. Further research in lucid dreaming as an adjunctive treatment for patients with nightmares and as a useful technique in psychotherapy is suggested. PMID:2374792

  11. Lucid dreaming and ventromedial versus dorsolateral prefrontal task performance.

    PubMed

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T

    2011-06-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for 1 week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  12. Lucid Dreaming and Ventromedial versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for one week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  13. Additional developments regarding manifest dream structure and function.

    PubMed

    Wolowitz, H

    1998-06-01

    Detailed observation of manifest dream sequences indicated self-advocating occurrences facilitating the dreamer's self interests, opposed by self-adversarial interferences. Further examination of manifest dream syntactical structure additionally suggested a recurrent, four-step, algorithm for personal problem-solving within an interpersonal matrix consisting of the following cycle: (1) an opening scene setting the stage, (2) for the emergence of a self-concern, (3) which evokes a strategy to deal with dreamer's self-concern, (4) that eventuates in a consequence of the strategy. These steps repeat until the dream ends. Observing these manifest dream structural features, attributable to broadening past theorizing with "bottom-up" approaches, clarifies the dream's problem-solving process by providing an empirical, observable framework for dream interpretation and by contributing to their consensual validation. PMID:9656284

  14. Dream-disturbed sleep in insomnia and narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Bliwise, D L; Lebret-Bories, E; Guilleminault, C; Dement, W C

    1993-05-01

    Both patients with narcolepsy and insomnia frequently present clinically with nocturnal sleep disrupted by disturbing dreams. Polysomnographic correlates of these reports are unclear. In this study, 24 patients with psychophysiological insomnia and 16 patients with narcolepsy were compared on selected polysomnographic and self-reported typical dream characteristics. As a group, patients with narcolepsy showed more frightening, recurrent dreams and shorter rapid eye movement (REM) segments when compared with patients with insomnia. However, within the narcolepsy group, there were few correlations between typical dream characteristics and any measure of REM segment length or REM density. In the insomnia group, shorter REM segments and higher REM density were related to typically more vivid, frightening, and disrupted dreaming. We speculate that the mechanisms of disturbed dream recall may be different in insomnia and narcolepsy. PMID:8501449

  15. Treatment of recurrent nightmares by the dream reorganization approach.

    PubMed

    Palace, E M; Johnston, C

    1989-09-01

    Dream reorganization is introduced as a new theoretical and treatment approach to the alleviation of recurrent nightmares, derived from the principles of the Seligman and Yellen (1987) theory of dream construction. The cognitive-behavioral dream reorganization treatment package consists of two treatment components. Systematic desensitization with coping self-statements is employed to alter the emotional episode by counterconditioning a relaxation response to anxiety-evoking nightmare content. Guided rehearsal of mastery endings to dream content hierarchy items is added to modify the secondary visual stimuli associated with recurrent nightmares. The dream reorganization approach is presented in the case of a 10-year-old male with a fear of sleeping alone due to recurrent nightmares. Following treatment, the client reported 100% reduction in nightmares and demonstrated 100% reduction in night time arrival in the parents' room. The present report provides a theoretical rationale for dream reorganization, and future directions for research in the treatment of recurrent nightmares. PMID:2576657

  16. The Psychotomimetic Nature of Dreams: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Oliver; Wakerley, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Several theories promote the similarities between dreaming and psychosis, but this has rarely been tested empirically. We assessed dreaming and waking reality using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory, a measure of psychotic-like experience originally designed for drug studies. Twenty participants completed the measure in each of two dream conditions and one waking condition. Dreams were assessed upon waking naturally and also using a movement-activated (actigraph) alarm during the night. Overall, participants reported more quasipsychotic characteristics during dreams (in both conditions) than when awake. This was most marked for paranoia and delusional thinking, but differences were also seen for perceptual abnormalities, mania, and anhedonia. The quality of dream experience seems particularly similar to psychosis in sometimes being highly self-referential and having a paranoid content. Subjective changes to cognition and affect are consistent with alterations in prefrontal cortical activity during REM sleep that mirror those of schizophrenia. PMID:22966450

  17. Patterns of hemispheric lateralization in dream recallers and non-dream recallers.

    PubMed

    Doricchi, F; Milana, I; Violani, C

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen right handed females reporting 6 or more dreams per week on a home dream and sleep diary (Dream Recallers: DR), and 11 reporting 1 or 0 dreams per week (Non Dream Recallers: NDR) drawn from a sample of 233 college students, were individually tested on two tasks assessing the hemispheric lateralization of visuo-constructive and verbal-semantic functions. NDR showed a significant degree of hemispheric asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right hemisphere advantage) and semantic (left hemisphere advantage) functions. DR showed no hemispheric advantage on both tasks. The two groups of subjects did not differ in mean daily amount of sleep time. In keeping with previous studies showing that NDR have an imbalance of interhemispheric activation upon REM awakenings, results from the present research suggest that DR and NDR can be characterized by a different pattern of hemispheric lateralization of cognitive skills. This finding may stimulate further research aimed at evaluating both the possible existence of differences in the lateralization of functions not considered in this study and the concomitance of REM sleep dependent differences in balance of hemispheric functioning. PMID:8082996

  18. The sense of the body in the dream: Diagnostic capacity in the meanings of dreams.

    PubMed

    Giordo, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    The author investigates the oneiric representation of somatic states and the diagnostic capacity of dreams. He draws on Freud's hypotheses on the procedures by which somatic stimuli insert themselves in oneiric elaboration and restructures them according to the recent neurobiological discoveries and to analytical experiences. In the representations of certain dreams, with a psychic interpretation agreed upon by the patients, somatic alterations unknown to the analytical couple were discriminated and confirmed by radiological investigations. These representations were linked to the manifestation of one aspect of the bodily Self, neglected in the precocious maternal relation, that entered the organization of the Self consolidated in the relation with the paternal figure. This conjunction gave origin to the double meaning (somatic and psychic) of the dream. The entering of the somatic representation in the oneiric one did not appear to be the figurative effect, but of a condensation of diagnostic capacity into the meaning of the dream. This characteristic manifested itself in the particular styles of the dreamers, interpretable by an analyst countertransferentially oriented. The perception or scotomization of the condensation in the interpretation of the dream and of the moment had an effect on the evolution of the analysis. PMID:26538286

  19. Correlations of splitting and phobic anxiety with dreaming.

    PubMed

    Kroth, J; Jensen, L; Haraldsson, M

    1997-08-01

    Dream characteristics of 28 women from a graduate counseling program were correlated with measures of phobic anxiety, splitting, and sleepiness. Significant correlations between splitting and recurrent nightmares (.68), agoraphobia and dreams about death (.44), and global phobia and recurrent nightmares (.56) were obtained. Results are discussed in terms of how phobic anxieties and splitting may relate to traumatic content and the dream process. PMID:9293596

  20. 78 FR 46410 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... DREAM; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel IMPOSSIBLE DREAM is: Intended Commercial Use...