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Sample records for aligned short fiber

  1. Aligned, short-fiber composites by novel flow processing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Guell, D.C.; Graham, A.L.; Papathanasiou, T.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    A hydrodynamic method has been employed to align short, reinforcing fibers in polymer matrix composite materials. Samples of composite materials were prepared and tested two at a time (one with randomly oriented fibers and the other with aligned fibers) to isolate and directly measure the effect on mechanical properties of aligning the fibers. Data were collected for the ultimate tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and ultimate tensile strain of the composite samples prepared. Results show that the aligned fibers were approximately twice as effective (as randomly oriented fibers) at stiffening and strengthening the composite in the alignment direction. 5 figs, 20 refs.

  2. Aligned, short-fiber composites by novel flow processing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Guell, D.C.; Graham, A.L.; Papathanasiou, T.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1993-03-01

    A hydrodynamic method has been employed to align short, reinforcing fibers in polymer matrix composite materials. Samples of composite materials were prepared and tested two at a time (one with randomly oriented fibers and the other with aligned fibers) to isolate and directly measure the effect on mechanical properties of aligning the fibers. Data were collected for the ultimate tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and ultimate tensile strain of the composite samples prepared. Results show that the aligned fibers were approximately twice as effective (as randomly oriented fibers) at stiffening and strengthening the composite in the alignment direction. 5 figs, 20 refs.

  3. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Warren, Mial Evans; Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton; Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe; Word, V., James Cole

    1997-01-01

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  4. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

    1997-08-19

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

  5. Magnetic alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Fumiko; Kimura, Tsunehisa

    2008-04-01

    The alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers under magnetic fields are reported. Static and rotating magnetic fields were used to align cellulose fibers with sizes ranging from millimeter to nanometer sizes. Cellulose fibers of the millimeter order, which were prepared for papermaking, and much smaller fibers with micrometer to nanometer sizes prepared by the acid hydrolysis of larger ones underwent magnetic alignment. Under a rotating field, a uniaxial alignment of fibers was achieved. The alignment was successfully fixed by the photopolymerization of a UV-curable resin precursor used as matrix. A monodomain chiral nematic film was prepared from an aqueous suspension of nanofibers. Using a field modulator inserted in a homogeneous magnetic field, simultaneous alignment and patterning were achieved.

  6. Aligning carbon fibers in micro-extruded composite ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Chaitanya G.

    Direct write processes include a wide range of additive manufacturing techniques with the ability to fabricate structures directly onto planar and non-planar surfaces. Most additive manufacturing techniques use unreinforced polymers to produce parts. By adding carbon fiber as a reinforcing material, properties such as mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity can be enhanced. Carbon fibers can be long and continuous, or short and discontinuous. The strength of carbon fiber composite parts is greatly increased when the fibers are preferentially aligned. This research focuses on increasing the strength of additively manufactured parts reinforced using discontinuous carbon fibers that have been aligned during the micro extrusion process. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used to identify significant process parameters affecting fiber alignment. Factors such as the length of carbon fibers, nozzle diameter, fiber loading fraction, air pressure, translational speed and standoff distance were considered. A two dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D FFT) was used to quantify the degree of fiber alignment in the extruded composite inks. ImageJ software supported by an oval profile plugin was used with micrographs of printed samples to obtain the carbon fiber alignment values. The optimal value for the factors was derived by identifying the significant main and interaction effects. Based on the results of the DOE, tensile test samples were printed with fibers aligned parallel and perpendicular to the tensile axis. A standard test method for tensile properties of plastic revealed that the extruded parts with fibers aligned along the tensile axis were better in tensile strength and modulus.

  7. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  8. Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Graham, A.L.; Mondy, L.A.; Guell, D.C.

    1993-11-16

    High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic. 5 figures.

  9. Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Alan L.; Mondy, Lisa A.; Guell, David C.

    1993-01-01

    High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.

  10. Short Read Alignment Using SOAP2.

    PubMed

    Hurgobin, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have rapidly evolved in the last 5 years, leading to the generation of millions of short reads in a single run. Consequently, various sequence alignment algorithms have been developed to compare these reads to an appropriate reference in order to perform important downstream analysis. SOAP2 from the SOAP series is one of the most commonly used alignment programs to handle NGS data, and it efficiently does so using low computer memory usage and fast alignment speed. This chapter describes the protocol used to align short reads to a reference genome using SOAP2, and highlights the significance of using the in-built command-line options to tune the behavior of the algorithm according to the inputs and the desired results. PMID:26519410

  11. Understanding and overcoming shear alignment of fibers during extrusion.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joshua J; Riederer, Michael S; Krebs, Melissa D; Erb, Randall M

    2015-01-14

    Fiber alignment is the defining architectural characteristic of discontinuous fiber composites and is dictated by shear-dominated processing techniques including flow-injection molding, tape-casting, and mold-casting. However, recent colloidal assembly techniques have started to employ additional forces in fiber suspensions that have the potential to change the energy landscape of the shear-dominated alignment in conditions of flow. In this paper, we develop an energetics model to characterize the shear-alignment of rigid fibers under different flow conditions in the presence of magnetic colloidal alignment forces. We find that these colloidal forces can be sufficient to manipulate the energetic landscape and obtain tunable fiber alignment during flow within even small geometries, such as capillary flow. In most conditions, these colloidal forces work to freeze the fiber orientation during flow and prevent the structure disrupting phenomenon of Jeffrey's orbits that has been accepted to rule fiber suspensions under simple shear flow. PMID:25408494

  12. Optical fiber alignment using cleaved-edge diffracted light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Louis C.; Bergeron, Patrick; Duguay, Michel A.; Ouellette, Francois; Tetu, Michel

    1993-08-01

    We describe a simple technique for aligning optical fibers prior to fusion splicing. The technique relies on the fact that well-cleaved fiber ends have extremely sharp edges. By making the narrow pencil of light emerging from one fiber scan laterally over the entrance face of a second fiber, and by monitoring the light diffracted past its sharp edges, we can locate precisely the geometric center of the output fiber. With this technique, we have aligned fiber cores with a mean lateral offset of 0.81 micrometers , the major part of this offset caused by the eccentricity of the core relative to the cladding's circular perimeter.

  13. Rapid Quantification of 3D Collagen Fiber Alignment and Fiber Intersection Correlations with High Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Bloom, Alexander B.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cancers aggressively reorganize collagen in their microenvironment. For example, radially orientated collagen fibers have been observed surrounding tumor cell clusters in vivo. The degree of fiber alignment, as a consequence of this remodeling, has often been difficult to quantify. In this paper, we present an easy to implement algorithm for accurate detection of collagen fiber orientation in a rapid pixel-wise manner. This algorithm quantifies the alignment of both computer generated and actual collagen fiber networks of varying degrees of alignment within 5°°. We also present an alternative easy method to calculate the alignment index directly from the standard deviation of fiber orientation. Using this quantitative method for determining collagen alignment, we demonstrate that the number of collagen fiber intersections has a negative correlation with the degree of fiber alignment. This decrease in intersections of aligned fibers could explain why cells move more rapidly along aligned fibers than unaligned fibers, as previously reported. Overall, our paper provides an easier, more quantitative and quicker way to quantify fiber orientation and alignment, and presents a platform in studying effects of matrix and cellular properties on fiber alignment in complex 3D environments. PMID:26158674

  14. Rapid Quantification of 3D Collagen Fiber Alignment and Fiber Intersection Correlations with High Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Bloom, Alexander B; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cancers aggressively reorganize collagen in their microenvironment. For example, radially orientated collagen fibers have been observed surrounding tumor cell clusters in vivo. The degree of fiber alignment, as a consequence of this remodeling, has often been difficult to quantify. In this paper, we present an easy to implement algorithm for accurate detection of collagen fiber orientation in a rapid pixel-wise manner. This algorithm quantifies the alignment of both computer generated and actual collagen fiber networks of varying degrees of alignment within 5°°. We also present an alternative easy method to calculate the alignment index directly from the standard deviation of fiber orientation. Using this quantitative method for determining collagen alignment, we demonstrate that the number of collagen fiber intersections has a negative correlation with the degree of fiber alignment. This decrease in intersections of aligned fibers could explain why cells move more rapidly along aligned fibers than unaligned fibers, as previously reported. Overall, our paper provides an easier, more quantitative and quicker way to quantify fiber orientation and alignment, and presents a platform in studying effects of matrix and cellular properties on fiber alignment in complex 3D environments. PMID:26158674

  15. Long-short fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, C.R.; Cuff, G.; Cianelli, D.A.; Travis, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents information on a new family of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic compounds developed by ICI PLC and now produced by LNP under the trade mark ''Verton.'' Production is by a pultrusion process, rather than by the usual compounding extruder, which enables a high level of impregnation to be achieved without damaging the fibers. The result in molded parts is a 0.24-0.40 inch (6-10 mm) typical fiber length versus 0.008-0.016 inches (0.2-0.4 mm) for conventional short fiber products. Consequently, this enables fabricators to achieve typically a 10 to 20-fold increase in average fiber length in the finished component. These long-short fiber reinforced compounds exhibit substantial property improvements over short fiber system. Processing conditions are similar to corresponding short fiber compounds.

  16. Molecular alignment relaxation in polymer optical fibers for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajanca, Pavol; Cetinkaya, Onur; Schukar, Marcus; Mergo, Pawel; Webb, David J.; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-03-01

    A systematic study of annealing behavior of drawn PMMA fibers was performed. Annealing dynamics were investigated under different environmental conditions by fiber longitudinal shrinkage monitoring. The shrinkage process was found to follow a stretched exponential decay function revealing the heterogeneous nature of the underlying molecular dynamics. The complex dependence of the fiber shrinkage on initial degree of molecular alignment in the fiber, annealing time and temperature was investigated and interpreted. Moreover, humidity was shown to have a profound effect on the annealing process, which was not recognized previously. Annealing was also shown to have considerable effect on the fiber mechanical properties associated with the relaxation of molecular alignment in the fiber. The consequences of fiber annealing for the climatic stability of certain polymer optical fiber-based sensors are discussed, emphasizing the importance of fiber controlled pre-annealing with respect to the foreseeable operating conditions.

  17. Simultaneous alignment of short reads against multiple genomes

    PubMed Central

    Schneeberger, Korbinian; Hagmann, Jörg; Ossowski, Stephan; Warthmann, Norman; Gesing, Sandra; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Weigel, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Genome resequencing with short reads generally relies on alignments against a single reference. GenomeMapper supports simultaneous mapping of short reads against multiple genomes by integrating related genomes (e.g., individuals of the same species) into a single graph structure. It constitutes the first approach for handling multiple references and introduces representations for alignments against complex structures. Demonstrated benefits include access to polymorphisms that cannot be identified by alignments against the reference alone. Download GenomeMapper at . PMID:19761611

  18. Aligning Arrays of Lenses and Single-Mode Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan

    2004-01-01

    A procedure now under development is intended to enable the precise alignment of sheet arrays of microscopic lenses with the end faces of a coherent bundle of as many as 1,000 single-mode optical fibers packed closely in a regular array (see Figure 1). In the original application that prompted this development, the precise assembly of lenses and optical fibers serves as a single-mode spatial filter for a visible-light nulling interferometer. The precision of alignment must be sufficient to limit any remaining wavefront error to a root-mean-square value of less than 1/10 of a wavelength of light. This wavefront-error limit translates to requirements to (1) ensure uniformity of both the lens and fiber arrays, (2) ensure that the lateral distance from the central axis of each lens and the corresponding optical fiber is no more than a fraction of a micron, (3) angularly align the lens-sheet planes and the fiber-bundle end faces to within a few arc seconds, and (4) axially align the lenses and the fiber-bundle end faces to within tens of microns of the focal distance. Figure 2 depicts the apparatus used in the alignment procedure. The beam of light from a Zygo (or equivalent) interferometer is first compressed by a ratio of 20:1 so that upon its return to the interferometer, the beam will be magnified enough to enable measurement of wavefront quality. The apparatus includes relay lenses that enable imaging of the arrays of microscopic lenses in a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that is part of the interferometer. One of the arrays of microscopic lenses is mounted on a 6-axis stage, in proximity to the front face of the bundle of optical fibers. The bundle is mounted on a separate stage. A mirror is attached to the back face of the bundle of optical fibers for retroreflection of light. When a microscopic lens and a fiber are aligned with each other, the affected portion of the light is reflected back by the mirror, recollimated by the microscopic lens, transmitted

  19. Generation of Spatially Aligned Collagen Fiber Networks through Microtransfer Molding

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Nisarga; Caves, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The unique biomechanical properties of native tissue are governed by the organization and composition of integrated collagen and elastin networks. We report an approach for fabricating spatially aligned, fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) with adjustable collagen fiber dimensions, layouts, and distribution within an elastin-like protein matrix yielding a biocomposite with controllable mechanical responses. Microtransfer molding is employed for the fabrication of hollow and solid collagen fibers with straight or crimped fiber geometries. Collagen fibers (width: 2 – 50 μm, thickness: 300 nm – 3 μm) exhibit a Young’s modulus of 126 ± 61 MPa and an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 7 ± 3.2 MPa. As fiber networks within composite structures, straight fiber layouts display orthotropic responses with Young’s modulus ranging from 0.95 ± 0.35 to 10.4 ± 0.5 MPa and tensile strength from 0.22 ± 0.08 to 0.87 ± 0.5 MPa with increasing fraction of collagen fibers (1–10% v/v). In contrast, composites based on crimped fiber layouts exhibit strain-dependent stiffness with an increase in Young’s modulus from 0.7 ± 0.14 MPa to 3.15 ± 0.49 MPa, at a specific transition strain. Through controlling the microstructure of engineered collagen fiber networks, a facile means has been established to control macroscale mechanical responses of composite protein-based materials. PMID:24039146

  20. Generation of spatially aligned collagen fiber networks through microtransfer molding.

    PubMed

    Naik, Nisarga; Caves, Jeffrey; Chaikof, Elliot L; Allen, Mark G

    2014-03-01

    The unique biomechanical properties of native tissue are governed by the organization and composition of integrated collagen and elastin networks. An approach for fabricating spatially aligned, fiber-reinforced composites with adjustable collagen fiber dimensions, layouts, and distribution within an elastin-like protein matrix yielding a biocomposite with controllable mechanical responses is reported. Microtransfer molding is employed for the fabrication of hollow and solid collagen fibers with straight or crimped fiber geometries. Collagen fibers (width: 2-50 μm, thickness: 300 nm to 3 μm) exhibit a Young's modulus of 126 ± 61 MPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 7 ± 3.2 MPa. As fiber networks within composite structures, straight fiber layouts display orthotropic responses with Young's modulus ranging from 0.95 ± 0.35 to 10.4 ± 0.5 MPa and tensile strength from 0.22 ± 0.08 to 0.87 ± 0.5 MPa with increasing fraction of collagen fibers (1-10%, v/v). In contrast, composites based on crimped fiber layouts exhibit strain-dependent stiffness with an increase in Young's modulus from 0.7 ± 0.14 MPa to 3.15 ± 0.49 MPa, at a specific transition strain. Through controlling the microstructure of engineered collagen fiber networks, a facile means is established to control macroscale mechanical responses of composite protein-based materials. PMID:24039146

  1. Aligning Optical Fibers by Means of Actuated MEMS Wedges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Brian; Ghodssi, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) of a proposed type would be designed and fabricated to effect lateral and vertical alignment of optical fibers with respect to optical, electro-optical, optoelectronic, and/or photonic devices on integrated circuit chips and similar monolithic device structures. A MEMS device of this type would consist of a pair of oppositely sloped alignment wedges attached to linear actuators that would translate the wedges in the plane of a substrate, causing an optical fiber in contact with the sloping wedge surfaces to undergo various displacements parallel and perpendicular to the plane. In making it possible to accurately align optical fibers individually during the packaging stages of fabrication of the affected devices, this MEMS device would also make it possible to relax tolerances in other stages of fabrication, thereby potentially reducing costs and increasing yields. In a typical system according to the proposal (see Figure 1), one or more pair(s) of alignment wedges would be positioned to create a V groove in which an optical fiber would rest. The fiber would be clamped at a suitable distance from the wedges to create a cantilever with a slight bend to push the free end of the fiber gently to the bottom of the V groove. The wedges would be translated in the substrate plane by amounts Dx1 and Dx2, respectively, which would be chosen to move the fiber parallel to the plane by a desired amount Dx and perpendicular to the plane by a desired amount Dy. The actuators used to translate the wedges could be variants of electrostatic or thermal actuators that are common in MEMS.

  2. Magnetically Aligned H I Fibers and the Rolling Hough Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. E.; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    We present observations of a new group of structures in the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium (ISM): slender, linear H I features we dub "fibers" that extend for many degrees at high Galactic latitude. To characterize and measure the extent and strength of these fibers, we present the Rolling Hough Transform, a new machine vision method for parameterizing the coherent linearity of structures in the image plane. With this powerful new tool we show that the fibers are oriented along the interstellar magnetic field as probed by starlight polarization. We find that these low column density (NH \\scriptsize{I} ≃ 5 × 1018 cm-2) fiber features are most likely a component of the local cavity wall, about 100 pc away. The H I data we use to demonstrate this alignment at high latitude are from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array H I (GALFA-H I) Survey and the Parkes Galactic All Sky Survey. We find better alignment in the higher resolution GALFA-H I data, where the fibers are more visually evident. This trend continues in our investigation of magnetically aligned linear features in the Riegel-Crutcher H I cold cloud, detected in the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. We propose an application of the RHT for estimating the field strength in such a cloud, based on the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. We conclude that data-driven, quantitative studies of ISM morphology can be very powerful predictors of underlying physical quantities.

  3. Magnetically aligned H I fibers and the rolling hough transform

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S. E.; Putman, M. E.; Peek, J. E. G.

    2014-07-01

    We present observations of a new group of structures in the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium (ISM): slender, linear H I features we dub 'fibers' that extend for many degrees at high Galactic latitude. To characterize and measure the extent and strength of these fibers, we present the Rolling Hough Transform, a new machine vision method for parameterizing the coherent linearity of structures in the image plane. With this powerful new tool we show that the fibers are oriented along the interstellar magnetic field as probed by starlight polarization. We find that these low column density (N{sub H} {sub I}≃5×10{sup 18} cm{sup –2}) fiber features are most likely a component of the local cavity wall, about 100 pc away. The H I data we use to demonstrate this alignment at high latitude are from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array H I (GALFA-H I) Survey and the Parkes Galactic All Sky Survey. We find better alignment in the higher resolution GALFA-H I data, where the fibers are more visually evident. This trend continues in our investigation of magnetically aligned linear features in the Riegel-Crutcher H I cold cloud, detected in the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. We propose an application of the RHT for estimating the field strength in such a cloud, based on the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. We conclude that data-driven, quantitative studies of ISM morphology can be very powerful predictors of underlying physical quantities.

  4. Continuum Damage Modeling of Short-Fiber Composites Subject to Matrix Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Ahn, Byung K.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, a continuum damage mechanics approach proposed by Renard et al. for continuous fiber composites subject to matrix cracking is extended to misoriented short-fiber composites. First, the associated damage variable is defined as a measure of the crack density, then the model by Laws et al. is used to determine the stiffness reduction of an aligned short-fiber composite. Considering moderate microcrack densities and assuming completely random and planar orientations of microcracks and fibers, the stiffness of a cracked misoriented fiber layer is obtained by averaging that of a cracked aligned fiber composite over all possible orientations and weighted by an orientation distribution function. The damage evolution law is obtained using the concepts of thermodynamics of continuum media.

  5. An Automated Fiber Alignment, Fixing, And Hermetic Sealing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargar, Daniel S.

    1989-02-01

    An automated fiber alignment, fixing, and sealing process was developed for optoelectronic devices produced by BT&D Technologies. The products -- transmitters, receivers, etc. -- were developed simultaneously with the process, allowing development of common technologies and submodule "building blocks." This approach has many advantages: sufficient manufacturing volume to justify automation, quick response to new product variations, and uniform quality. This paper describes the development of a patented laser-based manufacturing system for pigtailing optoelectronic devices.

  6. An Automated Fiber Alignment, Fixing, And Hermetic Sealing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargar, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    An automated fiber alignment, fixing, and sealing process was developed for optoelectronic devices produced by BT&D Technologies. The products -- transmitters, receivers, etc. -- were developed simultaneously with the process, allowing development of common technologies and submodule "building blocks." This approach has many advantages: sufficient manufacturing volume to justify automation, quick response to new product variations, and uniform quality. This paper describes the development of a patented laser-based manufacturing system for pigtailing optoelectronic devices.

  7. Aligned and Electrospun Piezoelectric Polymer Fiber Assembly and Scaffold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Carnell, Lisa A. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Leong, Kam W. (Inventor); Kulangara, Karina (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A scaffold assembly and related methods of manufacturing and/or using the scaffold for stem cell culture and tissue engineering applications are disclosed which at least partially mimic a native biological environment by providing biochemical, topographical, mechanical and electrical cues by using an electroactive material. The assembly includes at least one layer of substantially aligned, electrospun polymer fiber having an operative connection for individual voltage application. A method of cell tissue engineering and/or stem cell differentiation uses the assembly seeded with a sample of cells suspended in cell culture media, incubates and applies voltage to one or more layers, and thus produces cells and/or a tissue construct. In another aspect, the invention provides a method of manufacturing the assembly including the steps of providing a first pre-electroded substrate surface; electrospinning a first substantially aligned polymer fiber layer onto the first surface; providing a second pre-electroded substrate surface; electrospinning a second substantially aligned polymer fiber layer onto the second surface; and, retaining together the layered surfaces with a clamp and/or an adhesive compound.

  8. Strong, conductive, lightweight, neat graphene aerogel fibers with aligned pores.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Peigang; Gao, Chao

    2012-08-28

    Liquid crystals of anisotropic colloids are of great significance in the preparation of their ordered macroscopic materials, for example, in the cases of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Here, we report a facile and scalable spinning process to prepare neat "core-shell" structured graphene aerogel fibers and three-dimensional cylinders with aligned pores from the flowing liquid crystalline graphene oxide (GO) gels. The uniform alignment of graphene sheets, inheriting the lamellar orders from GO liquid crystals, offers the porous fibers high specific tensile strength (188 kN m kg(-1)) and the porous cylinders high compression modulus (3.3 MPa). The porous graphene fibers have high specific surface area up to 884 m(2) g(-1) due to their interconnected pores and exhibit fine electrical conductivity (2.6 × 10(3) to 4.9 × 10(3) S m(-1)) in the wide temperature range of 5-300 K. The decreasing conductivity with decreasing temperature illustrates a typical semiconducting behavior, and the 3D interconnected network of 2D graphene sheets determines a dual 2D and 3D hopping conduction mechanism. The strong mechanical strength, high porosity, and fine electrical conductivity enable this novel material of ordered graphene aerogels to be greatly useful in versatile catalysts, supercapacitors, flexible batteries and cells, lightweight conductive fibers, and functional textiles. PMID:22799441

  9. Thermal conductivity of hybrid short fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.L.; Taya, M.; Hatta, H.; Takei, T.; Nakajima, Y. Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara Three-D Composites Research, Tsukuba Tohoku Univ., Sendai )

    1993-01-01

    A combined analytical/experimental study has been undertaken to investigate the effective thermal conductivity of hybrid composite materials. The analysis utilizes the equivalent inclusion approach for steady state heat conduction (Hatta and Taya, 1986) through which the interaction between the various reinforcing phases at finite concentrations is approximated by the Mori-Tanaka (1973) mean field approach. The multiple reinforcing phases of the composite are modeled as ellipsoidal in shape and thus can simulate a wide range of microstructural geometries ranging from thin platelet to continuous fiber reinforcement. The case when one phase of the composite is penny-shaped microcracks is studied in detail. Multiphase composites consisting of a Kerimid matrix and Al2O3 short fibers and Si3N4 whiskers were fabricated and, after a careful study of their microstructure, their thermal conductivities were measured. Analytical predictions are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results obtained for the Al2O3/Si3N4/Kerimid short fiber composites. 26 refs.

  10. Effect of fiber diameter and alignment of electrospun polyurethane meshes on mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bashur, Chris A; Shaffer, Robyn D; Dahlgren, Linda A; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2009-09-01

    Effective strategies to guide cell alignment and the deposition of an oriented extracellular matrix are critical for the development of anisotropic engineered tissues suitable for the repair of ligament defects. Electrospinning is a promising means to create meshes that can align adherent cells, but the effect of fiber mesh architecture on differentiation has not been examined closely. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of fiber diameter and the degree of fiber alignment on mesenchymal progenitor cell morphology, proliferation, and ligament gene expression. Specifically, a poly(ester urethane)urea elastomer was electrospun onto rigid supports under conditions designed to independently vary the mean fiber diameter (from 0.28 to 2.3 microm) and the degree of fiber alignment. Bone marrow stromal cells--seeded onto supported meshes--adhered to and proliferated on all surfaces. Cells assumed a more spindle-shaped morphology with increasing fiber diameter and degree of fiber alignment, and oriented parallel to fibers on aligned meshes. Expression of the ligament markers collagen 1alpha1, decorin, and tenomodulin appeared to be sensitive to fiber diameter and greatest on the smallest fibers. Concurrently, expression of the transcription factor scleraxis appeared to decrease with increasing fiber alignment. These results suggest that the formation of a ligament-like tissue on electrospun scaffolds is enhanced when the scaffolds consist of aligned submicron fibers. PMID:19292650

  11. Creation of highly aligned electrospun poly-L-lactic acid fibers for nerve regeneration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han Bing; Mullins, Michael E.; Cregg, Jared M.; Hurtado, Andres; Oudega, Martin; Trombley, Matthew T.; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2009-02-01

    Aligned, electrospun polymer fibers have shown considerable promise in directing regenerating axons in vitro and in vivo. However, in several studies, final electrospinning parameters are presented for producing aligned fiber scaffolds, and alignment where minimal fiber crossing occurs is not achieved. Highly aligned species are necessary for neural tissue engineering applications to ensure that axonal extension occurs through a regenerating environment efficiently. Axonal outgrowth on fibers that deviate from the natural axis of growth may delay axonal extension from one end of a scaffold to the other. Therefore, producing aligned fiber scaffolds with little fiber crossing is essential. In this study, the contributions of four electrospinning parameters (collection disk rotation speed, needle size, needle tip shape and syringe pump flow rate) were investigated thoroughly with the goal of finding parameters to obtain highly aligned electrospun fibers made from poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). Using an 8 wt% PLLA solution in chloroform, a collection disk rotation speed of 1000 revolutions per minute (rpm), a 22 gauge, sharp-tip needle and a syringe pump rate of 2 ml h-1 produced highly aligned fiber (1.2-1.6 µm in diameter) scaffolds verified using a fast Fourier transform and a fiber alignment quantification technique. Additionally, the application of an insulating sheath around the needle tip improved the rate of fiber deposition (electrospinning efficiency). Optimized scaffolds were then evaluated in vitro using embryonic stage nine (E9) chick dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and rat Schwann cells (SCs). To demonstrate the importance of creating highly aligned scaffolds to direct neurite outgrowth, scaffolds were created that contained crossing fibers. Neurites on these scaffolds were directed down the axis of the aligned fibers, but neurites also grew along the crossed fibers. At times, these crossed fibers even stopped further axonal extension. Highly aligned PLLA fibers

  12. Method and system for aligning fibers during electrospinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Carnell, Lisa A. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Rhim, Caroline (Inventor); Niklason, Laura (Inventor); Clark, Robert L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system are provided for aligning fibers in an electrospinning process. A jet of a fiberizable material is directed towards an uncharged collector from a dispensing location that is spaced apart from the collector. While the fiberizable material is directed towards the collector, an elliptical electric field is generated via the electrically charged dispenser and an oppositely-charged control location. The field spans between the dispensing location and the control location that is within line-of-sight of the dispensing location, and impinges upon at least a portion of the collector. Various combinations of numbers and geometries of dispensers, collectors, and electrodes can be used.

  13. Magnetic alignment of nickel-coated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Chuncheng; State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049 ; Li, Xiaojiao; Wang, Guizhen

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanofibers were subjected to a two-step pretreatment, sensitization and activation. Carbon nanofibers were encapsulated by a uniform layer of nickel nanoparticles. The prepared composites are ferromagnetic and with a small value of coercivity. Upon such functionalization, the carbon nanofibers can be aligned in a relatively small external magnetic field. Highlights: {center_dot} A simple microwave-assisted procedure for the magnetic composite. {center_dot} Dense layer of nickel on pretreated carbon nanofibers. {center_dot} Ferromagnetic properties and low coercivity. {center_dot} A long-chain aligned structure under magnetic field. -- Abstract: Magnetic composites of nickel-coated carbon nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by employing a simple microwave-assisted procedure. The scanning electron microscopy images show that a complete and uniform nickel coating with mean size of 25 nm could be deposited on carbon fibers. Magnetization curves demonstrate that the prepared composites are ferromagnetic and that the coercivity is 96 Oe. The magnetic carbon nanofibers can be aligned as a long-chain structure in an external magnetic field.

  14. Orthogonally oriented scaffolds with aligned fibers for engineering intestinal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masae; Lei, Nan Ye; Wang, Qianqian; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling cellular alignment is critical in engineering intestines with desired structure and function. Although previous studies have examined the directional alignment of cells on the surface (x-y plane) of parallel fibers, quantitative analysis of the cellular alignment inside implanted scaffolds with oriented fibers has not been reported. This study examined the cellular alignment in the x-z and y-z planes of scaffolds made with two layers of orthogonally oriented fibers. The cellular orientation inside implanted scaffolds was evaluated with immunofluorescence. Quantitative analysis of coherency between cell orientation and fiber direction confirmed that cells aligned along the fibers not only on the surface (x-y plane) but also inside the scaffolds (x-z & y-z planes). Our study demonstrated that two layers of orthogonally aligned scaffolds can generate the histological organization of cells similar to that of intestinal circular and longitudinal smooth muscle. PMID:26001072

  15. CLASP (Capture and Locking alignment Spring Positioner): A micromachined fiber auto-positioning device

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, S.H.; word, J.C.; Bauer, T.M.; Seigal, P.K.; Armendariz, M.G.

    1996-03-01

    This work provides a method of mechanical alignment of an array of single mode fibers to an array of optical devices. The technique uses a micromachined metal spring, which captures a vertical, pre- positioned fiber, moves it into accurate alignment, and holds it for attachment. The spring is fabricated from electroplated mickel, using photodefined polyimide as a plating mask. The nickel is plated about 80 {mu}m thick, so that a large fiber depth is captured. In one application, the nickel springs can be aligned to optics on the back side of the substrate. This entire concept is referred to as CLASP (Capture and Locking Alignment Spring Positioner). These springs can be used for general alignment and capture of any fiber to any optical input or output device. Passive alignment of fiber arrays to {plus}/{minus} 2{mu}m accuracy has been demonstrated, with a clear path to improved accuracy.

  16. Preparation and characterization of aligned carbon nanotubes/polylactic acid composite fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yuxia; Yuan, Jie; Qiu, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Aligned functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polylactic acid (MWNTs-PCL/PLA) composite fibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning processing. The MWNTs bonded with the polycaprolactone chains exhibited excellent uniform dispersion in PLA solution by comparing with the acid-functionalized MWNTs and amino-functionalized MWNTs. Optical microscopy was used to study the aligned degree of the fibers and to investigate the influences of the electrodes distance on the alignment and structure of the fibers, and results showed that the best quality of aligned fibers with dense structure and high aligned degree were obtained at an electrodes distance of 3 cm. Moreover, the MWNTs embedded inside the MWNTs-PCL/PLA fibers displayed well orientation along the axes of the fibers, which was demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Planar Biaxial Mechanical Behavior of Bioartificial Tissues Possessing Prescribed Fiber Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, Choon-Sik; Evans, Michael C.; Barocas, Victor H.; Tranquillo, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Though it is widely accepted that fiber alignment has a great influence on the mechanical anisotropy of tissues, a systematic study of the influence of fiber alignment on the macroscopic mechanical behavior by native tissues is precluded due to their predefined microstructure and heterogeneity. Such a study is possible using collagen-based bioartificial tissues that allow for alignment to be prescribed during their fabrication. To generate a systemic variation of strength of fiber alignment, we made cruciform tissue constructs in Teflon molds that had arms of different aspect ratios. We implemented our anisotropic biphasic theory of tissue-equivalent mechanics to simulate the compaction by finite element analysis. Prior to tensile testing, the construct geometry was standardized by cutting test samples with a 1:1 cruciform punch after releasing constructs from the molds. Planar biaxial testing was performed on these samples, after stretching them to their in-mold dimensions to recover in-mold alignment, to observe the macroscopic mechanical response with simultaneous fiber alignment imaging using a polarimetry system. We found that the strength of fiber alignment of the samples prior to release from the molds linearly increased with anisotropy of the mold, and the modulus ratio (modulus in fiber-direction) / (modulus in normal-direction) was greater as the initial strength of fiber alignment increased, that is, as the aspect ratio increased. We also found that the fiber alignment strength and modulus ratio increased in a hyperbolic fashion with stretching for a sample of given aspect ratio. PMID:19604018

  18. Electrospinning of unidirectionally and orthogonally aligned thermoplastic polyurethane nanofibers: fiber orientation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R; Jing, Xin; Crone, Wendy C; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    Unidirectionally and orthogonally aligned thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibers were electrospun using a custom-built electrospinning device. The unidirectionally aligned fibers were collected using two parallel copper plates, and the orthogonally aligned fibers were collected using two orthogonal sets of parallel copper plates with alternate negative connections. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were added to modify the polymer solution. It was found that both CNT and PAA were capable of increasing solution conductivity. The TPU/PAA fiber showed the highest degree of fiber orientation with more than 90% of the fibers having an orientation angle between -10° and 10° for unidirectionally aligned fibers, and for orthogonally aligned fibers, the orientation angle of 50% fibers located between -10° and 10° and 48% fibers located between 80° and 100°. Viability assessment of 3T3 fibroblasts cultured on TPU/PAA fibers suggested that the material was cytocompatible. The cells' orientation and migration direction closely matched the fibers' orientation. The cell migration velocity and distance were both enhanced with the guidance of fibers compared with cells cultured on random fibers and common tissue culture plastic. Controlling cell migration velocity and directionality may provide ways to influence differentiation and gene expression and systems that would allow further exploration of wound repair and metastatic cell behavior. PMID:24771704

  19. Modeling of statistical tensile strength of short-fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.T.; Blumenthal, W.R.; Stout, M.G.; Lowe, T.C.

    1995-10-01

    This paper develops a statistical strength theory for three-dimensionally (3-D) oriented short-fiber reinforced composites. Short-fiber composites are usually reinforced with glass and ceramic short fibers and whiskers. These reinforcements are brittle and display a range of strength values, which can be statistically characterized by a Weibull distribution. This statistical nature of fiber strength needs to be taken into account in the prediction of composite strength. In this paper, the statistical nature of fiber strength is incorporated into the calculation of direct fiber strengthening, and a maximum-load composite failure criterion is adopted to calculate the composite strength. Other strengthening mechanisms such as residual thermal stress, matrix work hardening, and short-fiber dispersion hardening are also briefly discussed.

  20. Electrospinning of unidirectionally and orthogonally aligned thermoplastic polyurethane nanofibers: Fiber orientation and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R.; Jing, Xin; Crone, Wendy C.; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Unidirectionally and orthogonally aligned thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibers were electrospun using a custom-built electrospinning device. The unidirectionally aligned fibers were collected using two parallel copper plates, and the orthogonally aligned fibers were collected using two orthogonal sets of parallel copper plates with alternate negative connections. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were added to modify the polymer solution. It was found that both CNT and PAA were capable of increasing solution conductivity. The TPU/PAA fiber showed the highest degree of fiber orientation with more than 90% of the fibers having an orientation angle between −10° and 10° for unidirectionally aligned fibers, and for orthogonally aligned fibers, the orientation angle of 50% fibers located between −10° and 10° and 48% fibers located between 80° and 100°. Viability assessment of 3T3 fibroblasts cultured on TPU/PAA fibers suggested that the material was cytocompatible. The cells’ orientation and migration direction closely matched the fibers’ orientation. The cell migration velocity and distance were both enhanced with the guidance of fibers compared with cells cultured on random fibers and common tissue culture plastic. Controlling cell migration velocity and directionality may provide ways to influence differentiation and gene expression and systems that would allow further exploration of wound repair and metastatic cell behavior. PMID:24771704

  1. Crystal Structure of Enteric Adenovirus Serotype 41 Short Fiber Head

    PubMed Central

    Seiradake, Elena; Cusack, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Human enteric adenoviruses of species F contain two fibers in the same virion, a long fiber which binds to coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and a short fiber of unknown function. We have determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the short fiber head of human adenovirus serotype 41 (Ad41). The short fiber head has the characteristic fold of other known fiber heads but has three unusual features. First, it has much shorter loops between the beta-strands. Second, one of the usually well-ordered beta-strands on the distal face of the fiber head is highly disordered and this same region is sensitive to digestion with pepsin, an enzyme occurring naturally in the intestinal tract, the physiological environment of Ad41. Third, the AB loop has a deletion giving it a distinct conformation incompatible with CAR binding. PMID:16254343

  2. A novel electrospinning target to improve the yield of uniaxially aligned fibers.

    PubMed

    Secasanu, Virgil P; Giardina, Christopher K; Wang, Yadong

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning is a useful technique that can generate micro and nanometer-sized fibers. Modification of the electrospinning parameters, such as deposition target geometry, can generate uniaxially aligned fibers for use in diverse applications ranging from tissue engineering to material fabrication. For example, meshes of fibers have been shown to mimic the extracellular matrix networks for use in smooth muscle cell proliferation. Further, aligned fibers can guide neurites to grow along the direction of the fibers. Here we present a novel electrospinning deposition target that combines the benefits of two previously reported electrodes: the standard parallel electrodes and the spinning wheel with a sharpened edge. This new target design significantly improves aligned fiber yield. Specifically, the target consists of two parallel aluminum plates with sharpened edges containing a bifurcating angle of 26 degrees. Electric field computations show a larger probable area of aligned electric field vectors. This new deposition target allows fibers to deposit on a larger cross-sectional area relative to the existing parallel electrode and at least doubles the yield of uniaxially aligned fibers. Further, fiber alignment and morphology are preserved after collection from the deposition target. PMID:19562742

  3. Electric Field Effects on Fiber Alignment Using an Auxiliary Electrode During Electrospinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnell, Lisa S.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Holloway, Nancy M.; Clark, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Control of electrospun fiber placement and distribution was investigated by examining the effect of electric field parameters on the electrospinning of fibers. The experimental set-up used in this study eliminated the bending instability and whipping, allowing the jet to be modeled as a stable trajectory. Coupling of experimental and computational results suggests the potential for predicting aligned fiber distribution in electrospun mats.

  4. Long-Range Force Transmission in Fibrous Matrices Enabled by Tension-Driven Alignment of Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Abhilash, A.S.; Chen, Christopher S.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Shenoy, Vivek B.

    2014-01-01

    Cells can sense and respond to mechanical signals over relatively long distances across fibrous extracellular matrices. Recently proposed models suggest that long-range force transmission can be attributed to the nonlinear elasticity or fibrous nature of collagen matrices, yet the mechanism whereby fibers align remains unknown. Moreover, cell shape and anisotropy of cellular contraction are not considered in existing models, although recent experiments have shown that they play crucial roles. Here, we explore all of the key factors that influence long-range force transmission in cell-populated collagen matrices: alignment of collagen fibers, responses to applied force, strain stiffening properties of the aligned fibers, aspect ratios of the cells, and the polarization of cellular contraction. A constitutive law accounting for mechanically driven collagen fiber reorientation is proposed. We systematically investigate the range of collagen-fiber alignment using both finite-element simulations and analytical calculations. Our results show that tension-driven collagen-fiber alignment plays a crucial role in force transmission. Small critical stretch for fiber alignment, large fiber stiffness and fiber strain-hardening behavior enable long-range interaction. Furthermore, the range of collagen-fiber alignment for elliptical cells with polarized contraction is much larger than that for spherical cells with diagonal contraction. A phase diagram showing the range of force transmission as a function of cell shape and polarization and matrix properties is presented. Our results are in good agreement with recent experiments, and highlight the factors that influence long-range force transmission, in particular tension-driven alignment of fibers. Our work has important relevance to biological processes including development, cancer metastasis, and wound healing, suggesting conditions whereby cells communicate over long distances. PMID:25468338

  5. Coextruded, aligned, and gradient-modified poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers as platforms for neural growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-Eun; Harker, Emily C; De Leon, Al C; Advincula, Rigoberto C; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2015-03-01

    Polymeric fibers are of increasing interest to regenerative medicine, as materials made from these fibers are porous, allowing for cell infiltration, influx of nutrients, and efflux of waste products. Recently, multilayered coextrusion has emerged as a scalable and rapid fabrication method to yield microscale to submicron fibers. In this report, we describe the multilayered coextrusion of aligned poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers, followed by a simple photochemical patterning to create surface-immobilized gradients onto the polymer fibers. PCL fibers were photochemically decorated with a linear gradient of propargyl benzophenone using a gradient photomask to control light source intensity. The pendant alkynes were then able to undergo the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction with an azide-modified IKVAV peptide to further functionalize the surface. Gradient-modified IKVAV fibers were evaluated for neural cell adhesion and neural differentiation, using PC-12 cells cultured onto the fibers. The aligned gradient fibers provided directional cues for neurite outgrowth and alignment of neural cells, as observed by cellular elongation, neurite differentiation, and orientation. The work presented herein describes a scalable fiber system combined with simple chemical patterning to generate aligned fibers with controlled surface gradients as cell-seeding scaffolds. PMID:25715836

  6. Effect of Sterilization Methods on Electrospun Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Fiber Alignment for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Valente, T A M; Silva, D M; Gomes, P S; Fernandes, M H; Santos, J D; Sencadas, V

    2016-02-10

    Medically approved sterility methods should be a major concern when developing a polymeric scaffold, mainly when commercialization is envisaged. In the present work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fiber membranes were processed by electrospinning with random and aligned fiber alignment and sterilized under UV, ethylene oxide (EO), and γ-radiation, the most common ones for clinical applications. It was observed that UV light and γ-radiation do not influence fiber morphology or alignment, while electrospun samples treated with EO lead to fiber orientation loss and morphology changing from cylindrical fibers to ribbon-like structures, accompanied to an increase of polymer crystallinity up to 28%. UV light and γ-radiation sterilization methods showed to be less harmful to polymer morphology, without significant changes in polymer thermal and mechanical properties, but a slight increase of polymer wettability was detected, especially for the samples treated with UV radiation. In vitro results indicate that both UV and γ-radiation treatments of PLA membranes allow the adhesion and proliferation of MG 63 osteoblastic cells in a close interaction with the fiber meshes and with a growth pattern highly sensitive to the underlying random or aligned fiber orientation. These results are suggestive of the potential of both γ-radiation sterilized PLA membranes for clinical applications in regenerative medicine, especially those where customized membrane morphology and fiber alignment is an important issue. PMID:26756809

  7. CODEX-aligned dietary fiber definitions help to bridge the ‘fiber gap’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive dietary fiber (DF) definition was adopted by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about DF, (2) to recognize that all substances that behave like fiber regardless of how they are produced can be named as DF if they show physiological benefits, and (3) to promote international harmonization for food labeling and food composition tables. This review gives the history and evolution of the state of DF knowledge as looked at by refinements in DF methods and definitions subsequent to the launch of the DF hypothesis. The refinements parallel both interventional and epidemiological research leading to better understanding of the role of DF in contributing to the numerous physiological benefits imparted by all the various digestion resistant carbohydrates. A comparison of the CODEX definition (including its footnote that authorizes the inclusion of polymers with DP 3–9) and approved CODEX Type 1 methods with other existing definitions and methods will point out differences and emphasize the importance of adoption of CODEX-aligned definitions by all jurisdictions. Such harmonization enables comparison of nutrition research, recommendations, food composition tables and nutrition labels the world over. A case will be made that fibers are analogous to vitamins, in that they vary in structure, function and amount needed, but each when present in the right amount contributes to optimal health. Since the intake of DF is significantly below recommended levels throughout the world, the recognition that ‘all fibers fit’ is an important strategy in bridging the ‘fiber gap’ by enfranchising and encouraging greater intake of foods with inherent and added DF. Fortifying foods with added DF makes it easier to increase intakes while maintaining calories at recommended levels. PMID:24725724

  8. The Effect of Surface Modification of Aligned Poly-L-Lactic Acid Electrospun Fibers on Fiber Degradation and Neurite Extension

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Nicholas J.; Le Beux, Clémentine; Miao, Jianjun; Linhardt, Robert J.; Alauzun, Johan G.; Laurencin, Danielle; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The surface of aligned, electrospun poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) fibers was chemically modified to determine if surface chemistry and hydrophilicity could improve neurite extension from chick dorsal root ganglia. Specifically, diethylenetriamine (DTA, for amine functionalization), 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol (AEO, for alcohol functionalization), or GRGDS (cell adhesion peptide) were covalently attached to the surface of electrospun fibers. Water contact angle measurements revealed that surface modification of electrospun fibers significantly improved fiber hydrophilicity compared to unmodified fibers (p < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fibers revealed that surface modification changed fiber topography modestly, with DTA modified fibers displaying the roughest surface structure. Degradation of chemically modified fibers revealed no change in fiber diameter in any group over a period of seven days. Unexpectedly, neurites from chick DRG were longest on fibers without surface modification (1651 ± 488 μm) and fibers containing GRGDS (1560 ± 107 μm). Fibers modified with oxygen plasma (1240 ± 143 μm) or DTA (1118 ± 82 μm) produced shorter neurites than the GRGDS or unmodified fibers, but were not statistically shorter than unmodified and GRGDS modified fibers. Fibers modified with AEO (844 ± 151 μm) were significantly shorter than unmodified and GRGDS modified fibers (p<0.05). Based on these results, we conclude that fiber hydrophilic enhancement alone on electrospun PLLA fibers does not enhance neurite outgrowth. Further work must be conducted to better understand why neurite extension was not improved on more hydrophilic fibers, but the results presented here do not recommend hydrophilic surface modification for the purpose of improving neurite extension unless a bioactive ligand is used. PMID:26340351

  9. Fiber Optic Solutions for Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R; Dawson, J; Liao, Z; Jovanovic, I; Wattellier, B; Payne, S; Barty, C P

    2003-01-29

    For applications requiring high beam quality radiation from efficient, compact and rugged sources, diffraction limited fiber lasers are ideal, and to date have been demonstrated at average CW power levels exceeding 100 W with near diffraction limited: output. For conventional single-core step-index single-mode fibers, this power level represents the sealing limit because of nonlinear and laser damage considerations. Higher average powers would exceed nonlinear process thresholds such as the Raman and stimulated Brillouin scattering limit, or else damage the fiber due to the high intensity level in the fiber's core. The obvious way to increase the average power capability of fibers is to increase the area of their core. Simply expanding the core dimensions of the fiber allows a straightforward power sealing due to enhanced nonlinear and power handling characteristics that scale directly with the core area. Femtosecond, chirped-pulse, fiber lasers with pulse energies greater than 1mJ have been demonstrated in the literature [2] using this technique. This output energy was still limited by the onset of stimulated Raman scattering. We have pursued an alternative and complimentary approach which is to reduce the intensity of light propagating in the core by distributing it more evenly across the core area via careful design of the refractive index profile [3]. We have also sought to address the primary issue that results from scaling the core. The enhanced power handling capability comes at the expense of beam quality, as increasing the core diameter in standard step index fibers permits multiple transverse modes to lase simultaneously. Although this problem of multimode operation can be mitigated to some extent by appropriately designing the fiber's waveguide structure, limitations such as bend radius loss, sensitivity to thermally induced perturbations of the waveguide structure, and refractive index control, all become more stringent as the core diameter grows

  10. Comparison of carbon fiber/epoxy composites reinforced by short aramid and carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.; Hu, X.Z.

    1999-08-20

    This study is designed to examine and compare the toughening effects of short aramid and carbon fibers in carbon fiber/epoxy composites. The primary objective being to identify the toughening mechanisms associated with the two different short fibers. The detailed information on toughening mechanisms will provide a general guide on the relationship between composite interlaminar design and composite performance. Composite design and processing, delamination testing and SEM study of fracture surfaces are used in conjunction in the current study for a better understanding of the short fiber interlaminar reinforcement technique.

  11. Fiber Laser Front Ends for High Energy, Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Siders, C; Beach, R; Barty, C

    2007-06-21

    We are developing a fiber laser system for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal for these systems as they are highly reliable and enable long term stable operation.

  12. Characterization of three dimensional fiber orientation in short-fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yuntian T.; Blumenthal, W.R.

    1995-05-01

    A mathematical procedure for recovering from image analysis the three dimensional nonsymmetric fiber-orientation distribution in short-fiber composites is proposed. Microphotographs from two orthogonal faces of a composite sample are needed to determine the three dimensional fiber orientation. A simple weighting function is derived to take into account the probability of intercepting fibers at varying inclination angles. The present procedure improves the previous works of other researchers in the following two aspects. First, it can obtain the single-angle fiber-orientation distribution from one micrograph in reference to the normal of the photographed surface. This distribution is often needed in predicting the mechanical and physical properties of short-fiber composites in this direction. Second, no symmetry in fiber-orientation distribution is assumed in the determination of the three dimensional fiber-orientation, which makes the present procedure more practical and versatile.

  13. Highly Aligned Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Nano- and Microscale Fibers and Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinghang; Cho, Whirang; Martin, David C.; Feng, Zhang-Qi; Leach, Michelle K.; Franz, Eric W.; Naim, Youssef I.; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Corey, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a facile method for the fabrication of aligned Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) fibers and tubes based on electrospinning and oxidative chemical polymerization. Discrete PEDOT nano- and microfibers and nano- and microtubes are difficult to fabricate quickly and reproducibly. We employed poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymers that were loaded with polymerizable 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) monomer to create aligned nanofiber assemblies using a rotating glass mandrel during electrospinning. The EDOT monomer/PLGA polymer blends were then polymerized by exposure to an oxidative catalyst (FeCl3). PEDOT was polymerized by continuously dripping a FeCl3 solution onto the glass rod during electrospinning. The resulting PEDOT fibers were conductive, aligned and discrete. Fiber bundles could be easily produced in lengths of several centimeters. The PEDOT sheath/PLGA core fibers were immersed in chloroform to remove the PLGA and any residual EDOT resulting in hollow PEDOT tubes. This approach made it possible to easily generate large areas of aligned PEDOT fibers/tubes. The structure and properties of the aligned assemblies were measured using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and DC conductivity measurements. We also demonstrated that the aligned PEDOT sheath/PLGA core fiber assemblies could be used in supporting and directing the extension of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro. PMID:25678719

  14. A Mechanistic Approach to Matrix Cracking Coupled with Fiber--Matrix Debonding in Short-Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Tucker, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2005-07-01

    A micro-macro mechanistic approach to damage in short-fiber composites is developed in this paper. At the microscale, a reference aligned fiber composite is considered for the analysis of the damage mechanisms such as matrix cracking and fiber/matrix debonding using the modified Mori-Tanaka model. The associated damage variables are defined, and the stiffness reduction law dependent on these variables is established. The stiffness of a random fiber composite containing random matrix microcracks and imperfect interfaces is then obtained from that of the reference composite, which is averaged over all possible orientations and weighted by an orientation distribution function. The macroscopic response is determined using a continuum damage mechanics approach and finite element analysis. Final failure resulting from saturation of matrix microcracks, fiber pull-out and breakage is modeled by a vanishing element technique. The model is validated using the experimental data and results found in the literature as well as the results determined for a random chopped fiber glass/vinyl ester system.

  15. PLASTIC SHRINKAGE CONTROLLING EFFECT BY POLYPROPYLENE SHORT FIBER WITH HYDROPHILY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, Akira; Sadatsuki, Yoshitomo; Oshima, Akihiro; Ishii, Akina; Tsubaki, Tatsuya

    The aim of this research is to clarify the mechanism of controlling plastic shrinkage crack by adding small amout of synthetic short fiber, and to propose optimum polypropylene short fiber to control plastic shrinkage crack. In this research, the effect of the hydrophily of polypropylene fiber was investigated in the amount of plastic shrinkage of mortar, total area of plastic shrinkage crack, and bond properties between fiber and mortar. The plastic shrinkage test of morar was conducted under high temperature, low relative humidity, and constant wind velocity. When polypropylene fiber had hydrophily, the amount of plastic shrinkage of mortar was restrained, which was because cement paste in morar was captured by hydrophilic fiber and then bleeding of mortar was restrained. With hydrophily, plastic shrinkage of mortar was restrained and bridging effect was improved due to better bond, which led to remarkable reduction of plastic shrinkage crack. Based on experimental results, the way of developing optimum polypropylene short fiber for actual construction was proposed. The fiber should have large hydrophily and small diameter, and should be used in as small amount as possible in order not to disturb workability of concrete.

  16. Fiber Laser Front Ends for High-Energy Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Liao, Z M; Mitchell, S; Messerly, M; Beach, R; Jovanovic, I; Brown, C; Payne, S A; Barty, C J

    2005-01-18

    We are developing an all fiber laser system optimized for providing input pulses for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal solutions for these systems as they are highly reliable and once constructed they can be operated with ease. Furthermore, they offer an additional benefit of significantly reduced footprint. In most labs containing equivalent bulk laser systems, the system occupies two 4'x8' tables and would consist of 10's if not a 100 of optics which would need to be individually aligned and maintained. The design requirements for this application are very different those commonly seen in fiber lasers. High energy lasers often have low repetition rates (as low as one pulse every few hours) and thus high average power and efficiency are of little practical value. What is of high value is pulse energy, high signal to noise ratio (expressed as pre-pulse contrast), good beam quality, consistent output parameters and timing. Our system focuses on maximizing these parameters sometimes at the expense of efficient operation or average power. Our prototype system consists of a mode-locked fiber laser, a compressed pulse fiber amplifier, a ''pulse cleaner'', a chirped fiber Bragg grating, pulse selectors, a transport fiber system and a large flattened mode fiber amplifier. In our talk we will review the system in detail and present theoretical and experimental studies of critical components. We will also present experimental results from the integrated system.

  17. A simple method for fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled degree of alignment having potential for nerve regeneration applications.

    PubMed

    Vimal, Sunil Kumar; Ahamad, Nadim; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2016-06-01

    In peripheral nerve injuries where direct suturing of nerve endings is not feasible, nerve regeneration has been facilitated through the use of artificially aligned fibrous scaffolds that provide directional growth of neurons to bridge the gap. The degree of fiber alignment is crucial and can impact the directionality of cells in a fibrous scaffold. While there have been multiple approaches that have been used for controlling fiber alignment, however, they have been associated with a compromised control on other properties, such as diameter, morphology, curvature, and topology of fibers. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a modified electrospinning set-up, that enabled fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled degree of alignment from non-aligned (NA), moderately aligned (MA, 75%) to highly aligned (HA, 95%) sub-micron fibers while keeping other physical properties unchanged. The results demonstrate that the aligned fibers (MA and HA) facilitated directional growth of human astrocytoma cells (U373), wherein the aspect ratio of cells was found to increase with an increase in degree of fibers alignment. In contrast to NA and MA fibers, the HA fibers showed improved contact guidance to U373 cells that was demonstrated by a significantly higher cell aspect ratio and nuclear aspect ratio. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a modified electrospinning setup to fabricate differentially aligned fibrous scaffolds with the HA fibers showing potential for use in neural tissue engineering. PMID:27040257

  18. The Advantage of Lower Half Mean Length in Characterizing Short Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short fibers reduce textile processing efficiencies and product quality. There have been increasing interests in short fibers in recent years. Currently a common parameter for characterizing short fibers is Short Fiber Content (SFC). In this paper we discussed the SFC’s several known problems and e...

  19. Cell Alignment Driven by Mechanically Induced Collagen Fiber Alignment in Collagen/Alginate Coatings.

    PubMed

    Chaubaroux, Christophe; Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne; Senger, Bernard; Vidal, Loïc; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre; Haikel, Youssef; Boulmedais, Fouzia; Lavalle, Philippe; Hemmerlé, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    For many years it has been a major challenge to regenerate damaged tissues using synthetic or natural materials. To favor the healing processes after tendon, cornea, muscle, or brain injuries, aligned collagen-based architectures are of utmost interest. In this study, we define a novel aligned coating based on a collagen/alginate (COL/ALG) multilayer film. The coating exhibiting a nanofibrillar structure is cross-linked with genipin for stability in physiological conditions. By stretching COL/ALG-coated polydimethylsiloxane substrates, we developed a versatile method to align the collagen fibrils of the polymeric coating. Assays on cell morphology and alignment were performed to investigate the properties of these films. Microscopic assessments revealed that cells align with the stretched collagen fibrils of the coating. The degree of alignment is tuned by the stretching rate (i.e., the strain) of the COL/ALG-coated elastic substrate. Such coatings are of great interest for strategies that require aligned nanofibrillar biological material as a substrate for tissue engineering. PMID:25658028

  20. New technology developments make passive laser/fiber alignment a reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, John V.; MacDonald, Brian M.; Lealman, I. F.; Jones, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we report on the combination of a precision cleaved large spot laser and a silicon micromachined optical bench to achieve high coupling efficiencies by purely passive alignment. Coupling efficiencies of over 50% have been obtained by passively aligning precision cleaved large spot sized lasers to singlemode fiber on a silicon micromachined substrate. This is the highest known coupling figure reported for passive alignment. The packaging of semiconductor laser chips has always presented a range of technical problems due to the sub-micron tolerances required to obtain optimum coupling of the small laser spot size to the larger spot size of a singlemode fiber. Lasers have been developed that can ease these tolerances by matching the laser spot size to that of cleaved fiber. This is achieved by tapering the active layer to adiabatically expand the laser mode size. A method of controlling the physical size of laser diode chips to sub-micron accuracy has enabled these lasers to be bonded against substantial alignment features on a silicon micro-engineered optical bench which also includes a V-groove into which a cleaved single-mode optical fiber can be fixed. Results are also discussed for an alternative ferrule-based, non-hermetic laser packaging design which utilizes the relaxed alignment tolerances of the large spot lasers to give simple package assembly suitable for automation. Both of the packaging technologies discussed offer a viable route to obtaining the very low cost optoelectronic components required for fiber to the home networks.

  1. Clothing polymer fibers with well-aligned and high-aspect ratio carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gengzhi; Zheng, Lianxi; An, Jia; Pan, Yongzheng; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Pang, John H. L.; Chua, Chee Kai; Leong, Kah Fai; Li, Lin

    2013-03-01

    It is believed that the crucial step towards preparation of electrical conductive polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is dispersing CNTs with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio in a well-aligned manner. However, this process is extremely challenging when dealing with long and entangled CNTs. Here in this study, a new approach is demonstrated to fabricate conductive polymer-CNT composite fibers without involving any dispersion process. Well-aligned CNT films were firstly drawn from CNT arrays, and then directly coated on polycaprolactone fibers to form polymer-CNT composite fibers. The conductivity of these composite fibers can be as high as 285 S m-1 with only 2.5 wt% CNT loading, and reach 1549 S m-1 when CNT loading is 13.4 wt%. As-prepared composite fibers also exhibit 82% retention of conductivity at a strain of 7%, and have improved mechanical properties.It is believed that the crucial step towards preparation of electrical conductive polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is dispersing CNTs with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio in a well-aligned manner. However, this process is extremely challenging when dealing with long and entangled CNTs. Here in this study, a new approach is demonstrated to fabricate conductive polymer-CNT composite fibers without involving any dispersion process. Well-aligned CNT films were firstly drawn from CNT arrays, and then directly coated on polycaprolactone fibers to form polymer-CNT composite fibers. The conductivity of these composite fibers can be as high as 285 S m-1 with only 2.5 wt% CNT loading, and reach 1549 S m-1 when CNT loading is 13.4 wt%. As-prepared composite fibers also exhibit 82% retention of conductivity at a strain of 7%, and have improved mechanical properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34208e

  2. Seamless, axially aligned, fiber tubes, meshes, microbundles and gradient biomaterial constructs.

    PubMed

    Jose, Rod R; Elia, Roberto; Firpo, Matthew A; Kaplan, David L; Peattie, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    A new electrospinning apparatus was developed to generate nanofibrous materials with improved organizational control. The system functions by oscillating the deposition signal (ODS) of multiple collectors, allowing significantly improved nanofiber control by manipulating the electric field which drives the electrospinning process. Other electrospinning techniques designed to impart deposited fiber organizational control, such as rotating mandrels or parallel collector systems, do not generate seamless constructs with high quality alignment in sizes large enough for medical devices. In contrast, the ODS collection system produces deposited fiber networks with highly pure alignment in a variety of forms and sizes, including flat (8 × 8 cm(2)), tubular (1.3 cm diameter), or rope-like microbundle (45 μm diameter) samples. Additionally, the mechanism of our technique allows for scale-up beyond these dimensions. The ODS collection system produced 81.6 % of fibers aligned within 5° of the axial direction, nearly a four-fold improvement over the rotating mandrel technique. The meshes produced from the 9 % (w/v) fibroin/PEO blend demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy due to the fiber alignment. In 37 °C PBS, aligned samples produced an ultimate tensile strength of 16.47 ± 1.18 MPa, a Young's modulus of 37.33 MPa, and a yield strength of 7.79 ± 1.13 MPa. The material was 300 % stiffer when extended in the direction of fiber alignment and required 20 times the amount of force to be deformed, compared to aligned meshes extended perpendicular to the fiber direction. The ODS technique could be applied to any electrospinnable polymer to overcome the more limited uniformity and induced mechanical strain of rotating mandrel techniques, and greatly surpasses the limited length of standard parallel collector techniques. PMID:22890517

  3. Seamless, axially aligned, fiber tubes, meshes, microbundles and gradient biomaterial constructs

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Roberto; Firpo, Matthew A.; Kaplan, David L.; Peattie, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    A new electrospinning apparatus was developed to generate nanofibrous materials with improved organizational control. The system functions by oscillating the deposition signal (ODS) of multiple collectors, allowing significantly improved nanofiber control by manipulating the electric field which drives the electrospinning process. Other electrospinning techniques designed to impart deposited fiber organizational control, such as rotating mandrels or parallel collector systems, do not generate seamless constructs with high quality alignment in sizes large enough for medical devices. In contrast, the ODS collection system produces deposited fiber networks with highly pure alignment in a variety of forms and sizes, including flat (8 × 8 cm2), tubular (1.3 cm diameter), or rope-like microbundle (45 μm diameter) samples. Additionally, the mechanism of our technique allows for scale-up beyond these dimensions. The ODS collection system produced 81.6 % of fibers aligned within 5° of the axial direction, nearly a four-fold improvement over the rotating mandrel technique. The meshes produced from the 9 % (w/v) fibroin/PEO blend demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy due to the fiber alignment. In 37 °C PBS, aligned samples produced an ultimate tensile strength of 16.47 ± 1.18 MPa, a Young's modulus of 37.33 MPa, and a yield strength of 7.79 ± 1.13 MPa. The material was 300 % stiffer when extended in the direction of fiber alignment and required 20 times the amount of force to be deformed, compared to aligned meshes extended perpendicular to the fiber direction. The ODS technique could be applied to any electrospinnable polymer to overcome the more limited uniformity and induced mechanical strain of rotating mandrel techniques, and greatly surpasses the limited length of standard parallel collector techniques. PMID:22890517

  4. Wear of short carbon-fiber-reinforced PAI and PPS

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, W.W.; Jerina, K.L.; Hahn, H.T.

    1988-07-01

    Wear of short carbon-fiber-reinforced polyamide-imide and polyphenylene sulfide is described. Comparative data from thrust washer wear tests for both polymers are presented. Fiber orientation is shown to have a significant effect on wear rates. The wear mechanisms in both polymers are illustrated with optical and scanning electron micrographs. Wear is shown to be a nonlinear function of time and stress for both PPS and PAI. 15 references, 14 figures.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest for solid state fiber spinning.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seong Woo; Hwang, Jae Won; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2012-07-01

    Continuous carbon nanotubes (CNT) fibers were directly spun from a vertically aligned CNT forest grown by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The correlation of the CNT structure with Fe catalyst coarsening, reaction time, and the CNTs bundling phenomenon was investigated. We controlled the diameters and walls of the CNTs and minimized the amorphous carbon deposition on the CNTs for favorable bundling and spinning of the CNT fibers. The CNT fibers were fabricated with an as-grown vertically aligned CNT forest by a PECVD process using nanocatalyst an Al2O3 buffer layer, followed by a dry spinning process. Well-aligned CNT fibers were successfully manufactured using a dry spinning process and a surface tension-based densification process by ethanol. The mechanical properties were characterized for the CNT fibers spun from different lengths of a vertically aligned CNT forest. Highly oriented CNT fibers from the dry spinning process were characterized with high strength, high modulus, and high electrical as well as thermal conductivities for possible application as ultralight, highly strong structural materials. Examples of structural materials include space elevator cables, artificial muscle, and armor material, while multifunctional materials include E-textile, touch panels, biosensors, and super capacitors. PMID:22966627

  6. Measurement of high-birefringent spun fiber parameters using short-length fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Vasiliev, S A; Przhiyalkovsky, Ya V; Gnusin, P I; Medvedkov, O I; Dianov, E M

    2016-05-30

    Spectral polarization characteristics of short-length fiber Bragg gratings UV-written in a highly-birefringent spun-fiber have been investigated. Based on the analysis of the characteristics the technique for measuring the built-in linear phase birefringence as well as the spin period in this fiber type has been suggested. In this method the birefringence dispersion is excluded and therefore the built-in linear phase birefringence can be measured with an improved accuracy. PMID:27410060

  7. Creep of experimental short fiber-reinforced composite resin.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Kaleem, Muhammad; Shinya, Akikazu; Vallittu, Pekka K; Satterthwaite, Julian D; Watts, David C; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reinforcing effect of short E-glass fiber fillers oriented in different directions on composite resin under static and dynamic loading. Experimental short fiber-reinforced composite resin (FC) was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers, 22.5 wt% of resin, and 55 wt% of silane-treated silica fillers. Three groups of specimens (n=5) were tested: FC with isotropic fiber orientation, FC with anisotropic fiber orientation, and particulate-filled composite resin (PFC) as a control. Time-dependent creep and recovery were recorded. ANOVA revealed that after secondary curing in a vacuum oven and after storage in dry condition for 30 days, FC with isotropic fiber orientation (1.73%) exhibited significantly lower static creep value (p<0.05) than PFC (2.54%). For the different curing methods and storage conditions evaluated in this study, FC achieved acceptable static and dynamic creep values when compared to PFC. PMID:23037835

  8. Ultra short pulse generation and reshaping using highly nonlinear fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, S.; Namiki, S.; Inoue, T.; Oguri, A.; Akutsu, T.; Shinozaki, J.; Ozeki, Y.; Takasaka, S.; Igarashi, K.; Sakano, M.; Yagi, T.

    2005-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the generation of a low-noise ultra short pulse train from 40GHz to160GHz by using Comb-like profiled fiber (CPF) for adiabatic soliton conversion and compression. Highly nonlinear fibers allow us to reduce total length of CPF as well as to utilize Kerr effect in the fiber effectively. We demonstrate generations of 160GHz soliton train of 750fs, the compression to 500fs of 40GHz externally-modulated pulse with wideband tunability over 30nm. Then we apply the CPF pulse compression technique to achieve the programmable repetition tunability from 5 to 500 MHz in low pedestral 300fs pulse train generation.

  9. Electrospun fiber constructs for vocal fold tissue engineering: effects of alignment and elastomeric polypeptide coating

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Lindsay A.; Gaston, Joel; McAlindon, Katherine; Woodhouse, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold lamina propria extracellular matrix (ECM) is highly aligned and when injured, becomes disorganized with loss of the tissue’s critical biomechanical properties. This study examines the effects of electrospun fiber scaffold architecture and elastin-like polypeptide (ELP4) coating on human vocal fold fibroblast (HVFF) behavior for applications toward tissue engineering the vocal fold lamina propria. Electrospun Tecoflex™ scaffolds were made with aligned and unaligned fibers, and were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and uniaxial tensile testing. ELP4 was successfully adsorbed onto the scaffolds; HVFF were seeded and their viability, proliferation, morphology, and gene expression were characterized. Aligned and unaligned scaffolds had initial elastic moduli of ~14 MPa, ~5 MPa and ~0.3 MPa, ~0.6 MPa in the preferred and cross-preferred directions, respectively. Scaffold topography had an effect on the orientation of the cells, with HVFF seeded on aligned scaffolds having a significantly different (p < 0.001) angle of orientation than HVFF cultured on unaligned scaffolds. This same effect and significant difference (p < 0.001) was seen on aligned and unaligned scaffolds coated with ELP4. Scaffold alignment and ELP4 coating impacted ECM gene expression. ELP4 coating, and aligned scaffolds upregulated elastin synthesis when tested on day 7 without a concomitant upregulation of collagen III synthesis. Collectively, results indicate that aligned electrospun scaffolds and ELP4 coating, are promising candidates in the development of biodegradeable vocal fold lamina propria constructs. PMID:25462850

  10. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  11. Pitch-based short carbon fiber. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.S.

    1991-12-01

    Short carbon fiber manufactured from coal tar pitch by Osaka Gas Co. is examined by chemical composition analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, optical microscope, and electron spectroscopic techniques. The present analytical results are compared with the data obtainable from other sources. Owing to the low cost of the short fiber, it is recommended that the fiber could be used for a wide variety of reinforcement applications such as, cement/concrete mixtures, polymer composites, and high temperature materials. Processing includes the mechanical separation of mesophase microbeads of three to 30 micron diameters from crude coal tar during three heat treatment stages. The mesophases obtained are then subjected to solvent extraction, hydrogenation, and polymerization to yield isotropic and anisotropic pitches suitable for melt spinning. The short fiber is fabricated from isotropic pitch by the rotary gas jet method, and the process yields a higher quality fiber as compared to other melt spinning methods. The most important feature is that this process is highly cost effective.

  12. Dynamic viscoelasticities for short fiber-thermoplastic elastomer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wuyun; Ashida, Michio . Graduate School of Science and Technology)

    1993-11-20

    Dynamic moduli, E[prime] and E[double prime], and loss tangent tan [delta] were investigated for thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymers (SISs), styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer (SBS), and Hytrel and composites reinforced by poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) short fibers. The styrenic TPEs have a typical rubbery behavior and the Hytrel TPE has medial characteristics between rubber and plastic. Both E[prime] and E[double prime] of the composites depended on the matrix as well as the fiber loading and fiber length. Based on the viewpoint of different extensibility between the fiber and the matrix elastomer, a triblock model was considered for estimating the storage modulus of the short fiber-TPE composites as follows: E[sub c] = [alpha] V[sub f]E[sub f] + [beta](1 [minus] V[sub f])E[sub m], where [alpha] and [beta] are the effective deformation coefficients for the fiber and the matrix elastomer, respectively. They can be quantitatively represented by modulus ratio M (= E[sub m]/E[sub f]) and fiber length L: [alpha] = (L[sup n] + k)M/(L[sup n]M + k), [beta] = (1 [minus] [alpha]V[sub f])/(1 [minus] V[sub f]), where the constants n and k are obtained experimentally. When k = 0.0222 and n = 0.45, E[sub c] of the TPE composites agreed well with the prediction of the proposed model. The relaxation spectrum of the composites showed a distinct main peak ascribed to the matrix elastomer, but no peak to the PET fiber.

  13. The Potential to Improve Cell Infiltration in Composite Fiber-Aligned Electrospun Scaffolds by the Selective Removal of Sacrificial Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brendon M.; Gee, Albert O.; Metter, Robert B.; Nathan, Ashwin S.; Marklein, Ross L.; Burdick, Jason A.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Aligned electrospun scaffolds are a promising tool for engineering fibrous musculoskeletal tissues as they reproduce the mechanical anisotropy of these tissues and can direct ordered neo-tissue formation. However, these scaffolds suffer from a slow cellular infiltration rate, likely due in part to their dense fiber packing. We hypothesized that cell ingress could be expedited in scaffolds by increasing porosity, while at the same time preserving overall scaffold anisotropy. To test this hypothesis, poly(ε-caprolactone) (a slow-degrading polyester) and poly(ethylene oxide) (a water-soluble polymer) were co-electrospun from two separate spinnerets to form dual-polymer composite fiber-aligned scaffolds. Adjusting fabrication parameters produced aligned scaffolds with a full range of sacrificial (PEO) fiber contents. Tensile properties of scaffolds were a function of the ratio of PCL to PEO in the composite scaffolds, and were altered in a predictable fashion with removal of the PEO component. When seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), increases in the starting sacrificial fraction (and porosity) improved cell infiltration and distribution after three weeks in culture. In pure PCL scaffolds, cells lined the scaffold periphery, while scaffolds containing >50% sacrificial PEO content had cells present throughout the scaffold. These findings indicate that cell infiltration can be expedited in dense fibrous assemblies with the removal of sacrificial fibers. This strategy may enhance in vitro and in vivo formation and maturation of a functional constructs for fibrous tissue engineering. PMID:18313138

  14. Electric Field Effects on Fiber Alignment Using an Auxiliary Electrode during Electrospinning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnell, Lisa S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Siochi, Emilie, J.; Holloway, Nancy M.; Clark, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews auxiliary and electric field effects on fiber alignment during the process of electrospinning. The contents include: 1) Electrospinning Overview; 2) Experimental Set-up; 3) Jet Exit; 4) Auxiliary Electrode Effects; 5) Electrospinning High Speed Video; 6) Effect of Auxiliary Electrode Position; 7) Micro & Nano Fibers Produced; 8) Micro and Nano Fibrous Mats; 9) Field Effect on Fiber Distribution; 10) Modeling; 11) Calculated trajectories: 5, 10, 15 & 20cm electrode spacing; 12) Off Axis Auxiliary Electrode; 13) Field Strength Effects; and 14) Potential Applications.

  15. A passive micromachined device for alignment of arrays of single-mode fibers for hermetic photonic packaging - the CLASP concept

    SciTech Connect

    Seigal, P.K.; Kravitz, S.H.; Word, J.C.; Bauer, T.M.

    1997-02-01

    A micro-machined fiber alignment device, called CLASP (Capture and Locking Alignment Spring Positioner) has been fabricated. It uses a nickel leaf spring to passively capture vertical arrays of single-mode fibers with {approximately} 2 {mu}m accuracy.

  16. Fabrication of Aligned Conducting PPy-PLLA Fiber Films and Their Electrically Controlled Guidance and Orientation for Neurites.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuanwen; Qin, Jiabang; Huang, Zhongbing; Yin, Guangfu; Pu, Ximing; He, Da

    2016-05-25

    Electrically conductive biomaterial scaffolds have great potential in neural tissue regeneration. In this work, an aligned conductive fibrous scaffold was prepared by electrospinning PLLA on rotating collector and chemical oxidation polymerization of pyrrole (PPy) codoped with poly(glutamic acid)/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid sodium. The characterization results of composition, structure and mechanics of fiber films show that the existence of weak polar van der Waals' force between PPy coating and PLLA fibers. The resistivity of aligned rough PPy-PLLA fiber film (about 800 nm of fiber diameter) at the perpendicular and parallel directions is 0.971 and 0.874 Ω m, respectively. Aligned rough PPy-PLLA fiber film could guide the extension of 68% PC12 neurites along the direction of fiber axis. Under electrostimulation (ES) of 100, 200, and 400 mV/cm, median neurite lengths of differentiated PC12 on aligned fiber-films are 128, 149, and 141 μm, respectively. Furthermore, under ES of 100, 200, and 400 mV/cm, the alignment rate of neurite along the electropotential direction (angle between neurite and electropotential direction ≤10°) on random fibers film are 17, 23, and 28%, respectively, and the alignment rate of neurites along the fiber axis (angle between neurite and fiber axis ≤10°) on aligned fibers film reach to 76, 83, and 79%, respectively, indicating that the combination of ES and rough conducting aligned structure could adjust the alignment of cellular neurites along the direction of the fiber axis or electropotential. PMID:27172537

  17. Alignment of carbon nanotubes and reinforcing effects in nylon-6 polymer composite fibers.

    PubMed

    Rangari, Vijaya K; Yousuf, Mohammed; Jeelani, Shaik; Pulikkathara, Merlyn X; Khabashesku, Valery N

    2008-06-18

    Alignment of pristine carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs) and fluorinated carbon nanotubes (F-CNTs) in nylon-6 polymer composite fibers (PCFs) has been achieved using a single-screw extrusion method. CNTs have been used as filler reinforcements to enhance the mechanical and thermal properties of nylon-6 composite fibers. The composites were fabricated by dry mixing nylon-6 polymer powder with the CNTs as the first step, then followed by the melt extrusion process of fiber materials in a single-screw extruder. The extruded fibers were stretched to their maxima and stabilized using a godet set-up. Finally, fibers were wound on a Wayne filament winder machine and tested for their tensile and thermal properties. The tests have shown a remarkable change in mechanical and thermal properties of nylon-6 polymer fibers with the addition of 0.5 wt% F-CNTs and 1.0 wt% of P-CNTs. To draw a comparison between the improvements achieved, the same process has been repeated with neat nylon-6 polymer. As a result, tensile strength has been increased by 230% for PCFs made with 0.5% F-CNTs and 1% P-CNTs as additives. These fibers have been further characterized by DSC, Raman spectroscopy and SEM which confirm the alignment of CNTs and interfacial bonding to nylon-6 polymer matrix. PMID:21825828

  18. Modeling of short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Aswini, N.; Dandekar, C. R.; Makhe, S.

    2012-09-01

    A micromechanics based finite element model (FEM) is developed to facilitate the design of a new production quality fiber reinforced plastic injection molded part. The composite part under study is composed of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix reinforced with 30% by volume fraction of short carbon fibers. The constitutive material models are obtained by using micromechanics based homogenization theories. The analysis is carried out by successfully coupling two commercial codes, Moldflow and ANSYS. Moldflow software is used to predict the fiber orientation by considering the flow kinetics and molding parameters. Material models are inputted into the commercial software ANSYS as per the predicted fiber orientation and the structural analysis is carried out. Thus in the present approach a coupling between two commercial codes namely Moldflow and ANSYS has been established to enable the analysis of the short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite parts. The load-deflection curve is obtained based on three constitutive material model namely an isotropy, transversely isotropy and orthotropy. Average values of the predicted quantities are compared to experimental results, obtaining a good correlation. In this manner, the coupled Moldflow-ANSYS model successfully predicts the load deflection curve of a composite injection molded part.

  19. SAMMate: a GUI tool for processing short read alignments in SAM/BAM format

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology generates tens of millions of short reads for each DNA/RNA sample. A key step in NGS data analysis is the short read alignment of the generated sequences to a reference genome. Although storing alignment information in the Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) or Binary SAM (BAM) format is now standard, biomedical researchers still have difficulty accessing this information. Results We have developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI) software tool named SAMMate. SAMMate allows biomedical researchers to quickly process SAM/BAM files and is compatible with both single-end and paired-end sequencing technologies. SAMMate also automates some standard procedures in DNA-seq and RNA-seq data analysis. Using either standard or customized annotation files, SAMMate allows users to accurately calculate the short read coverage of genomic intervals. In particular, for RNA-seq data SAMMate can accurately calculate the gene expression abundance scores for customized genomic intervals using short reads originating from both exons and exon-exon junctions. Furthermore, SAMMate can quickly calculate a whole-genome signal map at base-wise resolution allowing researchers to solve an array of bioinformatics problems. Finally, SAMMate can export both a wiggle file for alignment visualization in the UCSC genome browser and an alignment statistics report. The biological impact of these features is demonstrated via several case studies that predict miRNA targets using short read alignment information files. Conclusions With just a few mouse clicks, SAMMate will provide biomedical researchers easy access to important alignment information stored in SAM/BAM files. Our software is constantly updated and will greatly facilitate the downstream analysis of NGS data. Both the source code and the GUI executable are freely available under the GNU General Public License at http://sammate.sourceforge.net. PMID:21232146

  20. Mechanochromic photonic-crystal fibers based on continuous sheets of aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuemei; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Xin; Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-03-16

    A new family of mechanochromic photonic-crystal fibers exhibits tunable structural colors under stretching. This novel mechanochromic fiber is prepared by depositing polymer microspheres onto a continuous aligned-carbon-nanotube sheet that has been wound on an elastic poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber, followed by further embedding in poly(dimethylsiloxane). The color of the fiber can be tuned by varying the size and the center-to-center distance of the polymer spheres. It further experiences reversible and rapid multicolor changes during the stretch and release processes, for example, between red, green, and blue. Both the high sensitivity and stability were maintained after 1000 deformation cycles. These elastic photonic-crystal fibers were woven into patterns and smart fabrics for various display and sensing applications. PMID:25728690

  1. High finesse optical fiber cavities: optimal alignment and robust stabilization (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratschbacher, Lothar; Gallego, Jose; Ghosh, Sutapa; Alavi, Seyed; Alt, Wolfgang; Martinez-Dorantes, Miguel; Meschede, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Fabry-Perot cavities, formed by micro-machined mirrors on the end-facets of optical fibers, are used in an increasing number of technical and scientific applications. Some of the most promising areas of application of these optical micro-resonators with high finesse and small mode volume are in the field of quantum communication and information. The resonator-enhanced light-matter interaction, for instance, provide basis for the realization of efficient optical interfaces between stationary matter-based quantum nodes and flying single-photon qubits. To date fiber Fabry-Perot cavities have been successfully applied in experiments interfacing single photons with a wide range of quantum systems, including cold atoms, ions and solid state emitters as well as quantum optomechanical experiments. Here we address some important practical questions that arise during the experimental implementation of high finesse fiber Fabry-Perot cavities: How can optimal fiber cavity alignment be achieved and how can the efficiency of coupling light from the optical fibers to the cavity mode and vice versa be characterized? How should optical fiber cavities be constructed and stabilized to fulfill their potential for miniaturization and integration into robust scientific and technological devices that can operate outside of dedicated laboratory environments in the future? The first two questions we answer with an analytic mode matching calculation that relates the alignment dependent fiber-to-cavity mode-matching efficiency to the easily measurable dip in the reflected light power at the cavity resonance. Our general analysis provides a simple recipe for the optimal alignment of fiber Fabry-Perot cavities and moreover for the first time explains the asymmetry in their reflective line shapes. The latter question we explore by investigating a novel, intrinsically rigid fiber cavity design that makes use of the high passive stability of a monolithic cavity spacer and employs thermal

  2. Tough Block Copolymer Organogels and Elastomers as Short Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Edward J.

    2012-02-01

    The origins of the exceptional toughness and elastomeric properties of gels and elastomers from block copolymers with semicrystalline syndiotactic polypropylene blocks will be discussed. Using synchrotron X-radiation small angle (SAXS) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments were simultaneously performed during step cycle tensile deformation of these elastomers and gels. From these results the toughness can be attributed to the formation, orientation and elongation of the crystalline fibrils along the tensile direction. The true stress and true strain ɛH during each cycle were recorded, including the true strain at zero load ɛH,p after each cycle that resulted from the plastic deformation of the sPP crystals in the gel or elastomer. The initial Young's modulus Einit and maximum tangent modulus Emax in each cycle undergo dramatic changes as a function of ɛH,p, with Einit decreasing for ɛH,p <= 0.1 and then increasing slowly as ɛH,p increases to 1 while Emax increases rapidly over the entire range of ɛH,p resulting in a ratio of Emax/Einit > 100 to 1000 at the highest maximum (nominal) strain. Based on SAXS patterns from the deformed and relaxed gels, as well as on previous results on deformation of semicrystalline random copolymers by Strobl and coworkers, we propose that the initial decrease in Einit and increase in Emax with ɛH,p are due to a breakup of the network of the original sPP crystal lamellae and the conversion of the sPP lamellae into fibrils whose aspect ratio increases with further plastic deformation, respectively. The gel elastic properties can be understood quantitatively as those of a short fiber composite with a highly deformable matrix. At zero stress the random copolymer midblock chains that connect the fibrils cause these to make all angles to the tensile axis (low Einit), while at the maximum strain the stiff, crystalline sPP fibrils align with the tensile axis producing a strong, relatively stiff gel. The evolution of the

  3. Image-based quantification of fiber alignment within electrospun tissue engineering scaffolds is related to mechanical anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Fee, Timothy; Downs, Crawford; Eberhardt, Alan; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-07-01

    It is well documented that electrospun tissue engineering scaffolds can be fabricated with variable degrees of fiber alignment to produce scaffolds with anisotropic mechanical properties. Several attempts have been made to quantify the degree of fiber alignment within an electrospun scaffold using image-based methods. However, these methods are limited by the inability to produce a quantitative measure of alignment that can be used to make comparisons across publications. Therefore, we have developed a new approach to quantifying the alignment present within a scaffold from scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. The alignment is determined by using the Sobel approximation of the image gradient to determine the distribution of gradient angles with an image. This data was fit to a Von Mises distribution to find the dispersion parameter κ, which was used as a quantitative measure of fiber alignment. We fabricated four groups of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) + Gelatin scaffolds with alignments ranging from κ = 1.9 (aligned) to κ = 0.25 (random) and tested our alignment quantification method on these scaffolds. It was found that our alignment quantification method could distinguish between scaffolds of different alignments more accurately than two other published methods. Additionally, the alignment parameter κ was found to be a good predictor the mechanical anisotropy of our electrospun scaffolds. The ability to quantify fiber alignment within and make direct comparisons of scaffold fiber alignment across publications can reduce ambiguity between published results where cells are cultured on "highly aligned" fibrous scaffolds. This could have important implications for characterizing mechanics and cellular behavior on aligned tissue engineering scaffolds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1680-1686, 2016. PMID:26939754

  4. Extracellular Recordings of Patterned Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes on Aligned Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Itsunari; Yu, Leqian; Nakajima, Minako; Qiao, Jing; Shimono, Ken; Nakatsuji, Norio; Kotera, Hitetoshi; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) hold high potential for use in drug assessment and myocardial regeneration. To create tissue-like constructs of CMs for extracellular monitoring, we placed aligned fibers (AFs) on the surface of a microelectrode array and then seeded hiPSC-CMs for subsequent monitoring for 14 days. As expected, the CMs organized into anisotropic and matured tissue and the extracellular recordings showed reduced premature beating higher signal amplitude and a higher probability of T-wave detection as compared to the culture without fibers. The CMs on the aligned fibers samples also exhibited anisotropic propagation of the field potential. These results therefore suggest that the hiPSC-CMs cultured on AFs can be used more reliably for cell based assays. PMID:27446217

  5. Extracellular Recordings of Patterned Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes on Aligned Fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjun; Minami, Itsunari; Yu, Leqian; Tsuji, Kiyotaka; Nakajima, Minako; Qiao, Jing; Suzuki, Masato; Shimono, Ken; Nakatsuji, Norio; Kotera, Hitetoshi; Liu, Li; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) hold high potential for use in drug assessment and myocardial regeneration. To create tissue-like constructs of CMs for extracellular monitoring, we placed aligned fibers (AFs) on the surface of a microelectrode array and then seeded hiPSC-CMs for subsequent monitoring for 14 days. As expected, the CMs organized into anisotropic and matured tissue and the extracellular recordings showed reduced premature beating higher signal amplitude and a higher probability of T-wave detection as compared to the culture without fibers. The CMs on the aligned fibers samples also exhibited anisotropic propagation of the field potential. These results therefore suggest that the hiPSC-CMs cultured on AFs can be used more reliably for cell based assays. PMID:27446217

  6. Full field strain measurements of collagenous tissue by tracking fiber alignment through vector correlation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Kyle P; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2010-09-17

    Full field strain measurements of biological tissue during loading are often limited to the quantification of fiduciary marker displacements on the tissue surface. These marker measurements can lack the necessary spatial resolution to characterize non-uniform deformation and may not represent the deformation of the load-bearing collagen microstructure. To overcome these potential limitations, a method was developed to track the deformation of the collagen fiber microstructure in ligament tissue. Using quantitative polarized light imaging, fiber alignment maps incorporating both direction and alignment strength at each pixel were generated during facet capsular ligament loading. A grid of virtual markers was superimposed over the tissue in the alignment maps, and the maximization of a vector correlation calculation between fiber alignment maps was used to track marker displacement. Tracking error was quantified through comparisons to the displacements of excised ligament tissue (n=3); separate studies applied uniaxial tension to isolated facet capsular ligament tissue (n=4) to evaluate tracking capabilities during large tissue deformations. The average difference between virtual marker and tissue displacements was 0.07+/-0.06pixels. This error in marker location produced principal strain measurements of 1.2+/-1.6% when markers were spaced 4pixels apart. During tensile tissue loading, substantial inhomogeneity was detected in the strain field using vector correlation tracking, and the location of maximum strain differed from that produced by standard tracking techniques using coarser meshes. These findings provide a method to directly measure fiber network strains using quantitative fiber alignment data, enabling a better understanding of structure-function relationships in tissues at different length scales. PMID:20494363

  7. Self-centering fiber alignment structures for high-precision field installable single-mode fiber connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Ebraert, Evert; Gao, Fei; Vervaeke, Michael; Berghmans, Francis; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    There is a steady increase in the demand for internet bandwidth, primarily driven by cloud services and high-definition video streaming. Europe's Digital Agenda states the ambitious objective that by 2020 all Europeans should have access to internet at speeds of 30Mb/s or above, with 50% or more of households subscribing to connections of 100Mb/s. Today however, internet access in Europe is mainly based on the first generation of broadband, meaning internet accessed over legacy telephone copper and TV cable networks. In recent years, Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks have been adopted as a replacement of traditional electrical connections for the `last mile' transmission of information at bandwidths over 1Gb/s. However, FTTH penetration is still very low (< 5%) in most major Western economies. The main reason for this is the high deployment cost of FTTH networks. Indeed, the success and adoption of optical access networks critically depend on the quality and reliability of connections between optical fibers. In particular a further reduction of insertion loss of field- installable connectors must be achieved without a significant increase in component cost. This requires precise alignment of fibers that can differ in terms of ellipticity, eccentricity or diameter and seems hardly achievable using today's widespread ferrule-based alignment systems. In this paper, we present a field-installable connector based on deflectable/compressible spring structures, providing a self-centering functionality for the fiber. This way, it can accommodate for possible fiber cladding diameter variations (the tolerance on the cladding diameter of G.652 fiber is typically +/-0.7μm). The mechanical properties of the cantilever are derived through an analytical approximation and a mathematical model of the spring constant, and finite element-based simulations are carried out to find the maximum first principal stress as well as the stress distribution distribution in the fiber alignment

  8. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; Shannon, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  9. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

    1985-01-18

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  10. Electro-magnetic properties of composites with aligned Fe-Co hollow fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seungchan; Choi, Jae Ryung; Jung, Byung Mun; Choi, U. Hyeok; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Kim, Ki Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Bok

    2016-05-01

    A novel Fe-Co binary hollow fiber was synthesized by electroless plating using hydrolyzed polyester fiber and its anisotropy characteristic was investigated for electromagnetic wave absorbing materials. The hollow fibers in parallel with magnetic field show higher saturated magnetization of 202 emu/g at the applied magnetic field of 10 kOe and lower coercivity (27.658 Oe), compared with the random and vertical oriented hollow fibers. From complex permittivity measurement, the Fe-Co hollow fiber composites clearly display a single dielectric resonance, located at ˜14 GHz. The Fe-Co hollow fibers not only provide excellent EM properties in GHz frequency ranges, resulting mainly from the strong resonance, but also adjust the soft magnetic properties through fiber alignments. The cavitary structure of the Fe-Co hollow fibers, not only giving rise to a dielectric loss resonance and also adjusting its peak frequency, may be a pathway to useful EM wave absorptive devices in GHz frequency ranges.

  11. Parallel and Scalable Short-Read Alignment on Multi-Core Clusters Using UPC++

    PubMed Central

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Liu, Yongchao; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    The growth of next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets poses a challenge to the alignment of reads to reference genomes in terms of alignment quality and execution speed. Some available aligners have been shown to obtain high quality mappings at the expense of long execution times. Finding fast yet accurate software solutions is of high importance to research, since availability and size of NGS datasets continue to increase. In this work we present an efficient parallelization approach for NGS short-read alignment on multi-core clusters. Our approach takes advantage of a distributed shared memory programming model based on the new UPC++ language. Experimental results using the CUSHAW3 aligner show that our implementation based on dynamic scheduling obtains good scalability on multi-core clusters. Through our evaluation, we are able to complete the single-end and paired-end alignments of 246 million reads of length 150 base-pairs in 11.54 and 16.64 minutes, respectively, using 32 nodes with four AMD Opteron 6272 16-core CPUs per node. In contrast, the multi-threaded original tool needs 2.77 and 5.54 hours to perform the same alignments on the 64 cores of one node. The source code of our parallel implementation is publicly available at the CUSHAW3 homepage (http://cushaw3.sourceforge.net). PMID:26731399

  12. Parallel and Scalable Short-Read Alignment on Multi-Core Clusters Using UPC+.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Liu, Yongchao; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    The growth of next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets poses a challenge to the alignment of reads to reference genomes in terms of alignment quality and execution speed. Some available aligners have been shown to obtain high quality mappings at the expense of long execution times. Finding fast yet accurate software solutions is of high importance to research, since availability and size of NGS datasets continue to increase. In this work we present an efficient parallelization approach for NGS short-read alignment on multi-core clusters. Our approach takes advantage of a distributed shared memory programming model based on the new UPC++ language. Experimental results using the CUSHAW3 aligner show that our implementation based on dynamic scheduling obtains good scalability on multi-core clusters. Through our evaluation, we are able to complete the single-end and paired-end alignments of 246 million reads of length 150 base-pairs in 11.54 and 16.64 minutes, respectively, using 32 nodes with four AMD Opteron 6272 16-core CPUs per node. In contrast, the multi-threaded original tool needs 2.77 and 5.54 hours to perform the same alignments on the 64 cores of one node. The source code of our parallel implementation is publicly available at the CUSHAW3 homepage (http://cushaw3.sourceforge.net). PMID:26731399

  13. Mechanical property and biological performance of electrospun silk fibroin-polycaprolactone scaffolds with aligned fibers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Han; Shi, Hongfei; Qiu, Xushen; Chen, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and sterilizability of silk fibroin allow it to be a possible candidate as a natural bone regenerate material. To improve mechanical character and reinforce the cell movement induction, silk fibroin (SF)-polycaprolactone (PCL) alloy was fabricated by electrospinning techniques with a rotating collector to form aligned fibrous scaffolds and random-oriented scaffolds. The scanning electron microscope image of the scaffold and the mechanical properties of the scaffold were investigated by tensile mechanical tests, which were compared to random-oriented scaffolds. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cells were planted on these scaffolds to investigate the biocompatibility, elongation, and cell movement in situ. Scanning electron microscopy shows that 91% fibers on the aligned fibroin scaffold were distributed between the dominant direction ±10°. With an ideal support for stem cell proliferation in vitro, the aligned fibrous scaffold induces cell elongation at a length of 236.46 ± 82 μm and distribution along the dominant fiber direction with a cell alignment angle at 6.57° ± 4.45°. Compared with random-oriented scaffolds made by artificial materials, aligned SF-PCL scaffolds could provide a moderate mesenchymal stem cell engraftment interface and speed up early stage cell movement toward the bone defect. PMID:26588014

  14. Transverse alignment of fibers in a periodically sheared suspension: an absorbing phase transition with a slowly varying control parameter.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Alexandre; Filippidi, Emmanouela; Guazzelli, Elisabeth; Pine, David J

    2011-12-16

    Shearing solutions of fibers or polymers tends to align fiber or polymers in the flow direction. Here, non-Brownian rods subjected to oscillatory shear align perpendicular to the flow while the system undergoes a nonequilibrium absorbing phase transition. The slow alignment of the fibers can drive the system through the critical point and thus promote the transition to an absorbing state. This picture is confirmed by a universal scaling relation that collapses the data with critical exponents that are consistent with conserved directed percolation. PMID:22243062

  15. Quantitative mapping of collagen fiber alignment in thick tissue samples using transmission polarized-light microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Dmitry D.; Shvachkina, Marina E.; Sherman, Maria M.; Spivak, Andrey V.; Pravdin, Alexander B.; Yakovlev, Dmitry A.

    2016-07-01

    Immersion optical clearing makes it possible to use transmission polarized-light microscopy for characterization of thick (200 to 2000 μm) layers of biological tissues. We discuss polarization properties of thick samples in the context of the problem of characterization of collagen fiber alignment in connective tissues such as sclera and dermis. Optical chirality caused by azimuthal variations of the macroscopic (effective) optic axis of the medium across the sample thickness should be considered in polarization mapping of thick samples of these tissues. We experimentally evaluate to what extent the optical chirality affects the measurement results in typical situations and show under what conditions it can be easily taken into account and does not hinder, but rather helps, in characterization of collagen fiber alignment.

  16. Quantitative mapping of collagen fiber alignment in thick tissue samples using transmission polarized-light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Dmitry D; Shvachkina, Marina E; Sherman, Maria M; Spivak, Andrey V; Pravdin, Alexander B; Yakovlev, Dmitry A

    2016-07-01

    Immersion optical clearing makes it possible to use transmission polarized-light microscopy for characterization of thick (200 to 2000  μm) layers of biological tissues. We discuss polarization properties of thick samples in the context of the problem of characterization of collagen fiber alignment in connective tissues such as sclera and dermis. Optical chirality caused by azimuthal variations of the macroscopic (effective) optic axis of the medium across the sample thickness should be considered in polarization mapping of thick samples of these tissues. We experimentally evaluate to what extent the optical chirality affects the measurement results in typical situations and show under what conditions it can be easily taken into account and does not hinder, but rather helps, in characterization of collagen fiber alignment. PMID:27027930

  17. Alignment and maintenance free all-fiber laser source for CARS microscopy based on frequency conversion by four-wave-mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartl, Martin; Chemnitz, Mario; Jauregui, Cesar; Meyer, Tobias; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we report on a novel approach for pump and stokes pulse generation in extremely compact all-fiber systems using parametric frequency conversion (four-wave-mixing) in photonic-crystal fibers. Representing a completely alignment-free approach, the all-fiber ytterbium-based short-pulse laser system provides intrinsically synchronized tunable two-color picosecond pulses emitted from a single fiber end. The system was designed to address important CH-stretch vibrational resonances. Strong CARS signals are generated and proved by spectroscopic experiments, tuning the laser over the resonance of toluene at 3050cm-1. Furthermore the whole laser setup with a footprint of only 30x30cm2 is mounted on a home-built laser-scanning-microscope and CARS imaging capabilities are verified. The compact turn-key system represents a significant advance for CARS microscopy to enter real-world, in particular bio-medical, applications.

  18. Diabetes alters mechanical properties and collagen fiber re-alignment in multiple mouse tendons.

    PubMed

    Connizzo, Brianne K; Bhatt, Pankti R; Liechty, Kenneth W; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2014-09-01

    Tendons function to transfer load from muscle to bone through their complex composition and hierarchical structure, consisting mainly of type I collagen. Recent evidence suggests that type II diabetes may cause alterations in collagen structure, such as irregular fibril morphology and density, which could play a role in the mechanical function of tendons. Using the db/db mouse model of type II diabetes, the diabetic skin was found to have impaired biomechanical properties when compared to the non-diabetic group. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of diabetes on biomechanics, collagen fiber re-alignment, and biochemistry in three functionally different tendons (Achilles, supraspinatus, patellar) using the db/db mouse model. Results showed that cross-sectional area and stiffness, but not modulus, were significantly reduced in all three tendons. However, the tendon response to load (transition strain, collagen fiber re-alignment) occurred earlier in the mechanical test, contrary to expectations. In addition, the patellar tendon had an altered response to diabetes when compared to the other two tendons, with no changes in fiber re-alignment and decreased collagen content at the midsubstance of the tendon. Overall, type II diabetes alters tendon mechanical properties and the dynamic response to load. PMID:24833253

  19. The effect of various denier capillary channel polymer fibers on the alignment of NHDF cells and type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kristofer D; Webb, Ken; Brown, Philip J

    2010-12-15

    If tissue engineers are to successfully repair and regenerate native tendons and ligaments, it will be essential to implement contact guidance to induce cellular and type I collagen alignment to replicate the native structure. Capillary channel polymer (CC-P) fibers fabricated by melt-extrusion have aligned micrometer scale surface channels that may serve the goal of achieving biomimetic, physical templates for ligament growth and regeneration. Previous work characterizing the behavior of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), on the 19 denier per filament (dpf) CC-P fibers, demonstrated a need for improved cellular and type I collagen alignment. Therefore, 5 and 9 dpf CC-P fibers were manufactured to determine whether their channel dimensions would achieve greater alignment. A 29 dpf CC-P fiber was also examined to determine whether cellular guidance could still be achieved within the larger dimensions of the fiber's channels. The 9 dpf CC-P fiber appeared to approach the topographical constraints necessary to induce the cellular and type I collagen architecture that most closely mirrored that of native ACL tissue. This work demonstrated that the novel cross-section of the CC-P fiber geometry could approach the necessary surface topography to align NHDF cells along the longitudinal axis of each fiber. PMID:20925084

  20. A model for cell density effect on stress fiber alignment and collective directional migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeddoust, Mohammad; Shamloo, Amir

    2015-12-01

    In this study, numerical simulation of collective cell migration is presented in order to mimic the group migration of endothelial cells subjected to the concentration gradients of a biochemical factor. The developed 2D model incorporates basic elements of the cell, including both the cell membrane and the cell cytoskeleton, based on a viscoelastic cell mechanic model. Various cell processes—including cell random walk, cell-cell interactions, cell chemotaxis, and cellular cytoskeleton rearrangements—are considered and analyzed in our developed model. After validating the model by using available experimental data, the model is used to investigate various important parameters during collective cell chemotaxis, such as cell density, cytoskeleton organization, stress fiber reorientations, and intracellular forces. The results suggest that increasing the cell density causes the cell-cell interactions to affect the orientation of stress fibers throughout the cytoskeleton and makes the stress fibers more aligned in the direction of the imposed concentration gradient. This improved alignment of the stress fibers correlates with the intensification of the intracellular forces transferred in the gradient direction; this improves the cell group migration. Comparison of the obtained results with available experimental observations of collective chemotaxis of endothelial cells shows an interesting agreement.

  1. Winding aligned carbon nanotube composite yarns into coaxial fiber full batteries with high performances.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Ye; Lin, Huijuan; Ren, Jing; Lu, Xin; Wang, Min; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-06-11

    Inspired by the fantastic and fast-growing wearable electronics such as Google Glass and Apple iWatch, matchable lightweight and weaveable energy storage systems are urgently demanded while remaining as a bottleneck in the whole technology. Fiber-shaped energy storage devices that can be woven into electronic textiles may represent a general and effective strategy to overcome the above difficulty. Here a coaxial fiber lithium-ion battery has been achieved by sequentially winding aligned carbon nanotube composite yarn cathode and anode onto a cotton fiber. Novel yarn structures are designed to enable a high performance with a linear energy density of 0.75 mWh cm(-1). A wearable energy storage textile is also produced with an areal energy density of 4.5 mWh cm(-2). PMID:24831023

  2. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-22

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey’s equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  3. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-01

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  4. Effect of preconditioning and stress relaxation on local collagen fiber re-alignment: inhomogeneous properties of rat supraspinatus tendon.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristin S; Edelstein, Lena; Connizzo, Brianne K; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2012-03-01

    Repeatedly and consistently measuring the mechanical properties of tendon is important but presents a challenge. Preconditioning can provide tendons with a consistent loading history to make comparisons between groups from mechanical testing experiments. However, the specific mechanisms occurring during preconditioning are unknown. Previous studies have suggested that microstructural changes, such as collagen fiber re-alignment, may be a result of preconditioning. Local collagen fiber re-alignment is quantified throughout tensile mechanical testing using a testing system integrated with a polarized light setup, consisting of a backlight, 90 deg-offset rotating polarizer sheets on each side of the test sample, and a digital camera, in a rat supraspinatus tendon model, and corresponding mechanical properties are measured. Local circular variance values are compared throughout the mechanical test to determine if and where collagen fiber re-alignment occurred. The inhomogeneity of the tendon is examined by comparing local circular variance values, optical moduli and optical transition strain values. Although the largest amount of collagen fiber re-alignment was found during preconditioning, significant re-alignment was also demonstrated in the toe and linear regions of the mechanical test. No significant changes in re-alignment were seen during stress relaxation. The insertion site of the supraspinatus tendon demonstrated a lower linear modulus and a more disorganized collagen fiber distribution throughout all mechanical testing points compared to the tendon midsubstance. This study identified a correlation between collagen fiber re-alignment and preconditioning and suggests that collagen fiber re-alignment may be a potential mechanism of preconditioning and merits further investigation. In particular, the conditions necessary for collagen fibers to re-orient away from the direction of loading and the dependency of collagen reorganization on its initial distribution

  5. Numerical simulation of fiber interaction in short-fiber injection-molded composite using different cavity geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2016-03-01

    The theoretical fiber-interaction model for calculating the fiber orientation in the injection molded short fiber/thermoplastic composite parts was proposed. The proposed model included the fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain an equation of the global interaction coefficient and accurate estimate of the fiber interacts at all orientation states. The steps to derive the equation for this coefficient in short fiber suspension as a function of the fiber aspect ratio, volume fraction and general shear rate are delineated. Simultaneously, the high-resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α was used to observe fiber distribution of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide specimens using different cavity geometries. The fiber orientation tensor components are then calculated. Experimental orientation measurements of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide is used to check the ability of present theory for predicting orientation. The experiments and predictions show a quantitative agreement and confirm the basic understanding of fiber orientation in injection-molded composites.

  6. Pediatric Coronal Suture Fiber Alignment and the Effect of Interdigitation on Coronal Suture Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Kelly Nicole; Loyd, Andre Matthew; Samost, Albert; Myers, Barry; Nightingale, Roger; Smith, Kathleen; 'Dale' Bass, Cameron R

    2015-09-01

    The morphological and mechanical properties of the pediatric skull are important in understanding pediatric head injury biomechanics. Although previous studies have analyzed the morphology of cranial sutures, none has done so in pediatric specimens nor have previous studies related the morphology to mechanical properties of human sutures. This study quantified the geometry of pediatric cranial sutures and investigated its correlation with the suture mechanical properties. First, the suture fiber alignment was quantified using histological analysis for four ages-neonate, 9 months-old, 11 months-old, and 18 months-old. For the morphometric investigation of the suture interdigitation, suture samples from a 6-year-old were scanned using micro-CT and the level of interdigitation was measured using two techniques. The first technique, the sinuosity index, was calculated by dividing the suture path along the surface of the skull by the suture distance from beginning to end. The second technique, the surface area interdigitation index, was calculated by measuring the surface area of the bone interface outlining the suture and dividing it by the cross-sectional area of the bone. The mechanical properties were obtained using methods reported in Davis et al.6. The results of the histological analysis showed a significant increase in fiber alignment in older specimen; where random fiber alignment has an average angle deviation of 45°, neonatal suture fibers have an average deviation of 32.2° and the 18-month-old fibers had an average deviation of 16.2° (p < 0.0001). For the suture index measurements, only the sinuosity was positively correlated with the ultimate strain (R (2) = 0.62, Bonferroni corrected p = 0.011) but no other measurements showed a significant relationship, including the amount of interdigitation and elastic modulus. Our results demonstrate that there is a distinct developmental progression of the suture fiber alignment at a young age, but the

  7. Smooth Muscle Cell Alignment and Phenotype Control by Melt Spun Polycaprolactone Fibers for Seeding of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Animesh; Lee, Bae Hoon; Irvine, Scott A.; An, Jia; Bhuthalingam, Ramya; Singh, Vaishali; Low, Kok Yao; Chua, Chee Kai; Venkatraman, Subbu S.

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed to induce and retain a contractile phenotype for vascular smooth muscle cells, as the first step towards the development of a biomimetic blood vessel construct with minimal compliance mismatch. Melt spun PCL fibers were deposited on a mandrel to form aligned fibers of 10 μm in diameter. The fibers were bonded into aligned arrangement through dip coating in chitosan solution. This formed a surface of parallel grooves, 10 μm deep by 10 μm across, presenting a surface layer of chitosan to promote cell surface interactions. The aligned fiber surface was used to culture cells present in the vascular wall, in particular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. This topography induced “surface guidance” over the orientation of the cells, which adopted an elongated spindle-like morphology, whereas cells on the unpatterned control surface did not show such orientation, assuming more rhomboid shapes. The preservation of VSMC contractile phenotype on the aligned scaffold was demonstrated by the retention of α-SMA expression after several days of culture. The effect was assessed on a prototype vascular graft prosthesis fabricated from polylactide caprolactone; VSMCs aligned longitudinally along a fiberless tube, whereas, for the aligned fiber coated tubes, the VSMCs aligned in the required circumferential orientation. PMID:26413093

  8. Design and prototyping of self-centering optical single-mode fiber alignment structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Gao, Fei; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    The European Commission’s goal of providing each European household with at least a 30 Mb s‑1 Internet connection by 2020 would be facilitated by a widespread deployment of fibre-to-the-home, which would in turn be sped up by the development of connector essential components, such as high-precision alignment features. Currently, the performance of state-of-the-art physical contact optical fiber connectors is limited by the tolerance on the cladding of standard telecom-grade single-mode fiber (SMF), which is typically smaller than  ±1 μm. We propose to overcome this limit by developing micro-spring-based self-centering alignment structures (SCAS) for SMF-connectors. We design these alignment structures with robustness and low-cost replication in mind, allowing for large-scale deployment. Both theoretical and finite element analysis (FEA) models are used to determine the optimal dimensions of the beams of which the micro-springs of the SCAS are comprised. Two topologies of the SCAS, consisting of three and four micro-springs respectively, are investigated for two materials: polysulfone (PSU) and polyetherimide (PEI). These materials hold great potential for high-performance fiber connectors while being compatible with low-cost production and with the harsh environmental operation conditions of those connectors. The theory and FEA agree well (<3% difference) for a simple micro-spring. When including a pedestal on the micro-spring (to bring it further away from the fiber) and for shorter spring lengths the agreement worsens. This is due to spring compression effects not being taken into account in our theoretical model. Prototypes are successfully fabricated using deep proton writing and subsequently characterized. The controlled insertion of an SMF in the SCAS is investigated and we determine that a force of 0.11 N is required. The fiber insertion also causes an out-of-plane deformation of the micro-springs in the SCAS of about 7 μm, which is no problem

  9. Micromechanical modeling of short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics-Isotropic damage of pseudograins

    SciTech Connect

    Kammoun, S.; Brassart, L.; Doghri, I.; Delannay, L.; Robert, G.

    2011-05-04

    A micromechanical damage modeling approach is presented to predict the overall elasto-plastic behavior and damage evolution in short fiber reinforced composite materials. The practical use of the approach is for injection molded thermoplastic parts reinforced with short glass fibers. The modeling is proceeded as follows. The representative volume element is decomposed into a set of pseudograins, the damage of which affects progressively the overall stiffness and strength up to total failure. Each pseudograin is a two-phase composite with aligned inclusions having same aspect ratio. A two-step mean-field homogenization procedure is adopted. In the first step, the pseudograins are homogenized individually according to the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The second step consists in a self-consistent homogenization of homogenized pseudograins. An isotropic damage model is applied at the pseudograin level. The model is implemented as a UMAT in the finite element code ABAQUS. Model is shown to reproduce the strength and the anisotropy (Lankford coefficient) during uniaxial tensile tests on samples cut under different directions relative to the injection flow direction.

  10. Diabetes Alters Mechanical Properties and Collagen Fiber Re-Alignment in Multiple Mouse Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Connizzo, Brianne K.; Bhatt, Pankti R.; Liechty, Kenneth W.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Tendons function to transfer load from muscle to bone through their complex composition and hierarchical structure, consisting mainly of type I collagen. Recent evidence suggests that type II diabetes may cause alterations in collagen structure, such as irregular fibril morphology and density, which could play a role in the mechanical function of tendons. Using the db/db mouse model of type II diabetes, the diabetic skin was found to have impaired biomechanical properties when compared to the non-diabetic group. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of diabetes on biomechanics, collagen fiber re-alignment, and biochemistry in three functionally different tendons (Achilles, supraspinatus, patellar) using the db/db mouse model. Results showed that cross-sectional area and stiffness, but not modulus, were significantly reduced in all three tendons. However, the tendon response to load (transition strain, collagen fiber re-alignment) occurred earlier in the mechanical test, contrary to expectations. In addition, the patellar tendon had an altered response to diabetes when compared to the other two tendons, with no changes in fiber realignment and decreased collagen content at the midsubstance of the tendon. Overall, type II diabetes alters tendon mechanical properties and the dynamic response to load. PMID:24833253

  11. Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak-Soon; Park, Jun-Young; Cha, Sang-Mo; Lee, Sang-Shin; Hwang, Gyo-Sun; Son, Yung-Sung

    2011-02-28

    Ribbon plastic optical fiber (POF) linked four-channel optical transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) modules have been proposed and realized featuring an excellent alignment tolerance. The two modules share a common configuration involving an optical sub-assembly (OSA) with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)/photodetectors (PDs), and their driver ICs, which are integrated onto a single printed circuit board (PCB) substrate. The OSA includes an alignment structure, a beam router and a fiber guide, which were produced by using plastic injection molding. We have accomplished a fully passive alignment between the VCSELs/PDs and the ribbon POF by taking advantage of the alignment structure that serves as a reference during the alignment of the constituent parts of the OSA. The electrical link, which largely determines the operation speed, has been remarkably shortened, due to a direct wire-bonding between the VCSELs/PDs and the driver circuits. The light sources and the detectors can be individually positioned, thereby overcoming the pitch limitations of the ribbon POF, which is made up of perfluorinated graded-index (GI) POF with a 62.5 μm core diameter. The overall alignment tolerance was first assessed by observing the optical coupling efficiency in terms of VCSEL/PD misalignment. The horizontal and vertical 3-dB alignment tolerances were about 20 μm and 150 μm for the Tx and 50 μm and over 200 μm for the Rx, respectively. The VCSEL-to-POF coupling loss for the Tx and the POF-to-PD loss for the Rx were 3.25 dB and 1.35 dB at a wavelength of 850 nm, respectively. Subsequently, a high-speed signal at 3.2 Gb/s was satisfactorily delivered via the Tx and Rx modules over a temperature range of -30 to 70°C with no significant errors; the channel crosstalk was below -30 dB. Finally, the performance of the prepared modules was verified by transmitting a 1080p HDMI video supplied by a Bluelay player to an LCD TV. PMID:21369260

  12. Controlled release of 6-aminonicotinamide from aligned, electrospun fibers alters astrocyte metabolism and dorsal root ganglia neurite outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Nicholas J.; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2011-08-01

    Following central nervous system (CNS) injury, activated astrocytes form a glial scar that inhibits the migration of axons ultimately leading to regeneration failure. Biomaterials developed for CNS repair can provide local delivery of therapeutics and/or guidance mechanisms to encourage cell migration into damaged regions of the brain or spinal cord. Electrospun fibers are a promising type of biomaterial for CNS injury since these fibers can direct cellular and axonal migration while slowly delivering therapy to the injury site. In this study, it was hypothesized that inclusion of an anti-metabolite, 6-aminonicotinamide (6AN), within poly-l-lactic acid electrospun fibers could attenuate astrocyte metabolic activity while still directing axonal outgrowth. Electrospinning parameters were varied to produce highly aligned electrospun fibers that contained 10% or 20% (w/w) 6AN. 6AN release from the fiber substrates occurred continuously over 2 weeks. Astrocytes placed onto drug-releasing fibers were less active than those cultured on scaffolds without 6AN. Dorsal root ganglia placed onto control and drug-releasing scaffolds were able to direct neurites along the aligned fibers. However, neurite outgrowth was stunted by fibers that contained 20% 6AN. These results show that 6AN release from aligned, electrospun fibers can decrease astrocyte activity while still directing axonal outgrowth.

  13. Fiber/collagen composites for ligament tissue engineering: influence of elastic moduli of sparse aligned fibers on mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Patrick S; Verbridge, Scott S; Dahlgren, Linda A; Kakar, Sanjeev; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Electrospun microfibers are attractive for the engineering of oriented tissues because they present instructive topographic and mechanical cues to cells. However, high-density microfiber networks are too cell-impermeable for most tissue applications. Alternatively, the distribution of sparse microfibers within a three-dimensional hydrogel could present instructive cues to guide cell organization while not inhibiting cell behavior. In this study, thin (∼5 fibers thick) layers of aligned microfibers (0.7 μm) were embedded within collagen hydrogels containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cultured for up to 14 days, and assayed for expression of ligament markers and imaged for cell organization. These microfibers were generated through the electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(ester-urethane) (PEUR), or a 75/25 PEUR/PCL blend to produce microfiber networks with elastic moduli of 31, 15, and 5.6 MPa, respectively. MSCs in composites containing 5.6 MPa fibers exhibited increased expression of the ligament marker scleraxis and the contractile phenotype marker α-smooth muscle actin versus the stiffer fiber composites. Additionally, cells within the 5.6 MPa microfiber composites were more oriented compared to cells within the 15 and 31 MPa microfiber composites. Together, these data indicate that the mechanical properties of microfiber/collagen composites can be tuned for the engineering of ligament and other target tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1894-1901, 2016. PMID:27037972

  14. Fabrication and Protein Conjugation of Aligned Polypyrrole-Poly(L-lactic acid) Fibers Film with the Conductivity and Stability.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiabang; Huang, Zhongbing; Yin, Guangfu; Yang, Anneng; Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The conducting composite scaffold, including fiber-cores of aligned poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and shell-layer of polypyrrole (PPy), was fabricated, and then bovine serum albumin (BSA) was conjugated on the PPy shell-layer. Aligned PLLA fibers (about 300 nm diameter) were obtained by electrospinning and rotating drum collection, and then coated by PPy nanoparticles (NPs, about 50 nm diameter) via chemical oxidation. The surface resistivity of PPy-PLLA fibers film were 0.971, 0.874 kΩ. cm at the fiber's vertical and parallel directions, respectively. The results of PPy-PLLA fibers film immersed in phosphate buffer saline for 8 d indicated that the fibers morphology and the film conductivity were not significantly changed, and the fluorescent images showed that FITC-labeled BSA (FITC-BSA) were successfully conjugated in the fibers film with carbodiimide chemistry, and the largest amount of FITC-BSA conjugated in the fibers film from 100 μg/mL proteins solution was 31.31 μg/cm2 due to lots of poly(glutamic acid) in surface-nanogrooves of the fibers surface. Under electrical stimulation of 100 mV, the fibers film was accompanied the release of all conjugated FITC-BSA with the detachment of some PPy NPs. These results suggested that PPy-PLLA fibers film would be potentially applied in the construction of degradable tissue engineering scaffold with protein factors, especially neurotrophic factors for nerve tissue repair. PMID:27455643

  15. Real-time detection of airborne asbestos by light scattering from magnetically re-aligned fibers.

    PubMed

    Stopford, Christopher; Kaye, Paul H; Greenaway, Richard S; Hirst, Edwin; Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Stanley, Warren R

    2013-05-01

    Inadvertent inhalation of asbestos fibers and the subsequent development of incurable cancers is a leading cause of work-related deaths worldwide. Currently, there is no real-time in situ method for detecting airborne asbestos. We describe an optical method that seeks to address this deficiency. It is based on the use of laser light scattering patterns to determine the change in angular alignment of individual airborne fibers under the influence of an applied magnetic field. Detection sensitivity estimates are given for both crocidolite (blue) and chrysotile (white) asbestos. The method has been developed with the aim of providing a low-cost warning device to trades people and others at risk from inadvertent exposure to airborne asbestos. PMID:23669992

  16. Short fiber tremolite free chrysotile mesothelioma cohort revealed.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David; Bird, Tess

    2016-03-01

    In 1995, Dell and Teta published a cohort mortality study of asbestos molding compound workers at a Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) plastics manufacturing plant in Bound Brook, New Jersey. They reported that the factory workers were exposed to "asbestos (mostly chrysotile)," implying that the asbestos used at the Bound Brook plant occasionally contained amphiboles. However, UCC statements and testimony from recent litigation indicate that the Bound Brook plant exclusively used short fiber chrysotile asbestos. These recent documents also point to lower exposures than those reported by Dell and Teta. This chrysotile-only cohort should be included in analyses of chrysotile potency. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:196-199, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725926

  17. Modeling of statistical tensile strength tensile of short-fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.T.; Blumenthal, W.R.; Stout, M.G.; Lowe, T.C.

    1995-10-05

    This Paper develops a statistical strength theory for three-dimensionally (3-D) oriented short-fiber reinforced composites. Short-fiber composites are usually reinforced with glass and ceramic short fibers and whiskers. These reinforcements are brittle and display a range of strength values, which can be statistically characterized by a Weibull distribution. This statistical nature of fiber strength needs to be taken into account in the prediction of composite strength. In this paper, the statistical nature of fiber strength is incorporated into the calculation of direct fiber strengthening, and a maximum-load composite failure criterion is adopted to calculate the composite strength. Other strengthening mechanisms such as residual thermal stress, matrix work hardening, and short-fiber dispersion hardening are also briefly discussed.

  18. Method for promoting specific alignment of short oligonucleotides on nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Kieleczawa, Jan; Dunn, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for promoting specific alignment of short oligonucleotides on a nucleic acid polymer. The nucleic acid polymer is incubated in a solution containing a single-stranded DNA-binding protein and a plurality of oligonucleotides which are perfectly complementary to distinct but adjacent regions of a predetermined contiguous nucleotide sequence in the nucleic acid polymer. The plurality of oligonucleotides anneal to the nucleic acid polymer to form a contiguous region of double stranded nucleic acid. Specific application of the methods disclosed include priming DNA synthesis and template-directed ligation.

  19. Improving Fiber Alignment in HARDI by Combining Contextual PDE Flow with Constrained Spherical Deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Portegies, J M; Fick, R H J; Sanguinetti, G R; Meesters, S P L; Girard, G; Duits, R

    2015-01-01

    We propose two strategies to improve the quality of tractography results computed from diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) data. Both methods are based on the same PDE framework, defined in the coupled space of positions and orientations, associated with a stochastic process describing the enhancement of elongated structures while preserving crossing structures. In the first method we use the enhancement PDE for contextual regularization of a fiber orientation distribution (FOD) that is obtained on individual voxels from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data via constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD). Thereby we improve the FOD as input for subsequent tractography. Secondly, we introduce the fiber to bundle coherence (FBC), a measure for quantification of fiber alignment. The FBC is computed from a tractography result using the same PDE framework and provides a criterion for removing the spurious fibers. We validate the proposed combination of CSD and enhancement on phantom data and on human data, acquired with different scanning protocols. On the phantom data we find that PDE enhancements improve both local metrics and global metrics of tractography results, compared to CSD without enhancements. On the human data we show that the enhancements allow for a better reconstruction of crossing fiber bundles and they reduce the variability of the tractography output with respect to the acquisition parameters. Finally, we show that both the enhancement of the FODs and the use of the FBC measure on the tractography improve the stability with respect to different stochastic realizations of probabilistic tractography. This is shown in a clinical application: the reconstruction of the optic radiation for epilepsy surgery planning. PMID:26465600

  20. Improving Fiber Alignment in HARDI by Combining Contextual PDE Flow with Constrained Spherical Deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Portegies, J. M.; Fick, R. H. J.; Sanguinetti, G. R.; Meesters, S. P. L.; Girard, G.; Duits, R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose two strategies to improve the quality of tractography results computed from diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) data. Both methods are based on the same PDE framework, defined in the coupled space of positions and orientations, associated with a stochastic process describing the enhancement of elongated structures while preserving crossing structures. In the first method we use the enhancement PDE for contextual regularization of a fiber orientation distribution (FOD) that is obtained on individual voxels from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data via constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD). Thereby we improve the FOD as input for subsequent tractography. Secondly, we introduce the fiber to bundle coherence (FBC), a measure for quantification of fiber alignment. The FBC is computed from a tractography result using the same PDE framework and provides a criterion for removing the spurious fibers. We validate the proposed combination of CSD and enhancement on phantom data and on human data, acquired with different scanning protocols. On the phantom data we find that PDE enhancements improve both local metrics and global metrics of tractography results, compared to CSD without enhancements. On the human data we show that the enhancements allow for a better reconstruction of crossing fiber bundles and they reduce the variability of the tractography output with respect to the acquisition parameters. Finally, we show that both the enhancement of the FODs and the use of the FBC measure on the tractography improve the stability with respect to different stochastic realizations of probabilistic tractography. This is shown in a clinical application: the reconstruction of the optic radiation for epilepsy surgery planning. PMID:26465600

  1. Optimal Parameter Design of Coarse Alignment for Fiber Optic Gyro Inertial Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Baofeng; Wang, Qiuying; Yu, Chunmei; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two different coarse alignment algorithms for Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on inertial reference frame are discussed in this paper. Both of them are based on gravity vector integration, therefore, the performance of these algorithms is determined by integration time. In previous works, integration time is selected by experience. In order to give a criterion for the selection process, and make the selection of the integration time more accurate, optimal parameter design of these algorithms for FOG INS is performed in this paper. The design process is accomplished based on the analysis of the error characteristics of these two coarse alignment algorithms. Moreover, this analysis and optimal parameter design allow us to make an adequate selection of the most accurate algorithm for FOG INS according to the actual operational conditions. The analysis and simulation results show that the parameter provided by this work is the optimal value, and indicate that in different operational conditions, the coarse alignment algorithms adopted for FOG INS are different in order to achieve better performance. Lastly, the experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26121614

  2. Optimal Parameter Design of Coarse Alignment for Fiber Optic Gyro Inertial Navigation System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Baofeng; Wang, Qiuying; Yu, Chunmei; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two different coarse alignment algorithms for Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on inertial reference frame are discussed in this paper. Both of them are based on gravity vector integration, therefore, the performance of these algorithms is determined by integration time. In previous works, integration time is selected by experience. In order to give a criterion for the selection process, and make the selection of the integration time more accurate, optimal parameter design of these algorithms for FOG INS is performed in this paper. The design process is accomplished based on the analysis of the error characteristics of these two coarse alignment algorithms. Moreover, this analysis and optimal parameter design allow us to make an adequate selection of the most accurate algorithm for FOG INS according to the actual operational conditions. The analysis and simulation results show that the parameter provided by this work is the optimal value, and indicate that in different operational conditions, the coarse alignment algorithms adopted for FOG INS are different in order to achieve better performance. Lastly, the experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26121614

  3. Short pulse fiber lasers mode-locked by carbon nanotubes and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Shinji; Martinez, Amos; Xu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    One and two dimensional forms of carbon, carbon nanotubes and graphene, have interesting and useful, not only electronic but also photonic, properties. For fiber lasers, they are very attractive passive mode lockers for ultra-short pulse generation, since they have saturable absorption with inherently fast recovery time (<1 ps). In this paper, we review the photonic properties of graphene and CNT and our recent works on fabrication of fiber devices and applications to ultra-short pulse mode-locked fiber lasers.

  4. Fabrication of aligned Eu(TTA)3phen/PS fiber bundles from high molecular weight polymer solution by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongquan; Li, Yue; Li, Tao; Chen, Baojiu; Li, Peng; Wu, Yanbo

    2015-12-01

    Super-long aligned luminescent Eu(TTA)3phen/PS composite fibers (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, PS = polystyrene) with diameter in the range of 1-10 μm were prepared via an electrospinning method. The key to the success of alignment of these fibers was the usage of high molecular weight PS in the electrospinning solution and the low speed collecting drum. Luminescent properties of the composite fibers were systemically studied in comparison with that of the corresponding pure europium complex Eu(TTA)3phen. The results showed that the fluorescence lifetime for the 5 D 0 state in the composite fibers became shorter compared to that in the pure europium complex and decreases gradually with the concentration of Eu(DBM)3phen complex.

  5. Short pulse dynamics in a linear cavity fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razukov, Vadim A.; Melnikov, Leonid A.

    2016-04-01

    New suitable numerical scheme is proposed for simulation of dynamics of oppositely running pulses in a fiber laser with linear cavity. The proposed model allows to include various temporal and spatial effects which affect the laser dynamics. The pulse evolution in the fiber cavity with perfect reflectors at the fiber ends with accounting of fiber group velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation is demonstrated.

  6. Alignment of Short Reads: A Crucial Step for Application of Next-Generation Sequencing Data in Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hao; Meehan, Joe; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine or personalized medicine has been proposed as a modernized and promising medical strategy. Genetic variants of patients are the key information for implementation of precision medicine. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an emerging technology for deciphering genetic variants. Alignment of raw reads to a reference genome is one of the key steps in NGS data analysis. Many algorithms have been developed for alignment of short read sequences since 2008. Users have to make a decision on which alignment algorithm to use in their studies. Selection of the right alignment algorithm determines not only the alignment algorithm but also the set of suitable parameters to be used by the algorithm. Understanding these algorithms helps in selecting the appropriate alignment algorithm for different applications in precision medicine. Here, we review current available algorithms and their major strategies such as seed-and-extend and q-gram filter. We also discuss the challenges in current alignment algorithms, including alignment in multiple repeated regions, long reads alignment and alignment facilitated with known genetic variants. PMID:26610555

  7. Highly Aligned Carbon Fiber in Polymer Composite Structures via Additive Manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tekinalp, Halil L; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M; Duty, Chad E; Love, Lonnie J; Naskar, Amit K; Blue, Craig A; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructuremore » and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. This phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.« less

  8. Aging characteristics of short glass fiber reinforced ZA-27 alloy composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Girish, B. M.; Satish, B. M.; Kamath, R.

    1998-12-01

    Aging characteristics of short glass fiber reinforced ZA-27 alloy composite materials have been evaluated in the present study. The liquid metallurgy technique was used to fabricate the composites, in which preheated short glass fibers were introduced into the ZA-27 alloy melt above its liquidus temperature. The aging temperature employed was 125 °C for 6, 12,18, and 24 h. The aged alloy (no fibers) reached the peak hardness after 18 h, while the composites (regardless of filler content) reached the same hardness in 12 h. It is hypothesized that the aging treatment of a composite improves the strength of the interface between the short fibers and the matrix. This is confirmed by the tensile fractograph analysis, which indicates that at a given aging temperature, the composites aged for 18 h exhibit short fibers that remain attached to the metal matrix, while those aged for 6 h undergo debonding.

  9. Experimental and Modeling Study of Collagen Scaffolds with the Effects of Crosslinking and Fiber Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Chow, Ming-Jay; Zhang, Yanhang

    2011-01-01

    Collagen type I scaffolds are commonly used due to its abundance, biocompatibility, and ubiquity. Most applications require the scaffolds to operate under mechanical stresses. Therefore understanding and being able to control the structural-functional integrity of collagen scaffolds becomes crucial. Using a combined experimental and modeling approach, we studied the structure and function of Type I collagen gel with the effects of spatial fiber alignment and crosslinking. Aligned collagen scaffolds were created through the flow of magnetic particles enmeshed in collagen fibrils to mimic the anisotropy seen in native tissue. Inter- and intra- molecular crosslinking was modified chemically with Genipin to further improve the stiffness of collagen scaffolds. The anisotropic mechanical properties of collagen scaffolds were characterized using a planar biaxial tensile tester and parallel plate rheometer. The tangent stiffness from biaxial tensile test is two to three orders of magnitude higher than the storage moduli from rheological measurements. The biphasic nature of collagen gel was discussed and used to explain the mechanical behavior of collagen scaffolds under different types of mechanical tests. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model was used to capture the characteristics of the stress-strain behavior exhibited by collagen scaffolds. PMID:21876695

  10. Crack Propagation Versus Fiber Alignment in Collagen Gels: Experiments and Multiscale Simulation.

    PubMed

    Vanderheiden, Sarah M; Hadi, Mohammad F; Barocas, V H

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that the organization of the fibers constituting a collagenous tissue can affect its failure behavior. Less clear is how that effect can be described computationally so as to predict the failure of a native or engineered tissue under the complex loading conditions that can occur in vivo. Toward the goal of a general predictive strategy, we applied our multiscale model of collagen gel mechanics to the failure of a double-notched gel under tension, comparing the results for aligned and isotropic samples. In both computational and laboratory experiments, we found that the aligned gels were more likely to fail by connecting the two notches than the isotropic gels. For example, when the initial notches were 30% of the sample width (normalized tip-to-edge distance = 0.7), the normalized tip-to-tip distance at which the transition occurred from between-notch failure to across-sample failure shifted from 0.6 to 1.0. When the model predictions for the type of failure event (between the two notches versus across the sample width) were compared to the experimental results, the two were found to be strongly covariant by Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05) for both the aligned and isotropic gels with no fitting parameters. Although the double-notch system is idealized, and the collagen gel system is simpler than a true tissue, it presents a simple model system for studying failure of anisotropic tissues in a controlled setting. The success of the computational model suggests that the multiscale approach, in which the structural complexity is incorporated via changes in the model networks rather than via changes to a constitutive equation, has the potential to predict tissue failure under a wide range of conditions. PMID:26355475

  11. Linearly aligned superradiant Bose-Einstein condensates diffracted by a single short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inano, Ichiro; Nakamura, Keisuke; Morinaga, Atsuo

    2013-04-01

    Multiorder bidirectional superradiant Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) were generated in a straight line by an irradiation of a single unidirectional short laser pulse along the long axis of a cigar-shaped sodium BEC in a magnetic trap. The probabilities of the diffracted BECs as a function of the laser intensity were well explained by the square of the Bessel functions and it was estimated that the intensity of the end-fire beam was 25% of the laser intensity. The backward diffractions disappeared at pulse duration longer than 5 μs because of energy conservation. The probability for the +first-order diffraction grew exponentially with pulse duration when the backward diffractions disappeared. We observed the linearly aligned diffracted BECs along the propagation direction of the laser beam, regardless of the aspect ratio of the condensates. This fact indicates that the end-fire beam is triggered by the small backreflection from the vacuum window.

  12. AREM: Aligning Short Reads from ChIP-Sequencing by Expectation Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newkirk, Daniel; Biesinger, Jacob; Chon, Alvin; Yokomori, Kyoko; Xie, Xiaohui

    High-throughput sequencing coupled to chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-Seq) is widely used in characterizing genome-wide binding patterns of transcription factors, cofactors, chromatin modifiers, and other DNA binding proteins. A key step in ChIP-Seq data analysis is to map short reads from high-throughput sequencing to a reference genome and identify peak regions enriched with short reads. Although several methods have been proposed for ChIP-Seq analysis, most existing methods only consider reads that can be uniquely placed in the reference genome, and therefore have low power for detecting peaks located within repeat sequences. Here we introduce a probabilistic approach for ChIP-Seq data analysis which utilizes all reads, providing a truly genome-wide view of binding patterns. Reads are modeled using a mixture model corresponding to K enriched regions and a null genomic background. We use maximum likelihood to estimate the locations of the enriched regions, and implement an expectation-maximization (E-M) algorithm, called AREM (aligning reads by expectation maximization), to update the alignment probabilities of each read to different genomic locations. We apply the algorithm to identify genome-wide binding events of two proteins: Rad21, a component of cohesin and a key factor involved in chromatid cohesion, and Srebp-1, a transcription factor important for lipid/cholesterol homeostasis. Using AREM, we were able to identify 19,935 Rad21 peaks and 1,748 Srebp-1 peaks in the mouse genome with high confidence, including 1,517 (7.6%) Rad21 peaks and 227 (13%) Srebp-1 peaks that were missed using only uniquely mapped reads. The open source implementation of our algorithm is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/arem

  13. Study of fracture mechanisms of short fiber reinforced AS composite by acoustic emission technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kida, Sotoaki; Suzuki, Megumu

    1995-11-01

    The fracture mechanisms of short fiber reinforced AS composites are studied by acoustic emission technique for examining the effects of fiber contents. The loads P{sub b} and P{sub c} which the damage mechanisms change are obtained at the inflection points of the total AE energy curve the energy gradient method. The damages are generated by fiber breaking at the load point of P{sub b} and P{sub c} in B material, and by the fiber breaking and the debonding between resin and fiber at the load points of P{sub b} and P{sub c} in C material.

  14. Fracture Load of Tooth Restored with Fiber Post and Experimental Short Fiber Composite

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V.J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the load bearing capacity of anatomically designed canines restored with FRC posts and experimental short fiber composite resin (FC). The effect of using three different types of tooth preparation and woven net on the fracture load was also investigated. Further aim was to evaluate the failure mode of each restoration. Material and methods: 80 maxillary frasaco-canines were divided into 10 groups (n=8). The anatomic crowns were cut perpendicular at CEJ of the tooth. Group 1 was composed of teeth with flattened surface. Groups 2, 3 & 4 were prepared of teeth with 2 mm ferrule. In the third group, everStick Net was applied above the ferrule. Group 5 was composed of teeth with large box type preparation. The root canals were enlarged, sandblasted and then surface treated with Stick resin for 5 min. Two types of FRC root canal posts were used. The crowns were prepared either with composite resin or with FC. A static load until failure was applied to the crowns at a 45 degrees angle. Failure modes were visually examined. Results: ANOVA revealed that use of FRC-post and tooth preparation (p<0.001) had significant effect on fracture load of FRC-crown. The crowns made from only FC gave comparable fracture load to groups with FRC-post. No significant difference was found in load-bearing capacity between restorations reinforced with FRC net-substructure and those without (p>0.001). Chi-square test revealed that both, crown design and existence of FRC-post effected significantly fracture types (p<0.001). Conclusion: FC demonstrated similar load bearing capacity with restorations reinforced with FRC post. The presence of ferrule around the tooth increased the load bearing capacity significantly. Abbreviations: EET – endodontically treated teeth; FRC – fiber-reinforced composite; semi-IPN – semi-interpenetrating network; CEJ – cementoenamel junction; FC – experimental short fiber composite; SiC – silicon carbide abrasive paper; N

  15. Innovative Composites Through Reinforcement Morphology Design - a Bone-Shaped-Short-Fiber Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.T.; Valdez, J.A.; Beyerlain, I.J.; Stout, M.G.; Zhou, S.; Shi, N.; Lowe, T.C.

    1999-06-29

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project is to improve the strength and toughness of conventional short-fiber composites by using innovative bone-shaped-short (BSS) fibers as reinforcement. We fabricated a model polyethylene BSS fiber-reinforced polyester-matrix composite to prove that fiber morphology, instead of interfacial strength, solves the problem. Experimental tensile and fracture toughness test results show that BSS fibers can bridge matrix cracks more effectively, and consume many times more energy when pulled out, than conventional-straight-short (CSS) fibers. This leads to both higher strength and fracture toughness for the BSS-fiber composites. A computational model was developed to simulate crack propagation in both BSS- and CSS-fiber composites, accounting for stress concentrations, interface debonding, and fiber pullout. Model predictions were validated by experimental results and will be useful in optimizing BSS-fiber morphology and other material system parameters.

  16. Light modulation in planar aligned short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, Svetlana P.; Samagin, Sergey A.; Pozhidaev, Evgeny P.; Kiselev, Alexei D.

    2015-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically modulation of light in a planar aligned deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) cell with subwavelength helix pitch, which is also known as a short-pitch DHFLC. In our experiments, the azimuthal angle of the in-plane optical axis and electrically controlled parts of the principal in-plane refractive indices are measured as a function of voltage applied across the cell. Theoretical results giving the effective optical tensor of a short-pitch DHFLC expressed in terms of the smectic tilt angle and the refractive indices of the ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) are used to fit the experimental data. The optical anisotropy of the FLC material is found to be weakly biaxial. For both the transmissive and reflective modes, the results of fitting are applied to model the phase and amplitude modulation of light in the DHFLC cell. We demonstrate that if the thickness of the DHFLC layer is about 50 μ m , the detrimental effect of field-induced rotation of the in-plane optical axes on the characteristics of an axicon designed using the DHFLC spatial light modulator in the reflective mode is negligible.

  17. Light modulation in planar aligned short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Svetlana P; Samagin, Sergey A; Pozhidaev, Evgeny P; Kiselev, Alexei D

    2015-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically modulation of light in a planar aligned deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) cell with subwavelength helix pitch, which is also known as a short-pitch DHFLC. In our experiments, the azimuthal angle of the in-plane optical axis and electrically controlled parts of the principal in-plane refractive indices are measured as a function of voltage applied across the cell. Theoretical results giving the effective optical tensor of a short-pitch DHFLC expressed in terms of the smectic tilt angle and the refractive indices of the ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) are used to fit the experimental data. The optical anisotropy of the FLC material is found to be weakly biaxial. For both the transmissive and reflective modes, the results of fitting are applied to model the phase and amplitude modulation of light in the DHFLC cell. We demonstrate that if the thickness of the DHFLC layer is about 50μm, the detrimental effect of field-induced rotation of the in-plane optical axes on the characteristics of an axicon designed using the DHFLC spatial light modulator in the reflective mode is negligible. PMID:26764706

  18. A constitutive function for the heat flux in short-fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    A constitutive function for heat flux in short-fiber-reinforced composites is developed. The fiber orientation distribution is considered using second-order orientation tensor; therefore, the constitutive function for the heat flux will depend on the orientation tensor. The resulting orthotropic equation is discussed also in the context of energy efficiency of buildings.

  19. Modelling of the glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution in the compounding of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloke, P.; Herken, T.; Schöppner, V.; Rudloff, J.; Kretschmer, K.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Walther, Dridger, A.

    2014-05-01

    The use of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for the production of highly stressed parts in the plastics processing industry has experienced an enormous boom in the last few years. The reasons for this are primarily the improvements to the stiffness and strength properties brought about by fiber reinforcement. These positive characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced polymers are governed predominantly by the mean glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution. It is not enough to describe the properties of a plastics component solely as a function of the mean glass fiber length [1]. For this reason, a mathematical-physical model has been developed for describing the glass fiber length distribution in compounding. With this model, it is possible on the one hand to optimize processes for the production of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, and, on the other, to obtain information on the final distribution, on the basis of which much more detailed statements can be made about the subsequent properties of the molded part. Based on experimental tests, it was shown that this model is able to accurately describe the change in glass fiber length distribution in compounding.

  20. MapNext: a software tool for spliced and unspliced alignments and SNP detection of short sequence reads

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies provide exciting avenues for studies of transcriptomics and population genomics. There is an increasing need to conduct spliced and unspliced alignments of short transcript reads onto a reference genome and estimate minor allele frequency from sequences of population samples. Results We have designed and implemented MapNext, a software tool for both spliced and unspliced alignments of short sequence reads onto reference sequences, and automated SNP detection using neighbourhood quality standards. MapNext provides four main analyses: (i) unspliced alignment and clustering of reads, (ii) spliced alignment of transcript reads over intron boundaries, (iii) SNP detection and estimation of minor allele frequency from population sequences, and (iv) storage of result data in a database to make it available for more flexible queries and for further analyses. The software tool has been tested using both simulated and real data. Conclusion MapNext is a comprehensive and powerful tool for both spliced and unspliced alignments of short reads and automated SNP detection from population sequences. The simplicity, flexibility and efficiency of MapNext makes it a valuable tool for transcriptomic and population genomic research. PMID:19958476

  1. Three-dimensional matrix fiber alignment modulates cell migration and MT1-MMP utility by spatially and temporally directing protrusions.

    PubMed

    Fraley, Stephanie I; Wu, Pei-Hsun; He, Lijuan; Feng, Yunfeng; Krisnamurthy, Ranjini; Longmore, Gregory D; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attributes of the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) have been independently implicated as regulators of cell motility, including pore size, crosslink density, structural organization, and stiffness. However, these parameters cannot be independently varied within a complex 3D ECM protein network. We present an integrated, quantitative study of these parameters across a broad range of complex matrix configurations using self-assembling 3D collagen and show how each parameter relates to the others and to cell motility. Increasing collagen density resulted in a decrease and then an increase in both pore size and fiber alignment, which both correlated significantly with cell motility but not bulk matrix stiffness within the range tested. However, using the crosslinking enzyme Transglutaminase II to alter microstructure independently of density revealed that motility is most significantly predicted by fiber alignment. Cellular protrusion rate, protrusion orientation, speed of migration, and invasion distance showed coupled biphasic responses to increasing collagen density not predicted by 2D models or by stiffness, but instead by fiber alignment. The requirement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was also observed to depend on microstructure, and a threshold of MMP utility was identified. Our results suggest that fiber topography guides protrusions and thereby MMP activity and motility. PMID:26423227

  2. Three-dimensional matrix fiber alignment modulates cell migration and MT1-MMP utility by spatially and temporally directing protrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraley, Stephanie I.; Wu, Pei-Hsun; He, Lijuan; Feng, Yunfeng; Krisnamurthy, Ranjini; Longmore, Gregory D.; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-10-01

    Multiple attributes of the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) have been independently implicated as regulators of cell motility, including pore size, crosslink density, structural organization, and stiffness. However, these parameters cannot be independently varied within a complex 3D ECM protein network. We present an integrated, quantitative study of these parameters across a broad range of complex matrix configurations using self-assembling 3D collagen and show how each parameter relates to the others and to cell motility. Increasing collagen density resulted in a decrease and then an increase in both pore size and fiber alignment, which both correlated significantly with cell motility but not bulk matrix stiffness within the range tested. However, using the crosslinking enzyme Transglutaminase II to alter microstructure independently of density revealed that motility is most significantly predicted by fiber alignment. Cellular protrusion rate, protrusion orientation, speed of migration, and invasion distance showed coupled biphasic responses to increasing collagen density not predicted by 2D models or by stiffness, but instead by fiber alignment. The requirement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was also observed to depend on microstructure, and a threshold of MMP utility was identified. Our results suggest that fiber topography guides protrusions and thereby MMP activity and motility.

  3. Three-dimensional matrix fiber alignment modulates cell migration and MT1-MMP utility by spatially and temporally directing protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Stephanie I.; Wu, Pei-hsun; He, Lijuan; Feng, Yunfeng; Krisnamurthy, Ranjini; Longmore, Gregory D.; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Multiple attributes of the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) have been independently implicated as regulators of cell motility, including pore size, crosslink density, structural organization, and stiffness. However, these parameters cannot be independently varied within a complex 3D ECM protein network. We present an integrated, quantitative study of these parameters across a broad range of complex matrix configurations using self-assembling 3D collagen and show how each parameter relates to the others and to cell motility. Increasing collagen density resulted in a decrease and then an increase in both pore size and fiber alignment, which both correlated significantly with cell motility but not bulk matrix stiffness within the range tested. However, using the crosslinking enzyme Transglutaminase II to alter microstructure independently of density revealed that motility is most significantly predicted by fiber alignment. Cellular protrusion rate, protrusion orientation, speed of migration, and invasion distance showed coupled biphasic responses to increasing collagen density not predicted by 2D models or by stiffness, but instead by fiber alignment. The requirement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was also observed to depend on microstructure, and a threshold of MMP utility was identified. Our results suggest that fiber topography guides protrusions and thereby MMP activity and motility. PMID:26423227

  4. The reflectivity of carbon fiber reinforced polymer short circuit illuminated by guided microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojovschi, A.; Scott, J.; Ghorbani, K.

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the interaction between guided electromagnetic waves and carbon fibre reinforced polymer waveguide short circuits is presented. To determine the electromagnetic response of the composite waveguide short circuit, its anisotropic characteristics are considered. The reflection coefficients of the short circuit, at the reference plane, are about 0.98 over the whole 8 GHz to 12 GHz band. The results indicate the viability of carbon fiber based short circuits for lightweight waveguides.

  5. The Effect of Electrospun Gelatin Fibers Alignment on Schwann Cell and Axon Behavior and Organization in the Perspective of Artificial Nerve Design

    PubMed Central

    Gnavi, Sara; Fornasari, Benedetta Elena; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Laurano, Rossella; Zanetti, Marco; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Geuna, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun fibrous substrates mimicking extracellular matrices can be prepared by electrospinning, yielding aligned fibrous matrices as internal fillers to manufacture artificial nerves. Gelatin aligned nano-fibers were prepared by electrospinning after tuning the collector rotation speed. The effect of alignment on cell adhesion and proliferation was tested in vitro using primary cultures, the Schwann cell line, RT4-D6P2T, and the sensory neuron-like cell line, 50B11. Cell adhesion and proliferation were assessed by quantifying at several time-points. Aligned nano-fibers reduced adhesion and proliferation rate compared with random fibers. Schwann cell morphology and organization were investigated by immunostaining of the cytoskeleton. Cells were elongated with their longitudinal body parallel to the aligned fibers. B5011 neuron-like cells were aligned and had parallel axon growth when cultured on the aligned gelatin fibers. The data show that the alignment of electrospun gelatin fibers can modulate Schwann cells and axon organization in vitro, suggesting that this substrate shows promise as an internal filler for the design of artificial nerves for peripheral nerve reconstruction. PMID:26062130

  6. Quantification of short and long asbestos fibers to assess asbestos exposure: a review of fiber size toxicity.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Guillaume; Andujar, Pascal; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Billon-Galland, Marie-Annick; Dion, Chantal; Dumortier, Pascal; Brochard, Patrick; Sobaszek, Annie; Bartsch, Pierre; Paris, Christophe; Jaurand, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    The fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, the current regulations focalise on long asbestos fibers (LAF) (Length: L ≥ 5 μm, Diameter: D < 3 μm and L/D ratio > 3). However air samples contain short asbestos fibers (SAF) (L < 5 μm). In a recent study we found that several air samples collected in buildings with asbestos containing materials (ACM) were composed only of SAF, sometimes in a concentration of ≥10 fibers.L-1. This exhaustive review focuses on available information from peer-review publications on the size-dependent pathogenetic effects of asbestos fibers reported in experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. In the literature, the findings that SAF are less pathogenic than LAF are based on experiments where a cut-off of 5 μm was generally made to differentiate short from long asbestos fibers. Nevertheless, the value of 5 μm as the limit for length is not based on scientific evidence, but is a limit for comparative analyses. From this review, it is clear that the pathogenicity of SAF cannot be completely ruled out, especially in high exposure situations. Therefore, the presence of SAF in air samples appears as an indicator of the degradation of ACM and inclusion of their systematic search should be considered in the regulation. Measurement of these fibers in air samples will then make it possible to identify pollution and anticipate health risk. PMID:25043725

  7. Quantification of short and long asbestos fibers to assess asbestos exposure: a review of fiber size toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, the current regulations focalise on long asbestos fibers (LAF) (Length: L ≥ 5 μm, Diameter: D < 3 μm and L/D ratio > 3). However air samples contain short asbestos fibers (SAF) (L < 5 μm). In a recent study we found that several air samples collected in buildings with asbestos containing materials (ACM) were composed only of SAF, sometimes in a concentration of ≥10 fibers.L−1. This exhaustive review focuses on available information from peer-review publications on the size-dependent pathogenetic effects of asbestos fibers reported in experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. In the literature, the findings that SAF are less pathogenic than LAF are based on experiments where a cut-off of 5 μm was generally made to differentiate short from long asbestos fibers. Nevertheless, the value of 5 μm as the limit for length is not based on scientific evidence, but is a limit for comparative analyses. From this review, it is clear that the pathogenicity of SAF cannot be completely ruled out, especially in high exposure situations. Therefore, the presence of SAF in air samples appears as an indicator of the degradation of ACM and inclusion of their systematic search should be considered in the regulation. Measurement of these fibers in air samples will then make it possible to identify pollution and anticipate health risk. PMID:25043725

  8. Slider—maximum use of probability information for alignment of short sequence reads and SNP detection

    PubMed Central

    Malhis, Nawar; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Ester, Martin; Jones, Steven J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: A plethora of alignment tools have been created that are designed to best fit different types of alignment conditions. While some of these are made for aligning Illumina Sequence Analyzer reads, none of these are fully utilizing its probability (prb) output. In this article, we will introduce a new alignment approach (Slider) that reduces the alignment problem space by utilizing each read base's probabilities given in the prb files. Results: Compared with other aligners, Slider has higher alignment accuracy and efficiency. In addition, given that Slider matches bases with probabilities other than the most probable, it significantly reduces the percentage of base mismatches. The result is that its SNP predictions are more accurate than other SNP prediction approaches used today that start from the most probable sequence, including those using base quality. Contact: nmalhis@bcgsc.ca Supplementary information and availability: http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/slider PMID:18974170

  9. The preparation and characterization of highly aligned poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/poly ethylene oxide/chitosan ultrafine fiber for the application to tissue scaffold.

    PubMed

    Nien, Yu-Hsun; Wang, Jia-Yi; Tsai, Yan-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to fabricate poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)/poly ethylene oxid (PEO)/chitosan (CS) ultrafine fiber in both aligned and random structures using electrospinning technique and their process parameters were optimized. The aligned and random PCL/PEO/chitosan ultrafine fibers were also used as scaffold for tissue engineering and their cell affinity was investigated. In the first part, we inspected the effect of environment conditions, solution properties, process parameters on PCL/PEO/chitosan ultrafine fiber. In the second part, the apparatus of electrospinning to manufacture highly aligned PCL/PEO/chitosan ultrafine fiber was developed. The effects of process parameters such as flow rate, design of collector and rotation speed of collecting drum on the morphology of ultrafine fiber were discussed. In addition, the cross link of PCL/PEO/chitosan ultrafine fiber by cross-linking agent was examined, too. The physical properties, chemical properties, and cell affinities of the aligned PCL/PEO/chitosan ultrafine fiber with or without cross link were measured. The chemical analysis and tensile strength of the ultrafine fiber were characterized using Fourier Transfer Infared Spectrophotometer and Universal Tensile Machine, respectively. The results show that the aligned PCL/PEO/chitosan ultrafine fibrous mat had the capacity to induce cellular alignment and enhance cellular elongation. PMID:23901493

  10. Preface to the Special Issue on short pulse fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavaux, Jean-Marc P.; Grelu, Philippe; Pu, Wang; Ilday, Fatih Ömer

    2014-12-01

    In the last two decades the fiber laser has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a viable tool in an increasing number of applications in such diverse areas as material processing, atmospheric monitoring, high energy physics, medicine, telecommunications, and defense. The reasons for the growing acceptance of fiber lasers lie in the combination of their many attractive features. Indeed, fiber lasers are together power efficient, compact, light weight, versatile and reliable. Initially, the development of fiber laser technology was led to challenge the dominance of well entrenched solid state lasers used in the lucrative manufacturing industry. Traditionally, the emission wavelength band of interest was mostly limited to the near infrared (NIR) region (i.e. from 1 to 1.6 μm). More recently, extensive fiber laser R&D advances have extended the laser applications to a broader spectrum, from the ultra violet (UV) to the mid-infrared (Mid-IR) wavelength region, and investigated the specific advantages associated with different pulse widths, from ns to fs, and different operating regimes.

  11. The concept of a novel hybrid smart composite reinforced with radially aligned zigzag carbon nanotubes on piezoelectric fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, M. C.

    2010-03-01

    A new hybrid piezoelectric composite (HPZC) reinforced with zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and piezoelectric fibers is proposed. The novel constructional feature of this composite is that the uniformly aligned CNTs are radially grown on the surface of piezoelectric fibers. A micromechanics model is derived to estimate the effective piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is found that the effective piezoelectric coefficient e31 of the proposed HPZC, which accounts for the in-plane actuation, is significantly higher than that of the existing 1-3 piezoelectric composite without reinforcement with carbon nanotubes and the previously reported hybrid piezoelectric composite (Ray and Batra 2009 ASME J. Appl. Mech. 76 034503).

  12. Performance of graphite fiber-reinforced polyimide composites in self-aligning plain bearings to 315 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    A 50/50 (weight percent) composite of graphite fibers and polyimide was studied in self-aligning plain bearings oscillating + or - 15 degrees at 1 hz. The friction coefficient was 0.15 + or - 0.05 at 250 C, and 0.05 + or - 0.02 at 315 C. Best results were obtained with a molded composite liner with chopped graphite fibers randomly oriented in the composite. The specific wear rate is given. It was found that the dynamic unit load capacity was higher for a composite bushing (thin liner), than for a composite ball.

  13. Edge Delamination and Residual Properties of Drilled Carbon Fiber Composites with and without Short-Aramid-Fiber Interleaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi; Hu, Xiaozhi; Shi, Shanshan; Guo, Xu; Zhang, Yupeng; Chen, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    Edge delamination is frequently observed in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates after machining, due to the low fracture toughness of the resin interfaces between carbon fiber plies. In this study, the effects of incorporating tough aramid fibers into the brittle CFRP system are quantified by measuring the residual properties of bolted CFRP. By adding short-aramid-fiber interleaves in CFRP laminates, the residual tensile strength have been substantially increased by 14 % for twill-weave laminates and 45 % for unidirectional laminates respectively. Moreover, tensile failure was observed as the major mode of toughened laminates, in contrast to shear failure of plain laminates. The qualitative FEM results agreed well with the experimental results that edge delamination would cause relatively higher shear stress and therefore alter the failure mode from tensile failure to shear failure.

  14. Processing-microstructure models for short- and long-fiber thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Jay H.

    The research for this thesis has explored the important microstructural variables for injection-molded thermoplastic composites with discontinuous fiber reinforcement. Two variables, the distributions of fiber orientation and fiber length after processing, have proven to be not only important for correct material property prediction but also difficult to predict using currently available modeling and simulation techniques. In this work, we develop new models for the prediction of these two microstructural variables. Previously, the Folgar-Tucker model has been widely used to predict fiber orientation in injection molded SFT composites. This model accounts for the effects of both hydrodynamics and fiber-fiber interactions in order to give a prediction for a tensorial measure of fiber orientation. However, when applied to at least some classes of LFTs, this model does not match all components of experimental fiber orientation tensor data. In order to address this shortcoming of the model, we hypothesize that Folgar and Tucker's phenomenological treatment of the effects of fiber-fiber interactions with an isotropic rotary diffusion contribution to the rate of change of orientation is insufficient for materials with longer fibers. Instead, this work develops a fiber orientation model that incorporates anisotropic rotary diffusion (ARD). From kinetic theory we derive a general family of evolution equations for the second-order orientation tensor, correcting errors in earlier treatments, and identify a specific equation that is useful for predicting orientation in LFTs. The amount of diffusivity in this model used to approximate the effect of fiber-fiber interactions in each direction is assumed to depend on a second-order space tensor, which is taken to be a function of the orientation state and the rate of deformation. Also, concentrated fiber suspensions align more slowly with respect to strain than the Folgar-Tucker model predicts. Here, we borrow the technique of

  15. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... short period of time can cause intestinal gas ( flatulence ), bloating , and abdominal cramps . This problem often goes ... 213. National Research Council. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and ...

  16. Mechanical properties and shape memory effect of short fiber reinforced SMP composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kai; Lv, Haibao; Yi, Guo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2010-04-01

    By adding randomly distributed short fiber into a shape memory polymer (SMP) matrix, both the mechanical properties and the shape memory behavior are improved significantly, overcoming some traditional defects of SMP composite reinforced by long fiber and particles. In this paper, the short fiber reinforced SMP composite are developed for the improvement of the mechanical and thermal properties of styrene-based SMP bulk. The specimens with different chopped fiber weight fractions are prepared, and then their mechanical behavior and electrical properties are investigated. As a result, the resistance against mechanical and thermal mechanical loads in the developed materials increases due to the role of reinforcement fiber. For the conducting composite filled with short carbon fiber, not only the actuation of SMP composite can be driven by low voltage, but also its tensile, bending strength, glass transition temperature, storage modulus and thermal conductivity increase by a factor of filler content of carbon fiber increasing. The results show meaningful guidance for further design and the performance evaluation of such composite materials.

  17. Preparation and properties of biodegradable films from Sterculia urens short fiber/cellulose green composites.

    PubMed

    Jayaramudu, J; Reddy, G Siva Mohan; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Sinha Ray, S; Varada Rajulu, A

    2013-04-01

    The development of commercially viable "green products", based on natural resources for the matrices and reinforcements, in a wide range of applications, is on the rise. The present paper focuses on Sterculia urens short fiber reinforced pure cellulose matrix composite films. The morphologies of the untreated and 5% NaOH (alkali) treated S. urens fibers were observed by SEM. The effect of 5% NaOH treated S. urens fiber (5, 10, 15 and 20% loading) on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites films is discussed. This paper presents the developments made in the area of biodegradable S. urens short fiber/cellulose (SUSF/cellulose) composite films, buried in the soil and later investigated by the (POM), before and after biodegradation has taken place. SUSF/cellulose composite films have great potential in food packaging and for medical applications. PMID:23499104

  18. BarraCUDA - a fast short read sequence aligner using graphics processing units

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the maturation of next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies, the throughput of DNA sequencing reads has soared to over 600 gigabases from a single instrument run. General purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU), extracts the computing power from hundreds of parallel stream processors within graphics processing cores and provides a cost-effective and energy efficient alternative to traditional high-performance computing (HPC) clusters. In this article, we describe the implementation of BarraCUDA, a GPGPU sequence alignment software that is based on BWA, to accelerate the alignment of sequencing reads generated by these instruments to a reference DNA sequence. Findings Using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) software development environment, we ported the most computational-intensive alignment component of BWA to GPU to take advantage of the massive parallelism. As a result, BarraCUDA offers a magnitude of performance boost in alignment throughput when compared to a CPU core while delivering the same level of alignment fidelity. The software is also capable of supporting multiple CUDA devices in parallel to further accelerate the alignment throughput. Conclusions BarraCUDA is designed to take advantage of the parallelism of GPU to accelerate the alignment of millions of sequencing reads generated by NGS instruments. By doing this, we could, at least in part streamline the current bioinformatics pipeline such that the wider scientific community could benefit from the sequencing technology. BarraCUDA is currently available from http://seqbarracuda.sf.net PMID:22244497

  19. Compensation of nonlinear phase shifts with third-order dispersion in short-pulse fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shian; Kuznetsova, Lyuba; Chong, Andy; Wise, Frank

    2005-06-27

    We show that nonlinear phase shifts and third-order dispersion can compensate each other in short-pulse fiber amplifiers. This compen-sation can be exploited in any implementation of chirped-pulse amplification, with stretching and compression accomplished with diffraction gratings, single-mode fiber, microstructure fiber, fiber Bragg gratings, etc. In particular, we consider chirped-pulse fiber amplifiers at wavelengths for which the fiber dispersion is normal. The nonlinear phase shift accumulated in the amplifier can be compensated by the third-order dispersion of the combination of a fiber stretcher and grating compressor. A numerical model is used to predict the compensation, and experimental results that exhibit the main features of the calculations are presented. In the presence of third-order dispersion, an optimal nonlinear phase shift reduces the pulse duration, and enhances the peak power and pulse contrast compared to the pulse produced in linear propagation. Contrary to common belief, fiber stretchers can perform as well or better than grating stretchers in fiber amplifiers, while offering the major practical advantages of a waveguide medium. PMID:19498473

  20. Reflectance Imaging by Graded-Index Short Multimode Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Manabu; Kanno, Takahiro; Ishihara, Syoutarou; Suto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Nishidate, Izumi

    2013-05-01

    The imaging condition and magnifications were measured using a graded-index multimode fiber for optical communication with a diameter of 140 µm and a length of 5 mm. The field of view was about 80 µm and the test pattern of 4.38 µm period was recognized. Reducing the background noise with the polarizer reflectance images of the weed surface were measured to show the cell shapes. There are problems such as background, distortion, and nonuniformity of image quality; however, the feasibility for minimally invasive endoscope has been shown.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Short Fiber Mutants Ligon-lintless 1 And 2 Reveals Common Mechanisms Pertinent to Fiber Elongation in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular processes affecting cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development is important for developing tools aimed at improving fiber quality. Short fiber cotton mutants Ligon-lintless 1 (Li1) and Ligon-lintless 2 (Li2) are naturally occurring, monogenic mutations residing on diff...

  2. Energy Dependent Processing of Fiber Reinforced Plastics with Ultra Short Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, N.; Lasagni, A.; Klotzbach, U.

    In this paper the processing of a fiber reinforced plastic consisting of glass fibers embedded in polypropylene with ultra short laser systems is shown. Focus of the study is on the dependence of working wavelength (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and pulse duration (500 fs to 10 ps) on the laser ablation characteristic of the treated material. Depending on the energy density and the material properties, two different process regions could be identified.

  3. Size and myonuclear domains in Rhesus soleus muscle fibers: short-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Talmadge, R. J.; Bodine, S. C.; Fanton, J. W.; Koslovskaya, I.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    The cross-sectional area (CSA), myonuclear number per mm of fiber length, and myonuclear domain (cytoplasmic volume/myonucleus) of mechanically isolated single fibers from biopsies of the soleus muscle of 5 vivarium control, 3 flight simulation and 2 flight (BION 11) Rhesus monkeys (Macaca [correction of Macacca] mulatta) were determined using confocal microscopy before and after a 14-day experimental period. Simulation monkeys were confined in chairs placed in capsules identical to those used during the flight. Fibers were classified as type I, type II or hybrid (containing both types I and II) based on myosin heavy chain (MHC) gel electrophoresis. A majority of the fibers sampled contained only type I MHC, i.e. 89, 62 and 68% for the control, simulation and flight groups, respectively. Most of the remaining fibers were hybrids, i.e. 8, 36 and 32% for the same groups. There were no significant pre-post differences in the fiber type composition for any of the experimental groups. There also were no significant pre-post differences in fiber CSA, myonuclear number or myonuclear domain. There was, however, a tendency for the fibers in the post-flight biopsies to have a smaller mean CSA and myonuclear domain (approximately 10%, p=0.07) than the fibers in the pre-flight biopsy. The combined mean cytoplasmic volume/myonucleus for all muscle fiber phenotypes in the Rhesus soleus muscle was approximately 25,000 micrometers3 and there were no differences in pre-post samples for the control and simulated groups. The cytoplasmic domains tended to be lower (p=0.08) after than before flight. No phenotype differences in cytoplasmic domains were observed. These data suggest that after a relatively short period of actual spaceflight, modest fiber atrophy occurs in the soleus muscle fibers without a concomitant change in myonuclear number.

  4. Micromechanical analysis of thermo-inelastic multiphase short-fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob

    1994-01-01

    A micromechanical formulation is presented for the prediction of the overall thermo-inelastic behavior of multiphase composites which consist of short fibers. The analysis is an extension of the generalized method of cells that was previously derived for inelastic composites with continuous fibers, and the reliability of which was critically examined in several situations. The resulting three dimensional formulation is extremely general, wherein the analysis of thermo-inelastic composites with continuous fibers as well as particulate and porous inelastic materials are merely special cases.

  5. Short-term inhalation and in vitro tests as predictors of fiber pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, R T; Miller, B G; Davis, J M; Brown, D M; Donaldson, K

    1997-01-01

    A wide range of fiber types was tested in two in vitro assays: toxicity to A549 epithelial cells, as detachment from substrate, and the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by rat alveolar macrophages. Three of the fibers were also studied in vivo, using short-term inhalation followed by a) bronchoalveolar lavage to assess the inflammatory response and b) measurement of cell proliferation in terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts, using incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The amount of TNF produced by macrophages in vitro depended on the fiber type, with the man-made vitreous fibers, and refractory ceramic fibers being least stimulatory and silicon carbide (SiC) whiskers providing the greatest stimulation. In the epithelial detachment assay there were dose-dependent differences in the toxicity of the various fibers, with long amosite being the most toxic. However, there was no clear relationship to known chronic pathogenicity. Fibers studied by short-term inhalation produced some inflammation, but there was no clear discrimination between the responses to code 100/475 glass fibers and the more pathogenic amosite and SiC. However, measurements of BrdU uptake into lung cells showed that amosite and SiC produced a greater reaction than code 100/475, which itself caused no more proliferation than that seen in untreated lungs. These results mirror the pathogenicity ranking of the fibers in long-term experiments. In conclusion, the only test to show potential as a predictive measure of pathogenicity was that of cell proliferation in lungs after brief inhalation exposure (BrdU assay). We believe that this assay should be validated with a wider range of fibers, doses, and time points. PMID:9400730

  6. Intestinal fuels: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, and dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Evans, M A; Shronts, E P

    1992-10-01

    In recent years, considerable research has focused on the physiologic effects and clinical uses of three dietary constituents thought to be trophic to the intestinal tract in human beings: glutamine, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and dietary fiber. Glutamine is an important nitrogen-carrying amino acid that may be "conditionally essential" in certain disease states to support the gut barrier and immune function and overall protein use. Colonic irrigations with SCFA preparations have demonstrated enhanced healing of bowel tissue in animals and human beings. Dietary fiber supports bacterial SCFA production, normal stool output, and the gut barrier and immune function. However, optimal fiber doses for various medical conditions are not known, and the risk for gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, diarrhea, gas, and bloating necessitates careful selection of patients and daily monitoring of fiber tolerance. A review of the current literature indicates that widespread use of glutamine and SCFA additives parenterally and enterally awaits further evidence of safety and efficacy in human beings, establishment of appropriate doses, and advances in formulation technology. Administration of dietary fiber to enhance bowel motility should be considered in long-term tube-fed patients with intact GI function and sufficient fluid tolerance to permit hydration of fiber. Industrywide agreement on fiber analysis methods and labeling standards (eg, fiber fermentability vs solubility) would facilitate selection of enteral products. To streamline studies and optimize research efforts in future clinical trials, standard criteria for evaluating GI function, diarrheagenic factors, and intestinal outcome variables should be established. PMID:1328345

  7. MICA: A fast short-read aligner that takes full advantage of Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-read aligners have recently gained a lot of speed by exploiting the massive parallelism of GPU. An uprising alterative to GPU is Intel MIC; supercomputers like Tianhe-2, currently top of TOP500, is built with 48,000 MIC boards to offer ~55 PFLOPS. The CPU-like architecture of MIC allows CPU-based software to be parallelized easily; however, the performance is often inferior to GPU counterparts as an MIC card contains only ~60 cores (while a GPU card typically has over a thousand cores). Results To better utilize MIC-enabled computers for NGS data analysis, we developed a new short-read aligner MICA that is optimized in view of MIC's limitation and the extra parallelism inside each MIC core. By utilizing the 512-bit vector units in the MIC and implementing a new seeding strategy, experiments on aligning 150 bp paired-end reads show that MICA using one MIC card is 4.9 times faster than BWA-MEM (using 6 cores of a top-end CPU), and slightly faster than SOAP3-dp (using a GPU). Furthermore, MICA's simplicity allows very efficient scale-up when multiple MIC cards are used in a node (3 cards give a 14.1-fold speedup over BWA-MEM). Summary MICA can be readily used by MIC-enabled supercomputers for production purpose. We have tested MICA on Tianhe-2 with 90 WGS samples (17.47 Tera-bases), which can be aligned in an hour using 400 nodes. MICA has impressive performance even though MIC is only in its initial stage of development. Availability and implementation MICA's source code is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/mica-aligner under GPL v3. Supplementary information Supplementary information is available as "Additional File 1". Datasets are available at www.bio8.cs.hku.hk/dataset/mica. PMID:25952019

  8. Fabrication and characterization of Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow optical fiber filled with radial-aligned liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Bo-Yan; Peng, Fenglin; Wu, Shin-Tson; Hwang, Shug-June

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a high sensitivity all-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on radial-aligned liquid crystal (LC) in a hollow optical fiber (HOF). The transmission spectrum of the liquid crystal-filled fiber MZI (LCF-MZI) was measured at different temperatures, and the thermal-induced wavelength shift of the interference spectrum probed. The experimental results indicate that the LC alignment and refractive indices inside the hollow capillary are significantly influenced by the temperature, which in turn changes the optical properties of LCF-MZI. Our experimental data on notch wavelength shift agree well with the measured refractive index temperature gradient.

  9. Macroscopic fibers of well-aligned carbon nanotubes by wet spinning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanju; Koziol, Krzysztof K K; Kinloch, Ian A; Windle, Alan H

    2008-08-01

    A simple process to spin fibers consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly from their lyotropic liquid-crystalline phase is reported. Ethylene glycol is used as the lyotropic solvent, enabling a wider range of CNT types to be spun than previously. Fibers spun with CNTs and nitrogen-doped CNTs are compared. X-ray analysis reveals that nitrogen-doped CNTs have a misalignment of only +/-7.8 degrees to the fiber axis. The tensile strength of the CNT and nitrogen-doped CNT fibers is comparable but the modulus and electrical conductivity of the are lower. The electrical conductivity of both types of CNT fibers is found to be highly anisotropic. The results are discussed in context of the microstructure of the CNTs and fibers. PMID:18666161

  10. Scintillating Fiber Array Characterization and Alignment for Neutron Imaging using the High Energy X-ray (HEX) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Buckles, R. A., Ali, Z. A., Cradick, J. R., Traille, A. J., Warthan, W. A.

    2009-09-04

    The Neutron Imager diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will produce high-resolution, gated images of neutron-generating implosions. A similar pinhole imaging experiment (PINEX) diagnostic was recently deployed at the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Both the SNL and LLNL neutron imagers use similar fiber array scintillators (BCF-99-555). Despite diverse resolution and magnification requirements, both diagnostics put significant onus on the scintillator spatial quality and alignment precision to maintain optimal point spread. Characterization and alignment of the Z-PINEX scintillator and imaging system were done at NSTec/Livermore Operations in 2009, and is currently underway for the NIF Neutron Imager.

  11. Hot-embossing replication of self-centering optical fiber alignment structures prototyped by deep proton writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Wissmann, Markus; Guttmann, Markus; Kolew, Alexander; Worgull, Matthias; Barié, Nicole; Schneider, Marc; Hofmann, Andreas; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the hot-embossing replication of self-centering fiber alignment structures for high-precision, single-mode optical fiber connectors. To this end, a metal mold insert was fabricated by electroforming a polymer prototype patterned by means of deep proton writing (DPW). To achieve through-hole structures, we developed a postembossing process step to remove the residual layer inherently present in hot-embossed structures. The geometrical characteristics of the hot-embossed replicas are compared, before and after removal of the residual layer, with the DPW prototypes. Initial measurements on the optical performance of the replicas are performed. The successful replication of these components paves the way toward low-cost mass replication of DPW-fabricated prototypes in a variety of high-tech plastics.

  12. The Impact of Short Fiber Content on the Quality of Cotton Ring Spun Yarn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was carried to obtain a quantitative assessment of how the presence of short fiber (< 12.5 mm long) in raw cotton affect the quality of ring yarn spun from the mix. Properties of the raw cotton were measured on HVI and AFIS instruments and by the manual Suter-Webb Array method. Twenty-nine...

  13. Microstructures of short-carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC composites prepared by hot-pressing

    SciTech Connect

    He Xiulan Guo Yingkui; Zhou Yu; Jia Dechang

    2008-12-15

    Microstructures of short-carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites, prepared by hot-pressing with MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives, were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the composites could be densified at a relatively low temperature of 1800 deg. C via the liquid-phase-sintering mechanism. The amorphous interphase in the composites not only avoided the direct contact of the fibers with the matrix, but also improved the fiber/matrix bonding, so they could improve the densification of the composites and avoid the degeneration of the carbon fiber. The nano silicon carbide derived from polycarbosilane, could play a role of improving the relative density of the composites.

  14. Mode-filtered large-core fiber for short-pulse delivery with reduced nonlinear effects

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sucbei; Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    We present a large-core fiber (LCF) with a reduced nonlinear property for a single-mode beam delivery of intense ultrashort pulses. A tapered-fiber mode filter was fabricated in an LCF with the core diameter decreased from 20 μm to 6 μm at the tapered waist region surrounded by index-matched liquid. By the tapered geometry, the high-order mode was rejected so that our mode-filtered LCF acted as a single-mode fiber despite the multimode property of the original LCF. It has been found that this fiber class is suitable for applications, such as an endoscopic multiphoton microscope, that demand a flexible short-distance (<4 m) delivery medium of ultrashort pulses. PMID:21886211

  15. Self-assembly of collagen fibers. Influence of fibrillar alignment and decorin on mechanical properties.

    PubMed Central

    Pins, G D; Christiansen, D L; Patel, R; Silver, F H

    1997-01-01

    Collagen is the primary structural element in extracellular matrices. In the form of fibers it acts to transmit forces, dissipate energy, and prevent premature mechanical failure in normal tissues. Deformation of collagen fibers involves molecular stretching and slippage, fibrillar slippage, and, ultimately, defibrillation. Our laboratory has developed a process for self-assembly of macroscopic collagen fibers that have structures and mechanical properties similar to rat tail tendon fibers. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of subfibrillar orientation and decorin incorporation on the mechanical properties of collagen fibers. Self-assembled collagen fibers were stretched 0-50% before cross-linking and then characterized by microscopy and mechanical testing. Results of these studies indicate that fibrillar orientation, packing, and ultimate tensile strength can be increased by stretching. In addition, it is shown that decorin incorporation increases ultimate tensile strength of uncross-linked fibers. Based on the observed results it is hypothesized that decorin facilitates fibrillar slippage during deformation and thereby improves the tensile properties of collagen fibers. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:9336212

  16. Circumferentially aligned fibers guided functional neoartery regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meifeng; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Jiamin; Wang, Lina; Yang, Xiaohu; Chen, Jingrui; Fan, Guanwei; Ji, Shenglu; Xing, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Yan; Kong, Deling; Wang, Lianyong

    2015-08-01

    An ideal vascular graft should have the ability to guide the regeneration of neovessels with structure and function similar to those of the native blood vessels. Regeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with circumferential orientation within the grafts is crucial for functional vascular reconstruction in vivo. To date, designing and fabricating a vascular graft with well-defined geometric cues to facilitate simultaneously VSMCs infiltration and their circumferential alignment remains a great challenge and scarcely reported in vivo. Thus, we have designed a bi-layered vascular graft, of which the internal layer is composed of circumferentially aligned microfibers prepared by wet-spinning and an external layer composed of random nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. While the internal circumferentially aligned microfibers provide topographic guidance for in vivo regeneration of circumferentially aligned VSMCs, the external random nanofibers can offer enhanced mechanical property and prevent bleeding during and after graft implantation. VSMCs infiltration and alignment within the scaffold was then evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the circumferentially oriented VSMCs and longitudinally aligned ECs were successfully regenerated in vivo after the bi-layered vascular grafts were implanted in rat abdominal aorta. No formation of thrombosis or intimal hyperplasia was observed up to 3 month post implantation. Further, the regenerated neoartery exhibited contraction and relaxation property in response to vasoactive agents. This new strategy may bring cell-free small diameter vascular grafts closer to clinical application. PMID:26001073

  17. Fabrication of Extremely Short Length Fiber Bragg Gratings for Sensor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Rogowski, Robert S.; Tedjojuwono, Ken K.

    2002-01-01

    A new technique and a physical model for writing extremely short length Bragg gratings in optical fibers have been developed. The model describes the effects of diffraction on the spatial spectra and therefore, the wavelength spectra of the Bragg gratings. Using an interferometric technique and a variable aperture, short gratings of various lengths and center wavelengths were written in optical fibers. By selecting the related parameters, the Bragg gratings with typical length of several hundred microns and bandwidth of several nanometers can be obtained. These short gratings can be apodized with selected diffraction patterns and hence their broadband spectra have a well-defined bell shape. They are suitable for use as miniaturized distributed strain sensors, which have broad applications to aerospace research and industry as well.

  18. Short-term magnetic field alignment variations of equatorial ionospheric irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.L.

    1988-06-01

    The ionospheric irregularities that cause equatorial scintillation are elongated along the north-south magnetic field lines. During a 1981 field campaign at Ascension Island, 250-MHz receivers were spaced from 300 m to 1.6 km along the field lines, and the signals received from the Marisat satellite were cross correlated. Data collected during eight nights of fading showed a linear relationship between fading rate and cross correlation. The alignment of the antennas was adjusted to give a zero time lag between the widely spaced receivers with a measurement accuracy of 0.03 s. Since the average irregularity velocity was 125 m/s, this time accuracy translated to an angular measurement accuracy of 0.1 deg. During a 4-hour period of nightly fading, occasional differences in time of arrival were noted that corresponded to a tilt in the north-south alignment of + or - 1 deg. Data from several nights of fading were analyzed, and each night exhibited the same variance in the north-south irregularity alignment. It is postulated that the shift in the measured peak correlation may have been caused by patches of irregularities at different altitudes where the magnetic field lines have a slightly different direction. 13 references.

  19. Rainbow channeling of protons in very short carbon nanotubes with aligned Stone-Wales defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćosić, M.; Petrović, S.; Bellucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper proton channeling through armchair single-walled-carbon-nanotubes (SWCNTs) with aligned Stone-Wales defects has been investigated. The energy of the proton beam was 1 GeV, while the lengths of the SWCNTs have been varied from 200 nm up to 1000 nm. The linear density of aligned defects has been varied in the whole range, from minimally up to maximally possible values. Here are presented results of a detailed morphological analysis concerning: the formation, evolution and interaction of the nanotube rainbows. The potential of the SWCNT has been constructed from Molère's expression of the Thomas-Fermi's proton-carbon interaction-energy, using the approximation of the continuous atomic string. Trajectories of the channeled protons were obtained by solving the corresponding classical equations of motions. Distributions of the transmitted protons were obtained by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The shape of angular distributions has been explained in the framework of the theory of nanotube rainbows. The aim of this study is also to investigate the applicability of the proton rainbow channeling for the characterization of nanotubes with aligned Stone-Wales defects.

  20. Processing-microstructure models for short- and long-fiber thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Jay H.

    The research for this thesis has explored the important microstructural variables for injection-molded thermoplastic composites with discontinuous fiber reinforcement. Two variables, the distributions of fiber orientation and fiber length after processing, have proven to be not only important for correct material property prediction but also difficult to predict using currently available modeling and simulation techniques. In this work, we develop new models for the prediction of these two microstructural variables. Previously, the Folgar-Tucker model has been widely used to predict fiber orientation in injection molded SFT composites. This model accounts for the effects of both hydrodynamics and fiber-fiber interactions in order to give a prediction for a tensorial measure of fiber orientation. However, when applied to at least some classes of LFTs, this model does not match all components of experimental fiber orientation tensor data. In order to address this shortcoming of the model, we hypothesize that Folgar and Tucker's phenomenological treatment of the effects of fiber-fiber interactions with an isotropic rotary diffusion contribution to the rate of change of orientation is insufficient for materials with longer fibers. Instead, this work develops a fiber orientation model that incorporates anisotropic rotary diffusion (ARD). From kinetic theory we derive a general family of evolution equations for the second-order orientation tensor, correcting errors in earlier treatments, and identify a specific equation that is useful for predicting orientation in LFTs. The amount of diffusivity in this model used to approximate the effect of fiber-fiber interactions in each direction is assumed to depend on a second-order space tensor, which is taken to be a function of the orientation state and the rate of deformation. Also, concentrated fiber suspensions align more slowly with respect to strain than the Folgar-Tucker model predicts. Here, we borrow the technique of

  1. Type IIa Bragg grating based ultra-short DBR fiber laser with high temperature resistance.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yang; Feng, Fu-Rong; Liang, Yi-Zhi; Jin, Long; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2015-12-15

    We report on the fabrication of a thermally resistant ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser based on the photo inscription of two wavelength-matched type IIa gratings in a thin-core Er-doped fiber. With continuous UV exposure, each Bragg reflector initially grows as a type I grating, followed by decay in strength, and then re-grows as a type IIa grating with enhanced thermal resistance. The DBR laser, with an entire length of 13 mm, can stably operate at 600°C with single longitude mode, which provides potential applications in high temperature environments. PMID:26670491

  2. Nebulized solvent ablation of aligned PLLA fibers for the study of neurite response to anisotropic-to-isotropic fiber/film transition (AFFT) boundaries in astrocyte–neuron co-cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zuidema, Jonathan M.; Desmond, Gregory P.; Rivet, Christopher J.; Kearns, Kathryn R.; Thompso, Deanna M.; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Developing robust in vitro models of in vivo environments has the potential to reduce costs and bring new therapies from the bench top to the clinic more efficiently. This study aimed to develop a biomaterial platform capable of modeling isotropic-to-anisotropic cellular transitions observed in vivo, specifically focusing on changes in cellular organization following spinal cord injury. In order to accomplish this goal, nebulized solvent patterning of aligned, electrospun poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) fiber substrates was developed. This method produced a clear topographic transitional boundary between aligned PLLA fibers and an isotropic PLLA film region. Astrocytes were then seeded on these scaffolds, and a shift between oriented and non-oriented astrocytes was created at the anisotropic-to-isotropic fiber/film transition (AFFT) boundary. Orientation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and fibronectin produced by these astrocytes was analyzed, and it was found that astrocytes growing on the aligned fibers produced aligned arrays of CSPGs and fibronectin, while astrocytes growing on the isotropic film region produced randomly-oriented CSPG and fibronectin arrays. Neurite extension from rat dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was studied on astrocytes cultured on anisotropic, aligned fibers, isotropic films, or from fibers to films. It was found that neurite extension was oriented and longer on PLLA fibers compared to PLLA films. When dissociated DRG were cultured on the astrocytes near the AFFT boundary, neurites showed directed orientation that was lost upon growth into the isotropic film region. The AFFT boundary also restricted neurite extension, limiting the extension of neurites once they grew from the fibers and into the isotropic film region. This study reveals the importance of anisotropic-to-isotropic transitions restricting neurite outgrowth by itself. Furthermore, we present this scaffold as an alternative culture system to analyze neurite

  3. State-of-the-art fiber optics for short distance frequency reference distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.; Primas, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of recently developed fiber-optic components that hold the promise of unprecedented stability for passively stabilized frequency distribution links are characterized. These components include a fiber-optic transmitter, an optical isolator, and a new type of fiber-optic cable. A novel laser transmitter exhibits extremely low sensitivity to intensity and polarization changes of reflected light due to cable flexure. This virtually eliminates one of the shortcomings in previous laser transmitters. A high-isolation, low-loss optical isolator has been developed which also virtually eliminates laser sensitivity to changes in intensity and polarization of reflected light. A newly developed fiber has been tested. This fiber has a thermal coefficient of delay of less than 0.5 parts per million per deg C, nearly 20 times lower than the best coaxial hardline cable and 10 times lower than any previous fiber-optic cable. These components are highly suitable for distribution systems with short extent, such as within a Deep Space Communications Complex. Here, these new components are described and the test results presented.

  4. Strength characteristics and crack growth behavior of a composite with well aligned fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botsis, John; Beldica, C.; Caliskan, Ari G.; Zhao, D.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous fiber composites have shown tremendous promise in industrial applications. Their microstructures, however, are very complex and in many instances difficult to characterize. In this project, the fracture characteristics of a specially made fiber reinforced composite with different fiber spacing are investigated. The experimental results so far have shown that after an initial transient phase the crack speed reaches a steady phase, i.e., independent of the crack length. Within the steady crack growth phase debonding along the fibers in the bridging zone grows in a self-similar manner. During the steady phase the energy dissipation per cycle is constant. Afterwards, an increase of the energy dissipation is observed that is accompanied by a decrease in crack speed. This latter trend is presumed to be the result of relatively large amounts of energy dissipated in the bulk of the specimen. Using appropriate Green's function and computer simulations, the stress intensity factor at the crack tip is evaluated for various cases of bridging stresses. In this way the effects of specimen size and fiber spacing on the overall fracture behavior of the composite system are analyzed. The steady crack speed and the steady rate of debonding have a similar power dependence on stress level. Dimensional analysis demonstrates that the particular fracture process is not governed by dimensional invariance but on the detailed micromechanisms in the bridging zone.

  5. Stability of short, single-mode erbium-doped fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Svalgaard, M.; Gilbert, S.L.

    1997-07-01

    We conducted a detailed study of the stability of short, erbium-doped fiber lasers fabricated with two UV-induced Bragg gratings written into the doped fiber. We find that the relative intensity noise of single-longitudinal-mode fiber grating lasers is approximately 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of a single-frequency 1.523-{mu}m helium-neon laser. The frequency noise spectrum contains few resonances, none of which exceeds 0.6 kHz/Hz{sup 1/2} rms; the integrated rms frequency noise from 50 Hz to 63 kHz is 36 kHz. We also demonstrate a simple method for monitoring the laser power and number of oscillating modes during laser fabrication. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  6. Dynamic properties of a pulse-pumped fiber laser with a short, high-gain cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chaolin; Guo, Junhong; Wei, Pu; Wan, Hongdan; Xu, Ji; Wang, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a pulsed high-gain all-fiber laser without intracavity modulators, where a short and heavily Erbium-doped fiber is used as the gain medium in a ring cavity. By pulsed-pumping this short high gain cavity and tuning an intracavity variable optical coupler, the laser generates optical pulses with a pulse-width of μs at a repetition rate in the order of kHz down to one-shot operation. Furthermore, dynamic properties of this laser are investigated theoretically based on a traveling-wave-model, in which an adaptive-discrete-grid-finite-difference-method is applied. The simulation results validate the experimental results. The demonstrated pulsed laser is compact, flexible and cost-effective, which will have great potential for applications in all-optical sensing and communication systems.

  7. Exploiting the short wavelength gain of silica-based thulium-doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Jung, Y; Daniel, J M O; Simakov, N; Tokurakawa, M; Shardlow, P C; Jain, D; Sahu, J K; Heidt, A M; Clarkson, W A; Alam, S U; Richardson, D J

    2016-05-15

    Short wavelength operation (1650-1800 nm) of silica-based thulium-doped fiber amplifiers (TDFAs) is investigated. We report the first demonstration of in-band diode-pumped silica-based TDFAs working in the 1700-1800 nm waveband. Up to 29 dB of small-signal gain is achieved in this spectral region, with an operation wavelength accessible by diode pumping as short as 1710 nm. Further gain extension toward shorter wavelengths is realized in a fiber laser pumped configuration. A silica-based TDFA working in the 1650-1700 nm range with up to 29 dB small-signal gain and noise figure as low as 6.5 dB is presented. PMID:27176961

  8. Reinforcement of freeze-dried chitosan scaffolds with multiphasic calcium phosphate short fibers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahra; Mesgar, Abdorreza Sheikh-Mehdi; Rasouli-Disfani, Fariba

    2016-08-01

    The composite scaffolds of the chitosan and multiphasic calcium phosphate (HW) short fibers were prepared by freeze drying and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FE-SEM). The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were assessed by compression test. The incorporation of HW fibers consisting three phases of hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) into the chitosan matrices was associated with an increase in pore size, density and compressive strength and modulus, and a decrease in porosity and swelling ratio of the scaffolds. The strongest composite scaffolds in this study with a chitosan: HW fibers weight ratio of 1:1 showed a mean porosity of 69% and a mean strength and modulus of 420kPa and 3.87MPa, respectively. The in vitro bioactivity of the composites was confirmed by the formation of a calcium phosphate rich layer on the surface of soaked scaffolds in simulated body fluid. The findings of this initial work indicate that the chitosan-multiphasic calcium phosphate short fibers may be a suitable material for bone scaffolding. PMID:27179144

  9. Low threshold mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in short fluoride-chalcogenide multimaterial fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Chen, Wei; Xue, Tianfeng; Gao, Juanjuan; Gao, Weiqing; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong

    2014-10-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation (SCG) is mostly studied in fluoride glass fibers in which long fibers and high power pump sources are needed. Taking advantages of high nonlinearity and transparency, chalcogenide glass is also applied for SCG in mid-infrared region, where specific strategy is needed to compensate large normal material dispersion. We investigate multimaterial fibers (MMFs) combined with fluoride and chalcogenide glasses for SCG. The high refraction contrast allows the zero dispersion point of the fiber to shift to below 2 μm without air holes. These two materials have similar glass transition temperatures and thermal expansion coefficients. They are possible to be drawn together. Both step-index MMFs and microstructured MMFs (MS-MMFs) are considered. The chromatic dispersions and supercontinuum spectra are studied. A 20 dB bandwidth of over one octave SCG with high coherence can be obtained from a 1 cm MS-MMF at 1.95 μm with a pumping peak power of 175 W. As the pump power increased, the spectrum can extend to 5 μm. In this scheme the fiber is so short that the high level of loss, which is the feature of MMFs, will not cause problems. PMID:25321993

  10. Numerical and experimental studies of delamination detection in short fiber reinforced composites using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present aspects of Lamb wave propagation in randomly oriented short fiber reinforce composites with delamination. Prediction of elastic constants is based on mechanics of composites, rule of mixture and total mass balance tailored to the spectral element mesh composed of 3D brick elements. Piezoelectric excitation as well as glue layer are taken into account. Complex full wave field includes multiple reflections at short fibers. This wave pattern is also obtained by the use of laser vibrometry confirming good quality of the model. Further studies are related to symmetrical and non-symmetrical delamination in respect to the thickness of the composite plate. Square delamination of the side length 10 mm is investigated. It has been found that reflections from delamination are mostly superimposed with reflections coming from short fibers. Hence, delamination detection by direct analysis of wave propagation pattern on the surface of the plate is ineffective. However, adaptive wavenumber filtering method overcome these difficulties and enables not only to detect the delamination but also is helpful for delamination size estimation. Moreover, the method is more effective if the full wavefield measurements are acquired on the surface of the plate which is closer to the delamination.

  11. Syndecan-1-Induced ECM Fiber Alignment Requires Integrin αvβ3 and Syndecan-1 Ectodomain and Heparan Sulfate Chains

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ning; Friedl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is frequently induced in stromal fibroblasts of invasive breast carcinomas. We have recently identified a correlation between stromal Sdc1 expression and extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber alignment, both in vitro and in vivo. ECMs derived from Sdc1-positive human mammary fibroblasts (HMF) showed an aligned fiber architecture, which contrasted markedly with the more random fiber arrangement in the ECM produced by Sdc1-negative HMFs. We further demonstrated that aligned fiber architecture promotes the directional migration and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. To decipher the molecular mechanisms governing the formation of an aligned, invasion-permissive ECM, a series of Sdc1 mutants was introduced into HMF. We found that both the ectodomain and heparan sulfate chains of Sdc1 were required for full activity of Sdc1 in regulating ECM alignment, while transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains were dispensable. Sdc1 regulates the activities of several integrins via its ectodomain. Integrins are key players in the assembly of fibronectin-rich ECM. In addition, integrins are capable of regulating cell morphology and cell shape and orientation may affect ECM architecture. Therefore, we investigated the role of integrins in Sdc1-mediated ECM fiber alignment. Sdc1-overexpressing HMF gained an enhanced spindle-shaped morphology when cultured in an overconfluent state under conditions permissive for ECM production, which was partially reversed by siRNA-mediated silencing of β3 integrin expression. Moreover, suppression of αvβ3 integrin activity by a function-blocking antibody or β3 knockdown largely abolished the aligned ECM fiber architecture and consequently the invasion-permissive properties of the ECM induced by Sdc1. The results suggest that Sdc1 may modulate fibronectin fibrillogenesis and/or alter cell morphology during ECM production through αvβ3 integrin, thereby mediating ECM fiber alignment

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of residual stress in short-fiber reinforced plastics by x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Tokoro, Syouhei; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Egami, Noboru

    2014-06-01

    The X-ray diffraction method is used to measure the residual stress in injection-molded plates of short-fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP) made of crystalline thermoplastics, polyphenylene sulphide (PPS), reinforced by carbon fibers with 30 mass%. Based on the orientation of carbon fibers, injection molded plates can be modeled as three-layered lamella where the core layer is sandwiched by skin layers. The stress in the matrix in the skin layer was measured using Cr-Kα radiation with the sin2Ψ method. Since the X-ray penetration depth is shallow, the state of stresses measured by X-rays in FRP can be assumed to be plane stress. The X-ray measurement of stress in carbon fibers was not possible because of high texture. A new method was proposed to evaluate the macrostress in SFRP from the measurement of the matrix stress. According to micromechanics analysis of SFRP, the matrix stresses in the fiber direction, σ1m, and perpendicular to the fiber direction, σ2m, and shear stress τ12m can be expressed as the functions of the applied (macro-) stresses, σ1A, σ2A , τ12A as follows: σ1m = α11σ1A +α12σ2A, σ2m = α21σ1A + α22σ2A, τ12m = α66τ12A, where α11 ,α12, α21, α22, α66 are stress-partitioning coefficients. Using skin-layer strips cut parallel, perpendicular and 45° to the molding direction, the stress in the matrix was measured under the uniaxial applied stress and the stress-partitioning coefficients of the above equations were determined. Once these relations are established, the macrostress in SFRP can be determined from the measurements of the matrix stresses by X-rays.

  13. Dynamic mechanical analysis and high strain-rate energy absorption characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube reinforced woven fiber-glass composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dynamic mechanical behavior and energy absorption characteristics of nano-enhanced functionally graded composites, consisting of 3 layers of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown on woven fiber-glass (FG) layer and embedded within 10 layers of woven FG, with polyester (PE) and...

  14. Dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids affect cell proliferation and protein synthesis in isolated rat colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Marsman, K E; McBurney, M I

    1996-05-01

    Colonic metabolism may be affected by dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids, the products of fiber fermentation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fiber supplementation (150 g/kg diet) on dynamic measurements of metabolism in isolated rat colonic epithelial cells. Additionally, we investigated the effect of in vitro short-chain fatty acid and glutamine concentrations and media osmolarity on oxygen uptake, protein synthesis, cell proliferation and anaplerotic flux. Colonocyte oxygen consumption did not differ due to fiber supplementation or the inclusion of short -chain fatty acids in incubation media. Cell proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) was increased by fiber consumption (P short-chain fatty acids in vitro (P fiber supplementation but was decreased when short-chain fatty acids were present in incubation media (P fiber supplementation increases in vitro colonocyte proliferation, the unchanged oxygen uptake rate indicates that there was no concurrent increase in energy expenditure. PMID:8618140

  15. Irreversible deformation processes in PVC and its short glass fiber reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The tensile mechanical behavior of PVC and its short glass fiber reinforced composites under superimposed hydrostatic pressure was studied up to 3 x 10/sup 8/ Pa. For rigid PVC, the brittle-to-ductile transition was observed at a pressure between 1 x 10/sup 7/ Pa and 2 x 10/sup 7/ Pa. This pressure-induced brittle-to-ductile transition was controlled by the competitive microdeformation processes of crazing and shear banding. Deformation in the post-yield region occurred by neck formation and subsequent drawing to produce chain orientation. A strong environmental stress-cracking effect was observed when PVC samples were exposed to the pressure-transmitting fluid, silicone oil. Three types of pressure dependent deformation processes was observed for the short glass fiber reinforced composites of PVC. Type I behavior shows debonding at the interface between fiber and matrix followed by brittle fracture of the matrix. Type II behavior, which was observed for the first time, exhibits a sharp stress drop due to debonding at the interface followed by matrix shear yielding. In Type III behavior, only upper shear yielding of matrix was observed. The transitional behavior from Type I and Type II was controlled by the pressure induced brittle to ductile transition of the matrix, while the Type II-III transition was strongly affected by debonding at the interface.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Short Fiber Mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) Reveals Critical Genes and Key Pathways in Cotton Fiber Elongation and Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenhua; Fang, Lei; Xiang, Dan; Hu, Yan; Feng, Hao; Chang, Lijing; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    For efficient spinning and superior fabric production, long fiber length is a desired trait for cotton production. To unveil the molecular basis of the cotton fiber length regulation, a short fiber mutant, Ligon lintless-1 (Li1), is selected to compare with its corresponding wild type (WT). Li1 is a monogenic dominant cotton mutant causing extremely short fibers (<6mm) on mature seeds with visible pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth and development. In this research, we compared the transcriptome of fiber bearing ovules at 1 DPA, 3 DPA, 8 DPA and leaf between Li1 mutant and WT. A total of 7,852 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in ovules and leaves, which mainly participated in sugar, secondary metabolite and lipid metabolism pathways based on KEGG analysis. The common DEGs at 1 DPA and 3 DPA were involved in the responses to endogenous stimulus, signal transduction and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. For 3 DPA, 8 DPA and leaf, the common DEGs were involved in the responses to auxin and receptor kinases related pathway. Further analysis showed that 37 genes involved in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis were suppressed in Li1 mutant during fiber fast elongation development. Most of the DEGs involved in cell wall metabolism, such cellulose synthase, expansin family, and glycosyl hydrolase were differentially expressed at 3 DPA and 8 DPA. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of fiber elongation, and offer novel genes as potential objects for fiber length improvement. PMID:26600249

  17. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear. PMID:27320700

  18. Chirp-free ultra-short pulses in complex nonlinear optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiance; Liang, Jianchu; Cao, Jianzhong; Song, Jinxiang; Cai, Zebin

    2016-04-01

    Chirp-free ultra-short pulses propagating in optical fiber with complex parameters are investigated for the first time. The existence condition for such chirp-free ultrashort pulses is that the imaginary parts of the nonlinear terms, i.e., the nonlinear absorption coefficient (a2i), nonlinear dispersion coefficient (a4i) and imaginary Raman coefficient (a2i) fulfill a linear relationship a2i = a4i ω = -2/3 a5i ω . Bight solitons can stably propagate in such complex nonlinear optical fiber. It is found that the single Jacobi elliptic function solutions have two free parameters while hybrid Jacobi elliptic function solutions have only one free parameter.

  19. Prediction of the overall moduli of a cylindrical short-fiber reinforced composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyi, Du; Linzhi, Wu

    1993-02-01

    With respect to obtaining the effective elastic moduli of the composite, the present theory differs from both Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method and Hill's self-consistent one, both of which only consider the mechanical properties of the matrix and inclusions (fibers). In fact, the inclusion-inclusion interaction is more pronounced when the volume fraction of inclusions of the composite increases. Hence, in this paper the effective elastic moduli of the composite are derived by taking into account the shapes, sizes and distribution of inclusions, and the interactions between inclusions. In addition, it is more convincing to assume short-fibers as cylindrical inclusions as in the present paper than as ellipsoidal ones as in others[7,8]. Finally, numerical results are given.

  20. Pump-Induced, Dual-Frequency Switching in a Short-Cavity, Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, W.; Marciante, J.R.

    2008-07-23

    Using a short linear cavity composed of a section of highly ytterbium-doped fiber surrounded by two fiber Bragg gratings, dual frequency switching is achieved by tuning the pump power of the laser. The dual-frequency switching is generated by the thermal effects of the absorbed pump in the ytterbium-doped fiber. At each frequency, the laser shows single-longitudinal-mode behavior. In each single-mode regime, the optical signal-to-noise ratio of the laser is greater than 50 dB. The dual-frequency, switchable, fiber laser can be designed for various applications by the careful selection of the two gratings.

  1. Short Fiber Reinforced Composite: a New Alternative for Direct Onlay Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Mangoush, Enas; Vallittu, Mangoush; Lassila, Lippo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the static load-bearing capacity of direct composite onlay restorations made of novel filling composite resin system which combines short fiber-reinforced composite resin (FC) and conventional particulate filler composite resin (PFC). Methods: Three groups of onlay restorations were fabricated (n = 8/group); Group A: made from conventional particulate filler composite resin (Z250, 3M-ESPE, USA, control), Group B: made from short fiber-reinforced composite resin (EverX posterior, StickTeck Ltd, member of GC group, Turku, Finland) as substructure with 1 mm surface layer of PFC, Group C: made from FC composite resin. The specimens were incrementally polymerized with a hand-light curing unit for 80 s before they were statically loaded with two different sizes (3 & 6 mm) of steel ball until fracture. Failure modes were visually examined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (p = 0.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that onlay restorations made from FC composite resin had statistically significantly higher load-bearing capacity (1733 N) ( p < 0.05) than the control PFC composite resin (1081 N). Onlays made of FC composite resin with a surface layer of PFC gave force values of 1405 N which was statistically higher than control group ( p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in the load-bearing capacity between groups loaded by different ball sizes Significance: Onlay restorations combining base of short fiber reinforced composite resin as substructure and surface layer of conventional composite resin displayed promising performance in high load bearing areas. PMID:24511331

  2. Passive fiber alignment to single-mode plastic waveguides fabricated by injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompe, Guido; Lehmacher, Stefan; Rudolph, Stefan; Kalveram, Stefan; Joenck, Matthias; Neyer, Andreas

    1998-04-01

    Passive fibre-waveguide coupling is a promising alternative to expensive active coupling in single-mode fibre-optics. The idea to utilize replication techniques in transparent polymeric materials for waveguide and alignment structure fabrication has led to the SIGA-process (Silizium, Galvanik und Abformung) which allows a cost effective production of low loss polymer waveguides in the near IR. Major difficulties in passive fibre coupling are caused by the high lateral alignment accuracy (of about 1 micrometer) in fibre positioning. In the SIGA process, the exact position of the V- grooves relative to the waveguide trenches is defined by the etch mask for the silicon master wafer. The width of the V- grooves is determined by the KOH etching time. It is controlled precisely at various stages in the etching process by means of a microscope based piezo driven measurement system with a resolution better than 0.5 micrometer, thus allowing a final vertical precision of fibre positioning of 350 nm. In order to specify the capability of our technology we have measured the position of dozens of fibres glued into V- grooves. The result was that an amount of 55% of the fibre cores was closer than 1.5 micrometer to the waveguide centre. As the experience has shown, a two-step process for the fabrication of passively fibre coupled waveguides is necessary. First, the waveguides are produced by filling the waveguide trenches with an IR-transparent monomer and by polymerizing it using UV curing. The waveguides are inspected with visible and IR light by clamping a fibre ribbon mechanically into the integrated plastic V-grooves. In a second step the fibre ribbon is fixed irreversibly in the V- grooves. By that way we have reached an insertion loss of 3.5 dB at 1300nm and 1550nm for passively coupled 22mm single mode waveguides. Most of the losses are attributed to waveguide imperfections. More details concerning the coupling losses and the device performances will be reported at the

  3. Mutation biases and mutation rate variation around very short human microsatellites revealed by human-chimpanzee-orangutan genomic sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Amos, William

    2010-09-01

    I have studied mutation patterns around very short microsatellites, focusing mainly on sequences carrying only two repeat units. By using human-chimpanzee-orangutan alignments, inferences can be made about both the relative rates of mutations and which bases have mutated. I find remarkable non-randomness, with mutation rate depending on a base's position relative to the microsatellite, the identity of the base itself and the motif in the microsatellite. Comparing the patterns around AC2 with those around other four-base combinations reveals that AC2 does not stand out as being special in the sense that non-repetitive tetramers also generate strong mutation biases. However, comparing AC2 and AC3 with AC4 reveals a step change in both the rate and nature of mutations occurring, suggesting a transition state, AC4 exhibiting an alternating high-low mutation rate pattern consistent with the sequence patterning seen around longer microsatellites. Surprisingly, most changes in repeat number occur through base substitutions rather than slippage, and the relative probability of gaining versus losing a repeat in this way varies greatly with repeat number. Slippage mutations reveal rather similar patterns of mutability compared with point mutations, being rare at two repeats where most cause the loss of a repeat, with both mutation rate and the proportion of expansion mutations increasing up to 6-8 repeats. Inferences about longer repeat tracts are hampered by uncertainties about the proportion of multi-species alignments that fail due to multi-repeat mutations and other rearrangements. PMID:20700734

  4. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  5. Molecular Characterization of a Lizard Adenovirus Reveals the First Atadenovirus with Two Fiber Genes and the First Adenovirus with Either One Short or Three Long Fibers per Penton

    PubMed Central

    Pénzes, Judit J.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Condezo, Gabriela N.; Ball, Inna; Papp, Tibor; Doszpoly, Andor; Paradela, Alberto; Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; López-Sanz, María; Nguyen, Thanh H.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Marschang, Rachel E.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkő, Mária

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although adenoviruses (AdVs) have been found in a wide variety of reptiles, including numerous squamate species, turtles, and crocodiles, the number of reptilian adenovirus isolates is still scarce. The only fully sequenced reptilian adenovirus, snake adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1), belongs to the Atadenovirus genus. Recently, two new atadenoviruses were isolated from a captive Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) and Mexican beaded lizards (Heloderma horridum). Here we report the full genomic and proteomic characterization of the latter, designated lizard adenovirus 2 (LAdV-2). The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of LAdV-2 is 32,965 bp long, with an average G+C content of 44.16%. The overall arrangement and gene content of the LAdV-2 genome were largely concordant with those in other atadenoviruses, except for four novel open reading frames (ORFs) at the right end of the genome. Phylogeny reconstructions and plesiomorphic traits shared with SnAdV-1 further supported the assignment of LAdV-2 to the Atadenovirus genus. Surprisingly, two fiber genes were found for the first time in an atadenovirus. After optimizing the production of LAdV-2 in cell culture, we determined the protein compositions of the virions. The two fiber genes produce two fiber proteins of different sizes that are incorporated into the viral particles. Interestingly, the two different fiber proteins assemble as either one short or three long fiber projections per vertex. Stoichiometry estimations indicate that the long fiber triplet is present at only one or two vertices per virion. Neither triple fibers nor a mixed number of fibers per vertex had previously been reported for adenoviruses or any other virus. IMPORTANCE Here we show that a lizard adenovirus, LAdV-2, has a penton architecture never observed before. LAdV-2 expresses two fiber proteins—one short and one long. In the virion, most vertices have one short fiber, but a few of them have three long fibers attached to the same penton

  6. Fabrication of solid-phase-sintered SiC-based composites with short carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-hui; Yan, Qing-zhi; Han, Yong-jun; Cao, Mei-qi; Ge, Chang-chun

    2014-11-01

    Solid-phase-sintered SiC-based composites with short carbon fibers (Csf/SSiC) in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10wt% were prepared by pressureless sintering at 2100°C. The phase composition, microstructure, density, and flexural strength of the composites with different Csf contents were investigated. SEM micrographs showed that the Csf distributed in the SSiC matrix homogeneously with some gaps at the fiber/matrix interfaces. The densities of the composites decreased with increasing Csf content. However, the bending strength first increased and then decreased with increasing Csf content, reaching a maximum value of 390 MPa at a Csf content of 5wt%, which was 60 MPa higher than that of SSiC because of the pull-out strengthening mechanism. Notably, Csf was graphitized and damaged during the sintering process because of the high temperature and reaction with boron derived from the sintering additive B4C; this graphitization degraded the fiber strengthening effect.

  7. Dry sliding wear behavior of epoxy composite reinforced with short palmyra fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Somen; Satapathy, Alok

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the possibility of using palmyra fiber as a replacement for synthetic fiber in conventional polymer composites for application against wear. An attempt has been made in this work to improve the sliding wear resistance of neat epoxy by reinforcing it with short palmyra fibers (SPF). Epoxy composites with different proportions (0, 4, 8 and 12 wt. %) of SPF are fabricated by conventional hand lay-up technique. Dry sliding wear tests are performed on the composite samples using a pin-on-disc test rig as per ASTM G 99-05 standards under various operating parameters. Design of experiment approach based on Taguchi's L16 Orthogonal Arrays is used for the analysis of the wear. This parametric analysis reveals that the SPF content is the most significant factor affecting the wear process followed by the sliding velocity. The sliding wear behavior of these composites under an extensive range of test conditions is predicted by a model based on the artificial neural network (ANN). A well trained ANN has been used to predict the sliding wear response of epoxy based composites over a wide range.

  8. Short Range Photoassociation of Rb2 by a high power fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passagem, Henry; Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ventura, Paulo; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Marcassa, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Photoassociation has been studied using cold trapped atomic samples for the last 20 years. Due to poor Franck-Condon overlap, a free-to-bound transition followed by spontaneous decay results in a small production of electronic ground state molecules. If the photoassociation is done at short range, deeply bound ground state molecules can be formed. Optical pumping schemes can be used to populate a single state. In our experiment, we have performed trap loss spectroscopy on trapped 85 Rb atoms in a MOT using a high power fiber laser. Our single mode fiber laser (linewidth < 1 MHz) produces about 50 W, which can be tuned in the 1060-1070 nm range. Two vibrational bound states of the 0u+ potential were observed (ν = 137 and 138). The frequency positions as well as the rotational constants of these states are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We have also measured the lifetime of a crossed optical dipole trap using such fiber laser. The lifetime on resonance is shorter than off resonance as expected. A simple theoretical model indicates that the molecules decay to deeply bound vibrational levels in the ground state. This work was supported by Fapesp and INCT-IQ.

  9. Crack-closing of cement mortar beams using NiTi cold-drawn SMA short fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun; Jung, Chungsung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crack-closing tests of mortar beams reinforced by shape memory alloy (SMA) short fibers were performed. For this purpose, NiTi SMA fibers with a diameter of 0.965 mm and a length of 30 mm were made from SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter by cold drawing. Four types of SMA fibers were prepared, namely, straight and dog-bone-shaped fiber and the two types of fibers with paper wrapping in the middle of the fibers. The paper provides an unbonded length of 15 mm. For bending tests, six types of mortar beams with the dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm (B×H×L) were prepared. The SMA fibers were placed at the bottom center of the beams along with an artificial crack of 10 mm depth and 1 mm thickness. This study investigated the influence of SMA fibers on the flexural strength of the beams from the measured force- deflection curves. After cracking, the beams were heated at the bottom by fire to activate the SMA fibers. Then, the beams recovered the deflection, and the cracks were closed. This study evaluated crack-closing capacity using the degree of crack recovery and deflection-recovery factor. The first factor is estimated from the crack-width before and after crack-closing, and the second one is obtained from the downward deflection due to loading and the upward deflection due to the closing force of the SMA fibers.

  10. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of Short Fiber-Reinforced Composite Resin in Posterior Teeth: 12-Months Report

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, S; Tanner, J; Vallittu, PK; Lassila, L

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary clinical trial evaluated 12 month clinical performance of novel filling composite resin system which combines short fiber-reinforced composite resin and conventional particulate filler composite resin in high stress bearing applications. A total of 37 class I and II restorations (compound and complex type) were placed in 6 premolars and 31 molars. The restorations were reviewed clinically at 6 months (baseline) and 12 months using modified USPHS codes change criteria for marginal adaptation, post-operative sensitivity, pulpal pain and secondary caries criteria. Photographs and x-rays were obtained for restorative analysis. Results of 12 months evaluation showed 5 restorations having little marginal leakage (B score) and 1 patient had minor pulpal symptom and post-operative sensitivity (B score). No secondary caries or bulk fracture was detected. The majority of restorations exhibited A scores of the evaluated criteria. After 12 months, restorations combining base of short fiber reinforced composite resin as substructure and surface layer of hybrid composite resin displayed promising performance in high load bearing areas. PMID:22408696

  11. Imaging of rat brain using short graded-index multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Manabu; Kanno, Takahiro; Ishihara, Syoutarou; Suto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Kurotani, Reiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nishidate, Izumi

    2014-03-01

    Clinically it is important to image structures of brain at deeper areas with low invasions, for example, the pathological information is not obtained enough from the white matter. Preliminarily we have measured transmission images of rat brain using the short graded-index multimode fiber (SMMF) with the diameter of 140μm and length of 5mm. SMMF (core diameter, 100μm) was cut using a fiber cleaver and was fixed in a jig. Fiber lengths inside and outside jig were 3mm and 2mm, respectively. The jig was attached at the 20x objective lens. The conventional optical microscope was used to measure images. In basic characteristics, it was confirmed that the imaging conditions almost corresponded to calculations with the ray-transfer matrix and the spatial resolution was evaluated at about 4.4μm by measuring the test pattern. After euthanasia the rat parietal brain was excised with thickness around 1.5mm and was set on the slide glass. The tissue was illuminated through the slide glass by the bundle fiber with Halogen lamp. The tip of SMMF was inserted into the tissue by lifting the sample stage. The transmission image at each depth from 0.1mm to 1.53mm was measured. Around the depth of 1.45mm, granular structures with sizes of 4-5μm were recognized and corresponded to images by HE stained tissue. Total measurement time was within 2 hours. The feasibilities to image the depth of 5 mm with SMMF have been shown.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells with vertically aligned TiO2 nanowire arrays grown on carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2014-02-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) have received widespread attention from solar cell and related optoelectronics scientists. The controllable synthesis of ordered TNW arrays on arbitrary substrates would benefit both fundamental research and practical applications. Herein, vertically aligned TNW arrays in situ grown on carbon fiber (CF) substrates through a facile, controllable, and seed-assisted thermal process is presented. Also, hierarchical TiO2 -nanoparticle/TNW arrays were prepared that favor both the dye loading and depressed charge recombination of the CF/TNW photoanode. An impressive conversion efficiency of 2.48 % (under air mass 1.5 global illumination) and an apparent efficiency of 4.18 % (with a diffuse board) due to the 3D light harvesting of the wire solar cell were achieved. Moreover, efficient and inexpensive wire solar cells made from all-CF electrodes and completely flexible CF-based wire solar cells were demonstrated, taking into account actual application requirements. This work may provide an intriguing avenue for the pursuit of lightweight, cost-effective, and high-performance flexible/wearable solar cells. PMID:24488679

  13. Ionization and high-order harmonic generation in aligned benzene by a short intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Roi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Zdanska, Petra R.; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2003-10-01

    We present a first-principles study of ionization and high-order harmonic generation by benzene aligned in the polarization plane of a short circularly polarized laser pulse. Time-dependent density-functional theory within the adiabatic local-density approximation is employed to describe the 30 valence-electron dynamics in three dimensions. The multielectron approach enables us to study the effect of very strong laser fields, 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}, where multiple ionization and high-order harmonic generation interplay. Large ionization currents are formed, causing ionization of 1-4 electron charges, while strong high-order harmonic generation is observed. The well-known recollision mechanism of high-order harmonic generation plays a part for moderate laser intensities but is fully suppressed for strong laser fields. The harmonic generation spectra are characterized by two distinguishable plateaus, where the structure of the first plateau is dominated by the 6k{+-}1 (k=0,1,...) selection rule. The number of harmonics in the second plateau is insensitive to the duration of the pulse. The peaks appear in pairs or in threesomes, depending on the pulse duration.

  14. Discrete meso-element simulation of the failure behavior of short-fiber composites under dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyan; Tang, Z. P.; Liu, Yunxin

    2000-04-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid to a better understanding of the failure behavior and mechanism of heterogeneous materials at the meso-scale level. In this paper, the crack initiation and development in epoxy composites reinforced with short steel fibers under dynamic loading were simulated and analyzed with the 2D Discrete Meso-Element Dynamic Method. Results show that the damage process depends greatly on the binding property between matrix and fibers.

  15. Continuous and Short Fiber Reinforced Composite in Root Post-Core System of Severely Damaged Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V.J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the static load-bearing capacity of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with post-core complex made of experimental fiber composite resin (FC) and complete crown made of particulate filler composite (PFC). Further aim was to evaluate the effect of FC resin on the failure mode of the restoration. Material and Methods: The experimental composite resin (FC) was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers (3 mm in length) and 22.5 wt% of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) resin with 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers. Thirty extracted sound upper central incisors were used. Twenty teeth were prepared by cutting the clinical crown 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction horizontally. Restorations were made by two techniques (n=10). Group A (control group) contained samples of sound incisor teeth. Group B had teeth restored using glass fiber post (everStick, Stick- Teck) and PFC (Filtek Z250, 3M-ESPE) to build up core and complete crown. In Group C, the teeth were restored with FC as post-core and complete crown of PFC. The root canals were prepared and posts were cemented with a dual cure resin cement. The restorations were polymerized with a hand-light curing unit. All restored teeth were stored in water at room temperature for 24 h before they were statically loaded with speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (p=0.05). Failure modes were visually examined. Results: ANOVA revealed that restored incisors (Group B and C) had a statistically significantly lower load-bearing capacity (p<0.05) than the control group. Restorations made from FC post-core and PFC coverage (Group C) gave force value of 363 N (112 SD), which was higher than the value of Group B (211 N, 50 SD). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the teeth restored with experimental fiber composite post-core demonstrated higher load bearing capacity than those with fiber post and PFC core

  16. Linewidth reduction of a distributed-feedback diode laser using an all-fiber interferometer with short path imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Kyu; Park, Chang Yong; Mun, Jongchul; Yu, Dai-Hyuk

    2011-07-01

    The linewidth of a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser at 1156 nm, of which free-running linewidth was 3 MHz, was reduced to 15 kHz using an all-fiber interferometer with 5-m-long path imbalance. Optical power loss and bandwidth limitation were negligible with this short optical fiber patch cord. This result was achieved without acoustic and vibration isolations, and the frequency lock could be maintained over weeks. In addition to its simplicity, compactness, robustness, and cost-effectiveness, this technique can be applied at any wavelength owing to the availability of DFB diode lasers and fiber-optic components.

  17. Linewidth reduction of a distributed-feedback diode laser using an all-fiber interferometer with short path imbalance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Kyu; Park, Chang Yong; Mun, Jongchul; Yu, Dai-Hyuk

    2011-07-01

    The linewidth of a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser at 1156 nm, of which free-running linewidth was 3 MHz, was reduced to 15 kHz using an all-fiber interferometer with 5-m-long path imbalance. Optical power loss and bandwidth limitation were negligible with this short optical fiber patch cord. This result was achieved without acoustic and vibration isolations, and the frequency lock could be maintained over weeks. In addition to its simplicity, compactness, robustness, and cost-effectiveness, this technique can be applied at any wavelength owing to the availability of DFB diode lasers and fiber-optic components. PMID:21806170

  18. Short cladding-pumped Er/Yb phosphate fiber laser with 1.5 W output power

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Morrell, M.; Qiu, T.; Temyanko, V.L.; Schuelzgen, A.; Mafi, A.; Kouznetsov, D.; Moloney, J.V.; Luo, T.; Jiang, S.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2004-10-04

    We report experimental results on a high-power, cladding-pumped, heavily Er/Yb co-doped phosphate fiber laser of very short length. Up to 1.5 W cw laser power was obtained from an11-cm-long multimode-core active fiber with optimized input and output couplers, when pumped by a 15 W diode laser at 975 nm. The fiber laser was demonstrated at 1535 nm with a linewidth <1.2 nm, and a good beam quality of M{sup 2}<3.

  19. Effect of Forging Parameters on Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Al/Basalt Short Fiber Metal Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Karthigeyan, R.; Ranganath, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs) of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10) basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface. PMID:24298207

  20. Effect of forging parameters on low cycle fatigue behaviour of Al/basalt short fiber metal matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Karthigeyan, R; Ranganath, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs) of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10) basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface. PMID:24298207

  1. Thermoplastics Reinforced with Self-Welded Short Carbon Fibers: Nanoparticle-Promoted Structural Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongge; Liu, Yaohua; Lin, Yu; Wu, Guozhang

    2016-07-27

    The large volume of currently available fiber-reinforced polymer composites critically limits the intrinsic versatility of fibers such as high mechanical strength, heat resistance, and excellent thermal/electrical conductivity. We proposed a facile and widely applicable strategy to promote self-organization of randomly dispersed short carbon fibers (CFs) into a three-dimensionally continuous scaffold. The morphological evolution and structural reinforcement of the self-welded CF-polyamide 6 (PA6) scaffold in polystyrene (PS) matrix were investigated, with carbon black (CB) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) selectively localized in the PA6 domains. Surprisingly, all of the PA6 droplets once dispersed in the PS matrix can migrate and evenly encapsulate onto the CF surface when 5.8 wt % CB is incorporated, whereas in the TiO2-filled system, the PA6 droplets preferentially segregate at the junction point of CFs to fasten the self-welded CF structure. In addition, a remarkable increase in the interfacial adhesive work between PA6 and CF was observed only when TiO2 is added, and a loading of even less than 0.8 wt % can effectively abruptly strengthen the self-welded CF scaffold. We clarified that the structural evolution is promoted by the nature of self-agglomeration of NPs. CB is highly capable of self-networking in the PA6 domain, resulting in high encapsulation of PA6, although the capillary force for preferential segregation of PA6 at the junction point of CFs is reduced. By contrast, the TiO2 particles tend to form compact aggregates. Such an agglomeration pattern, together with enhanced interfacial affinity, must contribute to a strong capillary force for the preferential segregation of PA6. PMID:27391703

  2. Cutting and drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by 70W short pulse nanosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, Peter; Stolberg, Klaus; Bastick, Stefan; Ziolkowski, Ewa; Roehner, Markus; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2014-02-01

    Continuous carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are recognized as having a significant lightweight construction potential for a wide variety of industrial applications. However, a today`s barrier for a comprehensive dissemination of CFRP structures is the lack of economic, quick and reliable manufacture processes, e.g. the cutting and drilling steps. In this paper, the capability of using pulsed disk lasers in CFRP machining is discussed. In CFRP processing with NIR lasers, carbon fibers show excellent optical absorption and heat dissipation, contrary to the plastics matrix. Therefore heat dissipation away from the laser focus into the material is driven by heat conduction of the fibres. The matrix is heated indirectly by heat transfer from the fibres. To cut CFRP, it is required to reach the melting temperature for thermoplastic matrix materials or the disintegration temperature for thermoset systems as well as the sublimation temperature of the reinforcing fibers simultaneously. One solution for this problem is to use short pulse nanosecond lasers. We have investigated CFRP cutting and drilling with such a laser (max. 7 mJ @ 10 kHz, 30 ns). This laser offers the opportunity of wide range parameter tuning for systematic process optimization. By applying drilling and cutting operations based on galvanometer scanning techniques in multi-cycle mode, excellent surface and edge characteristics in terms of delamination-free and intact fiber-matrix interface were achieved. The results indicate that nanosecond disk laser machining could consequently be a suitable tool for the automotive and aircraft industry for cutting and drilling steps.

  3. Strength Evaluation and Failure Prediction of Short Carbon Fiber Reinforced Nylon Spur Gears by Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhong; Hossan, Mohammad Robiul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, short carbon fiber reinforced nylon spur gear pairs, and steel and unreinforced nylon spur gear pairs have been selected for study and comparison. A 3D finite element model was developed to simulate the multi-axial stress-strain behaviors of the gear tooth. Failure prediction has been conducted based on the different failure criteria, including Tsai-Wu criterion. The tooth roots, where has stress concentration and the potential for failure, have been carefully investigated. The modeling results show that the short carbon fiber reinforced nylon gear fabricated by properly controlled injection molding processes can provide higher strength and better performance.

  4. Mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of short fiber-reinforced resin composite.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of a short fiber-reinforced resin composite (SFRC) were investigated in this study and compared to both a bulk fill resin composite (BFRC) and conventional glass/ceramic-filled resin composite (CGRC). Fracture toughness, flexural properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of the SFRC, BFRC and CGRC were measured. SFRC had significantly higher fracture toughness than BFRCs and CGRCs. The flexural properties of SFRC were comparable with BFRCs and CGRCs. SFRC showed significantly lower volumetric shrinkage than the other tested resin composites. The depth of cure of the SFRC was similar to BFRCs and higher than CGRCs. The data from this laboratory investigation suggests that SFRC exhibits improvements in fracture toughness, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure when compared with CGRC, but depth of cure of SFRC was similar to BFRC. PMID:27251997

  5. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-09-10

    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  6. Short-fiber protein of ad40 confers enteric tropism and protection against acidic gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ester; Romero, Carolina; Río, Adolfo; Miralles, Marta; Raventós, Aida; Planells, Laura; Burgueño, Joan F; Hamada, Hirofumi; Perales, Jose Carlos; Bosch, Assumpció; Gassull, Miguel Angel; Fernández, Ester; Chillon, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    The lack of vectors for selective gene delivery to the intestine has hampered the development of gene therapy strategies for intestinal diseases. We hypothesized that chimeric adenoviruses of Ad5 (species C) displaying proteins of the naturally enteric Ad40 (species F) might hold the intestinal tropism of the species F and thus be useful for gene delivery to the intestine. As oral-fecal dissemination of enteric adenovirus must withstand the conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, we studied the resistance of chimeric Ad5 carrying the short-fiber protein of Ad40 to acid milieu and proteases and found that the Ad40 short fiber confers resistance to inactivation in acidic conditions and that AdF/40S was further activated upon exposure to low pH. In contrast, the chimeric AdF/40S exhibited only a slightly higher protease resistance compared with Ad5 to proteases present in simulated gastric juice. Then, the biodistribution of different chimeric adenoviruses by oral, rectal, and intravenous routes was tested. Expression of reporter β-galactosidase was measured in extracts of 15 different organs 3 days after administration. Our results indicate that among the chimeric viruses, only intrarectally given AdF/40S infected the colon (preferentially enteroendocrine cells and macrophages) and to a lesser extent, the small intestine, whereas Ad5 infectivity was very poor in all tissues. Additional in vitro experiments showed improved infectivity of AdF/40S also in different human epithelial cell lines. Therefore, our results point at the chimeric adenovirus AdF/40S as an interesting vector for selective gene delivery to treat intestinal diseases. PMID:23746215

  7. Biopersistences of man-made vitreous fibers and crocidolite fibers in rat lungs following short-term exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, R P; Miiller, W C; Eastes, W; Hadley, J G; Kamstrup, O; Thevenaz, P; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-01-01

    Biopersistence of commercial man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) and crocidolite were studied in Fischer 344 rats. MMVF used were size-selected to be rat-respirable, and rats were exposed nose-only 6 h/day for 5 days to gravimetric concentrations (30 mg/m3) of two fiber glass compositions--a rockwool, and a slagwool--or to 10 mg/m3 of long-fibered crocidolite, or to filtered air. Animals were sacrificed at 1 hr, 1, 5, 31, 90, 180, 270, 365, and 545 days after exposure stopped. Fibers were recovered from digested lung tissue to determine changes in concentrations (fibers/mg dry lung) and fiber retentions (expressed as percent of day 1 retention [PR]) for selected dimension categories. One-day average concentrations of lung-retained MMVF and crocidolite fibers, of diameter > or = 0.5 micron or > 20 microns in length, were nearly equal, permitting direct comparisons between MMVF and crocidolite. At 270 days average PR for MMVF > or = 0.5 micron in diameter were from 3 to 6 +/- 2% and 27 +/- 9% for crocidolite. For fibers > 20 microns, PR were 1 to 4 +/- 4% for MMVF and 37 +/- 20% for crocidolite. At 545 days, MMVF > 20 microns in length were at background level while concentration of crocidolite fibers > 20 microns in length remained at 2000 +/- 400 f/mg DL (dry lung), or 38 +/- 9% of day-1 retention. These results suggest strongly that MMVF dissolved or fractured in vivo whereas crocidolite fibers did not change. PMID:7882918

  8. System simulation method for fiber-based homodyne multiple target interferometers using short coherence length laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Maik; Beuth, Thorsten; Streck, Andreas; Stork, Wilhelm

    2015-09-01

    Homodyne laser interferometers for velocimetry are well-known optical systems used in many applications. While the detector power output signal of such a system, using a long coherence length laser and a single target, is easily modelled using the Doppler shift, scenarios with a short coherence length source, e.g. an unstabilized semiconductor laser, and multiple weak targets demand a more elaborated approach for simulation. Especially when using fiber components, the actual setup is an important factor for system performance as effects like return losses and multiple way propagation have to be taken into account. If the power received from the targets is in the same region as stray light created in the fiber setup, a complete system simulation becomes a necessity. In previous work, a phasor based signal simulation approach for interferometers based on short coherence length laser sources has been evaluated. To facilitate the use of the signal simulation, a fiber component ray tracer has since been developed that allows the creation of input files for the signal simulation environment. The software uses object oriented MATLAB code, simplifying the entry of different fiber setups and the extension of the ray tracer. Thus, a seamless way from a system description based on arbitrarily interconnected fiber components to a signal simulation for different target scenarios has been established. The ray tracer and signal simulation are being used for the evaluation of interferometer concepts incorporating delay lines to compensate for short coherence length.

  9. In vitro bile acid binding and short-chain fatty acid profile of flax fiber and ethanol co-products.

    PubMed

    Fodje, Adele M L; Chang, Peter R; Leterme, Pascal

    2009-10-01

    Fibers from flaxseed and co-products from ethanol production could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human diet. In vitro fermentation and bile acid binding models were used to investigate the metabolic effects of lignaMax (Bioriginal Food and Science Corp., Saskatoon, SK, Canada) flax meal, spent flax meal, soluble flax gum, wheat insoluble fiber (WIF), and rye insoluble fiber (RIF). Wheat and rye bran were used as reference samples. Bile acid binding of substrates was analysed at taurocholate ([(14)C]taurocholate) concentration of 12.5 mM. Soluble flax gum showed the highest bile acid binding (0.57 micromol/mg of fiber) (P fiber) and WIF (0.26 micromol/mg of fiber). RIF had higher (P fiber) than rye bran (0.13 micromol/mg of fiber). Substrates were hydrolyzed and incubated with pig fecal samples. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and gas accumulation (G(f)) were compared. Soluble flax gum generated the highest amount of acetic and propionic acids. SCFA profiles of wheat/rye brans and WIF/RIF were similar (except for butyric acid). G(f) for soluble flax gum was greater (P < .001) than that of spent flax meal. G(f) values of the wheat samples were similar, whereas the G(f) of the rye bran was higher (P < .001) than that of RIF. Fractional degradation rate (micro(t = T/2)) (P < .001) was also recorded. The highest mu(t = T/2) was observed for the soluble flax gum. Oil-depleted flaxseed fractions and WIF/RIF (co-products from ethanol production) could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human nutrition. PMID:19857071

  10. Hard plastic cladding fiber (HPCF) based optical components for high speed short reach optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Ki; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Tae Young; Park, Chang Soo; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2006-09-01

    We developed the primary components applicable to HPCF links for short reach (SR) and very short reach (VSR) data communication systems. We fabricated 4x4 HPCF fused taper splitter, HPCF pigtailed VCSEL and PIN photodiode for high speed short reach communications and characterized back to back transmission performance of the link composed of these components by measuring eye diagrams and jitters. Adapting the fusion-tapering technique for glass optical fiber, we successfully fabricated a 4x4 HPCF fused taper coupler. The HPCF with a core diameter of 200μm and an outer diameter of 230μm had step refractive index of 1.45 and 1.40 for the core and the clad. The optimized fusion length and tapering waist which make minimum insertion loss of about 7dB and uniform output power splitting ratio with less than 0.5dB are 13mm and 150µm, respectively. As a light source for VSR networks, we chose a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and developed a package with a HPCF pigtail. After positioning VCSEL and HPCF that made a minimum coupling loss, we glued the HPCF inside ceramic ferrule housing. In HPCF-PIN PD packaging, we added a micro polymer lens tip onto the HPCF ends to match the mode field area to the sensitive area of GaAs or InGaAs PIN PD. Coupling between a PIN PD chip and the lensed HPCF was optimized with the radius of curvature of 156µm with a low coupling loss of 0.3dB, which is compatible to conventional MMF-PD packaging. For 1.25 Gbps data rate, the eyes adequate to eye mask in gigabit Ethernet were wide open after all HPCF transmission link and no significant power penalty was observed.

  11. Effect of fiber length on static and fatigue strengths of short fiber reinforced thermoplastics with polypropylene matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T.; Fujii, T.; Tanaka, T.

    1996-10-01

    Changes in the damage mechanism as a function of fiber length were examined in a quasi-isotropically reinforced random chopped glass/polypropylene composite during uniaxial tensile testing (at various temperatures) and fatigue testing (at room temperature). Three types of specimens, which have the different fiber length in a pellet, were used. As a result, the effect of fiber length on mechanical properties was revealed. Moreover, the outline of the percolation theory was given, which estimates the strength and other important mechanical properties on the basis of the probabilistic microcrack initiation and bonding of microcracks.

  12. Intense short-pulse lasers irradiating wire and hollow plasma fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C T; He, X T; Chew, L Y

    2011-03-15

    When an intense laser pulse irradiates a solid-density foil target, electrons produced at the relativistic critical density can be accelerated to relativistic energy by the ponderomotive force. When a plasma fiber is attached to the back of the foil, the produced relativistic electrons are guided to propagate along the fiber for a long distance, because the high-current electron beam induces strong radial electric fields in the fiber. Transport and heating of intense laser-driven relativistic electrons in both wire and hollow plasma fibers are compared theoretically and numerically. We found that the coupling efficiency from the laser to the plasma fiber depends on the fiber structure. Because of the enhanced return currents in the wire fiber, the temperature in the wire fiber is higher than that in the hollow fiber. PMID:21403730

  13. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help with weight control. Fiber aids digestion and helps prevent constipation . It is sometimes used ... fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  14. Imaging Analysis of Collagen Fiber Networks in Cusps of Porcine Aortic Valves: Effect of their Local Distribution and Alignment on Valve Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Mega, Mor; Marom, Gil; Halevi, Rotem; Hamdan, Ashraf; Bluestein, Danny; Haj-Ali, Rami

    2015-01-01

    The cusps of native Aortic Valve (AV) are composed of collagen bundles embedded in soft tissue, creating a heterogenic tissue with asymmetric alignment in each cusp. This study compares native collagen fiber networks (CFNs) with a goal to better understand their influence on stress distribution and valve kinematics. Images of CFNs from five porcine tricuspid AVs are analyzed and fluid-structure interaction models are generated based on them. Although the valves had similar overall kinematics, the CFNs had distinctive influence on local mechanics. The regions with dilute CFN are more prone to damage since they are subjected to higher stress magnitudes. PMID:26406926

  15. Imaging analysis of collagen fiber networks in cusps of porcine aortic valves: effect of their local distribution and alignment on valve functionality.

    PubMed

    Mega, Mor; Marom, Gil; Halevi, Rotem; Hamdan, Ashraf; Bluestein, Danny; Haj-Ali, Rami

    2016-07-01

    The cusps of native aortic valve (AV) are composed of collagen bundles embedded in soft tissue, creating a heterogenic tissue with asymmetric alignment in each cusp. This study compares native collagen fiber networks (CFNs) with a goal to better understand their influence on stress distribution and valve kinematics. Images of CFNs from five porcine tricuspid AVs are analyzed and fluid-structure interaction models are generated based on them. Although the valves had similar overall kinematics, the CFNs had distinctive influence on local mechanics. The regions with dilute CFN are more prone to damage since they are subjected to higher stress magnitudes. PMID:26406926

  16. Mechanical behavior and fatigue performance of SMA short fiber reinforced MMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Matar, Basem Jawad

    The mechanical behavior and performance of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) short fiber NiTi reinforced Al was experimentally investigated for monotonic and fatigue test Al 6061 NiTi-SiC T6 was superior to unreinforced materials as well as to the reinforced Al T4. Taya three-dimensional model was performed on the monotonic tensile test at room temperature. It showed good agreement with experimental results. In order to utilize the compressive criterion for SMA, the NiTi reinforced Al composite was cooled at -10°C and prestrained at 1.2%. Beyond this limit composite suffered from damage. The net enhancement of SMA effect was around 10 MPa on composite yield stress. Results showed that the elastic constant for the composite did not change with loading and unloading suggesting that the inelastic behavior is plasticity. Further investigation on the inelastic behavior model as damage and/or plasticity by evaluating Poisson's ratio during loading was carried out by Adaptive Image Correlation Technique for Full-Field Strain Measurement. Poisson's ratio increased from around 0.33 to 0.5 demonstrating that it is plasticity that is responsible for the inelastic behavior. Scanning electron microscopy was also used and confirmed model results. The overall damage-behavior was quantified in terms of the post fatigue failure strength for low-cycle fatigue tests. Power law model was best to fit experimental findings.

  17. Suppressing Short-term Polarization Noise and Related Spectral Decoherence in All-normal Dispersion Fiber Supercontinuum Generation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Youbo; Lyngsø, Jens; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Tu, Haohua; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The supercontinuum generated exclusively in the normal dispersion regime of a nonlinear fiber is widely believed to possess low optical noise and high spectral coherence. The recent development of flattened all-normal dispersion fibers has been motivated by this belief to construct a general-purpose broadband coherent optical source. Somewhat surprisingly, we identify a large short-term polarization noise in this type of supercontinuum generation that has been masked by the total-intensity measurement in the past, but can be easily detected by filtering the supercontinuum with a linear polarizer. Fortunately, this hidden intrinsic noise and the accompanied spectral decoherence can be effectively suppressed by using a polarization-maintaining all-normal dispersion fiber. A polarization-maintaining coherent supercontinuum laser is thus built with a broad bandwidth (780–1300 nm) and high spectral power (~1 mW/nm). PMID:26166939

  18. Non-linear creep modeling of short-fiber composites using Hermite polynomials, hyperbolic trigonometric functions and power series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondali, Mehdi; Monfared, Vahid; Abedian, Ali

    2013-07-01

    A novel analytical model is presented for analyzing the steady-state creep in short-fiber composites under axial load utilizing the previous shear-lag theory, the imaginary fiber technique and also new approaches of Hermite polynomials, hyperbolic trigonometric functions and power series. The steady-state creep behavior of the matrix is described by an exponential law, while the fibers behave elastically. In this model, in spite of the previous researches, some unknowns such as shear stress, displacement rates, and creep strain rates are correctly determined in all regions of the unit cell without using any further assumptions. In comparison with previous analytical approaches, the results of the present work are closer to the FEM simulations. This strong method can be used in various problems in applied physics and mechanics such as elastic and plastic analysis of nano-composites.

  19. Dynamic characterization of short duration stress pulses generated by a magnetic flyer plate in carbon-fiber/epoxy laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, H.A.; Epstein, J.S.; Perry, K.E. Jr.; Abdallah, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the dynamic mechanical behavior of laminated carbon-fiber/epoxy composites for military and aerospace applications. Current research efforts have been directed at measuring the strength lost because of accumulated damage. Very little work has been done to determine how this damage is accumulated during dynamic mechanical loading. Of particular interest is the effect of short duration (< 1 {micro}s) stress pulses on mechanical behavior such as delamination. In this paper, a magnetic flyer plate apparatus is presented for generating a short duration stress pulse in a unidirectional carbon-fiber/epoxy laminated composite. The stress pulse is characterized using a dynamic moire interferometer.

  20. Amplification of ultra-short optical pulses in a two-pump fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier.

    PubMed

    Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre; d'Augères, Patrick Beaure; Hugonnot, Emmanuel

    2013-05-20

    We demonstrate with realistic numerical simulations that fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is able to amplify ultra-short optical pulses. Such amplifiers driven by two-pump waves can amplify pulse bandwidth twice as large as the one of a single pump configuration. We show that pulses as short as 50 fs can be directly amplified. In addition, we take benefit from the saturation regime to achieve spectral broadening which makes possible to reduce pulse duration down to 15 fs. PMID:23736440

  1. Polyethylene fiber-reinforced composite resin used as a short post in severely decayed primary anterior teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Sule; Tunc, Emine Sen; Tuloglu, Nuray

    2009-05-01

    The case report presented here is of a 4-year-old girl with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central and lateral incisors were reinforced using polyethylene fiber-reinforced composite resin short posts and restored using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes function, shape, and esthetics. PMID:19272811

  2. Choice of Reference Sequence and Assembler for Alignment of Listeria monocytogenes Short-Read Sequence Data Greatly Influences Rates of Error in SNP Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pightling, Arthur W.; Petronella, Nicholas; Pagotto, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The wide availability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and an abundance of open-source software have made detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bacterial genomes an increasingly accessible and effective tool for comparative analyses. Thus, ensuring that real nucleotide differences between genomes (i.e., true SNPs) are detected at high rates and that the influences of errors (such as false positive SNPs, ambiguously called sites, and gaps) are mitigated is of utmost importance. The choices researchers make regarding the generation and analysis of WGS data can greatly influence the accuracy of short-read sequence alignments and, therefore, the efficacy of such experiments. We studied the effects of some of these choices, including: i) depth of sequencing coverage, ii) choice of reference-guided short-read sequence assembler, iii) choice of reference genome, and iv) whether to perform read-quality filtering and trimming, on our ability to detect true SNPs and on the frequencies of errors. We performed benchmarking experiments, during which we assembled simulated and real Listeria monocytogenes strain 08-5578 short-read sequence datasets of varying quality with four commonly used assemblers (BWA, MOSAIK, Novoalign, and SMALT), using reference genomes of varying genetic distances, and with or without read pre-processing (i.e., quality filtering and trimming). We found that assemblies of at least 50-fold coverage provided the most accurate results. In addition, MOSAIK yielded the fewest errors when reads were aligned to a nearly identical reference genome, while using SMALT to align reads against a reference sequence that is ∼0.82% distant from 08-5578 at the nucleotide level resulted in the detection of the greatest numbers of true SNPs and the fewest errors. Finally, we show that whether read pre-processing improves SNP detection depends upon the choice of reference sequence and assembler. In total, this study demonstrates that researchers should

  3. Choice of reference sequence and assembler for alignment of Listeria monocytogenes short-read sequence data greatly influences rates of error in SNP analyses.

    PubMed

    Pightling, Arthur W; Petronella, Nicholas; Pagotto, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The wide availability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and an abundance of open-source software have made detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bacterial genomes an increasingly accessible and effective tool for comparative analyses. Thus, ensuring that real nucleotide differences between genomes (i.e., true SNPs) are detected at high rates and that the influences of errors (such as false positive SNPs, ambiguously called sites, and gaps) are mitigated is of utmost importance. The choices researchers make regarding the generation and analysis of WGS data can greatly influence the accuracy of short-read sequence alignments and, therefore, the efficacy of such experiments. We studied the effects of some of these choices, including: i) depth of sequencing coverage, ii) choice of reference-guided short-read sequence assembler, iii) choice of reference genome, and iv) whether to perform read-quality filtering and trimming, on our ability to detect true SNPs and on the frequencies of errors. We performed benchmarking experiments, during which we assembled simulated and real Listeria monocytogenes strain 08-5578 short-read sequence datasets of varying quality with four commonly used assemblers (BWA, MOSAIK, Novoalign, and SMALT), using reference genomes of varying genetic distances, and with or without read pre-processing (i.e., quality filtering and trimming). We found that assemblies of at least 50-fold coverage provided the most accurate results. In addition, MOSAIK yielded the fewest errors when reads were aligned to a nearly identical reference genome, while using SMALT to align reads against a reference sequence that is ∼0.82% distant from 08-5578 at the nucleotide level resulted in the detection of the greatest numbers of true SNPs and the fewest errors. Finally, we show that whether read pre-processing improves SNP detection depends upon the choice of reference sequence and assembler. In total, this study demonstrates that researchers should

  4. Fiber alignment and coculture with fibroblasts improves the differentiated phenotype of murine embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Parrag, Ian C; Zandstra, Peter W; Woodhouse, Kimberly A

    2012-03-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an important source of cardiomyocytes for regenerating injured myocardium. The successful use of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes in cardiac tissue engineering requires an understanding of the important scaffold properties and culture conditions to promote cell attachment, differentiation, organization, and contractile function. The goal of this work was to investigate how scaffold architecture and coculture with fibroblasts influences the differentiated phenotype of murine ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (mESCDCs). Electrospinning was used to process an elastomeric biodegradable polyurethane (PU) into aligned or unaligned fibrous scaffolds. Bioreactor produced mESCDCs were seeded onto the PU scaffolds either on their own or after pre-seeding the scaffolds with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Viable mESCDCs attached to the PU scaffolds and were functionally contractile in all conditions tested. Importantly, the aligned scaffolds led to the anisotropic organization of rod-shaped cells, improved sarcomere organization, and increased mESCDC aspect ratio (length-to-diameter ratio) when compared to cells on the unaligned scaffolds. In addition, pre-seeding the scaffolds with MEFs improved mESCDC sarcomere formation compared to mESCDCs cultured alone. These results suggest that both fiber alignment and pre-treatment of scaffolds with fibroblasts improve the differentiation of mESCDCs and are important parameters for developing engineered myocardial tissue constructs using ESC-derived cardiac cells. PMID:22006660

  5. Dual-Frequency Operation in a Short-Cavity Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, W.; Maricante, J.R.

    2007-02-15

    A dual-frequency 2-cm silica fiber laser with a wavelength spacing of 0.3 nm has been demonstrated using a polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) reflector. The birefringence of the PM FBG was used to generate the two single-mode (SM) lasing frequencies of orthogonal polarizations. The SM operation in each wavelength has been verified.

  6. Lecithin Prevents Cortical Cytoskeleton Reorganization in Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers under Short-Term Gravitational Disuse

    PubMed Central

    Biryukov, Nikolay S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prevent the cortical cytoskeleton reorganization of rat soleus muscle fibers under short-term gravitational disuse. Once a day, we injected the right soleus muscle with 0.5 ml lecithin at a concentration of 200 mg/ml and the left soleus muscle with a diluted solution in an equal volume for 3 days prior to the experiment. To simulate microgravity conditions in rats, an anti-orthostatic suspension was used according to the Ilyin-Novikov method modified by Morey-Holton et al. for 6 hours. The following groups of soleus muscle tissues were examined: «C», «C+L», «HS», and «HS+L». The transversal stiffness of rat soleus muscle fibers after 6 hours of suspension did not differ from that of the control group for the corresponding legs; there were no differences between the groups without lecithin «C» and «HS» or between the groups with lecithin «C+L» and «HS+L». However, lecithin treatment for three days resulted in an increase in cell stiffness; in the «C+L» group, cell stiffness was significantly higher by 22.7% (p < 0.05) compared with that of group «C». The mRNA content of genes encoding beta- and gamma-actin and beta-tubulin did not significantly differ before and after suspension in the corresponding groups. However, there was a significant increase in the mRNA content of these genes after lecithin treatment: the beta-actin and gamma-actin mRNA content in group «C+L» increased by 200% compared with that of group «C», and beta-tubulin increased by 100% (as well as the mRNA content of tubulin-binding proteins Ckap5, Tcp1, Cct5 and Cct7). In addition, desmin mRNA content remained unchanged in all of the experimental groups. As a result of the lecithin injections, there was a redistribution of the mRNA content of genes encoding actin monomer- and filament-binding proteins in the direction of increasing actin polymerization and filament stability; the mRNA content of Arpc3 and Lcp1 increased by 3- and 5-fold

  7. Lecithin Prevents Cortical Cytoskeleton Reorganization in Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers under Short-Term Gravitational Disuse.

    PubMed

    Ogneva, Irina V; Biryukov, Nikolay S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prevent the cortical cytoskeleton reorganization of rat soleus muscle fibers under short-term gravitational disuse. Once a day, we injected the right soleus muscle with 0.5 ml lecithin at a concentration of 200 mg/ml and the left soleus muscle with a diluted solution in an equal volume for 3 days prior to the experiment. To simulate microgravity conditions in rats, an anti-orthostatic suspension was used according to the Ilyin-Novikov method modified by Morey-Holton et al. for 6 hours. The following groups of soleus muscle tissues were examined: «C», «C+L», «HS», and «HS+L». The transversal stiffness of rat soleus muscle fibers after 6 hours of suspension did not differ from that of the control group for the corresponding legs; there were no differences between the groups without lecithin «C» and «HS» or between the groups with lecithin «C+L» and «HS+L». However, lecithin treatment for three days resulted in an increase in cell stiffness; in the «C+L» group, cell stiffness was significantly higher by 22.7% (p < 0.05) compared with that of group «C». The mRNA content of genes encoding beta- and gamma-actin and beta-tubulin did not significantly differ before and after suspension in the corresponding groups. However, there was a significant increase in the mRNA content of these genes after lecithin treatment: the beta-actin and gamma-actin mRNA content in group «C+L» increased by 200% compared with that of group «C», and beta-tubulin increased by 100% (as well as the mRNA content of tubulin-binding proteins Ckap5, Tcp1, Cct5 and Cct7). In addition, desmin mRNA content remained unchanged in all of the experimental groups. As a result of the lecithin injections, there was a redistribution of the mRNA content of genes encoding actin monomer- and filament-binding proteins in the direction of increasing actin polymerization and filament stability; the mRNA content of Arpc3 and Lcp1 increased by 3- and 5-fold

  8. EUK-134 ameliorates nNOSμ translocation and skeletal muscle fiber atrophy during short-term mechanical unloading

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, Mary; Hord, Jeff M.; Lee, Yang; Joshi, Kumar; Botchlett, Rachel E.; Ramirez, Angelo; Martinez, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced mechanical loading during bedrest, spaceflight, and casting, causes rapid morphological changes in skeletal muscle: fiber atrophy and reduction of slow-twitch fibers. An emerging signaling event in response to unloading is the translocation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ) from the sarcolemma to the cytosol. We used EUK-134, a cell-permeable mimetic of superoxide dismutase and catalase, to test the role of redox signaling in nNOSμ translocation and muscle fiber atrophy as a result of short-term (54 h) hindlimb unloading. Fischer-344 rats were divided into ambulatory control, hindlimb-unloaded (HU), and hindlimb-unloaded + EUK-134 (HU-EUK) groups. EUK-134 mitigated the unloading-induced phenotype, including muscle fiber atrophy and muscle fiber-type shift from slow to fast. nNOSμ immunolocalization at the sarcolemma of the soleus was reduced with HU, while nNOSμ protein content in the cytosol increased with unloading. Translocation of nNOS from the sarcolemma to cytosol was virtually abolished by EUK-134. EUK-134 also mitigated dephosphorylation at Thr-32 of FoxO3a during HU. Hindlimb unloading elevated oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal) and increased sarcolemmal localization of Nox2 subunits gp91phox (Nox2) and p47phox, effects normalized by EUK-134. Thus, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that oxidative stress triggers nNOSμ translocation from the sarcolemma and FoxO3a dephosphorylation as an early event during mechanical unloading. Thus, redox signaling may serve as a biological switch for nNOS to initiate morphological changes in skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:24477538

  9. Short monolithic dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode DBR phosphate fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lingyun; Hofmann, Peter; Schülzgen, Axel; Peyghambarian, N; Albert, Jacques

    2014-06-20

    We propose and demonstrate a 5-cm-long monolithic dual-wavelength single-longitudinal mode distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) all-phosphate fiber laser. Strong UV-induced fiber Bragg gratings are directly written in highly Er/Yb codoped phosphate fiber. The separation between gratings is selected as 1 cm to only excite two longitudinal modes in the DBR cavity. By exploiting the spatial hole burning effect and the polarization hole burning effect, stable narrow-linewidth dual-wavelength lasing emission with 38 pm wavelength spacing and a total emitted power of 2.8 mW is obtained from this DBR fiber laser. A microwave signal at 4.58 GHz is generated by the heterodyne detection of the dual-wavelength laser. PMID:24979414

  10. Mechanical properties of as-cast and heat-treated ZA-27 alloy/short glass fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.C.; Girish, B.M.; Satish, B.M.; Kamath, R.

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on the mechanical properties of as-cast and heat-treated ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with glass fibers from 1 to 5 wt%. The composites were fabricated using the Compocasting method, in which short glass fibers were introduced into the vortex created in the molten alloy through an impeller rotated at 500 rpm. The molten mass was thoroughly stirred and poured into permanent molds and squeezed under pressure. The specimens were heat treated at 320 C for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. The tests on the as-cast composites revealed that as the glass content in the composites was increased, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), compressive strength, and hardness of the composite increased, while the ductility and impact strength were decreased. Heat treatment was found to improve significantly the ductility, compressive strength, and impact strength, while the hardness and UTS were reduced. This paper discusses the behavior of these composites.

  11. On the study of pulse evolution in ultra-short pulse mode-locked fiber lasers by numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Thomas; Ortaç, Bülend; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-06-25

    In this contribution we highlight several aspects concerning the numerical simulation of ultra-short pulse mode-locked fiber lasers by a non-distributed model. We show that for fixed system parameters multiple attractors are accessible by different initial conditions especially in the transient region between different mode-locking regimes. The reduction of multiple attractors stabilizing from different quantum noise fields to a single solution by gain ramping is demonstrated. Based on this analysis and model, different regimes of mode-locking obtained by varying the intra-cavity dispersion and saturation energy of the gain fiber are revised and it is shown that a regime producing linearly chirped parabolic pulses known from self-similar evolution is embedded in the wave-breaking free mode-locking regime. PMID:19547154

  12. DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-10-30

    This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion – reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Short-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked by carbon nanotube and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Shinji; Set, Sze Y.; Xu, Bo

    2014-09-01

    We review the optical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene and describe how those properties have been used for the implementation of various nonlinear fiber optic applications. Early studies on the optical properties of CNTs in the late 90s revealed that these materials exhibit high third order susceptibility and a broadband saturable absorption with a sub-picosecond response time. Recent discovery of similar nonlinear optical properties in graphene attracts much attention in this field. Such ultrafast, highly nonlinear optical response means that they can be employed for noise suppression and for the mode-locking of fiber lasers, and in addition, their high third order nonlinearity holds great promise for the implementation of various other nonlinear fiber optic devices such as wavelength converters based on four wave mixing. In this paper, we will discuss the various methods that have been considered thus far for the integration of CNTs and graphene in optical systems and highlight the advantages and limitations of using the saturable absorption of CNTs and graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers, and the current status of CNT and graphene saturable absorbers in the state of art fiber laser technologies.

  14. Hybrid ultra-short Yb:YAG ceramic master-oscillator high-power fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Li, Wenxue; Yang, Kangwen; Lin, Niannian; Jiang, Benxue; Pan, Yubai; Zeng, Heping

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrated a hybrid ceramic master-oscillator high-power fiber amplifier with a diode-pumped Yb:YAG ceramic laser as the seeding oscillator, which was passively mode-locked at 103.29 MHz repetition rate around 1031 nm by using a semiconductor saturable absorption mirror, and a two-stage double-clad photonic crystal fiber amplifier, which power-scaled the ceramic laser oscillator up to an average power of 303 W. The amplified pulses were further compressed to 237 and 418 fs at 50 and 150 W output powers, respectively. The compressed pulses exhibited about 0.05% deviation from the Gaussian fit, implying that the high-power fiber amplification induced neither observable temporal and spectral distortion nor significant nonlinear de-chirping of the chirped pulses. PMID:22828617

  15. Slow/fast light using a very short Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jiulin; Chen, Jiali; Xu, Shanhui; Yang, Zhongmin; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2013-03-01

    A slow/fast light device with a sealed size of 130 mm×30 mm×3 mm has been demonstrated. Ultraslow propagation and superluminal propagation with group velocity values from 8.4 to -14.7 m/s are observed in a 3.86 cm long Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped single-mode phosphate glass fiber. The dependence of pump power, modulation frequency, and wavelength on the slow/fast light effect in this fiber is investigated in detail. These results suggest that this compact slow/fast device is more suitable for all-fiber applications than those made by traditional methods. PMID:23455260

  16. The Surface Interface Characteristics of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube and Graphitic Carbon Fiber Arrays Grown by Thermal and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Nguyen, Cattien; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nano-arrays for sensors and devices requires the growth of arrays with the proper characteristics. One such application is the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphitic carbon fibers (GCFs) for the chemical attachment of probe molecules. The effectiveness of such an array is dependent not only upon the effectiveness of the probe and the interface between that probe and the array, but also the array and the underlaying substrate. If that array is a growth of vertically aligned CNTs or GCFs then the attachment of that array to the surface is of the utmost importance. This attachment provides the mechanical stability and durability of the array, as well as, the electrical properties of that array. If the detection is to be acquired through an electrical measurement, then the appropriate resistance between the array and the surface need to be fabricated into the device. I will present data on CNTs and GCFs grown from both thermal and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The focus will be on the characteristics of the metal film from which the CNTs and GCFs are grown and the changes that occur due to changes within the growth process.

  17. Short cavity active mode locking fiber laser for optical sensing and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Han, Ga Hee; Jeong, Syung Won; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok; Shin, Jun Geun; Lee, Byeong Ha; Eom, Tae Joong

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate a highly linear wavenumber- swept active mode locking (AML) fiber laser for optical sensing and imaging without any wavenumber-space resampling process. In this all-electric AML wavenumber-swept mechanism, a conventional wavelength selection filter is eliminated and, instead, the suitable programmed electric modulation signal is directly applied to the gain medium. Various types of wavenumber (or wavelength) tunings can be implemented because of the filter-less cavity configuration. Therefore, we successfully demonstrate a linearly wavenumber-swept AML fiber laser with 26.5 mW of output power to obtain an in-vivo OCT image at the 100 kHz swept rate.

  18. Modeling the action-potential-sensitive nonlinear-optical response of myelinated nerve fibers and short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Goldman-Albus treatment of the action-potential dynamics is combined with a phenomenological description of molecular hyperpolarizabilities into a closed-form model of the action-potential-sensitive second-harmonic response of myelinated nerve fibers with nodes of Ranvier. This response is shown to be sensitive to nerve demyelination, thus enabling an optical diagnosis of various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The model is applied to examine the nonlinear-optical response of a three-neuron reverberating circuit—the basic element of short-term memory.

  19. Nanostructured, highly aligned poly(hydroxy butyrate) electrospun fibers for differentiation of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Polini, Alessandro; Genchi, Giada G; Ciofani, Gianni; Iandolo, Donata; Mattoli, Virgilio; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Pisignano, Dario

    2011-01-01

    The influence of novel nanostructured anisotropically electrospun poly(hydroxy butyrate) matrices on skeletal and cardiac muscle-like cell proliferation and differentiation was investigated, in comparison with isotropic and no-topographically cues-provided substrates. After the matrix characterization, in terms of surface SEM imaging and mechanical properties, cell differentiation on the different substrates was evaluated. Myogenin and F-actin staining at several differentiation time-points suggested that aligned nanofibers promote differentiation of both cell types. Moreover, quantitative parameters for each cell line are provided to clarify which aspects of the differentiation process are influenced by the different matrix topographies. PMID:22255117

  20. Complex approach to the investigation of short fiber-optic comunication lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoivanov, I. A.; Kontar', A. A.; Kublik, A. V.; Makarevich, V. S.

    The paper proposes a method of complex measurements based on the consideration of the parameters of all the elements used in a specific multimode fiber-optic communication line. It is shown that the error in measuring losses in waveguides up to 20 m long can reach a value of 60 percent.

  1. Short all Tm-doped germanate glass fiber MOPA single-frequency laser at 1.95 μm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changsheng; Chen, Dan; Xu, Shanhui; Deng, Huaqiu; Lin, Wei; Zhao, Qilai; Zhang, Yuanfei; Zhou, Kaijun; Feng, Zhouming; Qian, Qi; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-05-16

    Based on heavily Tm-doped germanate glass fibers (TGFs), a short all-TGF MOPA laser system with uniform core parameters in each stage was demonstrated. An 11.7 W stable single-frequency laser at 1.95 μm with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 20.4% is obtained from a homemade 31-cm-long double-cladding single-mode TGF. The estimated stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold of 980 W and the measured relative intensity noise of < -130 dB/Hz for frequencies above 2 MHz are achieved in this MOPA system. Furthermore, the prospect for further power-scaling of such short MOPA laser is considered. PMID:27409917

  2. Fiber orientation structures and mechanical properties of injection molded short glass fiber-reinforced nylon ribbed plates

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, S.L.; Hine, P.J.; Duckett, R.A.; O`Gara, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    The work presented in this paper, sponsored by General Motors, describes a study of injection moulded ribbed plates of short glass fibre-reinforced Nylon. Ribs have been placed both parallel and perpendicular to the injection direction in an attempt to simulate the likely geometry of an actual automotive part. The complex orientation structures developed within these ribbed samples during injection moulding have been determined within both the parallel and perpendicular ribs, and for the regions between these structures using an automated image analysis system developed in-house by our colleagues at the University of Leeds Instrumentation Group. This system allows the rapid measurement of accurate fibre orientation data over large sample areas (mm {times} mm) enabling thousands of fibre images to be sampled. Mechanical properties both between and underneath the rib structures have been measured using the ultrasonic immersion technique, and these have been compared with theoretical predictions, determined using the measured fibre orientation averages and simple composite models developed within this laboratory. In general the agreement between theory and experiment is excellent.

  3. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... broccoli, spinach, and artichokes legumes (split peas, soy, lentils, etc.) almonds Look for the fiber content of ... salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Add lentils or whole-grain barley to your favorite soups. ...

  4. Over 100 W ultra-flat broadband short-wave infrared supercontinuum generation in a thulium-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Li, Lei; Yao, Jinmei; Zhang, Bin; Hou, Jing

    2015-10-15

    An ultra-flat high-power short-wave infrared super-continuum (SC) source generated in an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) is reported. The SC had a high-spectral flatness with a 10 dB spectral bandwidth spanning from 1970 to 2431 nm and a power spectral density >23  dBm/nm. The output SC beam had Gaussian-shape profiles with a maximum average power of 101.6 W, a SC pulse repetition rate of 2 MHz, and a temporal duration of ∼5  ns. Benefiting from the high duty cycle of the 2 μm seed pulses, the power conversion efficiency from the 793 nm pump light to the maximal SC output power in the TDFA was as high as 35.4%, and the slope efficiency of the TDFA was linearly fitted to be 36.5%. Long-term high-power operation of the SC source showed its outstanding temporal stability. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the results obtained in this Letter represent a new power record for ultra-flat SC in the short-wave infrared region. PMID:26469620

  5. Oxygen-assisted multipass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics with ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, T. V.; Komlenok, M. S.; Konov, V. I.; Freitag, C.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.

    2014-03-14

    Deep multipass cutting of bidirectional and unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with picosecond laser pulses was investigated in different static atmospheres as well as with the assistance of an oxygen or nitrogen gas flow. The ablation rate was determined as a function of the kerf depth and the resulting heat affected zone was measured. An assisting oxygen gas flow is found to significantly increase the cutting productivity, but only in deep kerfs where the diminished evaporative ablation due to the reduced laser fluence reaching the bottom of the kerf does not dominate the contribution of reactive etching anymore. Oxygen-supported cutting was shown to also solve the problem that occurs when cutting the CFRP parallel to the fiber orientation where a strong deformation and widening of the kerf, which temporarily slows down the process speed, is revealed to be typical for processing in standard air atmospheres.

  6. Short capillary tubing as fiber optic sensor of viscosity of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecki, Michal; Korwin Pawlowski, Michael L.; Beblowska, Maria; Jakubowski, Andrzej

    2007-05-01

    Optical capillaries are used in capillary gas and liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, absorbance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy etc. These micro-fluidic methods find applications in biotechnologies, medical diagnostic, drug discovery and environmental sciences. In the presented work we discuss some aspects of light guidance in capillary tubing made from silica glass or Teflon AF. The wide range of capillary constructions allows them to be used advantageously in specific applications. We have analyzed both theoretically and experimentally partially liquid filled optical capillaries as fiber optic sensor elements in laser light transmission and reflection conditions at 670, 1310 and 1550 nm. We have shown that the light transmission properties and signal in the reflectometric mode of work depend on capillary construction, their length and position of inserted liquid drop. The results obtained by us show that capillary tubing can be used as sensing elements in optical fiber sensors of surface tension and viscosity of small liquid samples with volume below 10 -8 cm 3.

  7. Adaptation of healthy adult cats to select dietary fibers in vivo affects gas and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barry, K A; Wojcicki, B J; Bauer, L L; Middelbos, I S; Vester Boler, B M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2011-10-01

    Nine young adult (1.73 ± 0.03 yr) male cats were used to determine the effects of microbial adaptation to select dietary fiber sources on changes in pH in vitro and on total and hydrogen gas, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) production. Cats were adapted to diets containing 4% cellulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), or pectin for 30 d before fecal sampling. Each cat was used as a single donor, and fecal inoculum was reacted with each of the aforementioned fiber substrates. Adaptation to dietary FOS resulted in a greater change in pH when exposed to FOS than pectin (adaptation × substrate, P < 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, adaptation to dietary FOS or pectin increased hydrogen gas production (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.021). Adaptation to dietary FOS increased acetate and total SCFA production when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, propionate production tended to increase with adaptation to dietary cellulose (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.060). The BCFA + valerate tended to decrease with adaptation to dietary FOS when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.092). Fructooligosaccharides resulted in the greatest change in pH and production of total gas (P < 0.001), hydrogen gas (P < 0.001), acetate (P < 0.001), propionate (P < 0.001), butyrate (P < 0.001), total SCFA (P < 0.001), and total BCFA + valerate production (P < 0.001). Adaptation to the FOS or pectin diet increased production of hydrogen gas with FOS and pectin substrates. Adaptation to pectin increased (P = 0.033) total gas production with FOS and pectin substrates. Overall, adaptation to either FOS or pectin led to greater SCFA and gas production, but adaptation to FOS resulted in the greatest effect overall. PMID:21531846

  8. Short-term modulation of cerebellar Purkinje cell activity after spontaneous climbing fiber input.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Miura, A; Fushiki, H; Kawasaki, T

    1992-12-01

    1. There are two opposite points of view concerning the way climbing fiber input in a Purkinje cell modifies simple spike (SS) activity transiently: depression versus enhancement of SS activity. The different groups of investigators favored one effect predominating over the other. In the decerebrate unanesthetized cat, we recorded spontaneous activity of single Purkinje cells and investigated time course of SS activity after the complex spike (CS). 2. In the peri-CS time histogram, there was a SS pause lasting, on average, 10.8 ms after onset of the CS in all of the 316 cells recorded. The pause was followed by a rapid increase in SS activity to a maximum, which was on average 175.6% of a pre-CS control level, and a gradual return to around the control level in the majority of the cells recorded (pause-facilitation type, 71.2%). The increase in SS activity was significant (P < 0.01, t test) during 20-100 ms. The SS activity during the 20-100 ms was, on average, 163.7% of the control level. In some cells (pure-pause type, 25.3%), no significant changes were found (P > 0.01) in the post-pause SS firing. In contrast, only 3.5% of the cells (pause-reduction type) showed a significant (P < 0.01) firing decrease (average 54.0% of the control level) lasting 20-60 ms after the pause period. 3. Analysis of the pre-CS time histogram revealed no significant differences (P > 0.01) in the SS activity between pre-CS periods in all of the cells recorded, suggesting that the SS activity enhancement is not due to a coactivated mossy fiber input just preceding the activation of the climbing fiber input. 4. Analysis of the raster diagram revealed variability of individual SS responses after the CS. The probability of occurrence of the increase in SS number during a post-CS period of 0-100 ms with respect to that during a pre-CS period of -100-0 ms in individual raster traces was high (on average 78.2%), medium (57.3%), and low (36.3%) in the pause-facilitation, pure-pause, and pause

  9. Molecular weight distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids in ileal digesta of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Andersson, R; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary fiber source on molecular weight (MW) distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in ileal digesta of 7 post valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulated growing pigs was studied. Pigs were fed semisynthetic diets with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) forage (CFO) as fiber sources of which the soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction originated mainly from pectin. Three MW intervals were selected-large MW (MWL): 10,000,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol, medium MW (MWM): 1,000,000 to 200,000 g/mol, and small MW (MWS): 200,000 to 10,000 g/mol-and the relative distribution (% of total) of molecules in each interval was calculated. The MWM fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet SBP and the MWS fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet CFO. The mole/100 mole of propionic acid (HPr) was higher (P < 0.010) in pigs fed diet SBP whereas pigs fed diet CFO had higher (P < 0.010) mole/100 mole of acetic acid (HAc). The proportion of the MWL and MWM fractions in ileal digesta were negatively correlated to HAc (r = -0.52, P = 0.05, and r = -0.62, P = 0.02, respectively). The proportion of MWM in ileal digesta was positively correlated to HPr (r = 0.83; P = 0.001) whereas MWS and HPr were negatively correlated (r = -0.76; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the bacterial degradation of the soluble NSP fraction is selective and MW distribution may explain differences in SCFA production. PMID:23365284

  10. Effects of dietary fibers and their mixtures on short chain fatty acids and microbiota in mice guts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xichun; Li, Shaoting; Luo, Jianming; Wu, Xiyang; Liu, Liu

    2013-06-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) can be broken down into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic, propionic and n-butyric acid by gut microbiota to obtain energy. Therefore, dietary fibers have effects on the balance of gut microbiota and the production of SCFAs. In the four-week feeding, mice were fed with four dietary fibers, including pectin, resistant starch (RS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and cellulose. The results showed that the mice body-weight gain was the smallest (7.0 ± 2.3 g) when the mixture of RS-FOS-cellulose was ingested, followed by the mixture of RS-cellulose (7.2 ± 3.5 g) and FOS-cellulose (8.3 ± 2.5 g). Ingestion of the mixture of pectin-FOS-cellulose, RS-FOS and RS-FOS-cellulose can respectively increase the diversity of the gut microbiota with 12, 11 and 11 terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) detected (digested by Hha I). The maximum amount of total SCFAs were produced by the mixture of FOS-cellulose (5.504 ± 0.029 μmol mL(-1)), followed by pectin-FOS-cellulose (3.893 ± 0.024 μmol mL(-1)) and pectin-RS-FOS-cellulose (3.309 ± 0.047 μmol mL(-1)). In conclusion, the addition of DFs (pectin, RS, FOS and cellulose), in single or mixture pattern, can exert different effects. An amount of 10.7% of single DF in the diet cannot be conducive to the balance of gut microbiota after ingestion for a long time, however, it can help with body weight loss like the mixtures of DFs in this study; FOS is a very important component in the mixture of DFs for both the balance of the gut microbiota and the production of SCFAs. PMID:23669739

  11. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  12. Er(3)/Yb(3)-codoped phosphate glass for short-length high-gain fiber lasers and amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengxiao; Song, Feng; An, Shuangxin; Wan, Wenshun; Guo, Hao; Liu, Shujing; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-02-10

    Er(3)/Yb(3)-codoped phosphate glass with compositions of (78.2-x)P(2)O(5)-14Al(2)O(3)-5Li(2)O-1K(2)O-1.8Yb(2)O(3)-xEr(2)O(3)(x=0.2,0.4,0.6) in mol. % were investigated. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters have been calculated to predict radiative properties based on absorption spectra. The stimulated emission cross section (σ(e)) calculated according to McCumber theory was 1.50×10(-20)  cm(2), almost twice larger than values reported before. The effective line width (Δ(eff)), full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the quality parameters for designing optical amplifier devices were listed in the table compared with other types of phosphate glass matrices. A theoretical model of a Er(3)/Yb(3)-codoped system based on rate and power propagation equations was put forward to investigate the potential advantages of the materials applied for short-length, high-gain fiber amplifiers. A simulated gain of 32.2 and 2.6  dB/cm per unit length was achieved in 12.5-cm-long fiber. PMID:25968040

  13. No difference in fecal levels of bacteria or short chain fatty acids in humans, when consuming fruit juice beverages containing fruit fiber, fruit polyphenols, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Alison J; Eady, Sarah L; Hunter, Denise C; Skinner, Margot A; Huffman, Lee; Ansell, Juliet; Blatchford, Paul; Wohlers, Mark; Herath, Thanuja D; Hedderley, Duncan; Rosendale, Douglas; Stoklosinski, Halina; McGhie, Tony; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Redman, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a Boysenberry beverage (750 mg polyphenols), an apple fiber beverage (7.5 g dietary fiber), and a Boysenberry plus apple fiber beverage (750 mg polyphenols plus 7.5 g dietary fiber) on gut health. Twenty-five individuals completed the study. The study was a placebo-controlled crossover study, where every individual consumed 1 of the 4 treatments in turn. Each treatment phase was 4-week long and was followed by a 2-week washout period. The trial beverages were 350 g taken in 2 doses every day (ie, 175 mL taken twice daily). The hypothesis for the study was that the combination of polyphenols and fiber would have a greater benefit on gut health than the placebo product or the fiber or polyphenols on their own. There were no differences in fecal levels of total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Bifidobacteriumspecies, Clostridium perfringens, or Lactobacillus species among any of the treatment groups. Fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations did not vary among treatment groups, although prostaglandin E2 concentrations were higher after consumption of the Boysenberry juice beverage. No significant differences were found in quantitative measures of gut health between the Boysenberry juice beverage, the apple fiber beverage, the Boysenberry juice plus apple fiber beverage, and the placebo beverage. PMID:25530011

  14. Understanding the cotton fiber elongation process using short fiber mutants, the Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) and -2 (Li2) as an experiment model system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. Understanding the molecular basis of fiber elongation would provide a means for improvement of fiber length. Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) and Ligon lintless-2 (Li2) are monogenic and dominant m...

  15. Industry/government collaborations on short-rotation woody crops for energy, fiber and wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Berg, S.

    1996-12-31

    More than twenty-five organizations can be identified in the US and Canada that have research plantings of 20 ha in size or greater of short-rotation woody crops and most of those are well-established forest products companies. In 1990, only 9 forest products companies had commercial or substantial research plantings of short-rotation woody crops. The recent harvest and use of hybrid poplars for pulp and paper production in the Pacific Northwest has clearly stimulated interest in the use of genetically superior hybrid poplar clones across North America. Industry and government supported research cooperatives have been formed to develop sophisticated techniques for producing genetically superior hybrid poplars and willows suited for a variety of locations in the US. While the primary use of commercially planted short-rotation woody crops is for pulp and paper, energy is a co-product in most situations. A document defining a year 2020 technology vision for America`s forest, wood and paper industry affirms that {open_quotes}biomass will be used not only for building materials and paper and paperboard products, but also increasingly for steam, power, and liquid fuel production.{close_quotes} To accomplish the goals of {open_quotes}Agenda 2020{close_quotes} a new collaborative research effort on sustainable forestry has been initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA). Both the new and old collaborative efforts are focusing on achieving substantial and sustainable gains in U.S. wood production for both energy and traditional wood products. AF&PA and DOE hope that industry and government partnerships addressing the competitiveness and energy efficiency of U.S. industries, can serve as a model for future research efforts.

  16. Heat accumulation effects in short-pulse multi-pass cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Freitag, C.; Komlenok, M. S.; Onuseit, V.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.; Konov, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    The formation of a matrix evaporation zone (MEZ) in carbon fiber reinforced plastics during multi-pass laser cutting with picosecond laser pulses is studied for a wide range of pulse frequencies (fp = 10-800 kHz) and feed rates (vf = 0.002-10 m/s). Three regimes of the formation of the MEZ are found and related with different heat accumulation effects: (i) small MEZ (<2 μm) with negligible heat accumulation, (ii) moderate-size MEZ (up to a few hundred microns) determined by heat accumulation between pulses, and (iii) large MEZ (up to a few millimeters) caused by heat accumulation between scans. The dependence of the size of the MEZ on the number of scans and the scan frequency was studied to distinguish the two heat accumulation effects (between pulses and between scans), which occur on different time-scales. A diagram to illustrate the boundaries between the three regimes of the formation of the MEZ as a function of feed rate and pulse frequency is proposed as a promising base for further studies and as a useful tool to optimize the processing parameters in practice.

  17. A novel modulation scheme for short range polymer optical fiber communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Pu; Wu, Lenan; Peng, Linning

    2013-10-01

    To make use of the spectrum of a step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) channel, a hybrid modulation scheme is proposed combining discrete multi-tone modulation and M-ary position phase shift keying. The discrete line spectrum interference and sideband interference components of the new modulation scheme are analyzed. The waveform optimization factor and a new numerical symbol generating approach are introduced to strengthen the anti-interference capability of the system. Offline processing with an arbitrary waveform generator and digital storage oscilloscope is used to investigate the transmission performance. A transmission rate of 510.5 Mbps is achieved for a 50 m SI-POF in an intensity modulated direct detection system using eye-safe resonant cavity light-emitting diodes and a PIN diode at red 650 nm. The experimental verification demonstrates that, using the new methodology, an additional bit rate of 19.5 Mbps in the low signal-to-noise ratio region is obtained. Furthermore there 6 dB power is saved at a bit error rate (BER) of 1×10-4, so better spectral efficiency can be achieved. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme can offer better BER performance and make a better compromise between transmission rate, power consumption, spectral efficiency and BER.

  18. High-speed, bi-directional dual-core fiber transmission system for high-density, short-reach optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Ying; Li, Shenping; Li, Ming-Jun; Sutton, Clifford G.; McCollum, Robert L.; McClure, Randy L.; Koklyushkin, Alexander V.; Matthews, Karen I.; Luther, James P.; Butler, Douglas L.

    2015-03-01

    A complete single mode dual-core fiber system for short-reach optical interconnects is fabricated and tested for high-speed data transmission. It includes dual-core fibers capable of bi-directional data transmission, dual-core simplex LC connectors, and fan-outs. The transmission system offers simplified bi-directional traffic engineering with integrated bidirectional transceivers and compact system design, utilizing simplex dual-core LC connectors that use half the space while increasing the bandwidth density by a factor of two. The fiber has two cores that are compatible with single mode fiber and conforms to the industry standard outer diameter of 125 μm. This reduces operational complexity by reducing the size and number of fibers, cables and connectors. Measured OTDR loss for both cores was 0.34 dB/km at 1310 nm and 0.19 dB/km at 1550 nm. Crosstalk for a piece of 5.8 km long dual-core fiber was measured to be below -75 dB at 1310 nm, and below -40 dB at 1550 nm. Both free-space optics fan-outs and tapered-fiber-coupler based MCF fan-outs were evaluated for the transmission system. Error-free and penalty-free 25 Gb/s bi-directional transmission performance was demonstrated for three different fiber lengths, 200 m, 2 km and 10 km, using the complete all-fiber-based system including connectors and fan-outs. This single mode, dual-core fiber transmission system adds complementary value to systems where additional increases in bandwidth density can come from wavelength division multiplexing and multiple bits per symbol.

  19. Infiltration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} short-fiber preforms during squeeze

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, H.G.; Cantor, B.; Anderson, P.R.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a series of experiments designed to investigate the process of infiltrating a commercial A357 Al-7wt%Si-0.6wt%Mg alloy into Saffil 20vol% 3--3.5 {micro}m mean diameter, 500 {micro}m mean length discontinuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fiber preforms during squeeze casting with applied pressures of 0--100 MPa, melt temperatures of 700--900 C and die and preform temperatures of 300 C. The main conclusions are: (1) in melt infiltration and squeeze casting, presolidification of the liquid alloy takes place during the time delay between die filling and pressurization; (2) presolidification forms a shell of coarse columnar grains of {alpha}-Al dendrites; (3) the remaining solute enriched liquid infiltrates the preform leading to macrosegregation within the composite; (4) needle-like primary FeSiAl{sub 5} and blocky primary (FeMn){sub 3}Si{sub 2}Al{sub 15} intermetallics, formed by enrichment of the solute during the time delay, are filtered during infiltration at the composite/monolithic interface; (5) stresses build up within the preform, leading to cracks and fragmentation particularly at the locating supports; (6) shrinkage pores, cracks and uninfiltrated regions in the composite are all force fed with eutectic liquid as the pressure builds up at the end of the ram travel; (7) high applied pressure leads to a fine grained structure within the preform, due to increased heat flow rates between the die and the solidifying metal.

  20. Discrete Meso-Element Simulation of Failure Behavior of Short-Fiber Composites under Shock Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. P.; Liu, Wenyan; Liu, Yunxin

    1999-06-01

    Recent years, it was paid more attention to better understanding the failure behavior and mechanism of heterogeneous materials at meso- scale level. In this paper, the crack initiation and development in epoxy composite reinforced with short steel fibre under dynamic loading were simulated and analyzed with 2D Discrete Meso-Element Dynamic Method. Results show that cracks initiate at the tips of fibres on the Loading side where stress concentrates. The effective strength of the composite sample is related to shape, orientation, weight percentage of the fibres, and particularly, the bonding strength between fibre and matrix. In the case of low bonding strength, the crack will propagate along the fibre and finally penetrate the whole sample. The differences compared with static loading are also discussed.

  1. From Dietary Fiber to Host Physiology: Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key Bacterial Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ara; De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-06-01

    A compelling set of links between the composition of the gut microbiota, the host diet, and host physiology has emerged. Do these links reflect cause-and-effect relationships, and what might be their mechanistic basis? A growing body of work implicates microbially produced metabolites as crucial executors of diet-based microbial influence on the host. Here, we will review data supporting the diverse functional roles carried out by a major class of bacterial metabolites, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs can directly activate G-coupled-receptors, inhibit histone deacetylases, and serve as energy substrates. They thus affect various physiological processes and may contribute to health and disease. PMID:27259147

  2. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  3. Effect of Signal Strength and Improper Alignment on the Variability of Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements

    PubMed Central

    VIZZERI, GIANMARCO; BOWD, CHRISTOPHER; MEDEIROS, FELIPE A.; WEINREB, ROBERT N.; ZANGWILL, LINDA M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of signal strength and improper scan alignment on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement variability. DESIGN Retrospective, longitudinal clinical study. METHODS All eyes of healthy subjects with at least 2 fast RNFL scan sessions were selected from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. The chronological first scan was considered to be the baseline. Absolute differences in signal strength and RNFL thickness measurements between baseline and subsequent scans were calculated. Regression analysis was conducted to assess whether signal strength and scan shifts along the horizontal (nasal–temporal) but not the vertical (superior–inferior) axis affect average RNFL thickness measurements. RESULTS Ninety-four eyes of 94 subjects were included. All eyes were tested twice or more on the same visit, whereas 30 eyes were followed up longitudinally for 32.4 ± 13.3 months (1 scan per annual follow-up). For quadrants, absolute differences from baseline were greater than for average RNFL thickness and were significantly larger for scans acquired on separate visits. Average RNFL thickness increased only when the difference between the nasal and temporal quadrants increased (R2 = 0.16; P < .0001), suggesting it may be affected by horizontal but not vertical scan shifts. Differences in signal strength were associated with differences in average RNFL thickness (R2 = 0.19; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS Even under optimal testing conditions, scan quality can adversely effect the ability to detect change over time. Therefore, caution is warranted when detecting glaucomatous progression using scan series of different quality. Careful overall assessment of quadrants and average RNFL thickness measurements is suggested to help identify scan misalignment. PMID:19427621

  4. Use of the short-term inflammatory response in the mouse peritoneal cavity to assess the biological activity of leached vitreous fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, K; Addison, J; Miller, B G; Cullen, R T; Davis, J M

    1994-01-01

    We used a special-purpose glass microfiber sample, Johns-Manville Code 100/475, to study the effects of various acid and alkali treatments on biological activity as assessed by inflammation in the mouse peritoneal cavity, the leaching of Si, and the phase contrast optical microscopy (PCOM) fiber number. We used mild and medium treatments with oxalic acid and Tris buffer and harsh treatment with concentrated HCl and NaOH. Mild oxalic acid and Tris treatment for 2 weeks had no effect on any of the end-points, but prolonging the mild oxalic acid treatment time to 2 months reduced the biological activity and the fiber number. Medium oxalic acid treatment reduced the biological activity and the fiber number and caused a loss of Si. Medium Tris alkali treatment reduced the PCOM-countable fibers and the biological activity but did not cause a substantial loss of Si. Harsh treatment with strong HCl did not affect the fiber number or cause leaching but the biological activity was reduced; strong NaOH reduced the fiber number and biological activity, and caused marked leaching of Si. The medium oxalic acid conditions (pH 1.4) were more acid than those found in lung cells but produced the same effects (reduction in fiber number and biological activity) as the more physiological mild treatment (pH 4.0), when prolonged. This study suggests that medium oxalic acid treatment can be used as a short-term assay to compare loss of Si, reduction in fiber number, and change in biological activity of vitreous fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7882922

  5. The working condition of a short section of optical capillary in multi-parameters heads for lab-on-fiber application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecki, Michal; Korwin-Pawlowski, Michael L.; Beblowska, Maria

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the proposition of a novel integration method of multi-parameter heads to be used for examination of liquids with short sections of locally heated optical capillaries. The first implementation of the proposed method concerns is a light source fiber and a detection fiber inserted into the capillary hole. In such a setup the local heating causes switching of the hole modes into the tube modes. Therefore, unlike other well-known fiber optical sensors for liquids that utilize spectral information of the index of refraction and optical signal attenuation, the short section capillary method takes advantage of additional information originating from surface tension, viscosity, boiling point, vapor pressure of liquid and its heat capacity. The setup with fibers can be easily used in a laboratory environment. For an in-situ application such construction is not recommended, because introducing the fiber into the capillary can generate small vapor bubbles. Therefore, direct side coupling of the capillary and a semiconductor light source is needed. We show that the hole modes excitation is possible with satisfactory working parameters when soda glass capillaries are preconditioned using a relatively simple technique.

  6. Tracing short connections of the temporo-parieto-occipital region in the human brain using diffusion spectrum imaging and fiber dissection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yupeng; Sun, Dandan; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yunjie; Wang, Yibao

    2016-09-01

    The temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) junction plays a unique role in human high-level neurological functions. Long-range fibers from and to this area have been described in detail but little is known about short TPO tracts mediating local connectivity. In this study, we performed high angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) analyses to visualize the short TPO connections in the human brain. Fiber tracking was conducted on a subject-specific approach (10 subjects) and a template of 90 subjects (NTU-90 Atlas). Three tracts were identified: posterior segment of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF-V), connecting the posterior part of the middle and inferior temporal gyri with the angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), connecting the inferior parietal with the lower temporal and occipital lobe, and a novel temporo-parietal (TP) connection, interconnecting the inferior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital lobe with the superior parietal lobe. These studies were complemented by fiber dissection techniques. It is the first study that demonstrated the trajectory and connectivity of the VOF using fiber dissection, as well as displayed the spatial relationship of the SLF-V with the cortex and the adjacent fiber bundles on one dissecting hemisphere. By providing a more accurate and detailed description of the local connectivity of the TPO junction, our findings help to develop new insights into its functional role in the human brain. PMID:27235864

  7. Short-Term Hypocaloric High-Fiber and High-Protein Diet Improves Hepatic Steatosis Assessed by Controlled Attenuation Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Arslanow, Anita; Teutsch, Melanie; Walle, Hardy; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank; Stokes, Caroline S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases and increases the risk of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Current standard treatment focuses on lifestyle interventions. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term low-calorie diet on hepatic steatosis, using the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) as quantitative tool. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 60 patients with hepatic steatosis were monitored during a hypocaloric high-fiber, high-protein diet containing 1,000 kcal/day. At baseline and after 14 days, we measured hepatic fat contents using CAP during transient elastography, body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum liver function tests and lipid profiles using standard clinical–chemical assays. RESULTS: The median age was 56 years (25–78 years); 51.7% were women and median body mass index was 31.9 kg/m2 (22.4–44.8 kg/m2). After 14 days, a significant CAP reduction (14.0% P<0.001) was observed from 295 dB/m (216–400 dB/m) to 266 dB/m (100–353 dB/m). In parallel, body weight decreased by 4.6% (P<0.001), of which 61.9% was body fat. In addition, liver stiffness (P=0.002), γ-GT activities, and serum lipid concentrations decreased (all P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that non-invasive elastography can be used to monitor rapid effects of dietary treatment for hepatic steatosis. CAP improvements occur after only 14 days on short-term low-calorie diet, together with reductions of body composition parameters, serum lipids, and liver enzymes, pointing to the dynamics of hepatic lipid turnover. PMID:27311064

  8. A short baseline strainmeter using fiber-optic Bragg-Grating (FBG) sensor and a nano-optic interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutant, O.; Demengin, M.; Le Coarer, E.; Gaffet, S.

    2013-12-01

    Strain recordings from tiltmeters or borehole volumetric strainmeters on volcanoes reveal extremely rich signal of deformation associated with eruptive processes. The ability to detect and record signals of the order of few tens of nanostrain is complementary to other monitoring techniques, and of great interest to monitor and model the volcanic processes. Strain recording remains however a challenge, for both the instrumental and the installation point of view. We present in this study the first results of strain recordings, using a new fiber-optic Bragg-Grating (FBG) sensor. FBG sensors are known for many years and used as strain gauges in civil engineering. They are however limited in this case to microstrain capability. We use here a newly developped interferometer named SWIFTS whose main characteristics are i) an extremely high optical wavelength precision and ii) a small design and low power requirements allowing an easy field deployment. Our FBG sensor uses a short baseline, 3cm long Bragg network. We show preliminary results obtained from a several months recordings in the low noise underground laboratory at Rustrel (LSBB), south of France.

  9. Bonding performance and interfacial characteristics of short fiber-reinforced resin composite in comparison with other composite restoratives.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) and surface free-energy (SFE) of short fiber-reinforced resin composite (SFRC), using different adhesive systems, in comparison with other composite restoratives. The resin composites used were everX Posterior (EP), Clearfil AP-X (CA), and Filtek Supreme Ultra Universal Restorative (FS). The adhesive systems used were Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SM), Clearfil SE Bond (CS), and G-Premio Bond (GB). Resin composite was bonded to dentin, and SBS was determined after 24 h of storage in distilled water and after 10,000 thermal cycles (TCs). The SFEs of the resin composites and the adhesives were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. The SFE values and SFE characteristics were not influenced by the type of resin composite, but were influenced by the type of adhesive system. The results of this study suggest that the bonding performance and interfacial characteristics of SFRC are the same as for other composite restoratives, but that these parameters are affected by the type of adhesive system. The bonding performance of SFRC was enhanced by thermal cycling in a manner similar to that for other composite restoratives. PMID:26954878

  10. Mechanical resistance evaluation of a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced post in artificial endodontically treated premolar under rotational/lateral fracture fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Li

    2016-01-01

    This study develops a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced (anatomical SGFR) post and evaluates the mechanical performance in artificial endodontically treated premolars. An anatomical SGFR fiber post with an oval shape and slot/notch designs was manufactured using an injection-molding machine. The three-point bending test and crown/core restorations using the anatomical SGFR and commercial cylindrical fiber posts under fatigue test were executed to understand the mechanical resistances. The results showed that static and dynamic rotational resistance were found significantly higher in the anatomical SGFR fiber post than in the commercial post. The endurance limitations at 1.2×10(6) cycles were 66.81 and 64.77 N for the anatomical SGFR and commercial fiber posts, respectively. The anatomical SGFR fiber post presented acceptable value of flexural strength and modulus, better fit adaption in the root canal resist torque more efficiency but was not a key issue in the lateral fracture resistance in an endodontically treated premolar. PMID:27041013

  11. Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation rate of short fiber reinforced epoxy composites for analogue cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Chong, Alexander C M; Miller, Forrest; Buxton, McKee; Friis, Elizabeth A

    2007-08-01

    Third-generation mechanical analogue bone models and synthetic analogue cortical bone materials manufactured by Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc. (PRL) are popular tools for use in mechanical testing of various orthopedic implants and biomaterials. A major issue with these models is that the current third-generation epoxy-short fiberglass based composite used as the cortical bone substitute is prone to crack formation and failure in fatigue or repeated quasistatic loading of the model. The purpose of the present study was to compare the tensile and fracture mechanics properties of the current baseline (established PRL "third-generation" E-glass-fiber-epoxy) composite analogue for cortical bone to a new composite material formulation proposed for use as an enhanced fourth-generation cortical bone analogue material. Standard tensile, plane strain fracture toughness, and fatigue crack propagation rate tests were performed on both the third- and fourth-generation composite material formulations using standard ASTM test techniques. Injection molding techniques were used to create random fiber orientation in all test specimens. Standard dog-bone style tensile specimens were tested to obtain ultimate tensile strength and stiffness. Compact tension fracture toughness specimens were utilized to determine plane strain fracture toughness values. Reduced thickness compact tension specimens were also used to determine fatigue crack propagation rate behavior for the two material groups. Literature values for the same parameters for human cortical bone were compared to results from the third- and fourth-generation cortical analogue bone materials. Tensile properties of the fourth-generation material were closer to that of average human cortical bone than the third-generation material. Fracture toughness was significantly increased by 48% in the fourth-generation composite as compared to the third-generation analogue bone. The threshold stress intensity to propagate the crack

  12. Short vegetal-fiber reinforced HDPE-A study of electron-beam radiation treatment effects on mechanical and morphological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Maiara S.; Sartori, Mariana N.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Guven, Olgun; Moura, Esperidiana A. B.

    2014-08-01

    The effects of electron-beam radiation treatment on fiber-matrix adhesion and mechanical properties of short piassava fibers reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix were studied. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was added at 2.5% and 5.0% (on piassava fiber wt) as a cross-linking agent and the effects upon the properties of the resulting composites treated by electron-beam radiation were also examined. HDPE reinforced with short piassava fiber composites was prepared by melt-mixing processing, using a twin screw extruder machine. The materials were irradiated with 100 and 200 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. Material samples were submitted to mechanical and thermo-mechanical tests and SEM analyses. Correlation between properties was discussed. The comparison of mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of the composites showed that electron-beam radiation treatment produced a significant improvement in mechanical properties, when compared with the non-irradiated composite sample and neat HDPE. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the composite failure surfaces indicated that there was an improved adhesion between fiber and matrix. Examination of the failure surfaces indicated dependence of the interfacial adhesion upon the radiation dose and GMA content. Better interfacial adhesion between fiber and HDPE matrix was observed for composites with 5.0% GMA addition and treated with electron-beam radiation dose of 200 kGy. It can be concluded that GMA addition followed by electron-beam irradiation treatment, at the doses studied in this work, effectively improved the HDPE properties and led to the obtaining of composite materials with superior properties suitable for several industrial applications.

  13. Small RNA sequencing and degradome analysis of developing fibers of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintles-1 (Li1) and -2 (Li2) revealed a role for miRNAs and their targets in cotton fiber elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The length of cotton fiber is an important agronomic trait that directly affects the quality of yarn and fabric. Understanding the molecular basis of fiber elongation would provide a means for improvement of fiber length. Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and -2 (Li2) are monogenic and dominant mutations that ...

  14. The formation of short-chain fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Anita; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Lupin kernel fiber beneficially modifies blood lipids because of its bile acid-binding capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of a lupin kernel fiber preparation on cardiovascular diseases and to clarify possible mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 60 moderately hypercholesterolemic adults (plasma total cholesterol: >5.2 mmol/L) passed 3 intervention periods in different orders with a 2-wk washout phase between each. Participants consumed either a high-fiber diet containing 25-g/d lupin kernel fiber (LF) or citrus fiber (CF), or a low-fiber control diet (CD) for 4 wk each. Anthropometric, plasma, and fecal variables were assessed at baseline and after the interventions. Contrary to the CF period, total (9%) and LDL (12%) cholesterol as well as triacylglycerols (10%) were lower after the LF period when compared with the CD period [P ≤ 0.02, adjusted for baseline, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)]. HDL cholesterol remained unchanged. Moreover, the LF period reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0.02) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) when compared with baseline. Bile acid binding could not be shown because the excretion of total bile acids remained constant after the high-fiber diets. However, the LF period resulted in an enhanced formation of the main short-chain fatty acids in comparison with the CD period. During the CF period, only acetate increased significantly. Both high-fiber diets led to higher satiety and modified nutritional behavior, resulting in significantly lower body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with the CD period. The blood lipid-lowering effects of LF are apparently not a result of bile acid binding. Rather, we hypothesize for the first time, to our knowledge, that the blood lipid-lowering effects of LF may be mainly attributed to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, specifically propionate and acetate. This trial was registered at

  15. Super-resolution fluorescence of huntingtin reveals growth of globular species into short fibers and coexistence of distinct aggregates.

    PubMed

    Duim, Whitney C; Jiang, Yan; Shen, Koning; Frydman, Judith; Moerner, W E

    2014-12-19

    Polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin, the protein encoded by HTT mutations associated with Huntington's disease, forms aggregate species in vitro and in vivo. Elucidation of the mechanism of growth of fibrillar aggregates from soluble monomeric protein is critical to understanding the progression of Huntington's disease and to designing therapeutics for the disease, as well as for aggregates implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We used the technique of multicolor single-molecule, super-resolution fluorescence imaging to characterize the growth of huntingtin exon 1 aggregates. The huntingtin exon 1 aggregation followed a pathway from exclusively spherical or globular species of ∼80 nm to fibers ∼1 μm in length that increased in width, but not length, over time with the addition of more huntingtin monomers. The fibers further aggregated with one another into aggregate assemblies of increasing size. Seeds created by sonication, which were comparable in shape and size to the globular species in the pathway, were observed to grow through multidirectional elongation into fibers, suggesting a mechanism for growth of globular species into fibers. The single-molecule sensitivity of our approach made it possible to characterize the aggregation pathway across a large range of size scales, from monomers to fiber assemblies, and revealed the coexistence of different aggregate species (globular species, fibers, fiber assemblies) even at late time points. PMID:25330023

  16. Super-Resolution Fluorescence of Huntingtin Reveals Growth of Globular Species into Short Fibers and Coexistence of Distinct Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin, the protein encoded by HTT mutations associated with Huntington’s disease, forms aggregate species in vitro and in vivo. Elucidation of the mechanism of growth of fibrillar aggregates from soluble monomeric protein is critical to understanding the progression of Huntington’s disease and to designing therapeutics for the disease, as well as for aggregates implicated in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. We used the technique of multicolor single-molecule, super-resolution fluorescence imaging to characterize the growth of huntingtin exon 1 aggregates. The huntingtin exon 1 aggregation followed a pathway from exclusively spherical or globular species of ∼80 nm to fibers ∼1 μm in length that increased in width, but not length, over time with the addition of more huntingtin monomers. The fibers further aggregated with one another into aggregate assemblies of increasing size. Seeds created by sonication, which were comparable in shape and size to the globular species in the pathway, were observed to grow through multidirectional elongation into fibers, suggesting a mechanism for growth of globular species into fibers. The single-molecule sensitivity of our approach made it possible to characterize the aggregation pathway across a large range of size scales, from monomers to fiber assemblies, and revealed the coexistence of different aggregate species (globular species, fibers, fiber assemblies) even at late time points. PMID:25330023

  17. Using Formal Embedded Formative Assessments Aligned with a Short-Term Learning Progression to Promote Conceptual Change and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of learning progression-aligned formal embedded formative assessment on conceptual change and achievement in middle-school science. Fifty-two sixth graders were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups were taught about sinking and floating by the same teacher with identical…

  18. Experimental characterization of a micro-hole drilling process with short micro-second pulses by a CW single-mode fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jay; Paleocrassas, Alexander G.; Reeves, Nicholas; Rajule, Nilesh

    2014-04-01

    Laser ablation with pulse durations in a few microseconds is a viable solution for micro-hole drilling applications which require large material removal rate (MRR) with moderate hole quality. However, the body of work regarding short microsecond laser drilling/ablation is small. The objective of this paper is to experimentally characterize this short micro-second laser micro-hole drilling technique using a 300 W, CW, single-mode fiber laser. This CW fiber laser is controlled to produce modulated pulses from 1 μs to 8 μs and these modulated laser pulses have a unique profile which contains an initial spike with a peak power of 1500 W for 1 μs, followed by the steady state power of 300 W. Because of its excellent beam quality, the laser beam produced by this fiber laser can be focused to a small spot size of 10 μm to achieve very high power density up to 1.9 GW/cm2. With one single laser pulse at approximately 1 μs, a blind hole of 167 μm in depth and 23 μm in opening diameter can be created in a stainless substrate. The experimental characterization of this micro-hole drilling process includes laser control, laser beam characterization, hole formation, photodiode measurements of the vapor intensity, high-speed photography of vapor/plasma formation, and spectroscopic measurements of plasma. The results show that, due to very high irradiance of the fiber laser beam, the absorbed energy not only is sufficient to melt and vaporize the material, but also is able to dissociate vapor into intense plasma at temperatures over 16,000 K. The hole drilling mechanism by this short microsecond laser ablation is due to a combination of adiabatic evaporation and ejection of fine droplets.

  19. Intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber sensor based on ultra-short Bragg gratings for quasi-distributed strain and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuang

    The health monitoring of smart structures in civil engineering is becoming more and more important as in-situ structural monitoring would greatly reduce structure life-cycle costs and improve reliability. The distributed strain and temperature sensing is highly desired in large structures where strain and temperature at over thousand points need to be measured simultaneously. It is difficult to carry out this task using conventional electrical strain sensors. Fiber optic sensors provide an excellent opportunity to fulfill this need due to their capability to multiplex many sensors along a single fiber cable. Numerous research studies have been conducted in past decades to increase the number of sensors to be multiplexed in a distributed sensor network. This dissertation presents detailed research work on the analysis, design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an intrinsic Fabry-Perot fiber optic sensor for quasi-distributed strain and temperature measurements. The sensor is based on two ultra-short and broadband reflection fiber Bragg gratings. One distinct feature of this sensor is its ultra low optical insertion loss, which allows a significant increase in the sensor multiplexing capability. Using a simple integrated sensor interrogation unit and an optical spectrum based signal processing algorithm, many sensors can be interrogated along a single optical fiber with high accuracy, high resolution and large dynamic range. Based on the experimental results and theoretical analysis, it is expected that more than 500 sensors can be multiplexed with little crosstalk using a frequency-division multiplexing technology. With this research, it is possible to build an easy fabrication, robust, high sensitivity and quasi-distributed fiber optic sensor network that can be operated reliably even in harsh environments or extended structures. This research was supported in part by U.S. National Science Foundation under grant CMS-0427951.

  20. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks. PMID:26316341

  1. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  2. Aligned-or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    When state leaders and national partners in the development of the Next Generation Science Standards met to consider implementation strategies, states and school districts wanted to know which materials were aligned to the new standards. The answer from the developers was short but not sweet: You won't find much now, and it's going to…

  3. Full-vector multi-mode fiber modeling for short reach serdes links of 112Gbps and beyond.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Chun; Wong, Henry; Tonietto, Davide; Zang, Da-Jun; Zhai, Su-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-07-11

    A rigorous full-vector multi-mode fiber (MMF) model is proposed. It is believed to be the first comparative study of vector and scalar MMF model in terms of differential mode delay (DMD), mode power distribution (MPD), transfer functions as well as eye diagrams. It shows that the vector nature of fiber modes cannot be ignored even though the refractive index difference can be as small as 1%. A standard-compliant methodology for MMF characterization is introduced. The impact of fiber parameters on bandwidth is studied. The statistical transfer function model of OM3 and OM4 fiber is provided. These transfer functions can be applied to the MMF link modeling. Rigorous full-vector MMF model is an essential tool for research and development of MMF link transceivers and standard development of 112Gbps and beyond. PMID:27410880

  4. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorpinghaus, R.

    1982-01-01

    A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

  5. A facile and fully automated on-fiber derivatization protocol for direct analysis of short-chain aliphatic amines using a matrix compatible solid-phase microextraction coating.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Passarini, Alice; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-07-29

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) analysis of short-chain aliphatic amines (C3-C6) in aqueous solutions was investigated using pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFBAY) as on-fiber derivatization reagent. A standard gas generating vial agent was used for on-fiber loading of the derivatization agent so as to avoid the need for its regeneration at each derivatization cycle. Several parameters such as loading time, reaction temperature, and reaction/extraction time were optimized for headspace and direct sampling in aqueous solutions. Three different coating chemistries were tested and their performances compared in order to achieve the best compromise between sensitivity and analysis throughput. The newly developed PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed superior performance in terms of extraction efficiency while the capability to prevent on-fiber degradation of the derivatizing products. The optimized method was used for quantitation of short-chain aliphatic amines in aqueous samples and provided detection limits in the low ppb range for all the amines tested with accuracy values between 79 and 120%. The method was applied towards the analysis of environmental water samples and the accuracy of the results was evaluated by different calibration approaches. PMID:27371022

  6. On the failure mode in dry and hygrothermally aged short fiber-reinforced injection-molded polyarylamide composites by acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czigány, T.; Mohd Ishak, Z. A.; Karger-Kocsis, J.

    1995-09-01

    The failure mode in injection-molded short glass (GF) and carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyarylamide (PAR) composites was studied on compact tension (CT) specimens in as-received (AR), hygrothermally aged (HA) and re-dried (RD) states, respectively, using acoustic emission (AE) and fractography. A significant difference was revealed in the failure manner characterized by the cumulative run, amplitude and energy distribution of the AE events as a function of the water content of the composites. Furthermore, a correlation was found between the cumulative AE events up to the maximum load and the fracture toughness of the composites. It was shown that the fracture response and thus the failure behavior of the water-saturated PAR composites can be restored by drying. This fact indicates that the water absorption and desorption are of a purely physical nature, i.e. they are reversible processes. It was established that chopped fiber-reinforced PAR composites fail by matrix deformation along with fiber/matrix debonding in the crack initiation, whereas fiber pull-out becomes dominant in the crack propagation range. Water uptake shifts both the AE amplitude and energy curves toward lower values, a phenomenon attributed to plastification of the PAR matrix by water.

  7. Nonlinear compensation to enhance the input dynamic range in analog optical fiber links for the high current short circuit test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Garduno, Raul; Velazquez, Jose; Montero, Julio

    2010-06-01

    Due to their galvanic insulation and EMI immunity properties, optical fiber links have been used in the transmitter-receiver system of an analog voltage measuring system at a high-power mid-voltage testing laboratory with a highly aggressive EMI environment. This paper introduces the application of a nonlinear compensation to limit the voltage range at the input of a voltage-controlled oscillator, which is used to produce the pulsed frequency modulation needed to transmit the analog signals over the optical fiber links. The proposed dynamic range compensation system is based on nonlinear circuits to accommodate the input range of the voltage-controlled oscillator. This approach increases the transient signal handling capabilities of the measuring system. This work demonstrates that the nonlinear compensated optical fiber approach yields a unique, electrically isolated, lightning-proof analog data transmission system, for remote measuring systems in the highly aggressive EMI environment of high-power test laboratories.

  8. Interplay between synchronization of multivesicular release and recruitment of additional release sites support short-term facilitation at hippocampal mossy fiber to CA3 pyramidal cells synapses.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Simon; Evstratova, Alesya; Tóth, Katalin

    2014-08-13

    Synaptic short-term plasticity is a key regulator of neuronal communication and is controlled via various mechanisms. A well established property of mossy fiber to CA3 pyramidal cell synapses is the extensive short-term facilitation during high-frequency bursts. We investigated the mechanisms governing facilitation using a combination of whole-cell electrophysiological recordings, electrical minimal stimulation, and random-access two-photon microscopy in acute mouse hippocampal slices. Two distinct presynaptic mechanisms were involved in short-term facilitation, with their relative contribution dependent on extracellular calcium concentration. The synchronization of multivesicular release was observed during trains of facilitating EPSCs recorded in 1.2 mM external Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]e). Indeed, covariance analysis revealed a gradual augmentation in quantal size during trains of EPSCs, and application of the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist γ-D-glutamylglycine showed an increase in cleft glutamate concentration during paired-pulse stimulation. Whereas synchronization of multivesicular release contributed to the facilitation in 1.2 mM [Ca(2+)]e, variance-mean analysis showed that recruitment of more release sites (N) was likely to account for the larger facilitation observed in 2.5 mM [Ca(2+)]e. Furthermore, this increase in N could be promoted by calcium microdomains of heterogeneous amplitudes observed in single mossy fiber boutons. Our findings suggest that the combination of multivesicular release and the recruitment of additional release sites act together to increase glutamate release during burst activity. This is supported by the compartmentalized spatial profile of calcium elevations in boutons and helps to expand the dynamic range of mossy fibers information transfer. PMID:25122902

  9. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  10. Fiber Laser Replacement for Short Pulse Ti:Sapphire Oscillators -- Scalable Mode Locking to Record Pulse Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; An, J

    2006-02-14

    We have investigated fiber-based lasers that mode-lock via three nonlinear mechanisms: pulse evolution, bend loss, and tunneling. Experiments with nonlinear pulse evolution proved especially promising; we report here a fiber laser that produces 25 nJ, sub-200 fs pulses, an energy that is 60% higher than previous reports. Experiments with nonlinear bend loss were inconclusive; though bend-loss data show that the effect exits, we were not able to use the phenomenon to lock a laser. New models suggest that nonlinear tunneling could provide an alternate path.

  11. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  12. Influence of laser on the droplet behavior in short-circuiting, globular, and spray modes of hybrid fiber laser-MIG welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chuang; Feng, Jiecai; Li, Liqun; Chen, Yanbin

    2016-09-01

    The effects of laser on the droplet behavior in short-circuiting, globular, and spray modes of hybrid fiber laser-MIG welding were studied. Transfer sequence of a droplet, welding current wave and morphology of plasma in the three modes of arc welding and hybrid welding were comparatively investigated. Compared with arc welding, the transfer frequency and landing location of droplet in the three modes of hybrid welding changed. In short-circuiting and globular modes, the droplet transfer was promoted by the laser, while the droplet transfer was hindered by the laser in spray mode. The magnitudes and directions of electromagnetic force and plasma drag force acting on the droplet were the keys to affect the droplet behavior. The magnitudes and directions of electromagnetic force and plasma drag force were converted due to the variation of the current distribution into the droplet, which were caused by the laser induced plasma with low ionization potential.

  13. High average power, high energy 1.55 μm ultra-short pulse laser beam delivery using large mode area hollow core photonic band-gap fiber.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiang; Mielke, Michael; Booth, Timothy

    2011-01-17

    We demonstrate high average power, high energy 1.55 μm ultra-short pulse (<1 ps) laser delivery using helium-filled and argon-filled large mode area hollow core photonic band-gap fibers and compare relevant performance parameters. The ultra-short pulse laser beam-with pulse energy higher than 7 μJ and pulse train average power larger than 0.7 W-is output from a 2 m long hollow core fiber with diffraction limited beam quality. We introduce a pulse tuning mechanism of argon-filled hollow core photonic band-gap fiber. We assess the damage threshold of the hollow core photonic band-gap fiber and propose methods to further increase pulse energy and average power handling. PMID:21263632

  14. Alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Grover C.; Gibson, O. Theodore

    1980-01-01

    A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.

  15. Fully passive-alignment pluggable compact parallel optical interconnection modules based on a direct-butt-coupling structure for fiber-optic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kwon-Seob; Park, Hyoung-Jun; Kang, Hyun Seo; Kim, Young Sun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost packaging method utilizing a fully passive optical alignment and surface-mounting method is demonstrated for pluggable compact and slim multichannel optical interconnection modules using a VCSEL/PIN-PD chip array. The modules are based on a nonplanar bent right-angle electrical signal path on a silicon platform and direct-butt-optical coupling without a bulky and expensive microlens array. The measured optical direct-butt-coupling efficiencies of each channel without any bulky optics are as high as 33% and 95% for the transmitter and receiver, respectively. Excellent lateral optical alignment tolerance of larger than 60 μm for both the transmitter and receiver module significantly reduces the manufacturing and material costs as well as the packaging time. The clear eye diagrams, extinction ratios higher than 8 dB at 10.3 Gbps for the transmitter module, and receiver sensitivity of better than -13.1 dBm at 10.3 Gbps and a bit error rate of 10-12 for all channels are demonstrated. Considering that the optical output power of the transmitter is greater than 0 dBm, the module has a sufficient power margin of about 13 dB for 10.3 Gbps operations for all channels.

  16. Cyclic Fiber Push-In Test Monitors Evolution of Interfacial Behavior in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites are being developed for high-temperature advanced jet engine applications. Obtaining a strong, tough composite material depends critically on optimizing the mechanical coupling between the reinforcing fibers and the surrounding matrix material. This has usually been accomplished by applying a thin C or BN coating onto the surface of the reinforcing fibers. The performance of these fiber coatings, however, may degrade under cyclic loading conditions or exposure to different environments. Degradation of the coating-controlled interfacial behavior will strongly affect the useful service lifetime of the composite material. Cyclic fiber push-in testing was applied to monitor the evolution of fiber sliding behavior in both C- and BN-coated small-diameter (15-mm) SiC-fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The cyclic fiber push-in tests were performed using a desktop fiber push-out apparatus. At the beginning of each test, the fiber to be tested was aligned underneath a 10- mm-diameter diamond punch; then, the applied load was cycled between selected maximum and minimum loads. From the measured response, the fiber sliding distance and frictional sliding stresses were determined for each cycle. Tests were performed in both room air and nitrogen. Cyclic fiber push-in tests of C-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC showed progressive increases in fiber sliding distances along with decreases in frictional sliding stresses for continued cycling in room air. This rapid degradation in interfacial response was not observed for cycling in nitrogen, indicating that moisture exposure had a large effect in immediately lowering the frictional sliding stresses of C-coated fibers. These results indicate that matrix cracks bridged by C-coated fibers will not be stable, but will rapidly grow in moisture-containing environments. In contrast, cyclic fiber push-in tests of both BN-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC and BNcoated, SiC-fiber

  17. Coaxial electrospun aligned tussah silk fibroin nanostructured fiber scaffolds embedded with hydroxyapatite-tussah silk fibroin nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Sang, Feng; Ding, Bin; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong; Li, Kejing; Han, Qiming; Tan, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    The bone is a composite of inorganic and organic materials and possesses a complex hierarchical architecture consisting of mineralized fibrils formed by collagen molecules and coated with oriented hydroxyapatite. To regenerate bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a scaffold that mimics the architecture of the extracellular matrix in native bone. Here, we describe one such scaffold, a nanostructured composite with a core made of a composite of hydroxyapatite and tussah silk fibroin. The core is encased in a shell of tussah silk fibroin. The composite fibers were fabricated by coaxial electrospinning using green water solvent and were characterized using different techniques. In comparison to nanofibers of pure tussah silk, composite notably improved mechanical properties, with 90-fold and 2-fold higher initial modulus and breaking stress, respectively, obtained. Osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were cultivated on the composite to assess its suitability as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. We found that the fiber scaffold supported cell adhesion and proliferation and functionally promoted alkaline phosphatase and mineral deposition relevant for biomineralization. In addition, the composite were more biocompatible than pure tussah silk fibroin or cover slip. Thus, the nanostructured composite has excellent biomimetic and mechanical properties and is a potential biocompatible scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26478319

  18. Fiber optics welder

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of vitamin B5 loaded poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone)/silk fiber aligned electrospun nanofibers for schwann cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bhutto, M Aqeel; Wu, Tong; Sun, Binbin; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration have been focusing on the development of alternative treatments for nerve repair. In present study we have blended the Vitamin B5 (50mg) with 8% P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL)/SF solutions and produced aligned electrospun nanofiber mashes and characterized the material for its physiochemical and mechanical characteristics. The vitamin loaded composites nanofibers showed tensile strength of 8.73±1.38 and 8.4±1.37 in P(LLA-CL)/Vt and P(LLA-CL)/SF/Vt nanofibers mashes, respectively. By the addition of vitamin B5 the P(LLA-CL) nanofibers become hydrophilic and the contact angle decreased from 96° to 0° in 6min of duration. The effect of vitamin B5 on Schwann cells proliferation and viability were analyzed by using MTT assay and the number of cells cultured on vitamin loaded nanofiber mashes was significantly higher than the without vitamin loaded nanofiber samples after 5th day (p<0.05) whereas, P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt exhibit the consistently highest cell numbers after 7th days culture as compare to P (LLA-CL)/Vt. The in vitro vitamin release behavior was observed in PBS solution and released vitamin was calculated by revers phase HPLC method. The sustain release behavior of vitamin B5 were noted higher in P(LLA-CL)/Vt (80%) nanofibers as compared to P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt (62%) nanofibers after 24h. The present work provided a basis for further studies of this novel aligned nanofibrous material in nerve tissue repair or regeneration. PMID:27085042

  20. ALIGNING JIG

    DOEpatents

    Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.

    1958-08-01

    A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.

  1. Improved delineation of short cortical association fibers and gray/white matter boundary using whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Song, Allen W; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Petty, Christopher; Guidon, Arnaud; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2014-11-01

    Recent emergence of human connectome imaging has led to a high demand on angular and spatial resolutions for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While there have been significant growths in high angular resolution diffusion imaging, the improvement in spatial resolution is still limited due to a number of technical challenges, such as the low signal-to-noise ratio and high motion artifacts. As a result, the benefit of a high spatial resolution in the whole-brain connectome imaging has not been fully evaluated in vivo. In this brief report, the impact of spatial resolution was assessed in a newly acquired whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging data set with an isotropic spatial resolution of 0.85 mm. It was found that the delineation of short cortical association fibers is drastically improved as well as the definition of fiber pathway endings into the gray/white matter boundary-both of which will help construct a more accurate structural map of the human brain connectome. PMID:25264168

  2. In vitro characterization of the impact of selected dietary fibers on fecal microbiota composition and short chain fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Martínez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rose, Devin J

    2013-10-01

    The effects of six dietary fibers [pectin, guar gum, inulin, arabinoxylan, β-glucan, and resistant starch] on the human fecal microbiota during in vitro fermentation were determined. Bifidobacterium increased almost 25% on pectin compared with the control; a significant increase in Bifidobacterium adolescentis type-2 was observed on resistant starch. Bacteroides exhibited a positive correlation with propionate/short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (r = 0.59, p < 0.01), while Ruminococcaceae and Faecalibacterium displayed positive correlations with butyrate/SCFA production (r = 0.39, 0.54, p < 0.01). A negative correlation was detected between inulin utilization and Subdoligranulum (r = -0.73, p ≤ 0.01), while strong positive relationships were found between β-glucan utilization and Firmicutes (r = 0.73, p ≤ 0.01) and resistant starch utilization and Blautia wexlerae (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). Dietary fibers have specific and unique impacts on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism. These findings provide a rationale for the development of functional ingredients targeted towards a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota. PMID:23831725

  3. Image alignment

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  4. Short-wavelength stimulated raman scattering in a silica fiber pumped by an XeBr excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mizunami, T.; Takagi, K.

    1989-08-01

    A UV-grade silica optical fiber was pumped by a 281.8 nm XeBr excimer laser. The first Stokes spectrum was observed at 285 nm. The spectral width was one half of that of the spontaneous Raman spectrum. A numerical analysis of stimulated Raman scattering which includes two-photon absorption loss is presented. The Raman-gain coefficient was determined by the analysis of observed nonlinearity in Stokes output and was found to be 1.8 x 10/sup -5/ cm/MW. It was also shown that two-photon absorption is a more important loss factor than linear attenuation. The shortest limit of wavelength for amplification by stimulated Raman scattering is also discussed.

  5. Assessment of MR-compatibility of SiPM PET insert using short optical fiber bundles for small animal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H. G.; Hong, S. J.; Ko, G. B.; Yoon, H. S.; Song, I. C.; Rhee, J. T.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide new perspectives in human disease research because of their complementary in-vivo imaging techniques. Previously, we have developed an MR-compatible PET insert based on optical fibers using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). However when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence was performed, signal intensity was slowly decreased by -0.9% over the 5.5 minutes and significant geometrical distortion was observed as the PET insert was installed inside an MRI bore, indicating that the PET electronics and its shielding boxes might have been too close to an MR imaging object. In this paper, optical fiber bundles with a length of 54 mm instead of 31 mm were employed to minimize PET interference on MR images. Furthermore, the LYSO crystals with a size of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7.0 mm3 were used instead of 2.47 × 2.74 × 20.0 mm3 for preclinical PET/MR applications. To improve the MR image quality, two receive-only loop coils were used. The effects of the PET insert on the SNR of the MR image either for morphological or advanced MR pulse sequences such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), functional MRI (fMRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were investigated. The quantitative MR compatibility such as B0 and B1 field homogeneity without PET, with `PET OFF', and with `PET ON' was also evaluated. In conclusion, B0 maps were not affected by the proposed PET insert whereas B1 maps were significantly affected by the PET insert. The advanced MRI sequences such as DWI, EPI, and MRS can be performed without a significant MR image quality degradation.

  6. 58 mJ burst containing ultra-short pulses with homogenous energy level from an Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkopf, Sven; Klenke, Arno; Gottschall, Thomas; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    There is a great interest in obtaining laser pulses with a high average power as well as high pulse energies. Continuously pulsed systems face many problems to satisfy those requirements, independent on the amplifier concept. While many applications such as electron beam characterization and free-electron-laser seeding need high pulse energies at high repetition rates, they only need those laser pulses for a certain amount of time. Therefore, it is not necessary to run a laser system with continuous pulses at those parameters and a so-called burst mode might be sufficient and even essential in such cases. We report on a CPA-laser system, based on a large pitch fiber as a main-amplifier delivering bursts containing ultra-short, highly-energetic pulses. The burst rate is set to 20Hz, while each burst contains 2000 pulses at a pulse-repetition-rate of 10MHz and with a pulse-duration of 700fs. Hence the duty cycle D is 0.4%. To achieve a homogeneous pulse energy level between 27μJ and 31μJ after the compression, the main amplifier is pumped with a very high power of 1.6kW in a burst-mode (D=10%). By using an acousto-optical modulator (AOM) after the main-amp fiber, the residual output before and after the burst is removed to suppress ASE and any underground-pulses around the amplified burst. The limitations that could be observed during this experiment were mainly due to mode instabilities, which were detectable even on a very short time scale of a few hundred μs using a high speed camera.

  7. Liquid crystal alignment in cylindrical microcapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chychłowski, M.; Yaroshchuk, O.; Kravchuk, R.; Woliński, T.

    2011-09-01

    A variety of alignment configurations of liquid crystals (LCs) inside the glassy cylindrical capillaries is realized by using alignment materials providing different anchoring. The radial configuration with central disclination line is obtained for homeotropic boundary conditions. In turn, the axial, transversal and tilted alignment structures are realized by using materials for planar anchoring. The uniformity and controlling of the latter structures were provided by photoalignment method. This approach can be further used to control LC alignment in the photonic crystal fibers recognized as advanced elements for different optical devices.

  8. Liquid crystal alignment in cylindrical microcapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chychłowski, M.; Yaroshchuk, O.; Kravchuk, R.; Woliński, T.

    2012-03-01

    A variety of alignment configurations of liquid crystals (LCs) inside the glassy cylindrical capillaries is realized by using alignment materials providing different anchoring. The radial configuration with central disclination line is obtained for homeotropic boundary conditions. In turn, the axial, transversal and tilted alignment structures are realized by using materials for planar anchoring. The uniformity and controlling of the latter structures were provided by photoalignment method. This approach can be further used to control LC alignment in the photonic crystal fibers recognized as advanced elements for different optical devices.

  9. Assessment of dietary fiber fermentation: effect of Lactobacillus reuteri and reproducibility of short-chain fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Maria L; Savarino, Vincenzo; Slavin, Joanne L

    2009-05-01

    This investigation had two aims: (i) to determine the reproducibility of SCFA production of two fibers: wheat dextrin and inulin, in two separate in vitro batch fermentation systems, and (ii) to determine if the addition Lactobacillus reuteri, a probiotic bacterium, enhanced the fermentation of wheat dextrin, inulin, and psyllium using in vitro batch fermentation. Samples were removed at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. SCFAs were measured by GC. L. reuteri improved inulin's fermentation profile by reducing the total SCFA peak at 4 h and enhancing fermentation at 8 and 12 h. Wheat dextrin and psyllium were largely unaffected. Wheat dextrin's total SCFA and propionate production curves were steady and replicable, but concentration values varied between fermentations. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) and wheat dextrin had similar fermentation patterns from 0-8 h, but PHGG plateaued at 8 h for all measures. Psyllium produced peak SCFA concentrations at 8 h, similar to inulin. L. reuteri could be combined with inulin for enhancing fermentation, but it does not improve wheat dextrin or psyllium fermentation. Wheat dextrin will likely produce similar physiological within a group of individuals due to the reproducibility of fermentation. PMID:18837468

  10. Fiber coating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2001-01-01

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  11. Fiber coating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2003-04-15

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  12. IUS prerelease alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Space shuttle orbiter/IUS alignment transfer was evaluated. Although the orbiter alignment accuracy was originally believed to be the major contributor to the overall alignment transfer error, it was shown that orbiter alignment accuracy is not a factor affecting IUS alignment accuracy, if certain procedures are followed. Results are reported of alignment transfer accuracy analysis.

  13. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  14. Transcript profiling by microarray and marker analysis of the short cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber mutant Ligon lintless-1 (Li1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber length is very important to the quality of textiles. Understanding the genetics and physiology of cotton fiber elongation can provide valuable tools to the cotton industry by targeting genes or other molecules responsible for fiber elongation. Ligon Lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic mutan...

  15. Coatings for graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fibers released from composites during burning or an explosion caused shorting of electrical and electronic equipment. Silicon carbide, silica, silicon nitride and boron nitride were coated on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistances. Resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than uncoated fiber were attained without any significant degradation of the substrate fiber. An organo-silicone approach to produce coated fibers with high electrical resistance was also used. Celion 6000 graphite fibers were coated with an organo-silicone compound, followed by hydrolysis and pyrolysis of the coating to a silica-like material. The shear and flexural strengths of composites made from high electrically resistant fibers were considerably lower than the shear and flexural strengths of composites made from the lower electrically resistant fibers. The lower shear strengths of the composites indicated that the coatings on these fibers were weaker than the coating on the fibers which were pyrolyzed at higher temperature.

  16. Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Reckenthaeler, Peter; Krausz, Ferenc; Centurion, Martin; Fuss, Werner; Trushin, Sergei A.; Fill, Ernst E.

    2009-05-29

    We experimentally demonstrate ultrafast electron diffraction from transiently aligned molecules in the absence of external (aligning) fields. A sample of aligned molecules is generated through photodissociation with femtosecond laser pulses, and the diffraction pattern is captured by probing the sample with picosecond electron pulses shortly after dissociation - before molecular rotation causes the alignment to vanish. In our experiments the alignment decays with a time constant of 2.6{+-}1.2 ps.

  17. Effect of Wheat Dietary Fiber Particle Size during Digestion In Vitro on Bile Acid, Faecal Bacteria and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Szwengiel, Artur; Górecka, Danuta; Gujska, Elżbieta; Kaczkowska, Joanna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    The influence of bile acid concentration on the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria was demonstrated. Exposing these bacteria to the environment containing bile acid salts, and very poor in nutrients, leads to the disappearance of these microorganisms due to the toxic effect of bile acids. A multidimensional analysis of data in the form of principal component analysis indicated that lactic acid bacteria bind bile acids and show antagonistic effect on E. coli spp. bacteria. The growth in E. coli spp. population was accompanied by a decline in the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. with a simultaneous reduction in the concentration of bile acids. This is direct proof of acid binding ability of the tested lactic acid bacteria with respect to cholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. This research demonstrated that the degree of fineness of wheat dietary fibre does not affect the sorption of bile acids and growth of some bacteria species; however, it has an impact on the profile of synthesized short-chained fatty acids. During the digestion of a very fine wheat fibre fraction (WF 90), an increase in the concentration of propionic and butyric acids, as compared with the wheat fiber fraction of larger particles - WF 500, was observed. Our study suggested that wheat fibre did not affect faecal bacteria growth, however, we observed binding of bile acids by Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. PMID:26924312

  18. Qualitative analysis of ultra-short optical dissipative solitary pulses in the actively mode-locked semiconductor heterolasers with an external fiber cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Campos Acosta, Joaquin; Moreno Zarate, Pedro; Pons Aglio, Alicia

    2011-02-01

    An advanced qualitative characterization of simultaneously existing various low-power trains of ultra-short optical pulses with an internal frequency modulation in a distributed laser system based on semiconductor heterostructure is presented. The scheme represents a hybrid cavity consisting of a single-mode heterolaser operating in the active mode-locking regime and an external long single-mode optical fiber exhibiting square-law dispersion, cubic Kerr nonlinearity, and linear optical losses. In fact, we consider the trains of optical dissipative solitons, which appear within double balance between the second-order dispersion and cubic-law nonlinearity as well as between the active-medium gain and linear optical losses in a hybrid cavity. Moreover, we operate on specially designed modulating signals providing non-conventional composite regimes of simultaneous multi-pulse active mode-locking. As a result, the mode-locking process allows shaping regular trains of picosecond optical pulses excited by multi-pulse independent on each other sequences of periodic modulations. In so doing, we consider the arranged hybrid cavity as a combination of a quasi-linear part responsible for the active mode-locking by itself and a nonlinear part determining the regime of dissipative soliton propagation. Initially, these parts are analyzed individually, and then the primarily obtained data are coordinated with each other. Within this approach, a contribution of the appeared cubically nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau operator is analyzed via exploiting an approximate variational procedure involving the technique of trial functions.

  19. Vegetable fiber fermentation by human fecal bacteria: cell wall polysaccharide disappearance and short-chain fatty acid production during in vitro fermentation and water-holding capacity of unfermented residues.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, L D; Titgemeyer, E C; Fahey, G C

    1993-05-01

    Dietary fiber from eight vegetables (broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, lettuce, onion and radish) was analyzed for chemical composition and potential in vitro fermentation by human fecal bacteria. Total dietary fiber concentration of substrates ranged from 34.9 (broccoli) to 5.8 (cucumber) g/kg edible matter. Substrate fiber fractions were composed primarily of pectic substances and cellulose with smaller concentrations of hemicelluloses and lignin. Total dietary fiber residues isolated from substrates were fermented in vitro for 24 h with fecal bacteria obtained from each of three human volunteers. Substrate dry matter disappearance during fermentation was highest for carrot (63.7%) and lowest for cucumber (49.4%). Averaged across all substrates, disappearances of arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose and uronic acids during fermentation were 96, 90, 54, 68, 51 and 97%, respectively. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production during substrate fermentation averaged 10.5 mmol SCFA/g dry matter fermented. Averaged across all substrates, production of the major SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate, occurred in the molar ratio 76:14:10. Potential water-holding capacity of substrates was not influenced by fiber source and averaged 2.04 g H2O/g original substrate dry matter. Extent of substrate fermentation, SCFA production and substrate potential water-holding capacity were significantly different among inoculum donors, indicating that considerable inter-individual variation exists in the potential in vivo fermentation of vegetable fiber. PMID:8387579

  20. DNA Align Editor: DNA Alignment Editor Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SNPAlignEditor is a DNA sequence alignment editor that runs on Windows platforms. The purpose of the program is to provide an intuitive, user-friendly tool for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments by providing functions for input, editing, and output of nucleotide sequence alignments....

  1. Array fiber welding on micro optical glass substrates for chip-to-fiber coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Henning; Neitz, Marcel; Brusberg, Lars; Queiser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Lang, K.-D.

    2014-03-01

    High bandwidth parallel optical transceivers are highly demanded for optical interconnects in data centers and in high performance computing. Such transceivers are composed of VCSEL- and photodiode components which have to be fiber coupled, and the appropriate driving and amplifying circuitry. For high density fiber optical connectors lens arrays for improved coupling efficiency have to be used. We propose an advantageous adhesive free method to interconnect optical fibers with such kind of lens arrays. Common approaches using adhesive bonding have high challenges in terms of yield, reliability and optical performance. We introduce our novel fiber welding approach for joining directly fused silica fibers on borosilicate glass substrates with integrated micro optics, e.g. lenses and lens arrays. It is a thermal process with a precise heat input by CO2-laser processing, which is combinable with sequential passive or active alignment of each single fiber to the substrate causing flexibility and highest coupling efficiencies. Since the fiber is accessed only from one side, a two dimensional high-density fiber array can be realized. The manufacturing time of such an interconnection is very short. Due to the adhesive free interface high power transmission is enabled and the occurrence of polymer caused misalignment and degradation are prevented. The paper presents current results in thin glass-based opto-electronic packaging. In particular our laboratory setup for array fiber welding and experimental results of such connections will be discussed and compared to UV-adhesive joining. Also further investigation, for example optical characterization and reliability tests are included. Finally a machine concept, which is under development, will be discussed.

  2. Fiber positioning and MRS response

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Polozov et al.

    2004-05-18

    This paper provides experimental results on the dependence of the output signal from small-area silicon photodetectors, such as MRS (Metal-Resistive layer-Semiconductor) photodiodes, on the fiber alignment.

  3. Photovoltaic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  4. Fiber optics: A research paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drone, Melinda M.

    1987-01-01

    Some basic aspects concerning fiber optics are examined. Some history leading up to the development of optical fibers which are now used in the transmission of data in many areas of the world is discussed. Basic theory of the operation of fiber optics is discussed along with methods for improving performance of the optical fiber through much research and design. Splices and connectors are compared and short haul and long haul fiber optic networks are discussed. Fiber optics plays many roles in the commercial world. The use of fiber optics for communication applications is emphasized.

  5. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  6. Single mode fiber and twin-core fiber connection technique for in-fiber integrated interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaotong; Guan, Chunying; Yang, Xinghua; Yuan, Libo

    2015-09-01

    A novel twin-core fiber connector has been made by two side-polished fibers. By using side polishing technique, we present a connector based on the twin-core fiber (TCF) and two D-shaped single-core fibers. After simple alignment and splicing, all fiber miniaturizing connector can be obtained. Two cores can operate independently and are non-interfering. The coupling loss of this connector is low and the fabrication technologies are mature. The connector device could be used for sensors or particle trapping.

  7. Nearest Alignment Space Termination

    2006-07-13

    Near Alignment Space Termination (NAST) is the Greengenes algorithm that matches up submitted sequences with the Greengenes database to look for similarities and align the submitted sequences based on those similarities.

  8. FLAX FIBER IN TEXTILES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    REFINED, SHORT STAPLE FLAX FIBER CAN BE BLENDED WITH COTTON AND SPUN ON DRY SYSTEMS THAT ARE PREVALENT IN THE U.S. RESEARCH IS REQUIRED TO OPTIMIZE THE FIBER PROPERTIES AND THE PROCESSING SYSTEMS TO MORE EFFICIENTLY BLEND FLAX WITH COTTON. INCLUSION OF FLAX WITH COTTON PROVIDES YARN AND FABRIC PROPE...

  9. Brillouin Lasing with a Reduced Self-Pulsing Characteristic Using a Short-Length Erbium-Doped Fiber as the Nonlinear Gain Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, A.; Z. R. R. Rosdin, R.; M. Ali, N.; H., Ahmad; W. Harun, S.

    2014-05-01

    A single-wavelength Brillouin laser is demonstrated by using a 3-m-long erbium doped fiber (EDF) in a ring cavity. The EDF is used to provide both nonlinear and linear gains to generate a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and to amplify the generated SBS, respectively. The Brillouin erbium fiber laser (BEFL) operates at 1561.5 nm, where the operating wavelength is up-shifted by 0.08nm from the Brillouin pump. The operation wavelength is also tunable within 1560.6-1562.6 nm. The BEFL also shows a self-pulsing characteristic with repetition of 66.7 kHz when the BP is set around the threshold pump power of 13mW. Compared to the conventional Brillouin fiber laser with a long cavity length, the proposed BEFL exhibits a significantly lower amplitude of pulse. This laser has many potential applications, such as in optical communication and sensors.

  10. FIBER LENGTH DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT FOR LONG GLASS AND CARBON FIBER REINFORCED INJECTION MOLDED THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J; Nguyen, Ba N.; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    Procedures for fiber length distribution (FLD) measurement of long fiber reinforced injection molded thermoplastics were refined for glass and carbon fibers. Techniques for sample selection, fiber separation, digitization and length measurement for both fiber types are described in detail. Quantitative FLD results are provided for glass and carbon reinforced polypropylene samples molded with a nominal original fiber length of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) using equipment optimized for molding short fiber reinforced thermoplastics.

  11. Shiva automatic pinhole alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Suski, G.J.

    1980-09-05

    This paper describes a computer controlled closed loop alignment subsystem for Shiva, which represents the first use of video sensors for large laser alignment at LLNL. The techniques used on this now operational subsystem are serving as the basis for all closed loop alignment on Nova, the 200 terawatt successor to Shiva.

  12. Fast statistical alignment.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Robert K; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior

    2009-05-01

    We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment--previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches--yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/. PMID:19478997

  13. Autotract: Automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets. PMID:27065227

  14. Autotract: automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets.

  15. Orientated Crystallization in Discontinuous Aramid Fiber/isotactic Polypropylene Composites under Shear Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Larin,B.; Marom, G.; Avila-Orta, C.; Somani, R.Hsiao, B.

    2005-01-01

    Melt blends of short aramid fibers (AF) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) are subjected to shear at 145 C and the structural evolution and final morphology are examined by in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering/diffraction and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the presence of short AFs significantly enhances the crystallization of iPP. It is argued that shear flow in this system exerts a twofold orientating action, namely, on the bulk iPP molecules and on the short AFs. The resultant crystalline morphology reflects the combined effects of crystallization on orientated iPP molecules to facilitate a shish kebab morphology and at the interface of the aligned fibers, to form transcrystallinity.

  16. Photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystals in microchannels.

    PubMed

    Budaszewski, Daniel; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Tam, Alwin M W; Wolinski, Tomasz R; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-08-15

    In this Letter we disclose a method to realize a good alignment of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) in microchannels, based on photo-alignment. The sulfonic azo dye used in our research offers variable anchoring energy depending on the irradiation energy and thus provides good control on the FLC alignment in microchannels. The good FLC alignment has been observed only when anchoring energy normalized to the capillary diameter is less than the elastic energy of the FLC helix. The same approach can also be used for the different microstructures viz. photonic crystal fibers, microwaveguides, etc. which gives an opportunity for designing a photonic devices based on FLC. PMID:25121847

  17. The optimal fiber volume fraction and fiber-matrix property compatibility in fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Ning

    1992-01-01

    Although the question of minimum or critical fiber volume fraction beyond which a composite can then be strengthened due to addition of fibers has been dealt with by several investigators for both continuous and short fiber composites, a study of maximum or optimal fiber volume fraction at which the composite reaches its highest strength has not been reported yet. The present analysis has investigated this issue for short fiber case based on the well-known shear lag (the elastic stress transfer) theory as the first step. Using the relationships obtained, the minimum spacing between fibers is determined upon which the maximum fiber volume fraction can be calculated, depending on the fiber packing forms within the composites. The effects on the value of this maximum fiber volume fraction due to such factors as fiber and matrix properties, fiber aspect ratio and fiber packing forms are discussed. Furthermore, combined with the previous analysis on the minimum fiber volume fraction, this maximum fiber volume fraction can be used to examine the property compatibility of fiber and matrix in forming a composite. This is deemed to be useful for composite design. Finally some examples are provided to illustrate the results.

  18. Physical and Biological Characterization of Ferromagnetic Fiber Networks: Effect of Fibrin Deposition on Short-Term In Vitro Responses of Human Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Rose L.; Srigengan, Brajith; Neelakantan, Suresh; Bosbach, Wolfram; Brooks, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ferromagnetic fiber networks have the potential to deform in vivo imparting therapeutic levels of strain on in-growing periprosthetic bone tissue. 444 Ferritic stainless steel provides a suitable material for this application due to its ability to support cultures of human osteoblasts (HObs) without eliciting undue inflammatory responses from monocytes in vitro. In the present article, a 444 fiber network, containing 17 vol% fibers, has been investigated. The network architecture was obtained by applying a skeletonization algorithm to three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of the fiber networks. Elastic properties were measured using low-frequency vibration testing, providing globally averaged properties as opposed to mechanical methods that yield only local properties. The optimal region for transduction of strain to cells lies between the ferromagnetic fibers. However, cell attachment, at early time points, occurs primarily on fiber surfaces. Deposition of fibrin, a fibrous protein involved in acute inflammatory responses, can facilitate cell attachment within this optimal region at early time points. The current work compared physiological (3 and 5 g·L−1) and supraphysiological fibrinogen concentrations (10 g·L−1), using static in vitro seeding of HObs, to determine the effect of fibrin deposition on cell responses during the first week of cell culture. Early cell attachment within the interfiber spaces was observed in all fibrin-containing samples, supported by fibrin nanofibers. Fibrin deposition influenced the seeding, metabolic activity, and early stage differentiation of HObs cultured in the fibrin-containing fiber networks in a concentration-dependant manner. While initial cell attachment for networks with fibrin deposited from low physiological concentrations was similar to control samples without fibrin deposition, significantly higher HObs attached onto high physiological and supraphysiological concentrations. Despite higher cell

  19. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  20. Alignment and nonlinear elasticity in biopolymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jingchen; Levine, Herbert; Mao, Xiaoming; Sander, Leonard M.

    2015-04-01

    We present a Landau-type theory for the nonlinear elasticity of biopolymer gels with a part of the order parameter describing induced nematic order of fibers in the gel. We attribute the nonlinear elastic behavior of these materials to fiber alignment induced by strain. We suggest an application to contact guidance of cell motility in tissue. We compare our theory to simulation of a disordered lattice model for biopolymers. We treat homogeneous deformations such as simple shear, hydrostatic expansion, and simple extension, and obtain good agreement between theory and simulation. We also consider a localized perturbation which is a simple model for a contracting cell in a medium.

  1. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  2. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  3. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  4. Orthodontics and Aligners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth-Colored Fillings Orthodontics and Aligners Straighten teeth for a healthier smile. Orthodontics When consumers think about orthodontics, braces are the ...

  5. Alignability of Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Russell Scott

    With the continuing drive towards higher speed, density, and functionality in electronics, electrical interconnects become inadequate. Due to optics' high speed and bandwidth, freedom from capacitive loading effects, and freedom from crosstalk, optical interconnects can meet more stringent interconnect requirements. But, an optical interconnect requires additional components, such as an optical source and detector, lenses, holographic elements, etc. Fabrication and assembly of an optical interconnect requires precise alignment of these components. The successful development and deployment of optical interconnects depend on how easily the interconnect components can be aligned and/or how tolerant the interconnect is to misalignments. In this thesis, a method of quantitatively specifying the relative difficulty of properly aligning an optical interconnect is described. Ways of using this theory of alignment to obtain design and packaging guidelines for optical interconnects are examined. The measure of the ease with which an optical interconnect can be aligned, called the alignability, uses the efficiency of power transfer as a measure of alignment quality. The alignability is related to interconnect package design through the overall cost measure, which depends upon various physical parameters of the interconnect, such as the cost of the components and the time required for fabrication and alignment. Through a mutual dependence on detector size, the relationship between an interconnect's alignability and its bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and bit-error -rate is examined. The results indicate that a range of device sizes exists for which given performance threshold values are satisfied. Next, the alignability of integrated planar-optic backplanes is analyzed in detail. The resulting data show that the alignability can be optimized by varying the substrate thickness or the angle of reflection. By including the effects of crosstalk, in a multi-channel backplane, the

  6. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  7. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R. ); Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W. ); Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E. )

    1994-08-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1[degree]--7[degree]). The 7 [lambda] deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented.

  8. GRAT--genome-scale rapid alignment tool.

    PubMed

    Kindlund, Ellen; Tammi, Martti T; Arner, Erik; Nilsson, Daniel; Andersson, Björn

    2007-04-01

    Modern alignment methods designed to work rapidly and efficiently with large datasets often do so at the cost of method sensitivity. To overcome this, we have developed a novel alignment program, GRAT, built to accurately align short, highly similar DNA sequences. The program runs rapidly and requires no more memory and CPU power than a desktop computer. In addition, specificity is ensured by statistically separating the true alignments from spurious matches using phred quality values. An efficient separation is especially important when searching large datasets and whenever there are repeats present in the dataset. Results are superior in comparison to widely used existing software, and analysis of two large genomic datasets show the usefulness and scalability of the algorithm. PMID:17292508

  9. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, W. W.; Glenn, W. H.; Snitzer, E.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature sensor has been developed that utilizes the temperature dependent absorption of a rare earth doped optical fiber. The temperature measurement is localized at a remote position by splicing a short section of the rare earth fiber into a loop of commercial data communication fiber that sends and returns an optical probe signal to the temperature sensitive section of fiber. The optical probe signal is generated from two different wavelength filtered LED sources. A four port fiber optic coupler combines the two separate wavelength signals into the fiber sensing loop. Time multiplexing is used so that each signal wavelength is present at a different time. A reference signal level measurement is also made from the LED sources and a ratio taken with the sensor signal to produce a transmission measurement of the fiber loop. The transmission is affected differently at each wavelength by the rare earth temperature sensitive fiber. The temperature is determined from a ratio of the two transmission measurements. This method eliminates any ambiguity with respect to changes in signal level in the fiber loop such as mating and unmating optical connectors. The temperature range of the sensor is limited to about 800 C by the temperature limit fo the feed fibers.

  10. Efficient and short-range light coupling to index-matched liquid-filled hole in a solid-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Rodrigo M; Spadoti, Danilo H; de Matos, Christiano J S; Menezes, Leonardo de S; Franco, Marcos A R

    2011-11-21

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a section of one of the holes next to the solid core filled with an index-matched liquid is studied. Liquid filling alters the core geometry, which locally comprises the original silica core, the liquid channel and the silica around it. It is demonstrated that when light reaches the filled section, it periodically and efficiently couples to the liquid, via the excitation of a number of modes of the composite core, with coupling lengths ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. The resulting modal-interference-modulated spectrum shows temperature sensitivity as high as 5.35 nm/°C. The proposed waveguide geometry presents itself as an interesting way to pump and/or to probe liquid media within the fiber, combining advantages usually found separately in liquid-filled hollow-core PCFs (high light-liquid overlap) and in solid-core PCFs (low insertion losses). Therefore, pumping and luminescence guiding with a PCF filled with a Rhodamine solution is also demonstrated. PMID:22109496

  11. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  12. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  13. SPEAR3 Construction Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    LeCocq, Catherine; Banuelos, Cristobal; Fuss, Brian; Gaudreault, Francis; Gaydosh, Michael; Griffin, Levirt; Imfeld, Hans; McDougal, John; Perry, Michael; Rogers, Michael; /SLAC

    2005-08-17

    An ambitious seven month shutdown of the existing SPEAR2 synchrotron radiation facility was successfully completed in March 2004 when the first synchrotron light was observed in the new SPEAR3 ring, SPEAR3 completely replaced SPEAR2 with new components aligned on a new highly-flat concrete floor. Devices such as magnets and vacuum chambers had to be fiducialized and later aligned on girder rafts that were then placed into the ring over pre-aligned support plates. Key to the success of aligning this new ring was to ensure that the new beam orbit matched the old SPEAR2 orbit so that existing experimental beamlines would not have to be reoriented. In this presentation a pictorial summary of the Alignment Engineering Group's surveying tasks for the construction of the SPEAR3 ring is provided. Details on the networking and analysis of various surveys throughout the project can be found in the accompanying paper.

  14. Multianode Photomultiplier Tube Alignment for the MINERvA Experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    The MINERvA experiment (Main INjector ExpeRiment vA) at FNAL will study the neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-nucleus interaction. The light collection from the detector will be done via optic fibers using Hamamatsu H8804 64-channel photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Each PMT channel needs to be precisely aligned with the corresponding optic fiber. The MINERvA PMT optical boxes contain precision machined optic ``cookies'' which capture the 8x8 array of optic fibers. Each PMT-cookie pair needs to be aligned as precisely as possible. This contribution will describe the alignment setup and procedure implemented at James Madison University.

  15. Real-time high-resolution measurement of collagen alignment in dynamically loaded soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Timothy; Kahan, Lindsey; Lake, Spencer P.; Gruev, Viktor

    2014-06-01

    A technique for creating maps of the direction and strength of fiber alignment in collagenous soft tissues is presented. The method uses a division of focal plane polarimeter to measure circularly polarized light transmitted through the tissue. The architecture of the sensor allows measurement of the retardance and fiber alignment at the full frame rate of the sensor without any moving optics. The technique compares favorably to the standard method of using a rotating polarizer. How the new technique enables real-time capture of the full angular spread of fiber alignment and retardance under various cyclic loading conditions is illustrated.

  16. Flexible polymeric rib waveguide with self-align couplers system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a polymeric based rib waveguide with U shape self-align fiber couplers system using a simple micromolding process with SU8 as a molding material and polydimethysiloxane as a waveguide material. The material is used for its good optical transparency, low surface tension, biocompatibility, and durability. Furthermore, the material is highly formable. This unique fabrication molding technique provides a means of keeping the material and manufacturing costs to a minimum. The self-align fiber couplers system also proves a fast and simple means of light coupling. The flexible nature of the waveguide material makes this process ideal for a potential wearable optical sensor. PMID:22171151

  17. Safely splicing glass optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korbelak, K.

    1980-01-01

    Field-repair technique fuses glass fibers in flammable environment. Apparatus consists of v-groove vacuum chucks on manipulators, high-voltage dc power supply and tungsten electrodes, microscope to observe joint alignment and fusion, means of test transmission through joint. Apparatus is enclosed in gas tight bos filled with inert gas during fusion. About 2 feet of fiber end are necessary for splicing.

  18. Shear adhesion strength of aligned electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Najem, Johnny F; Wong, Shing-Chung; Ji, Guang

    2014-09-01

    Inspiration from nature such as insects' foot hairs motivates scientists to fabricate nanoscale cylindrical solids that allow tens of millions of contact points per unit area with material substrates. In this paper, we present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive shear adhesive laminates. By using aligned electrospun nylon-6, we create dry adhesives, as a succession of our previous work on measuring adhesion energies between two single free-standing electrospun polymer fibers in cross-cylinder geometry, randomly oriented membranes and substrate, and peel forces between aligned fibers and substrate. The synthetic aligned cylindrical solids in this study are electrically insulating and show a maximal Mode II shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm(2) on a glass slide. This measured value, for the purpose of comparison, is 270% of that reported from gecko feet. The Mode II shear adhesion strength, based on a commonly known "dead-weight" test, is 97-fold greater than the Mode I (normal) adhesion strength of the same. The data indicate a strong shear binding on and easy normal lifting off. Anisotropic adhesion (Mode II/Mode I) is pronounced. The size and surface boundary effects, crystallinity, and bending stiffness of fibers are used to understand these electrospun nanofibers, which vastly differ from otherwise known adhesive technologies. The anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to a decreasing fiber diameter and an optimized laminate thickness, which, in turn, influences the bending stiffness and solid-state "wettability" of points of contact between nanofibers and surface asperities. PMID:25105533

  19. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  20. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  1. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  2. Transfer alignment design and experiment evaluation of the SINS for GMLRS artillery rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jinchuan; Qin, Yongyuan; Xia, Jiahe; Yang, Pengxiang; Yan, Gongmin; Song, Yong; Fu, Yingfeng

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the effort to develop a transfer alignment algorithm designed to align a low-cost Fiber Optic Gyroscope Inertial Measurement Unit(FOG-IMU) with the Position and Azimuth Determining System(PADS) of Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System(GMLRS) in a short time with high accuracy. The Ring Laser Gyroscope IMU(RLG-IMU) of the PADS is defined as the Master Inertial Navigation System(MINS) and the FOG-IMU as the Slave Inertial Navigation System(SINS). The accurate attitude initializing of SINS based on the attitude information of both INSs can be accomplished by providing the normal launch motion(pitch and yaw). The relevant state equations and measurement equations of transfer alignment Kalman Filter(KF) are presented. A particular calibrating scheme is designed to determinate the parameters of the MINS and SINS just in the same time. The algorithm is verified by laboratory testing of both INSs under the compound manoeuvre of a three-axis turntable modeling the launch procedure of GMLRS.

  3. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  4. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-10-04

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  5. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  6. Antares alignment gimbal positioner

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Saxman, A.C.; Lujan, R.E.; Woodfin, G.L.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon-dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, and wavefront optical path difference, as well as aberration information at both helium-neon (He-Ne) and CO/sub 2/ wavelengths. It is designed to allow the laser beams to be aligned to any position within a 1-cm cube to a tolerance of 10 ..mu..m.

  7. EINSTEIN Cluster Alignments Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, S. W.; Melott, A. L.; Miller, C. J.

    2000-12-01

    We have examined whether the major axes of rich galaxy clusters tend to point (in projection) toward their nearest neighboring cluster. We used the data of Ulmer, McMillan and Kowalski, who used x-ray morphology to define position angles. Our cluster samples, with well measured redshifts and updated positions, were taken from the MX Northern Abell Cluster Survey. The usual Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows no significant alignment signal for nonrandom angles for all separations less than 100 Mpc/h. Refining the null hypothesis, however, with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, reveals a high confidence signal for alignment. This confidence is highest when we restrict our sample to small nearest neighbor separations. We conclude that we have identified a more powerful tool for testing cluster-cluster alignments. Moreover, there is a strong signal in the data for alignment, consistent with a picture of hierarchical cluster formation in which matter falls into clusters along large scale filamentary structures.

  8. Numerical prediction of flow induced fibers orientation in injection molded polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumer, A. N.; Hamidi, N. M.; Mat Sahat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Since the filling stage of injection molding process has important effect on the determination of the orientation state of the fibers, accurate analysis of the flow field for the mold filling stage becomes a necessity. The aim of the paper is to characterize the flow induced orientation state of short fibers in injection molding cavities. A dog-bone shaped model is considered for the simulation and experiment. The numerical model for determination of the fibers orientation during mold-filling stage of injection molding process was solved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software called MoldFlow. Both the simulation and experimental results showed that two different regions (or three layers of orientation structures) across the thickness of the specimen could be found: a shell region which is near to the mold cavity wall, and a core region at the middle of the cross section. The simulation results support the experimental observations that for thin plates the probability of fiber alignment to the flow direction near the mold cavity walls is high but low at the core region. It is apparent that the results of this study could assist in decisions regarding short fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  9. Eliminating crystals in non-oxide optical fiber preforms and optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R. (Inventor); Tucker, Dennis S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for eliminating crystals in non-oxide optical fiber preforms as well as optical fibers drawn therefrom. The optical-fiber-drawing axis of the preform is aligned with the force of gravity. A magnetic field is applied to the preform as it is heated to at least a melting temperature thereof. The magnetic field is applied in a direction that is parallel to the preform's optical-fiber-drawing axis. The preform is then cooled to a temperature that is less than a glass transition temperature of the preform while the preform is maintained in the magnetic field. When the processed preform is to have an optical fiber drawn therefrom, the preform's optical-fiber-drawing axis is again aligned with the force of gravity and a magnetic field is again applied along the axis as the optical fiber is drawn from the preform.

  10. Electrospun nanofiber reinforcement of dental composites with electromagnetic alignment approach.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Tansel; Çökeliler, Dilek; Doğan, Mustafa; Koçum, Ismail Cengiz; Karatay, Okan; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-05-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used as a base acrylic denture material with benefits of rapid and easy handling, however, when it is used in prosthetic dentistry, fracturing or cracking problems can be seen due to the relatively low strength issues. Besides, acrylic resin is the still prominent material for denture fabrication due to its handy and low cost features. Numerous proposed fillers that are used to produce PMMA composites, however electrospun polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofiber fillers for production of PMMA composite resins are not studied as much as the others. The other focus of the practice is to compare both mechanical properties and efficiency of aligned fibers versus non-aligned PVA nanofibers in PMMA based dental composites. Field-controlled electrospinning system is manufactured and provided good alignment in lab scale as one of contributions. Some novel auxiliary electrodes in controlled structure are augmented to obtain different patterns of alignment with a certain range of fiber diameters. Scanning electron microscopy is used for physical characterization to determine the range of fiber diameters. Non-woven fiber has no unique pattern due to chaotic nature of electrospinning process, but aligned fibers have round pattern or crossed lines. These produced fibers are structured as layer-by-layer form with different features, and these features are used in producing PMMA dental composites with different volume ratios. The maximum flexural strength figure shows that fiber load by weight of 0.25% w/w and above improves in the maximum level. As a result, mechanical properties of PMMA dental composites are improved by using PVA nanofibers as a filler, however the improvement was higher when aligned PVA nanofibers are used. The maximum values were 5.1 MPa (flexural strength), 0.8 GPa (elastic modulus), and 170 kJ/m(3) (toughness) in three-point bending test. In addition to the positive results of aligned and non-aligned nanofibers it was found

  11. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  12. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprintmore » that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.« less

  13. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  14. STAR: ultrafast universal RNA-seq aligner

    PubMed Central

    Dobin, Alexander; Davis, Carrie A.; Schlesinger, Felix; Drenkow, Jorg; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Batut, Philippe; Chaisson, Mark; Gingeras, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Accurate alignment of high-throughput RNA-seq data is a challenging and yet unsolved problem because of the non-contiguous transcript structure, relatively short read lengths and constantly increasing throughput of the sequencing technologies. Currently available RNA-seq aligners suffer from high mapping error rates, low mapping speed, read length limitation and mapping biases. Results: To align our large (>80 billon reads) ENCODE Transcriptome RNA-seq dataset, we developed the Spliced Transcripts Alignment to a Reference (STAR) software based on a previously undescribed RNA-seq alignment algorithm that uses sequential maximum mappable seed search in uncompressed suffix arrays followed by seed clustering and stitching procedure. STAR outperforms other aligners by a factor of >50 in mapping speed, aligning to the human genome 550 million 2 × 76 bp paired-end reads per hour on a modest 12-core server, while at the same time improving alignment sensitivity and precision. In addition to unbiased de novo detection of canonical junctions, STAR can discover non-canonical splices and chimeric (fusion) transcripts, and is also capable of mapping full-length RNA sequences. Using Roche 454 sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplicons, we experimentally validated 1960 novel intergenic splice junctions with an 80–90% success rate, corroborating the high precision of the STAR mapping strategy. Availability and implementation: STAR is implemented as a standalone C++ code. STAR is free open source software distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/rna-star/. Contact: dobin@cshl.edu. PMID:23104886

  15. Imaging characteristics of an 8.8  mm long and 125  μm thick graded-index short multimode fiber probe.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manabu; Shouji, Kou; Saito, Daisuke; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-04-20

    We demonstrated the feasibility of an ultrathin imaging probe with a 50-μm core diameter, a 125 μm total diameter, and an 8.8 mm length, which is a typical graded-index multimode fiber for optical communications. We used an ABCD matrix to analyze the imaging conditions and magnification, which corresponded closely to the measured results. The lateral resolution was calculated at 1.2 μm with a wavelength of 730 nm, which reflects the image test pattern where a period of 4.38 μm was measured with a wavelength of 730 nm. In the numerical aperture of the objective lens, we experimentally evaluated the tradeoff between the magnification and the coupling efficiency. At four wavelengths of 540 nm, 632 nm, 730 nm, and 852 nm, the contrast and signal intensity versus the wavelength were investigated to show that the contrast at 632 and 730 nm is relatively high. By using a thin random phase screen model, we explained that as the wavelength decreases the greater the decrease in the optical transfer function at higher spatial frequencies. Using a 635 nm LED light source, we imaged the surfaces of chicken tendons in contact and the surface roughness was visible. PMID:27140102

  16. Analysis of originating ultra-short optical dissipative solitary pulses in the actively mode-locked semiconductor heterolasers with an external fiber cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Campos Acosta, Joaquin; Pons Aglio, Alicia; Moreno Zarate, Pedro; Mansurova, Svetlana

    2010-06-01

    We present an advanced approach to describing low-power trains of bright picosecond optical dissipative solitary pulses with an internal frequency modulation in practically important case of exploiting semiconductor heterolaser operating in near-infrared range in the active mode-locking regime. In the chosen schematic arrangement, process of the active mode-locking is caused by a hybrid nonlinear cavity consisting of this heterolaser and an external rather long single-mode optical fiber exhibiting square-law dispersion, cubic Kerr nonlinearity, and small linear optical losses. Our analysis of shaping dissipative solitary pulses includes three principal contributions associated with the modulated gain, total optical losses, as well as with linear and nonlinear phase shifts. In fact, various trains of the non-interacting to one another optical dissipative solitons appear within simultaneous balance between the second-order dispersion and cubic-law Kerr nonlinearity as well as between active medium gain and linear optical losses in a hybrid cavity. Our specific approach makes possible taking the modulating signals providing non-conventional composite regimes of a multi-pulse active mode-locking. Within our model, a contribution of the appearing nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau operator to the parameters of dissipative solitary pulses is described via exploiting an approximate variational procedure involving the technique of trial functions.

  17. Controlling the oriented growth of Ti{sub 2}SnC grains with carbon fiber as a reactive template in the Ti-Sn-C system

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shibo Bei Guoping; Xiang Weihua; Zhai Hongxiang; Zhou Yang; Zhang Zhili; Li Cuiwei

    2009-05-06

    Carbon short fibers with a length of {approx}3 mm used as a reactive template were mixed with Ti and Sn powders. The mixture was pressurelessly sintered at 1200 deg. C for 2 h in a vacuum atmosphere. The microstructure shows that Ti{sub 2}SnC grains with a plate-like shape grow along a preferred direction, forming a 'string' structure in which Ti{sub 2}SnC platelets pack themselves closely with a top-bottom-top-bottom sequence. With increasing the length of the C fibers, the length of the 'string' structures increases. A large amount of long and aligned 'string' structures have formed after sintering the samples prepared by infiltration of the carbon short fibers with a length of {approx}50 mm in a Ti-Sn slurry and then stacking and cold pressing. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively were used to analyze and observe the phase composition and microstructure.

  18. Critical reviews of fiber-optic communication technology Optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapron, F. P.

    The review begins with brief highlights of the history of fiber optics, followed by a discussion of the attributes of shortwave and longwave transmission. This leads to an investigation of various fiber types, short-haul considerations, and then single-mode aspects. Specialty fiber is briefly covered, followed by a survey of several research trends today that will lead to new systems capabilities in the future. No references are given, since hundreds would be necessary to make the list even partially complete.

  19. Mechanical alignment of particles for use in fabricating superconducting and permanent magnetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Nellis, William J.; Maple, M. Brian

    1992-01-01

    A method for mechanically aligning oriented superconducting or permanently magnetic materials for further processing into constructs. This pretreatment optimizes the final crystallographic orientation and, thus, properties in these constructs. Such materials as superconducting fibers, needles and platelets are utilized.

  20. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  1. Fiber Sensor Technology Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotate, Kazuo

    2006-08-01

    Fiber sensor technologies are overviewed. Since the early 1970s, this field has been developed, on the basis of the same devices and photonic principles as fiber communication technologies. Besides simple configurations, in which the fiber acts only as a data transmission line, sophisticated configurations have also been developed, in which the fiber is used as a device to realize unique sensing mechanisms. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is a good example, and has been developed as an absolute rotation sensor used, for example, for navigation and/or attitude control applications. Compared with traditional spinning-mass gyroscopes, the FOG has advantages, such as a short warming-up time, a light weight, and easy handling. A Japanese satellite, which was launched in August 2005 with a mission to observe the aurora, is controlled with a FOG. The FOG has also been used in consumer applications, such as the camera stabilizer, radio-controlled (RC) helicopter navigation, and the control of humanoid robots. Recently, distributed and multiplexed sensing schemes, in particular, have been studied and developed, in which a long fiber acts like a “nerve” for feeling the strain and/or the temperature distribution along the fiber. Performances of artificial nerve systems have markedly improved within the last couple of years, in spatial resolution and measurement speed. By embedding the “fiber-optic nerve system” in aircraft wings, bridges and tall buildings, these materials and structures can sense damage to prevent disasters.

  2. pH-sensing properties of cascaded long- and short-period fiber grating with poly acrylic acid/poly allylamine hydrochloride thin-film overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Based on coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix method, the mode coupling mechanism and the reflection spectral properties of coated cascaded long- and short-period gratings (CLBG) are discussed. The effects of the thin-film parameters (film refractive index and film thickness) on the reflection spectra of the coated CLBG are simulated. By using electrostatic self-assembly method, poly acrylic acid (PAA) and poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) multilayer molecular pH-sensitive thin-films are assembled on the surface of the partial corroded CLBG. When the CLBG coated with PAA/PAH films are used to sense pH values, the resonant wavelengths of the CLBG have almost no shift, whereas the resonance peak reflectivities change with pH values. In addition, the sensitivities of the resonance peak reflectivities responding to pH values are improved by an order of magnitude.

  3. BBMap: A Fast, Accurate, Splice-Aware Aligner

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, Brian

    2014-03-17

    Alignment of reads is one of the primary computational tasks in bioinformatics. Of paramount importance to resequencing, alignment is also crucial to other areas - quality control, scaffolding, string-graph assembly, homology detection, assembly evaluation, error-correction, expression quantification, and even as a tool to evaluate other tools. An optimal aligner would greatly improve virtually any sequencing process, but optimal alignment is prohibitively expensive for gigabases of data. Here, we will present BBMap [1], a fast splice-aware aligner for short and long reads. We will demonstrate that BBMap has superior speed, sensitivity, and specificity to alternative high-throughput aligners bowtie2 [2], bwa [3], smalt, [4] GSNAP [5], and BLASR [6].

  4. Transfer of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) while maintaining their alignment and impalefection functionality.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Ryan C; Railsback, Justin G; Anderson, Bryan D; Sarac, Mehmet F; McKnight, Timothy E; Tracy, Joseph B; Melechko, Anatoli V

    2013-02-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are synthesized on Al 3003 alloy substrates by direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Chemically synthesized Ni nanoparticles were used as the catalyst for growth. The Si-containing coating (SiN(x)) typically created when VACNFs are grown on silicon was produced by adding Si microparticles prior to growth. The fiber arrays were transferred to PDMS by spin coating a layer on the grown substrates, curing the PDMS, and etching away the Al in KOH. The fiber arrays contain many fibers over 15 μm (long enough to protrude from the PDMS film and penetrate cell membranes) and SiN(x) coatings as observed by SEM, EDX, and fluorescence microscopy. The free-standing array in PDMS was loaded with pVENUS-C1 plasmid and human brain microcapillary endothelial (HBMEC) cells and was successfully impalefected. PMID:23281833

  5. How genome complexity can explain the difficulty of aligning reads to genomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although it is frequently observed that aligning short reads to genomes becomes harder if they contain complex repeat patterns, there has not been much effort to quantify the relationship between complexity of genomes and difficulty of short-read alignment. Existing measures of sequence complexity seem unsuitable for the understanding and quantification of this relationship. Results We investigated several measures of complexity and found that length-sensitive measures of complexity had the highest correlation to accuracy of alignment. In particular, the rate of distinct substrings of length k, where k is similar to the read length, correlated very highly to alignment performance in terms of precision and recall. We showed how to compute this measure efficiently in linear time, making it useful in practice to estimate quickly the difficulty of alignment for new genomes without having to align reads to them first. We showed how the length-sensitive measures could provide additional information for choosing aligners that would align consistently accurately on new genomes. Conclusions We formally established a connection between genome complexity and the accuracy of short-read aligners. The relationship between genome complexity and alignment accuracy provides additional useful information for selecting suitable aligners for new genomes. Further, this work suggests that the complexity of genomes sometimes should be thought of in terms of specific computational problems, such as the alignment of short reads to genomes. PMID:26678826

  6. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  7. A Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid Selectively Modulates Caecum Microbiota and Inhibits β-Glucosidase Activity, Altering Fiber and Short Chain Fatty Acids Fecal Excretion in Lean and Obese Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Larrosa, Mar; Obiol, María; García-Villalba, Rocío; González-Barrio, Rocío; Issaly, Nicolas; Flanagan, John; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A.; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background Carnosic acid (CA) and rosemary extracts (RE) show body-weight, energy metabolism and inflammation regulatory properties in animal models but the mechanisms are not yet understood. Gut microbiota plays an important role in the host metabolism and inflammatory status and is modulated by the diet. The aim of this research was to investigate whether a RE enriched in CA affected caecum microbiota composition and activity in a rat model of genetic obesity. Methods and Principal Findings A RE (40% CA) was administered with the diet (0.5% w/w) to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats for 64 days. Changes in the microbiota composition and β-glucosidase activity in the caecum and in the levels of macronutrients and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces were examined. The RE increased the Blautia coccoides and Bacteroides/Prevotella groups and reduced the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococccus group in both types of animals. Clostridium leptum was significantly decreased and Bifidobacterium increased only in the lean rats. β-Glucosidase activity was significantly reduced and fecal fiber excretion increased in the two genotypes. The RE also increased the main SCFA excreted in the feces of the obese rats but decreased them in the lean rats reflecting important differences in the uptake and metabolism of these molecules between the two genotypes. Conclusions Our results indicate that the consumption of a RE enriched in CA modifies microbiota composition and decreases β-glucosidase activity in the caecum of female Zucker rats while it increases fiber fecal elimination. These results may contribute to explain the body weight gain reducing effects of the RE. The mutated leptin receptor of the obese animals significantly affects the microbiota composition, the SCFA fecal excretion and the host response to the RE intake. PMID:24733124

  8. Soliton transmission and supercontinuum generation in holey fiber, using a diode pumped Ytterbium fiber source.

    PubMed

    Price, Jonathan; Belardi, W; Monro, T; Malinowski, A; Piper, A; Richardson, D

    2002-04-22

    We report linear dispersion compensation, soliton pulse formation, soliton compression, and ultra-broad supercontinuum generation in a holey fiber with anomalous dispersion at wavelengths above 800nm. The holey fiber was seeded with ultrashort pulses from a diode pumped, Ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber source operating at 1.06 microm. The results highlight the compatibility of the rapidly developing holey fiber technology with short pulse Yb-doped fiber lasers for wide application. PMID:19436371

  9. Influence of fiber packing structure on permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Berdichevsky, Alexander L.

    1993-01-01

    The study on the permeability of an aligned fiber bundle is the key building block in modeling the permeability of advanced woven and braided preforms. Available results on the permeability of fiber bundles in the literature show that a substantial difference exists between numerical and analytical calculations on idealized fiber packing structures, such as square and hexagonal packing, and experimental measurements on practical fiber bundles. The present study focuses on the variation of the permeability of a fiber bundle under practical process conditions. Fiber bundles are considered as containing openings and fiber clusters within the bundle. Numerical simulations on the influence of various openings on the permeability were conducted. Idealized packing structures are used, but with introduced openings distributed in different patterns. Both longitudinal and transverse flow are considered. The results show that openings within the fiber bundle have substantial effect on the permeability. In the longitudinal flow case, the openings become the dominant flow path. In the transverse flow case, the fiber clusters reduce the gap sizes among fibers. Therefore the permeability is greatly influenced by these openings and clusters, respectively. In addition to the porosity or fiber volume fraction, which is commonly used in the permeability expression, another fiber bundle status parameter, the ultimate fiber volume fraction, is introduced to capture the disturbance within a fiber bundle.

  10. Optimizing parameters on alignment of PCL/PGA nanofibrous scaffold: An artificial neural networks approach.

    PubMed

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Amani, Amir; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Saber, Reza; Faridi-Majidi, Reza

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an artificial neural networks approach to finding the effects of electrospinning parameters on alignment of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/poly(glycolic acid) blend nanofibers. Four electrospinning parameters, namely total polymer concentration, working distance, drum speed and applied voltage were considered as input and the standard deviation of the angles of nanofibers, introducing fibers alignments, as the output of the model. The results demonstrated that drum speed and applied voltage are two critical factors influencing nanofibers alignment, however their effect are entirely interdependent. Their effects also are not independent of other electrospinning parameters. In obtaining aligned electrospun nanofibers, the concentration and working distance can also be effective. In vitro cell culture study on random and aligned nanofibers showed directional growth of cells on aligned fibers. PMID:25450538

  11. FMIT alignment cart

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

  12. Barrel alignment fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, J. D.

    1981-04-01

    Fabrication of slapper type detonator cables requires bonding of a thin barrel over a bridge. Location of the barrel hole with respect to the bridge is critical: the barrel hole must be centered over the bridge uniform spacing on each side. An alignment fixture which permits rapid adjustment of the barrel position with respect to the bridge is described. The barrel is manipulated by pincer-type fingers which are mounted on a small x-y table equipped with micrometer adjustments. Barrel positioning, performed under a binocular microscopy, is rapid and accurate. After alignment, the microscope is moved out of position and an infrared (IR) heat source is aimed at the barrel. A 5-second pulse of infrared heat flows the adhesive under the barrel and bonds it to the cable. Sapphire and Fotoform glass barrels were bonded successfully with the alignment fixture.

  13. Improved docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for the alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for 3-D translation and 3-D rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera is affixed to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface is affixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture. A monitor displays in real-time images from the camera such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible marking on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  14. Optics Alignment Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The Optics Alignment Panel (OAP) was commissioned by the HST Science Working Group to determine the optimum alignment of the OTA optics. The goal was to find the position of the secondary mirror (SM) for which there is no coma or astigmatism in the camera images due to misaligned optics, either tilt or decenter. The despace position was reviewed of the SM and the optimum focus was sought. The results of these efforts are as follows: (1) the best estimate of the aligned position of the SM in the notation of HDOS is (DZ,DY,TZ,TY) = (+248 microns, +8 microns, +53 arcsec, -79 arcsec), and (2) the best focus, defined to be that despace which maximizes the fractional energy at 486 nm in a 0.1 arcsec radius of a stellar image, is 12.2 mm beyond paraxial focus. The data leading to these conclusions, and the estimated uncertainties in the final results, are presented.

  15. Single Mode Fiber Optic Connectors And Splices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, John G.

    1984-08-01

    There is a trend toward increasing use of single mode transmission, particularly in telecommunications where high data bit rates are transmitted for long distances. Inter-connections of multimode fibers can be made in a number of ways, using ferrules, v-grooves, elastomeric splices, etc. However, the connection of single mode fibers, which have core diameters of 4 to 13 μm, requires more precise alignment than do the multimode fibers having core diameters of 50 μm or more. At TRW, we have adapted the four rod alignment guide concept for single mode fiber inter-connections. The principle of this OPTAGUIDE* alignment guide is presented. The single mode connectors and splices use the four rod scheme with an index matching material to eliminate or reduce the losses incurred through fiber end roughness or angularity. We are able to produce demountable connectors for 80/4.4 pm fibers having typical insertion losses of 1.0dB. The main factors in obtaining this result are the naturally precise fiber alignment provided by the alignment guide, and the ability of several manufacturers to maintain tight diametral and core offset tolerances. The single mode OPTALIGN* SM Connectors have been subjected to performance and environmental tests including repeated matings, temperature cycle and vibration. The results of these tests are described in this paper. A feature of the OPTALIGN* SM Connectors is the relative ease and speed of attachment to fiber optic cable in the field, without the use of epoxy or polishing procedures. The alignment guide concept has also been applied to permanent single mode splices. The splicing procedure is simple to perform in the field without expensive or delicate equipment. Construction and assembly procedures of the demountable connectors and permanent splices will be described with the aid of diagrams and photographs.

  16. Fiber biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  17. Experimental and analytical studies for the NASA carbon fiber risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Various experimental and analytical studies performed for the NASA carbon fiber risk assessment program are described with emphasis on carbon fiber characteristics, sensitivity of electrical equipment and components to shorting or arcing by carbon fibers, attenuation effect of carbon fibers on aircraft landing aids, impact of carbon fibers on industrial facilities. A simple method of estimating damage from airborne carbon fibers is presented.

  18. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  19. Orientation and Alignment Echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karras, G.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Faucher, O.; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2015-04-01

    We present one of the simplest classical systems featuring the echo phenomenon—a collection of randomly oriented free rotors with dispersed rotational velocities. Following excitation by a pair of time-delayed impulsive kicks, the mean orientation or alignment of the ensemble exhibits multiple echoes and fractional echoes. We elucidate the mechanism of the echo formation by the kick-induced filamentation of phase space, and provide the first experimental demonstration of classical alignment echoes in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  20. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  1. Miniature Spinning Enzyme-Retted Flax Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be blended with other short staple fibers, such as cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.), processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric. Manufacturing yarns with natural flax fibers has traditional...

  2. Dispersion-tailored active-fiber solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tartwijk, Guido H. M.; Essiambre, René-Jean; Agrawal, Govind P.

    1996-12-01

    We show analytically that tailoring the fiber dispersion appropriately can cause optical solitons to propagate unperturbed, without emission of dispersive waves, in a distributed-gain fiber amplifier with a nonuniform gain profile. We apply our scheme to a bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifier and discuss the importance of higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects for short solitons.

  3. Miniature spinning enzyme-retted flax fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fibers from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are stiff and strong and can be blended with other short staple fibers, such as cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.), processed into a yarn and then manufactured into a fabric. Manufacturing yarns with natural flax fibers has traditional...

  4. Nanofiber alignment of a small diameter elastic electrospun scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jignesh

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in western countries with coronary heart disease making up 50% of these deaths. As a treatment option, tissue engineered grafts have great potential. Elastic scaffolds that mimic arterial extracellular matrix (ECM) may hold the key to creating viable vascular grafts. Electrospinning is a widely used scaffold fabrication technique to engineer tubular scaffolds. In this study, we investigated how the collector rotation speed altered the nanofiber alignment which may improve mechanical characteristics making the scaffold more suitable for arterial grafts. The scaffold was fabricated from a blend of PCL/Elastin. 2D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) image processing tool and MatLab were used to quantitatively analyze nanofiber orientation at different collector speeds (13500 to 15500 rpm). Both Image J and MatLab showed graphical peaks indicating predominant fiber orientation angles. A collector speed of 15000 rpm was found to produce the best nanofiber alignment with narrow peaks at 90 and 270 degrees, and a relative amplitude of 200. This indicates a narrow distribution of circumferentially aligned nanofibers. Collector speeds below and above 15000 rpm caused a decrease in fiber alignment with a broader orientation distribution. Uniformity of fiber diameter was also measured. Of 600 measures from the 15000 rpm scaffolds, the fiber diameter range from 500 nm to 899 nm was most prevalent. This diameter range was slightly larger than native ECM which ranges from 50 nm to 500 nm. The second most prevalent diameter range had an average of 404 nm which is within the diameter range of collagen. This study concluded that with proper electrospinning technique and collector speed, it is possible to fabricate highly aligned small diameter elastic scaffolds. Image J 2D FFT results confirmed MatLab findings for the analyses of circumferentially aligned nanofibers. In addition, MatLab analyses simplified the FFT orientation data

  5. Vertical Alignment and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Donna; Calzada, Lucio; LaPointe, Nancy; Lee, Audra; Sullivan, Lynn

    This study investigated whether vertical (grade level sequence) alignment of the curriculum in conjunction with teacher collaboration would enhance student performance on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test in south Texas school districts of various sizes. Surveys were mailed to the office of the superintendent of 47 school…

  6. Curriculum Alignment: Establishing Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagné, Philippe; Dumont, Laurence; Brunet, Sabine; Boucher, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a step-by-step guide to implement a curricular alignment project, directed at professional development and student support, and developed in a higher education French as a second language department. We outline best practices and preliminary results from our experience and provide ways to adapt our experience to other…

  7. Aligning brains and minds

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Haxby and colleagues describe a new method for aligning functional brain activity patterns across participants. Their study demonstrates that objects are similarly represented across different brains, allowing for reliable classification of one person’s brain activity based on another’s. PMID:22017984

  8. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  9. Active-Transient Liquid Phase (A-TLP) Bonding of Pure Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Short Alumina Fiber Using Al-12Si-xTi Foils as Active Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guifeng; Su, Wei; Suzumura, Akio

    2016-02-01

    To optimize both the interlayer composition design route and pressure for joining aluminum matrix composite reinforced with short alumina fiber (as-cast 30 vol pct Al2O3sf/Al), traditional transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding using Al-12Si and Cu interlayer and active-TLP (A-TLP) bonding using an active Ti-containing interlayer (Al-12Si-xTi, x = 0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt pct) under the same condition [883 K (610 °C) × 30 minutes × 1 or 0.015 MPa in flowing argon] were compared in terms of interfacial wettability, bond seam microstructure, shear strength, and fracture path. It was found that not only the Ti content but also the pressure are critical factors affecting interfacial wettability and bond seam microstructure. The improvement in wettability by adding Ti as an active element were confirmed by reduction of expulsion of liquid interlayer, elimination of interfacial gap, higher shear strength and favorable fracture path (partially through bond seam and the composite). Because of the incubation period for wetting, reducing the pressure after melting of the interlayer could further increase joint shear strength by thickening the remaining bond seam of solid-solution matrix and decreasing fraction of the in situ newly formed Al-Si-Ti IMC phase (short bar shape) within the bond seam. The maximum shear strength of 88.6 MPa (99 pct of the as-cast composite) was obtained by adding trace Ti content (0.5 Ti wt pct) addition and using low pressure (0.015 MPa). The results showed that suitable combination of Ti content and pressure pattern is required for improving both wettability and bond seam microstructure.

  10. Active-Transient Liquid Phase (A-TLP) Bonding of Pure Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Short Alumina Fiber Using Al-12Si- xTi Foils as Active Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guifeng; Su, Wei; Suzumura, Akio

    2016-06-01

    To optimize both the interlayer composition design route and pressure for joining aluminum matrix composite reinforced with short alumina fiber (as-cast 30 vol pct Al2O3sf/Al), traditional transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding using Al-12Si and Cu interlayer and active-TLP (A-TLP) bonding using an active Ti-containing interlayer (Al-12Si- xTi, x = 0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt pct) under the same condition [883 K (610 °C) × 30 minutes × 1 or 0.015 MPa in flowing argon] were compared in terms of interfacial wettability, bond seam microstructure, shear strength, and fracture path. It was found that not only the Ti content but also the pressure are critical factors affecting interfacial wettability and bond seam microstructure. The improvement in wettability by adding Ti as an active element were confirmed by reduction of expulsion of liquid interlayer, elimination of interfacial gap, higher shear strength and favorable fracture path (partially through bond seam and the composite). Because of the incubation period for wetting, reducing the pressure after melting of the interlayer could further increase joint shear strength by thickening the remaining bond seam of solid-solution matrix and decreasing fraction of the in situ newly formed Al-Si-Ti IMC phase (short bar shape) within the bond seam. The maximum shear strength of 88.6 MPa (99 pct of the as-cast composite) was obtained by adding trace Ti content (0.5 Ti wt pct) addition and using low pressure (0.015 MPa). The results showed that suitable combination of Ti content and pressure pattern is required for improving both wettability and bond seam microstructure.

  11. Preparation of silicon carbide fibers

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    Silicon carbide fibers suitable for use in the fabrication of dense, high-strength, high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments are fabricated by a new, simplified method wherein a mixture of short-length rayon fibers and colloidal silica is homogenized in a water slurry. Water is removed from the mixture by drying in air at 120/sup 0/C and the fibers are carbonized by (pyrolysis) heating the mixture to 800 to 1000/sup 0/C in argon. The mixture is subsequently reacted at 1550 to 1900/sup 0/C in argon to yield pure ..beta..-SiC fibers.

  12. Size effects on pull-out of bone shaped fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tippetts, T. B.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Zhu, Y. T.

    2001-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that ductile bone shaped short (BSS) fibers, i.e. fibers with enlarged ends, can significantly increase toughness of brittle materials over that of conventional short fibers (CSS) [1]. In this work, we apply a recently developed micromechanical model for the pull-out force vs. displacement response of a ductile BSS fiber as it pulls completely out of a brittle matrix material. The pull-out process of BSS fibers absorbs more energy than that of CSS fibers, largely due to nonlinear deformation of the fiber end and surrounding matrix.

  13. Short stature

    MedlinePlus

    Idiopathic short stature; Non-growth hormone deficient short stature ... Turner syndrome Williams syndrome Other reasons include: Growth hormone deficiency Infections of the developing baby before birth ...

  14. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  15. Inflation by alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Roest, Diederik

    2015-06-08

    Pseudo-Goldstone bosons (pGBs) can provide technically natural inflatons, as has been comparatively well-explored in the simplest axion examples. Although inflationary success requires trans-Planckian decay constants, f≳M{sub p}, several mechanisms have been proposed to obtain this, relying on (mis-)alignments between potential and kinetic energies in multiple-field models. We extend these mechanisms to a broader class of inflationary models, including in particular the exponential potentials that arise for pGB potentials based on noncompact groups (and so which might apply to moduli in an extra-dimensional setting). The resulting potentials provide natural large-field inflationary models and can predict a larger primordial tensor signal than is true for simpler single-field versions of these models. In so doing we provide a unified treatment of several alignment mechanisms, showing how each emerges as a limit of the more general setup.

  16. Alignments of RNA structures.

    PubMed

    Blin, Guillaume; Denise, Alain; Dulucq, Serge; Herrbach, Claire; Touzet, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    We describe a theoretical unifying framework to express the comparison of RNA structures, which we call alignment hierarchy. This framework relies on the definition of common supersequences for arc-annotated sequences and encompasses the main existing models for RNA structure comparison based on trees and arc-annotated sequences with a variety of edit operations. It also gives rise to edit models that have not been studied yet. We provide a thorough analysis of the alignment hierarchy, including a new polynomial-time algorithm and an NP-completeness proof. The polynomial-time algorithm involves biologically relevant edit operations such as pairing or unpairing nucleotides. It has been implemented in a software, called gardenia, which is available at the Web server http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/RNA/gardenia. PMID:20431150

  17. On the alignment space.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shi-Yi; Wang, Kui; Hu, Gang; Chen, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Shu-Tao

    2005-01-01

    Sequences with generalized errors which are called mutations in bioinformatics and generalized error-correcting codes are studied in this paper. In the areas of bioinformatics, computer science and information theory, sequences with generalized errors are discussed respectively for different aims. Firstly, we give the definitions of alignment distance and Levenshtein distance by expansion sequences and discuss their properties and relations. Then the modular structure theory is introduced for strictly describe the expansion sequences. We show that the expansion modular structures of sequences form a Boolean algebra. As applications of the modular structure theory, we give a new and more strict proof of triangle inequality for alignment distance. At last, the definition and construction of generalized error-correcting codes are studied, and some optimal codes with small length are listed. PMID:17282158

  18. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  19. Dynamic Alignment at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-04-23

    The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

  20. Docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for three-dimensional translation and three-dimensional rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera 18 is fixedly mounted to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm 10 of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface 30 is fixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture 20. A monitor 50 displays in real-time images from the camera, such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible markings on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm 10 manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  1. A Rank-Based Sequence Aligner with Applications in Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recent tools for aligning short DNA reads have been designed to optimize the trade-off between correctness and speed. This paper introduces a method for assigning a set of short DNA reads to a reference genome, under Local Rank Distance (LRD). The rank-based aligner proposed in this work aims to improve correctness over speed. However, some indexing strategies to speed up the aligner are also investigated. The LRD aligner is improved in terms of speed by storing -mer positions in a hash table for each read. Another improvement, that produces an approximate LRD aligner, is to consider only the positions in the reference that are likely to represent a good positional match of the read. The proposed aligner is evaluated and compared to other state of the art alignment tools in several experiments. A set of experiments are conducted to determine the precision and the recall of the proposed aligner, in the presence of contaminated reads. In another set of experiments, the proposed aligner is used to find the order, the family, or the species of a new (or unknown) organism, given only a set of short Next-Generation Sequencing DNA reads. The empirical results show that the aligner proposed in this work is highly accurate from a biological point of view. Compared to the other evaluated tools, the LRD aligner has the important advantage of being very accurate even for a very low base coverage. Thus, the LRD aligner can be considered as a good alternative to standard alignment tools, especially when the accuracy of the aligner is of high importance. Source code and UNIX binaries of the aligner are freely available for future development and use at http://lrd.herokuapp.com/aligners. The software is implemented in C++ and Java, being supported on UNIX and MS Windows. PMID:25133391

  2. Polar cap arcs: Sun-aligned or cusp-aligned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L. J.; Zhang, Qinghe; Xing, Zanyang

    2016-08-01

    Polar cap arcs are often called sun-aligned arcs. Satellite observations reveal that polar cap arcs join together at the cusp and are actually cusp aligned. Strong ionospheric plasma velocity shears, thus field aligned currents, were associated with polar arcs and they were likely caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves around the low-latitude magnetopause under a northward IMF Bz. The magnetic field lines around the magnetopause join together in the cusp region so are the field aligned currents and particle precipitation. This explains why polar arcs are cusp aligned.

  3. Alignment and alignment transition of bent core nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamain, Omaima; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

    2013-07-01

    We report on the alignment of nematics consisting of bimesogen bent core molecules of chlorine substituent of benzene derivative and their binary mixture with rod like nematics. It was found that the alignment layer made from polyimide material, which is usually used for promoting vertical (homeotropic) alignment of rod like nematics, promotes instead a planar alignment of the bent core nematic and its nematic mixtures. At higher concentration of the rod like nematic component in these mixtures, a temperature driven transition from vertical to planar alignment was found near the transition to isotropic phase.

  4. Alignment as a Teacher Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

  5. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  6. Efficient alignment-free DNA barcode analytics

    PubMed Central

    Kuksa, Pavel; Pavlovic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Background In this work we consider barcode DNA analysis problems and address them using alternative, alignment-free methods and representations which model sequences as collections of short sequence fragments (features). The methods use fixed-length representations (spectrum) for barcode sequences to measure similarities or dissimilarities between sequences coming from the same or different species. The spectrum-based representation not only allows for accurate and computationally efficient species classification, but also opens possibility for accurate clustering analysis of putative species barcodes and identification of critical within-barcode loci distinguishing barcodes of different sample groups. Results New alignment-free methods provide highly accurate and fast DNA barcode-based identification and classification of species with substantial improvements in accuracy and speed over state-of-the-art barcode analysis methods. We evaluate our methods on problems of species classification and identification using barcodes, important and relevant analytical tasks in many practical applications (adverse species movement monitoring, sampling surveys for unknown or pathogenic species identification, biodiversity assessment, etc.) On several benchmark barcode datasets, including ACG, Astraptes, Hesperiidae, Fish larvae, and Birds of North America, proposed alignment-free methods considerably improve prediction accuracy compared to prior results. We also observe significant running time improvements over the state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion Our results show that newly developed alignment-free methods for DNA barcoding can efficiently and with high accuracy identify specimens by examining only few barcode features, resulting in increased scalability and interpretability of current computational approaches to barcoding. PMID:19900305

  7. Electrospun Amplified Fiber Optics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm–1). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics. PMID:25710188

  8. Fiber optics for controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of those involved in control-system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is the area of fiber optics for controls. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors, and optically controlled actuators are weight and volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, superior bandwidth capabilities, and freedom from short circuits and sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has performed in-house, contract, and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high-temperature electro-optic switches, and fly-by-light control-system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control-system technology, known as the Fiber-Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber-optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2, yet to be initiated, will provide subcomponent and system development, and a system engine test. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program will be discussed.

  9. Evaluation of microRNA alignment techniques.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Mark; Kaspi, Antony; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-08-01

    Genomic alignment of small RNA (smRNA) sequences such as microRNAs poses considerable challenges due to their short length (∼21 nucleotides [nt]) as well as the large size and complexity of plant and animal genomes. While several tools have been developed for high-throughput mapping of longer mRNA-seq reads (>30 nt), there are few that are specifically designed for mapping of smRNA reads including microRNAs. The accuracy of these mappers has not been systematically determined in the case of smRNA-seq. In addition, it is unknown whether these aligners accurately map smRNA reads containing sequence errors and polymorphisms. By using simulated read sets, we determine the alignment sensitivity and accuracy of 16 short-read mappers and quantify their robustness to mismatches, indels, and nontemplated nucleotide additions. These were explored in the context of a plant genome (Oryza sativa, ∼500 Mbp) and a mammalian genome (Homo sapiens, ∼3.1 Gbp). Analysis of simulated and real smRNA-seq data demonstrates that mapper selection impacts differential expression results and interpretation. These results will inform on best practice for smRNA mapping and enable more accurate smRNA detection and quantification of expression and RNA editing. PMID:27284164

  10. The deterministic optical alignment of the HERMES spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gers, Luke; Staszak, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) is a four channel, VPH-grating spectrograph fed by two 400 fiber slit assemblies whose construction and commissioning has now been completed at the Anglo Australian Telescope (AAT). The size, weight, complexity, and scheduling constraints of the system necessitated that a fully integrated, deterministic, opto-mechanical alignment system be designed into the spectrograph before it was manufactured. This paper presents the principles about which the system was assembled and aligned, including the equipment and the metrology methods employed to complete the spectrograph integration.

  11. Solar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The sun was such an important divinity in antiquity, and even today, that solar alignments should be expected within a large variety of places and cultures. These are probably the most conspicuous kind of astronomical alignments a field researcher can deal with. The need for a correct identification is thus evident. The different kind of solar phenomena susceptible of being determined by astronomical alignments will be scrutinized, following by the way in which such alignments can materialize in space. It will be shown that analyzing solar alignments is not always an easy task.

  12. Characterization of mode-locking in an all-fiber, all normal dispersion ytterbium based fiber oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cserteg, András.; Sági, Veronika; Drozdy, András.; Varallyay, Zoltán.; Gajdátsy, Gábor

    2015-03-01

    An ytterbium based all fiber, all normal dispersion fiber oscillator with integrated SESAM can have several operation modes like mode-locked, Q-switched and noise-like. To know and to control the quality of the mode-locking is essential for the application of such laser oscillators, otherwise the whole laser setup can be damaged or the expected operation characteristics of the oscillator driven systems cannot be achieved. Usually the two-photon signal generated by the short pulses is used to indicate the mode locked operation, however such detection can be misleading in certain cases and not always able to predict the forthcoming degradation or vanishing of mode locking. The characterization method that we propose uses only the radio frequency spectrum of the oscillator output and can identify the different operation regimes of our laser setup. The optical spectra measured simultaneously with the RF signals proves the reliability of our method. With this kind of characterization stable mode locking can be initiated and maintained during the laser operation. The method combined with the ability to align the polarization states automatically in the laser cavity leads to the possibility to record a polarization map where the stability domains can be identified and classified. With such map the region where the mode locking is self starting and maintainable with minimal polarization alignment can be selected. The developed oscillator reported here with its compact setup and self alignment ability can be a reliable source with long term error free operation without the need of expensive monitoring tools.

  13. Matt: local flexibility aids protein multiple structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Menke, Matthew; Berger, Bonnie; Cowen, Lenore

    2008-01-01

    Even when there is agreement on what measure a protein multiple structure alignment should be optimizing, finding the optimal alignment is computationally prohibitive. One approach used by many previous methods is aligned fragment pair chaining, where short structural fragments from all the proteins are aligned against each other optimally, and the final alignment chains these together in geometrically consistent ways. Ye and Godzik have recently suggested that adding geometric flexibility may help better model protein structures in a variety of contexts. We introduce the program Matt (Multiple Alignment with Translations and Twists), an aligned fragment pair chaining algorithm that, in intermediate steps, allows local flexibility between fragments: small translations and rotations are temporarily allowed to bring sets of aligned fragments closer, even if they are physically impossible under rigid body transformations. After a dynamic programming assembly guided by these "bent" alignments, geometric consistency is restored in the final step before the alignment is output. Matt is tested against other recent multiple protein structure alignment programs on the popular Homstrad and SABmark benchmark datasets. Matt's global performance is competitive with the other programs on Homstrad, but outperforms the other programs on SABmark, a benchmark of multiple structure alignments of proteins with more distant homology. On both datasets, Matt demonstrates an ability to better align the ends of alpha-helices and beta-strands, an important characteristic of any structure alignment program intended to help construct a structural template library for threading approaches to the inverse protein-folding problem. The related question of whether Matt alignments can be used to distinguish distantly homologous structure pairs from pairs of proteins that are not homologous is also considered. For this purpose, a p-value score based on the length of the common core and average root

  14. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  15. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  16. Using molecular alignment to track ultrafast collisional relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karras, G.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Faucher, O.

    2014-06-01

    Field-free molecular alignment has been used in order to track the collisional relaxation occurring in a molecular gas. CO2 molecules were initially irradiated by a short linearly polarized laser pulse resulting in the increase of their rotational energy. The evolution of the subsequent ultrafast relaxation process was optically probed after irradiating the sample with a second, weaker, short pulse leading to the alignment of the preheated molecules. Using classical molecular dynamic simulations, we were able to quantitatively reproduce the experimental shapes and amplitudes of the recorded revival transients for a time interval extending from 25 to 500 ps until thermalization of the gas sample is reached.

  17. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Thi, T. B. E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, A. E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Ota, K. E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Kodama, K. E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Yamashita, K. E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Isogai, Y. E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Furuichi, K. E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Nonomura, C. E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp

    2014-05-15

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment μ-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

  18. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Thi, T. B.; Yokoyama, A.; Ota, K.; Kodama, K.; Yamashita, K.; Isogai, Y.; Furuichi, K.; Nonomura, C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment μ-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

  19. Electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner for optical endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, Kyungmin; Park, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2016-02-22

    We report a novel MEMS fiber scanner with an electrothermal silicon microactuator and a directly mounted optical fiber. The microactuator comprises double hot arm and cold arm structures with a linking bridge and an optical fiber is aligned along a silicon fiber groove. The unique feature induces separation of resonant scanning frequencies of a single optical fiber in lateral and vertical directions, which realizes Lissajous scanning during the resonant motion. The footprint dimension of microactuator is 1.28 x 7 x 0.44 mm3. The resonant scanning frequencies of a 20 mm long optical fiber are 239.4 Hz and 218.4 Hz in lateral and vertical directions, respectively. The full scanned area indicates 451 μm x 558 μm under a 16 Vpp pulse train. This novel laser scanner can provide many opportunities for laser scanning endomicroscopic applications. PMID:26907043

  20. Rugged fiber optic probe for raman measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Toole, Jr., William R.; Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    An optical probe for conducting light scattering analysis is disclosed. The probe comprises a hollow housing and a probe tip. A fiber assembly made up of a transmitting fiber and a receiving bundle is inserted in the tip. A filter assembly is inserted in the housing and connected to the fiber assembly. A signal line from the light source and to the spectrometer also is connected to the filter assembly and communicates with the fiber assembly. By using a spring-loaded assembly to hold the fiber connectors together with the in-line filters, complex and sensitive alignment procedures are avoided. The close proximity of the filter assembly to the probe tip eliminates or minimizes self-scattering generated by the optical fiber. Also, because the probe can contact the sample directly, sensitive optics can be eliminated.

  1. Fiber sensing with photorefractive fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Guo, Ruyan; Wang, Bo; Liu, Yuexin

    2002-11-01

    Optical fibers have been widely used for transmitting temporal signal. However, the transmission of spatial signal has not been fully exploited. Although multimode fiber has a large space-bandwidth product, transmitting spatial signals by using a fiber is rather difficult. When a laser beam is lached into a multimode fiber, the exit light field produces a complicated speckle pattern caused by the modal phasing of the fiber. It is difficult to recover the transmitted informati from the speckle field. However, the fiber speckle field can be used to fiber sensing with a hologrpahic method. In other words, if a hologram is made with the speckle fiber field, the information of the fiber status can be recovered. Thus by reading the hologram by the same speckle field, the reference beam can be reconstructed, which represents the detection of the speckle field. In other words, instead of exploiting the temporal content, the spatial content from a multimode fiber can be exploited for sensing. Our analyses and experimentations have shown that the fiber specklegram sensor (FSS) is highly senstiive to perturbation, and it is less vulnerable to the environment factors. Applications of the FSS to temperature, transversal displacement, and dynamic sensing are also included.

  2. Conditional alignment random fields for multiple motion sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung

    2013-11-01

    We consider the multiple time-series alignment problem, typically focusing on the task of synchronizing multiple motion videos of the same kind of human activity. Finding an optimal global alignment of multiple sequences is infeasible, while there have been several approximate solutions, including iterative pairwise warping algorithms and variants of hidden Markov models. In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic model that represents the conditional densities of the latent target sequences which are aligned with the given observed sequences through the hidden alignment variables. By imposing certain constraints on the target sequences at the learning stage, we have a sensible model for multiple alignments that can be learned very efficiently by the EM algorithm. Compared to existing methods, our approach yields more accurate alignment while being more robust to local optima and initial configurations. We demonstrate its efficacy on both synthetic and real-world motion videos including facial emotions and human activities. PMID:24051737

  3. Field-free molecular alignment of asymmetric top molecules using elliptically polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouzée, A.; Guérin, S.; Faucher, O.; Lavorel, B.

    2008-04-01

    We show theoretically that a short specific elliptically polarized laser pulse driving an asymmetric top molecule can induce postpulse revivals of three-dimensional (3D) alignment. By choosing the field ellipticity resulting in the best compromise between the alignment of two molecular axes, we demonstrate that efficient 3D alignment can be achieved at low temperature. In the experiment, the field-free alignment of moderately cool ethylene molecules is probed by using a technique based on the optical Kerr effect. Control of 3D field-free alignment opens the door to a large range of applications in chemistry as well as in molecular optics.

  4. Fiber breakage phenomena in long fiber reinforced plastic preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Tsai; Tseng, Huan-Chang; Vlcek, Jiri; Chang, Rong-Yeu

    2015-07-01

    Due to the high demand of smart green, the lightweight technologies have become the driving force for the development of automotives and other industries in recent years. Among those technologies, using short and long fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) to replace some metal components can reduce the weight of an automotive significantly. However, the microstructures of fibers inside plastic matrix are too complicated to manage and control during the injection molding through the screw, the runner, the gate, and then into the cavity. This study focuses on the fiber breakage phenomena during the screw plastification. Results show that fiber breakage is strongly dependent on screw design and operation. When the screw geometry changes, the fiber breakage could be larger even with lower compression ratio.

  5. An all-fiber approach for in-phase supermode phase-locked operation of multicore fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Schülzgen, A.; Temyanko, V. L.; Li, H.; Moloney, J. V.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2007-02-01

    An all-fiber approach is utilized to phase lock and select the in-phase supermode of compact multicore fiber lasers. Based on the principles of Talbot imaging and waveguide multimode interference, the fundamental supermode is selectively excited within a completely monolithic fiber device. The all-fiber device is constructed by simply fusion splicing passive non-core optical fibers of controlled lengths at both ends of a piece of multicore fiber. Experimental results upon in-house-made 19- and 37-core fibers are demonstrated, which generate output beams with high-brightness far-field intensity distributions. The whole fabricated multicore fiber laser device can in principle be a single fiber chain that is only ~10 cm in length, aligning-free in operation, and robust against environmental disturbance.

  6. Hollow fiber clinostat for simulating microgravity in cell culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A clinostat for simulating microgravity on cell systems carried in a fiber fixedly mounted in a rotatable culture vessel is disclosed. The clinostat is rotated horizontally along its longitudinal axis to simulate microgravity or vertically as a control response. Cells are injected into the fiber and the ends of the fiber are sealed and secured to spaced end pieces of a fiber holder assembly which consists of the end pieces, a hollow fiber, a culture vessel, and a tension spring with three alignment pins. The tension spring is positioned around the culture vessel with its ends abutting the end pieces for alignment of the spring. After the fiber is secured, the spring is decompressed to maintain tension on the fiber while it is being rotated. This assures that the fiber remains aligned along the axis of rotation. The fiber assembly is placed in the culture vessel and culture medium is added. The culture vessel is then inserted into the rotatable portion of the clinostat and subjected to rotate at selected rpms. The internal diameter of the hollow fiber determines the distance the cells are from the axis of rotation.

  7. Single frequency fiber laser at 2.05 μm based on Ho-doped germanate glass fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Yao, Zhidong; Zong, Jie; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Yu, Jirong

    2009-02-01

    A single frequency fiber laser operating near 2 micron with over 50 mW output power has been demonstrated by using a short piece of newly developed single mode holmium-doped germanate glass fiber. Laser from 2004 nm to 2083 nm was demonstrated from a short Ho-doped fiber laser cavity. A heavily thulium-doped germanate fiber was used as an in-band pump source for the holmium-doped fiber laser. The single frequency fiber laser can be thermally tuned.

  8. Automated quantification of aligned collagen for human breast carcinoma prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Bredfeldt, Jeremy S.; Liu, Yuming; Conklin, Matthew W.; Keely, Patricia J.; Mackie, Thomas R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mortality in cancer patients is directly attributable to the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to distant sites from the primary tumor. This migration of tumor cells begins with a remodeling of the local tumor microenvironment, including changes to the extracellular matrix and the recruitment of stromal cells, both of which facilitate invasion of tumor cells into the bloodstream. In breast cancer, it has been proposed that the alignment of collagen fibers surrounding tumor epithelial cells can serve as a quantitative image-based biomarker for survival of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Specific types of collagen alignment have been identified for their prognostic value and now these tumor associated collagen signatures (TACS) are central to several clinical specimen imaging trials. Here, we implement the semi-automated acquisition and analysis of this TACS candidate biomarker and demonstrate a protocol that will allow consistent scoring to be performed throughout large patient cohorts. Methods: Using large field of view high resolution microscopy techniques, image processing and supervised learning methods, we are able to quantify and score features of collagen fiber alignment with respect to adjacent tumor-stromal boundaries. Results: Our semi-automated technique produced scores that have statistically significant correlation with scores generated by a panel of three human observers. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted survival in a cohort of 196 breast cancer patients. Feature rank analysis reveals that TACS positive fibers are more well-aligned with each other, are of generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells at larger angles of interaction. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the utility of a supervised learning protocol for streamlining the analysis of collagen alignment with respect to tumor stromal boundaries. PMID:25250186

  9. Processing-structure-property studies of: (I) submicron polymeric fibers produced by electrospinning and (II) films of linear low density polyethylenes as influenced by the short chain branch length in copolymers of ethylene/1-butene, ethylene/1-hexene and ethylene/1-octene synthesized by a single site metallocene catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pankaj

    The overall theme of the research discussed in this dissertation has been to explore processing-structure-property relationships for submicron polymeric fibers produced by electrospinning (Part I) and to ascertain whether or not the length of the short chain branch has any effect on the physical properties of films of linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPEs) (Part II). The research efforts discussed in Part I of this dissertation relate to some fundamental as well as more applied investigations involving electrospinning. These include investigating the effects of solution rheology on fiber formation and developing novel methodologies to fabricate polymeric mats comprising of high specific surface submicron fibers of more than one polymer, high chemical resistant substrates produced by in situ photo crosslinking during electrospinning, superparamagnetic flexible substrates by electrospinning a solution of an elastomeric polymer containing ferrite nanoparticles of Mn-Zn-Ni and substrates for filtration applications. Bicomponent electrospinning of poly(vinyl chloride)-polyurethane and poly(vinylidiene fluoride)-polyurethane was successfully performed. In addition, filtration properties of single and bicomponent electrospun mats of polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene were investigated. Results indicated lower aerosol penetration or higher filtration efficiencies of the filters based on submicron electrospun fibers in comparison to the conventional filter materials. In addition, Part II of this dissertation explores whether or not the length of the short chain branch affects the physical properties of blown and compression molded films of LLDPEs that were synthesized by a single site metallocene catalyst. Here, three resins based on copolymers of ethylene/1-butene, ethylene/1-hexene, and ethylene/1-octene were utilized that were very similar in terms of their molecular weight and distribution, melt rheology, density, crystallinity and short chain branching content and

  10. Fourier transform interferometer alignment method.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Kenneth A; Naulleau, Patrick; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2002-08-01

    A rapid and convenient method has been developed to facilitate the alignment of the image-plane components of point-diffraction interferometers, including the phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer. In real time, the Fourier transform of the detected image is used to calculate a pseudoimage of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where thecritical alignment o f variousoptical components is performed. Reconstruction of the pseudoimage is similar to off-axis, Fourier transform holography. Intermediate steps in the alignment procedure are described. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global-contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier transform. Additional applications include the alignment of image-plane apertures in general optical systems, the rapid identification of patterned image-plane alignment marks, and the probing of important image-plane field properties. PMID:12153074

  11. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  12. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  13. Guided orientation of cardiomyocytes on electrospun aligned nanofibers for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kai, Dan; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Jin, Guorui; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (TE) is one of the most promising strategies to reconstruct the infarct myocardium and the major challenge involves producing a bioactive scaffold with anisotropic properties that assist in cell guidance to mimic the heart tissue. In this study, random and aligned poly(ε-caprolactone)/gelatin (PG) composite nanofibrous scaffolds were electrospun to structurally mimic the oriented extracellular matrix (ECM). Morphological, chemical and mechanical properties of the electrospun PG nanofibers were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tensile measurements. Results indicated that PG nanofibrous scaffolds possessed smaller fiber diameters (239 ± 37 nm for random fibers and 269 ± 33 nm for aligned fibers), increased hydrophilicity, and lower stiffness compared to electrospun PCL nanofibers. The aligned PG nanofibers showed anisotropic wetting characteristics and mechanical properties, which closely match the requirements of native cardiac anisotropy. Rabbit cardiomyocytes were cultured on electrospun random and aligned nanofibers to assess the biocompatibility of scaffolds, together with its potential for cell guidance. The SEM and immunocytochemical analysis showed that the aligned PG scaffold greatly promoted cell attachment and alignment because of the biological components and ordered topography of the scaffolds. Moreover, we concluded that the aligned PG nanofibrous scaffolds could be more promising substrates suitable for the regeneration of infarct myocardium and other cardiac defects. PMID:21681953

  14. Aligned Defrosting Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 August 2004 This July 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of aligned barchan sand dunes in the martian north polar region. At the time, the dunes were covered with seasonal frost, but the frost had begun to sublime away, leaving dark spots and dark outlines around the dunes. The surrounding plains exhibit small, diffuse spots that are also the result of subliming seasonal frost. This northern spring image, acquired on a descending ground track (as MGS was moving north to south on the 'night' side of Mars) is located near 78.8oN, 34.8oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Alignment system for encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villani, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An improved encoder alignment system is disclosed which provides an indication of the extent of misalignment and a measure of the rate at which the misalignment may be changing. The invention is adapted for use with a conventional encoder which provides a digital coarse word having at least significant bit and a digital fine word having a least significant bit and a most significant bit. The invention generates the exclusive or of the least significant bit of the coarse digital signal and the least significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide a first signal. The invention then generates the exclusive or of the first signal and the complement of the most significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide an output signal which represents the misalignment of the encoder.

  16. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  17. Correlation of properties with preferred orientation in coagulated and stretch-aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badaire, Stéphane; Pichot, Vincent; Zakri, Cécile; Poulin, Philippe; Launois, Pascale; Vavro, Juraj; Guthy, Csaba; Chen, Michelle; Fischer, John E.

    2004-12-01

    We report structure-property correlations in single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) fibers, among electrical, thermal, and chemical parameters with respect to stretch-induced preferential SWNT alignment along the fiber axis. Purified HiPco (high-pressure CO) conversion tubes are dispersed with the aid of an anionic surfactant and coagulated in the co-flowing stream of an adsorbing polymer. The fibers are then dried, rewetted under tensile load, and redried to improve the alignment. Complete removal of the polymer was assured by annealing in hydrogen at 1000°C. The degree of alignment was determined by x-ray scattering from individual fibers using a two-dimensional detector. The half width at half maximum describing the axially symmetric distribution of SWNT axes decreases linearly from 27.5° in the initial extruded fiber to 14.5° after stretching by 80%. The electrical resistivity ρ at 300K decreases overall by a factor ˜4 with stretching, for both as-spun composite and polymer-free annealed fibers. However, the temperature dependence ρ(T ) is markedly different for the two, implying different electron-transport mechanisms with and without the polymer. Thermal conductivity also improves with increasing alignment, while the absolute values are limited by the disordered network of finite length tubes and bundles. Comparisons are made with results from similar fibers spun from oleum and with magnetically aligned buckypapers.

  18. Gold Alignment and Internal Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, A.

    1997-07-01

    The measures of mechanical alignment are obtained for both prolate and oblate grains whose temperatures are comparable to the grain kinetic energy divided by k, the Boltzmann constant. For such grains, the alignment of angular momentum, J, with the axis of maximal inertia, a, is only partial, which substantially alters the mechanical alignment as compared with the results obtained by Lazarian and Roberge, Hanany, & Messinger under the assumption of perfect alignment. We also describe Gold alignment when the Barnett dissipation is suppressed and derive an analytical expression that relates the measure of alignment to the parameters of grain nonsphericity and the direction of the gas-grain drift. This solution provides the lower limit for the measure of alignment, while the upper limit is given by the method derived by Lazarian. Using the results of a recent study of incomplete internal relaxation by Lazarian & Roberge, we find measures of alignment for the whole range of ratios of grain rotational energy to kTs, where Ts is the grain temperature. To describe alignment for mildly supersonic drifts, we suggest an analytical approach that provides good correspondence with the results of direct numerical simulations by Roberge, Hanany, & Messinger. We also extend our approach to account for simultaneous action of the Gold and Davis-Greenstein mechanisms.

  19. Monitoring techniques for the manufacture of tapered optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Kevin; Correia, Ricardo; Staines, Stephen E; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2015-10-01

    The use of a range of optical techniques to monitor the process of fabricating optical fiber tapers is investigated. Thermal imaging was used to optimize the alignment of the optical system; the transmission spectrum of the fiber was monitored to confirm that the tapers had the required optical properties and the strain induced in the fiber during tapering was monitored using in-line optical fiber Bragg gratings. Tapers were fabricated with diameters down to 5 μm and with waist lengths of 20 mm using single-mode SMF-28 fiber. PMID:26479631

  20. Thermomechanical Behavior of Advanced SiC Fiber Multifilament Tows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; DiCarlo, James A.

    1997-01-01

    In order to relate single fiber behavior to multiple fiber behavior in composites, fast-fracture tensile strength, creep, and stress-rupture studies were conducted on advanced SiC fiber multifilament tows in the temperature range from 20 to 1400 C in air as well as in inert environments. For conditions of small fiber creep (short times and low temperatures), the tow results of this study confirm the ability of limited single fiber data to model the strength behavior of multiple fibers in a bundle. For conditions of high creep (long times and high temperatures), further studies are needed to explain tow rupture behavior being better than average single fiber behavior.

  1. Femtosecond laser inscription of asymmetric directional couplers for in-fiber optical taps and fiber cladding photonics.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Jason R; Fernandes, Luís A; Herman, Peter R

    2015-06-29

    Precise alignment of femtosecond laser tracks in standard single mode optical fiber is shown to enable controllable optical tapping of the fiber core waveguide light with fiber cladding photonic circuits. Asymmetric directional couplers are presented with tunable coupling ratios up to 62% and bandwidths up to 300 nm at telecommunication wavelengths. Real-time fiber monitoring during laser writing permitted a means of controlling the coupler length to compensate for micron-scale alignment errors and to facilitate tailored design of coupling ratio, spectral bandwidth and polarization properties. Laser induced waveguide birefringence was harnessed for polarization dependent coupling that led to the formation of in-fiber polarization-selective taps with 32 dB extinction ratio. This technology enables the interconnection of light propagating in pre-existing waveguides with laser-formed devices, thereby opening a new practical direction for the three-dimensional integration of optical devices in the cladding of optical fibers and planar lightwave circuits. PMID:26191688

  2. Polymeric templating and alignment of fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincer, Matthew Ryan

    Fullerene research has advanced to elevated levels in a short period of time due to the unique chemical and physical properties of the caged molecule that have been utilized in numerous applications. Due to the spherical shape of the fullerene molecule which allows for a hollow cavity, encapsulation of atoms or small molecules can occur within the ball structure. This encapsulation creates an endohedral component that is limited from interacting with other molecules which creates potential of control over electronic information of the isolated molecule. Endohedral fullerenes have the potential as serving as the base unit in a quantum computer if control over global alignment is attained. Thus, by using the inherent self-assembling capabilities of some organic materials, ordered endohedral fullerenes can be achieved. This dissertation investigates the ability to use self-assembling strategies to obtain alignment which include ordering within a morphologically controlled copolymer matrix, forming a supramolecular polymer complex with cyclodextrin, and encapsulation within the helical wrap of polymer chains. The ultimate goal is to understand the dynamics that control association and orientation of varying fullerene-based molecules in each strategy in order to maximize control over the final alignment of endohedral elements.

  3. Improved Fiber-Optic-Coupled Pressure And Vibration Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Cuomo, Frank W.

    1994-01-01

    Improved fiber-optic coupler enables use of single optical fiber to carry light to and from sensor head. Eliminates problem of alignment of multiple fibers in sensor head and simplifies calibration by making performance both more predictable and more stable. Sensitivities increased, sizes reduced. Provides increased margin for design of compact sensor heads not required to contain amplifier circuits and withstand high operating temperatures.

  4. Dynamics of flexible fibers in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowicka, Agnieszka M.; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Ekiel-JeŻewska, Maria L.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamics of flexible non-Brownian fibers in shear flow at low-Reynolds-number are analyzed numerically for a wide range of the ratios A of the fiber bending force to the viscous drag force. Initially, the fibers are aligned with the flow, and later they move in the plane perpendicular to the flow vorticity. A surprisingly rich spectrum of different modes is observed when the value of A is systematically changed, with sharp transitions between coiled and straightening out modes, period-doubling bifurcations from periodic to migrating solutions, irregular dynamics, and chaos.

  5. Dynamics of flexible fibers in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Słowicka, Agnieszka M; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Ekiel-Jeżewska, Maria L

    2015-09-28

    Dynamics of flexible non-Brownian fibers in shear flow at low-Reynolds-number are analyzed numerically for a wide range of the ratios A of the fiber bending force to the viscous drag force. Initially, the fibers are aligned with the flow, and later they move in the plane perpendicular to the flow vorticity. A surprisingly rich spectrum of different modes is observed when the value of A is systematically changed, with sharp transitions between coiled and straightening out modes, period-doubling bifurcations from periodic to migrating solutions, irregular dynamics, and chaos. PMID:26429038

  6. Dynamics of flexible fibers in shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Słowicka, Agnieszka M.; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Ekiel-Jeżewska, Maria L.

    2015-09-28

    Dynamics of flexible non-Brownian fibers in shear flow at low-Reynolds-number are analyzed numerically for a wide range of the ratios A of the fiber bending force to the viscous drag force. Initially, the fibers are aligned with the flow, and later they move in the plane perpendicular to the flow vorticity. A surprisingly rich spectrum of different modes is observed when the value of A is systematically changed, with sharp transitions between coiled and straightening out modes, period-doubling bifurcations from periodic to migrating solutions, irregular dynamics, and chaos.

  7. DisAp-dependent striated fiber elongation is required to organize ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Bonney, Stephanie; Kronenberg, Zev; Clarissa, Christina; Yandell, Mark; Elde, Nels C.; Jerka-Dziadosz, Maria; Giddings, Thomas H.; Frankel, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Cilia-organizing basal bodies (BBs) are microtubule scaffolds that are visibly asymmetrical because they have attached auxiliary structures, such as striated fibers. In multiciliated cells, BB orientation aligns to ensure coherent ciliary beating, but the mechanisms that maintain BB orientation are unclear. For the first time in Tetrahymena thermophila, we use comparative whole-genome sequencing to identify the mutation in the BB disorientation mutant disA-1. disA-1 abolishes the localization of the novel protein DisAp to T. thermophila striated fibers (kinetodesmal fibers; KFs), which is consistent with DisAp’s similarity to the striated fiber protein SF-assemblin. We demonstrate that DisAp is required for KFs to elongate and to resist BB disorientation in response to ciliary forces. Newly formed BBs move along KFs as they approach their cortical attachment sites. However, because they contain short KFs that are rotated, BBs in disA-1 cells display aberrant spacing and disorientation. Therefore, DisAp is a novel KF component that is essential for force-dependent KF elongation and BB orientation in multiciliary arrays. PMID:25533842

  8. Direct writing of fiber optic components in photonic crystal fibers and other specialty fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luis Andre; Sezerman, Omur; Best, Garland; Ng, Mi Li; Kane, Saidou

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond direct laser writing has recently shown great potential for the fabrication of complex integrated devices in the cladding of optical fibers. Such devices have the advantage of requiring no bulk optical components and no breaks in the fiber path, thus reducing the need for complicated alignment, eliminating contamination, and increasing stability. This technology has already found applications using combinations of Bragg gratings, interferometers, and couplers for the fabrication of optical filters, sensors, and power monitors. The femtosecond laser writing method produces a local modification of refractive index through non-linear absorption of the ultrafast laser pulses inside the dielectric material of both the core and cladding of the fiber. However, fiber geometries that incorporate air or hollow structures, such as photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), still present a challenge since the index modification regions created by the writing process cannot be generated in the hollow regions of the fiber. In this work, the femtosecond laser method is used together with a pre-modification method that consists of partially collapsing the hollow holes using an electrical arc discharge. The partial collapse of the photonic band gap structure provides a path for femtosecond laser written waveguides to couple light from the core to the edge of the fiber for in-line power monitoring. This novel approach is expected to have applications in other specialty fibers such as suspended core fibers and can open the way for the integration of complex devices and facilitate miniaturization of optical circuits to take advantage of the particular characteristics of the PCFs.

  9. SRP-RNA sequence alignment and secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, N; Zwieb, C

    1991-01-01

    The secondary structures of the RNAs from the signal recognition particle, termed SRP-RNA, were derived buy comparative analyses of an alignment of 39 sequences. The models are minimal in that only base pairs are included for which there is comparative evidence. The structures represent refinements of earlier versions and include a new short helix. PMID:1707519

  10. DC Plasma Synthesis of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers for Biointerfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ryan Christopher

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a class of materials whose nanoscale dimensions and physical properties makes them uniquely suitable as functional elements in many applications for biodetection and biointerfacing on a cellular level. Control of VACNF synthesis by catalytic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) presents many challenges in integration into devices and structures designed for biointerfacing, such as transparent or flexible substrates. This dissertation addresses ways to overcome many of these issues in addition to deepening the fundamental understanding of nano-synthesis in catalytic PECVD. First, a survey of the field of VACNF synthesis and biointerfacing is presented, identifying the present challenges and greatest experimental applications. It is followed by experimental observations that elucidate the underlying mechanism to fiber alignment during synthesis, a critical step for deterministic control of fiber growth. Using a grid of electrodes patterned by photolithography on an insulating substrate, it was found that the alignment of the fibers is controlled by the anisotropic etching provided by ions during dc-PECVD synthesis. The VACNFs that have been utilized for many cellular interfacing experiments have unique mechanical and fluorescent properties due to a SiNx coating. The mechanism for SiNx deposition to VACNF sidewalls during synthesis is explored in addition to a detailed study of the optical properties of the coating. To explain the optical properties of this coating it is proposed that the source of photoluminescence for the SiNx coated VACNFs is quantum confinement effects due to the presence of silicon nanoclusters embedded in a Si3N4 matrix. These luminescent fibers have proven useful as registry markers in cell impalefection studies. To realize VACNF arrays used as an inflatable angioplasty balloon with embedded fibers to deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier, a method for transferring fibers to

  11. Production of aligned microfibers and nanofibers and derived functional monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Michael Z.; DePaoli, David W.; Kuritz, Tanya; Omatete, Ogbemi

    2007-08-14

    The present invention comprises a method for producing microfibers and nanofibers and further fabricating derived solid monolithic materials having aligned uniform micro- or nanofibrils. A method for producing fibers ranging in diameter from micrometer-sized to nanometer-sized comprises the steps of producing an electric field and preparing a solid precipitative reaction media wherein the media comprises at least one chemical reactive precursor and a solvent having low electrical conductivity and wherein a solid precipitation reaction process for nucleation and growth of a solid phase occurs within the media. Then, subjecting the media to the electric field to induce in-situ growth of microfibers or nanofibers during the reaction process within the media causing precipitative growth of solid phase particles wherein the reaction conditions and reaction kinetics control the size, morphology and composition of the fibers. The fibers can then be wet pressed while under electric field into a solid monolith slab, dried and consolidated.

  12. Fiber alignment analysis of a receiver with integrated MEMS VOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Hickey, Ryan; Irwin, Rob; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhengxuan

    2006-09-01

    The structure of the optical path of a novel VOA integrated receiver is presented. The method to enhance the attenuation performance of the Receiver is described in detail. The standard coplanar package module exhibits a fluent attenuation curve and can achieve more than -20dB attenuation at ~ 6.5V drive voltage. S21, S22 performance and specifications of the module are explained in the paper. All these features provide customers considerable benefits, including high quality, low power consumption and cost, board real estate flexibility and ease of use.

  13. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  14. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  15. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ebbe S.; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne; Kristensen, Susie E.; Havgaard, Jakob H.; Torarinsson, Elfar; Larsen, Niels; Zwieb, Christian; Sestoft, Peter; Kjems, Jørgen; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a semiautomated RNA sequence editor (SARSE) that integrates tools for analyzing RNA alignments. The editor highlights different properties of the alignment by color, and its integrated analysis tools prevent the introduction of errors when doing alignment editing. SARSE readily connects to external tools to provide a flexible semiautomatic editing environment. A new method, Pcluster, is introduced for dividing the sequences of an RNA alignment into subgroups with secondary structure differences. Pcluster was used to evaluate 574 seed alignments obtained from the Rfam database and we identified 71 alignments with significant prediction of inconsistent base pairs and 102 alignments with significant prediction of novel base pairs. Four RNA families were used to illustrate how SARSE can be used to manually or automatically correct the inconsistent base pairs detected by Pcluster: the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture of the SARSE editor makes it a flexible tool to improve all RNA alignments with relatively little human intervention. Online documentation and software are available at http://sarse.ku.dk. PMID:17804647

  16. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  17. On the alignment of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-F.

    1986-06-01

    Taking the two Savage-Bolton 5 deg x 5 deg regions of optical quasar patrol as samples, a systematic analysis of the number of aligned quasars was made and compared with the random data generated by Monte Carlo method. The statistical result is that, at least for these two samples, there is no clear evidence for alignment.

  18. On the alignment of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing-fen

    1986-06-01

    Taking the two Savage-Bolton 5° × 5° regions of optical quasar patrol as samples, I made a systematic analysis of the number of aligned quasars and compared with the random data generated by Monte Carlo method. The statistical result is that, at least for these two samples, there is no clear evidence for alignment.

  19. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  20. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Henstock, Peter V.; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605