Science.gov

Sample records for align environmentally insensitive

  1. Alignment-Insensitive Lower-Cost Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This architecture features an active wavefront sensing and control scheme along with methods for measuring the relative positions of the primary to aft optics, such as the secondary mirror, and should enable larger and cheaper telescope architectures needed for future applications. A wavefront source/sensor is placed at the center of curvature of the primary mirror. The system provides continuous light onto a primary mirror that is retro-reflected onto itself. This allows the wavefront controller to constantly update the positions of the primary mirror segments (or deformable mirror actuators). Another function of this innovation involves using a concave mirror on the back of the secondary mirror (or other aft optic) that has the same center-of-curvature location (in defocus) as the primary mirror. The two return beams can be aligned next to each other on a detector, or radially on top of each other. This provides a means with which to measure the relative position of the primary to the secondary (or other aft optics), thus allowing for the removal of misalignment of the center-of-curvature source/sensor (meaning it doesn't need precision placement) and also provides a means with which to monitor the relative alignment over time. This innovation does not require extremely good thermal stability on the primary mirror and can thus be used in any thermal environment and with cheaper materials. In addition to this, the architecture lets one phase (or align) the primary mirror independent of whether a star or scene is in the field. The segmented, spherical primary allows for cost-effective three-meter class (e.g. Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enabling 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions for low-Earth-orbit.

  2. Direct and alignment-insensitive measurement of cantilever curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Hermans, Rodolfo I.; Aeppli, Gabriel; Bailey, Joe M.

    2013-07-15

    We analytically derive and experimentally demonstrate a method for the simultaneous measurement of deflection for large arrays of cantilevers. The Fresnel diffraction patterns of a cantilever independently reveal tilt, curvature, cubic, and higher order bending of the cantilever. It provides a calibrated absolute measurement of the polynomial coefficients describing the cantilever shape, without careful alignment and could be applied to several cantilevers simultaneously with no added complexity. We show that the method is easily implemented, works in both liquid media and in air, for a broad range of displacements and is especially suited to the requirements for multi-marker biosensors.

  3. Poor environmental tracking can make extinction risk insensitive to the colour of environmental noise

    PubMed Central

    van de Pol, Martijn; Vindenes, Yngvild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2011-01-01

    The relative importance of environmental colour for extinction risk compared with other aspects of environmental noise (mean and interannual variability) is poorly understood. Such knowledge is currently relevant, as climate change can cause the mean, variability and temporal autocorrelation of environmental variables to change. Here, we predict that the extinction risk of a shorebird population increases with the colour of a key environmental variable: winter temperature. However, the effect is weak compared with the impact of changes in the mean and interannual variability of temperature. Extinction risk was largely insensitive to noise colour, because demographic rates are poor in tracking the colour of the environment. We show that three mechanisms—which probably act in many species—can cause poor environmental tracking: (i) demographic rates that depend nonlinearly on environmental variables filter the noise colour, (ii) demographic rates typically depend on several environmental signals that do not change colour synchronously, and (iii) demographic stochasticity whitens the colour of demographic rates at low population size. We argue that the common practice of assuming perfect environmental tracking may result in overemphasizing the importance of noise colour for extinction risk. Consequently, ignoring environmental autocorrelation in population viability analysis could be less problematic than generally thought. PMID:21561978

  4. Poor environmental tracking can make extinction risk insensitive to the colour of environmental noise.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Martijn; Vindenes, Yngvild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Ens, Bruno J; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2011-12-22

    The relative importance of environmental colour for extinction risk compared with other aspects of environmental noise (mean and interannual variability) is poorly understood. Such knowledge is currently relevant, as climate change can cause the mean, variability and temporal autocorrelation of environmental variables to change. Here, we predict that the extinction risk of a shorebird population increases with the colour of a key environmental variable: winter temperature. However, the effect is weak compared with the impact of changes in the mean and interannual variability of temperature. Extinction risk was largely insensitive to noise colour, because demographic rates are poor in tracking the colour of the environment. We show that three mechanisms-which probably act in many species-can cause poor environmental tracking: (i) demographic rates that depend nonlinearly on environmental variables filter the noise colour, (ii) demographic rates typically depend on several environmental signals that do not change colour synchronously, and (iii) demographic stochasticity whitens the colour of demographic rates at low population size. We argue that the common practice of assuming perfect environmental tracking may result in overemphasizing the importance of noise colour for extinction risk. Consequently, ignoring environmental autocorrelation in population viability analysis could be less problematic than generally thought.

  5. N-Acetyl glycals are tight-binding and environmentally insensitive inhibitors of hexosaminidases.

    PubMed

    Santana, A G; Vadlamani, G; Mark, B L; Withers, S G

    2016-06-28

    Mono-, di- and trisaccharide derivatives of 1,2-unsaturated N-acetyl-d-glucal have been synthesized and shown to function as tight-binding inhibitors/slow substrates of representative hexosaminidases. Turnover is slow and not observed in the thioamide analogue, allowing determination of the 3-dimensional structure of the complex. Inhibition is insensitive to pH and to mutation of key catalytic residues, consistent with the uncharged character of the inhibitor. These properties could render this inhibitor class less prone to development of resistance. PMID:27253678

  6. The Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    R. Sweeney

    2005-01-20

    scenario, the DOE would rely on a combination of rail, truck and possibly barge to transport to the repository site at Yucca Mountain up to 70,000 MTHM of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, with most of the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste being transported by rail. This will ultimately require construction of a rail line in Nevada to the repository. In addition, the DOE has decided to select the Caliente rail corridor in which to examine potential alignments within which to construct that rail line. A corridor is a strip of land, approximately 400 meters (0.25 miles) wide, that encompasses one of several possible routes through which DOE could build a rail line. An alignment is the specific location of a rail line in a corridor, and would likely be 60 meters [200 feet] or less in width. Also on April 8, 2004, DOE issued a Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Alignment, Construction, and Operation of a Rail Line to a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, NV. In the Notice of Intent, the Department announced its intent to prepare a Rail Alignment EIS to assist in selecting a possible alignment for construction of a rail line that would connect the repository at Yucca Mountain to an existing main rail line in Nevada. The Rail Alignment EIS also would consider the potential construction and operation of a rail-to-truck intermodal transfer facility, proposed to be located at the confluence of an existing mainline railroad and a highway, to support legal-weight truck transportation until the rail system is fully operational. This corridor is approximately 513 kilometers (319 miles) long and would cost an estimated $880 million (2001 dollars). Should DOE decide to build the Caliente corridor, it may be the longest rail line built in the United States since the Transcontinental Railroad was constructed in 1869. Some of the challenges in building this rail corridor are steep grades (the corridor

  7. Insensitive explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

  8. A novel approach to structural alignment using realistic structural and environmental information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Crippen, Gordon M

    2005-12-01

    In the era of structural genomics, it is necessary to generate accurate structural alignments in order to build good templates for homology modeling. Although a great number of structural alignment algorithms have been developed, most of them ignore intermolecular interactions during the alignment procedure. Therefore, structures in different oligomeric states are barely distinguishable, and it is very challenging to find correct alignment in coil regions. Here we present a novel approach to structural alignment using a clique finding algorithm and environmental information (SAUCE). In this approach, we build the alignment based on not only structural coordinate information but also realistic environmental information extracted from biological unit files provided by the Protein Data Bank (PDB). At first, we eliminate all environmentally unfavorable pairings of residues. Then we identify alignments in core regions via a maximal clique finding algorithm. Two extreme value distribution (EVD) form statistics have been developed to evaluate core region alignments. With an optional extension step, global alignment can be derived based on environment-based dynamic programming linking. We show that our method is able to differentiate three-dimensional structures in different oligomeric states, and is able to find flexible alignments between multidomain structures without predetermined hinge regions. The overall performance is also evaluated on a large scale by comparisons to current structural classification databases as well as to other alignment methods. PMID:16260755

  9. Targeting Excellence: Aligning Alaskan Environmental Education with Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Helen; Cowan, Peggy; Devaney, Laurel; Foster, Rick; Hackett, Steve; Hoag, Stephanie; Sigman, Marilyn; Troyer, Janice

    This guide was developed to encourage excellence in education, help educators meet standards, and integrate environmental education programs into school district curricula in Alaska. Educational activities are active, inquiry-based, interdisciplinary, and connected to real-world applications. The following evaluation criteria for standards-based…

  10. Challenges of Including the Mina Route in the Nevada Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Lanthrum, G.; Larson, N.; Mussler, R.

    2007-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing the Yucca Mountain repository for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level radioactive waste (HLW). Part of that development is the transportation infrastructure needed to ship SNF and HLW from 77 sites around the country to the repository. A Record of Decision was issued in 2004 to use mostly rail as the mode of transport both nationally, and in the State of Nevada. No rail access exists to the Yucca Mountain site, so a Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement (RA-EIS) is being prepared to address the impacts associated with connecting existing track in Nevada to Yucca Mountain. Late in the preparation of the Draft RA-EIS, an option to consider an additional alignment alternative was introduced. This paper describes the consideration given to the new alternative and describes how it is being incorporated into the RA-EIS. (authors)

  11. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. PMID:26402649

  12. Microbiome structure of the fungid coral Ctenactis echinata aligns with environmental differences.

    PubMed

    Roder, Cornelia; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Kruse, Maren; Voolstra, Christian R

    2015-07-01

    The significance of bacteria for eukaryotic functioning is increasingly recognized. Coral reef ecosystems critically rely on the relationship between coral hosts and their intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates, but the role of the associated bacteria remains largely theoretical. Here, we set out to relate coral-associated bacterial communities of the fungid host species Ctenactis echinata to environmental settings (geographic location, substrate cover, summer/winter, nutrient and suspended matter concentrations) and coral host abundance. We show that bacterial diversity of C. echinata aligns with ecological differences between sites and that coral colonies sampled at the species' preferred habitats are primarily structured by one bacterial taxon (genus Endozoicomonas) representing more than 60% of all bacteria. In contrast, host microbiomes from lower populated coral habitats are less structured and more diverse. Our study demonstrates that the content and structure of the coral microbiome aligns with environmental differences and denotes habitat adequacy. Availability of a range of coral host habitats might be important for the conservation of distinct microbiome structures and diversity. PMID:26018191

  13. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency.

  14. Root formation in ethylene-insensitive plants.

    PubMed

    Clark, D G; Gubrium, E K; Barrett, J E; Nell, T A; Klee, H J

    1999-09-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more below-ground root mass but fewer above-ground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated tap-roots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli.

  15. Imperfection Insensitive Thin Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xin

    The buckling of axially compressed cylindrical shells and externally pressurized spherical shells is extremely sensitive to even very small geometric imperfections. In practice this issue is addressed by either using overly conservative knockdown factors, while keeping perfect axial or spherical symmetry, or adding closely and equally spaced stiffeners on shell surface. The influence of imperfection-sensitivity is mitigated, but the shells designed from these approaches are either too heavy or very expensive and are still sensitive to imperfections. Despite their drawbacks, these approaches have been used for more than half a century. This thesis proposes a novel method to design imperfection-insensitive cylindrical shells subject to axial compression. Instead of following the classical paths, focused on axially symmetric or high-order rotationally symmetric cross-sections, the method in this thesis adopts optimal symmetry-breaking wavy cross-sections (wavy shells). The avoidance of imperfection sensitivity is achieved by searching with an evolutionary algorithm for smooth cross-sectional shapes that maximize the minimum among the buckling loads of geometrically perfect and imperfect wavy shells. It is found that the shells designed through this approach can achieve higher critical stresses and knockdown factors than any previously known monocoque cylindrical shells. It is also found that these shells have superior mass efficiency to almost all previously reported stiffened shells. Experimental studies on a design of composite wavy shell obtained through the proposed method are presented in this thesis. A method of making composite wavy shells and a photogrametry technique of measuring full-field geometric imperfections have been developed. Numerical predictions based on the measured geometric imperfections match remarkably well with the experiments. Experimental results confirm that the wavy shells are not sensitive to imperfections and can carry axial compression

  16. Synthesis and Application of an Environmentally Insensitive Cy3-Based Arsenical Fluorescent Probe to Identify Adaptive Microbial Responses Involving Proximal Dithiol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Na; Su, Dian; Cort, John R.; Chen, Baowei; Xiong, Yijia; Qian, Weijun; Konopka, Allan; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2013-03-06

    Reversible disulfide oxidation between proximal cysteines in proteins represents a common regulatory control mechanism to modulate flux through metabolic pathways in response to changing environmental conditions. To enable in vivo measurements of cellular redox changes linked to disulfide bond formation, we have synthesized a cell-permeable monosubstituted cyanine dye derivatized with arsenic (i.e., TRAP_Cy3) to trap and visualize dithiols in cytosolic proteins. Alkylation of reactive thiols prior to displacement of the bound TRAP-Cy3 by ethanedithiol permits facile protein capture and mass spectrometric identification of proximal reduced dithiols to the exclusion of individual cysteines. Applying TRAP_Cy3 to evaluate cellular responses to increases in oxygen and light levels in the photosynthetic microbe Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, we observe large decreases in the abundance of reduced dithiols in cellular proteins, which suggest redox-dependent mechanisms involving the oxidation of proximal disulfides. Under these same growth conditions that result in the oxidation of proximal thiols, there is a reduction in the abundance of post-translational oxidative modifications involving nitrotyrosine and methionine sulfoxide formation. These results suggest that the redox status of proximal cysteines respond to environmental conditions, acting to regulate metabolic flux and minimize the formation of reactive oxygen species to decrease oxidative protein damage.

  17. The first-perspective alignment effect: the role of environmental complexity and familiarity with surroundings.

    PubMed

    Tlauka, Michael; Carter, Pelham; Mahlberg, Tim; Wilson, Paul N

    2011-11-01

    People often remember relatively novel environments from the first perspective encountered or the first direction of travel. This initial perspective can determine a preferred orientation that facilitates the efficiency of spatial judgements at multiple recalled locations. The present study examined this "first-perspective alignment effect" (FPA effect). In three experiments, university students explored three-path routes through computer-simulated spaces presented on a desktop computer screen. Spatial memory was then tested employing a "judgement of relative direction" task. Contrary to the predictions of a previous account, Experiment 1 found a reliable FPA effect in barren and complex environments. Experiment 2 strongly implicated the importance of complete novelty of the space surrounding the route in producing the effect. Experiment 3 found that, while familiarity with the surrounding space greatly attenuated the FPA effect with immediate testing, the effect reemerged following a 7-day delay to testing. The implications for the encoding and retrieval of spatial reference frames are discussed.

  18. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, Jack L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Von Holle, William G.

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  19. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1994-01-04

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

  20. SIP: Systematics-Insensitive Periodograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    SIP (Systematics-Insensitive Periodograms) extends the generative model used to create traditional sine-fitting periodograms for finding the frequency of a sinusoid by including systematic trends based on a set of eigen light curves in the generative model in addition to using a sum of sine and cosine functions over a grid of frequencies, producing periodograms with vastly reduced systematic features. Acoustic oscillations in giant stars and measurement of stellar rotation periods can be recovered from the SIP periodograms without detrending. The code can also be applied to detection other periodic phenomena, including eclipsing binaries and short-period exoplanet candidates.

  1. INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be

  2. Gamma-insensitive optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kruger, Hans W.

    1994-01-01

    An ultra-violet/visible/infra-red gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array comprising a planar photocathode and a planar anode pad array separated by a gas-filled gap and across which is applied an electric potential. Electrons ejected from the photocathode are accelerated sufficiently between collisions with the gas molecules to ionize them, forming an electron avalanche. The gap acts like a proportional counter. The array of anode pad are mounted on the front of an anode plate and are connected to matching contact pads on the back of the anode via feed through wires. Connection of the anode to signal processing electronics is made from the contact pads using standard indium bump techniques, for example.

  3. Gamma-insensitive optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kruger, H.W.

    1994-03-15

    An ultraviolet/visible/infrared gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array is described comprising a planar photocathode and a planar anode pad array separated by a gas-filled gap and across which is applied an electric potential. Electrons ejected from the photocathode are accelerated sufficiently between collisions with the gas molecules to ionize them, forming an electron avalanche. The gap acts like a proportional counter. The array of anode pad are mounted on the front of an anode plate and are connected to matching contact pads on the back of the anode via feed through wires. Connection of the anode to signal processing electronics is made from the contact pads using standard indium bump techniques, for example. 6 figures.

  4. Congenital insensitivity to pain with neuroparalytic keratitis.

    PubMed

    Biedner, B; Dagan, M; Gedalia, A; David, R

    1990-08-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain is a well-defined entity in the group of sensory deficiency syndromes. To the best of our knowledge, unilateral neuroparalytic keratitis associated with congenital insensitivity to pain has not been reported. We report such a case to alert clinicians to this potentially blinding problem.

  5. Dissolution of three insensitive munitions formulations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Park, Eileen; Bullion, Katherine; Dontsova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    The US military fires live munitions during training. To save soldiers lives both during training and war, the military is developing insensitive munitions (IM) that minimize unintentional detonations. Some of the compounds in the IM formulation are, however, very soluble in water, raising environmental concerns about their fate and transport. We measured the dissolution of three of these IM formulations, IMX101, IMX104 and PAX21 using laboratory drip tests and studied the accompanying changes in particle structure using micro computed tomography. Our laboratory drip tests mimic conditions on training ranges, where spatially isolated particles of explosives scattered by partial detonations are dissolved by rainfall. We found that the constituents of these IM formulations dissolve sequentially and in the order predicted by their aqueous solubility. The order of magnitude differences in solubility among their constituents produce water solutions whose compositions and concentrations vary with time. For IMX101 and IMX104, that contain 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), the solutions also vary in pH. The good mass balances measured for the drip tests indicate that the formulations are not being photo-or bio-transformed under laboratory conditions. PMID:25043961

  6. Dissolution of three insensitive munitions formulations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Park, Eileen; Bullion, Katherine; Dontsova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    The US military fires live munitions during training. To save soldiers lives both during training and war, the military is developing insensitive munitions (IM) that minimize unintentional detonations. Some of the compounds in the IM formulation are, however, very soluble in water, raising environmental concerns about their fate and transport. We measured the dissolution of three of these IM formulations, IMX101, IMX104 and PAX21 using laboratory drip tests and studied the accompanying changes in particle structure using micro computed tomography. Our laboratory drip tests mimic conditions on training ranges, where spatially isolated particles of explosives scattered by partial detonations are dissolved by rainfall. We found that the constituents of these IM formulations dissolve sequentially and in the order predicted by their aqueous solubility. The order of magnitude differences in solubility among their constituents produce water solutions whose compositions and concentrations vary with time. For IMX101 and IMX104, that contain 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), the solutions also vary in pH. The good mass balances measured for the drip tests indicate that the formulations are not being photo-or bio-transformed under laboratory conditions.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: androgen insensitivity syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... typically raised as females and have a female gender identity. Affected individuals have male internal sex organs ( ... and may have a male or a female gender identity. People with mild androgen insensitivity are born ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: congenital insensitivity to pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a complete loss of the sense of smell (anosmia). Congenital insensitivity to pain is considered a ... to cells that detect sensations such as touch, smell, and pain. Related Information What does it mean ...

  9. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  10. Equation of state of insensitive high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ree, F H; Van Thiel, M; Viecelli, J A

    1998-08-12

    Detonation of an insensitive high explosive formulated with a fluorine containing binder produces a large amount of condensed carbon and gaseous HF product, which transforms into CF{sub 4} as the pressure is increased. The former (carbon condensation) is characterized by slow energy release, while the latter (HF) has no shockwave data. We have identified that these two items are the key factors, which make reliable prediction of the performance of an insensitive high explosive very difficult. This paper describes physical models to address these issues and apply the models to analyze experimental data of LX-17.

  11. Phase-Insensitive Ultrasonic Testing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing system developed for use in revealing hidden disbonds at rough, inaccessible interfaces between layers of material. Includes array of small piezoelectric transducers, receiving outputs electronically processed individually and combined in such way as to make system phase-insensitive, overcoming limitations imposed by phase-sensitivity. Development of present ultrasonic system and phase-insensitive-array technique which based motivated by need to detect disbonds under conditions of bondline inhibitor, liner, and fuel at ends of segments of solid rocket motor of space shuttle. Here, liner-to-fuel bondline very rough with respect to ultrasonic wavelength.

  12. Modal insensitivity with optimality. [in feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Raman, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a constant gain, feedback controller which results in selected modal insensitivity, and at the same time optimizes a quadratic performance index representative of desired system performance for nominal plant parameter values. Both full state and output feedback control are considered. A constraint is established for the feedback gain matrix that results in modal insensitivity, and necessary conditions for optimality subject to this constraint are given. This forms the basis for a numerical algorithm to compute the optimal feedback gain. To illustrate the procedure, a design is carried out using the lateral dynamics of an L-1011 aircraft.

  13. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: unusual oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Siqueira, Carlos Rodrigo Barros; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Children with significant growth retardation and normal levels of growth hormone are diagnosed with growth hormone insensitivity. The main oral findings observed in patients with growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS) are underdeveloped jaws, crowded teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth. This manuscript describes a 9-year-old child diagnosed with GHIS, who had delayed eruption of permanent teeth and 14 unerupted supernumerary teeth. All supernumerary teeth were extracted except for two maxillary and one mandibular teeth which were difficult to identify and access. Multiple supernumerary teeth have never been reported before in patients with GHIS.

  14. Results of environmental testing of the focus and alignment mechanism of the near-infrared camera on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, Bear; Huff, Lynn; Jacoby, Michael; Mammini, Paul

    2009-08-01

    The Focus and Alignment Mechanism (FAM) is an opto-mechanical, cryogenic mechanism that positions the Pick-Off Mirror (POM) for the Near Infrared Camera of the James Webb Space Telescope. The POM is used to direct the light collected by the telescope into the Near Infrared Camera. The POM is a spherical, fused silica mirror. In order to retain high surface quality at cryogenic temperatures, the POM is attached to the mechanism via a titanium flexure-mount assembly. Three linear actuators are employed to position the POM in tip, tilt and piston. These linear actuators are stepper motor driven, with harmonic drive gear reduction. In this paper, we will summarize the design and role of this opto-mechanical mechanism and present the results of the environmental testing of the Engineering Test Unit. The tests performed were thermal-vacuum cryogenic cycling, and vibration testing.

  15. Alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Grover C.; Gibson, O. Theodore

    1980-01-01

    A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.

  16. Curriculum Alignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Ronald; Tissot, Paula

    Curriculum alignment (CA) refers to the congruence of all the elements of a school's curriculum: curriculum goals; instructional program--what is taught and the materials used; and tests used to judge outcomes. CA can be a very powerful can be a very powerful factor in improving schools. Although further research is needed on CA, there is…

  17. The Semantic Management of Environmental Resources within the Interoperable Context of the EuroGEOSS: Alignment of GEMET and the GEOSS SBAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialone, Claudia; Stock, Kristin

    2010-05-01

    existing environmental projects (for example, GEOSS and INSPIRE). This requirement imposes constraints on the selection. Thirdly, the selected classification scheme or group of schemes (if more than one) must be capable of alignment (establishing different kinds of mappings between concepts, hence preserving intact the original knowledge schemes) or merging (the creation of another unique ontology from the original ontological sources) (Pérez-Gómez et al., 2004). Last but not least, there is the issue of including multi-lingual schemes that are based on free, open standards (non-proprietary). Using these selection criteria, we aim to support open and convenient data discovery and exchange for users who speak different languages (particularly the European ones for the broad scopes of EuroGEOSS). In order to support the project, we have developed a solution that employs two classification schemes: the Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs)3: the upper-level environmental categorization developed for the GEOSS project and the GEneral Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET)4: a general environmental thesaurus whose conceptual structure has already been integrated with the spatial data themes proposed by the INSPIRE project. The former seems to provide the spatial data keywords relevant to the INSPIRE's Directive (JRC, 2008). In this way, we provide users with a basic set of concepts to support resource description and discovery in the thematic areas while supporting the requirements of INSPIRE and GEOSS. Furthermore, the use of only two classification schemes together with the fact that the SBAs are very general categories while GEMET includes much more detailed, yet still top-level, concepts, makes alignment an achievable task. Alignment was selected over merging because it leaves the existing classification schemes intact and requires only a simple activity of defining mappings from GEMET to the SBAs. In order to accomplish this task we are developing a simple, automated, open

  18. ALIGNING JIG

    DOEpatents

    Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.

    1958-08-01

    A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.

  19. Image alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  20. State-insensitive bichromatic optical trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Bindiya; Safronova, M. S.; Clark, Charles W.

    2010-08-15

    We study a scheme for state-insensitive trapping of neutral atoms by using light with two independent wavelengths. In particular, we describe the use of trapping and control lasers to minimize the variance of the potential experienced by a trapped Rb atom in ground and excited states. We present calculated values of wavelength pairs for which the 5s and 5p{sub 3/2} levels have the same ac Stark shifts in the presence of two laser fields.

  1. Insensitive TATP Training Aid by Microencapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, J. C.; Smith, J. L.; Canino, J. N.

    2015-07-01

    There is a need in the explosives detection community for an insensitive, storage-stable source of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). To achieve this, the solvent evaporation microencapsulation technique was used to disperse TATP in a plastic matrix. This lowered the shock sensitivity greatly and prevented loss of TATP at room temperature, allowing for easy long-term storage. It was then demonstrated that pure TATP vapor was released on demand from the matrix by heating.

  2. Polarization insensitive phase modulator for quantum cryptosystems.

    PubMed

    Qi, Bing; Huang, Lei-Lei; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Qian, Li

    2006-05-15

    In this paper, we propose a polarization-insensitive phase modulation scheme based on frequency modulation of light waves using either one or a pair of acousto-optic modulators. A stable Sagnac quantum key distribution (QKD) system employing this technique is also proposed. The interference visibility for a 40km and a 10km fiber loop is 96% and 99% respectively, at single-photon level. We ran standard BB84 QKD protocol in a simplified Sagnac setup (40km fiber loop) continuously for one hour and the measured quantum bit error rate stayed within 2%-5% range. PMID:19516579

  3. All-optical, polarization-insensitive light tuning properties in silver nanorod arrays covered with photoresponsive liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Si, Guangyuan; Leong, Eunice S P; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Lv, Jiangtao; Lin, Jiao; Dai, Haitao; Liu, Yan Jun

    2015-05-28

    Active plasmonics has been an interesting and important topic recently. Here we demonstrate the all-optical, polarization-insensitive tunable manipulation of a hybrid system that integrates a silver nanorod array with photoresponsive liquid crystals. The large-area plasmonic nanorod arrays are fabricated by laser interference lithography and ion milling. By covering a layer of photoresponsive liquid crystals, tunable control of plasmon resonance is achieved under an external light pump. The silver nanorod array also enables the homeotropic alignment of the liquid crystals, which makes the all-optical tuning behavior polarization-insensitive. With its advantages of cost-effective fabrication, easy integration, all-optical control, and polarization-insensitivity, the hybrid system could be valuable in many nanophotonic applications. PMID:25758775

  4. Global alignment: Finding rearrangements during alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Brudno, Michael; Malde, Sanket; Poliakov, Alexander; Do, Chuong B.; Couronne, Olivier; Dubchak, Inna; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2003-01-06

    Motivation: To compare entire genomes from different species, biologists increasingly need alignment methods that are efficient enough to handle long sequences, and accurate enough to correctly align the conserved biological features between distant species. The two main classes of pairwise alignments are global alignment, where one string is transformed into the other, and local alignment, where all locations of similarity between the two strings are returned. Global alignments are less prone to demonstrating false homology as each letter of one sequence is constrained to being aligned to only one letter of the other. Local alignments, on the other hand, can cope with rearrangements between non-syntenic, orthologous sequences by identifying similar regions in sequences; this, however, comes at the expense of a higher false positive rate due to the inability of local aligners to take into account overall conservation maps.

  5. Birefringence insensitive optical coherence domain reflectometry system

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Davis, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    A birefringence insensitive fiber optic optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) system is provided containing non-polarization maintaining (non-PM) fiber in the sample arm and the reference arm without suffering from signal degradation caused by birefringence. The use of non-PM fiber significantly reduces the cost of the OCDR system and provides a disposable or multiplexed section of the sample arm. The dispersion in the reference arm and sample arm of the OCDR system are matched to achieve high resolution imaging. This system is useful in medical applications or for non-medical in situ probes. The disposable section of non-PM fiber in the sample arm can be conveniently replaced when contaminated by a sample or a patient.

  6. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Presenting with Gynecomastia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Won; Kwak, Dong Shin; Jung, In Sub; Kwak, Joo Hee; Park, Jung Hwan; Hong, Sang Mo; Lee, Chang Bum; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Dong Sun; Choi, Woong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast caused by the proliferation of glandular breast tissue. Determining the various causes of gynecomastia such as physiological causes, drugs, systemic diseases, and endocrine disorders is important. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare endocrine disorder presenting with gynecomastia and is a disorder of male sexual differentiation caused by mutations within the androgen receptor gene. All individuals with AIS have the 46 XY karyotype, although AIS phenotypes can be classified as mild, partial or complete and can differ among both males and females including ambiguous genitalia or infertility in males. We experienced a case of partial AIS presenting with gynecomastia and identified the androgen receptor gene mutation. PMID:25433660

  7. Can we compare the environmental performance of this product to that one? An update on the development of product category rules and future challenges toward alignment

    EPA Science Inventory

    When used to compare the relative environmental benefits of different products, life cycle-based, quantitative environmental claims, such as carbon footprints and environmental product declarations require common rules in order for claims to be comparable within a category. Produ...

  8. Moisture insensitive primer: A myth or truth

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Chandresh; Maurya, Rajkumar; Jain, Upendra; Gupta, Ankur; Garg, Jayshree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the mean shear bond strength (SBS) of moisture insensitive primer (MIP) used for orthodontic bonding in the presence and absence of saliva. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 human noncarious maxillary premolars with sound buccal surfaces, recently extracted were collected in two groups of each 30. Maxillary premolar brackets were bonded to the teeth using light cure (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) and MIP (Transbond MIP 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA,) in the presence and absence of saliva. Operators’ saliva was used during the bonding under moist condition. After debonding, all the specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification) for adhesive remnant using adhesive remnant index (ARI). The SBS tests were done using Instron universal testing machine at cross-head speed of 1 mm/min, force passing parallel to the buccal surface using custom rod and registered in Newtons later converted into Megapascals. Results: Light cure and MIP (Transbond MIP and Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) in the absence of saliva showed higher mean SBS than the presence of saliva. Group I (light cure and MIP) in the absence of saliva showed mean SBS of 9.65 ± 0.90 Mpa. Group II (light cure and MIP) with the presence of saliva showed mean SBS of 9.03 ± 1.14 Mpa. The difference between both the groups was statistically significant, as confirmed by paired t-test (P < 0.05). In-Group I, ARI scores showed that more than half of the adhesive was left over the tooth surface, and Group II showed that there was no or insignificant amount of adhesive left over the tooth surface. Chi-square test revealed significant difference in debonding characteristics among the test groups of ARI (P < 0.05). Failure occurred mainly in resin– bracket base and resin – adhesive interfaces (χ² = 10.04, df = 3, P = 0.031). Conclusion: Moisture insensitive primer is effective in the presence/absence of moisture and has shown SBS value of more

  9. A Stress-Activated Transposon in Arabidopsis Induces Transgenerational Abscisic Acid Insensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hidetaka; Kim, Jong-Myong; Matsunaga, Wataru; Saze, Hidetoshi; Matsui, Akihiro; Endo, Takaho A.; Harukawa, Yoshiko; Takagi, Hiroki; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Masuta, Yukari; Masuda, Seiji; Ishida, Junko; Tanaka, Maho; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morosawa, Taeko; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Kakutani, Tetsuji; Kato, Atsushi; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs), or transposons, play an important role in adaptation. TE insertion can affect host gene function and provides a mechanism for rapid increases in genetic diversity, particularly because many TEs respond to environmental stress. In the current study, we show that the transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon, ONSEN, generated a mutation in an abscisic acid (ABA) responsive gene, resulting in an ABA-insensitive phenotype in Arabidopsis, suggesting stress tolerance. Our results provide direct evidence that a transposon activated by environmental stress could alter the genome in a potentially positive manner. Furthermore, the ABA-insensitive phenotype was inherited when the transcription was disrupted by an ONSEN insertion, whereas ABA sensitivity was recovered when the effects of ONSEN were masked by IBM2. These results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms in host plants typically buffered the effect of a new insertion, but could selectively “turn on” TEs when stressed. PMID:26976262

  10. Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.

  11. Numerical Model of Detonation for Insensitive HE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Most of modern munitions are filled by insensitive HE. However, mechanism of initiation of these HE is still unknown. IHE have not any pores and, therefore, hot spot mechanism does not work here. What is a mechanism working in this case? We have used 3D hydrocode to study process of shock wave loading of mixture of HMX grains with different binders (HMX/binder=88/12) and have determined formation of surface layers with increased plastic deformation. According to the dislocation mechanism of detonation (V. Klimenko, I. Kozyreva, J. Energetic Materials, 2010, v. 28, pp. 249-262) plastic deformation generates definite concentration of radicals. Surface layers have also increased temperature due to viscous work. So, these activated layers have increased temperature and number of radicals in comparison with values inside grains. Kinetic calculation has shown fast decomposition of these layers. As a result, the activated layer is ignited and this gives beginning of grain burning process. The developed two-stages mechanism has been incorporated into 2D hydrocode. The developed numerical model demonstrates high accuracy in simulation of detonation processes in IHE (in particular, PBXN-110 and B2241).

  12. Punishment Insensitivity in Early Childhood: A Developmental, Dimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-08-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed. PMID:25425187

  13. Punishment insensitivity in early childhood: A developmental, dimensional approach

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sara R.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal:abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAPDB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (three-five years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N=1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50% of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed. PMID:25425187

  14. Punishment Insensitivity in Early Childhood: A Developmental, Dimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-08-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed.

  15. Temperature-insensitive phase-matched optical harmonic conversion crystal

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Charles E.; Eimerl, David; Velsko, Stephan P.; Roberts, David

    1993-01-01

    Temperature-insensitive, phase-matched harmomic frequency conversion of laser light at a preferred wavelength of 1.064 microns can be achieved by use of a crystal of deuterated l-arginine phosphate. The crystal is cut and oriented so that the laser light propagates inside the crystal along one of several required directions, which correspond to a temperature-insensitive, phase-matching locus. The method of measuring and calculating the temperature-insensitive, phase-matching angles can be extended to other fundamental wavelengths and other crystal compositions.

  16. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  17. Temperature-insensitive phase-matched optical harmonic conversion crystal

    DOEpatents

    Barker, C.E.; Eimerl, D.; Velsko, S.P.; Roberts, D.

    1993-11-23

    Temperature-insensitive, phase-matched harmonic frequency conversion of laser light at a preferred wavelength of 1.064 microns can be achieved by use of a crystal of deuterated l-arginine phosphate. The crystal is cut and oriented so that the laser light propagates inside the crystal along one of several required directions, which correspond to a temperature-insensitive, phase-matching locus. The method of measuring and calculating the temperature-insensitive, phase-matching angles can be extended to other fundamental wavelengths and other crystal compositions. 12 figures.

  18. Insensitive explosive composition of halogenated copolymer and triaminotrinitrobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1976-01-01

    A highly insensitive and heat resistant plastic-bonded explosive containing 90 wt % triaminotrinitrobenzene and 10 wt % of a fully saturated copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride is readily manufactured by the slurry process.

  19. Insensitive detonator apparatus for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    DOEpatents

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-07-28

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  20. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions. PMID:26809055

  1. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  2. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  3. MAVID multiple alignment server.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nicolas; Pachter, Lior

    2003-07-01

    MAVID is a multiple alignment program suitable for many large genomic regions. The MAVID web server allows biomedical researchers to quickly obtain multiple alignments for genomic sequences and to subsequently analyse the alignments for conserved regions. MAVID has been successfully used for the alignment of closely related species such as primates and also for the alignment of more distant organisms such as human and fugu. The server is fast, capable of aligning hundreds of kilobases in less than a minute. The multiple alignment is used to build a phylogenetic tree for the sequences, which is subsequently used as a basis for identifying conserved regions in the alignment. The server can be accessed at http://baboon.math.berkeley.edu/mavid/.

  4. Nearest Alignment Space Termination

    2006-07-13

    Near Alignment Space Termination (NAST) is the Greengenes algorithm that matches up submitted sequences with the Greengenes database to look for similarities and align the submitted sequences based on those similarities.

  5. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  6. Interstellar Dust Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Lazarian, A.; Vaillancourt, John E.

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar polarization at optical-to-infrared wavelengths is known to arise from asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. This effect provides a potentially powerful probe of magnetic field structure and strength if the details of the grain alignment can be reliably understood. Theory and observations have recently converged on a quantitative, predictive description of interstellar grain alignment based on radiative processes. The development of a general, analytical model for this radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory has allowed specific, testable predictions for realistic interstellar conditions. We outline the theoretical and observational arguments in favor of RAT alignment, as well as reasons the "classical" paramagnetic alignment mechanism is unlikely to work, except possibly for the very smallest grains. With further detailed characterization of the RAT mechanism, grain alignment and polarimetry promise to not only better constrain the interstellar magnetic field but also provide new information on the dust characteristics.

  7. Joint photomicrobial process for the degradation of the insensitive munition N-guanylurea-dinitramide (FOX-12).

    PubMed

    Perreault, Nancy N; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2013-05-21

    N-Guanylurea-dinitramide (FOX-12) is a very insensitive energetic material intended to be used in the composition of next-generation insensitive munitions. To help predict the environmental behavior and fate of FOX-12, we conducted a study to determine its photodegradability and biodegradability. When dissolved in water, FOX-12, a guanylurea-dinitramide salt, also named GUDN, dissociated instantly to produce the dinitramide moiety and guanylurea, as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. When an aqueous solution of FOX-12 was subjected to photolysis using a solar-simulated photoreactor, we found a rapid removal of the dinitramide with concurrent formation of N₂O, NO₂(-), and NO₃(-). The second component, guanylurea, was photostable. However, when FOX-12 was incubated aerobically with the soil isolate Variovorax strain VC1 and protected from light, the dinitramide component of FOX-12 was recalcitrant but guanylurea degraded effectively to ammonia, guanidine, and presumably CO₂. When FOX-12 was incubated with strain VC1 in the presence of light, both components of FOX-12 degraded, giving similar products to those described above. We concluded that the new insensitive explosive FOX-12 can be effectively degraded by a joint photomicrobial process and, therefore, should not cause persistent contamination of surface waters.

  8. Joint photomicrobial process for the degradation of the insensitive munition N-guanylurea-dinitramide (FOX-12).

    PubMed

    Perreault, Nancy N; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2013-05-21

    N-Guanylurea-dinitramide (FOX-12) is a very insensitive energetic material intended to be used in the composition of next-generation insensitive munitions. To help predict the environmental behavior and fate of FOX-12, we conducted a study to determine its photodegradability and biodegradability. When dissolved in water, FOX-12, a guanylurea-dinitramide salt, also named GUDN, dissociated instantly to produce the dinitramide moiety and guanylurea, as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. When an aqueous solution of FOX-12 was subjected to photolysis using a solar-simulated photoreactor, we found a rapid removal of the dinitramide with concurrent formation of N₂O, NO₂(-), and NO₃(-). The second component, guanylurea, was photostable. However, when FOX-12 was incubated aerobically with the soil isolate Variovorax strain VC1 and protected from light, the dinitramide component of FOX-12 was recalcitrant but guanylurea degraded effectively to ammonia, guanidine, and presumably CO₂. When FOX-12 was incubated with strain VC1 in the presence of light, both components of FOX-12 degraded, giving similar products to those described above. We concluded that the new insensitive explosive FOX-12 can be effectively degraded by a joint photomicrobial process and, therefore, should not cause persistent contamination of surface waters. PMID:23594309

  9. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking via UV Insensitive Anomaly Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kribs, Graham D.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-02-19

    Anomaly mediation solves the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. This is because the superconformal anomaly dictates that supersymmetry breaking is transmitted through nearly flavor-blind infrared physics that is highly predictive and UV insensitive. Slepton mass squareds, however, are predicted to be negative. This can be solved by adding D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_{B-L} while retaining the UV insensitivity. In this paper we consider electroweak symmetry breaking via UV insensitive anomaly mediation in several models. For the MSSM we find a stable vacuum when tanbeta< 1, but in this region the top Yukawa coupling blows up only slightly above the supersymmetry breaking scale. For the NMSSM, we find a stable electroweak breaking vacuum but with a chargino that is too light. Replacing the cubic singlet term in the NMSSM superpotential with a term linear in the singlet wefind a stable vacuum and viable spectrum. Most of the parameter region with correct vacua requires a large superpotential coupling, precisely what is expected in the"Fat Higgs'" model in which the superpotential is generated dynamically. We have therefore found the first viable UV complete, UV insensitive supersymmetry breaking model that solves the flavor and CP problems automatically: the Fat Higgs model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation. Moreover, the cosmological gravitino problem is naturally solved, opening up the possibility of realistic thermal leptogenesis.

  10. Slipped Distal Femoral Epiphysis in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, M Javed; Rex, C; Vignesh, R; Chavan, Madhav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare disorder, and often presents to an orthopaedic surgeon as recurrent fractures, dislocations, pseudoarthrosis, osteomyelitis etc. Here, we report a case of congenital insensitivity to pain presenting with distal femoral physeal separation in a child. Case Report: A 12-year-old girl child came with complaints of limp while walking and swelling in the left knee for past 5 weeks. Mother gave a history that the girl is a known case of congenital insensitivity to pain with clear history of no pain on intramuscular injection since birth. She was born of consanguineous marriage and had no significant trauma, fever, other joint involvement or any features of rheumatism. On local examination, she had no bony tenderness, mild warmth, and moderate knee effusion with restricted range of movement. Plain radiograph showed epiphysiolysis of distal femur with widening of physis. Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated gross movement indicating lower femoral physeal separation. This unstable distal femoral epiphysis was treated under general anaesthesia with closed reduction, percutaneous cross pinning and above knee plaster cast. Conclusion: Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare disorder to diagnose. Emphasis is given on early diagnosis of orthopaedic problems and prompt treatment, educating parents and prevention of accidents. Physeal separation without significant trauma must prompt an orthopaedic surgeon to think about congenital insensitivity to pain as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27703943

  11. Bichromatic state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metbulut, M. M.; Renzoni, F.

    2015-12-01

    State-insensitive dipole trapping of multilevel atoms can be achieved by an appropriate choice of the wavelength of the trapping laser, so that the interaction with the different transitions results in equal AC Stark shifts for the ground and excited states of interest. However, this approach is severely limited by the availability of coherent sources at the required wavelength and of appropriate power. This work investigates state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms for which the required wavelength of 935.6 nm is inconvenient in terms of experimental realization. Bichromatic state-insensitive trapping is proposed to overcome the lack of suitable laser sources. We first consider pairs of laser wavelengths in the ratio 1:2 and 1:3, as obtained via second- and third-harmonic generation. We found that the wavelength combinations 931.8-1863.6 nm and 927.5-2782.5 nm are suitable for state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms. In addition, we examine bichromatic state-insensitive trapping produced by pairs of laser wavelengths corresponding to currently available high-power lasers. These wavelength pairs were found to be in the range of 585-588 nm and 623-629 for one laser and 1064-1080 nm for the other.

  12. Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.

  13. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  14. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies.

  15. Orthodontics and Aligners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth-Colored Fillings Orthodontics and Aligners Straighten teeth for a healthier smile. Orthodontics When consumers think about orthodontics, braces are the ...

  16. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  17. Alignability of Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Russell Scott

    With the continuing drive towards higher speed, density, and functionality in electronics, electrical interconnects become inadequate. Due to optics' high speed and bandwidth, freedom from capacitive loading effects, and freedom from crosstalk, optical interconnects can meet more stringent interconnect requirements. But, an optical interconnect requires additional components, such as an optical source and detector, lenses, holographic elements, etc. Fabrication and assembly of an optical interconnect requires precise alignment of these components. The successful development and deployment of optical interconnects depend on how easily the interconnect components can be aligned and/or how tolerant the interconnect is to misalignments. In this thesis, a method of quantitatively specifying the relative difficulty of properly aligning an optical interconnect is described. Ways of using this theory of alignment to obtain design and packaging guidelines for optical interconnects are examined. The measure of the ease with which an optical interconnect can be aligned, called the alignability, uses the efficiency of power transfer as a measure of alignment quality. The alignability is related to interconnect package design through the overall cost measure, which depends upon various physical parameters of the interconnect, such as the cost of the components and the time required for fabrication and alignment. Through a mutual dependence on detector size, the relationship between an interconnect's alignability and its bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and bit-error -rate is examined. The results indicate that a range of device sizes exists for which given performance threshold values are satisfied. Next, the alignability of integrated planar-optic backplanes is analyzed in detail. The resulting data show that the alignability can be optimized by varying the substrate thickness or the angle of reflection. By including the effects of crosstalk, in a multi-channel backplane, the

  18. Bunker probe: A plasma potential probe almost insensitive to its orientation with the magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Costea, S; Fonda, B; Kovačič, J; Gyergyek, T; Schneider, B S; Schrittwieser, R; Ionita, C

    2016-05-01

    Due to their ability to suppress a large part of the electron current and thus measuring directly the plasma potential, ion sensitive probes have begun to be widely tested and used in fusion devices. For these probes to work, almost perfect alignment with the total magnetic field is necessary. This condition cannot always be fulfilled due to the curvature of magnetic fields, complex magnetic structure, or magnetic field reconnection. In this perspective, we have developed a plasma potential probe (named Bunker probe) based on the principle of the ion sensitive probe but almost insensitive to its orientation with the total magnetic field. Therefore it can be used to measure the plasma potential inside fusion devices, especially in regions with complex magnetic field topology. Experimental results are presented and compared with Ball-Pen probe measurements taken under identical conditions. We have observed that the floating potential of the Bunker probe is indeed little affected by its orientation with the magnetic field for angles ranging from 90° to 30°, in contrast to the Ball-Pen probe whose floating potential decreases towards that of a Langmuir probe if not properly aligned with the magnetic field. PMID:27250426

  19. Bunker probe: A plasma potential probe almost insensitive to its orientation with the magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Costea, S; Fonda, B; Kovačič, J; Gyergyek, T; Schneider, B S; Schrittwieser, R; Ionita, C

    2016-05-01

    Due to their ability to suppress a large part of the electron current and thus measuring directly the plasma potential, ion sensitive probes have begun to be widely tested and used in fusion devices. For these probes to work, almost perfect alignment with the total magnetic field is necessary. This condition cannot always be fulfilled due to the curvature of magnetic fields, complex magnetic structure, or magnetic field reconnection. In this perspective, we have developed a plasma potential probe (named Bunker probe) based on the principle of the ion sensitive probe but almost insensitive to its orientation with the total magnetic field. Therefore it can be used to measure the plasma potential inside fusion devices, especially in regions with complex magnetic field topology. Experimental results are presented and compared with Ball-Pen probe measurements taken under identical conditions. We have observed that the floating potential of the Bunker probe is indeed little affected by its orientation with the magnetic field for angles ranging from 90° to 30°, in contrast to the Ball-Pen probe whose floating potential decreases towards that of a Langmuir probe if not properly aligned with the magnetic field.

  20. Hole-Aligning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Frank A.; Saude, Frank; Sep, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Tool designed for use in aligning holes in plates or other structural members to be joined by bolt through holes. Holes aligned without exerting forces perpendicular to planes of holes. Tool features screw-driven-wedge design similar to (but simpler than) that of some automotive exhaust-pipe-expanding tools.

  1. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  2. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  3. Galaxy Alignments: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, Benjamin; Cacciato, Marcello; Kitching, Thomas D.; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Hoekstra, Henk; Kiessling, Alina; Kirk, Donnacha; Rassat, Anais

    2015-11-01

    The alignments between galaxies, their underlying matter structures, and the cosmic web constitute vital ingredients for a comprehensive understanding of gravity, the nature of matter, and structure formation in the Universe. We provide an overview on the state of the art in the study of these alignment processes and their observational signatures, aimed at a non-specialist audience. The development of the field over the past one hundred years is briefly reviewed. We also discuss the impact of galaxy alignments on measurements of weak gravitational lensing, and discuss avenues for making theoretical and observational progress over the coming decade.

  4. Radiative Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Polarization due to aligned dust grains was discovered in the interstellar medium more than 60 years ago. A quantitative, observationally well tested theory of the phenomenon has finally emerged in the last decade, promising not only an improved understanding of interstellar magnetic fields, but new tools for studying the dust environments and grain characteristics. This Radiative Alignment Torque (RAT) theory also has many potential applications in solar system physics, including for comet dust characteristics. I will review the main aspects of the theory and the observational tests performed to date, as well as some of the new possibilities for using polarization as a tool to study dust and its environment, with RAT alignment.

  5. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  6. Priorities for a 21st-century defense: aligning u.s. Army environmental science and engineering officer resources with the department of defense strategic guidance.

    PubMed

    Licina, Derek; Rufolo, Dennis; Story, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The recently published Department of Defense (DoD) strategic guidance highlights the need to ?shape a joint force for the future.? Supporting requirements to shape the joint force while the overall DoD force structure is reduced will be challenging. Fortunately, based on its unique training and experience, the Army Environmental Science and Engineering Officer (ESEO) profession is positioned today to fill anticipated joint public health requirements. Obtaining the U.S. Army Medical Department (AMEDD) approval to meet these requirements will have near-term consequences for the ESEO profession as some existing (albeit antiquated) authorizations may go unfilled. However, long-term dividends for the Medical Service Corps (MSC), AMEDD, Army, and DoD will be achieved by realigning critical resources to future joint and interagency requirements. Assigning ESEOs now to organizations such as the Theater Special Operations Commands (TSOCs), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) with perceived and real joint force health protection/public health requirements through unique means will ensure our profession remains relevant today and supports the joint force of tomorrow. PMID:23817877

  7. Physicochemical properties of an insensitive munitions compound, N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA).

    PubMed

    Boddu, Veera M; Abburi, Krishnaiah; Maloney, Stephen W; Damavarapu, Reddy

    2008-06-30

    Accurate information on physicochemical properties of an organic contaminant is essential for predicting its environmental impact and fate. These properties also provide invaluable information for the overall understanding of environmental distribution, biotransformation, and potential treatment processes. In this study the aqueous solubility (Sw), octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), and Henry's law constant (K(H)) were determined for an insensitive munitions (IM) compound, N-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA), at 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15 K. Effect of ionic strength on solubility, using electrolytes such as NaCl and CaCl2, was also studied. The data on the physicochemical parameters were correlated using the standard Van't Hoff equation. All three properties exhibited a linear relationship with reciprocal temperature. The enthalpy and entropy of phase transfer were derived from the experimental data.

  8. An algorithm for temperature correcting substrate moisture measurements: aligning substrate moisture responses with environmental drivers in polytunnel-grown strawberry plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, Martin; Janes, Stuart; Jenkins, Malcolm; Nicholl, Chris; Kühn, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the use of temperature corrected substrate moisture data to improve the relationship between environmental drivers and the measurement of substrate moisture content in high porosity soil-free growing environments such as coir. Substrate moisture sensor data collected from strawberry plants grown in coir bags installed in a table-top system under a polytunnel illustrates the impact of temperature on capacitance-based moisture measurements. Substrate moisture measurements made in our coir arrangement possess the negative temperature coefficient of the permittivity of water where diurnal changes in moisture content oppose those of substrate temperature. The diurnal substrate temperature variation was seen to range from 7° C to 25° C resulting in a clearly observable temperature effect in substrate moisture content measurements during the 23 day test period. In the laboratory we measured the ML3 soil moisture sensor (ThetaProbe) response to temperature in Air, dry glass beads and water saturated glass beads and used a three-phase alpha (α) mixing model, also known as the Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM), to derive the permittivity temperature coefficients for glass and water. We derived the α value and estimated the temperature coefficient for water - for sensors operating at 100MHz. Both results are good agreement with published data. By applying the CRIM equation with the temperature coefficients of glass and water the moisture temperature coefficient of saturated glass beads has been reduced by more than an order of magnitude to a moisture temperature coefficient of

  9. Ultra-flexible polarization-insensitive multiband terahertz metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Fan, Wenhui

    2015-03-20

    A thin-flexible and polarization-insensitive multiband terahertz metamaterial absorber (MMA) has been investigated. Each unit cell of the MMA consists of two metallic structures, which include the top metal resonator ring and the bottom metal ground plane, separated by a thin-flexible dielectric spacer. Finite element simulation indicates that this MMA has three high absorption peaks in the terahertz region, with absorptivities of 89% at 0.72 THz, 98% at 1.4 THz, and 85% at 2.3 THz. However, because of its rotationally symmetric structure, this MMA is polarization-insensitive and can perform very well at a wide range of incident angles, namely, 30° for transverse electric waves and 40° for transverse magnetic waves. The thin-flexible device structure and good performance shows that this MMA is very promising to disguise objects and make them less detectable to radar in the terahertz region. PMID:25968524

  10. Integrated Experiment and Modeling of Insensitive High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Lambert, David E.; Yoo, Sunhee; Lieber, Mark; Holman, Steven

    2009-12-01

    New design paradigms for insensitive high explosives are being sought for use in munitions applications that require enhanced safety, reliability and performance. We describe recent work of our group that uses an integrated approach to develop predictive models, guided by experiments. Insensitive explosive can have relatively longer detonation reaction zones and slower reaction rates than their sensitive counterparts. We employ reactive flow models that are constrained by detonation shock dynamics (DSD) to pose candidate predictive models. We discuss the variation of the pressure dependent reaction rate exponent and reaction order on the length of the supporting reaction zone, the detonation velocity curvature relation, the computed critical energy required for initiation, the relation between the diameter effect curve and the corresponding normal detonation velocity curvature relation.

  11. Integrated Experiment and Modeling of Insensitive High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Lambert, David E.; Yoo, Sunhee; Lieber, M.; Holman, Steven

    2009-06-01

    New design paradigms for insensitive high explosives are being sought for use in munitions applications that require enhanced, safety, reliability and performance. We describe recent work of our group that uses an integrated approach to develop predictive models, guided by experiments. Insensitive explosive can have relatively longer detonation reaction zones and slower reaction rates than their sensitive counterparts. We employ reactive flow models that are constrained by detonation shock dynamics to pose candidate predictive models. We discuss variation of the pressure dependent reaction rate exponent and reaction order, on the length of the supporting reaction zone, the detonation velocity curvature relation, computed critical energy required for initiation, the relation between the diameter effect curve and the corresponding normal detonation velocity curvature relation. We discuss representative characterization experiments carried out at Eglin, AFB and the constraints imposed on models by a standardized experimental characterization sequence.

  12. Gender dysphoria and gender change in androgen insensitivity or micropenis.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Tom

    2005-08-01

    This review article answers three questions relevant to the medical management and care of individuals born with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), or a micropenis: (1) Do any of these individuals reassign themselves from their initial gender assignment? (2) Do more reassign than the ones who do not? (3) Is there evidence of gender dysphoria in those who do not self-initiate reassignment? Reviewed were all articles on CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis cited in K. J. Zucker (1999) plus articles published through 2004. There were no documented cases of gender change in individuals with CAIS (N= 156 females) or micropenis (N= 89: 79 males, 10 females). Nine (9.1%) out of 99 individuals with PAIS changed gender. Thus, self-initiated gender reassignment was rare. Gender dysphoria also appears to be a rare occurrence. The best predictor of adult gender identity in CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis is initial gender assignment.

  13. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  14. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprintmore » that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.« less

  15. Hig Resolution Seismometer Insensitive to Extremely Strong Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, Igor A

    2009-07-14

    A highly sensitive broadband seismic sensor has been developed successfully to be used in beam focusing systems of particale accelerators. The sensor is completely insensitive to extremely strong magnetic fields and to hard radiation conditions that exist at the place of their installation. A unique remote sensor calibration method has been invented and implemented. Several such sensors were sold to LAPP (LAPP-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Savoie; Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules)

  16. Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Xin; Lv, Yue-Long; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wu, Qun; Gu, Xuemai

    2014-05-01

    Metamaterial absorber (MA) is a hot spot in the research on electromagnetic absorbers. In this paper, a metamaterial based broadband polarization-insensitive absorber is proposed. The absorber is fabricated with FR-4 dielectric substrate foiled with copper. The top layer of the unit cell of the MA is composed of resistors mounted crosswire and gradient split ring resonator (SRR) with a square metal patch (SMP) in it. The overall structure is symmetrical, which makes the MA polarization-insensitive. The gradient SRRs and SMPs resonate at adjacent frequencies resulting in broadband property. The absorption rates of the MA for TE and TM wave are calculated through the simulated S-parameters. The bandwidth is 9.9 GHz, where the absorption rate maintains 60% up to 98.28% in both cases and the relative bandwidth is 57.13%. Both broadband and polarization-insensitivity properties are achieved, which demonstrate promising application prospect of the proposed MA in shielding and stealth technology.

  17. Tradeoff methods in multiobjective insensitive design of airplane control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Giesy, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    The latest results of an ongoing study of computer-aided design of airplane control systems are given. Constrained minimization algorithms are used, with the design objectives in the constraint vector. The concept of Pareto optimiality is briefly reviewed. It is shown how an experienced designer can use it to find designs which are well-balanced in all objectives. Then the problem of finding designs which are insensitive to uncertainty in system parameters are discussed, introducing a probabilistic vector definition of sensitivity which is consistent with the deterministic Pareto optimal problem. Insensitivity is important in any practical design, but it is particularly important in the design of feedback control systems, since it is considered to be the most important distinctive property of feedback control. Methods of tradeoff between deterministic and stochastic-insensitive (SI) design are described, and tradeoff design results are presented for the example of the a Shuttle lateral stability augmentation system. This example is used because careful studies have been made of the uncertainty in Shuttle aerodynamics. Finally, since accurate statistics of uncertain parameters are usually not available, the effects of crude statistical models on SI designs are examined.

  18. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  19. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  20. Optics Alignment Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The Optics Alignment Panel (OAP) was commissioned by the HST Science Working Group to determine the optimum alignment of the OTA optics. The goal was to find the position of the secondary mirror (SM) for which there is no coma or astigmatism in the camera images due to misaligned optics, either tilt or decenter. The despace position was reviewed of the SM and the optimum focus was sought. The results of these efforts are as follows: (1) the best estimate of the aligned position of the SM in the notation of HDOS is (DZ,DY,TZ,TY) = (+248 microns, +8 microns, +53 arcsec, -79 arcsec), and (2) the best focus, defined to be that despace which maximizes the fractional energy at 486 nm in a 0.1 arcsec radius of a stellar image, is 12.2 mm beyond paraxial focus. The data leading to these conclusions, and the estimated uncertainties in the final results, are presented.

  1. Barrel alignment fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, J. D.

    1981-04-01

    Fabrication of slapper type detonator cables requires bonding of a thin barrel over a bridge. Location of the barrel hole with respect to the bridge is critical: the barrel hole must be centered over the bridge uniform spacing on each side. An alignment fixture which permits rapid adjustment of the barrel position with respect to the bridge is described. The barrel is manipulated by pincer-type fingers which are mounted on a small x-y table equipped with micrometer adjustments. Barrel positioning, performed under a binocular microscopy, is rapid and accurate. After alignment, the microscope is moved out of position and an infrared (IR) heat source is aimed at the barrel. A 5-second pulse of infrared heat flows the adhesive under the barrel and bonds it to the cable. Sapphire and Fotoform glass barrels were bonded successfully with the alignment fixture.

  2. Magnetically aligned supramolecular hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew; Cardoso, Andre Zamith; Frith, William J; Iggo, Jonathan A; Adams, Dave J

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic-field-induced alignment of the fibrillar structures present in an aqueous solution of a dipeptide gelator, and the subsequent retention of this alignment upon transformation to a hydrogel upon the addition of CaCl2 or upon a reduction in solution pH is reported. Utilising the switchable nature of the magnetic field coupled with the slow diffusion of CaCl2 , it is possible to precisely control the extent of anisotropy across a hydrogel, something that is generally very difficult to do using alternative methods. The approach is readily extended to other compounds that form viscous solutions at high pH. It is expected that this work will greatly expand the utility of such low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWG) in areas where alignment is key. PMID:25345918

  3. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  4. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  5. PILOT optical alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.

    2016-07-01

    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  6. Memory Insensitive Simplification for View-Dependent Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P

    2002-04-03

    We present an algorithm for end-to-end out-of-core simplification and view-dependent visualization of large surfaces. The method consists of three phases: (1) memory insensitive simplification; (2) memory insensitive construction of a level-of-detail hierarchy; and (3) run-time, output sensitive, view-dependent rendering and navigation of the mesh. The first two off-line phases are performed entirely on disk, and use only a small, constant amount of memory, whereas the run-time component relies on memory mapping to page in only the rendered parts of the mesh in a cache coherent manner. As a result, we are able to process and visualize arbitrarily large meshes given a sufficient amount of disk space--a constant multiple of the size of the input mesh. Similar to recent work on out-of-core simplification, our memory insensitive method uses vertex clustering on a uniform octree grid to coarsen a mesh and create a hierarchy, and a quadric error mettic to choose vertex positions at all levels of resolution. We show how the quadric information can be used to concisely represent vertex position, surface normal, error, and curvature information for anisotropic view-dependent coarsening and silhouette preservation. The focus of this paper is on the out-of-core construction of a level-of-detail hierarchy---our framework is general enough to incorporate many different aspects of view-dependent rendering. We therefore emphasize the off-line phases of our method, and report on their theoretical and experimental memory and disk usage and execution time. Our results indicate on average one to two orders of magnitude improvement in processing speed over previous out-of-core methods. Meanwhile, all phases of the method are both disk and memory efficient, and are fairly straightforward to implement.

  7. Suppression of Clock Shifts at Magnetic-Field-Insensitive Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, K. J.; Barrett, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    We show that it is possible to significantly reduce rank 2 tensor shifts of a clock transition by operating at a judiciously chosen magnetic-field-insensitive point. In some cases shifts are almost completely eliminated making the transition an effective J =0 to J =0 candidate. This significantly improves the feasibility of a recent proposal for clock operation with large ion crystals. For such multi-ion clocks, geometric constraints and selection rules naturally divide clock operation into two categories based on the orientation of the magnetic field. We discuss the limitations imposed on each type and how calibrations might be carried out for clock operation.

  8. Resonant coupling in trenched bend-insensitive optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guobin; Lin, Zhen; Zheng, Siwen; Jian, Shuisheng

    2013-03-01

    We report in this Letter the resonant coupling mechanism in bending trenched bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). It is found that among the trench parameters, the core-trench distance is predominant for optimized BIF design. We reveal that resonant coupling is an intrinsic characteristic of bending trenched BIF, and resonant coupling between the fiber core and the innermost cladding would limit the ultimate bending loss of BIF under tight bend. Resonant coupling is also present in double-trenched BIF, and would impair its bending performance.

  9. Outdoor dissolution of detonation residues of three insensitive munitions (IM) formulations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Dontsova, Katerina; Walsh, Marianne E; Walsh, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    We seek to understand the environmental fate of three new insensitive munitions, explosive formulations developed to reduce the incidence of unintended detonations. To this end, we measured the size distribution of residues from low order detonations of IMX 101, IMX 104, and PAX 21-filled munitions and are studying how these three formulations weather and dissolve outdoors. The largest pieces collected from the detonations were centimeter-sized and we studied 12 of these in the outdoors test. We found that the particles break easily and that the dissolution of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is quasi-linear as a function of water volume. DNAN is the matrix and the least soluble major constituent of the three formulations. We used DNAN's linear dissolution rate to estimate the life span of the pieces. Particles ranging in mass from 0.3 to 3.5 g will completely dissolve in 3-21 years given 100 cm y(-1) precipitation rates.

  10. Curriculum Alignment: Establishing Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagné, Philippe; Dumont, Laurence; Brunet, Sabine; Boucher, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a step-by-step guide to implement a curricular alignment project, directed at professional development and student support, and developed in a higher education French as a second language department. We outline best practices and preliminary results from our experience and provide ways to adapt our experience to other…

  11. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  12. Aligning brains and minds

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Haxby and colleagues describe a new method for aligning functional brain activity patterns across participants. Their study demonstrates that objects are similarly represented across different brains, allowing for reliable classification of one person’s brain activity based on another’s. PMID:22017984

  13. Aligned-or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    When state leaders and national partners in the development of the Next Generation Science Standards met to consider implementation strategies, states and school districts wanted to know which materials were aligned to the new standards. The answer from the developers was short but not sweet: You won't find much now, and it's going to…

  14. Systematics-insensitive Periodic Signal Search with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Ruth; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Johnson, John A.

    2016-02-01

    From pulsating stars to transiting exoplanets, the search for periodic signals in K2 data, Kepler’s two-wheeled extension, is relevant to a long list of scientific goals. Systematics affecting K2 light curves due to the decreased spacecraft pointing precision inhibit the easy extraction of periodic signals from the data. We here develop a method for producing periodograms of K2 light curves that are insensitive to pointing-induced systematics; the Systematics-insensitive Periodogram (SIP). Traditional sine-fitting periodograms use a generative model to find the frequency of a sinusoid that best describes the data. We extend this principle by including systematic trends, based on a set of “eigen light curves,” following Foreman-Mackey et al., in our generative model as well as a sum of sine and cosine functions over a grid of frequencies. Using this method we are able to produce periodograms with vastly reduced systematic features. The quality of the resulting periodograms are such that we can recover acoustic oscillations in giant stars and measure stellar rotation periods without the need for any detrending. The algorithm is also applicable to the detection of other periodic phenomena such as variable stars, eclipsing binaries and short-period exoplanet candidates. The SIP code is available at https://github.com/RuthAngus/SIPK2.

  15. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  16. Inflation by alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Roest, Diederik

    2015-06-08

    Pseudo-Goldstone bosons (pGBs) can provide technically natural inflatons, as has been comparatively well-explored in the simplest axion examples. Although inflationary success requires trans-Planckian decay constants, f≳M{sub p}, several mechanisms have been proposed to obtain this, relying on (mis-)alignments between potential and kinetic energies in multiple-field models. We extend these mechanisms to a broader class of inflationary models, including in particular the exponential potentials that arise for pGB potentials based on noncompact groups (and so which might apply to moduli in an extra-dimensional setting). The resulting potentials provide natural large-field inflationary models and can predict a larger primordial tensor signal than is true for simpler single-field versions of these models. In so doing we provide a unified treatment of several alignment mechanisms, showing how each emerges as a limit of the more general setup.

  17. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  18. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  19. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  20. Self-aligned polysilicon MEMS-reduced mask count surface micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noworolski, J. Mark; Sanders, Seth R.

    1998-09-01

    A self-aligned reduced mask count micromachined polysilicon on nitride (SAMPSON) surface micromachining process is introduced. The self-alignment fabrication concept enables rapid fabrication, improves yields, and reduces parasitic capacitance of MEM devices. For many MEM devices the SAMPSON process results in a one mask savings over more conventional approaches. As a demonstration of the fabrication technique a burst-proof surface micromachined polysilicon resonant pressure sensor is fabricated using the SAMPSON process. This pressure sensor does not require a sealed cavity. It is also insensitive to mechanical property variations of the structural material, rendering its response essentially temperature independent.

  1. Dynamic Alignment at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-04-23

    The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

  2. Alignment and alignment transition of bent core nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamain, Omaima; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

    2013-07-01

    We report on the alignment of nematics consisting of bimesogen bent core molecules of chlorine substituent of benzene derivative and their binary mixture with rod like nematics. It was found that the alignment layer made from polyimide material, which is usually used for promoting vertical (homeotropic) alignment of rod like nematics, promotes instead a planar alignment of the bent core nematic and its nematic mixtures. At higher concentration of the rod like nematic component in these mixtures, a temperature driven transition from vertical to planar alignment was found near the transition to isotropic phase.

  3. Polar cap arcs: Sun-aligned or cusp-aligned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L. J.; Zhang, Qinghe; Xing, Zanyang

    2016-08-01

    Polar cap arcs are often called sun-aligned arcs. Satellite observations reveal that polar cap arcs join together at the cusp and are actually cusp aligned. Strong ionospheric plasma velocity shears, thus field aligned currents, were associated with polar arcs and they were likely caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves around the low-latitude magnetopause under a northward IMF Bz. The magnetic field lines around the magnetopause join together in the cusp region so are the field aligned currents and particle precipitation. This explains why polar arcs are cusp aligned.

  4. Evaluation of ingredients for the development of new insensitive munitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Johnston, Lois A.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2004-12-01

    Several ingredients being considered by the U.S. Army for the development of new insensitive munitions have been examined. One set of ingredients consists of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX). In this set, the decomposition of the mixture was examined to determine whether adding DNPH to RDX would generate a sufficient quantity of gas to rupture the case of a munition prior to the onset of the rapid reaction of RDX, thus mitigating the violence of reaction. The second set of ingredients consists of three different reduced sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX) powders manufactured by SNPE and Dyno-Nobel. In this set, the objective was to determine properties of RS-RDX powders that may distinguish them from normal RDX powder and may account for their reduced shock sensitivity. The decomposition reactions and sublimation properties of these materials were examined using two unique instruments: the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) instrument and the Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry instrument. These instruments provide the capability to examine the details of decomposition reactions in energetic materials. DNPH does not appear to be a good candidate to mitigate the violence of the RDX reaction in a munition. DNPH decomposes between 170 C and 180 C. When mixed with RDX it decomposes between 155 C and 170 C. It decomposes to form 1,3-dintrobenzene (DNB), ammonia, water and nitrogen. Of these compounds only nitrogen and ammonia are capable of generating high pressures within a munition. When DNPH is mixed with RDX, the DNB formed in the decomposition of DNPH interacts with RDX on the surface of the RDX powder leading to a higher rate of formation of CH2O and N2O. The CH2O is consumed by reaction with DNPH to form 2-methylene-1-(2,4-dintrophenyl)hydrazine. As a result, DNPH does not generate a large quantity of gas that will lead to rupture of a munition case. Another

  5. Pleasure-related analgesia activates opioid-insensitive circuits.

    PubMed

    Kut, Elvan; Candia, Victor; von Overbeck, Jan; Pok, Judit; Fink, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd

    2011-03-16

    Recent findings suggest that pain and pleasure share common neurochemical circuits, and studies in animals and humans show that opioid-mediated descending pathways can inhibit or facilitate pain. We explored the role of endogenous opioid neurotransmission in pleasure-related analgesia. μ-Opioidergic activity was blocked with 0.2 mg/kg naloxone to assess its effects on hedonic responses to pleasant emotional pictures (International Affective Picture System) and its modulating effects on heat pain tolerance. Naloxone did not alter subjective and autonomous reactions to pleasure induction or overall mood of participants. In addition, pleasure-related increases in pain tolerance persisted after reversal of endogenous μ-opioidergic neurotransmission. Subjective pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings increased after naloxone administration. These findings suggest that, in addition to opioid-sensitive circuits, mainly opioid-insensitive pain-modulating circuits are activated during pleasure-related analgesia. PMID:21411655

  6. Dual-band polarization-/angle-insensitive metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Han; Zhong, Lin-Lin; Luo, Chao-Ming; Hong, Jing-Song

    2015-06-15

    A dual-band metamaterial absorber (MA) based on triangular resonators is designed and investigated in this paper. It is composed of a two-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric-metal sandwiches array on a dielectric substrate. The simulation results clearly show that this absorber has two absorption peaks at 14.9 and 18.9 GHz, respectively, and experiments are conducted to verify the proposed designs effectively. For each polarization, the dual-band absorber is insensitive to the incident angle (up to 60°) and the absorption peaks remain high for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) radiation. To study the physical mechanism of power loss, the current distribution at the dual absorption peaks is given. The MA proposed in this paper has potential applications in many scientific and martial fields.

  7. Asynchronous and timing jitter insensitive data echo cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    1986-12-01

    An approach to the implementation of asynchronous and timing jitter insensitive data echo cancellation is described. This approach introduces a small amount of jitter in the transmitted data signal, or alternatively in the received signal sampling, and uses a simple digital phase-locked loop together with the storage of two sets of echo canceller coefficients. The effect of derived timing jitter on the echo cancellation accuracy is completely eliminated for a loop timed transceiver (as in a digital subscriber loop network termination transceiver), and is easily reduced to negligible levels for a nonloop timed transceiver (as in a digital subscriber loop line card transceiver or a voiceband data modem). In the case of a voiceband data modem, this approach is one method to achieve asynchronous echo cancellation without the need to recover and resample a continuous-time far-end data signal.

  8. Analytical Methods for Detonation Residues of Insensitive Munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Marianne E.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical methods are described for the analysis of post-detonation residues from insensitive munitions. Standard methods were verified or modified to obtain the mass of residues deposited per round. In addition, a rapid chromatographic separation was developed and used to measure the mass of NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), NQ (nitroguanidine) and DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole). The HILIC (hydrophilic-interaction chromatography) separation described here uses a trifunctionally-bonded amide phase to retain the polar analytes. The eluent is 75/25 v/v acetonitrile/water acidified with acetic acid, which is also suitable for LC/MS applications. Analytical runtime was three minutes. Solid phase extraction and LC/MS conditions are also described.

  9. Insensitivity of tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance to non-magnetic electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. Y.; Song, C. Wang, G. Y.; Zeng, F.; Pan, F.

    2013-11-11

    Ferromagnetic electrodes play a crucial role in magnetoresistance effect and spin injection, whereas the essential features of non-magnetic metal electrodes in spintronics are commonly ignored except for their electrical conductivity. Here, we verify that the room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) behavior in antiferromagnet-based [Pt/Co]/IrMn/AlO{sub x}/metal (metal = Pt, Au, Cu, Al) junctions is insensitive to the top metal electrodes. Similar out-of-plane signals are detected for different electrodes, in contrast to the varied shapes of in-plane TAMR curves which are most likely attributed to the differences in the multidomain structure of the magnetic electrode. This would add a different dimension to spintronics.

  10. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain without Anhidrosis: Orodental Problems and Management

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, N.; Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Samsudin, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a 4-year-old male patient who was brought by parents requesting for replacement of multiple missing anterior teeth. The patient suffered from congenital insensitivity to pain without anhidrosis and presented with full blown sequelae of the condition in the form of oral self-mutilation leading to loss of teeth, tongue tip amputation, finger tips destruction, and lower limb wound infections. Dental and orthopaedic treatment consists of local management of oral wound and prevention from further oral and finger injuries that takes the form of dental splints and finger sleeve splints, constant feet coverage with shoes, and behavioural medical therapy. The age of the patient and parents' education present challenges in managing this condition to avoid morbidity and premature mortality. PMID:26457210

  11. Application of composite materials to impact-insensitive munitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neradka, Vincent F.; Chang, Yale; Grady, Joseph E.; Trowbridge, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is outlined for developing bullet-impact-insensitive munitions based on composite materials that provide rapid venting of the rocket-motor case. Impact experiments are conducted with test specimens of hybrid laminates of graphite/epoxy and epoxy reinforcing with woven glass fibers. The dynamic strain response and initial impact force are measured with strain gauges, and perforation damage is examined in the plates. The results show that impact damage can be designed by means of parametric variations of the fiber, matrix, and ply orientations. It is suggested that rocket-motor cases can be designed with composite materials to provide rapid venting during the failure mode. The experimental ballistic testing performed provides data that can be used comparatively with analytical data on composite materials.

  12. Development and Testing of the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2007-01-01

    Sublimators have been used for heat rejection for a variety of space applications including the Apollo Lunar Module and the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Some of the attractive features of sublimators are that they are compact, lightweight, and self-regulating. One of the drawbacks of previous designs has been sensitivity to non-volatile contamination in the feedwater, which can clog relatively small pores (approx. 3-6 micrometers) in the porous plates where ice forms and sublimates. A new design that is less sensitive to contaminants is being developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator (CIS) Engineering Development Unit (EDU).

  13. Development and Testing of the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Westheimer, David T.

    2006-01-01

    Sublimators have been used for heat rejection for a variety of space applications including the Apollo Lunar Module and the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Some of the attractive features of sublimators are that they are compact, lightweight, and self-regulating. One of the drawbacks of previous designs has been sensitivity to non-volatile contamination in the feedwater, which can clog relatively small pores (approx.3-6 microns) in the porous plates where ice forms and sublimates. A new design that is less sensitive to contaminants is being developed at the Johnson Space Center. This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator (CIS) Engineering Development Unit (EDU).

  14. Improving ASM stepper alignment accuracy by alignment signal intensity simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gerald; Pushpala, Sagar M.; Bradford, Bradley; Peng, Zezhong; Gottipati, Mohan

    1993-08-01

    As photolithography technology advances into submicron regime, the requirement for alignment accuracy also becomes much tighter. The alignment accuracy is a function of the strength of the alignment signal. Therefore, a detailed alignment signal intensity simulation for 0.8 micrometers EPROM poly-1 layer on ASM stepper was done based on the process of record in the fab to reduce misalignment and improve die yield. Oxide thickness variation did not have significant impact on the alignment signal intensity. However, poly-1 thickness was the most important parameter to affect optical alignments. The real alignment intensity data versus resist thickness on production wafers was collected and it showed good agreement with the simulated results. Similar results were obtained for ONO dielectric layer at a different fab.

  15. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhydrosis: report of a family case

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Smael; Adnane Berdai, Mohamed; Abourazzak, Sanae; Hida, Mustapha; Harandou, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Congenital Insensitivity to pain with anhydrosis (CIPA) is a rare inherited disease. It is classified as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV. Pain insensitivity and autonomic deficits are present, but touch and pressure sensitivity are unimpaired. Mental retardation is usually present. We report a family case of a 5 years old girl and 2 years old boy with congenital insensitivity to pain, while discussing the clinical features and the anesthetic strategy of such patients. Patients with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with anhydrosis may undergo surgery because of susceptibility to trauma due to absence of pain. The clinical features may intrinsically possess anesthetic challenges. PMID:22355435

  16. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhydrosis: report of a family case.

    PubMed

    Labib, Smael; Adnane Berdai, Mohamed; Abourazzak, Sanae; Hida, Mustapha; Harandou, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Congenital Insensitivity to pain with anhydrosis (CIPA) is a rare inherited disease. It is classified as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV. Pain insensitivity and autonomic deficits are present, but touch and pressure sensitivity are unimpaired. Mental retardation is usually present. We report a family case of a 5 years old girl and 2 years old boy with congenital insensitivity to pain, while discussing the clinical features and the anesthetic strategy of such patients. Patients with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with anhydrosis may undergo surgery because of susceptibility to trauma due to absence of pain. The clinical features may intrinsically possess anesthetic challenges. PMID:22355435

  17. AVID: A global alignment program.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nick; Dubchak, Inna; Pachter, Lior

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new global alignment method called AVID. The method is designed to be fast, memory efficient, and practical for sequence alignments of large genomic regions up to megabases long. We present numerous applications of the method, ranging from the comparison of assemblies to alignment of large syntenic genomic regions and whole genome human/mouse alignments. We have also performed a quantitative comparison of AVID with other popular alignment tools. To this end, we have established a format for the representation of alignments and methods for their comparison. These formats and methods should be useful for future studies. The tools we have developed for the alignment comparisons, as well as the AVID program, are publicly available. See Web Site References section for AVID Web address and Web addresses for other programs discussed in this paper. PMID:12529311

  18. Engineering cell alignment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Huang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Du, Yanan; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Cell alignment plays a critical role in various cell behaviors including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane protein relocation, nucleus gene expression, and ECM remodeling. Cell alignment is also known to exert significant effects on tissue regeneration (e.g., neuron) and modulate mechanical properties of tissues including skeleton, cardiac muscle and tendon. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cell alignment in vitro for biomechanics, cell biology, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. With advances in nano- and micro-scale technologies, a variety of approaches have been developed to engineer cell alignment in vitro, including mechanical loading, topographical patterning, and surface chemical treatment. In this review, we first present alignments of various cell types and their functionality in different tissues in vivo including muscle and nerve tissues. Then, we provide an overview of recent approaches for engineering cell alignment in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are addressed for future improvement of engineering cell alignment.

  19. AVID: A global alignment program.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nick; Dubchak, Inna; Pachter, Lior

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new global alignment method called AVID. The method is designed to be fast, memory efficient, and practical for sequence alignments of large genomic regions up to megabases long. We present numerous applications of the method, ranging from the comparison of assemblies to alignment of large syntenic genomic regions and whole genome human/mouse alignments. We have also performed a quantitative comparison of AVID with other popular alignment tools. To this end, we have established a format for the representation of alignments and methods for their comparison. These formats and methods should be useful for future studies. The tools we have developed for the alignment comparisons, as well as the AVID program, are publicly available. See Web Site References section for AVID Web address and Web addresses for other programs discussed in this paper.

  20. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  1. CELT optics Alignment Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Chanan, Gary A.; Noethe, Lothar

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a project to build a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively-stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes a CELT report that describes a step-by-step procedure for aligning the many degrees of freedom of the CELT optics.

  2. Overcoming low-alignment signal contrast induced alignment failure by alignment signal enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong Soo; Kim, Young Ha; Hwang, Hyunwoo; Lee, Jeongjin; Kong, Jeong Heung; Kang, Young Seog; Paarhuis, Bart; Kok, Haico; de Graaf, Roelof; Weichselbaum, Stefan; Droste, Richard; Mason, Christopher; Aarts, Igor; de Boeij, Wim P.

    2016-03-01

    Overlay is one of the key factors which enables optical lithography extension to 1X node DRAM manufacturing. It is natural that accurate wafer alignment is a prerequisite for good device overlay. However, alignment failures or misalignments are commonly observed in a fab. There are many factors which could induce alignment problems. Low alignment signal contrast is one of the main issues. Alignment signal contrast can be degraded by opaque stack materials or by alignment mark degradation due to processes like CMP. This issue can be compounded by mark sub-segmentation from design rules in combination with double or quadruple spacer process. Alignment signal contrast can be improved by applying new material or process optimization, which sometimes lead to the addition of another process-step with higher costs. If we can amplify the signal components containing the position information and reduce other unwanted signal and background contributions then we can improve alignment performance without process change. In this paper we use ASML's new alignment sensor (as was introduced and released on the NXT:1980Di) and sample wafers with special stacks which can induce poor alignment signal to demonstrate alignment and overlay improvement.

  3. The development of an autonomous gust insensitive unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, William James

    The study of a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is designed towards eventual operation in harsh storm-like conditions is presented. Investigation of the aircraft equations of motion shows that the selection of certain aerodynamic derivatives has a significant effect on the gust response of a small unmanned aircraft. Analytical comparison of this newly formulated Autonomous Gust Insensitive Aircraft (AGIA) to a conventionally designed aircraft shows a significant reduction in undesirable roll motion caused by gusts. A simulation is presented showing that the AGIA is capable of operating in more extreme environments than a conventional aircraft, and puts less strain on the control system components in both extreme and calm environments. The role that aircraft size plays in gust response is also studied. Pilot instinct dictates that smaller aircraft are more difficult to fly in windy environments than larger ones. This phenomenon is investigated using an analytic approach, providing insight into why smaller aircraft are indeed more difficult to fly in more challenging environments. As an aircraft gets smaller, its natural aerodynamic modes and response get faster. In an ideal system, this does not limit small aircraft to poor performance (in fact it will be shown that idealized small aircraft theoretically perform better than their larger counterparts). A more realistic system is presented that includes not only aerodynamics, but also realistic sensor and actuator dynamics. It is shown that these additional dynamics become a limiting factor in control system performance, and thus limit the closed-loop flight performance of small aircraft in turbulent environments. It is shown that the AGIA design approach plays a more significant role the as an aircraft gets smaller. To provide experimental validation of the gust insensitive theory presented herein, a representative small conventional aircraft was built alongside a similar aircraft that incorporated the AGIA

  4. Pareto optimal pairwise sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    DeRonne, Kevin W; Karypis, George

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignment using evolutionary profiles is a commonly employed tool when investigating a protein. Many profile-profile scoring functions have been developed for use in such alignments, but there has not yet been a comprehensive study of Pareto optimal pairwise alignments for combining multiple such functions. We show that the problem of generating Pareto optimal pairwise alignments has an optimal substructure property, and develop an efficient algorithm for generating Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments. All possible sets of two, three, and four profile scoring functions are used from a pool of 11 functions and applied to 588 pairs of proteins in the ce_ref data set. The performance of the best objective combinations on ce_ref is also evaluated on an independent set of 913 protein pairs extracted from the BAliBASE RV11 data set. Our dynamic-programming-based heuristic approach produces approximated Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments that contain comparable alignments to those on the exact frontier, but on average in less than 1/58th the time in the case of four objectives. Our results show that the Pareto frontiers contain alignments whose quality is better than the alignments obtained by single objectives. However, the task of identifying a single high-quality alignment among those in the Pareto frontier remains challenging.

  5. High precision fabrication of polarization insensitive resonant grating filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Wendt, J. R.; Samora, S.; Stevens, J.; Shul, R. J.; Hunker, J.; Kellogg, R. A.; Kemme, S. A.

    2012-03-01

    Resonant subwavelength gratings have been designed and fabricated as wavelength-specific reflectors for application as a rotary position encoder utilizing ebeam based photolithography. The first grating design used a two-dimensional layout to provide polarization insensitivity with separate layers for the grating and waveguide. The resulting devices had excellent pattern fidelity and the resonance peaks and widths closely matched the expected results. Unfortunately, the gratings were particularly angle sensitive and etch depth errors led to shifts in the center wavelength of the resonances. A second design iteration resulted in a double grating period to reduce the angle sensitivity as well as different materials and geometry; the grating and waveguide being the same layer. The inclusion of etch stop layers provided more accurate etch depths; however, the tolerance to changes in the grating duty cycle was much tighter. Results from these devices show the effects of small errors in the pattern fidelity. The fabrication process flows for both iterations of devices will be reviewed as well as the performance of the fabricated devices. A discussion of the relative merits of the various design choices provides insight into the importance of fabrication considerations during the design stage.

  6. Demonstration of a reversible phase-insensitive optical amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Miwa, Yoshichika; Furusawa, Akira; Filip, Radim

    2011-05-15

    We experimentally demonstrate phase-insensitive linear amplification of a continuous variable system in the optical regime, preserving the ancilla system at the output. Since our amplification operation is unitary up to small excess noise, it is reversible beyond the classical limit. Here, entanglement between the amplified output system and the ancilla system is the resource for the reversibility, and the amplification gain is G=2.0. In addition, combining this amplifier with a beamsplitter, we also demonstrate approximate cloning of coherent states where an anticlone is present. We investigate the reversibility by reconstructing the initial state from the output correlations, and the results are slightly beyond the cloning limit. Furthermore, full characterization of the amplifier and cloner is given by using coherent states with several different mean values as inputs. Our amplifier is based on linear optics, offline-prepared additional ancillas in nonclassical states, and homodyne measurements followed by feedforward. Squeezed states are used as the additional ancillas, and nonlinear optical effects are exploited only for their generation. They introduce nonclassicality into the amplifying operation, making entanglement at the output.

  7. Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geel, Tessa M.; Meiss, Gregor; Gun, Bernardina T. van der; Kroesen, Bart Jan; Leij, Lou F. de; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas; Kokkinidis, Michael; Ruiters, Marcel H.; McLaughlin, Pamela M.; Rots, Marianne G.

    2009-09-10

    TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18{sup Registered-Sign }:DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas.

  8. Bacteriophage-insensitive mutants for high quality Crescenza manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Donatella; Gorla, Arianna; Verga, Viola; Pedersen, Per D.; Polgatti, Eliseo; Cava, Antonio; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used as starter culture for the manufacture of fermented dairy products. For the production of Crescenza and other soft cheeses, Sacco has developed and provides dairies with three different defined blends of S. thermophilus strains. Each blend contains two different S. thermophilus strains. The strains were selected based on their unique technological properties as well as different phage profiles. Analysis of 133 whey samples collected in 2009–2010 from Italian dairies showed a high prevalence (about 50%) of bacteriophage attacks on the blend ST020. More specifically, the strain S. thermophilus ST1A was found to be the preferred target of the bacteriophages. A bacteriophage insensitive mutant (BIM5) of the phage-sensitive strain ST1A was successfully developed and used to substitute strain ST1A in the Crescenza starter culture ST020. The strain BIM5 showed identical technological and industrial traits as those of the phage-sensitive strain ST1A. The improved resistance of the modified Crescenza starter culture ST020R was confirmed at Italian dairies, and its effectiveness monitored on 122 whey samples collected in 2011–2012. Compared to the previous values (2009–2010), the use of the phage-hardened blend ST020R allowed reducing of frequency of phage attacks from about 50 to less than 5% of the whey samples investigated. PMID:24834065

  9. Single-shot, optical-phase-insensitive interferometry with BECs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Paul; Robertson, Billy; MacKellar, Andrew; Halket, James; Arnold, Aidan; Riis, Erling

    2016-05-01

    Atom interferometers allow the measurement of forces through detection of the differential phase shifts induced in the atomic wavefunction by the interaction. The atomic phase can then be readout against a lab-frame reference, typically the spatial phase of an optical standing wave. This readout is a leading limitation to practical measurement, requiring long temporal stability of the optical phase, without which the resolution of the atomic signal can be lost. We have built an atom interferometer that is inherently insensitive to the phase noise of the readout system. Here, we will describe new features developed in our Bose-Einstein condensate system, including tuneable, high-fidelity, symmetric atomic-beamsplitters through a multi-pulse Kapitza-Dirac scheme. We use an atomic homodyne detection that transfers the atomic phase into a temporal atomic beat-note, and show how the entire interferometric signal can be readout in a single shot. Results from the system include measurement of small-angle projection of the gravitational force, as well as the sensitivity of the atomic phase to gradients of magnetic fields.

  10. Viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2005-04-01

    We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the next to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) by adding vectorlike matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the flavor changing neutral current and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the nonthermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the big-bang nucleosynthesis era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z{sub 3} symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vectorlike quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

  11. A viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-12-14

    We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the NMSSM by adding vector-like matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the FCNC and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the non-thermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the BBN era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z_3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vector-like quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

  12. Conjunctival mucin deficiency in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Micera, Alessandra; Bonini, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Sex steroid hormones are essential for a healthy ocular surface and the androgen receptor impairment found in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) has been described to cause meibomian gland dysfunction and functional dry eye for lipid tear film layer instability. However, it has not been reported if the mucous layer is also affected. A 37-year-old CAIS patient with persistent symptoms of dry eye underwent ophthalmological examination and was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative tear function tests and conjunctival cytology. Samples obtained from the conjunctival epithelium were stained for histology and immunohistochemistry and compared with three age-matched female controls. Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR for MUC1 and MUC5AC were also performed on these samples. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in the expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC in CAIS. Changes in the tear film mucous layer were accompanied by a reduction in the tear film break up time test. This is the first report describing mucous layer alteration associated with androgen receptor impairment. Decreased mucin levels contribute in explaining the tear film instability in CAIS and should be considered an additional cause of dry eye in sex steroid hormone pathology.

  13. High and low velocity detonation in a highly insensitive explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, H. W.; Hayden, H. F.

    2014-05-01

    Low-velocity detonation (LVD) in a solid explosive from input shocks below the threshold for high-velocity detonation (HVD) had been previously reported for PBXN-109 in two gap tests with sample diameters of 36.5 and 73.0 mm. Similar phenomenon has now been observed for the highly insensitive PBXIH-140, whose critical diameter of ~100 mm required an even larger gap test with a sample diameter of 178 mm. When just exceeding the critical gap for HVD, LVD propagated at similar velocities as in PBXN-109 and would punch clean holes in a witness plate like HVD. For somewhat greater gaps, there was enough shock reaction to drive LVD at constant but reduced velocities as the input shock decreased to ~ ½ of critical. With a different formulation now exhibiting LVD, it may be more prevalent than previously realized. It is speculated to occur in various confinements when small percentages of easily detonable ingredients fail to initiate the remainder of less shock sensitive ingredients.

  14. The clinical and molecular spectrum of androgen insensitivity syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Hiort, O.; Sinnecker, G.H.G.; Holterhus, P.M.; Nitsche, E.M.; Kruse, K.

    1996-05-03

    Androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) are due to end-organ resistance to androgenic steroids in males leading to defective virilization of the external genitalia. The phenotype encompasses a wide array of genital ambiguity and may range from completely female to undervirilized but unequivocally male with infertility. This disorder is caused by mutations of the androgen receptor and is an X-linked recessive trait. We have studied 47 patients with AIS and have characterized the underlying molecular abnormality in the androgen receptor gene. Twenty patients had complete AIS and twenty-seven had partial AIS. Of the latter, 11 were of predominantly female phenotypic appearance and gender was assigned accordingly, while 16 were raised as males. Within the group of complete AIS, two patients had gross deletions within the gene, one had a small deletion, and one had an insertion. In the other patients with complete AIS, as well as all individuals with partial AIS, single nucleotide substitutions within the coding region were detected, each leading to an amino acid alteration. Seven codons were involved in more than one mutation in different cases. In addition, in one patient with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, an elongation of a glutamine-repeat was characterized. We conclude that mutations in the androgen receptor gene may be present throughout the whole coding region. However, our study provides evidence that several mutational hot spots exist. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Study of synthesis techniques for insensitive aircraft control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, C. A.; Pope, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Insensitive flight control system design criteria was defined in terms of maximizing performance (handling qualities, RMS gust response, transient response, stability margins) over a defined parameter range. Wing load alleviation for the C-5A was chosen as a design problem. The C-5A model was a 79-state, two-control structure with uncertainties assumed to exist in dynamic pressure, structural damping and frequency, and the stability derivative, M sub w. Five new techniques (mismatch estimation, uncertainty weighting, finite dimensional inverse, maximum difficulty, dual Lyapunov) were developed. Six existing techniques (additive noise, minimax, multiplant, sensitivity vector augmentation, state dependent noise, residualization) and the mismatch estimation and uncertainty weighting techniques were synthesized and evaluated on the design example. Evaluation and comparison of these six techniques indicated that the minimax and the uncertainty weighting techniques were superior to the other six, and of these two, uncertainty weighting has lower computational requirements. Techniques based on the three remaining new concepts appear promising and are recommended for further research.

  16. Resolution enhanced T1-insensitive steady-state imaging.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Jamal J; Nour, Sherif G; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Mark A; Duerk, Jeffrey L

    2012-08-01

    Resolution enhanced T(1)-insensitive steady-state imaging (RE-TOSSI) is a new MRI pulse sequence for the generation of rapid T(2) contrast with high spatial resolution. TOSSI provides T(2) contrast by using nonequally spaced inversion pulses throughout a balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) acquisition. In RE-TOSSI, these energy and time intensive adiabatic inversion pulses and associated magnetization preparation are removed from TOSSI after acquisition of the data around the center of k-space. Magnetization evolution simulations demonstrate T(2) contrast in TOSSI as well as reduction in the widening of the point spread function width (by up to a factor of 4) to a near ideal case for RE-TOSSI. Phantom experimentation is used to characterize and compare the contrast and spatial resolution properties of TOSSI, RE-TOSSI, balanced SSFP, Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE), and turbo spin echo and to optimize the fraction of k-space acquired using TOSSI. Comparison images in the abdomen and brain demonstrate similar contrast and improved spatial resolution in RE-TOSSI compared with TOSSI; comparison balanced SSFP, HASTE, and turbo spin echo images are provided. RE-TOSSI is capable of providing high spatial resolution T(2)-weighted images in 1 s or less per image.

  17. Male gender identity in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    T'Sjoen, Guy; De Cuypere, Griet; Monstrey, Stan; Hoebeke, Piet; Freedman, F Kenneth; Appari, Mahesh; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Van Borsel, John; Cools, Martine

    2011-06-01

    Women and girls with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) invariably have a female typical core gender identity. In this case report, we describe the first case of male gender identity in a CAIS individual raised female leading to complete sex reassignment involving both androgen treatment and phalloplasty. CAIS was diagnosed at age 17, based on an unambiguously female phenotype, a 46,XY karyotype, and a 2660delT androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation, leading to a premature stop in codon 807. Bilateral gonadectomy was performed but a short period of estrogen treatment induced a negative emotional reaction and treatment was stopped. Since the age of 3, childhood-onset cross gender behavior had been noticed. After a period of psychotherapy, persisting male gender identity was confirmed. There was no psychiatric co-morbidity and there was an excellent real life experience. Testosterone substitution was started, however without inducing any of the desired secondary male characteristics. A subcutaneous mastectomy was performed and the patient received phalloplasty by left forearm free flap and scrotoplasty. Testosterone treatment was continued, without inducing virilization, and bone density remained normal. The patient qualifies as female-to-male transsexual and was treated according to the Standards of Care by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health with good outcome. However, we do not believe that female sex of rearing as a standard procedure should be questioned in CAIS. Our case challenges the role of a functional AR pathway in the development of male gender identity.

  18. Nova laser alignment control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-03-29

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system.

  19. Dust alignment in astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, Alex; Thiem Hoang, Chi

    Dust is known to be aligned in interstellar medium and the arising polarization is extensively used to trace magnetic fields. What process aligns dust grains was one of the most long-standing problems of astrophysics in spite of the persistent efforts to solve it. For years the Davis-Greenstein paramagnetic alignment was the primary candidate for explaining grain alignment. However, the situation is different now and the most promising mechanism is associated with radiative torques (RATs) acting on irregular grains. I shall present the analytical theory of RAT alignment, discuss the observational tests that support this theory. I shall also discuss in what situations we expect to see the dominance of paramagnetic alignment.

  20. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  1. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  2. [Alignment of malpositioned canines].

    PubMed

    Wagner, L

    1991-03-01

    This article presents a system for aligning impacted canines. The base of this system is the lingual arch, a rigid reaction unit of four teeth, molars and premolars. From this base unit an impacted canine can be extruded, moved distally, jumped over the occlusion and derotated by segment arches, coil springs and elastic ligatures. The efficiency of this appliance is due to the elimination of undesired reactive forces, the safe moving of teeth, the possibility of an exact force application and the simple manipulation; also the esthetic inconvenience is minimal. All this results in a better prognosis and an essentially shorter treatment time. This appliance can be used in the upper and the lower jaw. Schematic drawings and clinical examples demonstrate this method.

  3. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  4. Photochemical transformation of the insensitive munitions compound 2,4-dinitroanisole.

    PubMed

    Rao, Balaji; Wang, Wei; Cai, Qingsong; Anderson, Todd; Gu, Baohua

    2013-01-15

    The insensitive munitions compound 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is increasingly being used as a replacement for traditional, sensitive munitions compounds (e.g., trinitrotoluene [TNT]), but the environmental fate and photo-transformation of DNAN in natural water systems are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the photo-transformation rates of DNAN with both ultraviolet (UV) and sunlight irradiation under different environmentally relevant conditions. Sunlight photo-transformation of DNAN in water was found to follow predominantly pseudo-first-order decay kinetics with an average half-life (t(1/2)) of approximately 0.70 d and activation energy (E(a)) of 53 kJ mol(-1). Photo-transformation rates of DNAN were dependent on the wavelength of the light source: irradiation with UV-B light (280-315 nm) resulted in a greater quantum yield of transformation (φ(UV-B)=3.7×10(-4)) than rates obtained with UV-A light (φ(UV-A)=2.9×10(-4) at 316-400 nm) and sunlight (φ(sun)=1.1×10(-4)). Photo-oxidation was the dominant mechanism for DNAN photo-transformation, based on the formation of nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) as major N species and 2,4-dinitrophenol as the minor species. Environmental factors (e.g., temperature, pH, and the presence or absence of naturally dissolved organic matter) displayed modest to little effects on the rate of DNAN photo-transformation. These observations indicate that sunlight-induced photo-transformation of DNAN may represent a significant abiotic degradation pathway in surface water, which may have important implications in evaluating the potential impacts and risks of DNAN in the environment.

  5. Quantitative ultrasonic computed tomography using phase-insensitive pyroelectric detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeqiri, Bajram; Baker, Christian; Alosa, Giuseppe; Wells, Peter N. T.; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2013-08-01

    The principle of using ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT) clinically for mapping tissue acoustic properties was suggested almost 40 years ago. Despite strong research activity, UCT been unable to rival its x-ray counterpart in terms of the ability to distinguish tissue pathologies. Conventional piezoelectric detectors deployed in UCT are termed phase-sensitive (PS) and it is well established that this property can lead to artefacts related to refraction and phase-cancellation that mask true tissue structure, particularly for reconstructions involving attenuation. Equally, it has long been known that phase-insensitive (PI) detectors are more immune to this effect, although sufficiently sensitive devices for clinical use have not been available. This paper explores the application of novel PI detectors to UCT. Their operating principle is based on exploiting the pyroelectric properties of the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene difluoride. An important detector performance characteristic which makes it particularly suited to UCT, is the lack of directionality of the PI response, relative to the PS detector mode of operation. The performance of the detectors is compared to conventional PS detection methods, for quantitatively assessing the attenuation distribution within various test objects, including a two-phase polyurethane phantom. UCT images are presented for a range of single detector apertures; tomographic reconstruction images being compared with the known structure of phantoms containing inserts as small as 3 mm, which were readily imaged. For larger diameter inserts (>10 mm), the transmitter-detector combination was able to establish the attenuation coefficient of the insert to within ±10% of values determined separately from plane-wave measurements on representative material plaques. The research has demonstrated that the new PI detectors are significantly less susceptible to refraction and phase-cancellation artefacts, generating realistic images in

  6. Lexical alignment in triadic communication.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one's interlocutor's lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants' lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment.

  7. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  8. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow.

  9. Transformation and Alignment in Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Carl J.; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one…

  10. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  11. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Henstock, Peter V.; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  12. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  13. Curriculum Alignment: Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitzel, Thomas C.; Vogler, Daniel E.

    Curriculum alignment is the conscious congruence of three educational elements: curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Alignment is rooted in the belief that instructional plans are established through outcomes-based content goals and the goal of assuring that delivery and assessment are congruent. Platform unity, based on the Principles of…

  14. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  15. Insights into the dissolution and the three-dimensional structure of insensitive munitions formulations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Ringelberg, David B; Dontsova, Katerina; Daghlian, Charles P; Walsh, Marianne E; Walsh, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Two compounds, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) are the main ingredients in a suite of explosive formulations that are being, or soon will be, fielded at military training ranges. We aim to understand the dissolution characteristics of DNAN and NTO and three insensitive muntions (IM) formulations that contain them. This information is needed to accurately predict the environmental fate of IM constituents, some of which may be toxic to people and the environment. We used Raman spectroscopy to identify the different constituents in the IM formulations and micro computed tomography to image their three-dimensional structure. These are the first three-dimensional images of detonated explosive particles. For multi-component explosives the solubility of the individual constituents and the fraction of each constituent wetted by water controls the dissolution. We found that the order of magnitude differences in solubility amongst the constituents of these IM formulations quickly produced hole-riddled particles when these were exposed to water. Micro-computed tomography showed that particles resulting from field detonations were fractured, producing conduits by which water could access the interior of the particle. We think that micro-computed tomography can also be used to determine the initial composition of IM particles and to track how their compositions change as the particles dissolve. This information is critical to quantifying dissolution and developing physically based dissolution models.

  16. Insights into the dissolution and the three-dimensional structure of insensitive munitions formulations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Ringelberg, David B; Dontsova, Katerina; Daghlian, Charles P; Walsh, Marianne E; Walsh, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Two compounds, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) are the main ingredients in a suite of explosive formulations that are being, or soon will be, fielded at military training ranges. We aim to understand the dissolution characteristics of DNAN and NTO and three insensitive muntions (IM) formulations that contain them. This information is needed to accurately predict the environmental fate of IM constituents, some of which may be toxic to people and the environment. We used Raman spectroscopy to identify the different constituents in the IM formulations and micro computed tomography to image their three-dimensional structure. These are the first three-dimensional images of detonated explosive particles. For multi-component explosives the solubility of the individual constituents and the fraction of each constituent wetted by water controls the dissolution. We found that the order of magnitude differences in solubility amongst the constituents of these IM formulations quickly produced hole-riddled particles when these were exposed to water. Micro-computed tomography showed that particles resulting from field detonations were fractured, producing conduits by which water could access the interior of the particle. We think that micro-computed tomography can also be used to determine the initial composition of IM particles and to track how their compositions change as the particles dissolve. This information is critical to quantifying dissolution and developing physically based dissolution models. PMID:23916749

  17. Botulinum alignment for congenital esotropia.

    PubMed Central

    Ing, M R

    1992-01-01

    This is the first report of a group of patients with congenital esotropia examined for motor and sensory evidence of binocularity a minimum of 3 years after alignment by botulinum. Evidence for binocularity was clearly present in approximately one half of the patients. Lag time to satisfactory alignment was at least 1 month (average, 5 months) following the initial botulinum injection. The results must be considered preliminary. However, when these results are compared with those of patients with congenital esotropia aligned by incisional surgery by age 2 years and examined with the same testing devices by this same investigator, botulinum alignment appears to be less effective than surgical alignment in establishing evidence for binocularity (P < 0.005). PMID:1494828

  18. Space Mirror Alignment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

  19. Magnetic alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, L. V.; Schenz, R. F.; Sommargren, G. E.

    1990-08-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This article begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100-μm accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The 100-μm accuracy is an error circle about an ideal axis for 300 m or more. The article describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axes of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development of a straight-line reference based on the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. The Poisson alignment reference system should be accurate to 25 μm over 300 m, which is believed to be a factor-of-4 improvement over earlier techniques. An error budget shows that only 25% of the total budgeted tolerance is used for the alignment reference system, so the remaining tolerances should fall within the allowable range for FEL alignment.

  20. Alignment technology for backside integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, J.; Kulse, P.; Haak, U.; Old, G.; Scheuring, G.; Döbereiner, St.; Hillmann, F.; Brück, H.-J.; Kaynak, M.; Ehwald, K.-E.; Marschmeyer, St.; Birkholz, M.; Schulz, K.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a backside-to-frontside alignment technique for the backside processing of Si wafers. Integrated MEMS components like BiCMOS-embedded RF-MEMS switches require accurate (1-2μm) alignment. We demonstrate an alignment technique providing overlay values of less than 500 nm by using a backside alignment layer. The approach is enabled by a new non-contact wafer pre-alignment system of the Nikon Scanner S207D allowing precise loading (<5μm) of the wafer onto the exposure stage. Before starting the back-side MEMS process, the misalignment between frontside devices and backside alignment layer has to be measured. The alignment errors are applied as lithography overlay corrections to the backside MEMS process. For the specific application of deep Si etching (Bosch process), moreover, one has to consider the etch profile angle deviation across the wafer (tilting), which turned out in our experiments to amount up to 8 μm. During initial experiments with a Nikon i-line stepper NSR-2205 i- 11D the overlay has been corrected by the stepper offset parameters. These parameters have been obtained by summing up both the wafer and intra-field scaling errors caused by deep Si etching and backside-to-frontside alignment errors. Misalignments and tilting errors were all measured with a MueTec MT 3000 IR optical metrology system using overlay marks. The developed alignment technique is applied to BiCMOS-embedded MEMS devices, i.e. mm-wave RF switches and a viscosity sensor chip based on the IHP's high-speed SiGe technology. It turned out to be very promising for backside processed MEMS components with critical alignment requirements.

  1. Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; McQuinn, Matthew E-mail: mmcquinn@berkeley.edu

    2011-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w{sub g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes, the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory; (4) the alignment correlation function, w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation function to account for the angle between the galaxy separation vector and the principle axis of ellipticity. We show that recent measurements are largely consistent with the tidal alignment model and discuss dependence on galaxy luminosity. In addition, we show that at linear order the tidal alignment model predicts that the angular dependence of w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ) is simply w{sub g+}(r{sub p})cos (2θ) and that this dependence is consistent with recent measurements. We also study how stochastic nonlinear contributions to galaxy ellipticity impact these statistics. We find that a significant fraction of the observed LRG ellipticity can be explained by alignment with the tidal field on scales ∼> 10 \\hMpc. These considerations are relevant to galaxy formation and evolution.

  2. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  3. CMP-compatible alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchouze, Eric; Darracq, Jean-Michel; Gemen, Jack

    1997-07-01

    As semiconductor technology continues its way towards smaller geometries, CMP has gained acceptance as the planarization technique for interconnect layers. Its benefits are well known, especially in terms of imaging. However, one of its major drawbacks is to make difficult the alignment of interconnect layers, since a planarized alignment mark is less visible for the stepper's alignment system. Usual workarounds include the clearing of process layers from the alignment mark before exposing the product layer. Although these workarounds provide a temporary solution, they are too costly to be viable in a mass production environment. In this experiment, a non-zero alignment strategy using new mark designs has been tested on the backend layers of a 0.35 micrometers CMOS process. New mark designs have been evaluated, where the space part of the gratings has been filled with 'segments' of various width, the purpose being to minimize the planarization effect of the metallization process. For the selection of the best mark design, several criteria have been taken into account: the stepper's built-in alignment diagnostic software provides information on the quality of the alignment signal. The most important criterion is the product overlay measurement and its repeatability. Marks cross sections using a FIB/SEM tool give indications on the mark profile after metal deposition.

  4. Galaxy Alignments: Theory, Modelling & Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiessling, Alina; Cacciato, Marcello; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kirk, Donnacha; Kitching, Thomas D.; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Brown, Michael L.; Rassat, Anais

    2015-11-01

    The shapes of galaxies are not randomly oriented on the sky. During the galaxy formation and evolution process, environment has a strong influence, as tidal gravitational fields in the large-scale structure tend to align nearby galaxies. Additionally, events such as galaxy mergers affect the relative alignments of both the shapes and angular momenta of galaxies throughout their history. These "intrinsic galaxy alignments" are known to exist, but are still poorly understood. This review will offer a pedagogical introduction to the current theories that describe intrinsic galaxy alignments, including the apparent difference in intrinsic alignment between early- and late-type galaxies and the latest efforts to model them analytically. It will then describe the ongoing efforts to simulate intrinsic alignments using both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations. Due to the relative youth of this field, there is still much to be done to understand intrinsic galaxy alignments and this review summarises the current state of the field, providing a solid basis for future work.

  5. Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna

    2015-03-01

    Mask aligner lithography is very attractive for less-critical lithography layers and is widely used for LED, display, CMOS image sensor, micro-fluidics and MEMS manufacturing. Mask aligner lithography is also a preferred choice the semiconductor back-end for 3D-IC, TSV interconnects, advanced packaging (AdP) and wafer-level-packaging (WLP). Mask aligner lithography is a mature technique based on shadow printing and has not much changed since the 1980s. In shadow printing lithography a geometric pattern is transferred by free-space propagation from a photomask to a photosensitive layer on a wafer. The inherent simplicity of the pattern transfer offers ease of operation, low maintenance, moderate capital expenditure, high wafers-per-hour (WPH) throughput, and attractive cost-of-ownership (COO). Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) comprises different measures to improve shadow printing lithography beyond current limits. The key enabling technology for AMALITH is a novel light integrator systems, referred to as MO Exposure Optics® (MOEO). MOEO allows to fully control and shape the properties of the illumination light in a mask aligner. Full control is the base for accurate simulation and optimization of the shadow printing process (computational lithography). Now photolithography enhancement techniques like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC), phase masks (AAPSM), half-tone lithography and Talbot lithography could be used in mask aligner lithography. We summarize the recent progress in advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) and discuss possible measures to further improve shadow printing lithography.

  6. Direct inelastic scattering of N/sub 2/ from Ag(111). I. Rotational populations and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Sitz, G.O.; Kummel, A.C.; Zare, R.N.

    1988-08-15

    The rotational state populations and the quadrupole and hexadecapole alignment moments of N/sub 2/ scattered off clean Ag(111) are determined by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). The scattered N/sub 2/ is found to be highly aligned with its rotational angular momentum vector J parallel to the surface. The degree of alignment is found to increase with increasing rotational excitation. We see less than perfect alignment at intermediate J values indicating that the surface is not completely flat. The alignment is relatively insensitive to incident energy, incident angle, or surface temperature T/sub s/. However, the rotational state population distributions show pronounced rainbows for higher incident energy and/or more grazing exit angle. The rotational state distributions are found to depend strongly on the final scattering angle at low T/sub s/; this effect is markedly reduced at higher T/sub s/. Time-of-flight measurements are used to determine the average velocity of the scattered N/sub 2/ as a function of rotational level. It is found that higher rotational excitation correlates with lower average velocity and that the incident molecules lose 20%--30% of their translational energy to the solid. No correlation is found between velocity and alignment. A comparison is made with published results for the NO/Ag(111) system and a variety of theoretical models found in the literature.

  7. Phase Sensor for Aligning a Segmented Telescope Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Philip; Walker, Chanda Barlett

    2006-01-01

    A phase sensor has been developed for use in aligning a segmented telescope mirror to within a fraction of a wavelength in piston. (As used here, piston signifies displacement of a mirror segment along the optical axis of the telescope.) Such precise alignment is necessary in order to realize the full benefit of the large aperture achievable through segmentation. This phase sensor is achromatic. It is based on two-wavelength shearing interferometry, and can be modified to utilize an extended or broad-band (e.g., white) light source. The sensor optics include a ruled diffraction grating and an imaging lens. The sensor can measure the piston shift between segments as well as aberrations of the segments. It can measure the surface error of an individual segment, making it possible to compensate for the error with optimal amount(s) of piston and/or tilt. The precise capture range of the sensor depends partly on the telescope design; the largest relative piston shifts measurable by use of this sensor are of the order of 100 m. The accuracy of the sensor also depends partly on the telescope design; in general, the accuracy is sufficient to enable alignment to within approximately half a wavelength. The interferometric image is digitized and processed by a simple algorithm in real time, and the output of the algorithm can be used to maintain alignment in real time, even in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The sensor is robust. Through calibration, it can be made insensitive to (and, hence, tolerant of) misalignments and aberrations of its own optics, most aberrations of the telescope as a whole (in contradistinction to aberrations of individual segments), and most aberrations introduced by atmospheric turbulence

  8. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  9. Energy band alignment in chalcogenide thin film solar cells from photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Andreas

    2015-04-10

    Energy band alignment plays an important role in thin film solar cells. This article presents an overview of the energy band alignment in chalcogenide thin film solar cells with a particular focus on the commercially available material systems CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Experimental results from two decades of photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are compared with density functional theory calculations taken from literature. It is found that the experimentally determined energy band alignment is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for many interfaces. These alignments, in particular the theoretically predicted alignments, can therefore be considered as the intrinsic or natural alignments for a given material combination. The good agreement between experiment and theory enables a detailed discussion of the interfacial composition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS interfaces in terms of the contribution of ordered vacancy compounds to the alignment of the energy bands. It is furthermore shown that the most important interfaces in chalcogenide thin film solar cells, those between Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdS and between CdS and CdTe are quite insensitive to the processing of the layers. There are plenty of examples where a significant deviation between experimentally-determined band alignment and theoretical predictions are evident. In such cases a variation of band alignment of sometimes more than 1 eV depending on interface preparation can be obtained. This variation can lead to a significant deterioration of device properties. It is suggested that these modifications are related to the presence of high defect concentrations in the materials forming the contact. The particular defect chemistry of chalcogenide semiconductors, which is related to the ionicity of the chemical bond in these materials and which can be beneficial for material and device properties, can therefore cause significant device limitations, as e.g. in the case of the CuInS2 thin film solar cells or for new

  10. Energy band alignment in chalcogenide thin film solar cells from photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Energy band alignment plays an important role in thin film solar cells. This article presents an overview of the energy band alignment in chalcogenide thin film solar cells with a particular focus on the commercially available material systems CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Experimental results from two decades of photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are compared with density functional theory calculations taken from literature. It is found that the experimentally determined energy band alignment is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for many interfaces. These alignments, in particular the theoretically predicted alignments, can therefore be considered as the intrinsic or natural alignments for a given material combination. The good agreement between experiment and theory enables a detailed discussion of the interfacial composition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS interfaces in terms of the contribution of ordered vacancy compounds to the alignment of the energy bands. It is furthermore shown that the most important interfaces in chalcogenide thin film solar cells, those between Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdS and between CdS and CdTe are quite insensitive to the processing of the layers. There are plenty of examples where a significant deviation between experimentally-determined band alignment and theoretical predictions are evident. In such cases a variation of band alignment of sometimes more than 1 eV depending on interface preparation can be obtained. This variation can lead to a significant deterioration of device properties. It is suggested that these modifications are related to the presence of high defect concentrations in the materials forming the contact. The particular defect chemistry of chalcogenide semiconductors, which is related to the ionicity of the chemical bond in these materials and which can be beneficial for material and device properties, can therefore cause significant device limitations, as e.g. in the case of the CuInS2 thin film solar cells or for new

  11. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  12. Multiple sequence alignment with DIALIGN.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    DIALIGN is a software tool for multiple sequence alignment by combining global and local alignment features. It composes multiple alignments from local pairwise sequence similarities. This approach is particularly useful to discover conserved functional regions in sequences that share only local homologies but are otherwise unrelated. An anchoring option allows to use external information and expert knowledge in addition to primary-sequence similarity alone. The latest version of DIALIGN optionally uses matches to the PFAM database to detect weak homologies. Various versions of the program are available through Göttingen Bioinformatics Compute Server (GOBICS) at http://www.gobics.de/department/software.

  13. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  14. Surfactant for dye-penetrant inspection is insensitive to liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    LOX insensitive solvent is blended into a mixture of commercially available surfactants to clean metal surfaces which are to be investigated by the dye-penetrant method. The surfactant mixture is applied before and after application of the dye.

  15. Polarization-insensitive PAM-4-carrying free-space orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Jian

    2016-02-22

    We present a simple configuration incorporating single polarization-sensitive phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) to facilitate polarization-insensitive free-space optical communications employing orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. We experimentally demonstrate several polarization-insensitive optical communication subsystems by propagating a single OAM mode, multicasting 4 and 10 OAM modes, and multiplexing 8 OAM modes, respectively. Free-space polarization-insensitive optical communication links using OAM modes that carry four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal are demonstrated in the experiment. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties are less than 1 dB in both polarization-insensitive N-fold OAM modes multicasting and multiple OAM modes multiplexing at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2e-3 (enhanced forward-error correction (EFEC) threshold).

  16. Theoretical study of polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change of multiple quantum well.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingyuan; Zhou, Qunjie; Cui, Jun; He, Ping-An; Huang, Dexiu

    2014-12-29

    Characteristics of polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change of 1.55 μm tensile-strained multiple quantum well (MQW) are theoretically investigated. A comprehensive MQW model is proposed to effectively extend the application range of previous models. The model considers the temperature variation as well as the nonuniform distribution of injected carrier in MQW. Tensile-strained MQW is expected to achieve polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change over a wide wavelength range as temperature varies from 0°C to 40°C, while the magnitude of refractive index change keeps a large value (more than 3 × 10-3). And that the polarization insensitivity of refractive index change can maintain for a wide range of carrier concentration. Multiple quantum well with different material and structure parameters is anticipated to have the similar polarization insensitivity of refractive index change, which shows the design flexibility.

  17. Theoretical study of polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change of multiple quantum well.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingyuan; Zhou, Qunjie; Cui, Jun; He, Ping-An; Huang, Dexiu

    2014-12-29

    Characteristics of polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change of 1.55 μm tensile-strained multiple quantum well (MQW) are theoretically investigated. A comprehensive MQW model is proposed to effectively extend the application range of previous models. The model considers the temperature variation as well as the nonuniform distribution of injected carrier in MQW. Tensile-strained MQW is expected to achieve polarization insensitivity of carrier-induced refractive index change over a wide wavelength range as temperature varies from 0°C to 40°C, while the magnitude of refractive index change keeps a large value (more than 3 × 10-3). And that the polarization insensitivity of refractive index change can maintain for a wide range of carrier concentration. Multiple quantum well with different material and structure parameters is anticipated to have the similar polarization insensitivity of refractive index change, which shows the design flexibility. PMID:25607157

  18. Polarization-insensitive PAM-4-carrying free-space orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Jian

    2016-02-22

    We present a simple configuration incorporating single polarization-sensitive phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) to facilitate polarization-insensitive free-space optical communications employing orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. We experimentally demonstrate several polarization-insensitive optical communication subsystems by propagating a single OAM mode, multicasting 4 and 10 OAM modes, and multiplexing 8 OAM modes, respectively. Free-space polarization-insensitive optical communication links using OAM modes that carry four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal are demonstrated in the experiment. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties are less than 1 dB in both polarization-insensitive N-fold OAM modes multicasting and multiple OAM modes multiplexing at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2e-3 (enhanced forward-error correction (EFEC) threshold). PMID:26907073

  19. Magnetic axis alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Lee V.; Schenz, Richard F.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    1989-01-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This paper begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100 micrometer accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The paper describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axis of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development and use of the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. An error budget shows that the Poisson alignment reference system will make it possible to meet the alignment tolerances for an FEL.

  20. Visual attitude orientation and alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, R. A.; Morris, D. B.

    1967-01-01

    Active vehicle optical alignment aid and a passive vehicle three-dimensional alignment target ensure proper orientation and alignment plus control of the closure range and rate between two bodies, one in controlled motion and one at rest.

  1. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R.; Hammond, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  2. Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne G.

    1993-01-01

    Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.

  3. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, C.R.; Hammond, R.B.

    The disclosure related to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  4. Protein structure alignment beyond spatial proximity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Ma, Jianzhu; Peng, Jian; Xu, Jinbo

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is a fundamental problem in computational structure biology. Many programs have been developed for automatic protein structure alignment, but most of them align two protein structures purely based upon geometric similarity without considering evolutionary and functional relationship. As such, these programs may generate structure alignments which are not very biologically meaningful from the evolutionary perspective. This paper presents a novel method DeepAlign for automatic pairwise protein structure alignment. DeepAlign aligns two protein structures using not only spatial proximity of equivalent residues (after rigid-body superposition), but also evolutionary relationship and hydrogen-bonding similarity. Experimental results show that DeepAlign can generate structure alignments much more consistent with manually-curated alignments than other automatic tools especially when proteins under consideration are remote homologs. These results imply that in addition to geometric similarity, evolutionary information and hydrogen-bonding similarity are essential to aligning two protein structures.

  5. Time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. C.; Lin, W. W.; Chen, M. H.

    1995-06-01

    A system of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensors that uses Faraday rotator mirror elements is demonstrated. This system is constructed with conventional low-birefringence single-mode fiber and is able to solve the polarization-fading problem by a combination of Faraday rotator mirrors with unbalanced Michelson interferometers. The system is lead-fiber insensitive and has potentials for practical field applications.

  6. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  7. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  8. BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and

  9. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution. PMID:26258814

  10. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, B B; Pan, J S; He, H L; Yang, X Q; Zhao, J L; Cai, R

    2013-10-07

    The plant gaseous hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To gain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the full-length cDNA encoding EIN3 (designated as CsEIN3) was cloned from cucumber for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full length of CsEIN3 was 2560 bp, with an open reading frame of 1908 bp encoding 635 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsEIN3 has high homology with other plant EIN3/EIL proteins that were derived from a common ancestor during evolution, and CsEIN3 was grouped into a cluster along with melon. Homology modeling demonstrated that CsEIN3 has a highly similar structure to the specific DNA-binding domain contained in EIN3/EIL proteins. Based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that CsEIN3 was constitutively expressed in all organs examined, and was increased during flower development and maturation in both male and female flowers. Our results suggest that CsEIN3 is involved in processes of flower development. In conclusion, this study will provide the basis for further study on the role of EIN3 in relevant biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  12. The Parasitic Plant Cuscuta australis Is Highly Insensitive to Abscisic Acid-Induced Suppression of Hypocotyl Elongation and Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution. PMID:26258814

  13. Tracking the surface figure error of the pick off mirror throughout build and environmental testing of the focus and alignment mechanism qualification unit of the near-infrared camera of JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, Bear; Huff, Lynn; Feller, Greg; Mammini, Paul

    2011-10-01

    The Pick Off Mirror (POM) is the business end of the Focus and Alignment Mechanism (FAM) of NIRCam. The POM harnesses the light delivered by the telescope and steers it into the Near Infrared Camera. At strategic points during the build and test of the Pick Off Mirror and its mechanism (the FAM) the surface figure error (SFE) of the mirror was monitored. This metric was used to track the health of the mirror throughout this testing regime. For example, the team ran an SFE test before and after Vibration testing the FAM. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the testing regime and the results of these periodic SFE tests. These results lead to the qualification of the POM and FAM designs for flight on the James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. Fetal feminization and female gender identity in the testicular feminizing syndrome of androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Masica, D N; Money, J; Ehrhardt, A A

    1971-06-01

    Interview data on aspects of sex and eroticism from a sample of 10 chromosomally male (XY) patients with the complete testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity) syndrome and from a sample of 23 patients with the late-treated adrenogenital syndrome showed marked differences. Homosexual experiences and/or dreams were lacking in the androgen-insensitive group as compared with the adrenogenital group (p[Symbol: see text]0.01).The androgen-insensitive group reported lower frequency of sexual arousal from visual stimuli than did the adrenogenital group (p[Symbol: see text]0.05).Findings on different aspects of sexual behavior suggest a tendency for the androgen-insensitive patients as a group to have a lower sex drive, to be less keenly aware of their sex drive, to be less assertive in heterosexual relations, and to be less versatile in coitus than the adrenogenital patients. No case of exclusive lesbianism, transsexualism, or transvestism was reported from either patient group. Although the two groups differed in sexual and erotic behavior, both were within the range of what in our culture is accepted as feminine. Nonetheless, the androgen-insensitive patients conformed more closely to the conventional feminine stereotype. Regarding explicit satisfaction with female sex role and with cosmetic and clothing interests, the androgen-insensitive group was characteristically feminine. Findings on the Draw-a-Person Test and the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey are compatible with the results of normal females, but are in sharp contrast with those of normal males. Interview and psychometric data thus concur in showing the androgen-insensitive patients to be unmistakably feminine in behavior and outlook. Their femininity is best conceived of as a product of hormonal nonandrogenization, prenatally and later, in combination with the social experiences of rearing and development, after initial assignment as a girl. PMID:24179056

  15. ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 negatively regulates flowering through directly promoting Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C transcription

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-01

    During the life cycle of a plant, one of the major biological processes is the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. In Arabidopsis, flowering time is precisely controlled by extensive environmental and internal cues. Gibberellins (GAs) promote flowering, while abscisic acid (ABA) is considered as a flowering suppressor. However, the detailed mechanism through which ABA inhibits the floral transition is poorly understood. Here, we report that ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4), a key component in the ABA signalling pathway, negatively regulates floral transition by directly promoting FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) transcription. The abi4 mutant showed the early flowering phenotype whereas ABI4-overexpressing (OE-ABI4) plants had delayed floral transition. Consistently, quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) assay revealed that the FLC transcription level was down-regulated in abi4, but up-regulated in OE-ABI4. The change in FT level was consistent with the pattern of FLC expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR (ChIP-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and tobacco transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 promotes FLC expression by directly binding to its promoter. Genetic analysis demonstrated that OE-ABI4::flc-3 could not alter the flc-3 phenotype. OE-FLC::abi4 showed a markedly delayed flowering phenotype, which mimicked OE-FLC::WT, and suggested that ABI4 acts upstream of FLC in the same genetic pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABA inhibits the floral transition by activating FLC transcription through ABI4. PMID:26507894

  16. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadi, Hamid; Vandervalk, Benjamin P; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D; Chu, Justin; Breshears, Clay P; Birol, Inanc

    2015-01-01

    One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA), and is free for academic use. PMID:25923767

  17. Global Alignment System for Large Genomic Sequencing

    2002-03-01

    AVID is a global alignment system tailored for the alignment of large genomic sequences up to megabases in length. Features include the possibility of one sequence being in draft form, fast alignment, robustness and accuracy. The method is an anchor based alignment using maximal matches derived from suffix trees.

  18. Photosensitive Polymers for Liquid Crystal Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahilny, U. V.; Stankevich, A. I.; Trofimova, A. V.; Muravsky, A. A.; Murauski, A. A.

    The peculiarities of alignment of liquid crystal (LC) materials by the layers of photocrosslinkable polymers with side benzaldehyde groups are considered. The investigation of mechanism of photostimulated alignment by rubbed benzaldehyde layer is performed. The methods of creation of multidomain aligning layers on the basis of photostimulated rubbing alignment are described.

  19. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  20. Combining Multiple Pairwise Structure-based Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    CombAlign is a new Python code that generates a gapped, one-to-many, multiple structure-based sequence alignment(MSSA) given a set of pairwise structure-based alignments. In order to better define regions of similarity among related protein structures, it is useful to detect the residue-residue correspondences among a set of pairwise structure alignments. Few codes exist for constructing a one-to-many, multiple sequence alignment derived from a set of structure alignments, and we perceived a need for creating a new tool for combing pairwise structure alignments that would allow for insertion of gaps in the reference structure.

  1. Robust polarization-insensitive strip-slot waveguide mode converter based on symmetric multimode interference.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qingzhong; Yan, Qiaojing; Liu, Lu; Li, Xinbai; Michel, Jurgen; Zhou, Zhiping

    2016-04-01

    Strip-slot waveguide mode converters for TE0 have been widely investigated. Here we demonstrate a polarization-insensitive converter numerically and experimentally. The polarization-insensitive performance is achieved by matching the optical field distribution of the 2-fold image of the Multimode Interference (MMI) and the TE0 (TM0) mode of a slot waveguide. The working principle for this MMI-based mode converter is thoroughly analyzed with the quantitatively evaluated optical field overlap ratio that is theoretically derived from the orthonormal relation of eigenmodes. Based on the analysis, the MMI-based polarization-insensitive converters are then simulated and fabricated. The simulation and measurement results indicate that the proposed scheme is a robust design since it is not only polarization-insensitive but also wavelength-insensitive and fabrication-tolerant. Moreover, the mode converter is as small as 1.22 μm × 4 μm while the measured conversion efficiencies are 95.9% for TE0 and 96.6% for TM0. All these excellent properties make the proposed mode converter an ideal solution for coupling light between strip and slot waveguides when both TE and TM polarizations are considered.

  2. Temperature- and wavelength-insensitive parametric amplification enabled by noncollinear achromatic phase-matching

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Daolong; Ma, Jingui; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Bingjie; Xie, Guoqiang; Yuan, Peng; Zhu, Heyuan; Qian, Liejia

    2016-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for pushing femtosecond pulses towards ultra-high peak powers. However, the future success of OPCPA strongly relies on the ability to manipulate its phase-matching (PM) configuration. When a high average power pump laser is involved, the thermal effects in nonlinear crystals induce phase-mismatch distortions that pose an inherent limitation on the conversion efficiency. Here, we demonstrate that the noncollinear configuration previously adopted for wavelength-insensitive PM can be employed for temperature-insensitive PM when the noncollinear angle is properly reset. Simultaneous temperature- and wavelength-insensitive PM is realized for the first time by imposing such a temperature-insensitive noncollinear configuration with an angularly dispersed seed signal. Based on the lithium triborate crystal, the proposed noncollinear achromatic PM has a thermal acceptance 6 times larger than that of the conventional wavelength-insensitive noncollinear PM and has a sufficient spectral acceptance to support pulse durations of ~20 fs at 800 nm. These achievements open new possibilities for generating ultra-high peak power lasers with high average power. PMID:27786299

  3. Grain Alignment in Starless Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to {{A}V}˜ 48. We find that {{P}K}/{{τ }K} continues to decline with increasing AV with a power law slope of roughly -0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by {{A}V}≳ 20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ˜-1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than {{A}V}˜ 20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  4. Transformation and alignment in similarity.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Hahn, Ulrike; Chater, Nick

    2009-10-01

    This paper contrasts two structural accounts of psychological similarity: structural alignment (SA) and Representational Distortion (RD). SA proposes that similarity is determined by how readily the structures of two objects can be brought into alignment; RD measures similarity by the complexity of the transformation that "distorts" one representation into the other. We assess RD by defining a simple coding scheme of psychological transformations for the experimental materials. In two experiments, this "concrete" version of RD provides compelling fits of the data and compares favourably with SA. Finally, stepping back from particular models, we argue that perceptual theory suggests that transformations and alignment processes should generally be viewed as complementary, in contrast to the current distinction in the literature. PMID:19720370

  5. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Alignment Tool For Inertia Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, easy-to-use tool aligns drive bar of inertia welder over hole in stub. Ensures drive bar concentric to hole within 0.002 in. (0.051 mm.). Holds two batteries and light bulb. Electrical circuit completed, providing current to bulb when pin in contact with post. When pin centered in post hole, it does not touch post, and lamp turns off. Built for use in making repair welds on liquid-oxygen-injector posts in Space Shuttle main engine. Version having suitably modified dimensions used to facilitate alignment in other forests of post.

  7. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Rouzée, A.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

    2011-11-01

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  8. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  9. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment-distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  10. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  11. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K(+) TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na(+) uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops.

  12. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhydrosis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemmas revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Koya, Srikanth; Lakhotia, Disha

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT First described in 1932 by Dearborn as ‘congenital pure analgesia’, congenital insensitivity to pain and anhydrosis (CIPA) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type IV is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder. A 7-year-old female child who is an established case of congenital insensitivity to pain and anhydrosis visited the department of pediatric medicine with osteoarthritic neuropathy. A multidisciplinary team approach was utilized to treat the child under general anesthesia. This article also discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas involved in treating this type of children. How to cite this article: Ravichandra KS, Kandregula CR, Koya S, Lakhotia D. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhydrosis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemmas revisited. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):75-81. PMID:26124587

  13. Temperature insensitive refractive index sensor based on concatenated long period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Saurabh M.; Bock, Wojtek J.; Mikulic, Predrag

    2013-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a temperature immune biosensor based on two concatenated LPGs incorporating a suitable inter-grating-space (IGS). Compensating the thermal induced phase changes in the grating region by use of an appropriate length of the IGS the temperature insensitivity has been achieved. Using standard telecommunication grade single-mode fibers we show that a length ratio of ~8.2 is sufficient to realize the proposed temperature insensitivity. The resulting sensor shows a refractive index sensitivity of 423.28 nm/RIU displaying the capability of detecting an index variation of 2.36 × 10-6 RIU in the bio-samples. The sensor can also be applied as a temperature insensitive WMD channel isolation filter in the optical communication systems, removing the necessity of any external thermal insulation packaging.

  14. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  15. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyungjin

    2016-08-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  16. Laser-Beam-Alignment Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    In laser-beam-alignment controller, images from video camera compared to reference patterns by fuzzy-logic pattern comparator. Results processed by fuzzy-logic microcontroller, which sends control signals to motor driver adjusting lens and pinhole in spatial filter.

  17. Tonal Alignment in Irish Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Martha; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from…

  18. Use of fiber helical coils to obtain polarization insensitive fiber devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tentori, Diana; Garcia-Weidner, A.; Rodriguez-Garcia, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Using a new model for the description of the birefringence of a helical coil, it is shown that the birefringence effect on the signal polarization introduced by a fiber device can be canceled out by introducing two helical coils at the required orientation. Experimental results obtained using this modification in a polarization insensitive device (optical isolator) and in a non-polarization insensitive device working at two different wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexer) are presented and discussed. Such modified devices were used in the construction of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a full control of the input signal and pump states of polarization.

  19. Evidence of Nicotine-Induced, Curare-Insensitive, Behavior in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Oné R; Montgomery, Erica; Deats, Sean; Bach, Daniel; Baker, Debra

    2015-10-01

    Planarians are rapidly developing into very useful research subjects in pharmacology and neuroscience research. Here we report that curare, a cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, alleviates the nicotine-induced planarian seizure-like movements (pSLM) by up to 50 % at equimolar concentrations of nicotine and curare (1 mM), while curare alone does not induce significant pSLMs. The simplest interpretation of our data is that there are nicotine induced behaviors insensitive to curare in our experimental organism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on curare-insensitive, nicotine-induced effects in any organism.

  20. Increased shock sensitivity of the insensitive explosive LX-17 at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.

    1994-05-01

    Explosive formulations based on TATB (1.3.5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) have proven to be remarkably insensitive to shock and thermal stimuli. However, hazards to an insensitive high explosive (IHE) charge do not always confine themselves to a single stimulus. In the study reported here, we have investigated the response of the LLNL explosive LX-17 (92.5%/7.5% TATB/Kel-F 800) to shock when the explosive is at an elevated temperature. The motivation for the work was to learn the extent to which the shock initiation threshold and critical initiation area of LX-17 are lowered by exposure to elevated temperature.

  1. Methods to temporally align gait cycle data.

    PubMed

    Helwig, Nathaniel E; Hong, Sungjin; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Polk, John D

    2011-02-01

    The need for the temporal alignment of gait cycle data is well known; however, there is little consensus concerning which alignment method to use. In this paper, we discuss the pros and cons of some methods commonly applied to temporally align gait cycle data (normalization to percent gait cycle, dynamic time warping, derivative dynamic time warping, and piecewise alignment methods). In addition, we empirically evaluate these different methods' abilities to produce successful temporal alignment when mapping a test gait cycle trajectory to a target trajectory. We demonstrate that piecewise temporal alignment techniques outperform other commonly used alignment methods (normalization to percent gait cycle, dynamic time warping, and derivative dynamic time warping) in typical biomechanical and clinical alignment tasks. Lastly, we present an example of how these piecewise alignment techniques make it possible to separately examine intensity and temporal differences between gait cycle data throughout the entire gait cycle, which can provide greater insight into the complexities of movement patterns.

  2. Climate insensitivity of treeline in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Macias Fauria, M.

    2011-12-01

    Successful modelling efforts demonstrate that tree presence over a ~ 200 km2 alpine/subalpine area in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains results from a multi-scale spatiotemporal process competition involving not only growing season temperatures but also topographical shelter, water availability, and substrate stability and availability. The study area was selected to represent the diversity of substrates and geomorphologic processes found in the Canadian Rockies, and ranges in elevation from 1400 to > 2800 meters above sea level. Tree presence was mapped at 10m resolution using a combination of remote sensing imagery (taken in 2008) and intensive ground truthing, and modelled with an ensemble of state-of-the-art environmental envelope models. Explanatory variables chosen represented not only temperature and moisture availability (computed over 1971-2000 climate normals), but also substrate diversity, slope angle and type, geomorphologic features, modelled regolith depth, and concavity/convexity of the terrain. Such variables were meant to serve as proxies for known convergent and divergent processes that occur on steep landscapes and that have profound influence on tree establishment and survival. Model performance was very high and revealed substrate and geomorphology to be the most important explanatory variables for tree presence in the area. Available high-resolution imagery for 1954 enabled the mapping of tree presence over most of the study area and the identification of changes in the distribution of trees over the last nearly six decades. Overall, the only major observed changes were related to post-fire stand recovery, and areas with treeline advance were insignificant at the landscape scale. Tree suitable sites were projected onto high resolution grids of late 21st century climatic conditions predicted by regional climate models driven by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Emissions scenario was A2 (as defined in the Special

  3. Rice tungro spherical virus resistance into photoperiod-insensitive japonica rice by marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Shim, Junghyun; Torollo, Gideon; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Cabunagan, Rogelio C; Choi, Il-Ryong; Yeo, Un-Sang; Ha, Woon-Goo

    2015-09-01

    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is one of the destructive and prevalent diseases in the tropical region. RTD is caused by Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. Cultivation of japonica rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica) in tropical Asia has often been restricted because most japonica cultivars are sensitive to short photoperiod, which is characteristic of tropical conditions. Japonica1, a rice variety bred for tropical conditions, is photoperiod-insensitive, has a high yield potential, but is susceptible to RTD and has poor grain quality. To transfer RTD resistance into Japonica1, we made two backcrosses (BC) and 8 three-way crosses (3-WC) among Japonica1 and RTSV-resistant cultivars. Among 8,876 BC1F2 and 3-WCF2 plants, 342 were selected for photoperiod-insensitivity and good grain quality. Photoperiod-insensitive progenies were evaluated for RTSV resistance by a bioassay and marker-assisted selection (MAS), and 22 BC1F7 and 3-WCF7 lines were selected based on the results of an observational yield trial. The results demonstrated that conventional selection for photoperiod-insensitivity and MAS for RTSV resistance can greatly facilitate the development of japonica rice that is suitable for cultivation in tropical Asia. PMID:26366118

  4. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  5. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed.

  6. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  7. Wavelength-insensitive radiation coupling for multi-quantum well sensor based on intersubband absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Liu, John K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Devices and techniques for coupling radiation to intraband quantum-well semiconductor sensors that are insensitive to the wavelength of the coupled radiation. At least one reflective surface is implemented in the quantum-well region to direct incident radiation towards the quantum-well layers.

  8. Novel NTRK1 Frameshift Mutation in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain With Anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sen; Wu, Nan; Liu, Jiaqi; Ming, Xuan; Chen, Jun; Pavelec, Derek; Su, Xinlin; Qiu, Guixing; Tian, Ye; Giampietro, Philip; Wu, Zhihong

    2015-09-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It has been reported that the defect in the NTRK1 gene encoding tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) can cause congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the product of NGFB, mediates biological effects by binding to and activating tropomyosin-related kinase A. In addition, necdin (encoded by NDN) is also essential in nerve growth factor-tropomyosin-related kinase A pathway. We performed mutation analysis in NTRK1, NGFB, and NDN genes in a Chinese Han 17-year-old female patient with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis and her healthy family members. As a result, the patient was found to have a novel insertion in exon 7 (c.727insT) of NTRK1, which causes premature termination, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2192206 G>A) in NDN. Our findings imply that the genetic variations of the nerve growth factor-tropomyosin-related kinase A pathway play an important role in congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.

  9. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed.

  10. New Insight into the Angle Insensitivity of Ultrathin Planar Optical Absorbers for Broadband Solar Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Haitong; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Two challenging problems still remain for optical absorbers consisting of an ultrathin planar semiconductor film on top of an opaque metallic substrate. One is the angle-insensitive mechanism and the other is the system design needed for broadband solar energy harvesting. Here, first we theoretically demonstrates that the high refractive index, instead of the ultrathin feature as reported in previous studies, is the physical origin of the angle insensitivity for ultrathin planar optical absorbers. They exhibit omnidirectional resonance for TE polarization due to the high complex refractive index difference between the semiconductor and the air, while for TM polarization the angle insensitivity persists up to an incident angle related to the semiconductor refractive index. These findings were validated by fabricating and characterizing an 18 nm Ge/Ag absorber sample (representative of small band gap semiconductors for photovoltaic applications) and a 22 nm hematite/Ag sample (representative of large band gap semiconductors for photoelectrochemical applications). Then, we took advantage of angle insensitivity and designed a spectrum splitting configuration for broadband solar energy harvesting. The cascaded solar cell and unassisted solar water splitting systems have photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells that are also spectrum splitters, so an external spectrum splitting element is not needed. PMID:27582317

  11. The Relationship between Multicultural Counseling Training and the Evaluation of Culturally Sensitive and Culturally Insensitive Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Wright, Doris J.; Jackson, James D.; Jo, Han Ik

    1998-01-01

    In this study multicultural counseling training contributed significantly to the variance in ratings of a culturally sensitive counselor. No significant contribution was made to the variance in ratings of the culturally insensitive counselor. Possible explanations and implications of these results in multicultural counseling supervision are…

  12. A Constitutive Model for Long Time Duration Mechanical Behavior in Insensitive High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, I M; Oh, S; Hrousis, C A; Cunningham, B J; Gagliardi, F J

    2010-03-09

    An anisotropic constitutive model for the long term dimensional stability of insensitive high explosives is proposed. Elastic, creep, thermal, and ratchet growth strains are developed. Pressure and temperature effects are considered. The constitutive model is implemented in an implicit finite element code and compared to a variety of experimental data.

  13. A new insensitive explosive that has moderate performance and is low cost: 2,4-Dinitroimidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.; Coon, C.; Foltz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Shock loading experiments were performed on 2,4-Dinitroimidazole. Results indicate that it is a very shock insensitive material. The performance of the material is expected to be 60% greater than TNT. Costs appear to be low but are unresolved at this time. 2,4-DNI may be a realistic alternative to TNT for mass-use bombs.

  14. Synthesis of Amino- and Nitro-Substituted Heterocycles as Insensitive Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Mitchell, A R; Schmidt, R D

    2001-08-23

    In this paper we will describe the synthesis of several amino- and nitro-substituted heterocycles, examples from a continuing research project targeted at the synthesis of new, insensitive energetic materials that possess at least 80% the power of HMX (28% more power than TATB). Recently we reported the synthesis and scale-up of the insensitive energetic material, 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105). The energy content (81% the power of HMX) and thermal stability of LLM-105 make it a viable candidate material for insensitive boosters and deep oil perforation. We will report on recent synthetic improvements and several performance and safety tests performed on LLM-105, including a 1 in. cylinder shot and plate dent. We will also report on the synthesis and characterization of 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazole (LLM-116), an interesting new insensitive energetic material with a measured crystal density of 1.90 g/cc, to our knowledge the highest density yet measured for a five-membered heterocycle containing amino- and nitro-substituents. LLM-116 was synthesized by reacting 3,5-dinitropyrazole with 1,1,1-trimethylhydrazinium iodide (TMHI) in DMSO in the presence of base. The synthesis and characterization of 4-amino-5-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (ANTZ) and 43-dinitro-1,2,3-triazole (DNTZ), first described by Baryshnikov and coworkers, will also be presented along with the synthesis of several new energetic materials derived from ANTZ and DNTZ.

  15. Can Parents' Involvement in Children's Education Offset the Effects of Early Insensitivity on Academic Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,312) were analyzed to examine whether the adverse effects of early insensitive parenting on children's academic functioning can be offset by parents' later involvement in children's education. Observations of mothers' early…

  16. Wavelength-insensitive radiation coupling for multi-quantum well sensor based on intersubband absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Liu, John K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Devices and techniques for coupling radiation to intraband quantum-well semiconductor sensors that are insensitive to the wavelength of the coupled radiation. At least one reflective surface is implemented in the quantum-well region to direct incident radiation towards the quantum-well layers.

  17. Malate Oxidation and Cyanide-Insensitive Respiration in Avocado Mitochondria during the Climacteric Cycle.

    PubMed

    Moreau, F; Romani, R

    1982-11-01

    After preparation on self-generated Percoll gradients, avocado (Persea americana Mill, var. Fuerte and Hass) mitochondria retain a high proportion of cyanide-insensitive respiration, especially with alpha-ketoglutarate and malate as substrates. Whereas alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation remains unchanged, the rate of malate oxidation increases as ripening advances through the climacteric. An enhancement of mitochondrial malic enzyme activity, measured by the accumulation of pyruvate, closely parallels the increase of malate oxidation. The capacity for cyanide-insensitive respiration is also considerably enhanced while respiratory control decreases (from 3.3 to 1.7), leading to high state 4 rates.Both malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme are functional in state 3, but malic enzyme appears to predominate before the addition of ADP and after its depletion. In the presence of cyanide, a membrane potential is generated when the alterntive pathway is operating. Cyanide-insensitive malate oxidation can be either coupled to the first phosphorylation site, sensitive to rotenone, or by-pass this site. In the absence of phosphate acceptor, malate oxidation is mainly carried out via malic enzyme and the alternative pathway. Experimental modification of the external mitochondrial environment in vitro (pH, NAD(+), glutamade) results in changes in malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme activities, which also modify cyanide resistance. It appears that a functional connection exists between malic enzyme and the alternative pathway via a rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenase and that this pathway is responsible, in part, for nonphosphorylating respiratory activity during the climacteric.

  18. Out-of-band insensitive polymer-bound PAG for EUV resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Jun; Hirayama, Taku; Matsuzawa, Kensuke; Utsumi, Yoshiyuki; Ohmori, Katsumi

    2012-03-01

    Out of band (OoB) radiation has been regarded as one of the key issues on Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL). OoB light especially in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region have a negative impact on image contrast and resist profile, since general photo acid generator (PAG) used in chemically amplified EUV resist are also sensitive for DUV. It is reported that a Spectral Purify Filter (SPF) would eliminate OoB radiation. However it expense a large reduction in EUV power and hence throughput, so it is reported that HVM EUV exposure tool would not employ SPF. Therefore, both EUV sensitive and DUV insensitive are required property to overcome OoB radiation issue by resist material itself. Consideration of PAG cation structure was proceeded to control absorption for DUV. Based on the concept, OoB insensitivity was investigated both on blend resist platform and Polymer Bound PAG (PBP) platform. OoB insensitive concept was confirmed with UV spectrum and sensitivity for KrF and ArF. The OoB insensitive PAG cation worked well on PBP, while dark loss are seen on blend resist platform due to lack of inhibition effect. Lithographic performance would be exhibited using Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) and NXE3100. Outgassing property on witness sample (WS) and Residual Gas Analysis (RGA ) will be also discussed.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, B B; Pan, J S; He, H L; Yang, X Q; Zhao, J L; Cai, R

    2013-01-01

    The plant gaseous hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To gain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the full-length cDNA encoding EIN3 (designated as CsEIN3) was cloned from cucumber for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full length of CsEIN3 was 2560 bp, with an open reading frame of 1908 bp encoding 635 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsEIN3 has high homology with other plant EIN3/EIL proteins that were derived from a common ancestor during evolution, and CsEIN3 was grouped into a cluster along with melon. Homology modeling demonstrated that CsEIN3 has a highly similar structure to the specific DNA-binding domain contained in EIN3/EIL proteins. Based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that CsEIN3 was constitutively expressed in all organs examined, and was increased during flower development and maturation in both male and female flowers. Our results suggest that CsEIN3 is involved in processes of flower development. In conclusion, this study will provide the basis for further study on the role of EIN3 in relevant biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway. PMID:24114213

  20. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  1. Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng

    2011-03-01

    This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

  2. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  3. SIM Lite: Ground Alignment of the Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Goullioud, Renaud; Nicaise, Fabien; Kuan, Gary; Morales, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    We present the start of the ground alignment plan for the SIM Lite Instrument. We outline the integration and alignment of the individual benches on which all the optics are mounted, and then the alignment of the benches to form the Science and Guide interferometers. The Instrument has a guide interferometer with only a 40 arc-seconds field of regard, and 200 arc-seconds of alignment adjustability. This requires each sides of the interferometer to be aligned to a fraction of that, while at the same time be orthogonal to the baseline defined by the External Metrology Truss. The baselines of the Science and Guide interferometers must also be aligned to be parallel. The start of these alignment plans is captured in a SysML Instrument System model, in the form of activity diagrams. These activity diagrams are then related to the hardware design and requirements. We finish with future plans for the alignment and integration activities and requirements.

  4. Threaded pilot insures cutting tool alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, R.; Schneider, W. E.

    1966-01-01

    Threaded pilot allows machining of a port component, or boss, after the reciprocating hole has been threaded. It is used to align cutting surfaces with the boss threads, thus insuring precision alignment.

  5. Synthetic approach to designing optical alignment systems.

    PubMed

    Whang, A J; Gallagher, N C

    1988-08-15

    The objective of this study is twofold: to design reticle patterns with desirable alignment properties; to build an automatic alignment system using these patterns. We design such reticle patterns via a synthetic approach; the resultant patterns, so-called pseudonoise arrays, are binary and their autocorrelation functions are bilevel. Both properties are desirable in optical alignment. Besides, these arrays have attractive signal-to-noise ratio performance when employed in alignment. We implement the pseudonoise array as a 2-D cross-grating structure of which the grating period is much less than the wavelength of impinging light used for alignment. The short grating period feature, together with the use of polarized light, enables us to perform essentially 2-D optical alignment in one dimension. This alignment separability allows us to build a system that performs alignment automatically according to a simple 1-D algorithm. PMID:20539412

  6. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

    1997-08-19

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

  7. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Warren, Mial Evans; Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton; Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe; Word, V., James Cole

    1997-01-01

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  8. Alignment Tool For Welding Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Steffins, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    Alignment tool enables accurate positioning of optoelectronic sensor measuring weld penetration. Designed for use on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus, used to adjust position of sensor so photodiode puts out maximum signal. Tangs of slotted cap bent slightly inward to provide spring force holding cap snugly on sensor mount. Tool installed and removed without aid of other tools. Length of pointer adjusted with set-screws. Used with variety of gas cup and electrode lengths.

  9. Experience in Aligning Anatomical Ontologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songmao; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    An ontology is a formal representation of a domain modeling the entities in the domain and their relations. When a domain is represented by multiple ontologies, there is need for creating mappings among these ontologies in order to facilitate the integration of data annotated with these ontologies and reasoning across ontologies. The objective of this paper is to recapitulate our experience in aligning large anatomical ontologies and to reflect on some of the issues and challenges encountered along the way. The four anatomical ontologies under investigation are the Foundational Model of Anatomy, GALEN, the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary and the NCI Thesaurus. Their underlying representation formalisms are all different. Our approach to aligning concepts (directly) is automatic, rule-based, and operates at the schema level, generating mostly point-to-point mappings. It uses a combination of domain-specific lexical techniques and structural and semantic techniques (to validate the mappings suggested lexically). It also takes advantage of domain-specific knowledge (lexical knowledge from external resources such as the Unified Medical Language System, as well as knowledge augmentation and inference techniques). In addition to point-to-point mapping of concepts, we present the alignment of relationships and the mapping of concepts group-to-group. We have also successfully tested an indirect alignment through a domain-specific reference ontology. We present an evaluation of our techniques, both against a gold standard established manually and against a generic schema matching system. The advantages and limitations of our approach are analyzed and discussed throughout the paper.

  10. Grain alignment in starless cores

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  11. Structural analysis of aligned RNAs.

    PubMed

    Voss, Björn

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge about classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is growing very fast and it is mainly the structure which is the common characteristic property shared by members of the same class. For correct characterization of such classes it is therefore of great importance to analyse the structural features in great detail. In this manuscript I present RNAlishapes which combines various secondary structure analysis methods, such as suboptimal folding and shape abstraction, with a comparative approach known as RNA alignment folding. RNAlishapes makes use of an extended thermodynamic model and covariance scoring, which allows to reward covariation of paired bases. Applying the algorithm to a set of bacterial trp-operon leaders using shape abstraction it was able to identify the two alternating conformations of this attenuator. Besides providing in-depth analysis methods for aligned RNAs, the tool also shows a fairly well prediction accuracy. Therefore, RNAlishapes provides the community with a powerful tool for structural analysis of classes of RNAs and is also a reasonable method for consensus structure prediction based on sequence alignments. RNAlishapes is available for online use and download at http://rna.cyanolab.de. PMID:17020924

  12. Aligning Plasma-Arc Welding Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeff; Fairley, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Tool aids in alignment of oscillator probe on variable-polarity plasma-arc welding torch. Probe magnetically pulls arc from side to side as it moves along joint. Tensile strength of joint depends on alignment of weld bead and on alignment of probe. Operator installs new tool on front of torch body, levels it with built-in bubble glass, inserts probe in slot on tool, and locks probe in place. Procedure faster and easier and resulting alignment more accurate and repeatable.

  13. Radar Image and Rain-gauge Alignment using the Multi-resolution Viscous Alignment (MVA) Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatdarong, V.

    2007-12-01

    Rainfall is a complex environmental variable that is difficult to describe either deterministically or statistically. To understand rainfall behaviors, many types of instruments are employed to detect and collect rainfall information. Among them, radar seems to provide the most comprehensive rainfall measurement at fine spatial and temporal resolution and over a relatively wide area. Nevertheless, it does not detects surface rainfall directly like what rain-gauge does. The accuracy radar rainfall, therefore, depends greatly on the Z-R relationship which convert radar reflectivity (Z) to surface rainrate (R). This calibration is usually done by fitting the rain-gauge data with the corresponding radar reflectivity using the regression analysis. To best fit the data, the radar reflectivity at neighbor pixels are usually used to best match the rain-gauge data. However, when applying the Z-R relationship to the radar image, there is no position adjustment despite the calibration technique. Hence, it is desirable to adjust the position of the radar reflectivity images prior to applying the Z-R relationship to improve the accuracy of the rainfall estimation. In this research, the Multi-resolution Viscous Alignment (MVA) algorithm is applied to best align radar reflectivity images to rain-gauge data in order to improve rainfall estimation from the Z-R relationship. The MVA algorithm solves the motion estimation problems using a Bayesian formulation to minimize misfits between two data sets. In general, the problem are ill-posed; therefore, some regularizations and constraints based on smoothness and non-divergence assumptions are employed. This algorithm is superior to the conventional techniques and correlation based techniques. It is fast, robust, easy to implement, and does not require data training. In addition, it can handle higher-order, missing data, and small-scale deformations. The algorithm provides spatially dense, consistency, and smooth transition vector. The

  14. Uniaxial alignment of nanoconfined columnar mesophases.

    PubMed

    Mouthuy, Pierre-Olivier; Melinte, Sorin; Geerts, Yves H; Jonas, Alain M

    2007-09-01

    By confining discotic phthalocyanines in a network of crisscrossed nanogrooves, we obtain a uniaxial alignment of the columnar mesophase. The alignment process is based on the anisotropy of interface tension between the mesophase and the nanogrooves' walls. Preferential mesophase alignment results from this nonhomogeneity combined with the anisotropy of the network cell dimensions. A simple model is proposed to explain the experimental observations.

  15. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  16. Ultrafast electron diffraction from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Centurion, Martin

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this project was to record time-resolved electron diffraction patterns of aligned molecules and to reconstruct the 3D molecular structure. The molecules are aligned non-adiabatically using a femtosecond laser pulse. A femtosecond electron pulse then records a diffraction pattern while the molecules are aligned. The diffraction patterns are then be processed to obtain the molecular structure.

  17. Aligning Performance: Improving People, Systems, and Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny

    Performance is the actual work that is done to assure that an organization achieves its mission, and aligning that performance assures that the path to the mission is harmonious. Alignment exists when all people involved understand the dimensions of the work and want to achieve and improve alignment. This book presents the "Language of Work" model…

  18. Physician-Hospital Alignment in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-09-01

    The concept of "alignment" between physicians and hospitals is a popular buzzword in the age of health care reform. Despite their often tumultuous histories, physicians and hospitals find themselves under increasing pressures to work together toward common goals. However, effective alignment is more than just simple cooperation between parties. The process of achieving alignment does not have simple, universal steps. Alignment will differ based on individual situational factors and the type of specialty involved. Ultimately, however, there are principles that underlie the concept of alignment and should be a part of any physician-hospital alignment efforts. In orthopedic surgery, alignment involves the clinical, administrative, financial, and even personal aspects of a surgeon's practice. It must be based on the principles of financial interest, clinical authority, administrative participation, transparency, focus on the patient, and mutual necessity. Alignment can take on various forms as well, with popular models consisting of shared governance and comanagement, gainsharing, bundled payments, accountable care organizations, and other methods. As regulatory and financial pressures continue to motivate physicians and hospitals to develop alignment relationships, new and innovative methods of alignment will also appear. Existing models will mature and evolve, with individual variability based on local factors. However, certain trends seem to be appearing as time progresses and alignment relationships deepen, including regional and national collaboration, population management, and changes in the legal system. This article explores the history, principles, and specific methods of physician-hospital alignment and its critical importance for the future of health care delivery.

  19. Alignment of lower-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, M S; Spence, W D; Solomonidis, S E; Paul, J P

    1986-04-01

    Alignment of a prosthesis is defined as the position of the socket relative to the other prosthetic components of the limb. During dynamic alignment the prosthetist, using subjective judgment and feedback from the patient, aims to achieve the most suitable limb geometry for best function and comfort. Until recently it was generally believed that a patient could only be satisfied with a unique "optimum alignment." The purpose of this systematic study of lower-limb alignment parameters was to gain an understanding of the factors that make a limb configuration or optimum alignment, acceptable to the patient, and to obtain a measure of the variation of this alignment that would be acceptable to the amputee. In this paper, the acceptable range of alignments for 10 below- and 10 above-knee amputees are established. Three prosthetists were involved in the majority of the 183 below-knee and 100 above-knee fittings, although several other prosthetists were also involved. The effects of each different prosthetist on the established range of alignment for each patient are reported to be significant. It is now established that an amputee can tolerate several alignments ranging in some parameters by as much as 148 mm in shifts and 17 degrees in tilts. This paper describes the method of defining and measuring the alignment of lower-limb prostheses. It presents quantitatively established values for bench alignment position and the range of adjustment required for incorporation into the design of new alignment units.

  20. Demonstration of polarization-insensitive spatial light modulation using a single polarization-sensitive spatial light modulator

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple configuration incorporating a single polarization-sensitive phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) to facilitate polarization-insensitive spatial light modulation. The polarization-insensitive configuration is formed by a polarization beam splitter (PBS), a polarization-sensitive phase-only LC-SLM, a half-wave plate (HWP), and a mirror in a loop structure. We experimentally demonstrate polarization-insensitive spatial light modulations for incident linearly polarized beams with different polarization states and polarization-multiplexed beams. Polarization-insensitive spatial light modulations generating orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams are demonstrated in the experiment. The designed polarization-insensitive configuration may find promising applications in spatial light modulations accommodating diverse incident polarizations. PMID:26146032

  1. BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 to mediate the antagonism of brassinosteroids to abscisic acid during seed germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2014-11-01

    Seed germination and postgerminative growth are regulated by a delicate hormonal balance. Abscisic acid (ABA) represses Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and postgerminative growth, while brassinosteroids (BRs) antagonize ABA-mediated inhibition and promote these processes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying BR-repressed ABA signaling remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a critical repressor of BR signaling, positively regulates ABA responses during seed germination and postgerminative growth. Mechanistic investigation revealed that BIN2 physically interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), a bZIP transcription factor. Further genetic analysis demonstrated that the ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of BIN2-overexpressing plants requires ABI5. BIN2 was found to phosphorylate and stabilize ABI5 in the presence of ABA, while application of epibrassinolide (the active form of BRs) inhibited the regulation of ABI5 by BIN2. Consistently, the ABA-induced accumulation of ABI5 was affected in BIN2-related mutants. Moreover, mutations of the BIN2 phosphorylation sites on ABI5 made the mutant protein respond to ABA improperly. Additionally, the expression of several ABI5 regulons was positively modulated by BIN2. These results provide evidence that BIN2 phosphorylates and stabilizes ABI5 to mediate ABA response during seed germination, while BRs repress the BIN2-ABI5 cascade to antagonize ABA-mediated inhibition.

  2. BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 Interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 to Mediate the Antagonism of Brassinosteroids to Abscisic Acid during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination and postgerminative growth are regulated by a delicate hormonal balance. Abscisic acid (ABA) represses Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and postgerminative growth, while brassinosteroids (BRs) antagonize ABA-mediated inhibition and promote these processes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying BR-repressed ABA signaling remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a critical repressor of BR signaling, positively regulates ABA responses during seed germination and postgerminative growth. Mechanistic investigation revealed that BIN2 physically interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), a bZIP transcription factor. Further genetic analysis demonstrated that the ABA-hypersensitive phenotype of BIN2-overexpressing plants requires ABI5. BIN2 was found to phosphorylate and stabilize ABI5 in the presence of ABA, while application of epibrassinolide (the active form of BRs) inhibited the regulation of ABI5 by BIN2. Consistently, the ABA-induced accumulation of ABI5 was affected in BIN2-related mutants. Moreover, mutations of the BIN2 phosphorylation sites on ABI5 made the mutant protein respond to ABA improperly. Additionally, the expression of several ABI5 regulons was positively modulated by BIN2. These results provide evidence that BIN2 phosphorylates and stabilizes ABI5 to mediate ABA response during seed germination, while BRs repress the BIN2-ABI5 cascade to antagonize ABA-mediated inhibition. PMID:25415975

  3. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Optical pupil relay design for SILEX - Optimising wavefront error and transmit/receive beams co-alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, Reginald P.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes some of the key parameters that have been considered for the European Satellite Interorbital Link EXperiment (SILEX) optical relay lens design. Particular attention has been given to the specific requirement of transmit/receive beams co-alignment. The method of evaluating co-alignment errors is described and the effect of manufacturing tolerances and environmental long term stability on the co-alignment error investigated.

  5. Simultaneous Alignment and Folding of Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Waldispühl, Jérôme; O'Donnell, Charles W.; Will, Sebastian; Devadas, Srinivas; Backofen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Accurate comparative analysis tools for low-homology proteins remains a difficult challenge in computational biology, especially sequence alignment and consensus folding problems. We present partiFold-Align, the first algorithm for simultaneous alignment and consensus folding of unaligned protein sequences; the algorithm's complexity is polynomial in time and space. Algorithmically, partiFold-Align exploits sparsity in the set of super-secondary structure pairings and alignment candidates to achieve an effectively cubic running time for simultaneous pairwise alignment and folding. We demonstrate the efficacy of these techniques on transmembrane β-barrel proteins, an important yet difficult class of proteins with few known three-dimensional structures. Testing against structurally derived sequence alignments, partiFold-Align significantly outperforms state-of-the-art pairwise and multiple sequence alignment tools in the most difficult low-sequence homology case. It also improves secondary structure prediction where current approaches fail. Importantly, partiFold-Align requires no prior training. These general techniques are widely applicable to many more protein families (partiFold-Align is available at http://partifold.csail.mit.edu/). PMID:24766258

  6. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  7. Target alignment in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.; Bliss, E.S.; Murray, J.E.

    1994-06-06

    Accurate placement of hundreds of focused laser beams on target is necessary to achieve success in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The current system requirement is {le}7 {mu}rad error in output pointing and {le}1 mm error in focusing. To accommodate several system shots per day, a target alignment system must be able to align the target to chamber center, inject an alignment beam to represent each shot beam, and point and focus the alignment beams onto the target in about one hour. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed a target alignment concept and built a prototype to validate the approach. The concept comprises three systems: the chamber center reference, target alignment sensor, and target alignment beams.

  8. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

  9. Combining Multiple Pairwise Structure-based Alignments

    2014-11-12

    CombAlign is a new Python code that generates a gapped, one-to-many, multiple structure-based sequence alignment(MSSA) given a set of pairwise structure-based alignments. In order to better define regions of similarity among related protein structures, it is useful to detect the residue-residue correspondences among a set of pairwise structure alignments. Few codes exist for constructing a one-to-many, multiple sequence alignment derived from a set of structure alignments, and we perceived a need for creating a newmore » tool for combing pairwise structure alignments that would allow for insertion of gaps in the reference structure.« less

  10. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  11. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-15

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  12. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  13. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  14. Ridge effect and alignment phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhtin, I. P. Managadze, A. K. Snigirev, A. M.

    2013-05-15

    It is assumed that the ridge effect observed by the CMS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and the phenomenon observed by the Pamir Collaboration in emulsion experiments with cosmic rays and characterized by the alignment of spots on a film is a manifestation of the same as-yet-unknown mechanism of the emergence of a coplanar structure of events. A large coplanar effect at the LHC in the region of forward rapidities is predicted on the basis of this hypothesis and an analysis of experimental data.

  15. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOEpatents

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  16. Strategies for active alignment of lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Wilde, Chrisitan; Hahne, Felix; Lüerß, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Today's optical systems require up-to-date assembly and joining technology. The trend of keeping dimensions as small as possible while maintaining or increasing optical imaging performance leaves little to no room for mechanical lens adjustment equipment that may remain in the final product. In this context active alignment of optical elements opens up possibilities for the fast and cost-economic manufacturing of lenses and lens assemblies with highest optical performance. Active alignment for lens manufacturing is the precise alignment of the optical axis of a lens with respect to an optical or mechanical reference axis (e.g. housing) including subsequent fixation by glue. In this contribution we will describe different approaches for active alignment and outline strengths and limitations of the different methods. Using the SmartAlign principle, highest quality cemented lenses can be manufactured without the need for high precision prealignment, while the reduction to a single alignment step greatly reduces the cycle time. The same strategies can also be applied to bonding processes. Lenses and lens groups can be aligned to both mechanical and optical axes to maximize the optical performance of a given assembly. In hybrid assemblies using both mechanical tolerances and active alignment, SmartAlign can be used to align critical lens elements anywhere inside the system for optimized total performance. Since all geometrical parameters are re-measured before each alignment, this process is especially suited for complex and time-consuming production processes where the stability of the reference axis would otherwise be critical. For highest performance, lenses can be actively aligned using up to five degrees of freedom. In this way, SmartAlign enables the production of ultra-precise mounted lenses with an alignment precision below 1 μm.

  17. Characterization and crystal structure of lysine insensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase (cDHDPS) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, E.A.; Bannon, G.A.; Glenn, K.C.; Jeong, S.S.; Sturman, E.J.; Rydel, T.J.

    2008-11-21

    The lysine insensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase enzyme (cDHDPS) was recently successfully introduced into maize plants to enhance the level of lysine in the grain. To better understand lysine insensitivity of the cDHDPS, we expressed, purified, kinetically characterized the protein, and solved its X-ray crystal structure. The cDHDPS enzyme has a fold and overall structure that is highly similar to other DHDPS proteins. A noteworthy feature of the active site is the evidence that the catalytic lysine residue forms a Schiff base adduct with pyruvate. Analyses of the cDHDPS structure in the vicinity of the putative binding site for S-lysine revealed that the allosteric binding site in the Escherichia coli DHDPS protein does not exist in cDHDPS due to three non-conservative amino acids substitutions, and this is likely why cDHDPS is not feedback inhibited by lysine.

  18. Efficient design of polarization insensitive polymer optical waveguide devices considering stress-induced effects.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Faruque; Chan, Hau Ping; Kouzani, Abbas Z

    2014-04-21

    We present an approach for the efficient design of polarization insensitive polymeric optical waveguide devices considering stress-induced effects. In this approach, the stresses induced in the waveguide during the fabrication process are estimated first using a more realistic model in the finite element analysis. Then we determine the perturbations in the material refractive indices caused by the stress-optic effect. It is observed that the stresses cause non-uniform optical anisotropy in the waveguide materials, which is then incorporated in the modal analysis considering a multilayer structure of waveguide. The approach is exploited in the design of a Bragg grating on strip waveguide. Excellent agreement between calculated and published experimental results confirms the feasibility of our approach in the accurate design of polarization insensitive polymer waveguide devices.

  19. Courant Number and Mach Number Insensitive CE/SE Euler Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    It has been known that the space-time CE/SE method can be used to obtain ID, 2D, and 3D steady and unsteady flow solutions with Mach numbers ranging from 0.0028 to 10. However, it is also known that a CE/SE solution may become overly dissipative when the Mach number is very small. As an initial attempt to remedy this weakness, new 1D Courant number and Mach number insensitive CE/SE Euler solvers are developed using several key concepts underlying the recent successful development of Courant number insensitive CE/SE schemes. Numerical results indicate that the new solvers are capable of resolving crisply a contact discontinuity embedded in a flow with the maximum Mach number = 0.01.

  20. Polarization insensitive wide-angle triple-band metamaterial bandpass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wenyue; Han, Yuchen; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Haoshen; Li, Haipeng; Han, Kui; Shen, Xiaopeng; Cui, Tiejun

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we report the design, fabrication and measurement of a polarization insensitive wide-angle triple-band metamaterial bandpass filter (BPF) in the microwave frequency. The proposed BPF consists of two identical metal resonant units which have three concentric square slots separated by a dielectric layer. Experimental results show that the BPF has three distinctive transmission bands centered at frequencies 6.22 GHz, 9.46 GHz and 12.14 GHz with transmission rates of  ‑0.40 dB, ‑0.71 dB and  ‑1.40 dB, respectively, agreeing well with simulation results. By introducing the substrate integrated waveguide, the filter is valid to a wide range of incident angles for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. The triple-band metamaterial BPF can be used as multiband filters and radomes owing to its multiband transmissions, polarizations insensitive and wide-angle responses.

  1. Parsing the construct of maternal insensitivity: distinct longitudinal pathways associated with early maternal withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M Ann; Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Kate; Vulliez-Coady, Lauriane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper expands on Ainsworth's seminal construct of maternal sensitivity by exploring the developmental pathways associated with one particular form of insensitivity: maternal withdrawal. Drawing on longitudinal data from infancy to age 20 in a high-risk cohort, we highlight how maternal withdrawal over the first eight years of life is associated with child caregiving behavior and with maternal role confusion, as well as with features of borderline and antisocial personality disorders. We also present evidence for the specificity of this pathway in relation to other aspects of maternal insensitivity and other aspects of child adaptation. To illuminate these pathways we both review recent published work and report new findings on the middle childhood and adolescent components of these trajectories. Finally, we consider the implications for assessment of maternal behavior in high-risk samples and indicate directions for productive future work. PMID:24299135

  2. Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber based on E-shaped all-dielectric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jun; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Du, Hongliang; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we designed a metamaterial absorber performed in microwave frequency band. This absorber is composed of E-shaped dielectrics which are arranged along different directions. The E-shaped all-dielectric structure is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. Within about 1 GHz frequency band, more than 86% absorption efficiency was observed for this metamaterial absorber. This absorber is polarization insensitive and is stable for incident angles. It is figured out that the polarization insensitive absorption is caused by the nearly located varied resonant modes which are excited by the E-shaped all-dielectric resonators with the same size but in the different direction. The E-shaped dielectric absorber contains intensive resonant points. Our research work paves a way for designing all-dielectric absorber.

  3. Observing Local Realism Violations with a Combination of Sensitive and Insensitive Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Yurke, B.; Stoler, D.

    1997-12-01

    Several systems are exhibited in which the establishment of local realism violation is achieved even when some of the detectors employed are insensitive. The insensitive detectors are homodyne detectors whose task is to determine if the amplitude of a coherent state is {alpha} or {minus}{alpha} . This determination can be achieved with low quantum efficiency detectors when {vert_bar}{alpha}{vert_bar} is large. The other detectors employed determine whether there is an even number or an odd number of photons in a state. These detectors are sensitive since they are required to resolve the difference of one photon. For the examples given, the local realism violation is not diminished as {vert_bar}{alpha}{vert_bar} is increased. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Design and characteristics of polarization-insensitive resonant gratings for color filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Banglian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yinping; Huang, Yuanshen; Wang, Qi

    2013-12-01

    A method of designing polarization-insensitive color filters with guided-mode resonance grating is presented. The influence of incident conditions on exciting waveguide mode is investigated, and we find that polarization insensitivity may occur at the full conical incidence. Using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, we mainly analyze the effects of waveguide thickness and fill factor on the diffracted efficiency of the grating filter. The final structural parameters of the devices for three primary colors are collected after optimization, and the calculated results show that the spectral reflectance of each color filter is basically identical for different polarization states of incident light. Moreover, field analysis by the finite-difference time-domain technique indicates that two symmetric modes are excited between the waveguide layer and substrate under full conical incidence, which is coincident with the previous theoretical study. The reported work will eliminate the restriction of polarization-dependence of color filters and greatly expand their application range.

  5. Mineral nutrient remobilization during corolla senescence in ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive flowers

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The flower has a finite lifespan that is controlled largely by its role in sexual reproduction. Once the flower has been pollinated or is no longer receptive to pollination, the petals are programmed to senesce. A majority of the genes that are up-regulated during petal senescence, in both ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive flowers, encode proteins involved in the degradation of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, fatty acids, and cell wall and membrane components. A smaller subset of these genes has a putative role in remobilizing nutrients, and only a few of these have been studied in detail. During senescence, carbohydrates (primarily sucrose) are transported from petals, and the degradation of macromolecules and organelles also allows the plant to salvage mineral nutrients from the petals before cell death. The remobilization of mineral nutrients from a few species has been investigated and will be reviewed in this article. Ethylene's role in nutrient remobilization is discussed by comparing nutrient changes during the senescence of ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive flowers, and by studies in transgenic petunias (Petunia × hybrida) that are insensitive to ethylene. Gene expression studies indicate that remobilization is a key feature of senescence, but some senescence-associated genes have different expression in leaves and petals. These gene expression patterns, along with differences in the nutrient content of leaves and petals, suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of cellular degradation and nutrient transport in vegetative and floral organs. Autophagy may be the mechanism for large-scale degradation that allows for recycling during senescence, but it is unclear if this causes cell death. Future research should focus on autophagy and the regulation of ATG genes by ethylene during both leaf and petal senescence. We must identify the mechanisms by which individual mineral nutrients are transported out of senescing corollas in both ethylene

  6. Frequency-resolved noise figure measurements of phase (in)sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Kumpera, A; Lorences-Riesgo, A; Andrekson, P A; Karlsson, M

    2014-11-17

    We measure the frequency-resolved noise figure of fiber optical parametric amplifiers both in phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive modes in the frequency range from 0.03 to 3 GHz. We also measure the variation in noise figure due to the degradation in pump optical signal to noise ratio and also as a function of the input signal powers. Noise figure degradation due to stimulated Brillouin scattering is observed.

  7. Insensitive explosive composition and method of fracturing rock using an extrudable form of the composition

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Lloyd L.

    2015-07-28

    Insensitive explosive compositions were prepared by reacting di-isocyanate and/or poly-isocyanate monomers with an explosive diamine monomer. Prior to a final cure, the compositions are extrudable. The di-isocyanate monomers tend to produce tough, rubbery materials while polyfunctional monomers (i.e. having more than two isocyanate groups) tend to form rigid products. The extrudable form of the composition may be used in a variety of applications including rock fracturing.

  8. Insensitive explosive composition and method of fracturing rock using an extrudable form of the composition

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Lloyd L

    2013-11-05

    Insensitive explosive compositions were prepared by reacting di-isocyanate and/or poly-isocyanate monomers with an explosive diamine monomer. Prior to a final cure, the compositions are extrudable. The di-isocyanate monomers tend to produce tough, rubbery materials while polyfunctional monomers (i.e. having more than two isocyanate groups) tend to form rigid products. The extrudable form of the composition may be used in a variety of applications including rock fracturing.

  9. Insensitive unification of gauge couplings with three vector-like families

    SciTech Connect

    Dermisek, Radovan

    2013-05-23

    The standard model extended by three vector-like families with masses of order 1 TeV - 100 TeV allows for unification of gauge couplings. The values of gauge couplings at the electroweak scale are highly insensitive to fundamental parameters. The grand unification scale is large enough to avoid the problem with fast proton decay. The electroweak minimum of the Higgs potential is stable.

  10. Fundamental quantum limits on phase-insensitive linear amplification and phase conjugation in a practical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Namiki, Ryo

    2011-04-15

    We present experimentally testable quantum limitations on the phase-insensitive linear amplification and phase conjugation with respect to the transformation of a Gaussian-distributed set of coherent states following the footing to assess the success of continuous-variable quantum teleportation and quantum memory devices. The results enable us to compare the real device with the quantum-limited device via the feasible input of coherent states.

  11. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  12. Laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7).

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao; McLuckie, Warren G

    2015-03-21

    An experimental investigation into laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosives, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) has been carried out, using a diode laser of continuous wave at the laser wavelength of 974 nm. The direct optical ignition of an insensitive explosive will add more safety features to insensitive munitions (IM) or explosive devices. In this study, effects of laser parameters on the ignitibility were analysed in terms of laser ignition threshold, the times to initiate the ignition and full combustion, and burning sustainability. The results have shown that carbon black (CB) as an optical sensitizer is compatible with FOX-7, and significantly enhances laser ignitibility of the explosive when a small amount of CB is uniformly doped in FOX-7. The delay times for ignition and subsequent development of sustainable burning of the material are mainly determined by ignition laser power, although the other laser parameters have effects. The minimum laser power required to ignite the optically sensitized FOX-7 was found below 10 W and a fast ignition was initiated in as short as 70 μs by a laser power of 40 W. Also the effect of the mixture uniformity of FOX-7/CB on laser ignition performance was evaluated in this study.

  13. The N-acetylcysteine-insensitive acetic acid-induced yeast programmed cell death occurs without macroautophagy.

    PubMed

    Antonacci, Lucia; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Ždralevic, Maša; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    Programmed cell death can occur through two separate pathways caused by treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with acetic acid (AA-PCD), which differ from one another essentially with respect to their sensitivity to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and to the role played by cytochrome c and metacaspase YCA1. Moreover, yeast can also undergo macroautophagy which occurs in NAC-insensitive manner. In order to gain some insight into the relationship between AA-PCD and macroautophagy use was made of WT and knock-out cells lacking YCA1 and/or cytochrome c. We show that i. macroautophagy is modulated by YCA1 and by cytochrome c in a negative and positive manner, respectively, ii. the NAC-insensitive AA-PCD and macroautophagy differ from one another and iii. NAC-insensitive AA-PCD pathway takes place essentially without macroautophagy, even if the shift of extracellular pH to acidic values required for AA-PCD to occur leads itself to increased or decreased macroautophagy in YCA1 or cytochrome c-lacking cells. PMID:23072389

  14. Major QTLs associated with green stem disorder insensitivity of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shimada, Shinji; Hajika, Makita; Hirata, Kaori; Takahashi, Koji; Nagaya, Taiko; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Maekawa, Tomiya; Sayama, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Ishimoto, Masao; Tanaka, Junichi

    2014-12-01

    Green stem disorder (GSD) is one of the most serious syndromes affecting soybean (Glycine max) cultivation in Japan. In GSD, stems remain green even when pods mature. When soybean plants develop GSD, seed surfaces are soiled by tissue fluid and seed quality is deteriorated during machine harvesting. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for GSD insensitivity using recombinant inbred lines (RILs; n = 154) derived from a cross between an insensitive line ('Touhoku 129') and a sensitive leading cultivar ('Tachinagaha') during a 6-year evaluation. Three effective QTLs were detected. The influences of these QTLs were in the following order: qGSD1 (LG_H) > qGSD2 (LG_F) > qGSD3 (LG_L). At these three QTLs, 'Touhoku 129' genotypes exhibited more GSD insensitivity than 'Tachinagaha' genotypes. The lower incidence of GSD for 'Touhoku129' was attributable primarily to these three QTLs because RILs harboring a 'Touhoku 129' genotype at the three QTLs exhibited a GSD incidence similar to that of 'Touhoku 129.' Although a limitation of this study is that only one mapping population was evaluated, this QTL information and the flanking markers of these QTLs would be effective tools for resolving GSD in soybean breeding programs.

  15. Incident Angle- and Polarization-Insensitive Metamaterial Absorber using Circular Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongju; Hwang, Jung Gyu; Lim, Daecheon; Hara, Tadayoshi; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an incident angle- and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber is proposed for X-band applications. A unit cell of the proposed absorber has a square patch at the centre and four circular sectors are rotated around the square patch. The vertically and horizontally symmetric structure of the unit cell enables polarization-insensitivity. The circular sector of the unit cell enables an angle-insensitivity. The performances of the proposed absorber are demonstrated with a full-wave simulation and measurements. The angular sensitivity is studied at different inner angles of the circular sector. When the inner angle of the circular sector is 90°, the simulated absorptivity is higher than 90%, and the frequency variation is less than 0.96% for incident angles up to 70°. The measured absorptivity at 10.44 GHz is close to 100% for all the polarization angles under normal incidence. When the incident angles are varied from 0°– 60°, the measured absorptivity is maintained above 90% for both the transverse electric (TE) and the transverse magnetic (TM) modes. PMID:27257089

  16. Laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7).

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao; McLuckie, Warren G

    2015-03-21

    An experimental investigation into laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosives, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) has been carried out, using a diode laser of continuous wave at the laser wavelength of 974 nm. The direct optical ignition of an insensitive explosive will add more safety features to insensitive munitions (IM) or explosive devices. In this study, effects of laser parameters on the ignitibility were analysed in terms of laser ignition threshold, the times to initiate the ignition and full combustion, and burning sustainability. The results have shown that carbon black (CB) as an optical sensitizer is compatible with FOX-7, and significantly enhances laser ignitibility of the explosive when a small amount of CB is uniformly doped in FOX-7. The delay times for ignition and subsequent development of sustainable burning of the material are mainly determined by ignition laser power, although the other laser parameters have effects. The minimum laser power required to ignite the optically sensitized FOX-7 was found below 10 W and a fast ignition was initiated in as short as 70 μs by a laser power of 40 W. Also the effect of the mixture uniformity of FOX-7/CB on laser ignition performance was evaluated in this study. PMID:25528237

  17. Characterization of a state-insensitive dipole trap for cesium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Phoonthong, P.; Douglas, P.; Wickenbrock, A.; Renzoni, F.

    2010-07-15

    In this work we characterize a state-insensitive dipole trap for cold cesium atoms, as realized by tightly focusing a single running laser beam at the magic wavelength. The use of trapping light at the magic wavelength of 935.6 nm resulted in the same ac Stark shift for the {sup 6}S{sub 1/2} ground state and the {sup 6}P{sub 3/2} excited state. A complete characterization of the trap is given, which includes the dependence of the lifetime on the trap depth, an analysis of the important role played by a depumper beam, and a comparison with dipole trapping at different (nonmagic) wavelengths. In particular, we measured the differential light shift of the relevant optical transition as a function of the trapping light wavelength, and showed that it becomes zero at the magic wavelength. Our results are compared to previous realizations of state-insensitive dipole traps for cesium atoms. We also discuss the possible role of the state-insensitive trap, its limitations, and possible developments for the study of ground-state quantum coherence phenomena and related applications.

  18. Micropenis. III. Primary hypogonadism, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, and idiopathic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, P A; Danish, R K; Mazur, T; Migeon, C J

    1980-11-01

    This paper, the third in a series, presents data from 28 patients with micropenis categorized as primary hypogonadism (11 subjects), partial androgen insensitivity (1 subject), idiopathic (6 subjects), and etiology undetermined (10 subjects). Among the 11 patients with primary hypogonadism, 8 presented with various degrees of gonadal dysgenesis, 1 was a true hermaphrodite and 2 had the Robinow syndrome. Nine of the 28 patients were raised as females: 5 with primary hypogonadism and 4 with undetermined etiology. Eleven of the 19 patients raised as males received androgen stimulation during prepubertal years and responded with penile growth. However, this growth response was temporary and did not appear to be predictive of eventual adult size of the penis. Generally, the prestimulation size of this group of patients is more predictive of adult penile size. Only 7 of the patients raised as males have attained adult somatic growth. Three out of the three with primary hypogonadism, the subject with partial androgen insensitivity, and one of three with idiopathic micropenis have below-normal adult penile length. These limited data suggest that growth potential of the micropenis may be greater among the patients with an idiopathic state than among those with primary hypogonadism and partial androgen insensitivity.

  19. Temperature-insensitive vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and method for fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Chow, W.W.; Choquette, K.D.; Gourley, P.L.

    1998-01-27

    A temperature-insensitive vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and method for fabrication thereof are disclosed. The temperature-insensitive VCSEL comprises a quantum-well active region within a resonant cavity, the active region having a gain spectrum with a high-order subband (n {>=} 2) contribution thereto for broadening and flattening the gain spectrum, thereby substantially reducing any variation in operating characteristics of the VCSEL over a temperature range of interest. The method for forming the temperature-insensitive VCSEL comprises the steps of providing a substrate and forming a plurality of layers thereon for providing first and second distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror stacks with an active region sandwiched therebetween, the active region including at least one quantum-well layer providing a gain spectrum having a high-order subband (n {>=} 2) gain contribution, and the DBR mirror stacks having predetermined layer compositions and thicknesses for providing a cavity resonance within a predetermined wavelength range substantially overlapping the gain spectrum. 12 figs.

  20. Temperature-insensitive vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and method for fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Weng W.; Choquette, Kent D.; Gourley, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    A temperature-insensitive vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and method for fabrication thereof. The temperature-insensitive VCSEL comprises a quantum-well active region within a resonant cavity, the active region having a gain spectrum with a high-order subband (n.gtoreq.2) contribution thereto for broadening and flattening the gain spectrum, thereby substantially reducing any variation in operating characteristics of the VCSEL over a temperature range of interest. The method for forming the temperature-insensitive VCSEL comprises the steps of providing a substrate and forming a plurality of layers thereon for providing first and second distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror stacks with an active region sandwiched therebetween, the active region including at least one quantum-well layer providing a gain spectrum having a high-order subband (n.gtoreq.2) gain contribution, and the DBR mirror stacks having predetermined layer compositions and thicknesses for providing a cavity resonance within a predetermined wavelength range substantially overlapping the gain spectrum.

  1. Miniature temperature insensitive fiber optic sensors for minimally invasive surgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Ginu; Callaghan, Dean; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the concept of implementing miniature temperature insensitive optical fiber sensors into minimally invasive surgical devices such as graspers, staplers and scissors. The lack of temperature insensitive and accurate force feedback end effectors make the current minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) less effective especially in the area of electrosurgery. The failure to provide accurate force feedback information reduces the user's sense of immersion in the operating procedure. In this paper we present fiber sensors based on photonic crystal fibers (PCF) for force feedback from the end effectors. Two types of miniature temperature insensitive PCF sensors can be implemented for MIS applications; a Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor based on hollow core PCF and a tapered modal interferometric sensor based on a solid core PCF. A concept for interrogating these sensors effectively at minimal cost is also presented. The integration of sensors onto the end effectors is also important as one has to find an optimum position for maximum strain/force transfer to the fiber sensor without interfering with the operation of the surgical tool. We have also presented the methodology for incorporating the sensors into surgical end-effectors in this paper.

  2. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, S.M.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT, as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Title 40, part 268, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 268). This technology traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not. leach into the environment. Typical contaminants that are trapped by stabilization are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity as defined by 40 CFR part 261. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. They are inexpensive, easy to use, and effective for wastes containing low concentrations of toxic materials. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  3. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, X.; Lin, W. P.; Dong, X.; Wang, Y. O.; Dutton, A.; Macciò, A.

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some extent of mis-alignment. The massive haloes have stronger alignment than haloes in filament which connect massive haloes. This is contrary to the naive expectation that cosmic filament is the cause of halo alignment.

  4. Incorporating mesh-insensitive structural stress into the fatigue assessment procedure of common structural rules for bulk carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a fatigue assessment procedure using mesh-insensitive structural stress method based on the Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers by considering important factors, such as mean stress and thickness effects. The fatigue assessment result of mesh-insensitive structural stress method have been compared with CSR procedure based on equivalent notch stress at major hot spot points in the area near the ballast hold for a 180 K bulk carrier. The possibility of implementing mesh-insensitive structural stress method in the fatigue assessment procedure for ship structures is discussed.

  5. Cattle on pastures do align along the North-South axis, but the alignment depends on herd density.

    PubMed

    Slaby, P; Tomanova, K; Vacha, M

    2013-08-01

    Alignment is a spontaneous behavioral preference of particular body orientation that may be seen in various vertebrate or invertebrate taxa. Animals often optimize their positions according to diverse directional environmental factors such as wind, stream, slope, sun radiation, etc. Magnetic alignment represents the simplest directional response to the geomagnetic field and a growing body of evidence of animals aligning their body positions according to geomagnetic lines whether at rest or during feedings is accumulating. Recently, with the aid of Google Earth application, evidence of prevailing North-South (N-S) body orientation of cattle on pastures was published (Begall et al. PNAS 105:13451-13455, 2008; Burda et al. PNAS 106:5708-5713, 2009). Nonetheless, a subsequent study from a different laboratory did not confirm this phenomenon (Hert et al. J Comp Physiol A 197:677-682, 2011). The aim of our study was to enlarge the pool of independently gained data on this remarkable animal behavior. By satellite snapshots analysis and using blinded protocol we scored positions of 2,235 individuals in 74 herds. Our results are in line with the original findings of prevailing N-S orientation of grazing cattle. In addition, we found that mutual distances between individual animals within herds (herd density) affect their N-S preference-a new phenomenon giving some insight into biological significance of alignment. PMID:23700176

  6. Alignment dependence of photoelectron momentum distributions of atomic and molecular targets probed by few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-08-01

    We present theoretical photoelectron momentum distributions (PMDs) for ionization from Ar(3 p ) and H2+ (σg) orbitals by few-cycle, high-intensity, near-infrared laser fields circularly polarized in the x y plane. The three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved numerically within the single-active-electron approximation for Ar and within the fixed nuclei approximation for H2+ . The PMDs are investigated for alignment of the probed target orbitals relative to the polarization plane of the laser field. In the atomic case, the PMDs in the polarization plane for aligned 3 p Ar orbitals are, up to an overall scaling factor, insensitive to alignment of the probed orbital, while the lateral PMDs show a signature of the orbital node when that node is sufficiently close to the polarization plane. For the molecular case of H2+ (σg), our results show a significant impact of alignment on the PMDs due to the anisotropic molecular potential and the alignment-dependent coupling between the ground state and excited states.

  7. Ontology Alignment Architecture for Semantic Sensor Web Integration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Velasco, Juan R.; Alarcos, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity). Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity's names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall. PMID:24051523

  8. Ontology alignment architecture for semantic sensor Web integration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Velasco, Juan R; Alarcos, Bernardo

    2013-09-18

    Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity). Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity's names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall.

  9. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.

    1993-09-28

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

  10. Droplet Vorticity Alignment in Model Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migler, Kalman

    2000-03-01

    The shear induced deformation of polymeric droplets in an immiscible polymeric matrix is studied using a transparent rotating plate-plate device. We consider the case where the viscosity ratio of the two phases is near unity, but the elasticity ratio of the droplet to the matrix is of order 10^2. This is achieved by using a matrix of PDMS and a droplet of a PIB based Boger fluid. In the limit of weak shear and small droplets, the droplet alignment is along the shear direction, whereas for strong shear and large droplets, the alignment is along the vorticity direction. There is a range of conditions for which alignment can be along either axis. For droplets aligned along the vorticity axis, the distribution of aspect ratios is broad. The transformation from flow alignment to vorticity alignment upon commencement of shear flow has been observed and correlates with the time scale for development of normal forces in the Boger fluid.

  11. Multiple alignment using hidden Markov models

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    A simulated annealing method is described for training hidden Markov models and producing multiple sequence alignments from initially unaligned protein or DNA sequences. Simulated annealing in turn uses a dynamic programming algorithm for correctly sampling suboptimal multiple alignments according to their probability and a Boltzmann temperature factor. The quality of simulated annealing alignments is evaluated on structural alignments of ten different protein families, and compared to the performance of other HMM training methods and the ClustalW program. Simulated annealing is better able to find near-global optima in the multiple alignment probability landscape than the other tested HMM training methods. Neither ClustalW nor simulated annealing produce consistently better alignments compared to each other. Examination of the specific cases in which ClustalW outperforms simulated annealing, and vice versa, provides insight into the strengths and weaknesses of current hidden Maxkov model approaches.

  12. IAIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    2013-08-29

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIM FAST uses a large monitor to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. Thismore » fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools.« less

  13. AIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    2012-09-13

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIMFAST uses a large monitor or projections screen to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirrormore » shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools. The software for the communicating computer is specific to the implementation and is not a part of AIMFAST.« less

  14. IAIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, Charles E.

    2013-08-29

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIM FAST uses a large monitor to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools.

  15. AIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIMFAST uses a large monitor or projections screen to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools. The software for the communicating computer is specific to the implementation and is not a part of AIMFAST.

  16. The Alignment of Galaxy Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacka, M.; Panko, E.; Bajan, K.; Godłowski, W.; Flin, P.

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the orientation of the sample of ACO galaxy clusters. We examined the alignment in a subsample of 1056 galaxy structures taken from the Panko-Flin (2006) Catalog with known BM morphological types. We were looking for a correlation between the orientation of the cluster and the positions of neighboring clusters. The Binggeli effect (the excess of small values of the Δθ angles between the direction toward neighboring clusters and the cluster position angle) is observed, having a range up to about 45 h-1 Mpc. The strongest effect was found for elongated BM type I clusters. This is probably connected with the origins of the supergiant galaxy and with cluster formation along a long filament or plane in a supercluster.

  17. Alignment performance monitoring for ASML systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woong-Jae; Temchenko, Vlad; Hauck, Tarja; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2006-03-01

    In today's semiconductor industry downscaling of the IC design puts a stringent requirement on pattern overlay control. Tighter overlay requirements lead to exceedingly higher rework rates, meaning additional costs to manufacturing. Better alignment control became a target of engineering efforts to decrease rework rate for high-end technologies. Overlay performance is influenced by known parameters such as "Shift, Scaling, Rotation, etc", and unknown parameters defined as "Process Induced Variation", which are difficult to control by means of a process automation system. In reality, this process-induced variation leads to a strong wafer to wafer, or lot to lot variation, which are not easy to detect in the mass-production environment which uses sampling overlay measurements for only several wafers in a lot. An engineering task of finding and correcting a root cause for Process Induced Variations of overlay performance will be greatly simplified if the unknown parameters could be tracked for each wafer. This paper introduces an alignment performance monitoring method based on analysis of automatically generated "AWE" files for ASML scanner systems. Because "AWE" files include alignment results for each aligned wafer, it is possible to use them for monitoring, controlling and correcting the causes of "process induced" overlay performance without requiring extra measurement time. Since "AWE" files include alignment information for different alignment marks, it is also possible to select and optimize the best alignment recipe for each alignment strategy. Several case studies provided in our paper will demonstrate how AWE file analysis can be used to assist engineer in interpreting pattern alignment data. Since implementing our alignment data monitoring method, we were able to achieve significant improvement of alignment and overlay performance without additional overlay measurement time. We also noticed that the rework rate coming from alignment went down and

  18. COS to FGS Alignment {NUV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, George

    2009-07-01

    DESCRIPTION: In order to determine the location of the COS reference frame with respect to the FGS reference frames, NUV MIRRORA images will be obtained of an astrometric target and field. Astrometric guide stars and targets must be employed for this activity in order to facilitate the alignment wth the FGS. Images will be obtained at the initial pointing and at positions offset in V2 and in V3. Starting with the original blind pointing, obtain MIRRORA image exposures in a 5x5 POS-TARG grid centered on initial pointing; repeat the image sequence at two bracketing focus positions in same visit. Following completion of third pattern, return to nominal focus and perform 5x5 ACQ/SEARCH target acquisition and obtain one TIME-TAG MIRRORA image and one ACCUM verification exposure. Next perform an ACQ/IMAGE target acquisition followed by an ACCUM verification exposure. Also obtain ACCUM verification exposure for each of the two alternate focus positions used previously. Using MIRRORB obtain ACCUM confirmation image at nominal focus and ACCUM images at alternate focus positions and then perform an ACQ/IMAGE and confirming image at nominal focus. Analyze imagery, uplink pointing offset as offset 11469A and adjust nominal focus via patchable constant uplinked with subsequent visit of this program; update aperture locations via modified SIAF file uplinked with subsequent SMS. Use updated focus and offset pointing as input for COS 09 {program 11469 - NUV Optics Alignment and Focus} {note the SIAF update is not a prerequisite for COS 09 to proceed, but the pointing offset and focus update are}.

  19. VIRUS spectrograph assembly and alignment procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Boster, Emily; DePoy, D. L.; Herbig, Benjamin; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martin, Emily C.; Meador, William; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the mechanical assembly and optical alignment processes used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the instrument's manufacturing constraints, a production line will be set up to build subassemblies in parallel. To aid in the instrument's assembly and alignment, specialized fixtures and adjustment apparatuses have been developed. We describe the design and operations of the various optics alignment apparatuses, as well as the mirrors' alignment and bonding fixtures.

  20. Advancements of vertically aligned liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Jaggi, Chinky; Sharma, Vandna; Raina, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the recent advancements in the field of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays. The process and formation of different vertical alignment modes such as conventional VA, patterned VA, multi-domain VA, and polymer stabilised VA etc are widely discussed. Vertical alignment of liquid crystal due to nano particle dispersion in LC host, bifunctional PR-SAM formed by silane coupling reaction to oxide surfaces, azo dye etc., are also highlighted and discussed. Overall, the article highlights the advances in the research of vertical aligned liquid crystal in terms of their scientific and technological aspects.

  1. The twilight zone of cis element alignments.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Alvaro; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Sequence alignment of proteins and nucleic acids is a routine task in bioinformatics. Although the comparison of complete peptides, genes or genomes can be undertaken with a great variety of tools, the alignment of short DNA sequences and motifs entails pitfalls that have not been fully addressed yet. Here we confront the structural superposition of transcription factors with the sequence alignment of their recognized cis elements. Our goals are (i) to test TFcompare (http://floresta.eead.csic.es/tfcompare), a structural alignment method for protein-DNA complexes; (ii) to benchmark the pairwise alignment of regulatory elements; (iii) to define the confidence limits and the twilight zone of such alignments and (iv) to evaluate the relevance of these thresholds with elements obtained experimentally. We find that the structure of cis elements and protein-DNA interfaces is significantly more conserved than their sequence and measures how this correlates with alignment errors when only sequence information is considered. Our results confirm that DNA motifs in the form of matrices produce better alignments than individual sequences. Finally, we report that empirical and theoretically derived twilight thresholds are useful for estimating the natural plasticity of regulatory sequences, and hence for filtering out unreliable alignments.

  2. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Schroeder, Steven; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Guill, Katherine E; Yamasaki, Masanori; McMullen, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor) that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism. PMID:18366684

  3. Liquid crystal alignment in cylindrical microcapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chychłowski, M.; Yaroshchuk, O.; Kravchuk, R.; Woliński, T.

    2011-09-01

    A variety of alignment configurations of liquid crystals (LCs) inside the glassy cylindrical capillaries is realized by using alignment materials providing different anchoring. The radial configuration with central disclination line is obtained for homeotropic boundary conditions. In turn, the axial, transversal and tilted alignment structures are realized by using materials for planar anchoring. The uniformity and controlling of the latter structures were provided by photoalignment method. This approach can be further used to control LC alignment in the photonic crystal fibers recognized as advanced elements for different optical devices.

  4. Liquid crystal alignment in cylindrical microcapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chychłowski, M.; Yaroshchuk, O.; Kravchuk, R.; Woliński, T.

    2012-03-01

    A variety of alignment configurations of liquid crystals (LCs) inside the glassy cylindrical capillaries is realized by using alignment materials providing different anchoring. The radial configuration with central disclination line is obtained for homeotropic boundary conditions. In turn, the axial, transversal and tilted alignment structures are realized by using materials for planar anchoring. The uniformity and controlling of the latter structures were provided by photoalignment method. This approach can be further used to control LC alignment in the photonic crystal fibers recognized as advanced elements for different optical devices.

  5. Anisotropic light emission from aligned luminophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, Paul P. C.; de Jong, Ties M.; de Boer, Dick K. G.; Broer, Dirk J.; Debije, Michael G.

    2014-07-01

    The emission of aligned dichroic dyes in a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) illuminated from one side with collimated light results in a non-isotropic light distribution. We develop a model to describe emission profiles for dichroic dyes aligned at a general tilt angle with respect to a lightguide surface (including planar and homeotropic alignments) for various order parameters. We compare calculations with experimental results, demonstrating the dichroic nature of the dyes can have significant impact on the surface loss of luminescent solar concentrators. Including this dichroic nature is essential in correctly simulating the preferred edge emissions demonstrated experimentally in dyes aligned planarly on the surface of a lightguide.

  6. Optimal Network Alignment with Graphlet Degree Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Milenković, Tijana; Ng, Weng Leong; Hayes, Wayne; Pržulj, Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Important biological information is encoded in the topology of biological networks. Comparative analyses of biological networks are proving to be valuable, as they can lead to transfer of knowledge between species and give deeper insights into biological function, disease, and evolution. We introduce a new method that uses the Hungarian algorithm to produce optimal global alignment between two networks using any cost function. We design a cost function based solely on network topology and use it in our network alignment. Our method can be applied to any two networks, not just biological ones, since it is based only on network topology. We use our new method to align protein-protein interaction networks of two eukaryotic species and demonstrate that our alignment exposes large and topologically complex regions of network similarity. At the same time, our alignment is biologically valid, since many of the aligned protein pairs perform the same biological function. From the alignment, we predict function of yet unannotated proteins, many of which we validate in the literature. Also, we apply our method to find topological similarities between metabolic networks of different species and build phylogenetic trees based on our network alignment score. The phylogenetic trees obtained in this way bear a striking resemblance to the ones obtained by sequence alignments. Our method detects topologically similar regions in large networks that are statistically significant. It does this independent of protein sequence or any other information external to network topology. PMID:20628593

  7. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, Shahin; Gleich, David F.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Grama, Ananth

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  8. Molecular alignment relaxation in polymer optical fibers for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajanca, Pavol; Cetinkaya, Onur; Schukar, Marcus; Mergo, Pawel; Webb, David J.; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-03-01

    A systematic study of annealing behavior of drawn PMMA fibers was performed. Annealing dynamics were investigated under different environmental conditions by fiber longitudinal shrinkage monitoring. The shrinkage process was found to follow a stretched exponential decay function revealing the heterogeneous nature of the underlying molecular dynamics. The complex dependence of the fiber shrinkage on initial degree of molecular alignment in the fiber, annealing time and temperature was investigated and interpreted. Moreover, humidity was shown to have a profound effect on the annealing process, which was not recognized previously. Annealing was also shown to have considerable effect on the fiber mechanical properties associated with the relaxation of molecular alignment in the fiber. The consequences of fiber annealing for the climatic stability of certain polymer optical fiber-based sensors are discussed, emphasizing the importance of fiber controlled pre-annealing with respect to the foreseeable operating conditions.

  9. Inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome b-c1 complex inhibit the cyanide-insensitive respiration of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Turrens, J F; Bickar, D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-01

    The cyanide-insensitive respiration of bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei (75 +/- 8 nmol O2 min-1(mg protein)-1) is completely inhibited by the mitochondrial ubiquinone-like inhibitors 2-hydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (UHNQ) and 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole (UHDBT). The Ki values for UHDBT (30 nM) and UHNQ (2 microM) are much lower than the reported Ki for salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) (5 microM), a widely used inhibitor of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase. UHNQ also stimulated the glycerol-3-phosphate-dependent reduction of phenazine methosulfate, demonstrating that the site of UHNQ inhibition is on the terminal oxidase of the cyanide-insensitive respiration of T. brucei. These results suggest that a ubiquinone-like compound may act as an electron carrier between the two enzymatic components of the cyanide-insensitive glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase.

  10. GramAlign: fast alignment driven by grammar-based phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Russell, David J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment involves identifying related subsequences among biological sequences. When matches are found, the associated pieces are shifted so that when sequences are presented as successive rows-one sequence per row-homologous residues line-up in columns. Exact alignment of more than a few sequences is known to be computationally prohibitive. Thus many heuristic algorithms have been developed to produce good alignments in an efficient amount of time by determining an order by which pairs of sequences are progressively aligned and merged. GRAMALIGN is such a progressive alignment algorithm that uses a grammar-based relative complexity distance metric to determine the alignment order. This technique allows for a computationally efficient and scalable program useful for aligning both large numbers of sequences and sets of long sequences quickly. The GRAMALIGN software is available at http://bioinfo.unl.edu/gramalign.php for both source code download and a web-based alignment server.

  11. GASSST: global alignment short sequence search tool

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Guillaume; Lavenier, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The rapid development of next-generation sequencing technologies able to produce huge amounts of sequence data is leading to a wide range of new applications. This triggers the need for fast and accurate alignment software. Common techniques often restrict indels in the alignment to improve speed, whereas more flexible aligners are too slow for large-scale applications. Moreover, many current aligners are becoming inefficient as generated reads grow ever larger. Our goal with our new aligner GASSST (Global Alignment Short Sequence Search Tool) is thus 2-fold—achieving high performance with no restrictions on the number of indels with a design that is still effective on long reads. Results: We propose a new efficient filtering step that discards most alignments coming from the seed phase before they are checked by the costly dynamic programming algorithm. We use a carefully designed series of filters of increasing complexity and efficiency to quickly eliminate most candidate alignments in a wide range of configurations. The main filter uses a precomputed table containing the alignment score of short four base words aligned against each other. This table is reused several times by a new algorithm designed to approximate the score of the full dynamic programming algorithm. We compare the performance of GASSST against BWA, BFAST, SSAHA2 and PASS. We found that GASSST achieves high sensitivity in a wide range of configurations and faster overall execution time than other state-of-the-art aligners. Availability: GASSST is distributed under the CeCILL software license at http://www.irisa.fr/symbiose/projects/gassst/ Contact: guillaume.rizk@irisa.fr; dominique.lavenier@irisa.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20739310

  12. Alignments between galaxies, satellite systems and haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S.; Gao, Liang; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the satellite populations of the Milky Way and Andromeda are puzzling in that they are nearly perpendicular to the discs of their central galaxies. To understand the origin of such configurations we study the alignment of the central galaxy, satellite system and dark matter halo in the largest of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) simulation. We find that centrals and their satellite systems tend to be well aligned with their haloes, with a median misalignment angle of 33° in both cases. While the centrals are better aligned with the inner 10 kpc halo, the satellite systems are better aligned with the entire halo indicating that satellites preferentially trace the outer halo. The central-satellite alignment is weak (median misalignment angle of 52°) and we find that around 20 per cent of systems have a misalignment angle larger than 78°, which is the value for the Milky Way. The central-satellite alignment is a consequence of the tendency of both components to align with the dark matter halo. As a consequence, when the central is parallel to the satellite system, it also tends to be parallel to the halo. In contrast, if the central is perpendicular to the satellite system, as in the case of the Milky Way and Andromeda, then the central-halo alignment is much weaker. Dispersion-dominated (spheroidal) centrals have a stronger alignment with both their halo and their satellites than rotation-dominated (disc) centrals. We also found that the halo, the central galaxy and the satellite system tend to be aligned with the surrounding large-scale distribution of matter, with the halo being the better aligned of the three.

  13. Induction by glucose of an antimycin-insensitive, azide-sensitive respiration in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, I; Viola, A M; Goffeau, A

    1981-03-01

    Increasing the glucose concentration from 0.1 to 10% in exponentially growing cultures of Kluyveromyces lactis CBS 2359 does not repress the antimycin-sensitive respiration (QO2 of 80 microliter O2 . h-1 . mg-1 dry weight) but raises the antimycin-insensitive respiration from 3 to 12 microliter O2 . h-2 . mg-1 dry weight. Antimycin A inhibits the growth of K. lactis on a variety of substrates with the exception of glucose at concentrations equal to or higher than 1% where substantial antimycin-insensitive respiratory rates are induced. It can be concluded that a minimal antimycin-insensitive QO2 is necessary for cellular growth when the normal respiratory pathway is not functional. The antimycin-insensitive respiration elicited by growth in high glucose concentrations is poorly inhibited by hydroxamate and is inhibited by 50% by 90 microM azide or 1 mM cyanide. These concentrations are much higher than those necessary to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase which is not involved in the antimycin-insensitive respiration as was demonstrated by spectral measurements. A pigment absorbing at 555 nm is specifically reduced after addition of glucose to antimycin-inhibited cells. The same pigment is reoxidized by further addition of high concentrations of sodium azide indicating its participation in the antimycin-insensitive, azide-sensitive respiration.

  14. Assessing the concept of structure sensitivity or insensitivity for sub-nanometer catalyst materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, Andrew S.; Rötzer, Marian D.; Ridge, Claron J.; Yoon, Bokwon; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Landman, Uzi; Heiz, Ueli

    2016-10-01

    The nature of the nano-catalyzed hydrogenation of ethylene, yielding benchmark information pertaining to the concept of structure sensitivity/insensitivity and its applicability at the bottom of the catalyst particle size-range, is explored with experiments on size-selected Ptn (n = 7-40) clusters soft-landed on MgO, in conjunction with first-principles simulations. As in the case of larger particles both the direct ethylene hydrogenation channel and the parallel hydrogenation-dehydrogenation ethylidyne-producing route must be considered, with the fundamental uncovering that at the < 1 nm size-scale the reaction exhibits characteristics consistent with structure sensitivity, in contrast to the structure insensitivity found for larger particles. In this size-regime, the chemical properties can be modulated and tuned by a single atom, reflected by the onset of low temperature hydrogenation at T > 150 K catalyzed by Ptn (n ≥ 10) clusters, with maximum room temperature reactivity observed for Pt13 using a pulsed molecular beam technique. Structure insensitive behavior, inherent for specific cluster sizes at ambient temperatures, can be induced in the more active sizes, e.g. Pt13, by a temperature increase, up to 400 K, which opens dehydrogenation channels leading to ethylidyne formation. This reaction channel was, however found to be attenuated on Pt20, as catalyst activity remained elevated after the 400 K step. Pt30 displayed behavior which can be understood from extrapolating bulk properties to this size range; in particular the calculated d-band center. In the non-scalable sub-nanometer size regime, however, precise control of particle size may be used for atom-by-atom tuning and manipulation of catalyzed hydrogenation activity and selectivity.

  15. Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research uses…

  16. X-ray determination of parts alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining the alignment of adjoining metal objects is provided. The method comprises producing an X-ray image of adjoining surfaces of the two metal objects. The X-ray beam is tangential to the point the surfaces are joined. The method is particularly applicable where the alignment of the two metal objects is not readily susceptible to visual inspection.

  17. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  18. Evaluating Alignment between Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martone, Andrea; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors (a) discuss the importance of alignment for facilitating proper assessment and instruction, (b) describe the three most common methods for evaluating the alignment between state content standards and assessments, (c) discuss the relative strengths and limitations of these methods, and (d) discuss examples of applications of each…

  19. Alignment Nashville. Complementary Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Suzanne; Malone, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This profile illustrates how Alignment Nashville brings together diverse community members and organizations to leverage existing resources in support of Nashville's youth and the Metro Nashville Public Schools. In addition to a diversified funding structure, Alignment leaders point to three factors that have helped them get the effort off the…

  20. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  1. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  2. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  3. CARNA--alignment of RNA structure ensembles.

    PubMed

    Sorescu, Dragos Alexandru; Möhl, Mathias; Mann, Martin; Backofen, Rolf; Will, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    Due to recent algorithmic progress, tools for the gold standard of comparative RNA analysis, namely Sankoff-style simultaneous alignment and folding, are now readily applicable. Such approaches, however, compare RNAs with respect to a simultaneously predicted, single, nested consensus structure. To make multiple alignment of RNAs available in cases, where this limitation of the standard approach is critical, we introduce a web server that provides a complete and convenient interface to the RNA structure alignment tool 'CARNA'. This tool uniquely supports RNAs with multiple conserved structures per RNA and aligns pseudoknots intrinsically; these features are highly desirable for aligning riboswitches, RNAs with conserved folding pathways, or pseudoknots. We represent structural input and output information as base pair probability dot plots; this provides large flexibility in the input, ranging from fixed structures to structure ensembles, and enables immediate visual analysis of the results. In contrast to conventional Sankoff-style approaches, 'CARNA' optimizes all structural similarities in the input simultaneously, for example across an entire RNA structure ensemble. Even compared with already costly Sankoff-style alignment, 'CARNA' solves an intrinsically much harder problem by applying advanced, constraint-based, algorithmic techniques. Although 'CARNA' is specialized to the alignment of RNAs with several conserved structures, its performance on RNAs in general is on par with state-of-the-art general-purpose RNA alignment tools, as we show in a Bralibase 2.1 benchmark. The web server is freely available at http://rna.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/CARNA. PMID:22689637

  4. On comparing two structured RNA multiple alignments.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vandanaben; Wang, Jason T L; Setia, Shefali; Verma, Anurag; Warden, Charles D; Zhang, Kaizhong

    2010-12-01

    We present a method, called BlockMatch, for aligning two blocks, where a block is an RNA multiple sequence alignment with the consensus secondary structure of the alignment in Stockholm format. The method employs a quadratic-time dynamic programming algorithm for aligning columns and column pairs of the multiple alignments in the blocks. Unlike many other tools that can perform pairwise alignment of either single sequences or structures only, BlockMatch takes into account the characteristics of all the sequences in the blocks along with their consensus structures during the alignment process, thus being able to achieve a high-quality alignment result. We apply BlockMatch to phylogeny reconstruction on a set of 5S rRNA sequences taken from fifteen bacteria species. Experimental results showed that the phylogenetic tree generated by our method is more accurate than the tree constructed based on the widely used ClustalW tool. The BlockMatch algorithm is implemented into a web server, accessible at http://bioinformatics.njit.edu/blockmatch. A jar file of the program is also available for download from the web server. PMID:21121021

  5. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  6. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  7. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  8. Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the δ18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, δ18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for δ18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the δ18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic δ18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's δ18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.

  9. On comparing two structured RNA multiple alignments.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vandanaben; Wang, Jason T L; Setia, Shefali; Verma, Anurag; Warden, Charles D; Zhang, Kaizhong

    2010-12-01

    We present a method, called BlockMatch, for aligning two blocks, where a block is an RNA multiple sequence alignment with the consensus secondary structure of the alignment in Stockholm format. The method employs a quadratic-time dynamic programming algorithm for aligning columns and column pairs of the multiple alignments in the blocks. Unlike many other tools that can perform pairwise alignment of either single sequences or structures only, BlockMatch takes into account the characteristics of all the sequences in the blocks along with their consensus structures during the alignment process, thus being able to achieve a high-quality alignment result. We apply BlockMatch to phylogeny reconstruction on a set of 5S rRNA sequences taken from fifteen bacteria species. Experimental results showed that the phylogenetic tree generated by our method is more accurate than the tree constructed based on the widely used ClustalW tool. The BlockMatch algorithm is implemented into a web server, accessible at http://bioinformatics.njit.edu/blockmatch. A jar file of the program is also available for download from the web server.

  10. Full-field spatially incoherent illumination interferometry: a spatial resolution almost insensitive to aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude

    2016-09-01

    We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function width of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations that mostly induce a reduction of the signal level without broadening. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations. Theoretical analysis, numerical calculation as well as experimental results are provided to show this specific merit of incoherent illumination in full-field OCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such result has been demonstrated.

  11. Insensitivity of Leptogenesis with Flavor Effects to Low Energy Leptonic CP Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Sacha; Palorini, Federica; Garayoa, Julia; Rius, Nuria

    2007-10-19

    If the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is produced by leptogenesis, CP violation is required in the lepton sector. In the seesaw extension of the standard model with three hierarchical right-handed neutrinos, we show that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nagakawa-Sakata phases: thermal leptogenesis can work for any value of the observable phases. This result was well known when there were no flavor effects in leptogenesis; we show that it remains true when flavor effects are included.

  12. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Kinsi; Grewal, Raji P.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the SCN9A gene. We report a patient with the clinical features consistent with CIP in whom we detected a novel homozygous G2755T mutation in exon 15 of this gene. Routine electrophysiological studies are typically normal in patients with CIP. In our patient, these studies were abnormal and could represent the consequences of secondary complications of cervical and lumbosacral spine disease and associated severe Charcot's joints. PMID:25309764

  13. Theory of magic optical traps for Zeeman-insensitive clock transitions in alkali-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Derevianko, Andrei

    2010-05-15

    Precision measurements and quantum-information processing with cold atoms may benefit from trapping atoms with specially engineered, 'magic' optical fields. At the magic trapping conditions, the relevant atomic properties remain immune to strong perturbations by the trapping fields. Here we develop a theoretical analysis of magic trapping for especially valuable Zeeman-insensitive clock transitions in alkali-metal atoms. The involved mechanism relies on applying a magic bias B field along a circularly polarized trapping laser field. We map out these B fields as a function of trapping laser wavelength for all commonly used alkalis. We also highlight a common error in evaluating Stark shifts of hyperfine manifolds.

  14. Polarization insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion of polarization multiplexed signals using co-polarized pumps.

    PubMed

    Anthur, Aravind P; Zhou, Rui; O'Duill, Sean; Walsh, Anthony J; Martin, Eamonn; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P

    2016-05-30

    We study and experimentally validate the vector theory of four-wave mixing (FWM) in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA). We use the vector theory of FWM to design a polarization insensitive all-optical wavelength converter, suitable for advanced modulation formats, using non-degenerate FWM in SOAs and parallelly polarized pumps. We demonstrate the wavelength conversion of polarization-multiplexed (PM)-QPSK, PM-16QAM and a Nyquist WDM super-channel modulated with PM-QPSK signals at a baud rate of 12.5 GBaud, with total data rates of 50 Gbps, 100 Gbps and 200 Gbps respectively. PMID:27410100

  15. Synthesis of Insensitive N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-N1-nitroguanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Kirstin F.; Bellitto, Victor J.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.

    2016-10-01

    A new, insensitive nitroguanidyl functionalized nitrogen-rich material derived from 2,4-dinitrophenyl derivative was synthesized. N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-N1-nitroguanidine (DNP-NQ) has a crystal density of 1.74 g/cm3. The synthesis and properties of DNP-NQ are described. DNP-NQ was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared spectroscopy, and gas pycnometry. Thermal properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results from small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that DNP-NQ is less sensitive than Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX). DNP-NQ can be prepared in high yield.

  16. Temperature-insensitive pressure or strain sensing technology with fiber optic hybrid Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanhong; Lu, Lin; Liu, Shuo; Jin, Wei; Han, Zonghu; Cao, Yaohui

    2016-05-01

    The transmission spectrum characteristic of two-segment polarization maintaining fibers Sagnac interferometer was investigated and simulated in detail and a temperature-insensitive pressure or strain sensing technology was proposed. An experimental hybrid Sagnac interferometer was built and the solid core polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber was taken as the sensing probe. The side pressure sensitive coefficients and the temperature crosstalk drift were measured and compared. The experimental results show that the side pressure sensitive coefficient was ~0.2877 nm/N and the temperature drift was less than 0.1 pm/°C.

  17. Polarization-insensitive unidirectional spoof surface plasmon polaritons coupling by gradient metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-yu, Shi; An-xue, Zhang; Jian-zhong, Chen; Jia-fu, Wang; Song, Xia; Zhuo, Xu

    2016-07-01

    A polarization-insensitive unidirectional spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupler mediated by a gradient metasurface is proposed. The field distributions and average Poynting vector of the coupled spoof SPPs are analyzed. The simulated and experimental results support the theoretical analysis and indicate that the designed gradient metasurface can couple both the parallel-polarized and normally-polarized incident waves to the spoof SPPs propagating in the same direction at about 5 GHz. Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M580849) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471292, 61501365, 61471388, 61331005, 41404095, and 41390454).

  18. Enhancing NMR of insensitive nuclei by transfer of SABRE spin hyperpolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Zimmermann, Herbert; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the performance of methods for enhancing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) signals of "insensitive", but important NMR nuclei, which are based on the SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) technique, i.e., on spin order transfer from parahydrogen (H2 molecule in its nuclear singlet spin state) to a substrate in a transient organometallic complex. Here such transfer is performed at high magnetic fields by INEPT-type NMR pulse sequences, modified for SABRE. Signal enhancements up to three orders of magnitude are obtained for 15N nuclei; the possibility of sensitive detection of 2D-NMR 1H-15N spectra of SABRE complexes and substrates is demonstrated.

  19. Vibration sensing using a tapered bend-insensitive fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Qin, Zengguang; Harris, Jeremie; Baset, Farhana; Lu, Ping; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-02-11

    In this study, a novel fiber-optic sensor consisting of a tapered bend-insensitive fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented to realize damped and continuous vibration measurement. The double cladding structure and the central coating region of the in-fiber interferometer ensure an enhanced mechanical strength, reduced external disturbance, and a more uniform spectrum. A damped vibration frequency range of 29-60 Hz as well as continuous vibration disturbances ranging from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz are successfully demonstrated.

  20. Embryonal carcinoma in two cases of androgen insensitivity syndrome: clinical, endocrinological and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Lecca, U; Parodo, G; Fiore, R; Martino, E

    1988-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma in two cases of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is reported. In both cases gonadectomy carried out for prophylactic purposes led to the discovery of a localized embryonal carcinoma with areas of anaplastic seminoma in one case. In non-neoplastic tissue, gonad morphology in both cases was typical of AIS. Prevalently hypotrophic aspects, especially in the interstitial gland, were found in case 2. This may explain the different endocrine profile in the two cases before gonadectomy. Our study, aside from series of psycho-sexual problems, shows, according to all Authors, that the most serious complication is the high risk of malignancy after puberty in patients with AIS. PMID:3148467

  1. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

  2. Relaxation of Liquid Crystal Alignment Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, David C.; Sichel, Enid K.; Cebe, Peggy

    1997-03-01

    A new method for investigating thermophysical transitions in liquid crystal alignment layers is discussed. The technique involves curing a set of alignment films at an array of temperatures after the films have been brushed with a cloth, but before liquid crystal cells are constructed from the films. When a thermal transition in the polymer is initiated by a post-brush cure, the aligning ability of the brushed films is destroyed. The technique is demonstrated using polyamide- imide, PMDA-APB polyimide, poly(phenylene ether sulfide) and PVA poly(vinyl alcohol) alignment films. The technique is advantageous for examining brush-aligned surfaces which, due to surface roughness, can not be examined using conventional ellipsometry .

  3. Vane segment support and alignment device

    DOEpatents

    McLaurin, L.D.; Sizemore, J.D.

    1999-07-13

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position. 5 figs.

  4. Vane segment support and alignment device

    DOEpatents

    McLaurin, Leroy Dixon; Sizemore, John Derek

    1999-01-01

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position.

  5. Alignment algorithm for homology modeling and threading.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, N. N.; Luethy, R.

    1998-01-01

    A DNA/protein sequence comparison is a popular computational tool for molecular biologists. Finding a good alignment implies an evolutionary and/or functional relationship between proteins or genomic loci. Sequential similarity between two proteins indicates their structural resemblance, providing a practical approach for structural modeling, when structure of one of these proteins is known. The first step in the homology modeling is a construction of an accurate sequence alignment. The commonly used alignment algorithms do not provide an adequate treatment of the structurally mismatched residues in locally dissimilar regions. We propose a simple modification of the existing alignment algorithm which treats these regions properly and demonstrate how this modification improves sequence alignments in real proteins. PMID:9521100

  6. Aligning Greek-English parallel texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiotou, Eleni; Koronakis, George; Lazari, Vassiliki

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues concerning the alignment of parallel texts written in languages with different alphabets based on an experiment of aligning texts from the proceedings of the European Parliament in Greek and English. First, we describe our implementation of the k-vec algorithm and its application to the bilingual corpus. Then the output of the algorithm is used as a starting point for an alignment procedure at a sentence level which also takes into account mark-ups of meta-information. The results of the implementation are compared to those of the application of the Church and Gale alignment algorithm on the Europarl corpus. The conclusions of this comparison can give useful insights as for the efficiency of alignment algorithms when applied to the particular bilingual corpus.

  7. An algorithm for linear metabolic pathway alignment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Hofestaedt, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic pathway alignment represents one of the most powerful tools for comparative analysis of metabolism. It involves recognition of metabolites common to a set of functionally-related metabolic pathways, interpretation of biological evolution processes and determination of alternative metabolic pathways. Moreover, it is of assistance in function prediction and metabolism modeling. Although research on genomic sequence alignment is extensive, the problem of aligning metabolic pathways has received less attention. We are motivated to develop an algorithm of metabolic pathway alignment to reveal the similarities between metabolic pathways. A new definition of the metabolic pathway is introduced. The algorithm has been implemented into the PathAligner system; its web-based interface is available at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/pathaligner/.

  8. Structural Alignment Sensor Feasibility Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. H.; Huang, C. C.; Hodor, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A structural alignment sensor (SAS) was developed for use with large deployable antenna systems for contour measurement and/or active control. The SAS is a laser ranging system using frequency modulation and accurate phase measurement to determine distance. Work was done with a CO2 and HeNe laser. The capability of the SAS to measure antenna rib contours was studied over ranges of 50 meters to a resolution of 100 microns. Initial resolution data was taken with the CO2 system. This data shows that it will indeed meet the SAS requirements. The development of the HeNe system was initiated because it offers substantial improvement in size, weight, and power over the CO2 system. The final demonstration was made with the HeNe system and it too showed that the SAS requirements could be met with this alternate approach. The projection of these results to a conceptual design for a flight system and its application are described.

  9. Grain alignment by ferromagnetic impurities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The observed wavelength dependence of linear polarization, and its variation from region to region can be explained by the following assumptions. Interstellar grains resemble interplanetary grains, in that they are composed of collections of small particles coagulated together into elongated masses. A fraction of the small particles are ferromagnetic. Presumably these are either metallic Fe or magnetite, Fe3O4. If and only if a large grain contains one or more magnetic particles is the grain aligned in the galactic magnetic field. The magnetic particles stick only to silicate grains because of chemical similarities, or (equivalently) any pure carbon grains in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) are too spherical to produce polarization. Grains in dense regions, such as the outer parts of molecular clouds, are larger than those in the diffuse ISM because of coagulation of the grains rather than accretion of icy mantles. These regions are known to have larger than normal values of lambda (max), the wavelength of the maximum of linear polarization. The above assumptions are sufficient to allow the calculation of the wavelength dependence of the polarization.

  10. R3D Align: global pairwise alignment of RNA 3D structures using local superpositions

    PubMed Central

    Rahrig, Ryan R.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Zirbel, Craig L.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Comparing 3D structures of homologous RNA molecules yields information about sequence and structural variability. To compare large RNA 3D structures, accurate automatic comparison tools are needed. In this article, we introduce a new algorithm and web server to align large homologous RNA structures nucleotide by nucleotide using local superpositions that accommodate the flexibility of RNA molecules. Local alignments are merged to form a global alignment by employing a maximum clique algorithm on a specially defined graph that we call the ‘local alignment’ graph. Results: The algorithm is implemented in a program suite and web server called ‘R3D Align’. The R3D Align alignment of homologous 3D structures of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA was compared to a high-quality hand alignment. A full comparison of the 16S alignment with the other state-of-the-art methods is also provided. The R3D Align program suite includes new diagnostic tools for the structural evaluation of RNA alignments. The R3D Align alignments were compared to those produced by other programs and were found to be the most accurate, in comparison with a high quality hand-crafted alignment and in conjunction with a series of other diagnostics presented. The number of aligned base pairs as well as measures of geometric similarity are used to evaluate the accuracy of the alignments. Availability: R3D Align is freely available through a web server http://rna.bgsu.edu/R3DAlign. The MATLAB source code of the program suite is also freely available for download at that location. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: r-rahrig@onu.edu PMID:20929913

  11. Algorithms for Automatic Alignment of Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Oliker, Leonid; Schreiber, Robert; Sheffler, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Aggregate data objects (such as arrays) are distributed across the processor memories when compiling a data-parallel language for a distributed-memory machine. The mapping determines the amount of communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. A common approach is to break the mapping into two stages: an alignment that maps all the objects to an abstract template, followed by a distribution that maps the template to the processors. This paper describes algorithms for solving the various facets of the alignment problem: axis and stride alignment, static and mobile offset alignment, and replication labeling. We show that optimal axis and stride alignment is NP-complete for general program graphs, and give a heuristic method that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. We also show how local graph contractions can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. We show how to model the static offset alignment problem using linear programming, and we show that loop-dependent mobile offset alignment is sometimes necessary for optimum performance. We describe an algorithm with for determining mobile alignments for objects within do loops. We also identify situations in which replicated alignment is either required by the program itself or can be used to improve performance. We describe an algorithm based on network flow that replicates objects so as to minimize the total amount of broadcast communication in replication.

  12. A statistical algorithm for assessing cellular alignment.

    PubMed

    Nectow, Alexander R; Gil, Eun Seok; Kaplan, David L; Kilmer, Misha E

    2013-03-01

    Current statistical techniques for analyzing cellular alignment data in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering are limited because of heuristic and less quantitative approaches. For example, generally a cutoff degree limit (commonly 20 degrees) is arbitrarily defined within which cells are considered "aligned." The effectiveness of a patterned biomaterial in guiding the alignment of cells, such as neurons, is often critical to predict relationships between the biomaterial design and biological outcomes, both in vitro and in vivo. This becomes particularly important in the case of peripheral neurons, which require precise axon guidance to obtain successful regenerative outcomes. To address this issue, we have developed a protocol for processing cellular alignment data sets, which implicitly determines an "angle of alignment." This was accomplished as follows: cells "aligning" with an underlying, anisotropic scaffold display uniformly distributed angles up to a cutoff point determined by how effective the biomaterial is in aligning cells. Therefore, this fact was then used to determine where an alignment angle data set diverges from a uniform distribution. This was accomplished by measuring the spacing between the collected, increasingly ordered angles and analyzing their underlying distributions using a normalized cumulative periodogram criterion. The proposed protocol offers a novel way to implicitly define cellular alignment, with respect to various anisotropic biomaterials. This method may also offer an alternative to assess cellular alignment, which could offer improved predictive measures related to biological outcomes. Furthermore, the approach described can be used for a broad range of cell types grown on 2D surfaces, but would not be applicable to 3D scaffold systems in the present format.

  13. An Improved Inertial Frame Alignment Algorithm Based on Horizontal Alignment Information for Marine SINS.

    PubMed

    Che, Yanting; Wang, Qiuying; Gao, Wei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an improved inertial frame alignment algorithm for a marine SINS under mooring conditions is proposed, which significantly improves accuracy. Since the horizontal alignment is easy to complete, and a characteristic of gravity is that its component in the horizontal plane is zero, we use a clever method to improve the conventional inertial alignment algorithm. Firstly, a large misalignment angle model and a dimensionality reduction Gauss-Hermite filter are employed to establish the fine horizontal reference frame. Based on this, the projection of the gravity in the body inertial coordinate frame can be calculated easily. Then, the initial alignment algorithm is accomplished through an inertial frame alignment algorithm. The simulation and experiment results show that the improved initial alignment algorithm performs better than the conventional inertial alignment algorithm, and meets the accuracy requirements of a medium-accuracy marine SINS.

  14. Pin-Align: A New Dynamic Programming Approach to Align Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To date, few tools for aligning protein-protein interaction networks have been suggested. These tools typically find conserved interaction patterns using various local or global alignment algorithms. However, the improvement of the speed, scalability, simplification, and accuracy of network alignment tools is still the target of new researches. In this paper, we introduce Pin-Align, a new tool for local alignment of protein-protein interaction networks. Pin-Align accuracy is tested on protein interaction networks from IntAct, DIP, and the Stanford Network Database and the results are compared with other well-known algorithms. It is shown that Pin-Align has higher sensitivity and specificity in terms of KEGG Ortholog groups. PMID:25435900

  15. An Improved Inertial Frame Alignment Algorithm Based on Horizontal Alignment Information for Marine SINS

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yanting; Wang, Qiuying; Gao, Wei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an improved inertial frame alignment algorithm for a marine SINS under mooring conditions is proposed, which significantly improves accuracy. Since the horizontal alignment is easy to complete, and a characteristic of gravity is that its component in the horizontal plane is zero, we use a clever method to improve the conventional inertial alignment algorithm. Firstly, a large misalignment angle model and a dimensionality reduction Gauss-Hermite filter are employed to establish the fine horizontal reference frame. Based on this, the projection of the gravity in the body inertial coordinate frame can be calculated easily. Then, the initial alignment algorithm is accomplished through an inertial frame alignment algorithm. The simulation and experiment results show that the improved initial alignment algorithm performs better than the conventional inertial alignment algorithm, and meets the accuracy requirements of a medium-accuracy marine SINS. PMID:26445048

  16. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channel contributes to migration of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kilch, Tatiana; Jochum, Marcus Martin; Urban, Sabine Katharina; Jung, Volker; Stöckle, Michael; Rother, Karen; Greiner, Markus; Peinelt, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Impaired Ca2+ signaling in prostate cancer contributes to several cancer hallmarks, such as enhanced proliferation and migration and a decreased ability to induce apoptosis. Na+ influx via transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channel (TRPM4) can reduce store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) by decreasing the driving force for Ca2+. In patients with prostate cancer, gene expression of TRPM4 is elevated. Recently, TRPM4 was identified as a cancer driver gene in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer. We investigated TRPM4 protein expression in cancer tissue samples from 20 patients with prostate cancer. We found elevated TRPM4 protein levels in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer tissue compared to healthy tissue. In primary human prostate epithelial cells (hPEC) from healthy tissue and in the androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3, TRPM4 mediated large Na+ currents. We demonstrated significantly increased SOCE after siRNA targeting of TRPM4 in hPEC and DU145 cells. In addition, knockdown of TRPM4 reduced migration but not proliferation of DU145 and PC3 cells. Taken together, our data identify TRPM4 as a regulator of SOCE in hPEC and DU145 cells, demonstrate a role for TRPM4 in cancer cell migration and suggest that TRPM4 is a promising potential therapeutic target. PMID:26496025

  17. Omnidirectional polarization insensitive tunable absorption in graphene metamaterial of nanodisk structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Renxia; Bao, Jie; Jiao, Zheng; Xu, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Tunable absorption based on graphene metamaterial with nanodisk structure at near-infrared frequency was investigated using the finite difference time domain method. The absorption of the nanodisk structure which consisting of Au-MgF2-graphene-Au-polyimide (from bottom to top) can be tuned by the chemical potential of graphene at certain diameter of nanodisk. The permittivity of graphene is discussed with different chemical potential to obtain tunable absorption. It is shown that the increased value of the chemical potential of graphene can lead to blue-shifted of the absorption peaks and the values decreased. Moreover, dual-band and triple-band absorption can be achieved for resonance frequencies at normal incidence. Compared with diameter of nanodisks, the multilayer structure shows multi-band absorber, and an omnidirectional absorption at 195.25 THz is insensitive to TE/TM polarization. This omnidirectional polarization insensitive absorption may be applied by optical communications such as optical absorber, near infrared stealth, and filter.

  18. Broadband Tunability of Polarization-Insensitive Absorber Based on Frequency Selective Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Kong, Peng; Cheng, Wentao; Bao, Wenzong; Yu, Xiaowei; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    An innovative tunable and polarization-insensitive 1.6–8 GHz frequency selective surface (FSS) absorber was investigated in this study. The proposed FSS, which is in 4-axial symmetrical form, includes a novel array of PIN diodes with biasing lines including inductors. A gradually reduced equivalent resistor of PIN diodes can be achieved with increasing DC voltage, which characterizes tunable, multi-resonance absorption peaks. Via this simplified design, small value resistor and equivalent capacitance of the gap between patterns can improve the absorber’s performance in low frequencies; an active tunable absorber can be realized in a broad frequency range by employing adjustable devices. Changing the working state of the PIN diode allows the user to obtain strong absorption within the desired frequency. We analyzed the performance of the proposed absorber and found that it indeed shows very favorable absorption performance in low frequency (−10 dB in 1.6−4.3 GHz) and wideband (−8 dB in 4.3−5.4 GHz and −10 dB in 5.4−8.0 GHz) conditions. Calculation and simulation results also illustrated that the absorber is entirely polarization-insensitive. PMID:26983804

  19. A Robust, Gravity-Insensitive, High-Temperature Condenser for Water Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Weibo; Conboy, Thomas; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems are vital for NASA's future long-duration human space exploration missions. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) system is being developed by NASA to dry and compress trash generated during space missions. The resulting water vapor is recovered and separated from the process gas flow by a gravity-insensitive condenser. Creare is developing a high-temperature condenser for this application. The entire condenser is constructed from metals that have excellent resistance to chemical attack from contaminants and is suitable for high-temperature operation. The metal construction and design configuration also offer greatest flexibility for potential coating and regeneration processes to reduce biofilm growth and thus enhancing the reliability of the condenser. The proposed condenser builds on the gravity-insensitive phase separator technology Creare developed for aircraft and spacecraft applications. This paper will first discuss the design requirements for the condenser in an HMC system that will be demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS). Then, it will present the overall design of the condenser and the preliminary thermal test results of a subscale condenser. Finally, this paper will discuss the predicted performance of the full-size condenser and the development plan to mature the technology and enhance its long-term reliability for a flight system.

  20. Ultrathin triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle compact metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Shuai; Yang, Shizhong; Tao, Lu; Yang, Lisheng; Cao, Hailin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the design, realization, and characterization of an ultrathin triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle metamaterial absorber are reported. The metamaterial absorber comprises a periodic array of modified six-fold symmetric snowflake-shaped resonators with strip spiral line load, which is printed on a dielectric substrate backed by a metal ground plane. It is shown that the absorber exhibits three distinct near-unity absorption peaks, which are distributed across C, X, Ku bands, respectively. Owing to the six-fold symmetry, the absorber is insensitive to the polarization of the incident radiation. In addition, the absorber shows excellent absorption performance over wide oblique incident angles for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. Simulated surface current and field distributions at the three absorption peaks are demonstrated to understand the absorption mechanism. Particularly, the absorption modes come from the fundamental and high-order dipole resonances. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed absorber is conducted, and the measured results are in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones. The proposed ultrathin (˜0.018λ0, λ0 corresponding to the lowest peak absorption frequency) compact (0.168λ0×0.168λ0 corresponding to the area of a unit cell) absorber enables potential applications such as stealth technology, electromagnetic interference and spectrum identification.

  1. Update Review and Clinical Presentation in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-López, L. M.; Cabrera-González, M.; Gutiérrez-de la Iglesia, D.; Ricart, S.; Knörr-Giménez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis (CIPA) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is an extremely rare syndrome. Three clinical findings define the syndrome: insensitivity to pain, impossibility to sweat, and mental retardation. This pathology is caused by a genetic mutation in the NTRK1 gene, which encodes a tyrosine receptor (TrkA) for nerve growth factor (NGF). Methods. The consultation of a child female in our center with CIPA and a tibia fracture in pseudoarthrosis encouraged us to carefully review literature and examine the therapeutic possibilities. A thorough review of literature published in Pubmed was done about CIPA and other connected medical issues mentioned in the paper. Conclusions. The therapeutic approach of CIPA remains unclear. The preventive approach remains the only possible treatment of CIPA. We propose two new important concepts in the therapeutic approach for these patients: (1) early surgical treatment for long bone fractures to prevent pseudoarthrosis and to allow early weight bearing, decreasing the risk of further osteopenia, and (2) bisphosphonates to avoid the progression of osteopenia and to reduce the number of consecutive fractures. PMID:26579324

  2. Insensitive high-energy energetic structural material of tungsten-polytetrafluoroethylene-aluminum composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liu; Liu, Jinxu Zhang, Xinbo; Li, Shukui

    2015-11-15

    Energetic structural material is a kind of materials that are inert under normal conditions but could produce exothermic chemical reaction when subjected to impact. This report shows a kind of energetic structural material of tungsten (W)-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-aluminum (Al) with density of 4.12 g/cm{sup 3}, excellent ductility and dynamic compressive strength of 96 MPa. Moreover, 50W-35PTFE-15Al (wt%) can exhibit a high reaction energy value of more than 2 times of TNT per unit mass and 5 times of TNT per unit volume, respectively, but with excellent insensitivity compared with traditional explosives. Under thermal conditions, the W-PTFE-Al composite can keep stable at 773 K. Under impact loading, when the strain rate up to ∼4820 s{sup −1} coupled with the absorbed energy per unit volume of 120 J/cm{sup 3}, deflagration occurs and combustion lasts for 500 μs. During impact compressive deformation, the PTFE matrix is elongated into nano-fibers, thus significantly increases the reaction activity of W-PTFE-Al composites. The nano-fiber structure is necessary for the reaction of W-PTFE-Al composites. The formation of PTFE nano-fibers must undergo severe plastic deformation, and therefore the W-PTFE-Al composites exhibit excellent insensitivity and safety. Furthermore, the reaction mechanisms of W-PTFE-Al composites in argon and in air are revealed.

  3. Computational Study of 3-D Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, F. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2011-06-01

    High explosive shock sensitivity is controlled by a combination of mechanical response, thermal properties, and chemical properties. The interplay of these physical phenomena in realistic condensed energetic materials is currently lacking. A multiscale computational framework is developed investigating hot spot (void) ignition in a single crystal of an insensitive HE, TATB. Atomistic MD simulations are performed to provide the key chemical reactions and these reaction rates are used in 3-D multiphysics simulations. The multiphysics code, ALE3D, is linked to the chemistry software, Cheetah, and a three-way coupled approach is pursued including hydrodynamics, thermal and chemical analyses. A single spherical air bubble is embedded in the insensitive HE and its collapse due to shock initiation is evolved numerically in time; while the ignition processes due chemical reactions are studied. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a ``secondary'' jet. Results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth will be discussed for various pore sizes and different shock pressures. LLNL-ABS-471438. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Pires, Vanessa Maria Pereira; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-02-01

    We characterized ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity present in the plasma membrane of Leishmania amazonensis and investigated its possible role in the growth of the parasite. An increase in Na+ concentration in the presence of 1mM ouabain, increased the ATPase activity with a V(max) of 154.1+/-13.5nmol Pi x h(-1) x mg(-1) and a K0.5 of 28.9+/-7.7mM. Furosemide and sodium orthovanadate inhibited the Na+-stimulated ATPase activity with an IC(50) of 270microM and 0.10microM, respectively. Furosemide inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis after 48h incubation, with maximal effect after 96h. The IC50 for furosemide was 840. On the other hand, ouabain (1mM) did not change the growth of the parasite. Taken together, these results show that L. amazonensis expresses a P-type, ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase that could be involved with the growth of the parasite. PMID:17825292

  5. Temperature-insensitive frequency tripling for generating high-average power UV lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Haizhe; Yuan, Peng; Wen, Shuangchun; Qian, Liejia

    2014-02-24

    Aimed for generating high-average power ultraviolet (UV) lasers via third-harmonic generation (THG) consisting of frequency doubling and tripling stages, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a novel frequency tripling scheme capable of supporting temperature-insensitive phase-matching (PM). Two cascaded tripling crystals, with opposite signs of the temperature derivation of phase-mismatch, are proposed and theoretically studied for improving the temperature-acceptance of PM. The proof-of-principle tripling experiment using two crystals of LBO and BBO shows that the temperature acceptance can be ~1.5 times larger than that of using a single tripling crystal. In addition, the phase shift caused by air dispersion, along with its influence on the temperature-insensitive PM, are also discussed. To illustrate the potential applications of proposed two-crystal tripling design in the high-average-power regime, full numerical simulations for the tripling process, are implemented based on the realistic crystals. The demonstrated two-crystal tripling scheme may provide a promising route to high-average-power THG in the UV region.

  6. Insensitive high-energy energetic structural material of tungsten-polytetrafluoroethylene-aluminum composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liu; Liu, Jinxu; Li, Shukui; Zhang, Xinbo

    2015-11-01

    Energetic structural material is a kind of materials that are inert under normal conditions but could produce exothermic chemical reaction when subjected to impact. This report shows a kind of energetic structural material of tungsten (W)-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-aluminum (Al) with density of 4.12 g/cm3, excellent ductility and dynamic compressive strength of 96 MPa. Moreover, 50W-35PTFE-15Al (wt%) can exhibit a high reaction energy value of more than 2 times of TNT per unit mass and 5 times of TNT per unit volume, respectively, but with excellent insensitivity compared with traditional explosives. Under thermal conditions, the W-PTFE-Al composite can keep stable at 773 K. Under impact loading, when the strain rate up to ˜4820 s-1 coupled with the absorbed energy per unit volume of 120 J/cm3, deflagration occurs and combustion lasts for 500 μs. During impact compressive deformation, the PTFE matrix is elongated into nano-fibers, thus significantly increases the reaction activity of W-PTFE-Al composites. The nano-fiber structure is necessary for the reaction of W-PTFE-Al composites. The formation of PTFE nano-fibers must undergo severe plastic deformation, and therefore the W-PTFE-Al composites exhibit excellent insensitivity and safety. Furthermore, the reaction mechanisms of W-PTFE-Al composites in argon and in air are revealed.

  7. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Chinese families with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SONG; XU, HAIKUN; AN, WEI; ZHU, DECHUN; LI, DEJUN

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for normal male sex differentiation and are responsible for the normal development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. The physiological effects of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Mutations in the AR gene are the most common cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The present study undertook a genetic analysis of the AR gene in two unrelated families affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) in China. In family 1, a previously reported nonsense mutation (G-to-A; p.W751X) was identified in exon 5 of the AR gene. In addition, a novel missense mutation was detected in exon 6 of the AR gene from family 2; this mutation resulted in a predicted amino acid change from phenylalanine to serine at codon 804 (T-to-C; p.F804S) in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. Computer simulation of the structural changes generated by the p.F804S substitution revealed marked conformational alterations in the hydrophobic core responsible for the stability and function of the AR-LBD. In conclusion, the present study identified two mutations from two unrelated Chinese families affected by CAIS. The novel mutation (p.F804S) may provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying CAIS. Furthermore, it expands on the number of mutational hot spots in the international AR mutation database, which may be useful in the future for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:27284311

  8. Broadband Tunability of Polarization-Insensitive Absorber Based on Frequency Selective Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Kong, Peng; Cheng, Wentao; Bao, Wenzong; Yu, Xiaowei; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Jianjun

    2016-03-01

    An innovative tunable and polarization-insensitive 1.6–8 GHz frequency selective surface (FSS) absorber was investigated in this study. The proposed FSS, which is in 4-axial symmetrical form, includes a novel array of PIN diodes with biasing lines including inductors. A gradually reduced equivalent resistor of PIN diodes can be achieved with increasing DC voltage, which characterizes tunable, multi-resonance absorption peaks. Via this simplified design, small value resistor and equivalent capacitance of the gap between patterns can improve the absorber’s performance in low frequencies; an active tunable absorber can be realized in a broad frequency range by employing adjustable devices. Changing the working state of the PIN diode allows the user to obtain strong absorption within the desired frequency. We analyzed the performance of the proposed absorber and found that it indeed shows very favorable absorption performance in low frequency (‑10 dB in 1.6‑4.3 GHz) and wideband (‑8 dB in 4.3‑5.4 GHz and ‑10 dB in 5.4‑8.0 GHz) conditions. Calculation and simulation results also illustrated that the absorber is entirely polarization-insensitive.

  9. Design and optimization of broadband and polarization-insensitive dual-core photonic crystal fiber coupler.

    PubMed

    Lou, Shuqin; Tang, Zunwei; Wang, Liwen

    2011-05-10

    In this paper, we propose a novel (to our knowledge) broadband and polarization-insensitive dual-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) coupler through the introduction of an elliptical-shaped central air hole to offset the slight birefringence arising from the dual core. With a full vectorial finite element method and anisotropic perfectly matched layers as the external boundaries, the impact of several fiber parameters on the coupling characteristics of dual-core PCF is investigated in detail. Through optimizing the main fiber parameters, including core diameter, size and ellipticity of the central air hole, and refractive index difference, broadband and polarization-insensitive characteristics are achieved in the wavelength range from 0.8 to 1.7 μm. The variation of the coupling ratio is stabilized at 50±1%, and the coupling ratio difference between x polarization and y polarization is less than 2% over the wavelength range. This dual-core PCF makes it easier to develop a 3 dB coupler over a wide wavelength for passive optical networks and large optical systems.

  10. Broadband Tunability of Polarization-Insensitive Absorber Based on Frequency Selective Surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Kong, Peng; Cheng, Wentao; Bao, Wenzong; Yu, Xiaowei; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    An innovative tunable and polarization-insensitive 1.6-8 GHz frequency selective surface (FSS) absorber was investigated in this study. The proposed FSS, which is in 4-axial symmetrical form, includes a novel array of PIN diodes with biasing lines including inductors. A gradually reduced equivalent resistor of PIN diodes can be achieved with increasing DC voltage, which characterizes tunable, multi-resonance absorption peaks. Via this simplified design, small value resistor and equivalent capacitance of the gap between patterns can improve the absorber's performance in low frequencies; an active tunable absorber can be realized in a broad frequency range by employing adjustable devices. Changing the working state of the PIN diode allows the user to obtain strong absorption within the desired frequency. We analyzed the performance of the proposed absorber and found that it indeed shows very favorable absorption performance in low frequency (-10 dB in 1.6-4.3 GHz) and wideband (-8 dB in 4.3-5.4 GHz and -10 dB in 5.4-8.0 GHz) conditions. Calculation and simulation results also illustrated that the absorber is entirely polarization-insensitive. PMID:26983804

  11. Ferrite phase shifters using stress insensitive materials. Final report, July 1991-July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, T.; Cox, P.; Harrison, G.; Rodrigue, P.

    1993-10-01

    This RD program sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory and being conducted by EMS Technologies, Inc., Norcross, Georgia, is focused toward achieving improved performance in microwave switching components via use of stress insensitive' microwave ferrite materials for applications where stable hysteresis characteristics of the materials are critical to the RF performance. The program, therefore, primarily addresses how to relieve or improve the magnetostrictive characteristics of the materials with emphasis on the specific application and demonstration of these materials in microwave switching components, particularly ferrite toroidal phase shifters. Material investigations were focused on Mn+3 substitutions in Yttrium-gadolinium iron garnet. These compounds were evaluated in dual toroid waveguide phase shifter structures with temperature, pressure Rf power as variables Manganese substitution per formula unit for Fe+3 of 0.11 to 0.13 (2.2 to 2.6%) produced compounds which exhibited stable performance from magnetostrictive stresses in phaser structures. Ferrite phase shifters, Stress insensitive materials Manganese substitution in garnets, Magnetostrictive, Stresses in ferrite phasers.

  12. A new method for pulse oximetry possessing inherent insensitivity to artifact.

    PubMed

    Hayes, M J; Smith, P R

    2001-04-01

    A new method for pulse oximetry is presented that possesses an inherent insensitivity to corruption by motion artifact, a primary limitation in the practical accuracy and clinical applicability of current technology. Artifact corruption of the underlying photoplethysmographic signals is reduced in real time, using an electronic processing methodology that is based upon inversion of a physical artifact model. This fundamental approach has the potential to provide uninterrupted output and superior accuracy under conditions of sustained subject motion, therefore, widening the clinical scope of this useful measurement. A new calibration technique for oxygen saturation is developed for use with these processed signals, which is shown to be a generalization of the classical interpretation. The detailed theoretical and practical issues of implementation are then explored, highlighting important engineering simplifications implicit in this new approach. A quantitative investigation of the degree of insensitivity to artifact is also undertaken, with the aid of a custom electronic system and commercial pulse oximeter probes, which is compared and contrasted with the performance of a conventional implementation. It is demonstrated that this new methodology results in a reduced sensitivity to common classes of motion artifact, while retaining the generality to be combined with conventional signal processing techniques.

  13. Molecular characterization of an ABA insensitive 5 orthologue in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaona; Yuan, Feifei; Wang, Mengyao; Guo, Aiguang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Chang Gen

    2013-01-18

    ABI5 (ABA insensitive 5), a bZIP (Basic leucine zipper) transcription factor, has been shown to be a major mediator of plant ABA responses during seed germination. Although the molecular basis of ABI5-modulated processes has been well demonstrated in Arabidopsis thaliana, its identity and function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) remain elusive. Here, we describe our identification of BolABI5 (an ABI5 orthologue in B.oleracea) as a functional bZIP transcription factor in the modulation of plant ABA responses. Expression of BolABI5 was dramatically induced by drought stress and exogenous ABA. Heterogeneous expression of BolABI5 rescued the insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 to ABA during seed germination. Subcellular localization and trans-activation assays revealed that BolABI5 was localized in the nucleus and possessed DNA binding and trans-activation activities. Deletion of the bZIP domain generated BolABI5ΔbZIP, which no longer localized exclusively in the nucleus and had almost no detectable DNA-binding or trans-activation activities. Overall, these results suggest that BolABI5 may function as ABI5 in the positive regulation of plant ABA responses. PMID:23246838

  14. Polarization-insensitive ultra-thin quasi-metasurface based on the spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-Jia; Cao, Xiang-Yu; Gao, Jun; Han, Jiang-Feng; Zhang, Zhao; Huang, Fa; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically and experimentally propose a novel polarization-insensitive ultra-thin quasi-metasurface composed of the twelve gradually increasing two-sided metallic grooves, an ultra-thin flexible dielectric film, and a circular copper surface to induce the spoof surface plasmon polaritons in the microwave frequency. The evolution of dispersion characteristic is systematically analyzed in simulation, and we interestingly reveal that the quasi-metasurface provides a way to convert spatial propagating waves to the spoof surface plasmon polariton waves not only for transverse magnetic incidence but also for transverse electric waves. Hence, the proposed quasi-metasurface converts the scattering direction from incident wave direction to the spoof surface plasmon polaritons wave direction and the far-field scattering patterns can be controlled due to the conversion and transmission. A quasi-metasurface device is easily implemented using the common printed circuit board method for demonstration. Both numerical simulations and experimental results verify the polarization-insensitive ultra-thin quasi-metasurface.

  15. Compatibility Study of DNTF with Some Insensitive Energetic Materials and Inert Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi; Wang, Bo-Liang; Lin, Qiu-Han; Chen, Li-Ping

    2016-10-01

    The compatibility of 3,4-dinitrofurazanfuroxan (DNTF) with insensitive energetic materials and inert materials was studied in detail using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105), 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyridine-1-oxide (ANPyO), and 5-amino-1H-tetrazole nitrate (5-ATEZN) are used as insensitive energetic materials, and polymer(vinyl acetate) (PVAC), hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), dinoctylsebacate (DOS), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), and wax are used as inert materials. The results show that DNTF/TNT and DNTF/5-ATEZN possess good compatibility, DNTF/NTO and DNTF/TATB have moderate compatibility, and the compatibility of DNTF/LLM-105 and DNTF/PVAC is poor; in addition, DNTF/ANPyO, DNTF/HTPB, DNTF/DNT, DNTF/DOS, and DNTF/wax have bad compatibility.

  16. Classical ethylene insensitive mutants of the Arabidopsis EIN2 orthologue lack the expected 'hypernodulation' response in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pick Kuen; Biswas, Bandana; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-04-01

    Three independent ethylene insensitive mutants were selected from an EMS- mutagenized population of Lotus japonicus MG-20 (Miyakojima). The mutants, called 'Enigma', were mutated in the LjEIN2a gene from Lotus chromosome 1, sharing significant homology with Arabidopsis EIN2 (ethylene-insensitive2). All three alleles showed classical ethylene insensitivity phenotypes (e.g., Triple Response), but lacked the increased nodulation phenotype commonly associated with ethylene insensitivity. Indeed, all showed a marginal reduction in nodule number per plant, a phenotype that is enigmatic to sickle, an ethylene-insensitive EIN2 mutant in Medicago truncatula. In contrast to wild type, but similar to an ETR1-1 ethylene ethylene-insensitive transgenic of L. japonicus, enigma mutants formed nodules in between the protoxylem poles, demonstrating the influence of ethylene on radial positioning. Suppression of nodule numbers by nitrate and colonisation by mycorrhizal fungi in the enigma-1 mutant were indistinguishable from the wild-type MG-20. However, reflecting endogenous ethylene feedback, the enigma-1 mutant released more than twice the wild-type amount of ethylene. enigma-1 had a moderate reduction in growth, greater root mass (and lateral root formation), delayed flowering and ripening, smaller pods and seeds. Expression analysis of ethylene-regulated genes, such as ETR1, NRL1 (neverripe-like 1), and EIL3 in shoots and roots of enigma-1 and MG-20 illustrated that the ethylene-insensitive mutation strongly affected transcriptional responses in the root. These mutants open the possibility that EIN2 in L. japonicus, a determinate nodulating legume, acts in a more complex fashion possibly through the presence of a duplicated copy of LjEIN2.

  17. Face Alignment via Regressing Local Binary Features.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shaoqing; Cao, Xudong; Wei, Yichen; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a highly efficient and accurate regression approach for face alignment. Our approach has two novel components: 1) a set of local binary features and 2) a locality principle for learning those features. The locality principle guides us to learn a set of highly discriminative local binary features for each facial landmark independently. The obtained local binary features are used to jointly learn a linear regression for the final output. This approach achieves the state-of-the-art results when tested on the most challenging benchmarks to date. Furthermore, because extracting and regressing local binary features are computationally very cheap, our system is much faster than previous methods. It achieves over 3000 frames per second (FPS) on a desktop or 300 FPS on a mobile phone for locating a few dozens of landmarks. We also study a key issue that is important but has received little attention in the previous research, which is the face detector used to initialize alignment. We investigate several face detectors and perform quantitative evaluation on how they affect alignment accuracy. We find that an alignment friendly detector can further greatly boost the accuracy of our alignment method, reducing the error up to 16% relatively. To facilitate practical usage of face detection/alignment methods, we also propose a convenient metric to measure how good a detector is for alignment initialization.

  18. Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

    2014-10-01

    Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods. PMID:25291733

  19. Alignment Cube with One Diffractive Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Sampler, Henry P.; Strojny, Carl R.; Hagopian, John G.; McMann, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    An enhanced alignment cube has been invented for use in a confined setting (e.g., a cryogenic chamber) in which optical access may be limited to a single line of sight. Whereas traditional alignment-cube practice entails the use of two theodolites aimed along two lines of sight, the enhanced alignment cube yields complete alignment information through use of a single theodolite aimed along a single line of sight. Typically, an alignment cube is placed in contact with a datum surface or other reference feature on a scientific instrument during assembly or testing of the instrument. The alignment cube is then used in measuring a small angular deviation of the feature from a precise required orientation. Commonly, the deviation is expressed in terms of rotations (Rx,Ry,Rz) of the cube about the corresponding Cartesian axes (x,y,z). In traditional practice, in order to measure all three rotations, it is necessary to use two theodolites aimed at two orthogonal faces of the alignment cube, as shown in the upper part of the figure. To be able to perform such a measurement, one needs optical access to these two faces. In the case of an alignment cube inside a cryogenic chamber or other enclosed space, the optical-access requirement translates to a requirement for two windows located along the corresponding two orthogonal lines of sight into the chamber. In a typical application, it is difficult or impossible to provide two windows. The present enhanced version of the alignment cube makes it possible to measure all three rotations by use of a single line of sight, thereby obviating a second window.

  20. HETDEX: VIRUS Spectrographs Assembly and Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Boster, E.; Meador, W.; Allen, R.; Hill, G. J.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We describe the assembly and optical alignment process used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the accuracy, interchangeability, time and cost constraints, a production line will be set up to construct and test modular subassemblies in parallel. To facilitate the VIRUS production, fixtures and adjustment mechanisms have been designed to aid in assembly and alignment. This poster describes the details and operations of the camera mirror, collimator mirror and grating adjustment mechanisms, as well as the fold flat mirror alignment fixture.

  1. Rotational Alignment Altered by Source Position Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris S.; Heflin, M. B.; Lanyi, G. E.; Sovers, O. J.; Steppe, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the construction of modern Celestial Reference Frames (CRFs) the overall rotational alignment is only weakly constrained by the data. Therefore, common practice has been to apply a 3-dimensional No-Net-Rotation (NNR) constraint in order to align an under-construction frame to the ICRF. We present evidence that correlations amongst source position parameters must be accounted for in order to properly align a CRF at the 5-10 (mu)as level of uncertainty found in current work. Failure to do so creates errors at the 10-40 (mu)as level.

  2. Alignment of chirped-pulse compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, I V

    2012-11-30

    An original method of alignment of grating compressors for ultrahigh-power CPA laser systems is proposed. The use of this method for adjustment of the grating compressor of a PEARL subpetawatt laser complex made it possible to align the diffraction gratings with a second accuracy in all three angular degrees of freedom, including alignment of the grooves, and to adjust the angles of beam incidence on the grating with a high accuracy. A simple method for measuring the difference in the groove densities of gratings with accuracy better than 0.005 lines mm{sup -1} is proposed and tested. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  3. Optical alignment of the SPICE EUV imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Caldwell, Martin; Eccleston, Paul; Griffin, Doug; Greenway, Paul; Fludra, Andrzej; Middleton, Kevin; Tosh, Ian; Richards, Tony; Phillipon, Anne; Schühle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    SPICE is a high resolution imaging spectrometer operating at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. SPICE will address the key science goals of Solar Orbiter by providing the quantitative knowledge of the physical state and composition of the plasmas in the solar atmosphere, in particular investigating the source regions of outflows and ejection processes which link the solar surface and corona to the heliosphere. By observing the intensities of selected spectral lines and line profiles, SPICE will derive temperature, density, flow and composition information for the plasmas in the temperature range from 10,000 K to 10MK. The optical components of the instrument consist of an off axis parabolic mirror mounted on a mechanism with a scan range of 8 arc minutes. This allows the rastering of an image of the spectrometer slit, which is interchangeable defining the instrument resolution, on the sky. A concave toroidal variable line space grating disperses, magnifies, and re-images incident radiation onto a pair of photocathode coated microchannel plate image intensifiers, coupled to active pixel sensors. For the instrument to meet the scientific and engineering objectives these components must be tightly aligned with each other and the mechanical interface to the spacecraft. This alignment must be maintained throughout the environmental exposure of the instrument to vibration and thermal cycling seen during launch, and as the spacecraft orbits around the sun. The built alignment is achieved through a mixture of dimensional metrology, autocollimation, interferometry and imaging tests. This paper shall discuss the requirements and the methods of optical alignment.

  4. Global multiple protein-protein interaction network alignment by combining pairwise network alignments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A wealth of protein interaction data has become available in recent years, creating an urgent need for powerful analysis techniques. In this context, the problem of finding biologically meaningful correspondences between different protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN) is of particular interest. The PPIN of a species can be compared with that of other species through the process of PPIN alignment. Such an alignment can provide insight into basic problems like species evolution and network component function determination, as well as translational problems such as target identification and elucidation of mechanisms of disease spread. Furthermore, multiple PPINs can be aligned simultaneously, expanding the analytical implications of the result. While there are several pairwise network alignment algorithms, few methods are capable of multiple network alignment. Results We propose SMAL, a MNA algorithm based on the philosophy of scaffold-based alignment. SMAL is capable of converting results from any global pairwise alignment algorithms into a MNA in linear time. Using this method, we have built multiple network alignments based on combining pairwise alignments from a number of publicly available (pairwise) network aligners. We tested SMAL using PPINs of eight species derived from the IntAct repository and employed a number of measures to evaluate performance. Additionally, as part of our experimental investigations, we compared the effectiveness of SMAL while aligning up to eight input PPINs, and examined the effect of scaffold network choice on the alignments. Conclusions A key advantage of SMAL lies in its ability to create MNAs through the use of pairwise network aligners for which native MNA implementations do not exist. Experiments indicate that the performance of SMAL was comparable to that of the native MNA implementation of established methods such as IsoRankN and SMETANA. However, in terms of computational time, SMAL was significantly faster

  5. DNA methylation pattern of Photoperiod-B1 is associated with photoperiod insensitivity in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Sun, Han; Guo, Zhiai; Gao, Lifeng; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhang, Wenping; Zhou, Ronghua; Wu, Yongzhen; Wang, Haiyang; An, Hailong; Jia, Jizeng

    2014-11-01

    As one of the three key components of the 'Green Revolution', photoperiod insensitivity is vital for improved adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars to a wider geographical range. Photoperiod-B1a (Ppd-B1a) is one of the major genes that confers photoperiod insensitivity in 'Green Revolution' varieties, and has made a significant contribution to wheat yield improvement. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the photoperiod insensitivity of Ppd-B1a alleles from an epigenetic perspective using a combination of bisulfite genomic sequencing, orthologous comparative analysis, association analysis, linkage analysis and gene expression analysis. Based on the study of a large collection of wheat germplasm, we report two methylation haplotypes of Ppd-B1 and demonstrate that the higher methylation haplotype (haplotype a) was associated with increased copy numbers and higher expression levels of the Ppd-B1 gene, earlier heading and photoperiod insensitivity. Furthermore, assessment of the distribution frequency of the different methylation haplotypes suggested that the methylation patterns have undergone selection during the wheat breeding process. Our study suggests that DNA methylation in the regulatory region of the Ppd-B1 alleles, which is closely related to copy number variation, plays a significant role in wheat breeding, to confer photoperiod insensitivity and better adaptation to a wider geographical range.

  6. Repeated functional convergent effects of NaV1.7 on acid insensitivity in hibernating mammals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Li, Gong-Hua; He, Kai; Huang, Jing-Fei; Jiang, Xue-Long; Murphy, Robert W; Shi, Peng

    2014-02-01

    Hibernating mammals need to be insensitive to acid in order to cope with conditions of high CO2; however, the molecular basis of acid tolerance remains largely unknown. The African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and hibernating mammals share similar environments and physiological features. In the naked mole-rat, acid insensitivity has been shown to be conferred by the functional motif of the sodium ion channel NaV1.7. There is now an opportunity to evaluate acid insensitivity in other taxa. In this study, we tested for functional convergence of NaV1.7 in 71 species of mammals, including 22 species that hibernate. Our analyses revealed a functional convergence of amino acid sequences, which occurred at least six times independently in mammals that hibernate. Evolutionary analyses determined that the convergence results from both parallel and divergent evolution of residues in the functional motif. Our findings not only identify the functional molecules responsible for acid insensitivity in hibernating mammals, but also open new avenues to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of acid insensitivity in mammals.

  7. Computing posterior probabilities for score-based alignments using ppALIGN.

    PubMed

    Wolfsheimer, Stefan; Hartmann, Alexander; Rabus, Ralf; Nuel, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Score-based pairwise alignments are widely used in bioinformatics in particular with molecular database search tools, such as the BLAST family. Due to sophisticated heuristics, such algorithms are usually fast but the underlying scoring model unfortunately lacks a statistical description of the reliability of the reported alignments. In particular, close to gaps, in low-score or low-complexity regions, a huge number of alternative alignments arise which results in a decrease of the certainty of the alignment. ppALIGN is a software package that uses hidden Markov Model techniques to compute position-wise reliability of score-based pairwise alignments of DNA or protein sequences. The design of the model allows for a direct connection between the scoring function and the parameters of the probabilistic model. For this reason it is suitable to analyze the outcomes of popular score based aligners and search tools without having to choose a complicated set of parameters. By contrast, our program only requires the classical score parameters (the scoring function and gap costs). The package comes along with a library written in C++, a standalone program for user defined alignments (ppALIGN) and another program (ppBLAST) which can process a complete result set of BLAST. The main algorithms essentially exhibit a linear time complexity (in the alignment lengths), and they are hence suitable for on-line computations. We have also included alternative decoding algorithms to provide alternative alignments. ppALIGN is a fast program/library that helps detect and quantify questionable regions in pairwise alignments. Due to its structure, the input/output interface it can to be connected to other post-processing tools. Empirically, we illustrate its usefulness in terms of correctly predicted reliable regions for sequences generated using the ROSE model for sequence evolution, and identify sensor-specific regions in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum. PMID

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor isoforms alpha and beta in in vitro cytokine-induced glucocorticoid insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Torrego, Alfons; Pujols, Laura; Roca-Ferrer, Jordi; Mullol, Joaquim; Xaubet, Antoni; Picado, César

    2004-08-15

    We stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 14 healthy subjects, 14 patients with stable asthma, and 13 patients with unstable asthma with interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 to induce glucocorticoid insensitivity and we examined the relationship between insensitivity and the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms. Results are expressed as IC(50) (nanomolar) values (means +/- SD) in proliferation assays and as 10(3) cDNA molecules per microgram of total RNA (means +/- SD) in real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Cells from patients with unstable asthma were less sensitive (316 +/- 7 nM) to dexamethasone antiproliferative effects than those from healthy control subjects (102 +/- 4 nM, p < 0.05) and patients with stable asthma (107 +/- 2 nM, p < 0.05). Coincubation with IL-2 and IL-4 repressed the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on proliferation in all groups (unstable: 851 +/- 47 nM, p < 0.01; stable: 912 +/- 52 nM, p = 0.001; control subjects: 537 +/- 45 nM, p = 0.001). GR-alpha mRNA baseline expression was higher in patients with unstable asthma [(1.95 +/- 0.40) x 10(3) cDNA molecules/microg total RNA, p < 0.05] than in patients with stable asthma [(1.46 +/- 0.35) x 10(3) cDNA molecules/microg total RNA] and healthy subjects [(1.35 +/- 0.25) x 10(3) cDNA molecules/microg total RNA]. GR-beta mRNA was 600 times lower than GR-alpha in the three groups. Coincubation with IL-2 and IL-4 significantly increased GR-alpha mRNA expression in the three groups (p < 0.01), but caused no significant change in GR-beta mRNA. GR-alpha, but not GR-beta, protein was detected at baseline and after cytokine exposure. Our data do not support the hypothesis that increased GR-beta expression can contribute to cytokine-induced glucocorticoid insensitivity. PMID:15184204

  9. TRPM5-dependent amiloride- and benzamil-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani taste nerve response

    PubMed Central

    Ren, ZuoJun; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Murthy, Karnam S.; Grider, John R.; DeSimone, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5) cation channel is involved in sensing sweet, bitter, umami, and fat taste stimuli, complex-tasting divalent salts, and temperature-induced changes in sweet taste. To investigate if the amiloride- and benzamil (Bz)-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve response is also regulated in part by TRPM5, CT responses to 100 mM NaCl + 5 μM Bz (NaCl + Bz) were monitored in Sprague-Dawley rats, wild-type (WT) mice, and TRP vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice in the presence of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. In rats, NaCl + Bz + RTX CT responses were also monitored in the presence of triphenylphosphine oxide, a specific TRPM5 blocker, and capsazepine and N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamid (SB-366791), specific TRPV1 blockers. In rats and WT mice, RTX produced biphasic effects on the NaCl + Bz CT response, enhancing the response at 0.5–1 μM and inhibiting it at >1 μM. The NaCl + Bz + SB-366791 CT response in rats and WT mice and the NaCl + Bz CT response in TRPV1 KO mice were inhibited to baseline level and were RTX-insensitive. In rats, blocking TRPV1 by capsazepine or TRPM5 by triphenylphosphine oxide inhibited the tonic NaCl + Bz CT response and shifted the relationship between RTX concentration and the magnitude of the tonic CT response to higher RTX concentrations. TRPM5 KO mice elicited no constitutive NaCl + Bz tonic CT response. The relationship between RTX concentration and the magnitude of the tonic NaCl + Bz CT response was significantly attenuated and shifted to higher RTX concentrations. The results suggest that pharmacological or genetic alteration of TRPM5 activity modulates the Bz-insensitive NaCl CT response and its modulation by TRPV1 agonists. PMID:23639808

  10. HETDEX: Optical Alignment Of The Virus Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Emily; Marshall, J.; Rheault, J.; DePoy, D.; Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Hill, G.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present an optical alignment procedure for the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) collimator. Texas A&M is helping to build the VIRUS spectrographs, designed in collaboration with The University of Texas at Austin. The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will use as many as 192 units of this instrument to search for answers regarding Dark Energy. Texas A&M is currently assembling the collimators for VIRUS and designing alignment fixtures to aid in the assembly. We used ZEMAX models of VIRUS optics made by UT engineers to analyze various alignment methods we have considered. Our current plan uses two steps to properly align the collimator within the tolerance of 0.1-degrees. This will permit interchangeability among the various VIRUS parts.

  11. Alignment Stage for a Cryogenic Dilatometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudik, Matthew; Moore, Donald

    2005-01-01

    A three-degree-of-freedom alignment stage has been designed and built for use in a cryogenic dilatometer that is used to measure thermal strains. The alignment stage enables precise adjustments of the positions and orientations of optical components to be used in the measurements and, once adjustments have been completed, keeps the components precisely aligned during cryogenic-dilatometer operations that can last as long as several days. The alignment stage includes a case, a circular tilt/tip platform, and a variety of flexural couplings between the case and the platform, all machined from a single block of the low-thermal-expansion iron/nickel alloy Invar, in order to minimize effects of temperature gradients and to obtain couplings that are free of stiction and friction. There are three sets of flexural couplings clocked at equal angles of 120 degrees around the platform, constituting a three-point kinematic support system.

  12. Training manual on optical alignment instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Training Manual RQA/M5 provides a basic course of instruction in the use of optical instruments for precise dimensional control and alignment of structural elements and assemblies, such as associated with space vehicles, aircraft, ships, and buildings.

  13. Magnetic alignment of the Tara tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.S.; Coleman, J.W.; Irby, J.H.; Olmstead, M.M.; Torti, R.P.

    1985-06-01

    Techniques developed for the alignment of high-energy accelerators have been applied to the alignment of the Tara tandem mirror magnetic confinement device. Tools used were: a transit/laser surveyor's system for establishing an invariant reference; optical scattering from ferromagnetic crystallites for establishing magnetic centers in the quadrupole anchor/transition modules; an electron-optical circle-generating wand for alignment of the solenoidal plug and central cell modules; and four differently configured electron emissive probes, including a 40-beam flux mapping e gun, for testing the alignment of the coils under vacuum. Procedures are outlined, and results are given which show that the magnetic axes of the individual coils in the Tara set have been made colinear with each other and with the reference to within +- 1.0 mm over the length of the machine between the anchor midplanes.

  14. Alignment algorithms for planar optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Duan, Ji-an

    2012-10-01

    Planar optical waveguides are the key elements in a modern, high-speed optical network. An important problem facing the optical fiber communication system is optical-axis alignment and coupling between waveguide chips and transmission fibers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various algorithms used for the optical-axis alignment, namely, hill-climbing, pattern search, and genetic algorithm are analyzed. A new optical-axis alignment for planar optical waveguides is presented which is a composite of a genetic algorithm and a pattern search algorithm. Experiments have proved the proposed alignment's feasibility; compared with hill climbing, the search process can reduce the number of movements by 88% and reduce the search time by 83%. Moreover, the search success rate in the experiment can reach 100%.

  15. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  16. Aligning parallel arrays to reduce communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, Thomas J.; Schreiber, Robert; Gilbert, John R.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

    1994-01-01

    Axis and stride alignment is an important optimization in compiling data-parallel programs for distributed-memory machines. We previously developed an optimal algorithm for aligning array expressions. Here, we examine alignment for more general program graphs. We show that optimal alignment is NP-complete in this setting, so we study heuristic methods. This paper makes two contributions. First, we show how local graph transformations can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. Second, we give a heuristic that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. Our algorithms have been implemented; we present experimental results showing their effect on the performance of some example programs running on the CM-5.

  17. Little solar impact from planets' alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Contrary to some projections, planetary alignments of the type that have begun recently (when the sun, Venus, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn move into almost perfect alignment) should have no perceptible effect on solar flare activity. Some researchers have postulated that the increased gravitational attraction exerted on the sun by the aligned planets could produce massive eruptions near sunspots. The radiation and particles directed earthward by the sun, according to this hypothesis, would change the atmosphere in a way that would slow the earth's rotation; and this change in rotation rate would cause the large plates which constitute the earth's crust to grind together more vigorously and cause major earthquakes. Because Jupiter is the largest of the planets, and so exerts the most gravitational attraction, this geophysical domino theory is sometimes referred to as the Jupiter Effect. But, at least at the solar end of this theory, one would not expect much change in solar activity from planetary alignments of this type.

  18. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  19. Pairwise alignment of protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Koyutürk, Mehmet; Kim, Yohan; Topkara, Umut; Subramaniam, Shankar; Szpankowski, Wojciech; Grama, Ananth

    2006-03-01

    With an ever-increasing amount of available data on protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and research revealing that these networks evolve at a modular level, discovery of conserved patterns in these networks becomes an important problem. Although available data on protein-protein interactions is currently limited, recently developed algorithms have been shown to convey novel biological insights through employment of elegant mathematical models. The main challenge in aligning PPI networks is to define a graph theoretical measure of similarity between graph structures that captures underlying biological phenomena accurately. In this respect, modeling of conservation and divergence of interactions, as well as the interpretation of resulting alignments, are important design parameters. In this paper, we develop a framework for comprehensive alignment of PPI networks, which is inspired by duplication/divergence models that focus on understanding the evolution of protein interactions. We propose a mathematical model that extends the concepts of match, mismatch, and gap in sequence alignment to that of match, mismatch, and duplication in network alignment and evaluates similarity between graph structures through a scoring function that accounts for evolutionary events. By relying on evolutionary models, the proposed framework facilitates interpretation of resulting alignments in terms of not only conservation but also divergence of modularity in PPI networks. Furthermore, as in the case of sequence alignment, our model allows flexibility in adjusting parameters to quantify underlying evolutionary relationships. Based on the proposed model, we formulate PPI network alignment as an optimization problem and present fast algorithms to solve this problem. Detailed experimental results from an implementation of the proposed framework show that our algorithm is able to discover conserved interaction patterns very effectively, in terms of both accuracies and computational

  20. Dynamic alignment and selective decay in MHD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.

    1983-01-01

    Under some circumstances, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence will evolve toward a state in which the velocity fields and magnetic fields are aligned or anti-aligned. We propose a mechanism for this effect and illustrate with numerical computations. Under some other circumstances, the energy appears to decay selectively toward a minimum energy state in which the kinetic energy has disappeared. It has not been possible so far to identify a boundary in the phase space which divides the two regimes.

  1. CARNA—alignment of RNA structure ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Sorescu, Dragoş Alexandru; Möhl, Mathias; Mann, Martin; Backofen, Rolf; Will, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Due to recent algorithmic progress, tools for the gold standard of comparative RNA analysis, namely Sankoff-style simultaneous alignment and folding, are now readily applicable. Such approaches, however, compare RNAs with respect to a simultaneously predicted, single, nested consensus structure. To make multiple alignment of RNAs available in cases, where this limitation of the standard approach is critical, we introduce a web server that provides a complete and convenient interface to the RNA structure alignment tool ‘CARNA’. This tool uniquely supports RNAs with multiple conserved structures per RNA and aligns pseudoknots intrinsically; these features are highly desirable for aligning riboswitches, RNAs with conserved folding pathways, or pseudoknots. We represent structural input and output information as base pair probability dot plots; this provides large flexibility in the input, ranging from fixed structures to structure ensembles, and enables immediate visual analysis of the results. In contrast to conventional Sankoff-style approaches, ‘CARNA’ optimizes all structural similarities in the input simultaneously, for example across an entire RNA structure ensemble. Even compared with already costly Sankoff-style alignment, ‘CARNA’ solves an intrinsically much harder problem by applying advanced, constraint-based, algorithmic techniques. Although ‘CARNA’ is specialized to the alignment of RNAs with several conserved structures, its performance on RNAs in general is on par with state-of-the-art general-purpose RNA alignment tools, as we show in a Bralibase 2.1 benchmark. The web server is freely available at http://rna.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/CARNA. PMID:22689637

  2. Order in vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Xu, Z; Eres, Gyula

    2006-01-01

    We report the direct measurements on the bulk morphology of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS measurements at different heights of CNT arrays corresponding to different stages of the growth reveal increasing alignment order along the thickness and two distinctly different CNT morphologies. The observations suggest that the evolution of the macroscopic CNT morphologies be driven by competing collective growth and spatial constraints.

  3. Smart and precise alignment of optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Stickler, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    For the assembly of any kind of optical systems the precise centration of every single element is of particular importance. Classically the precise alignment of optical components is based on the precise centering of all components to an external axis (usually a high-precision rotary spindle axis). Main drawback of this timeconsuming process is that it is significantly sensitive to misalignments of the reference (e.g. the housing) axis. In order to facilitate process in this contribution we present a novel alignment strategy for the TRIOPTICS OptiCentric® instrument family that directly aligns two elements with respect to each other by measuring the first element's axis and using this axis as alignment reference without the detour of considering an external reference. According to the optical design any axis in the system can be chosen as target axis. In case of the alignment to a barrel this axis is measured by using a distance sensor (e.g., the classically used dial indicator). Instead of fine alignment the obtained data is used for the calculation of its orientation within the setup. Alternatively, the axis of an optical element (single lens or group of lenses) whose orientation is measured with the standard OptiCentric MultiLens concept can be used as a reference. In the instrument's software the decentering of the adjusting element to the calculated axis is displayed in realtime and indicated by a target mark that can be used for the manual alignment. In addition, the obtained information can also be applied for active and fully automated alignment of lens assemblies with the help of motorized actuators.

  4. Molecular focusing and alignment with plasmon fields.

    PubMed

    Artamonov, Maxim; Seideman, Tamar

    2010-12-01

    We show the possibility of simultaneously aligning molecules and focusing their center-of-mass motion near a metal nanoparticle in the field intensity gradient created by the surface plasmon enhancement of incident light. The rotational motion is described quantum mechanically while the translation is treated classically. The effects of the nanoparticle shape on the alignment and focusing are explored. Our results carry interesting implications to the field of molecular nanoplasmonics and suggest several potential applications in nanochemistry.

  5. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP) is a method being developed by the Advanced Concepts Office, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The TAPP method expands on current technology assessment methods by incorporating the technological structure underlying technology development, e.g., organizational structures and resources, institutional policy and strategy, and the factors that motivate technological change. This paper discusses the methods ACO is currently developing to better perform technology assessments while taking into consideration Strategic Alignment, Technology Forecasting, and Long Term Planning.

  6. Silicon oxides as alignment surfaces for vertically-aligned nematics in photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oton, E.; López-Andrés, S.; Bennis, N.; Otón, J. M.; Geday, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative study on alignment performance and microstructure of inorganic layers used for liquid crystal cell conditioning has been carried out. The study has focused on two specific materials, SiOx and SiO2, deposited under different conditions. The purpose was to establish a relationship between layer microstructure and liquid crystal alignment. The surface morphology has been studied by FESEM and AFM. An analysis on liquid crystal alignment, pretilt angle, response time, contrast ratio and the conditions to develop backflow effect (significant rise time increase due to pure homeotropic alignment) on vertically-aligned nematic cells has been carried out. A technique to overcome the presence of backflow has been identified. The full comparative study of SiOx and SiO2 layer properties and their influence over liquid crystal alignment and electrooptic response is presented.

  7. Aligning Biomolecular Networks Using Modular Graph Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towfic, Fadi; Greenlee, M. Heather West; Honavar, Vasant

    Comparative analysis of biomolecular networks constructed using measurements from different conditions, tissues, and organisms offer a powerful approach to understanding the structure, function, dynamics, and evolution of complex biological systems. We explore a class of algorithms for aligning large biomolecular networks by breaking down such networks into subgraphs and computing the alignment of the networks based on the alignment of their subgraphs. The resulting subnetworks are compared using graph kernels as scoring functions. We provide implementations of the resulting algorithms as part of BiNA, an open source biomolecular network alignment toolkit. Our experiments using Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens protein-protein interaction networks extracted from the DIP repository of protein-protein interaction data demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithms (as measured by % GO term enrichment of subnetworks identified by the alignment) is competitive with some of the state-of-the-art algorithms for pair-wise alignment of large protein-protein interaction networks. Our results also show that the inter-species similarity scores computed based on graph kernels can be used to cluster the species into a species tree that is consistent with the known phylogenetic relationships among the species.

  8. An implicit spatial memory alignment effect.

    PubMed

    Cerles, Mélanie; Gomez, Alice; Rousset, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    The memory alignment effect is the advantage of reasoning from a perspective which is aligned with the frame of reference used to encode an environment in memory. It usually occurs when participants have to consciously take a perspective to perform a spatial memory task. The present experiment assesses whether the memory alignment effect can occur without requiring to consciously take a given perspective, when the misaligned perspective is only perceptively provided. In others words, does the memory alignment effect still arise when it is only implicitly prompted? Thirty participants learned a sequence of four objects' positions in a room from a north-as-up survey perspective. During the testing phase, they had to point to the direction of a target object from another object ('the reference') with a fixed north-up orientation. The background behind the reference object displayed either a uniform color (control condition) or a misaligned ground-level perspective. The latter displayed a reference object's position information which was either congruent with the studied environment (congruent misaligned condition) or incongruent (incongruent misaligned condition). Mean pointing errors were higher in the congruent misaligned condition than in the control condition, whereas the incongruent misaligned condition did not differ from the control one. The present study shows that the memory alignment effect can arise without requiring a conscious misaligned perspective taking. Moreover, the perceived misaligned perspective must share the same spatial content as the memorized spatial representation in order to induce an alignment effect. PMID:26233526

  9. Radiative Torque Alignment: Essential Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

    2007-05-01

    Aligned grains provide a unique way to trace magnetic field topology in many astrophysical environments. In Lazarian & Hoang (2006), we derived analytical expressions for radiative torque (RAT) components, and studied the dynamics of grains assuming that the maximal inertia axis is always parallel to angular momentum. In this paper, to get insight into the dynamics of grains when thermal fluctuations are accounted for, we use AMO, and perform analytically averaging for RAT components. In addition, we study the RAT alignment for irregular grains (shape 1 and 3). We also evaluate the influence of suprathermal torques arising from H2 formation, as well as randomizing collisions with atomic gas on the alignment of grains driven by radiative torques (RATs). Our study is both based on the analytical model (AMO) and numerical calculations of RATs for irregular grains. To describe the H2 formation torques and random collisions we use the Langevin equation approach. We show that when thermal fluctuations are included, for both AMO and irregular grains, RATs tend to align grains at attractor points with low angular momentum (low-J attractor point). We found that random collisions by atomic gas act to substantially disalign the grain alignment in the case the phase trajectory map has only the low-J attractor point. In particular, if there exist attractor points at high angular momentum in the phase trajectory map, gas bombardment can move grains from the low- J attractor point to the high-J attractor point. Thus the degree of alignment increases.

  10. Observational Evidence for Radiative Interstellar Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.; Potter, S. B.; Andersson, B.; Potter, S.

    2011-11-01

    The alignment mechanisms of interstellar dust grains is a long standing astrophysical problem. Interstellar polarization was first discovered in 1949 and soon thereafter attributed to dichroic extinction caused by asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. For a long time the alignment mechanism was thought to involve paramagnetic relaxation in rapidly spinning dust grains. Modern theory indicates that the classical alignment mechanisms are likely not efficient, but rather favor alignment through direct radiative torques. We have used multi-band polarimetry towards stars probing six nearby clouds to show that the wavelength of maximum polarization is linearly correlated with the visual extinction (Andersson & Potter 2007; AP07; where further details can be found). We find a universal relation with a common positive slope between the clouds and a DC offset correlated with the average of the total-to-selective extinction < RV > . These results provide strong observational support for radiatively driven grain alignment. Recent observations of an additional set of ≍60 sightlines in the Taurus cloud confirm and strengthen these results.

  11. New Attitude Sensor Alignment Calibration Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Harman, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Accurate spacecraft attitudes may only be obtained if the primary attitude sensors are well calibrated. Launch shock, relaxation of gravitational stresses and similar effects often produce large enough alignment shifts so that on-orbit alignment calibration is necessary if attitude accuracy requirements are to be met. A variety of attitude sensor alignment algorithms have been developed to meet the need for on-orbit calibration. Two new algorithms are presented here: ALICAL and ALIQUEST. Each of these has advantages in particular circumstances. ALICAL is an attitude independent algorithm that uses near simultaneous measurements from two or more sensors to produce accurate sensor alignments. For each set of simultaneous observations the attitude is overdetermined. The information content of the extra degrees of freedom can be combined over numerous sets to provide the sensor alignments. ALIQUEST is an attitude dependent algorithm that combines sensor and attitude data into a loss function that has the same mathematical form as the Wahba problem. Alignments can then be determined using any of the algorithms (such as the QUEST quaternion estimator) that have been developed to solve the Wahba problem for attitude. Results from the use of these methods on active missions are presented.

  12. Global network alignment using multiscale spectral signatures

    PubMed Central

    Patro, Rob; Kingsford, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Protein interaction networks provide an important system-level view of biological processes. One of the fundamental problems in biological network analysis is the global alignment of a pair of networks, which puts the proteins of one network into correspondence with the proteins of another network in a manner that conserves their interactions while respecting other evidence of their homology. By providing a mapping between the networks of different species, alignments can be used to inform hypotheses about the functions of unannotated proteins, the existence of unobserved interactions, the evolutionary divergence between the two species and the evolution of complexes and pathways. Results: We introduce GHOST, a global pairwise network aligner that uses a novel spectral signature to measure topological similarity between subnetworks. It combines a seed-and-extend global alignment phase with a local search procedure and exceeds state-of-the-art performance on several network alignment tasks. We show that the spectral signature used by GHOST is highly discriminative, whereas the alignments it produces are also robust to experimental noise. When compared with other recent approaches, we find that GHOST is able to recover larger and more biologically significant, shared subnetworks between species. Availability: An efficient and parallelized implementation of GHOST, released under the Apache 2.0 license, is available at http://cbcb.umd.edu/kingsford_group/ghost Contact: rob@cs.umd.edu PMID:23047556

  13. Can technology improve alignment during knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Emmanuel; Fennema, Peter; Price, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Component malalignment remains a concern in total knee arthroplasty (TKA); therefore, a series of technologies have been developed to improve alignment. The authors conducted a systematic review to compare computer-assisted navigation with conventional instrumentation, and assess the current evidence for patient-matched instrumentation and robot-assisted implantation. An extensive search of the PubMed database for relevant meta-analyses, systematic reviews and original articles was performed, with each study scrutinised by two reviewers. Data on study characteristics and outcomes were extracted from each study and compared. In total 30 studies were included: 10 meta-analyses comparing computer-assisted navigation and conventional instrumentation, 13 studies examining patient-matched instrumentation, and seven investigating robot-assisted implantation. Computer-assisted navigation showed significant and reproducible improvements in mechanical alignment over conventional instrumentation. Patient-matched instrumentation appeared to achieve a high degree of mechanical alignment, although the majority of studies were of poor quality. The data for robot-assisted surgery was less indicative. Computer-assisted navigation improves alignment during TKA over conventional instrumentation. For patient-matched instrumentation and robot-assisted implantation, alignment benefits have not been reliably demonstrated. For all three technologies, clinical benefits cannot currently be assumed, and further studies are required. Although current technologies to improve alignment during TKA appear to result in intra-operative benefits, their clinical impact remains unclear, and surgeons should take this into account when considering their adoption.

  14. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement. PMID:22928114

  15. Full-field spatially incoherent illumination interferometry: a spatial resolution almost insensitive to aberrations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peng; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A Claude

    2016-09-01

    We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function (PSF) width/spatial resolution of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations. In these systems, aberrations mostly induce a reduction of the signal level that leads to a loss of the signal-to-noise ratio without broadening the system PSF. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation as well as experimental results are provided to show this specific merit of incoherent illumination in full-field OCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a result has been demonstrated. PMID:27607937

  16. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements.

  17. Clinical features for diagnosis and management of patients with PRDM12 congenital insensitivity to pain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Stella; Malik Sharif, Saghira; Chen, Ya-Chun; Valente, Enza-Maria; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bennett, Christopher; Woods, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare extreme phenotype characterised by an inability to perceive pain present from birth due to lack of, or malfunction of, nociceptors. PRDM12 has recently been identified as a new gene that can cause CIP. The full phenotype and natural history have not yet been reported. Methods We have ascertained five adult patients and report their clinical features. Results Based on our findings, and those of previous patients, we describe the natural history of the PRDM12-CIP disorder, and derive diagnostic and management features to guide the clinical management of patients. Conclusions PRDM12-CIP is a distinct and diagnosable disorder, and requires specific clinical management to minimise predictable complications. PMID:26975306

  18. [Cyto B dependent and ouabain insensitive regulatory volume decrease in bicellular mouse embryo].

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, M A; Golichenkov, V A; Tarasov, A V; Pogorelova, V N; Panait, A I; Pogorelov, A G

    2012-01-01

    Mouse single-cell embryos exhibit robust Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD). In what manner the very early mammalian embryo following zygote stage is appreciably altered by the anisotonic extracellular solution is, as yet, totally unclear. Little attention was paid to this direction since there was no way to determine the blastomere volume. This work has served to quantitatively investigate the osmotic response of bicellular mouse embryos employing Laser Scanning Microtomography (LSM) followed with three-dimensional reconstruction (3 DR). We have shown that bicellular mouse embryos in hypotonic Dulbecco's experience RVD. Embryonic cells subjected to hyposmolar exhibit rapid osmotic swelling followed by gradual shrinking back toward their original volume. The van't Hoff law defines swelling phase with the effective hydraulic conductivity of 0.3 micron x min(-1) x atm(-1). Water release during RVD in bicellular mouse embryos is abolished by Cytochalasin B (Cyto B) and the volume recovery is insensitive to ouabain treatment. PMID:22650075

  19. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhydrosis (CIPA) Syndrome; A Report of 4 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Daneshjou, Khadije; Jafarieh, Hanieh; Raaeskarami, Seyed-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Background: Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of infections and unexplained fever, anhidrosis (inability to sweat), and absence of reaction to noxious stimuli, self-mutilating behavior, mental retardation and damages to oral structures. Case Presentation In this article, we have demonstrated the signs and symptoms of 4 children that refer to the pediatrics department of the Imam Khomeini hospital and assay about their complications with this disease. They mostly presented by recurrent osteomyelitis in their feet that severely controlled by antibiotic therapy and even surgery. They had no pain sensation in spite of deep sore and infection. Conclusion This syndrome can be diagnosed by clinical and paraclinical tests together but it would be better to confirm by genetic test. The diagnosis of this syndrome helps us to try for the better quality of life for the patients and avoid unnecessary amputations. PMID:23400697

  20. Effect of slow energy releasing on divergent detonation of Insensitive High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaomian; Pan, Hao; Huang, Yong; Wu, Zihui

    2014-03-01

    There exists a slow energy releasing (SER) process in the slow reaction zone located behind the detonation wave due to the carbon cluster in the detonation products of Insensitive High Explosives (IHEs), and the process will affect the divergent detonation wave's propagation and the driving process of the explosives. To study the potential effect, a new artificial burn model including the SER process based on the programmed burn model is proposed in the paper. Quasi-steady analysis of the new model indicates that the nonlinearity of the detonation speed as a function of front curvature owes to the significant change of the reaction rate and the reaction zone length at the sonic state. What's more, in simulating the detonation of IHE JB-9014, the new model including the slow reaction can predict a slower jump-off velocity, in good agreement with the result of the test.

  1. Transmission and Reflection Terahertz Spectroscopy of Insensitive Melt-Cast High-Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palka, Norbert; Szala, Mateusz

    2016-10-01

    Currently, artillery shells and grenades that are introduced into the market are based on melt-castable insensitive high explosives (IHEs), which do not explode while they run a risk of impact, heat or shrapnel. Particles of explosives (such as hexogen, nitroguanidine and nitrotriazolone) are suspended in different proportions in a matrix of 2.4-dinitroanisole. In this paper, we investigated samples of commonly used IHEs: PAX-41, IMX-104 and IMX-101, whose internal structures were determined by a scanning electron microscope. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy was applied in both transmission and reflection configurations. At first, the complex refraction indices of four pure constituents creating IHEs were determined and became the basis of further calculations. Next, the experimentally determined transmission and reflection spectra of IHEs and pure constituents were compared with theoretical considerations. The influence of the grain size of constituent material and scattering on the reflection spectra was analysed, and good agreement between the experimental and theoretical data was achieved.

  2. A no adhesive and temperature-insensitive package design of fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jun; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Zhao; Tang, Haiyu; Yu, Benli

    2012-11-01

    In this study, an innovative temperature-insensitive and no adhesive package for FBG pressure sensor was designed. We presents an package construction to compensate for temperature deviation of a FBG by mechanical properties of different metal materials; the package realize no adhesive utilizing combined technique of electroless plating NI-P and electroplating NI and laser spot welding technology. On the basis of the study on the Material structural properties and the compensation principles analysis of the FBG, the finite element method is used to analysis of the feasibility of the construction and optimize the construction parameters. The results show that this compensation construction can effectively reduce the temperature sensitivity of the FBG.

  3. Phase-insensitive storage of coherences by reversible mapping onto long-lived populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Simon; Genov, Genko T.; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Halfmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically develop and experimentally demonstrate a coherence population mapping (CPM) protocol to store atomic coherences in long-lived populations, enabling storage times far beyond the typically very short decoherence times of quantum systems. The amplitude and phase of an atomic coherence is written onto the populations of a three-state system by specifically designed sequences of radiation pulses from two coupling fields. As an important feature, the CPM sequences enable a retrieval efficiency, which is insensitive to the phase of the initial coherence. The information is preserved in every individual atom of the medium, enabling applications in purely homogeneously or inhomogeneously broadened ensembles even when stochastic phase jumps are the main source of decoherence. We experimentally confirm the theoretical predictions by applying CPM for storage of atomic coherences in a doped solid, reaching storage times in the regime of 1 min.

  4. Vibration-insensitive temperature sensing system based on fluorescence decay and using a digital processing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Zhao, W.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Wei, C.; Mulrooney, J.; Clifford, J.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E.; Degner, M.; Ewald, H.; Lochmann, S. I.; Bramann, G.; Merlone Borla, E.; Faraldi, P.; Pidria, M.

    2006-07-01

    A fluorescence-based temperature sensor system using a digital signal processing approach has been developed and evaluated in operation on a working automotive engine. The signal processing approach, using the least-squares method, makes the system relatively insensitive to intensity variations in the probe and thus provides more precise measurements when compared to a previous system designed using analogue phase-locked detection. Experiments carried out to determine the emission temperatures of a running car engine have demonstrated the effectiveness of the sensor system in monitoring exhaust temperatures up to 250 °C, and potentially higher. This paper was presented at the 13th International Conference on Sensors and Their Applications, held in Chatham, Kent, on 6-7 September 2005.

  5. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  6. Broadband, polarization-insensitive and wide-angle terahertz metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ben-Xin; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Huang, Wei-Qing; Zhai, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    We present a broadband and polarization-insensitive terahertz metamaterial absorber formed from double-layered same-sized patterned square patches on top of a metallic ground plane. The combination of the two same-sized metallic patches gives rise to an absorption bandwidth of 380 GHz with absorption over 90%. The full width at half maximum of this device with respect to the central resonance frequency can be up to 33%, which is double that of a single-layered structure. The mechanism of the broadband absorber is attributed to longitudinal coupling between layers, and a hybridized charge distribution model is proposed for analyzing the origin of the resonance bandwidth. The proposed absorber has potential applications in detection, imaging and stealth technology.

  7. Ultra-broadband and polarization-insensitive wide-angle terahertz metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinwang; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an ultra-broadband and polarization insensitive terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber is presented and investigated. With the optimization of the structural parameters, resonant peaks are merged into a broadband absorption spectrum. The simulation results demonstrate that a wide bandwidth of 3.1 THz is obtained in the range from 2.6 to 5.7 THz, where the absorption is higher than 90% for the normal incident THz waves. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of absorption spectrum is 95% with respect to central frequency (∼4 THz), which is five times greater than the FWHM of a single layer structure. Furthermore, this structure can keep the absorption above 88% over a large frequency range (>2.5 THz) when the incident angle is smaller than 50°. This metamaterial absorber can find potential applications in terahertz imaging and stealth technology.

  8. Development of a Gravity-Insensitive Heat Pump for Lunar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Gregory S.; Scaringe, Robert P.; Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2006-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation is developing a gravity-insensitive system that will allow a vapor-compression-cycle heat pump to be used in both microgravity (10(exp -6)g) and lunar (10(exp -6)g) environments. System capacity is 5 kW to 15 kW at design refrigerant operating conditions of 4.44 C and 60 C evaporating and condensing temperatures, respectively. The current program, performed for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and presented in this paper, includes compressor performance analysis, detailed system design, and thermal analysis. Future efforts, including prototype fabrication, integration of a solar power source and controls, ground-testing, and flight-testing support, are also discussed.

  9. Enforced Layer-by-Layer Stacking of Energetic Salts towards High-Performance Insensitive Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-08-26

    Development of modern high-performance insensitive energetic materials is significant because of the increasing demands for both military and civilian applications. Here we propose a rapid and facile strategy called the "layer hydrogen bonding pairing approach" to organize energetic molecules via layer-by-layer stacking, which grants access to tunable energetic materials with targeted properties. Using this strategy, an unusual energetic salt, hydroxylammonium 4-amino-furazan-3-yl-tetrazol-1-olate, with good detonation performances and excellent sensitivities, was designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. In addition, the expected unique layer-by-layer structure with a high crystal packing coefficient was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Calculations indicate that the layer-stacking structure of this material can absorb the mechanical stimuli-induced kinetic energy by converting it to layer sliding, which results in low sensitivity.

  10. Silicon-based broadband antenna for high responsivity and polarization-insensitive photodetection at telecommunication wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keng-Te; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Yu, Chen-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of using local surface plasmon resonance based nanoantenna for photodetection well below the semiconductor band edge has been demonstrated previously, the nature of local surface plasmon resonance based devices cannot meet many requirements of photodetection applications. Here we propose the concept of deep-trench/thin-metal (DTTM) active antenna that take advantage of surface plasmon resonance phenomena, three-dimensional cavity effects, and large-area metal/semiconductor junctions to effectively generate and collect hot electrons arising from plasmon decay and, thereby, increase photocurrent. The DTTM-based devices exhibited superior photoelectron conversion ability and high degrees of detection linearity under infrared light of both low and high intensity. Therefore, these DTTM-based devices have the attractive properties of high responsivity, extremely low power consumption, and polarization-insensitive detection over a broad bandwidth, suggesting great potential for use in photodetection and on-chip Si photonics in many applications of telecommunication fields.

  11. Psychosexual outcomes in three siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: impact of nature versus nurture.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Shabir, Iram; Marumadi, Eunice; Dada, Reema; Ammini, Ariachery C; Mehta, Manju

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports of adults with disorders of sexual development (DSD). Here we describe the clinical profile and results of psychological assessment of three siblings with 46, XY DSD caused by partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS). The elder sibling (aged 22 years) was reared as female, while the middle and youngest siblings (17 and 18 years of age), were reared as males. The gender identity was concordant with the sex of rearing. There was no gender dysphoria. The psychological distress that our patients experienced was due to the limitations placed on them by their medical condition. It did not permit them to experience various facets of being either male or female completely. The younger siblings reared as males had additional problems of gynecomastia and lack of male secondary sexual development. PMID:23729553

  12. Buffer for a gamma-insensitive optical sensor with gas and a buffer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kruger, Hans W.

    1994-01-01

    A buffer assembly for a gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array operating in the ultra-violet/visible/infrared energy wavelengths and using a photocathode and an avalanche gas located in a gap between an anode and the photocathode. The buffer assembly functions to eliminate chemical compatibility between the gas composition and the materials of the photocathode. The buffer assembly in the described embodiment is composed of two sections, a first section constructed of glass honeycomb under vacuum and a second section defining a thin barrier film or membrane constructed, for example, of Al and Be, which is attached to and supported by the honeycomb. The honeycomb section, in turn, is supported by and adjacent to the photocathode.

  13. Buffer for a gamma-insensitive optical sensor with gas and a buffer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kruger, H.W.

    1994-05-10

    A buffer assembly is disclosed for a gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array operating in the ultra-violet/visible/infrared energy wavelengths and using a photocathode and an avalanche gas located in a gap between an anode and the photocathode. The buffer assembly functions to eliminate chemical compatibility between the gas composition and the materials of the photocathode. The buffer assembly in the described embodiment is composed of two sections, a first section constructed of glass honeycomb under vacuum and a second section defining a thin barrier film or membrane constructed, for example, of Al and Be, which is attached to and supported by the honeycomb. The honeycomb section, in turn, is supported by and adjacent to the photocathode. 7 figures.

  14. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical modeling of insensitive explosives in thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III

    1996-05-01

    The ability to predict the response of a weapon system that contains insensitive explosives to elevated temperatures is important in understanding its safety characteristics. To model such a system at elevated temperatures in a finite element computer code requires a variety of capabilities. These modeling capabilities include thermal diffusion and convection to transport the heat to the explosives in the weapon system, temperature based chemical reaction modeling of the decomposition of the explosive materials, and mechanical modeling of both the metal casing and the unreacted and decomposed explosive. The Chemical TOPAZ code has been developed to model coupled thermal/chemical problems where we do not need to model the mass motion. We have also developed the LYNX2D code, based on PALM2D and Chemical TOPAZ, which is an implicit, two-dimensional coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical finite element model computer code. Some representative examples are shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Degradation of high energetic and insensitive munitions compounds by Fe/Cu bimetal reduction.

    PubMed

    Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Pavlov, Julius; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Strickland, David; Smolinski, Benjamin; Braida, Washington

    2012-06-15

    A reductive technology based on a completely mixed two-phase reactor (bimetallic particles and aqueous stream) was developed for the treatment of aqueous effluents contaminated with nitramines and nitro-substituted energetic materials. Experimental degradation studies were performed using solutions of three high energetics (RDX, HMX, TNT) and three insensitive-munitions components (NTO, NQ, DNAN). The study shows that, on laboratory scale, these energetic compounds are easily degraded in solution by suspensions of bimetallic particles (Fe/Ni and Fe/Cu) prepared by electro-less deposition. The type of bimetal pair (Fe/Cu or Fe/Ni) does not appear to affect the degradation kinetics of RDX, HMX, and TNT. The degradation of all components followed apparent first-order kinetics. The half-lives of all compounds except NTO were under 10 min. Additional parameters affecting the degradation processes were solids loading and initial pH.

  16. Multiphysics Simulations of Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, Fady; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2010-11-01

    Solid plastic-bonded high-explosive materials consist of crystals with micron-sized pores embedded. Under mechanical or thermal insults, these voids increase the ease of shock initiation by generating high-temperature regions during their collapse that might lead to ignition. Understanding the mechanisms of hot-spot initiation has significant research interest due to safety, reliability and development of new insensitive munitions. Multi-dimensional high-resolution meso-scale simulations are performed using the multiphysics software, ALE3D, to understand the hot-spot initiation. The Cheetah code is coupled to ALE3D, creating multi-dimensional sparse tables for the HE properties. The reaction rates were obtained from MD Quantum computations. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a "secondary" jet. We will discuss the results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth for various pore sizes and different shock pressures.

  17. Humidity insensitive step-index polymer optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woyessa, G.; Fasano, A.; Stefani, A.; Markos, C.; Nielsen, K.; Rasmussen, H. K.; Bang, O.

    2015-09-01

    We have fabricated and characterised a humidity insensitive step index(SI) polymer optical fibre(POF) Bragg grating sensors. The fibre was made based on the injection molding technique, which is an efficient method for fast, flexible and cost effective preparation of the fibre preform. The fabricated SIPOF has a core made from TOPAS with a glass transition temperature of 134°C and a cladding from ZEONEX with a glass transition temperature of 138°C. The main advantages of the proposed SIPOF are the low water absorption and good chemical resistance compared to the conventional poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) based SIPOFs. The fibre has a minimum loss of ~6dB/m at 770nm.

  18. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  19. Psychosexual outcomes in three siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: impact of nature versus nurture.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Angela Ann; Shabir, Iram; Marumadi, Eunice; Dada, Reema; Ammini, Ariachery C; Mehta, Manju

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports of adults with disorders of sexual development (DSD). Here we describe the clinical profile and results of psychological assessment of three siblings with 46, XY DSD caused by partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS). The elder sibling (aged 22 years) was reared as female, while the middle and youngest siblings (17 and 18 years of age), were reared as males. The gender identity was concordant with the sex of rearing. There was no gender dysphoria. The psychological distress that our patients experienced was due to the limitations placed on them by their medical condition. It did not permit them to experience various facets of being either male or female completely. The younger siblings reared as males had additional problems of gynecomastia and lack of male secondary sexual development.

  20. Design of polarization insensitive filters with micro- and nano-grating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Rong, Xiao-hong

    2014-03-01

    For isotropic dielectric thin films, polarization effect is an inherent characteristic. As it will make the performance of optical-electric system go to bad, such polarization-dependent properties are often intolerable and should be eliminated in many applications. In this paper, based on a micro- and nano-optical structure whose period consists of four parts, a polarization insensitive filter is obtained by combining rigorous wave theory and multi-objective immune optimization algorithm. Its working wavelength is 1315 nm which is often used in laser systems. The results of our design show that TE and TM polarized waves have reflectivities of 0.482 and 0.485, respectively at designed wavelength of 1315 nm. And it denotes that two values are both close to the design values, their difference is only 0.003, and polarization deviation is also very little. Therefore, the designed filter can eliminate the effect of polarization deviation very well at 1315 nm wavelength.

  1. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to X chromosome inversion: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weizhen; Robert, Claudia; Thornton, Paul S; Spinner, Nancy B

    2003-07-30

    We have studied a patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and a 46, inv(X),Y karyotype. The patient's mother and maternal aunt also carry the inverted X, and the mother is phenotypically normal, with a 46, inv(X),X karyotype, while a maternal aunt has CAIS with a 46,inv(X),Y karyotype. Molecular cytogenetic studies demonstrate that one of the X inversion breakpoints occurs within Xq11.2-12, which is the locus for the androgen receptor. FISH analysis demonstrated that a BAC clone containing the androgen receptor gene was disrupted by the inversion. We therefore hypothesize that disruption of the androgen receptor gene causes CAIS in this patient. This is the first report of CAIS caused by a chromosome inversion.

  2. The predictability of bleeding by prothrombin times sensitive or insensitive to PIVKA during intensive oral anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Arnesen, H; Smith, P

    1991-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of PIVKA (Proteins Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonism) on the bleeding tendency during oral anticoagulation, we studied consecutive patients intensively treated with warfarin (INR greater than 4.8). The level of anticoagulation was measured with the PIVKA-insensitive Normotest (NT) as well as with the PIVKA-sensitive Thrombotest (TT), and the results are expressed as per cent coagulant activity. The NT/TT ratio was determined. Twenty patients with bleeding episodes had a mean NT/TT ratio of 2.06 as compared to 2.20 in 143 patients without bleeding episodes (p = 0.08). As the NT/TT ratio was not higher in patients with bleedings, we conclude that PIVKA are of no importance for bleeding during anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists.

  3. TOR-inhibitor insensitive-1 (TRIN1) regulates cotyledons greening in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Linxuan; Song, Yun; Wang, Kai; Dong, Pan; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Fuguang; Li, Zhengguo; Ren, Maozhi

    2015-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is an eukaryotic protein kinase and evolutionally conserved from the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) to humans. The growing evidences have shown that TOR signaling acts as a central controller of cell growth and development. The downstream effectors of TOR have been well-identified in yeast and animals by using the immunosuppression agent rapamycin. However, less is known about TOR in plants. This is largely due to the fact that plants are insensitive to rapamycin. In this study, AZD8055 (AZD), the novel ATP-competitive inhibitor of TOR, was employed to decipher the downstream effectors of TOR in Arabidopsis. One AZD insensitive mutant, T O R - i nhibitor i n sensitive- 1 (trin1), was screened from 10,000 EMS-induced mutation seeds. The cotyledons of trin1 can turn green when its seeds were germinated on ½ MS medium supplemented with 2 μM AZD, whereas the cotyledons greening of wild-type (WT) can be completely blocked at this concentration. Through genetic mapping, TRIN1 was mapped onto the long arm of chromosome 2, between markers SGCSNP26 and MI277. Positional cloning revealed that TRIN1 was an allele of ABI4, which encoded an ABA-regulated AP2 domain transcription factor. Plants containing P35S::TRIN1 or P35S::TRIN1-GUS were hypersensitive to AZD treatment and displayed the opposite phenotype observed in trin1. Importantly, GUS signaling was significantly enhanced in P35S::TRIN1-GUS transgenic plants in response to AZD treatment, indicating that suppression of TOR resulted in the accumulation of TRIN1. These observations revealed that TOR controlled seed-to-seedling transition by negatively regulating the stability of TRIN1 in Arabidopsis. For the first time, TRIN1, the downstream effector of TOR signaling, was identified through a chemical genetics approach.

  4. Inositol metabolism in WRK-1 cells. Relationship of hormone-sensitive to -insensitive pools of phosphoinositides

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, M.E.

    1987-09-25

    Previous studies have indicated the existence of two separate pools of phosphoinositides in WRK-1 cells; one is labile and hormone-sensitive with respect to turnover, while the other is stable. Hormonal stimulation results in a rapid increase in /sup 32/Pi incorporation into the sensitive pool, while in the absence of hormone, incorporation of /sup 32/Pi into this pool is slow. Results are quite different when (/sup 3/H)inositol is the precursor utilized. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)inositol into hormone-sensitive phosphoinositides is not stimulated in the presence of hormone, suggesting entry of this exogenous precursor into the cycle by a route other than the resynthetic phase of the cycle. Furthermore, failure of hormone to induce loss of (/sup 3/H)phosphoinositide in pulse-chase experiments in the absence of lithium suggests reutilization of the (/sup 3/H)inositol moiety generated by phosphodiesteratic cleavage of hormone-sensitive phosphoinositide. Time course studies indicate that the relative rates of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)inositol into sensitive and insensitive phosphoinositide remain constant from 2 to 24 h. Several factors are capable of increasing (/sup 3/H)inositol incorporation into hormone-insensitive phosphoinositide including vasopressin, calcium ionophores, and manganese. On the other hand, vasopressin treatment appears to decrease incorporation of (/sup 3/H)inositol into the hormone-sensitive pool, probably by shifting the equilibrium between phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates, since the decrease in radioactivity observed in the phosphoinositides is equaled by the increase observed in that in the inositol phosphates.

  5. Mutation of Oryza sativa CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1b (OsCOI1b) delays leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hwa; Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Lee, Taeyoung; Kim, Kyu-Won; An, Gynheung; Lee, Han Yong; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2015-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) functions in plant development, including senescence and immunity. Arabidopsis thaliana CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 encodes a JA receptor and functions in the JA-responsive signaling pathway. The Arabidopsis genome harbors a single COI gene, but the rice (Oryza sativa) genome harbors three COI homologs, OsCOI1a, OsCOI1b, and OsCOI2. Thus, it remains unclear whether each OsCOI has distinct, additive, synergistic, or redundant functions in development. Here, we use the oscoi1b-1 knockout mutants to show that OsCOI1b mainly affects leaf senescence under senescence-promoting conditions. oscoi1b-1 mutants stayed green during dark-induced and natural senescence, with substantial retention of chlorophylls and photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, several senescence-associated genes were downregulated in oscoi1b-1 mutants, including homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 and ORESARA 1, important regulators of leaf senescence. These results suggest that crosstalk between JA signaling and ethylene signaling affects leaf senescence. The Arabidopsis coi1-1 plants containing 35S:OsCOI1a or 35S:OsCOI1b rescued the delayed leaf senescence during dark incubation, suggesting that both OsCOI1a and OsCOI1b are required for promoting leaf senescence in rice. oscoi1b-1 mutants showed significant decreases in spikelet fertility and grain weight, leading to severe reduction of grain yield, indicating that OsCOI1-mediated JA signaling affects spikelet fertility and grain filling.

  6. Ethanol modulates the VR-1 variant amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor. I. Effect on TRC volume and Na+ flux.

    PubMed

    Lyall, Vijay; Heck, Gerard L; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Malik, Shahbaz A; Vinnikova, Anna K; DeSimone, John A

    2005-06-01

    The effect of ethanol on the amiloride- and benzamil (Bz)-insensitive salt taste receptor was investigated by the measurement of intracellular Na(+) activity ([Na(+)](i)) in polarized rat fungiform taste receptor cells (TRCs) using fluorescence imaging and by chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve recordings. CT responses were monitored during lingual stimulation with ethanol solutions containing NaCl or KCl. CT responses were recorded in the presence of Bz (a specific blocker of the epithelial Na(+) channel [ENaC]) or the vanilloid receptor-1 (VR-1) antagonists capsazepine or SB-366791, which also block the Bz-insensitive salt taste receptor, a VR-1 variant. CT responses were recorded at 23 degrees C or 42 degrees C (a temperature at which the VR-1 variant salt taste receptor activity is maximally enhanced). In the absence of permeable cations, ethanol induced a transient decrease in TRC volume, and stimulating the tongue with ethanol solutions without added salt elicited only transient phasic CT responses that were insensitive to elevated temperature or SB-366791. Preshrinking TRCs in vivo with hypertonic mannitol (0.5 M) attenuated the magnitude of the phasic CT response, indicating that in the absence of mineral salts, transient phasic CT responses are related to the ethanol-induced osmotic shrinkage of TRCs. In the presence of mineral salts, ethanol increased the Bz-insensitive apical cation flux in TRCs without a change in cell volume, increased transepithelial electrical resistance across the tongue, and elicited CT responses that were similar to salt responses, consisting of both a transient phasic component and a sustained tonic component. Ethanol increased the Bz-insensitive NaCl CT response. This effect was further enhanced by elevating the temperature from 23 degrees C to 42 degrees C, and was blocked by SB-366791. We conclude that in the presence of mineral salts, ethanol modulates the Bz-insensitive VR-1 variant salt taste receptor. PMID:15928403

  7. Radiative torque alignment: essential physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

    2008-07-01

    We study the physical processes that affect the alignment of grains subject to radiative torques (RATs). To describe the action of RATs, we use the analytical model (AMO) of RATs introduced in our previous paper. We focus our discussion on the alignment by anisotropic radiation flux with respect to the magnetic field, which defines the axis of grain Larmor precession. Such an alignment does not invoke paramagnetic dissipation (i.e. the Davis-Greenstein mechanism), but, nevertheless, grains tend to be aligned with long axes perpendicular to the magnetic field. When we account for thermal fluctuations within grains, we show that for grains that are characterized by a triaxial ellipsoid of inertia, the zero-J attractor point obtained in our earlier study develops into a low-J attractor point. The value of angular momentum at the low-J attractor point is of the order of the thermal angular momentum corresponding to the grain temperature. We show that, for situations when the direction of radiative flux is nearly perpendicular to a magnetic field, the alignment of grains with long axes parallel to the magnetic field (i.e. `wrong alignment') reported in our previous paper, disappears in the presence of thermal fluctuations. Thus, all grains are aligned with their long axes perpendicular to the magnetic field. We study the effects of stochastic gaseous bombardment and show that gaseous bombardment can drive grains from low-J to high-J attractor points in cases when high-J attractor points are present. As the alignment of grain axes with respect to angular momentum is higher for higher values of J, counter-intuitively, gaseous bombardment can increase the degree of grain alignment with respect to the magnetic field. We also study the effects of torques induced by H2 formation and show that they can change the value of angular momentum at high-J attractor points, but marginally affect the value of angular momentum at low-J attractor points. We compare the AMO results with

  8. Advances in process overlay: alignment solutions for future technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megens, Henry; van Haren, Richard; Musa, Sami; Doytcheva, Maya; Lalbahadoersing, Sanjay; van Kemenade, Marc; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Hinnen, Paul; van Bilsen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor industry has an increasing demand for improvement of the total lithographic overlay performance. To improve the level of on-product overlay control the number of alignment measurements increases. Since more mask levels will be integrated, more alignment marks need to be printed when using direct-alignment (also called layer-to-layer alignment). Accordingly, the alignment mark size needs to become smaller, to fit all marks into the scribelane. For an in-direct alignment scheme, e.g. a scheme that aligns to another layer than the layer to which overlay is being measured, the number of needed alignment marks can be reduced. Simultaneously there is a requirement to reduce the size of alignment mark sub-segmentations without compromising the alignment and overlay performance. Smaller features within alignment marks can prevent processing issues like erosion, dishing and contamination. However, when the sub-segmentation size within an alignment mark becomes comparable to the critical dimension, and thus smaller than the alignment-illuminating wavelength, polarization effects might start to occur. Polarization effects are a challenge for optical alignment systems to maintain mark detectability. Nevertheless, this paper shows how to actually utilize those effects in order to obtain enhanced alignment and overlay performance to support future technology nodes. Finally, another challenge to be met for new semiconductor product technologies is the ability to align through semi-opaque materials, like for instance new hard-mask materials. Enhancement of alignment signal strength can be reached by adapting to new alignment marks that generate a higher alignment signal. This paper provides a description of an integral alignment solution that meets with these emerging customer application requirements. Complying with these requirements will significantly enhance the flexibility in production strategies while maintaining or improving the alignment and overlay

  9. Precise Alignment and Permanent Mounting of Thin and Lightweight X-ray Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Hong, Melinda N.; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Norman, Michael J.; Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    To provide observations to support current research efforts in high energy astrophysics. future X-ray telescope designs must provide matching or better angular resolution while significantly increasing the total collecting area. In such a design the permanent mounting of thin and lightweight segments is critical to the overall performance of the complete X-ray optic assembly. The thin and lightweight segments used in the assemhly of the modules are desigued to maintain and/or exceed the resolution of existing X-ray telescopes while providing a substantial increase in collecting area. Such thin and delicate X-ray segments are easily distorted and yet must be aligned to the arcsecond level and retain accurate alignment for many years. The Next Generation X-ray Optic (NGXO) group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has designed, assembled. and implemented new hardware and procedures mth the short term goal of aligning three pairs of X-ray segments in a technology demonstration module while maintaining 10 arcsec alignment through environmental testing as part of the eventual design and construction of a full sized module capable of housing hundreds of X-ray segments. The recent attempts at multiple segment pair alignment and permanent mounting is described along with an overview of the procedure used. A look into what the next year mll bring for the alignment and permanent segment mounting effort illustrates some of the challenges left to overcome before an attempt to populate a full sized module can begin.

  10. Multiple structure alignment with msTALI

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple structure alignments have received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to multiple sequence alignments. Although multiple structure alignment algorithms can potentially be applied to a number of problems, they have primarily been used for protein core identification. A method that is capable of solving a variety of problems using structure comparison is still absent. Here we introduce a program msTALI for aligning multiple protein structures. Our algorithm uses several informative features to guide its alignments: torsion angles, backbone Cα atom positions, secondary structure, residue type, surface accessibility, and properties of nearby atoms. The algorithm allows the user to weight the types of information used to generate the alignment, which expands its utility to a wide variety of problems. Results msTALI exhibits competitive results on 824 families from the Homstrad and SABmark databases when compared to Matt and Mustang. We also demonstrate success at building a database of protein cores using 341 randomly selected CATH domains and highlight the contribution of msTALI compared to the CATH classifications. Finally, we present an example applying msTALI to the problem of detecting hinges in a protein undergoing rigid-body motion. Conclusions msTALI is an effective algorithm for multiple structure alignment. In addition to its performance on standard comparison databases, it utilizes clear, informative features, allowing further customization for domain-specific applications. The C++ source code for msTALI is available for Linux on the web at http://ifestos.cse.sc.edu/mstali. PMID:22607234

  11. Using Quasi-Horizontal Alignment in the absence of the actual alignment.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mohamadreza

    2016-10-01

    Horizontal alignment is a major roadway characteristic used in safety and operational evaluations of many facility types. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) uses this characteristic in crash prediction models for rural two-lane highways, freeway segments, and freeway ramps/C-D roads. Traffic simulation models use this characteristic in their processes on almost all types of facilities. However, a good portion of roadway databases do not include horizontal alignment data; instead, many contain point coordinate data along the roadways. SHRP 2 Roadway Information Database (RID) is a good example of this type of data. Only about 5% of this geodatabase contains alignment information and for the rest, point data can easily be produced. Even though the point data can be used to extract actual horizontal alignment data but, extracting horizontal alignment is a cumbersome and costly process, especially for a database of miles and miles of highways. This research introduces a so called "Quasi-Horizontal Alignment" that can be produced easily and automatically from point coordinate data and can be used in the safety and operational evaluations of highways. SHRP 2 RID for rural two-lane highways in Washington State is used in this study. This paper presents a process through which Quasi-Horizontal Alignments are produced from point coordinates along highways by using spreadsheet software such as MS EXCEL. It is shown that the safety and operational evaluations of the highways with Quasi-Horizontal Alignments are almost identical to the ones with the actual alignments. In the absence of actual alignment the Quasi-Horizontal Alignment can easily be produced from any type of databases that contain highway coordinates such geodatabases and digital maps.

  12. Using Quasi-Horizontal Alignment in the absence of the actual alignment.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mohamadreza

    2016-10-01

    Horizontal alignment is a major roadway characteristic used in safety and operational evaluations of many facility types. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) uses this characteristic in crash prediction models for rural two-lane highways, freeway segments, and freeway ramps/C-D roads. Traffic simulation models use this characteristic in their processes on almost all types of facilities. However, a good portion of roadway databases do not include horizontal alignment data; instead, many contain point coordinate data along the roadways. SHRP 2 Roadway Information Database (RID) is a good example of this type of data. Only about 5% of this geodatabase contains alignment information and for the rest, point data can easily be produced. Even though the point data can be used to extract actual horizontal alignment data but, extracting horizontal alignment is a cumbersome and costly process, especially for a database of miles and miles of highways. This research introduces a so called "Quasi-Horizontal Alignment" that can be produced easily and automatically from point coordinate data and can be used in the safety and operational evaluations of highways. SHRP 2 RID for rural two-lane highways in Washington State is used in this study. This paper presents a process through which Quasi-Horizontal Alignments are produced from point coordinates along highways by using spreadsheet software such as MS EXCEL. It is shown that the safety and operational evaluations of the highways with Quasi-Horizontal Alignments are almost identical to the ones with the actual alignments. In the absence of actual alignment the Quasi-Horizontal Alignment can easily be produced from any type of databases that contain highway coordinates such geodatabases and digital maps. PMID:27391796

  13. FRESCO: flexible alignment with rectangle scoring schemes.

    PubMed

    Dalca, A V; Brudno, M

    2008-01-01

    While the popular DNA sequence alignment tools incorporate powerful heuristics to allow for fast and accurate alignment of DNA, most of them still optimize the classical Needleman Wunsch scoring scheme. The development of novel scoring schemes is often hampered by the difficulty of finding an optimizing algorithm for each non-trivial scheme. In this paper we define the broad class of rectangle scoring schemes, and describe an algorithm and tool that can align two sequences with an arbitrary rectangle scoring scheme in polynomial time. Rectangle scoring schemes encompass some of the popular alignment scoring metrics currently in use, as well as many other functions. We investigate a novel scoring function based on minimizing the expected number of random diagonals observed with the given scores and show that it rivals the LAGAN and Clustal-W aligners, without using any biological or evolutionary parameters. The FRESCO program, freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/fresco, gives bioinformatics researchers the ability to quickly compare the performance of other complex scoring formulas without having to implement new algorithms to optimize them.

  14. LCLS Undulator Commissioning, Alignment, and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2009-10-30

    The LCLS x-ray FEL has recently achieved its 1.5-Angstrom lasing and saturation goals upon first trial. This was achieved as a result of a thorough pre-beam checkout, both traditional and beam-based component alignment techniques, and high electron beam brightness. The x-ray FEL process demands very tight tolerances on the straightness of the electron beam trajectory (<5 {micro}m) through the LCLS undulator system. Tight, but less stringent tolerances of {approx}100 {micro}m rms were met for the transverse placement of the individual undulator segments with respect to the beam axis. The tolerances for electron beam straightness can only be met through a beam-based alignment (BBA) method, which is implemented using large electron energy variations and sub-micron resolution cavity beam position monitors (BPM), with precise conventional alignment used to set the starting conditions. Precision-fiducialization of components mounted on remotely adjustable girders, and special beam-finder wires (BFW) at each girder have been used to meet these challenging alignment tolerances. Longer-term girder movement due to ground motion and temperature changes are being monitored, continuously, by a unique stretched wire and hydrostatic level Alignment Diagnostics System (ADS).

  15. Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

  16. Alignment and Integration of Lightweight Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler; Biskach, Michael; Mazzarella, Jim; McClelland, Ryan; Saha, Timo; Zhang, Will; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc-seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4 mm thick, and 200 to 400 mm in size, which makes it difficult not to impart distortion at the sub-arc-second level. This paper outlines the precise alignment, permanent bonding, and verification testing techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Improvements in alignment include new hardware and automation software. Improvements in bonding include two module new simulators to bond mirrors into, a glass housing for proving single pair bonding, and a Kovar module for bonding multiple pairs of mirrors. Three separate bonding trials were x-ray tested producing results meeting the requirement of sub ten arc-second alignment. This paper will highlight these recent advances in alignment, testing, and bonding techniques and the exciting developments in thin x-ray optic technology development.

  17. Large Telescope Segmented Primary Mirror Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rud, Mayer

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses a broadband (white light) point source, located at the telescope Cassegrain focus, which generates a cone of light limited by the hole in the secondary mirror (SM). It propagates to the aspheric null-mirror, which is optimized to make all the reflected rays to be normal to the primary mirror (PM) upon reflection. PM retro-reflects the rays back through the system for wavefront analysis. The point source and the wavefront analysis subsystems are all located behind the PM. The PM phasing is absolute (white light) and does not involve the SM. A relatively small, aspheric null-mirror located near the PM center of curvature has been designed to deliver the high level of optical wavefront correction. The phasing of the segments is absolute due to the use of a broadband source. The segmented PM is optically aligned independently and separately from the SM alignment. The separation of the PM segments alignment from the PM to the SM, and other telescope optics alignments, may be a significant advantage, eliminating the errors coupling. The point source of this concept is fully cooperative, unlike a star or laser-generated guide-star, providing the necessary brightness for the optimal S/N ratio, the spectral content, and the stable on-axis position. This concept can be implemented in the lab for the PM initial alignment, or made to be a permanent feature of the space-based or groundbased telescope.

  18. A simple method to control over-alignment in the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Kazutaka; Standley, Daron M.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: We present a new feature of the MAFFT multiple alignment program for suppressing over-alignment (aligning unrelated segments). Conventional MAFFT is highly sensitive in aligning conserved regions in remote homologs, but the risk of over-alignment is recently becoming greater, as low-quality or noisy sequences are increasing in protein sequence databases, due, for example, to sequencing errors and difficulty in gene prediction. Results: The proposed method utilizes a variable scoring matrix for different pairs of sequences (or groups) in a single multiple sequence alignment, based on the global similarity of each pair. This method significantly increases the correctly gapped sites in real examples and in simulations under various conditions. Regarding sensitivity, the effect of the proposed method is slightly negative in real protein-based benchmarks, and mostly neutral in simulation-based benchmarks. This approach is based on natural biological reasoning and should be compatible with many methods based on dynamic programming for multiple sequence alignment. Availability and implementation: The new feature is available in MAFFT versions 7.263 and higher. http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/software/ Contact: katoh@ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153688

  19. Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…

  20. An active alignment method for post launch co-alignment of laser beam combiner systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, A. W.; Green, J. W.; Maynard, W. L.; Minott, P. O.; Krainak, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    A laser transmitter for high bandwidth geosynchronous satellite communications is described. High optical power is achieved by combining semiconductor laser diodes. An active alignment scheme is proposed for achieving the +/- 20 microrad post launch multiple laser angular co-alignment requirement.