Science.gov

Sample records for aligned silicon nanowires

  1. Fabrication and optical simulation of vertically aligned silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. K.; Salhi, B.; Mukhaimer, A. W.; Al-Sulaiman, F. A.

    2016-10-01

    Silicon nanowires (Si-NWs) have been considered widely as a perfect light absorber with strong evidence of enhanced optical functionalities. Here we report finite-difference time-domain simulations for Si-NWs to elucidate the key factors that determine enhanced light absorption, energy flow behavior, electric field profile, and excitons generation rate distribution. To avoid further complexity, a single Si-NW of cylindrical shape was modeled on c-Si and optimized to elucidate the aforementioned characteristics. Light absorption and energy flow distribution confirmed that Si-NW facilitates to confine photon absorption of several orders of enhancement whereas the energy flow is also distributed along the wire itself. With reference to electric field and excitons generation distribution it was revealed that Si-NW possesses the sites of strongest field distributions compared to those of flat silicon wafer. To realize the potential of Si-NWs-based thin film solar cell, a simple process was adopted to acquire vertically aligned Si-NWs grown on c-Si wafer. Further topographic characterizations were conducted through scanning electron microscope and tunneling electron microscope-coupled energy-dispersive spectroscopy.

  2. Preparation of highly aligned silicon oxide nanowires with stable intensive photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Tokmolden, S.; Beall, Gary W.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we report the successful formation of highly aligned vertical silicon oxide nanowires. The source of silicon was from the substrate itself without any additional source of silicon. X-ray measurement demonstrated that our nanowires are amorphous. Photoluminescence measurements were conducted through 18 months and indicated that there is a very good intensive emission peaks near the violet regions. The FTIR measurements indicated the existence of peaks at 463, 604, 795 and a wide peak at 1111 cm -1 and this can be attributed to Si-O-Si and Si-O stretching vibrations. We also report the formation of the octopus-like silicon oxide nanowires and the growth mechanism of these structures was discussed.

  3. Phonon processes in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays produced by low-cost all-solution galvanic displacement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debika; Trudeau, Charles; Gerlein, Luis Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2016-03-01

    The nanoscale engineering of silicon can significantly change its bulk optoelectronic properties to make it more favorable for device integration. Phonon process engineering is one way to enhance inter-band transitions in silicon's indirect band structure alignment. This paper demonstrates phonon localization at the tip of silicon nanowires fabricated by galvanic displacement using wet electroless chemical etching of a bulk silicon wafer. High-resolution Raman micro-spectroscopy reveals that such arrayed structures of silicon nanowires display phonon localization behaviors, which could help their integration into the future generations of nano-engineered silicon nanowire-based devices such as photodetectors and solar cells.

  4. Molten Pb as a catalyst for large-scale growth of highly aligned silicon oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Feihong; Yang, Yongdong; Li, Jianping

    2007-09-01

    Low melting point metal Pb can be used as an effective catalyst for the large-scale growth of highly aligned silicon oxide nanowire balls. Unlike any previously observed results using Au or Fe as catalyst, the molten Pb-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth exhibits many amazing growth phenomena. The scan electron microscopy (SEM) data indicate that the silicon oxide nanowires grow out perpendicularly from the surface of the metal Pb balls. For each ball, numerous nanowires simultaneously nucleate, grow at nearly the same rate and direction, and simultaneously stop growing. The pear-like, flower-like, chrysanthemum-like, and echinus-like SiO 2 nanostructures were formed. A growth model was proposed. The experimental results further expand the low melting point metal-catalyzed VLS mechanism to a broader range.

  5. Nanofabrication of arrays of silicon field emitters with vertical silicon nanowire current limiters and self-aligned gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrera, S. A.; Akinwande, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    We developed a fabrication process for embedding a dense array (108 cm-2) of high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires (200 nm diameter and 10 μm tall) in a dielectric matrix and then structured/exposed the tips of the nanowires to form self-aligned gate field emitter arrays using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Using this structure, we demonstrated a high current density (100 A cm-2), uniform, and long lifetime (>100 h) silicon field emitter array architecture in which the current emitted by each tip is regulated by the silicon nanowire current limiter connected in series with the tip. Using the current voltage characteristics and with the aid of numerical device models, we estimated the tip radius of our field emission arrays to be ≈4.8 nm, as consistent with the tip radius measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  6. Nanofabrication of arrays of silicon field emitters with vertical silicon nanowire current limiters and self-aligned gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrera, S. A.; Akinwande, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    We developed a fabrication process for embedding a dense array (108 cm‑2) of high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires (200 nm diameter and 10 μm tall) in a dielectric matrix and then structured/exposed the tips of the nanowires to form self-aligned gate field emitter arrays using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Using this structure, we demonstrated a high current density (100 A cm‑2), uniform, and long lifetime (>100 h) silicon field emitter array architecture in which the current emitted by each tip is regulated by the silicon nanowire current limiter connected in series with the tip. Using the current voltage characteristics and with the aid of numerical device models, we estimated the tip radius of our field emission arrays to be ≈4.8 nm, as consistent with the tip radius measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  7. Nanofabrication of arrays of silicon field emitters with vertical silicon nanowire current limiters and self-aligned gates.

    PubMed

    Guerrera, S A; Akinwande, A I

    2016-07-22

    We developed a fabrication process for embedding a dense array (10(8) cm(-2)) of high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires (200 nm diameter and 10 μm tall) in a dielectric matrix and then structured/exposed the tips of the nanowires to form self-aligned gate field emitter arrays using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Using this structure, we demonstrated a high current density (100 A cm(-2)), uniform, and long lifetime (>100 h) silicon field emitter array architecture in which the current emitted by each tip is regulated by the silicon nanowire current limiter connected in series with the tip. Using the current voltage characteristics and with the aid of numerical device models, we estimated the tip radius of our field emission arrays to be ≈4.8 nm, as consistent with the tip radius measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). PMID:27292120

  8. Towards a full integration of vertically aligned silicon nanowires in MEMS using silane as a precursor.

    PubMed

    Gadea, G; Morata, A; Santos, J D; Dávila, D; Calaza, C; Salleras, M; Fonseca, L; Tarancón, A

    2015-05-15

    Silicon nanowires present outstanding properties for electronics, energy, and environmental monitoring applications. However, their integration into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a major issue so far due to low compatibility with mainstream technology, which complicates patterning and controlled morphology. This work addresses the growth of 〈111〉 aligned silicon nanowire arrays fully integrated into standard MEMS processing by means of the chemical vapor deposition-vapor liquid solid method (CVD-VLS) using silane as a precursor. A reinterpretation of the galvanic displacement method is presented for selectively depositing gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of synthesis temperature and pressure on the growth rate and alignment of nanowires is presented for the most common silicon precursor, i.e., silane. Compared with previously reported protocols, the redefined galvanic displacement together with a silane-based CVD-VLS growth methodology provides a more standard and low-temperature (<650 °C) synthesis scheme and a compatible route to reliably grow Si nanowires in MEMS for advanced applications.

  9. Towards a full integration of vertically aligned silicon nanowires in MEMS using silane as a precursor.

    PubMed

    Gadea, G; Morata, A; Santos, J D; Dávila, D; Calaza, C; Salleras, M; Fonseca, L; Tarancón, A

    2015-05-15

    Silicon nanowires present outstanding properties for electronics, energy, and environmental monitoring applications. However, their integration into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a major issue so far due to low compatibility with mainstream technology, which complicates patterning and controlled morphology. This work addresses the growth of 〈111〉 aligned silicon nanowire arrays fully integrated into standard MEMS processing by means of the chemical vapor deposition-vapor liquid solid method (CVD-VLS) using silane as a precursor. A reinterpretation of the galvanic displacement method is presented for selectively depositing gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of synthesis temperature and pressure on the growth rate and alignment of nanowires is presented for the most common silicon precursor, i.e., silane. Compared with previously reported protocols, the redefined galvanic displacement together with a silane-based CVD-VLS growth methodology provides a more standard and low-temperature (<650 °C) synthesis scheme and a compatible route to reliably grow Si nanowires in MEMS for advanced applications. PMID:25902702

  10. Towards a full integration of vertically aligned silicon nanowires in MEMS using silane as a precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadea, G.; Morata, A.; Santos, J. D.; Dávila, D.; Calaza, C.; Salleras, M.; Fonseca, L.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-05-01

    Silicon nanowires present outstanding properties for electronics, energy, and environmental monitoring applications. However, their integration into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a major issue so far due to low compatibility with mainstream technology, which complicates patterning and controlled morphology. This work addresses the growth of <111> aligned silicon nanowire arrays fully integrated into standard MEMS processing by means of the chemical vapor deposition-vapor liquid solid method (CVD-VLS) using silane as a precursor. A reinterpretation of the galvanic displacement method is presented for selectively depositing gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of synthesis temperature and pressure on the growth rate and alignment of nanowires is presented for the most common silicon precursor, i.e., silane. Compared with previously reported protocols, the redefined galvanic displacement together with a silane-based CVD-VLS growth methodology provides a more standard and low-temperature (<650 °C) synthesis scheme and a compatible route to reliably grow Si nanowires in MEMS for advanced applications.

  11. Versatile Particle-Based Route to Engineer Vertically Aligned Silicon Nanowire Arrays and Nanoscale Pores.

    PubMed

    Elnathan, Roey; Isa, Lucio; Brodoceanu, Daniel; Nelson, Adrienne; Harding, Frances J; Delalat, Bahman; Kraus, Tobias; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-10-28

    Control over particle self-assembly is a prerequisite for the colloidal templating of lithographical etching masks to define nanostructures. This work integrates and combines for the first time bottom-up and top-down approaches, namely, particle self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces and metal-assisted chemical etching, to generate vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) arrays and, alternatively, arrays of nanoscale pores in a silicon wafer. Of particular importance, and in contrast to current techniques, including conventional colloidal lithography, this approach provides excellent control over the nanowire or pore etching site locations and decouples nanowire or pore diameter and spacing. The spacing between pores or nanowires is tuned by adjusting the specific area of the particles at the liquid-liquid interface before deposition. Hence, the process enables fast and low-cost fabrication of ordered nanostructures in silicon and can be easily scaled up. We demonstrate that the fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can be used as in vitro transfection platforms for transfecting human primary cells.

  12. Self-aligned nanoforest in silicon nanowire for sensitive conductance modulation.

    PubMed

    Seol, Myeong-Lok; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Ji-Min; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2012-11-14

    A self-aligned and localized nanoforest structure is constructed in a top-down fabricated silicon nanowire (SiNW). The surface-to-volume ratio (SVR) of the SiNW is enhanced due to the local nanoforest formation. The conductance modulation property of the SiNWs, which is an important characteristic in sensor and charge transfer based applications, can be largely enhanced. For the selective modification of the channel region, localized Joule-heating and subsequent metal-assisted chemical etching (mac-etch) are employed. The nanoforest is formed only in the channel region without misalignment due to the self-aligned process of Joule-heating. The modified SiNW is applied to a porphyrin-silicon hybrid device to verify the enhanced conductance modulation. The charge transfer efficiency between the porphyrin and the SiNW, which is caused by external optical excitation, is clearly increased compared to the initial SiNW. The effect of the local nanoforest formation is enhanced when longer etching times and larger widths are used. PMID:23066892

  13. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells: optimal carrier transport in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Keisuke; Dutta, Mrinal; Fukata, Naoki

    2014-05-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells that combine vertically-aligned n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have great potential for replacing commercial Si solar cells. The chief advantage of such solar cells is that they exhibit higher absorbance for a given thickness than commercial Si solar cells, due to incident light-trapping within the NW arrays, thus enabling lower-cost solar cell production. We report herein on the effects of NW length, annealing and surface electrode on the device performance of SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the obtained SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by tuning the thickness of the surface electrode, and the etching conditions during NW formation and post-annealing. The PCE of 9.3% is obtained by forming efficient transport pathways for photogenerated charge carriers to electrodes. Our approach is a significant contribution to design of high-performance and low-cost inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.Inorganic/organic hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells that combine vertically-aligned n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have great potential for replacing commercial Si solar cells. The chief advantage of such solar cells is that they exhibit higher absorbance for a given thickness than commercial Si solar cells, due to incident light-trapping within the NW arrays, thus enabling lower-cost solar cell production. We report herein on the effects of NW length, annealing and surface electrode on the device performance of SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the obtained SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by tuning the thickness of the surface electrode, and the etching conditions during NW formation and

  14. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells: optimal carrier transport in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisuke; Dutta, Mrinal; Fukata, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells that combine vertically-aligned n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have great potential for replacing commercial Si solar cells. The chief advantage of such solar cells is that they exhibit higher absorbance for a given thickness than commercial Si solar cells, due to incident light-trapping within the NW arrays, thus enabling lower-cost solar cell production. We report herein on the effects of NW length, annealing and surface electrode on the device performance of SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the obtained SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by tuning the thickness of the surface electrode, and the etching conditions during NW formation and post-annealing. The PCE of 9.3% is obtained by forming efficient transport pathways for photogenerated charge carriers to electrodes. Our approach is a significant contribution to design of high-performance and low-cost inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

  15. Silicon Nanowire Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamins, Theodore

    2006-03-01

    Metal-catalyzed, self-assembled, one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires are being considered as possible device elements to augment and supplant conventional electronics and to extend the use of CMOS beyond the physical and economic limits of conventional technology. Such nanowires can create nanostructures without the complexity and cost of extremely fine scale lithography. The well-known and controllable properties of silicon make silicon nanowires especially attractive. Easy integration with conventional electronics will aid their acceptance and incorporation. For example, connections can be formed to both ends of a nanowire by growing it laterally from a vertical surface formed by etching the top silicon layer of a silicon-on-insulator structure into isolated electrodes. Field-effect structures are one class of devices that can be readily built in silicon nanowires. Because the ratio of surface to volume in a thin nanowire is high, conduction through the nanowire is very sensitive to surface conditions, making it effective as the channel of a field-effect transistor or as the transducing element of a gas or chemical sensor. As the nanowire diameter decreases, a greater fraction of the mobile charge can be modulated by a given external charge, increasing the sensitivity. Having the gate of a nanowire transistor completely surround the nanowire also enhances the sensitivity. For a field-effect sensor to be effective, the charge must be physically close to the nanowire so that the majority of the compensating charge is induced in the nanowire and so that ions in solution do not screen the charge. Because only induced charge is being sensed, a coating that selectively binds the target species should be added to the nanowire surface to distinguish between different species in the analyte. The nanowire work at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  16. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  17. Porous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-10-01

    In this mini-review, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures-single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion batteries, gas sensors and drug delivery.

  18. Self-aligned process for forming microlenses at the tips of vertical silicon nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Yaping Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2015-01-01

    The microlens is a key enabling technology in optoelectronics, permitting light to be efficiently coupled to and from devices such as image sensors and light-emitting diodes. Their ubiquitous nature motivates the development of new fabrication techniques, since existing methods face challenges as microlenses are scaled to smaller dimensions. Here, the authors demonstrate the formation of microlenses at the tips of vertically oriented silicon nanowires via a rapid atomic layer deposition process. The nature of the process is such that the microlenses are centered on the nanowires, and there is a self-limiting effect on the final sizes of the microlenses arising from the nanowire spacing. Finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations are performed of microlens focusing properties, including showing their ability to enhance visible-wavelength absorption in silicon nanowires.

  19. Multimode Silicon Nanowire Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 104 is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 107 whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  20. Multimode silicon nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Glassner, Sebastian; Zeiner, Clemens; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2014-11-12

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(4) is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(7) whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  1. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Young-Soo; Park, Jinsung; Yoon, Gwonchan; Song, Jiseok; Jee, Sang-Won; Lee, Jung-Ho; Na, Sungsoo; Kwon, Taeyun; Eom, Kilho

    2009-10-27

    Nanowires have been taken much attention as a nanoscale building block, which can perform the excellent mechanical function as an electromechanical device. Here, we have performed atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanoindentation experiments of silicon nanowires in order to investigate the mechanical properties of silicon nanowires. It is shown that stiffness of nanowires is well described by Hertz theory and that elastic modulus of silicon nanowires with various diameters from ~100 to ~600 nm is close to that of bulk silicon. This implies that the elastic modulus of silicon nanowires is independent of their diameters if the diameter is larger than 100 nm. This supports that finite size effect (due to surface effect) does not play a role on elastic behavior of silicon nanowires with diameter of >100 nm.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires have been taken much attention as a nanoscale building block, which can perform the excellent mechanical function as an electromechanical device. Here, we have performed atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanoindentation experiments of silicon nanowires in order to investigate the mechanical properties of silicon nanowires. It is shown that stiffness of nanowires is well described by Hertz theory and that elastic modulus of silicon nanowires with various diameters from ~100 to ~600 nm is close to that of bulk silicon. This implies that the elastic modulus of silicon nanowires is independent of their diameters if the diameter is larger than 100 nm. This supports that finite size effect (due to surface effect) does not play a role on elastic behavior of silicon nanowires with diameter of >100 nm. PMID:20652130

  3. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-09-18

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li(+) gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions.

  4. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li+ gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions. PMID:22949696

  5. Silicon nanowire Esaki diodes.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Heinz; Bessire, Cedric; Björk, Mikael T; Schenk, Andreas; Riel, Heike

    2012-02-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowire tunnel diodes. The silicon nanowires were grown on p-type Si substrates using Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth and in situ n-type doping. Electrical measurements reveal Esaki diode characteristics with peak current densities of 3.6 kA/cm(2), peak-to-valley current ratios of up to 4.3, and reverse current densities of up to 300 kA/cm(2) at 0.5 V reverse bias. Strain-dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements exhibit a decrease of the peak tunnel current with uniaxial tensile stress and an increase of 48% for 1.3 GPa compressive stress along the <111> growth direction, revealing the strain dependence of the Si band structure and thus the tunnel barrier. The contributions of phonons to the indirect tunneling process were probed by conductance measurements at 4.2 K. These measurements show phonon peaks at energies corresponding to the transverse acoustical and transverse optical phonons. In addition, the low-temperature conductance measurements were extended to higher biases to identify potential impurity states in the band gap. The results demonstrate that the most likely impurity, namely, Au from the catalyst particle, is not detectable, a finding that is also supported by the excellent device properties of the Esaki diodes reported here.

  6. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  7. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of porous silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daeyoon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Moon, Taeho; Sohn, Honglae

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of porous silicon nanowires through the metalassisted chemical etching of porous silicon in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of porous silicon nanowires was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The etch rate of the porous silicon nanowires was faster than that of silicon nanowires, but slower than that of porous silicon. The porous silicon nanowires distributed uniformly on the entire porous silicon layer and the tips of the porous silicon nanowires congregated together. The single crystalline and sponge-like porous structure with the pore diameters of less than 5 nm was confirmed for the porous silicon nanowires. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Photocatalytic Properties of Porous Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhong, Xing; Li, Yujing; Liao, Lei; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowires are synthesized through metal assisted wet-chemical etch of highly-doped silicon wafer. The resulted porous silicon nanowires exhibit a large surface area of 337 m(2)·g(-1) and a wide spectrum absorption across the entire ultraviolet, visible and near infrared regime. We further demonstrate that platinum nanoparticles can be loaded onto the surface of the porous silicon nanowires with controlled density. These combined advancements make the porous silicon nanowires an interesting material for photocatalytic applications. We show that the porous silicon nanowires and platinum nanoparticle loaded porous silicon nanowires can be used as effective photocatalysts for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and toxic pollutants under visible irradiation, and thus are of significant interest for organic waste treatment and environmental remediation.

  10. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of germanium nanowires and germanium/silicon radially heterostructured nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldthorpe, Irene Anne

    Semiconductor nanowires offer new opportunities to study physical phenomena in low-dimensional nanostructures. They also possess technologically useful properties for applications in electronics, optics, sensing, and thermoelectrics. Germanium nanowires are of particular interest, because of germanium's compatibility with standard silicon integrated circuit fabrication processes, its high electronic carrier mobilities, and the low temperature required for germanium nanowire growth. In this work, epitaxially-aligned germanium nanowires are grown on silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Uniform nanowire diameters between 5 and 50 nm are obtained through the use of monodisperse gold colloids as catalysts. The crystallographic orientation of the nanowires, their strain, and their heteroepitaxial relationship with the substrate are characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A process for removing the gold catalysts from the tips of the germanium nanowires is demonstrated. Silicon shells are then heteroepitaxially deposited around the wires to fabricate radial heterostructures. These shells passivate the germanium nanowire surface, create electronic band offsets to confine holes away the surface where they can scatter or recombine, and induce strain which could allow for the engineering of properties such as band gap and carrier mobilities. However, analogous to planar heteroepitaxy, surface roughening and misfit dislocations can relax this strain. The effects of coaxial dimensions on strain relaxation in these structures are analyzed quantitatively by TEM and synchrotron XRD, and these results are related to continuum elasticity models. Lessons learned generated two successful strategies for synthesizing coherent core-shell nanowires with large misfit strain: chlorine surface passivation and growth of nanowires with low-energy sidewall facets. Both approaches avoid the strain

  12. Planar Thermoelectric Microgenerators Based on Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, D.; Tarancón, A.; Kendig, D.; Fernández-Regúlez, M.; Sabaté, N.; Salleras, M.; Calaza, C.; Cané, C.; Gràcia, I.; Figueras, E.; Santander, J.; San Paulo, A.; Shakouri, A.; Fonseca, L.

    2011-05-01

    Silicon nanowires have been implemented in microfabricated structures to develop planar thermoelectric microgenerators ( μTEGs) monolithically integrated in silicon to convert heat flow from thermal gradients naturally present in the environment into electrical energy. The compatibility of typical microfabrication technologies and the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism employed for silicon nanowire growth has been evaluated. Low-thermal-mass suspended structures have been designed, simulated, and microfabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates to passively generate thermal gradients and operate as microgenerators using silicon nanowires as thermoelectric material. Both electrical measurements to evaluate the connectivity of the nanowires and thermoreflectance imaging to determine the heat transfer along the device have been employed.

  13. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-05-01

    Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.

  14. Controlled fabrication of silicon nanowires via nanosphere lithograph and metal assisted chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Shi, Tielin; Sheng, Wenjun; Liao, Guanglan

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the controlled fabrication of uniform vertical aligned silicon nanowires with desired length, diameter and location by combining nanosphere lithograph and metal assisted chemical etching techniques. The close-packed polystyrene nanospheres array was obtained by self-assemble technique, followed by reactive ion etching to acquire a non-close-packed monolayer template. Subsequently, the template was used to create a metal film with nanoholes array, which enable the controlled fabrication of ordered silicon nanowires via metal assisted chemical etching technique. By adjusting the monolayer of polystyrene nanospheres and the conditions for the metal assisted chemical etching, we obtained uniform distributed silicon nanowires with desired morphology. The aspect ratio of the silicon nanowires can reach to about 86:1. Furthermore, we have obtained the double-layer silicon nanowires by slight modifying the process. The influences of various conditions during etching were also discussed for improving the controlled fabrication.

  15. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

    2014-01-01

    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  16. Synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Teresa J.; Hsu, Julia W. P.

    2007-11-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid growth process for synthesis of group-IV semiconducting nanowires using silane, germane, disilane and digermane precursor gases has been investigated. The nanowire growth process combines in situ gold seed formation by vapor deposition on atomically clean silicon (111) surfaces, in situ growth from the gaseous precursor(s), and real-time monitoring of nanowire growth as a function of temperature and pressure by a novel optical reflectometry technique. A significant dependence on precursor pressure and growth temperature for the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires is observed, depending on the stability of the specific precursor used. Also, the presence of a nucleation time for the onset of nanowire growth has been found using our new in situ optical reflectometry technique.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of copper oxide-silicon nanowire heterojunction photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Guvenc; Aksoy Akgul, Funda; Mulazimoglu, Emre; Emrah Unalan, Husnu; Turan, Rasit

    2014-02-01

    In this study, copper oxide (CuO) thin film/silicon (Si) nanowire heterojunctions have been fabricated and their optoelectronic performances have been investigated. Vertically aligned n-type Si nanowires have been fabricated using metal-assisted etching (MAE) technique. CuO thin films were synthesized by the sol-gel method and deposited onto the nanowires through spin-coating. Fabricated nanowire heterojunction devices exhibited excellent diode behaviour compared to the planar heterojunction control device. The rectification ratios were found to be 105 and 101 for nanowire and planar heterojunctions, respectively. The improved electrical properties and photosensitivity of the nanowire heterojunction diode was observed, which was related to the three-dimensional nature of the interface between the Si nanowires and the CuO film. Results obtained in this work reveal the potential of Si nanowire-based heterojunctions for various optoelectronic devices.

  18. Fully Tunable Silicon Nanowire Arrays Fabricated by Soft Nanoparticle Templating.

    PubMed

    Rey, By Marcel; Elnathan, Roey; Ditcovski, Ran; Geisel, Karen; Zanini, Michele; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Miguel-Angel; Naik, Vikrant V; Frutiger, Andreas; Richtering, Walter; Ellenbogen, Tal; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Isa, Lucio

    2016-01-13

    We demonstrate a fabrication breakthrough to produce large-area arrays of vertically aligned silicon nanowires (VA-SiNWs) with full tunability of the geometry of the single nanowires and of the whole array, paving the way toward advanced programmable designs of nanowire platforms. At the core of our fabrication route, termed "Soft Nanoparticle Templating", is the conversion of gradually compressed self-assembled monolayers of soft nanoparticles (microgels) at a water-oil interface into customized lithographical masks to create VA-SiNW arrays by means of metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE). This combination of bottom-up and top-down techniques affords excellent control of nanowire etching site locations, enabling independent control of nanowire spacing, diameter and height in a single fabrication route. We demonstrate the fabrication of centimeter-scale two-dimensional gradient photonic crystals exhibiting continuously varying structural colors across the entire visible spectrum on a single silicon substrate, and the formation of tunable optical cavities supported by the VA-SiNWs, as unambiguously demonstrated through numerical simulations. Finally, Soft Nanoparticle Templating is combined with optical lithography to create hierarchical and programmable VA-SiNW patterns.

  19. Investigations on the growth and characterization of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires by radio frequency magnetronsputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, P. Sundara; Jeganathan, K.

    2013-04-15

    Undoped vertically aligned ZnO nanowires have been grown on silicon (111) substrates by the rf magnetron sputtering technique without metal catalyst. The diameter, length and density distributions of the nanowires have been analyzed with respect to the different growth durations. The tapering of the nanowires is observed for the growth duration of 120 min owing to the insufficient adatoms on the growth front. In the X-ray diffraction pattern, the dominant (002) peak with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ZnO nanowires indicates the c-axis orientation and high crystalline nature with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The narrow FWHM of E{sub 2}{sup low} and E{sub 2}{sup high} phonon modes (1.4 and 9.1 cm{sup −1}) provide an additional evidence for the high crystalline and optical properties of the nanowires. The low temperature photoluminescence spectra are dominated by the green emission at∼2.28 eV induced by the electron transitions between shallow donor and acceptor energy levels. - Graphical abstract: Coalescence free vertically aligned ZnO nanowires have been grown on silicon (111) substrate by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. Highlights: ► ZnO nanowires have been grown by rf magnetron sputtering. ► A morphologically superior and coalescence free ZnO nanowires have been realized. ► ZnO nanowires exhibit hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. ► A dominant visible emission indicates the presence of point defects in nanowires.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Crystalline Silicon Carbide Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Ding, Weiqiang; Aidun, Daryush K

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of crystalline silicon carbide nanowires, synthesized with a catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition method, were characterized with nanoscale tensile testing and mechanical resonance testing methods inside a scanning electron microscope. Tensile testing of individual silicon carbide nanowire was performed to determine the tensile properties of the material including the tensile strength, failure strain and Young's modulus. The silicon carbide nanowires were also excited to mechanical resonance in the scanning electron microscope vacuum chamber using mechanical excitation and electrical excitation methods, and the corresponding resonance frequencies were used to determine the Young's modulus of the material according to the simple beam theory. The Young's modulus values from tensile tests were in good agreement with the ones obtained from the mechanical resonance tests.

  1. Silicon nanowires: Growth, transport and device physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Erik Christian

    2009-11-01

    Silicon is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust and has been the backbone of the information technology revolution. It is the most well-studied material in all of solid-state chemistry and physics and has been used to make a variety of devices including transistors, resonators, and solar cells. Nanowires could provide advantages over bulk silicon; however, there are many fundamental challenges that must be overcome in order to use them in high-performance, reproducible devices. The first chapter of this dissertation gives an introduction to nanoscience with an emphasis on the working principles of the nanowire devices that are discussed later and the problems that face nanowire implementation. Chapter two demonstrates that platinum nanoparticles can be substituted for gold as the nanowire growth catalyst without sacrificing crystalline quality, epitaxial growth or electrical properties. Replacing gold with a clean-room compatible material such as platinum is important to allow for nanowire integration into microfabricated devices. Chapter three focuses on making horizontal surround-gate field effect transistors for capacitance-voltage measurements. These devices are used to extract the dopant profile and density of interface states from individual nanowires, showing results consistent with planar control samples and simulations. The results are encouraging because they suggest low surface recombination velocities (similar to bulk planar wafers) should be possible as long as the nanowire surface is smooth and well-faceted. Chapter four demonstrates two low-cost, scalable methods for fabricating silicon nanowire photovoltaics. Because of the rough surface induced by the electroless etching process and the poor junction quality from the nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition film, the efficiency of cells made with the first approach is relatively low at about 0.5%. The second approach, using an assembly of silica beads, deep reactive ion etching

  2. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  3. Networks of silicon nanowires: A large-scale atomistic electronic structure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keleş, Ümit; Bulutay, Ceyhun; Liedke, Bartosz; Heinig, Karl-Heinz

    2013-11-11

    Networks of silicon nanowires possess intriguing electronic properties surpassing the predictions based on quantum confinement of individual nanowires. Employing large-scale atomistic pseudopotential computations, as yet unexplored branched nanostructures are investigated in the subsystem level as well as in full assembly. The end product is a simple but versatile expression for the bandgap and band edge alignments of multiply-crossing Si nanowires for various diameters, number of crossings, and wire orientations. Further progress along this line can potentially topple the bottom-up approach for Si nanowire networks to a top-down design by starting with functionality and leading to an enabling structure.

  4. Flexible transparent and free-standing silicon nanowires paper.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chunlei; Cui, Hao; Yang, Guowei; Wang, Chengxin

    2013-10-01

    If the flexible transparent and free-standing paper-like materials that would be expected to meet emerging technological demands, such as components of transparent electrical batteries, flexible solar cells, bendable electronics, paper displays, wearable computers, and so on, could be achieved in silicon, it is no doubt that the traditional semiconductor materials would be rejuvenated. Bulk silicon cannot provide a solution because it usually exhibits brittleness at below their melting point temperature due to high Peierls stress. Fortunately, when the silicon's size goes down to nanoscale, it possesses the ultralarge straining ability, which results in the possibility to design flexible transparent and self-standing silicon nanowires paper (FTS-SiNWsP). However, realization of the FTS-SiNWsP is still a challenging task due largely to the subtlety in the preparation of a unique interlocking alignment with free-catalyst controllable growth. Herein, we present a simple synthetic strategy by gas flow directed assembly of a unique interlocking alignment of the Si nanowires (SiNWs) to produce, for the first time, the FTS-SiNWsP, which consisted of interconnected SiNWs with the diameter of ~10 nm via simply free-catalyst thermal evaporation in a vertical high-frequency induction furnace. This approach opens up the possibility for creating various flexible transparent functional devices based on the FTS-SiNWsP. PMID:23984843

  5. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  6. Phonon Engineering in Isotopically Disordered Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Givan, U; Senz, S; Bergeron, A; Francoeur, S; de la Mata, M; Arbiol, J; Sekiguchi, T; Itoh, K M; Isheim, D; Seidman, D N; Moutanabbir, O

    2015-06-10

    The introduction of stable isotopes in the fabrication of semiconductor nanowires provides an additional degree of freedom to manipulate their basic properties, design an entirely new class of devices, and highlight subtle but important nanoscale and quantum phenomena. With this perspective, we report on phonon engineering in metal-catalyzed silicon nanowires with tailor-made isotopic compositions grown using isotopically enriched silane precursors (28)SiH4, (29)SiH4, and (30)SiH4 with purity better than 99.9%. More specifically, isotopically mixed nanowires (28)Si(x)(30)Si(1-x) with a composition close to the highest mass disorder (x ∼ 0.5) were investigated. The effect of mass disorder on the phonon behavior was elucidated and compared to that in isotopically pure (29)Si nanowires having a similar reduced mass. We found that the disorder-induced enhancement in phonon scattering in isotopically mixed nanowires is unexpectedly much more significant than in bulk crystals of close isotopic compositions. This effect is explained by a nonuniform distribution of (28)Si and (30)Si isotopes in the grown isotopically mixed nanowires with local compositions ranging from x = ∼0.25 to 0.70. Moreover, we also observed that upon heating, phonons in (28)Si(x)(30)Si(1-x) nanowires behave remarkably differently from those in (29)Si nanowires suggesting a reduced thermal conductivity induced by mass disorder. Using Raman nanothermometry, we found that the thermal conductivity of isotopically mixed (28)Si(x)(30)Si(1-x) nanowires is ∼30% lower than that of isotopically pure (29)Si nanowires in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  7. Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance in Rough Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renkun; Hochbaum, Allon I.; Diaz Delgado, Raul; Liang, Wenjie; Garnett, Erik C.; Najarian, Mark; Majumdar, Arun; Yang, Peidong

    2008-03-01

    Due to the disparity between electron (<10 nm) and phonon ( ˜100 nm) mean free paths in silicon, nanostructured Si could effectively block phonon transport by boundary scattering while maintaining electron transport, thereby enhancing thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT. Here we report the wafer-scale electrochemical synthesis and thermoelectric characterization of rough Si nanowires with enhanced ZT, relative to the bulk material. Single nanowire measurements show that their electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient are similar to those of bulk Si with similar dopant concentration. Thin nanowires, however, exhibit a 100-fold reduction in thermal conductivity (k), yielding a large ZT = 0.6 at room temperature. Although bulk Si is a poor thermoelectric material, Si nanowire arrays show promise as high-performance, scalable thermoelectric materials.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of silicon and germanium nanowires, silica nanotubes, and germanium telluride/tellurium nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    A supercritical fluid-liquid solid (SFLS) nanowire growth process using alkanethiol-coated Au nanoparticles to seed silicon nanowires was developed for synthesizing silicon nanowires in solution. The organic solvent was found to significantly influence the silicon precursor decomposition in solution. 46.8 mg of silicon nanowires with 63% yield of silicon nanowire synthesis were achieved while using benzene as a solvent. The most widely used metal for seeding Si and Ge nanowires is Au. However, Au forms deep trap in both Si and Ge and alternative metal seeds are more desirable for electronic applications. Different metal nanocrystals were studied for Si and Ge nanowire synthesis, including Co, Ni, CuS, Mn, Ir, MnPt 3, Fe2O3, and FePt. All eight metals have eutectic temperatures with Si and Ge that are well above the nanowire growth temperature. Unlike Au nanocrystals, which seed nanowire growth through the formation of a liquid Au:Si (Au:Ge) alloy, these other metals seed nanowires by forming solid silicide alloys, a process we have called "supercritical fluid-solid-solid" (SFSS) growth. Moreover, Co and Ni nanoparticles were found to catalyze the decomposition of various silane reactants that do not work well to make Si nanowires using Au seeds. In addition to seeding solid nanowires, CuS nanoparticles were found to seed silica nanotubes via a SFSS like mechanism. 5% of synthesized silica nanotubes were coiled. Heterostructured nanomaterials are interesting since they merge the properties of the individual materials and can be used in diverse applications. GeTe/Te heterostructures were synthesized by reacting diphenylgermane (DPG) and TOP-Te in the presence of organic surfactants. Aligned Te nanorods were grown on the surface facets of micrometer-size germanium telluride particles.

  9. Structural Evolution of Silicon Oxide Nanowires via Head-Growth Solid-Liquid-Solid Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hang; Chan, Shih-Yu; Chen, Chia-Fu

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a growth mechanism for silicon oxide nanowires (SiONWs) as a unique solid-liquid-solid process. SiONWs were synthesized in a furnace at 1000 °C and cooled at a high rate. Nickel and gold were introduced as catalysts to dissolve and precipitate the silicon oxide originally prepared by wet oxidation. The ratio of nickel to gold determined the precipitation rate and different “octopus-like” structures were formed. At a specific cooling rate, composition and amount of a catalyst, aligned silicon oxide nanowires with unattached ends were obtained.

  10. Well-aligned zinc oxide nanorods and nanowires prepared without catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Cao, P. J.; Zhang, H. R.; Shen, C. M.; Wang, Z.; Li, J. Q.; Gao, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Without catalyst and at a low temperature (550 °C), well-aligned ZnO nanorods and nanowires were prepared on porous silicon substrates using a simple method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results confirm that both the nanorods and the nanowires are perfect single crystals with the wurtzite structure. The diameters range from 40 to 100 nm. The growth directions are along the [0 0 0 1] axis. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show that the UV emission shifts slightly to low frequency and the intensity of green emission decreases with the improvement of ZnO crystallization.

  11. Tapered silicon nanowires for enhanced nanomechanical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvar, O.; Gil-Santos, E.; Ruz, J. J.; Ramos, D.; Pini, V.; Fernandez-Regulez, M.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.; San Paulo, A.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of controllably induced tapering on the resonant vibrations and sensing performance of silicon nanowires. Simple analytical expressions for the resonance frequencies of the first two flexural modes as a function of the tapering degree are presented. Experimental measurements of the resonance frequencies of singly clamped nanowires are compared with the theory. Our model is valid for any nanostructure with tapered geometry, and it predicts a reduction beyond two orders of magnitude of the mass detection limit for conical resonators as compared to uniform beams with the same length and diameter at the clamp.

  12. Fabrication and properties of silicon carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyun Woo

    2008-12-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC), with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties, is a promising material candidate for future devices such as high-temperature electronics and super-strong lightweight structures. Combined with superior intrinsic properties, the nanomaterials of SiC show further advantages thanks to nanoscale effects. This thesis reports the growth mechanism, the self-integration, and the friction of SiC nanowires. The study involves nanowires fabrication using thermal evaporation, structure characterization using electron microscopy, friction measurement, and theoretical modeling. The study on nanowire growth mechanism requires understanding of the surfaces and interfaces of nanowire crystal. The catalyzed growth of SiC nanowires involves interfaces between source vapor, catalytic liquid, and nanowire solid. Our experimental observation includes the periodical twinning in a faceted SiC nanowire and three stage structure transitions during the growth. The proposed theoretical model shows that such phenomenon is the result of surface energy minimization process during the catalytic growth. Surface interactions also exist between nanowires, leading to their self-integration. Our parametric growth study reveals novel self-integration of SiC-SiO 2 core-shell nanowires as a result of SiO2 joining. Attraction between nanowires through van der Waals force and enhanced SiO2 diffusion at high temperature transform individual nanowires to the integrated nanojunctions, nanocables, and finally nanowebs. We also show that such joining process becomes effective either during growth or by annealing. The solid friction is a result of the interaction between two solid surfaces, and it depends on the adhesion and the deformation of two contacting solids among other factors. Having strong adhesion as shown from gecko foot-hairs, nanostructured materials should also have strong friction; this study is the first to investigate friction of nanostructures under

  13. Ultra-sensitive detection of adipocytokines with CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pui, Tze-Sian; Agarwal, Ajay; Ye, Feng; Tou, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Yinxi; Chen, Peng

    2009-09-01

    Perfectly aligned arrays of single-crystalline silicon nanowires were fabricated using top-down CMOS-compatible techniques. We demonstrate that these nanowire devices are able to detect adipocytokines secreted by adipose cells with femtomolar sensitivity, high specificity, wide detection range, and ability for parallel monitoring. The nanowire sensors also provide a novel tool to reveal the poorly understood signaling mechanisms of these newly recognized signaling molecules, as well as their relevance in common diseases such as obesity and diabetes.Perfectly aligned arrays of single-crystalline silicon nanowires were fabricated using top-down CMOS-compatible techniques. We demonstrate that these nanowire devices are able to detect adipocytokines secreted by adipose cells with femtomolar sensitivity, high specificity, wide detection range, and ability for parallel monitoring. The nanowire sensors also provide a novel tool to reveal the poorly understood signaling mechanisms of these newly recognized signaling molecules, as well as their relevance in common diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Process diagram of nanowire fabrication; specificity of nanowire detection; induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00092e

  14. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  15. Energy harvesting from vertically aligned PZT nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Zhou, Zhi; Sodano, Henry A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a nanostructured piezoelectric beam is fabricated using vertically aligned lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanowire arrays and its capability of continuous power generation is demonstrated through direct vibration tests. The lead zirconate titanate nanowires are grown on a PZT thin film coated titanium foil using a hydrothermal reaction. The PZT thin film serves as a nucleation site while the titanium foil is used as the bottom electrode. Electromechanical frequency response function (FRF) analysis is performed to evaluate the power harvesting efficiency of the fabricated device. Furthermore, the feasibility of the continuous power generation using the nanostructured beam is demonstrated through measuring output voltage from PZT nanowires when beam is subjected to a sinusoidal base excitation. The effect of tip mass on the voltage generation of the PZT nanowire arrays is evaluated experimentally. The final results show the great potential of synthesized piezoelectric nanowire arrays in a wide range of applications, specifically power generation at nanoscale.

  16. Fabrication of Si3N4 nanowire membranes: free standing disordered nanopapers and aligned nanowire assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Liu, Yan-gai; Wu, Xiaowen

    2016-08-01

    Herein, ultralong silicon nitride nanowires were synthesized via a chemical vapor deposition method by using the low-cost quartz and silicon powder as raw materials. Simple processes were used for the fabrication of disordered and ordered nanowire membranes of pure silicon nitride nanowires. The nanowires in the disordered nanopapers are intertwined with each other to form a paper-like structure which exhibit excellent flame retardancy and mechanical properties. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravity analysis were employed to characterize the refractory performance of the disordered nanopapers. Highly ordered nanowire membranes were also assembled through a three-phase assembly approach which make the Si3N4 nanowires have potential use in textured ceramics and semiconductor field. Moreover, the surface nanowires can also be modified to be hydrophobic; this characteristic make the as-prepared nanowires have the potential to be assembled by the more effective Langmuir–Blodgett method and also make the disordered nanopapers possess a super-hydrophobic surface.

  17. Fabrication of Si3N4 nanowire membranes: free standing disordered nanopapers and aligned nanowire assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Liu, Yan-gai; Wu, Xiaowen

    2016-08-01

    Herein, ultralong silicon nitride nanowires were synthesized via a chemical vapor deposition method by using the low-cost quartz and silicon powder as raw materials. Simple processes were used for the fabrication of disordered and ordered nanowire membranes of pure silicon nitride nanowires. The nanowires in the disordered nanopapers are intertwined with each other to form a paper-like structure which exhibit excellent flame retardancy and mechanical properties. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravity analysis were employed to characterize the refractory performance of the disordered nanopapers. Highly ordered nanowire membranes were also assembled through a three-phase assembly approach which make the Si3N4 nanowires have potential use in textured ceramics and semiconductor field. Moreover, the surface nanowires can also be modified to be hydrophobic; this characteristic make the as-prepared nanowires have the potential to be assembled by the more effective Langmuir-Blodgett method and also make the disordered nanopapers possess a super-hydrophobic surface.

  18. Reliable Fabrication of Metal Contacts on Silicon Nanowire Forests.

    PubMed

    Dimaggio, Elisabetta; Pennelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-13

    We present a technique for the fabrication of an electrical (and thermal) contact on the top ends of a large number of vertical silicon nanowires, which are fabricated perpendicularly to a silicon wafer (silicon nanowire forest). The technique is based on electrochemical deposition of copper and has been developed on silicon nanowire forests, fabricated by metal assisted chemical etching. We demonstrate that copper grows selectively only on the top end of the silicon nanowires, forming a layer onto the top of the forest. The presence of a predeposited metal seed is fundamental for the selective growth, meanwhile the process is very strong with respect to other parameters, such as concentration of the electrolytic solution and current density, used during the metal deposition. Typical I-V characteristics of top-to-bottom conduction through silicon nanowire forests with different n-doping are shown and discussed. PMID:27351210

  19. Reliable Fabrication of Metal Contacts on Silicon Nanowire Forests.

    PubMed

    Dimaggio, Elisabetta; Pennelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-13

    We present a technique for the fabrication of an electrical (and thermal) contact on the top ends of a large number of vertical silicon nanowires, which are fabricated perpendicularly to a silicon wafer (silicon nanowire forest). The technique is based on electrochemical deposition of copper and has been developed on silicon nanowire forests, fabricated by metal assisted chemical etching. We demonstrate that copper grows selectively only on the top end of the silicon nanowires, forming a layer onto the top of the forest. The presence of a predeposited metal seed is fundamental for the selective growth, meanwhile the process is very strong with respect to other parameters, such as concentration of the electrolytic solution and current density, used during the metal deposition. Typical I-V characteristics of top-to-bottom conduction through silicon nanowire forests with different n-doping are shown and discussed.

  20. The influence of H2O2 concentration to the structure of silicon nanowire growth by metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Hafsa; Jani, Abdul Mutalib Md.; Rusop, Mohamad; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2016-07-01

    A simple and low cost method to produce well aligned silicon nanowires at large areas using Ag-assisted chemical etching at room temperature were presented. The structure of silicon nanowires growth by metal-assisted chemical etching was observed. Prior to the etching, the silicon nanowires were prepared by electroless metal deposited (EMD) in solution containing hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide in Teflon vessel. The silver particle was deposited on substrate by immersion in hydrofluoric acid and silver nitrate solution for sixty second. The silicon nanowires were growth in different hydrogen peroxide concentration which are 0.3M, 0.4M, 0.5M and 0.6M and 0.7M.The influence of hydrogen peroxide concentration to the formation of silicon nanowires was studied. The morphological properties of silicon nanowires were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS).

  1. Top-down processed silicon nanowires for thermoelectric applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Moongyu; Park, Youngsam; Hyun, Younghoon; Jun, Myungsim; Choi, Sung-Jin; Zyung, Taehyung; Kim, Jong-Dae

    2012-04-01

    50 nm wide n-type silicon nanowires have been manufactured by using a top-down process in order to investigate the thermoelectric properties of silicon nanowire. Nanowire test structures with platinum heaters and temperature sensors were fabricated. The extracted temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the temperature sensors was 786.6 PPM/K. Also, the extracted Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the 50 nm wide phosphorus doped n-type silicon nanowires were -118 miroV/K and 2.16 mW x K(-2) x m(-1).

  2. Improved energy density of nanocomposites with aligned PZT nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haixiong; Lin, Yirong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2011-04-01

    The use of piezoelectric materials has become more popular for a wide range of applications, including structural health monitoring, power harvesting, vibration sensing and actuation. However, piezoceramic materials are often prone to breakage and are difficult to apply to curved surfaces when in their monolithic form. One approach to alleviate these issues is to embed the fragile piezoceramic inclusion into a polymer matrix. The flexible nature of the polymer matrix protects the ceramic from breaking under mechanical loading and makes the resulting compoistes easier to apply onto curved structure. However, most developed active ceramic composites have relatively low electroelastic coupling compared to bulk piezoceramics. There are two main methods to improve the eletroelastic properties of piezoceramic composites, namely using higher aspect ratio active inclusions and alignment of inclusions in the electric field direction. In this paper, the dielectric and energy storage property of nanowire composites is significantly enhanced by aligning the nanowires in the direction of the applied electrical field. PZT nanowires are hydrothermally synthesized and solutioncast into a polymer matrix, and then aligned using a shear flow based stretching method. The alignment was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy images and it is shown that the nanowires can be successfully aligned in the PVDF. The dielectric constant and energy density of the nanocomposites were tested using Agilent E4980A LCR meter and Sawyer-Tower circuit. This testing result shows that the dielectric constant and energy density of the composites can be increased by as much as 35.7% and 49.3% by aligning the nanowires in the electric field direction. Piezoceramic composites with enhanced energy storage property could lead to broader applications when using this type of materials for polymer based capacitive energy storage.

  3. Growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires on a Si substrate by a metal-catalyst-free process

    PubMed Central

    Ishiyama, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Wakamatsu, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    The growth of epitaxial Si nanowires by a metal-catalyst-free process has been investigated as an alternative to the more common metal-catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid process. The well-aligned Si nanowires are successfully grown on a (111)-oriented Si substrate without any metal catalysts by a thermal treatment using silicon sulfide as a Si source at approximately 1200 °C. The needle-shaped Si nanowires, which have a core–shell structure that consists of a single-crystalline Si core along the <111> direction consistent with the substrate direction and a surface coating of silicon oxide, are grown by a metal-catalyst-free process. In this process, the silicon sulfide in the liquid phase facilitates the nucleation and nanowire growth. In contrast, oxygen-rich nanowires that consist of crystalline Si at the tip and lumpy silicon oxide on the body are observed in a sample grown at 1300 °C, which disturbs the epitaxial growth of Si nanowires. PMID:27465800

  4. Growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires on a Si substrate by a metal-catalyst-free process.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Wakamatsu, Toshiki

    2016-07-28

    The growth of epitaxial Si nanowires by a metal-catalyst-free process has been investigated as an alternative to the more common metal-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid process. The well-aligned Si nanowires are successfully grown on a (111)-oriented Si substrate without any metal catalysts by a thermal treatment using silicon sulfide as a Si source at approximately 1200 °C. The needle-shaped Si nanowires, which have a core-shell structure that consists of a single-crystalline Si core along the <111> direction consistent with the substrate direction and a surface coating of silicon oxide, are grown by a metal-catalyst-free process. In this process, the silicon sulfide in the liquid phase facilitates the nucleation and nanowire growth. In contrast, oxygen-rich nanowires that consist of crystalline Si at the tip and lumpy silicon oxide on the body are observed in a sample grown at 1300 °C, which disturbs the epitaxial growth of Si nanowires.

  5. Growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires on a Si substrate by a metal-catalyst-free process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Wakamatsu, Toshiki

    2016-07-01

    The growth of epitaxial Si nanowires by a metal-catalyst-free process has been investigated as an alternative to the more common metal-catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid process. The well-aligned Si nanowires are successfully grown on a (111)-oriented Si substrate without any metal catalysts by a thermal treatment using silicon sulfide as a Si source at approximately 1200 °C. The needle-shaped Si nanowires, which have a core–shell structure that consists of a single-crystalline Si core along the <111> direction consistent with the substrate direction and a surface coating of silicon oxide, are grown by a metal-catalyst-free process. In this process, the silicon sulfide in the liquid phase facilitates the nucleation and nanowire growth. In contrast, oxygen-rich nanowires that consist of crystalline Si at the tip and lumpy silicon oxide on the body are observed in a sample grown at 1300 °C, which disturbs the epitaxial growth of Si nanowires.

  6. Thermal conductivity in porous silicon nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The nanoscale features in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) can suppress phonon propagation and strongly reduce their thermal conductivities compared to the bulk value. This work measures the thermal conductivity along the axial direction of SiNW arrays with varying nanowire diameters, doping concentrations, surface roughness, and internal porosities using nanosecond transient thermoreflectance. For SiNWs with diameters larger than the phonon mean free path, porosity substantially reduces the thermal conductivity, yielding thermal conductivities as low as 1 W/m/K in highly porous SiNWs. However, when the SiNW diameter is below the phonon mean free path, both the internal porosity and the diameter significantly contribute to phonon scattering and lead to reduced thermal conductivity of the SiNWs. PMID:23039084

  7. Thermal conductivity in porous silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Jeffrey M; Marconnet, Amy M; Kim, Dong Rip; Rao, Pratap M; Panzer, Matthew A; Goodson, Kenneth E; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-10-06

    The nanoscale features in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) can suppress phonon propagation and strongly reduce their thermal conductivities compared to the bulk value. This work measures the thermal conductivity along the axial direction of SiNW arrays with varying nanowire diameters, doping concentrations, surface roughness, and internal porosities using nanosecond transient thermoreflectance. For SiNWs with diameters larger than the phonon mean free path, porosity substantially reduces the thermal conductivity, yielding thermal conductivities as low as 1 W/m/K in highly porous SiNWs. However, when the SiNW diameter is below the phonon mean free path, both the internal porosity and the diameter significantly contribute to phonon scattering and lead to reduced thermal conductivity of the SiNWs.

  8. Thermal conductivity in porous silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, Jeffrey M.; Marconnet, Amy M.; Kim, Dong Rip; Rao, Pratap M.; Panzer, Matthew A.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-10-01

    The nanoscale features in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) can suppress phonon propagation and strongly reduce their thermal conductivities compared to the bulk value. This work measures the thermal conductivity along the axial direction of SiNW arrays with varying nanowire diameters, doping concentrations, surface roughness, and internal porosities using nanosecond transient thermoreflectance. For SiNWs with diameters larger than the phonon mean free path, porosity substantially reduces the thermal conductivity, yielding thermal conductivities as low as 1 W/m/K in highly porous SiNWs. However, when the SiNW diameter is below the phonon mean free path, both the internal porosity and the diameter significantly contribute to phonon scattering and lead to reduced thermal conductivity of the SiNWs.

  9. Silicon nanowire field effect transistor for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu

    Detection and recognition of chemical ions and biological molecules are important in basic science as well as in pharmacology and medicine. Nanotechnology has made it possible to greatly enhance detection sensitivity through the use of nanowires, nanotubes, nanocrystals, nanocantilevers, and quantum dots as sensing platforms. In this work silicon nanowires are used as the conductance channel between the source and drain of a FET (field effect transistor) device and the biomolecular binding on the surface of nanowire modifies the conductance like a change in gate voltage. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio and unique character of the silicon nanowires, this device has significant advantages in real-time, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a wide range of species, including proteins, nucleic acids and other small molecules. Here we present a biosensor fabricated from CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) compatible top-down methods including electron beam lithography. This method enables scalable manufacturing of multiple sensor arrays with high efficiency. In a systematic study of the device characteristics with different wire widths, we have found the sensitivity of the device increases when wire width decreases. By operating the device in appropriate bias region, the sensitivity of the device can be improved without doping or high temperature annealing. Not only can this device be used to detect the concentration of proteins and metabolites like urea or glucose, but also dynamic information like the dissociation constant can be extracted from the measurement. The device is also used to detect the clinically related cancer antigen CA 15.3 and shows potential application in cancer studies.

  10. Atomic scale investigation of silicon nanowires and nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have performed nanoscale characterization of Si-clusters and Si-nanowires with a laser-assisted tomographic atom probe. Intrinsic and p-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are elaborated by chemical vapor deposition method using gold as catalyst, silane as silicon precursor, and diborane as dopant reactant. The concentration and distribution of impurity (gold) and dopant (boron) in SiNW are investigated and discussed. Silicon nanoclusters are produced by thermal annealing of silicon-rich silicon oxide and silica multilayers. In this process, atom probe tomography (APT) provides accurate information on the silicon nanoparticles and the chemistry of the nanolayers. PMID:21711788

  11. Silicon nanowire circuits fabricated by AFM oxidation nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ramses V; Martínez, Javier; Garcia, Ricardo

    2010-06-18

    We report a top-down process for the fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowire circuits and devices. Local oxidation nanolithography is applied to define very narrow oxide masks on top of a silicon-on-insulator substrate. In a plasma etching, the nano-oxide mask generates a nanowire with a rectangular section. The nanowire width coincides with the lateral size of the mask. In this way, uniform and well-defined transistors with channel widths in the 10-20 nm range have been fabricated. The nanowires can be positioned with sub-100 nm lateral accuracy. The transistors exhibit an on/off current ratio of 10(5). The atomic force microscope nanolithography offers full control of the nanowire's shape from straight to circular or a combination of them. It also enables the integration of several nanowires within the same circuit. The nanowire transistors have been applied to detect immunological processes.

  12. Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOEpatents

    Han, Jung; Su, Jie

    2008-08-05

    Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

  13. Facile Pyrolytic Synthesis of Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Joo C.; Tran, Hoang; Pattison, James W.; Rananavare, Shankar B.

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as silicon nanowires (SiNW) are attractive candidates for low power density electronic and optoelectronic devices including sensors. A new simple method for SiNW bulk synthesis[1, 2] is demonstrated in this work, which is inexpensive and uses low toxicity materials, thereby offering a safe, energy efficient and green approach. The method uses low flammability liquid phenylsilanes, offering a safer avenue for SiNW growth compared with using silane gas. A novel, duo-chamber glass vessel is used to create a low-pressure environment where SiNWs are grown through vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using gold nanoparticles as a catalyst. The catalyst decomposes silicon precursor vapors of diphenylsilane and triphenylsilane and precipitates single crystal SiNWs, which appear to grow parallel to the substrate surface. This opens up possibilities for synthesizing nano-junctions amongst wires which is important for the grid architecture of nanoelectronics proposed by Likharev[3]. Even bulk synthesis of SiNW is feasible using sacrificial substrates such as CaCO3 that can be dissolved post-synthesis. Furthermore, by dissolving appropriate dopants in liquid diphenylsilane, a controlled doping of the nanowires is realized without the use of toxic gases and expensive mass flow controllers. Upon boron doping, we observe a characteristic red shift in photoluminescence spectra. In summary, an inexpensive and versatile method for SiNW is presented that makes these exotic materials available to any lab at low cost. PMID:20711489

  14. Facile pyrolytic synthesis of silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Joo C.; Tran, Hoang; Pattison, James W.; Rananavare, Shankar B.

    2010-10-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as silicon nanowires (SiNW) are attractive candidates for low power density electronic and optoelectronic devices including sensors. A new simple method for SiNW bulk synthesis [1,2] is demonstrated in this work, which is inexpensive and uses low toxicity materials, thereby offering a safe, energy efficient and green approach. The method uses low flammability liquid phenylsilanes, offering a safer avenue for SiNW growth compared with using silane gas. A novel, duo-chamber glass vessel is used to create a low-pressure environment where SiNWs are grown through vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using gold nanoparticles as a catalyst. The catalyst decomposes silicon precursor vapors of diphenylsilane and triphenylsilane and precipitates single crystal SiNWs, which appear to grow parallel to the substrate surface. This opens up possibilities for synthesizing nano-junctions amongst wires which is important for the grid architecture of nanoelectronics proposed by Likharev [3]. Even bulk synthesis of SiNW is feasible using sacrificial substrates such as CaCO 3 that can be dissolved post-synthesis. Furthermore, by dissolving appropriate dopants in liquid diphenylsilane, a controlled doping of the nanowires is realized without the use of toxic gases and expensive mass flow controllers. Upon boron doping, we observe a characteristic red shift in photoluminescence spectra. In summary, an inexpensive and versatile method for SiNW is presented that makes these exotic materials available to any lab at low cost.

  15. Synthesis, characterizations, and applications of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guangyong

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received great attention because of their unique structure and promising applications in microelectronic devices such as field electron emitters. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are also very popular because Si is a well established electronic material. This thesis will present my effort on synthesis, characterizations, and applications of CNTs and SiNWs by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. For CNTs growth, block copolymer micelles were used as a template to create large area arrays of metal nanoclusters as catalysts for patterned arrays, and Fe/Al/Fe sandwich film on single crystal magnesium oxide (MgO) substrate was used as the catalyst for growth of long length aligned CNTs by CVD. The factors that affect the structure and length of CNTs have been investigated. CNTs were also grown on etched Si substrate by PECVD method. Continuous dropwise condensation was achieved on a biomimetic two-tier texture with short CNTs deposited on micromachined pillars. Superhydrophobic condensation model was studied. For SiNWs growth, hydrogen gold tetrachloride was uniformly mixed into the salt and decomposed into gold nanoparticles at the growth temperature and acted as the catalyst particles to start the growth of Si nanowires. The as-grown Si nanowires are about 70--90 nm in diameter and up to 200 micrometers long. The salt was completely removed by water rinse after growth. Field emission of aligned CNTs grown on Si substrates and SiNWs on Si substrates and carbon clothes has been studied. A post growth annealing procedure has been found to drastically improve the field emission performance of these CNTs and SiNWs.

  16. Controllable deformation of silicon nanowires with strain up to 24%

    SciTech Connect

    Walavalkar, Sameer S.; Homyk, Andrew P.; Henry, M. David; Scherer, Axel

    2010-06-15

    Fabricated silicon nanostructures demonstrate mechanical properties unlike their macroscopic counterparts. Here we use a force mediating polymer to controllably and reversibly deform silicon nanowires. This technique is demonstrated on multiple nanowire configurations, which undergo deformation without noticeable macroscopic damage after the polymer is removed. Calculations estimate a maximum of nearly 24% strain induced in 30 nm diameter pillars. The use of an electron activated polymer allows retention of the strained configuration without any external input. As a further illustration of this technique, we demonstrate nanoscale tweezing by capturing 300 nm alumina beads using circular arrays of these silicon nanowires.

  17. Long Minority Carrier Diffusion Lengths in Bridged Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dong; Triplett, Mark; Yang, Yiming; Leonard, Francois; Talin, Alec; Islam, Saif

    2015-03-01

    Nanowires have large surface areas which create new challenges for their optoelectronic applications. Lithographic processes involved in device fabrication and substrate interfaces can lead to surface defects and substantially reduce charge carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. Here, we show that using a bridging method to suspend pristine nanowires allows for circumventing detrimental fabrication steps and interfacial effects associated with planar device architectures. We report electron diffusion lengths up to 2.7 μm in bridged silicon nanowire devices, much longer than previously reported values for silicon nanowires with a diameter of 100 nm. Strikingly, electron diffusion lengths are reduced to only 45 nm in planar devices incorporating nanowires grown under the same conditions. The highly scalable and low-cost silicon nano-bridge devices with the demonstrated long diffusion lengths may find exciting applications in photovoltaics, image sensing and photodetectors. DMR-1310678, CMMI-1235592, DEAC01-94-AL85000.

  18. Long minority carrier diffusion lengths in bridged silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Triplett, M; Yang, Y; Léonard, F; Talin, A Alec; Islam, M Saif; Yu, D

    2015-01-14

    Nanowires have large surface areas that create new challenges for their optoelectronic applications. Lithographic processes involved in device fabrication and substrate interfaces can lead to surface defects and substantially reduce charge carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. Here, we show that using a bridging method to suspend pristine nanowires allows for circumventing detrimental fabrication steps and interfacial effects associated with planar device architectures. We report electron diffusion lengths up to 2.7 μm in bridged silicon nanowire devices, much longer than previously reported values for silicon nanowires with a diameter of 100 nm. Strikingly, electron diffusion lengths are reduced to only 45 nm in planar devices incorporating nanowires grown under the same conditions. The highly scalable silicon nanobridge devices with the demonstrated long diffusion lengths may find exciting applications in photovoltaics, sensing, and photodetectors.

  19. Highly aligned vertical GaN nanowires using submonolayer metal catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Creighton, J. Randall

    2010-06-29

    A method for forming vertically oriented, crystallographically aligned nanowires (nanocolumns) using monolayer or submonolayer quantities of metal atoms to form uniformly sized metal islands that serve as catalysts for MOCVD growth of Group III nitride nanowires.

  20. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-12-01

    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  1. Phonon Trapping in Pearl-Necklace-Shaped Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunyang; Tai, Guoan; Zhou, Jianxin; Guo, Wanlin

    2015-12-22

    A pearl-necklace-shaped silicon nanowire, in contrast to a smooth nanowire, presents a much lower thermal conductivity due to the phonon trapping effect. By precisely controlling the pearl size and density, this reduction can be more than 70% for the structures designed in the study, which provides a unique approach for designing high-performance nanoscale thermoelectric devices. PMID:26577864

  2. Phonon Trapping in Pearl-Necklace-Shaped Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunyang; Tai, Guoan; Zhou, Jianxin; Guo, Wanlin

    2015-12-22

    A pearl-necklace-shaped silicon nanowire, in contrast to a smooth nanowire, presents a much lower thermal conductivity due to the phonon trapping effect. By precisely controlling the pearl size and density, this reduction can be more than 70% for the structures designed in the study, which provides a unique approach for designing high-performance nanoscale thermoelectric devices.

  3. Bubble-Regulated Silicon Nanowire Synthesis on Micro-Structured Surfaces by Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-10

    In this work, we study silicon nanowire synthesis via one-step metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) on microstructured silicon surfaces with periodic pillar/cavity array. It is found that hydrogen gas produced from the initial anodic reaction can be trapped inside cavities and between pillars, which serves as a mask to prevent local etching, and leads to the formation of patterned vertically aligned nanowire array. A simple model is presented to demonstrate that such bubble entrapment is due to the significant adhesion energy barrier, which is a function of pillar/cavity geometry, contact angle, and nanowire length to be etched. The bubble entrapment can be efficiently removed when extra energy is introduced by sonication to overcome this energy barrier, resulting in nanowire growth in all exposed surfaces. This bubble-regulated MACE process on microstructured surfaces can be used to fabricate nanowire arrays with desired morphologies. PMID:26411775

  4. Reversible modulation of spontaneous emission by strain in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Daryoush; Verma, Amit; Selvakumar, C R; Anantram, M P

    2012-01-01

    We computationally study the effect of uniaxial strain in modulating the spontaneous emission of photons in silicon nanowires. Our main finding is that a one to two orders of magnitude change in spontaneous emission time occurs due to two distinct mechanisms: (A) Change in wave function symmetry, where within the direct bandgap regime, strain changes the symmetry of wave functions, which in turn leads to a large change of optical dipole matrix element. (B) Direct to indirect bandgap transition which makes the spontaneous photon emission to be of a slow second order process mediated by phonons. This feature uniquely occurs in silicon nanowires while in bulk silicon there is no change of optical properties under any reasonable amount of strain. These results promise new applications of silicon nanowires as optoelectronic devices including a mechanism for lasing. Our results are verifiable using existing experimental techniques of applying strain to nanowires.

  5. Steering epitaxial alignment of Au, Pd, and AuPd nanowire arrays by atom flux change.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Youngdong; Seo, Kwanyong; Han, Sol; Varadwaj, Kumar S K; Kim, Hyun You; Ryu, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Ahn, Jae Pyoung; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kim, Bongsoo

    2010-02-10

    We have synthesized epitaxial Au, Pd, and AuPd nanowire arrays in vertical or horizontal alignment on a c-cut sapphire substrate. We show that the vertical and horizontal nanowire arrays grow from half-octahedral seeds by the correlations of the geometry and orientation of seed crystals with those of as-grown nanowires. The alignment of nanowires can be steered by changing the atom flux. At low atom deposition flux vertical nanowires grow, while at high atom flux horizontal nanowires grow. Similar vertical/horizontal epitaxial growth is also demonstrated on SrTiO(3) substrates. This orientation-steering mechanism is visualized by molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. Silicon nanowire synthesis by a vapor-liquid-solid approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Aaron; Ng, H. T.; Nguyen, Pho; McNeil, Melanie; Meyyappan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of silicon nanowires is studied by using a vapor-liquid-solid growth technique. Silicon tetrachloride reduction with hydrogen in the gas phase is used with gold serving as catalyst to facilitate growth. Only a narrow set of conditions of SiCl4 concentration and temperature yield straight nanowires. High concentrations and temperatures generally result in particulates, catalyst coverage and deactivation, and coatinglike materials.

  7. Photoresponsive properties of ultrathin silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Duy P.; Macdonald, Thomas J.; Nann, Thomas; Thierry, Benjamin E-mail: benjamin.thierry@unisa.edu.au; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Offenhäusser, Andreas E-mail: benjamin.thierry@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-08

    Functional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising building blocks in the design of highly sensitive photodetectors and bio-chemical sensors. We systematically investigate the photoresponse properties of ultrathin SiNWs (20 nm) fabricated using a size-reduction method based on e-beam lithography and tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet-etching. The high-quality SiNWs were able to detect light from the UV to the visible range with excellent sensitivity (∼1 pW/array), good time response, and high photoresponsivity (R ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup 4 }A/W). Improvement of the ultrathin SiNWs' photoresponse has been observed in comparison to 40 nm counter-part nanowires. These properties are attributable to the predominance surface-effect due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of ultrathin SiNWs. Long-term measurements at different temperatures in both the forward and reverse bias directions demonstrated the stability and reliability of the fabricated device. By sensitizing the fabricated SiNW arrays with cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs), hybrid QD SiNW devices displayed an improvement in photocurrent response under UV light, while preserving their performance in the visible light range. The fast, stable, and high photoresponse of these hybrid nanostructures is promising towards the development of optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.

  8. Growth model of lantern-like amorphous silicon oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Zou, Xingquan; Chi, Lingfei; Li, Qiang; Xiao, Tan

    2007-03-01

    Silicon oxide nanowire assemblies with lantern-like morphology were synthesized by thermal evaporation of the mixed powder of SnO2 and active carbon at 1000 °C and using the silicon wafer as substrate and source. The nano-lanterns were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and selective area electron diffraction (SAED). The results show that the nano-lantern has symmetrical morphology, with one end connecting with the silicon wafer and the other end being the tin ball. The diameter of the nano-lantern is about 1.5-3.0 µm. Arc silicon oxide nanowire assemblies between the two ends have diameters ranging from 70 to 150 nm. One single catalyst tin ball catalyzes more than one amorphous nanowires' growth. In addition, the growth mechanism of the nano-lantern is discussed and a growth model is proposed. The multi-nucleation sites round the Sn droplet's perimeter are responsible for the formation of many SiOx nanowires. The growing direction of the nanowires is not in the same direction of the movement of the catalyst tin ball, resulting in the bending of the nanowires and forming the lantern-like silicon oxide morphology. The controllable synthesis of the lantern-like silicon oxide nanostructure may have potential applications in the photoelectronic devices field.

  9. Alignment of the ATLAS silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Anthony

    2008-10-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments currently under preparation at Large Hadron Collider. Charged particle track reconstruction in the ATLAS Inner Detector is performed both with silicon and drift-tube-based detectors. The alignment of the ATLAS tracking system is one of the challenges that the experiment must overcome in order to achieve its physics goals. This requires the determination of almost 35 000 degrees of freedom. The precision required for the most sensitive coordinate of the silicon devices is of the order of few microns. This precision will be attained with a combination of two techniques: a hardware system with Frequency Scan Interferometers, and track-based alignment. The latter requires the application of complex alignment algorithms that can be both CPU and memory intensive due to the possible requirement of large matrix inversion or many iterations. The alignment algorithms have been already exercised on several challenges such as a Combined Test Beam, cosmic ray runs and large scale computing simulation of physics samples. This note reports on the methods, their computing requirements and preliminary results.

  10. Bottom-up silicon nanowire-based thermoelectric microgenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, D.; Huber, R.; Hierold, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, bottom-up intrinsic crystalline Si nanowire arrays in combination with top-down microfabrication techniques and a vertical device architecture have been proposed to develop an all-silicon nanostructured thermoelectric generator. To fabricate this device, a suitable vertical integration of Si NWs on patterned microstructures, which define the thermoelectric legs of the generator, has been achieved by bonding top and bottom silicon structures through nanowires. The process has been proven to be a feasible approach that employs a regrowth process of the nanowires for bonding purposes.

  11. Controllable positioning and alignment of silver nanowires by tunable hydrodynamic focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mei; Chen, Ying; Guo, Qiuquan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Yang, Jun

    2011-03-01

    Assembly and alignment of nanowires or nanotubes are critical steps for integrating functional nanodevices by the bottom-up strategy. However, it is still challenging to manipulate either an array of nanowires or individual nanowires in a controllable manner. Here we present a simple but versatile method of positioning and aligning nanowires by hydrodynamic focusing that functions as 'hydro-tweezers'. By adjusting the flow duration and flow rates of the sheath flows and sample flow, the density, width and position of the nanowire arrays, as building blocks of nanodevices, can be readily tuned in the hydrodynamic focusing process. This approach exhibits great potentials in the assembly of an array of functional nanodevices. With this method, multiple nanowire arrays can be positioned and aligned on predefined locations. Further focusing the sample flow, nanowires flow in single file. Thus single nanowires can also be lined up and located to desired positions.

  12. SiC nanowires synthesized from graphene and silicon vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichenpei, Luo; Gong-yi, Li; Zengyong, Chu; Tianjiao, Hu; Xiaodong, Li; Xuefei, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    The preparation of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires is basically important for its potential applications in nanodevices, nanocomposites, etc. In the present work, a simple route was reported to synthesize SiC nanowires by heating commercial graphene with silicon vapors and no catalyst. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy scattering, X-ray diffraction, and Raman dispersive spectrum demonstrates the products are composed of β-SiC crystal. The SiC nanowires have the average diameter of about 50 nm and length of tens of micrometers. The vapor-solid mechanism was employed to interpret the SiC nanowires growth. Gaseous SiO which was produced by the reaction of Si powders with its surface oxidation reacted with the solid graphene to form SiC crystal nuclei. And SiC crystal nuclei would act as active sites for further growing into nanowires.

  13. Indirect measurement of thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Pennelli, Giovanni Nannini, Andrea; Macucci, Massimo

    2014-02-28

    We report indirect measurements of thermal conductivity in silicon nanostructures. We have exploited a measurement technique based on the Joule self-heating of silicon nanowires. A standard model for the electron mobility has been used to determine the temperature through the accurate measurement of the nanowire resistance. We have applied this technique to devices fabricated with a top-down process that yields nanowires together with large silicon areas used both as electrical and as thermal contacts. As there is crystalline continuity between the nanowires and the large contact areas, our thermal conductivity measurements are not affected by any temperature drop due to the contact thermal resistance. Our results confirm the observed reduction of thermal conductivity in nanostructures and are comparable with those previously reported in the literature, achieved with more complex measurement techniques.

  14. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  15. Silicon Nanowire Growth at Chosen Positions and Orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    It is now possible to grow silicon nanowires at chosen positions and orientations by a method that involves a combination of standard microfabrication processes. Because their positions and orientations can be chosen with unprecedented precision, the nanowires can be utilized as integral parts of individually electronically addressable devices in dense arrays. Nanowires made from silicon and perhaps other semiconductors hold substantial promise for integration into highly miniaturized sensors, field-effect transistors, optoelectronic devices, and other electronic devices. Like bulk semiconductors, inorganic semiconducting nanowires are characterized by electronic energy bandgaps that render them suitable as means of modulating or controlling electronic signals through electrostatic gating, in response to incident light, or in response to molecules of interest close to their surfaces. There is now potential for fabricating arrays of uniform, individually electronically addressable nanowires tailored to specific applications. The method involves formation of metal catalytic particles at the desired positions on a substrate, followed by heating the substrate in the presence of silane gas. The figure illustrates an example in which a substrate includes a silicon dioxide surface layer that has been etched into an array of pillars and the catalytic (in this case, gold) particles have been placed on the right-facing sides of the pillars. The catalytic thermal decomposition of the silane to silicon and hydrogen causes silicon columns (the desired nanowires) to grow outward from the originally catalyzed spots on the substrate, carrying the catalytic particles at their tips. Thus, the position and orientation of each silicon nanowire is determined by the position of its originally catalyzed spot on the substrate surface, and the orientation of the nanowire is perpendicular to the substrate surface at the originally catalyzed spot.

  16. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Thermal stability of silicon nanowires: atomistic simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Liang; Zhang, Kai-Wang; Zhong, Jian-Xin

    2009-07-01

    Using the Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential model, we investigate the thermal stability of pristine silicon nanowires based on classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We explore the structural evolutions and the Lindemann indices of silicon nanowires at different temperatures in order to unveil atomic-level melting behaviour of silicon nanowires. The simulation results show that silicon nanowires with surface reconstructions have higher thermal stability than those without surface reconstructions, and that silicon nanowires with perpendicular dimmer rows on the two (100) surfaces have somewhat higher thermal stability than nanowires with parallel dimmer rows on the two (100) surfaces. Furthermore, the melting temperature of silicon nanowires increases as their diameter increases and reaches a saturation value close to the melting temperature of bulk silicon. The value of the Lindemann index for melting silicon nanowires is 0.037.

  17. Aligned, ultra-long graphene nanoribbon network fabrication by nanowire etch masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Joshua; Sivapalan, Sean; Dorgan, Vincent; Murphy, Catherine; Pop, Eric; Lyding, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Patterning semi-metallic graphene into quasi one-dimensional structures known as nanoribbons (GNRs) can open a ~ 0.5 eV bandgap by quantum confinement. To circumvent GNR lithographic difficulties, Si nanowires (NWs) were used previously as an etch mask for exfoliated graphene, but with no scalability or alignment control. Conversely, we transfer ~ 1 in 2 graphene sheets off copper to silicon dioxide, giving us a template for array fabrication. We meniscus align both Au NWs (w > = 20 nm , l = 400 nm) andAgNWs (w > = 200 nm , l > = 10 μ m) , respectively , onthegraphenesurface . Byreactiveionetch (RIE) , weremovetheunmaskedgraphene , andweetchtheNWs . BasedonthestartingNWs , theresultingGNRarrayshavelengthsrangingfrom 200 nmtotensofmicrons , andwidthsfrom 10 nmto 250 nm . WecreatesingleGNRsthatcanspanmicron - separatedcontactsandGNRnetworks , similartoagraphenenanomesh . UsingatomicforcemicroscopyandRamanspectroscopy , wedeterminethatwehavemonolayerGNRswithahighdisorderintensityI D / I G ~ 1 , indicating rough edges and graphene grain boundaries, which are deleterious to transport.

  18. Large-scale parallel arrays of silicon nanowires via block copolymer directed self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Richard A; Kinahan, Niall T; Hansel, Stefan; Stuen, Karl O; Petkov, Nikolay; Shaw, Matthew T; West, Laetitia E; Djara, Vladimir; Dunne, Robert J; Varona, Olga G; Gleeson, Peter G; Jung, Soon-Jung; Kim, Hye-Young; Koleśnik, Maria M; Lutz, Tarek; Murray, Christopher P; Holmes, Justin D; Nealey, Paul F; Duesberg, Georg S; Krstić, Vojislav; Morris, Michael A

    2012-05-21

    Extending the resolution and spatial proximity of lithographic patterning below critical dimensions of 20 nm remains a key challenge with very-large-scale integration, especially if the persistent scaling of silicon electronic devices is sustained. One approach, which relies upon the directed self-assembly of block copolymers by chemical-epitaxy, is capable of achieving high density 1 : 1 patterning with critical dimensions approaching 5 nm. Herein, we outline an integration-favourable strategy for fabricating high areal density arrays of aligned silicon nanowires by directed self-assembly of a PS-b-PMMA block copolymer nanopatterns with a L(0) (pitch) of 42 nm, on chemically pre-patterned surfaces. Parallel arrays (5 × 10(6) wires per cm) of uni-directional and isolated silicon nanowires on insulator substrates with critical dimension ranging from 15 to 19 nm were fabricated by using precision plasma etch processes; with each stage monitored by electron microscopy. This step-by-step approach provides detailed information on interfacial oxide formation at the device silicon layer, the polystyrene profile during plasma etching, final critical dimension uniformity and line edge roughness variation nanowire during processing. The resulting silicon-nanowire array devices exhibit Schottky-type behaviour and a clear field-effect. The measured values for resistivity and specific contact resistance were ((2.6 ± 1.2) × 10(5)Ωcm) and ((240 ± 80) Ωcm(2)) respectively. These values are typical for intrinsic (un-doped) silicon when contacted by high work function metal albeit counterintuitive as the resistivity of the starting wafer (∼10 Ωcm) is 4 orders of magnitude lower. In essence, the nanowires are so small and consist of so few atoms, that statistically, at the original doping level each nanowire contains less than a single dopant atom and consequently exhibits the electrical behaviour of the un-doped host material. Moreover this indicates that the processing

  19. Site-selected doping in silicon nanowires by an external electric field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Kan, Erjun; Wu, Xiaojun

    2011-09-01

    The properties of dopant-related defects in silicon nanowires are key characteristics in semiconductive devices. Our first-principles calculations predicted that the preferred doping sites of B and P atoms in hydrogen-passivated silicon nanowires have opposite distribution behavior under electric field, suggesting a steady intrinsic p-n junction can be spontaneously formed in (B and P) codoped silicon nanowires.

  20. Surface passivation and orientation dependence in the electronic properties of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Keenan; Chou, Mei-Yin

    2013-04-10

    Various surface passivations for silicon nanowires have previously been investigated to extend their stability and utility. However, the fundamental mechanisms by which such passivations alter the electronic properties of silicon nanowires have not been clearly understood thus far. In this work, we address this issue through first-principles calculations on fluorine, methyl and hydrogen passivated [110] and [111] silicon nanowires. Comparing these results, we explain how passivations may alter the electronic structure through quantum confinement and strain and demonstrate how silicon nanowires may be modelled by an infinite circular quantum well. We also discuss why [110] nanowires are more strongly influenced by their surface passivation than [111] nanowires.

  1. Silicon Nanowire Fabric as a Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Chockla, Aaron M.; Harris, Justin T.; Akhavan, Vahid A.; Bogart, Timothy D.; Holmberg, Vincent C.; Steinhagen, Chet; Mullins, C. Buddie; Stevenson, Keith J.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2011-11-09

    A nonwoven fabric with paperlike qualities composed of silicon nanowires is reported. The nanowires, made by the supercritical-fluid–liquid–solid process, are crystalline, range in diameter from 10 to 50 nm with an average length of >100 μm, and are coated with a thin chemisorbed polyphenylsilane shell. About 90% of the nanowire fabric volume is void space. Thermal annealing of the nanowire fabric in a reducing environment converts the polyphenylsilane coating to a carbonaceous layer that significantly increases the electrical conductivity of the material. This makes the nanowire fabric useful as a self-supporting, mechanically flexible, high-energy-storage anode material in a lithium ion battery. Anode capacities of more than 800 mA h g{sup –1} were achieved without the addition of conductive carbon or binder.

  2. Functional Nanoscale Electronic Devices Assembled Using Silicon Nanowire Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yi; Lieber, Charles M.

    2001-02-01

    Because semiconductor nanowires can transport electrons and holes, they could function as building blocks for nanoscale electronics assembled without the need for complex and costly fabrication facilities. Boron- and phosphorous-doped silicon nanowires were used as building blocks to assemble three types of semiconductor nanodevices. Passive diode structures consisting of crossed p- and n-type nanowires exhibit rectifying transport similar to planar p-n junctions. Active bipolar transistors, consisting of heavily and lightly n-doped nanowires crossing a common p-type wire base, exhibit common base and emitter current gains as large as 0.94 and 16, respectively. In addition, p- and n-type nanowires have been used to assemble complementary inverter-like structures. The facile assembly of key electronic device elements from well-defined nanoscale building blocks may represent a step toward a ``bottom-up'' paradigm for electronics manufacturing.

  3. Functional nanoscale electronic devices assembled using silicon nanowire building blocks.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Lieber, C M

    2001-02-01

    Because semiconductor nanowires can transport electrons and holes, they could function as building blocks for nanoscale electronics assembled without the need for complex and costly fabrication facilities. Boron- and phosphorous-doped silicon nanowires were used as building blocks to assemble three types of semiconductor nanodevices. Passive diode structures consisting of crossed p- and n-type nanowires exhibit rectifying transport similar to planar p-n junctions. Active bipolar transistors, consisting of heavily and lightly n-doped nanowires crossing a common p-type wire base, exhibit common base and emitter current gains as large as 0.94 and 16, respectively. In addition, p- and n-type nanowires have been used to assemble complementary inverter-like structures. The facile assembly of key electronic device elements from well-defined nanoscale building blocks may represent a step toward a "bottom-up" paradigm for electronics manufacturing.

  4. A deep etching mechanism for trench-bridging silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Zuhal; Wollschläger, Nicole; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf; Alaca, B Erdem

    2016-03-01

    Introducing a single silicon nanowire with a known orientation and dimensions to a specific layout location constitutes a major challenge. The challenge becomes even more formidable, if one chooses to realize the task in a monolithic fashion with an extreme topography, a characteristic of microsystems. The need for such a monolithic integration is fueled by the recent surge in the use of silicon nanowires as functional building blocks in various electromechanical and optoelectronic applications. This challenge is addressed in this work by introducing a top-down, silicon-on-insulator technology. The technology provides a pathway for obtaining well-controlled silicon nanowires along with the surrounding microscale features up to a three-order-of-magnitude scale difference. A two-step etching process is developed, where the first shallow etch defines a nanoscale protrusion on the wafer surface. After applying a conformal protection on the protrusion, a deep etch step is carried out forming the surrounding microscale features. A minimum nanowire cross-section of 35 nm by 168 nm is demonstrated in the presence of an etch depth of 10 μm. Nanowire cross-sectional features are characterized via transmission electron microscopy and linked to specific process steps. The technology allows control on all dimensional aspects along with the exact location and orientation of the silicon nanowire. The adoption of the technology in the fabrication of micro and nanosystems can potentially lead to a significant reduction in process complexity by facilitating direct access to the nanowire during surface processes such as contact formation and doping.

  5. A deep etching mechanism for trench-bridging silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdemir, Zuhal; Wollschläger, Nicole; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf; Erdem Alaca, B.

    2016-03-01

    Introducing a single silicon nanowire with a known orientation and dimensions to a specific layout location constitutes a major challenge. The challenge becomes even more formidable, if one chooses to realize the task in a monolithic fashion with an extreme topography, a characteristic of microsystems. The need for such a monolithic integration is fueled by the recent surge in the use of silicon nanowires as functional building blocks in various electromechanical and optoelectronic applications. This challenge is addressed in this work by introducing a top-down, silicon-on-insulator technology. The technology provides a pathway for obtaining well-controlled silicon nanowires along with the surrounding microscale features up to a three-order-of-magnitude scale difference. A two-step etching process is developed, where the first shallow etch defines a nanoscale protrusion on the wafer surface. After applying a conformal protection on the protrusion, a deep etch step is carried out forming the surrounding microscale features. A minimum nanowire cross-section of 35 nm by 168 nm is demonstrated in the presence of an etch depth of 10 μm. Nanowire cross-sectional features are characterized via transmission electron microscopy and linked to specific process steps. The technology allows control on all dimensional aspects along with the exact location and orientation of the silicon nanowire. The adoption of the technology in the fabrication of micro and nanosystems can potentially lead to a significant reduction in process complexity by facilitating direct access to the nanowire during surface processes such as contact formation and doping.

  6. Origin of second-harmonic generation from individual silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiecha, Peter R.; Arbouet, Arnaud; Girard, Christian; Baron, Thierry; Paillard, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    We investigate second harmonic generation from individual silicon nanowires and study the influence of resonant optical modes on the far field nonlinear emission. We find that the polarization of the second harmonic has a size-dependent behavior and explain this phenomenon by considering different surface and bulk nonlinear susceptibility contributions. We show that the second harmonic generation has an entirely different origin, depending on the nanowire diameter and on whether the incident illumination is polarized parallel or perpendicular to the nanowire axis. The results open perspectives for further geometry-based studies on the origin and control of second harmonic generation in nanostructures of high-refractive index centrosymmetric dielectrics.

  7. Multi-diameter silicon nanowires: Fabrication, characterization, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagoz, Arif Sinan

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field offering novel devices for broad range of applications. Quantum effects and surface to volume ratio of nanostructures are strongly size dependent, and redefine material properties at nanoscale. Silicon is one of the most promising materials for next generation nanostructured transistors, photonics devices, Li-ion batteries, photovoltaic solar cells, and thermoelectric energy generators. Since electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructures strongly depend on their shape, size, periodicity, and crystal structure; it is crucial to control these parameters in order to optimize device performance for targeted applications. This dissertation is intended to develop a low-cost, low-temperature, high-throughput, and large-area nanowire fabrication method that can produce well-ordered arrays of hierarchical single-crystal silicon nanowires at large scale by using nanosphere lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching. Nanowire morphology was characterized by using scanning electron microscope and optical properties of nanowire arrays were modeled with the help of finite-difference-time domain method. These novel multi-diameter silicon nanowire arrays have the potential applications in many fields including but not limited to next generation nanowire solar cells to field ionization gas sensors.

  8. Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bozhi; Zheng, Xiaolin; Kempa, Thomas J; Fang, Ying; Yu, Nanfang; Yu, Guihua; Huang, Jinlin; Lieber, Charles M

    2007-10-18

    Solar cells are attractive candidates for clean and renewable power; with miniaturization, they might also serve as integrated power sources for nanoelectronic systems. The use of nanostructures or nanostructured materials represents a general approach to reduce both cost and size and to improve efficiency in photovoltaics. Nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires have been used to improve charge collection efficiency in polymer-blend and dye-sensitized solar cells, to demonstrate carrier multiplication, and to enable low-temperature processing of photovoltaic devices. Moreover, recent theoretical studies have indicated that coaxial nanowire structures could improve carrier collection and overall efficiency with respect to single-crystal bulk semiconductors of the same materials. However, solar cells based on hybrid nanoarchitectures suffer from relatively low efficiencies and poor stabilities. In addition, previous studies have not yet addressed their use as photovoltaic power elements in nanoelectronics. Here we report the realization of p-type/intrinsic/n-type (p-i-n) coaxial silicon nanowire solar cells. Under one solar equivalent (1-sun) illumination, the p-i-n silicon nanowire elements yield a maximum power output of up to 200 pW per nanowire device and an apparent energy conversion efficiency of up to 3.4 per cent, with stable and improved efficiencies achievable at high-flux illuminations. Furthermore, we show that individual and interconnected silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements can serve as robust power sources to drive functional nanoelectronic sensors and logic gates. These coaxial silicon nanowire photovoltaic elements provide a new nanoscale test bed for studies of photoinduced energy/charge transport and artificial photosynthesis, and might find general usage as elements for powering ultralow-power electronics and diverse nanosystems.

  9. Solar power conversion efficiency in modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deinega, Alexei; John, Sajeev

    2012-10-01

    It is suggested that using only 1 μm of silicon, sculpted in the form of a modulated nanowire photonic crystal, solar power conversion efficiency in the range of 15%-20% can be achieved. Choosing a specific modulation profile provides antireflection, light trapping, and back-reflection over broad angles in targeted spectral regions for high efficiency power conversion without solar tracking. Solving both Maxwell's equations in the 3D photonic crystal and the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations in each nanowire, we identify optimal junction and contact geometries and study the influence of the nanowire surface curvature on solar cell efficiency. We demonstrate that suitably modulated nanowires enable 20% efficiency improvement over their straight counterparts made of an equivalent amount of silicon. We also discuss the efficiency of a tandem amorphous and crystalline silicon nanowire photonic crystal solar cell. Opportunities for "hot carrier" collection and up-conversion of infrared light, enhanced by photonic crystal geometry, facilitate further improvements in power efficiency.

  10. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai-chuang; Liang, Xin-gang; Xu, Xiang-hua; Ohara, Taku

    2009-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires was predicted using the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method using the Stillinger-Weber potential model and the Nose-Hoover thermostat. The dependence of the thermal conductivity on the wire length, cross-sectional area, and temperature was investigated. The surface along the longitudinal direction was set as a free boundary with potential boundaries in the other directions. The cross-sectional areas of the nanowires ranged from about 5 to 19 nm2 with lengths ranging from 6 to 54 nm. The thermal conductivity dependence on temperature agrees well with the experimental results. The reciprocal of the thermal conductivity was found to be linearly related to the nanowire length. These results quantitatively show that decreasing the cross-sectional area reduces the phonon mean free path in nanowires.

  11. Sub-diffraction Laser Synthesis of Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James I.; Zhou, Nan; Nam, Woongsik; Traverso, Luis M.; Xu, Xianfan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of silicon nanowires of tens of nanometers via laser induced chemical vapor deposition. These nanowires with diameters as small as 60 nm are produced by the interference between incident laser radiation and surface scattered radiation within a diffraction limited spot, which causes spatially confined, periodic heating needed for high resolution chemical vapor deposition. By controlling the intensity and polarization direction of the incident radiation, multiple parallel nanowires can be simultaneously synthesized. The nanowires are produced on a dielectric substrate with controlled diameter, length, orientation, and the possibility of in-situ doping, and therefore are ready for device fabrication. Our method offers rapid one-step fabrication of nano-materials and devices unobtainable with previous CVD methods. PMID:24469704

  12. Sub-diffraction Laser Synthesis of Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, James I.; Zhou, Nan; Nam, Woongsik; Traverso, Luis M.; Xu, Xianfan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of silicon nanowires of tens of nanometers via laser induced chemical vapor deposition. These nanowires with diameters as small as 60 nm are produced by the interference between incident laser radiation and surface scattered radiation within a diffraction limited spot, which causes spatially confined, periodic heating needed for high resolution chemical vapor deposition. By controlling the intensity and polarization direction of the incident radiation, multiple parallel nanowires can be simultaneously synthesized. The nanowires are produced on a dielectric substrate with controlled diameter, length, orientation, and the possibility of in-situ doping, and therefore are ready for device fabrication. Our method offers rapid one-step fabrication of nano-materials and devices unobtainable with previous CVD methods.

  13. Enhanced field emission from ZnO nanowire arrays utilizing MgO buffer between seed layer and silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Si; Chen, Jiangtao; Liu, Jianlin; Qi, Jing; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-11-01

    Field emitters based on ZnO nanowires and other nanomaterials are promising high-brightness electron sources for field emission display, microscopy and other applications. The performance of a ZnO nanowire field emitter is linked to the quality, conductivity and alignment of the nanowires on a substrate, therefore requiring ways to improve these parameters. Here, ZnO nanowire arrays were grown on ZnO seed layer on silicon substrate with MgO buffer between the seed layer and Si. The turn-on field and enhancement factor of these nanowire arrays are 3.79 V/μm and 3754, respectively. These properties are improved greatly compared to those of ZnO nanowire arrays grown on ZnO seed layer without MgO buffer, which are 5.06 V/μm and 1697, respectively. The enhanced field emission properties can be attributed to better electron transport in seed layer, and better nanowire alignment because of MgO buffer.

  14. Chemiresistive response of silicon nanowires to trace vapor of nitro explosives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danling; Sun, Haishan; Chen, Antao; Jang, Sei-Hum; Jen, Alex K-Y; Szep, Attila

    2012-04-21

    Silicon nanowires are observed to behave as chemically modulated resistors and exhibit sensitive and fast electrical responses to vapors of common nitro explosives and their degradation by-products. The nanowires were prepared with a top-down nano-fabrication process on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The surface of the silicon nanowires was modified by plasma treatments. Both hydrogen and oxygen plasma treatments can significantly improve the responses, and oxygen plasma changes the majority carrier from p- to n-type on the surface of silicon nanowire thin films. The sensitivity is found to increase when the cross-section of the nanowires decreases.

  15. Integrated freestanding single-crystal silicon nanowires: conductivity and surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hoon; Ritz, Clark S; Huang, Minghuang; Ziwisky, Michael W; Blise, Robert J; Lagally, Max G

    2011-02-01

    Integrated freestanding single-crystal silicon nanowires with typical dimension of 100 nm × 100 nm × 5 µm are fabricated by conventional 1:1 optical lithography and wet chemical silicon etching. The fabrication procedure can lead to wafer-scale integration of silicon nanowires in arrays. The measured electrical transport characteristics of the silicon nanowires covered with/without SiO(2) support a model of Fermi level pinning near the conduction band. The I-V curves of the nanowires reveal a current carrier polarity reversal depending on Si-SiO(2) and Si-H bonds on the nanowire surfaces.

  16. Nanogenerators based on vertically aligned InN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guocheng; Zhao, Songrui; Henderson, Robert D E; Leonenko, Zoya; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Mi, Zetian; Ban, Dayan

    2016-01-28

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) based on vertically aligned InN nanowires (NWs) are fabricated, characterized, and evaluated. In these NGs, arrays of p-type and intrinsic InN NWs prepared by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) demonstrate similar piezoelectric properties. The p-type NGs show 160% more output current and 70% more output power product than the intrinsic NGs. The features driving performance enhancement are reduced electrostatic losses due to better NW array morphology, improved electromechanical energy conversion efficiency due to smaller NW diameters, and the higher impedance of intrinsic NGs due to elevated NW surface charge levels. These findings highlight the potential of InN based NGs as a power source for self-powered systems and the importance of NW morphology and surface state in overall NG performance. PMID:26700694

  17. Anomalous Plastic Deformation and Sputtering of Ion Irradiated Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Silicon nanowires of various diameters were irradiated with 100 keV and 300 keV Ar+ ions on a rotatable and heatable stage. Irradiation at elevated temperatures above 300 °C retains the geometry of the nanostructure and sputtering can be gauged accurately. The diameter dependence of the sputtering shows a maximum if the ion range matches the nanowire diameter, which is in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations based on binary collisions. Nanowires irradiated at room temperature, however, amorphize and deform plastically. So far, plastic deformation has not been observed in bulk silicon at such low ion energies. The magnitude and direction of the deformation is independent of the ion-beam direction and cannot be explained with mass-transport in a binary collision cascade but only by collective movement of atoms in the collision cascade with the given boundary conditions of a high surface to volume ratio. PMID:25951108

  18. Anomalous Plastic Deformation and Sputtering of Ion Irradiated Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Andreas; Noack, Stefan; Wesch, Werner; Glaser, Markus; Lugstein, Alois; Ronning, Carsten

    2015-06-10

    Silicon nanowires of various diameters were irradiated with 100 keV and 300 keV Ar(+) ions on a rotatable and heatable stage. Irradiation at elevated temperatures above 300 °C retains the geometry of the nanostructure and sputtering can be gauged accurately. The diameter dependence of the sputtering shows a maximum if the ion range matches the nanowire diameter, which is in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations based on binary collisions. Nanowires irradiated at room temperature, however, amorphize and deform plastically. So far, plastic deformation has not been observed in bulk silicon at such low ion energies. The magnitude and direction of the deformation is independent of the ion-beam direction and cannot be explained with mass-transport in a binary collision cascade but only by collective movement of atoms in the collision cascade with the given boundary conditions of a high surface to volume ratio.

  19. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  20. The diameter-dependent photoelectrochemical performance of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Chang; Wang, Hui; He, Le; Duan, Chun-Yang; Li, Fan; Ou, Xue-Mei; Sun, Bao-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-25

    We demonstrate the first systematic study of the diameter-dependent photoelectrochemical performance of single silicon nanowires within a broad size range from 200 to 2000 nm. SiNWs with a diameter of 1415 nm exhibit the highest solar energy conversion efficiency, which can be mainly traced to their diameter-dependent light absorption properties.

  1. Steering epitaxial alignment of Au, Pd, and AuPd nanowire arrays by atom flux change.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Youngdong; Seo, Kwanyong; Han, Sol; Varadwaj, Kumar S K; Kim, Hyun You; Ryu, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Ahn, Jae Pyoung; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kim, Bongsoo

    2010-02-10

    We have synthesized epitaxial Au, Pd, and AuPd nanowire arrays in vertical or horizontal alignment on a c-cut sapphire substrate. We show that the vertical and horizontal nanowire arrays grow from half-octahedral seeds by the correlations of the geometry and orientation of seed crystals with those of as-grown nanowires. The alignment of nanowires can be steered by changing the atom flux. At low atom deposition flux vertical nanowires grow, while at high atom flux horizontal nanowires grow. Similar vertical/horizontal epitaxial growth is also demonstrated on SrTiO(3) substrates. This orientation-steering mechanism is visualized by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:20050692

  2. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.

  3. Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, A. C.; Tagliaferri, M. L. V.; Vinet, M.; Broström, M.; Sanquer, M.; Ferguson, A. J.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consists of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired with improved silicon fabrication techniques, makes the corner state quantum dot approach a promising candidate for a scalable quantum information architecture.

  4. Novel approach to the growth and characterization of aligned epitaxial gallium nitride nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Tania Alicia

    Nanowire devices are potential building blocks for complex electronic circuitry, however, challenges such as in-place alignment, precise positioning and nanowire device integration need to be addressed. In this work selective area grown (SAG), micron sized gallium nitride (GaN) mesas were used as growth substrates for lateral epitaxial GaN nanowire arrays. The thermodynamically stable mesa facets provide a crystallographic match for directed nanowire synthesis by minimizing the surface energy at the interface between the nanowire and substrate Nanowires grow from the sidewalls of GaN mesas forming parallel and hexagonal networks. Alignment occurs in the nonpolar m-axis <10l0> and semipolar <10ll> directions respectively. Gallium nitride nanowires are interconnected between thermodynamically stable and smooth pyramidal (10ll) , and (1l22) surfaces of adjacent GaN mesas, and they also grow from a single mesa to form free-standing nanowire cantilevers. The synthesis of lateral free-standing nanowires has led to exciting studies of their structural, electrical, and optical properties. Characterization of the electrical properties is carried out by in situ probing of single nanowires on the growth substrate inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The current transport is found to be largely dominated by thermionic field emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, and is significantly limited by a large contact resistance at the probe-nanowire interface. The carrier concentration and mobilities of the probed nanowires are extracted and are in agreement with standard field effects transistors (FETs) fabricated from nanowires grown using similar growth conditions. These results reveal that electrical probing of lateral GaN nanowires is a reliable means of characterizing their electrical properties once the interface resistance between the probe and nanowire is considered. The optical properties of the nanowires were investigated. Photon emission at 3.26 eV dominated the

  5. Spray-coating route for highly aligned and large-scale arrays of nanowires.

    PubMed

    Assad, Ossama; Leshansky, Alexander M; Wang, Bin; Stelzner, Thomas; Christiansen, Silke; Haick, Hossam

    2012-06-26

    Technological implementation of nanowires (NWs) requires these components to be organized with controlled orientation and density on various substrates. Here, we report on a simple and efficient route for the deposition of highly ordered and highly aligned NW arrays on a wide range of receiver substrates, including silicon, glass, metals, and flexible plastics with controlled density. The deposition approach is based on spray-coating of a NW suspension under controlled conditions of the nozzle flow rate, droplet size of the sprayed NWs suspension, spray angle, and the temperature of the receiver substrate. The dynamics of droplet generation is understood by a combined action of shear forces and capillary forces. Provided that the size of the generated droplet is comparable to the length of the single NW, the shear-driven elongation of the droplets results presumably in the alignment of the confined NW in the spraying direction. Flattening the droplets upon their impact with the substrate yields fast immobilization of the spray-aligned NWs on the surface due to van der Waals attraction. The availability of the spray-coating technique in the current microelectronics technology would ensure immediate implementation in production lines, with minimal changes in the fabrication design and/or auxiliary tools used for this purpose.

  6. Silicon-nanowire based attachment of silicon chips for mouse embryo labelling.

    PubMed

    Durán, S; Novo, S; Duch, M; Gómez-Martínez, R; Fernández-Regúlez, M; San Paulo, A; Nogués, C; Esteve, J; Ibañez, E; Plaza, J A

    2015-03-21

    The adhesion of small silicon chips to cells has many potential applications as direct interconnection of the cells to the external world can be accomplished. Hence, although some typical applications of silicon nanowires integrated into microsystems are focused on achieving a cell-on-a-chip strategy, we are interested in obtaining chip-on-a-cell systems. This paper reports the design, technological development and characterization of polysilicon barcodes featuring silicon nanowires as nanoscale attachment to identify and track living mouse embryos during their in vitro development. The chips are attached to the outer surface of the Zona Pellucida, the cover that surrounds oocytes and embryos, to avoid the direct contact between the chip and the embryo cell membrane. Two attachment methodologies, rolling and pushpin, which allow two entirely different levels of applied forces to attach the chips to living embryos, are evaluated. The former consists of rolling the mouse embryos over one barcode with the silicon nanowires facing upwards, while in the latter, the barcode is pushed against the embryo with a micropipette. The effect on in vitro embryo development and the retention rate related to the calculated applied forces are stated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy inspection, which allowed high-resolution imaging, also confirms the physical attachment of the nanowires with some of them piercing or wrapped by the Zona Pellucida and revealed extraordinary bent silicon nanowires.

  7. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire arrays with controlled roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Feser, JP; Sadhu, JS; Azeredo, BP; Hsu, KH; Ma, J; Kim, J; Seong, M; Fang, NX; Li, XL; Ferreira, PM; Sinha, S; Cahill, DG

    2012-12-01

    A two-step metal assisted chemical etching technique is used to systematically vary the sidewall roughness of Si nanowires in vertically aligned arrays. The thermal conductivities of nanowire arrays are studied using time domain thermoreflectance and compared to their high-resolution transmission electron microscopy determined roughness. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with small roughness is close to a theoretical prediction based on an upper limit of the mean-free-paths of phonons given by the nanowire diameter. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with large roughness is found to be significantly below this prediction. Raman spectroscopy reveals that nanowires with large roughness also display significant broadening of the one-phonon peak; the broadening correlates well with the reduction in thermal conductivity. The origin of this broadening is not yet understood, as it is inconsistent with phonon confinement models, but could derive from microstructural changes that affect both the optical phonons observed in Raman scattering and the acoustic phonons that are important for heat conduction. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4767456

  8. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire arrays with controlled roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feser, Joseph P.; Sadhu, Jyothi S.; Azeredo, Bruno P.; Hsu, Keng H.; Ma, Jun; Kim, Junhwan; Seong, Myunghoon; Fang, Nicholas X.; Li, Xiuling; Ferreira, Placid M.; Sinha, Sanjiv; Cahill, David G.

    2012-12-01

    A two-step metal assisted chemical etching technique is used to systematically vary the sidewall roughness of Si nanowires in vertically aligned arrays. The thermal conductivities of nanowire arrays are studied using time domain thermoreflectance and compared to their high-resolution transmission electron microscopy determined roughness. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with small roughness is close to a theoretical prediction based on an upper limit of the mean-free-paths of phonons given by the nanowire diameter. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with large roughness is found to be significantly below this prediction. Raman spectroscopy reveals that nanowires with large roughness also display significant broadening of the one-phonon peak; the broadening correlates well with the reduction in thermal conductivity. The origin of this broadening is not yet understood, as it is inconsistent with phonon confinement models, but could derive from microstructural changes that affect both the optical phonons observed in Raman scattering and the acoustic phonons that are important for heat conduction.

  9. Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays by near-field laser ablation and metal-assisted chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Brodoceanu, D; Alhmoud, H Z; Elnathan, R; Delalat, B; Voelcker, N H; Kraus, T

    2016-02-19

    We present an elegant route for the fabrication of ordered arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires with tunable geometry at controlled locations on a silicon wafer. A monolayer of transparent microspheres convectively assembled onto a gold-coated silicon wafer acts as a microlens array. Irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse removes the gold beneath each focusing microsphere, leaving behind a hexagonal pattern of holes in the gold layer. Owing to the near-field effects, the diameter of the holes can be at least five times smaller than the laser wavelength. The patterned gold layer is used as catalyst in a metal-assisted chemical etching to produce an array of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires. This approach combines the advantages of direct laser writing with the benefits of parallel laser processing, yielding nanowire arrays with controlled geometry at predefined locations on the silicon surface. The fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can effectively transfect human cells with a plasmid encoding for green fluorescent protein. PMID:26778665

  10. Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays by near-field laser ablation and metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodoceanu, D.; Alhmoud, H. Z.; Elnathan, R.; Delalat, B.; Voelcker, N. H.; Kraus, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present an elegant route for the fabrication of ordered arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires with tunable geometry at controlled locations on a silicon wafer. A monolayer of transparent microspheres convectively assembled onto a gold-coated silicon wafer acts as a microlens array. Irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse removes the gold beneath each focusing microsphere, leaving behind a hexagonal pattern of holes in the gold layer. Owing to the near-field effects, the diameter of the holes can be at least five times smaller than the laser wavelength. The patterned gold layer is used as catalyst in a metal-assisted chemical etching to produce an array of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires. This approach combines the advantages of direct laser writing with the benefits of parallel laser processing, yielding nanowire arrays with controlled geometry at predefined locations on the silicon surface. The fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can effectively transfect human cells with a plasmid encoding for green fluorescent protein.

  11. Lattice thermal conductivity of a silicon nanowire under surface stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liangruksa, Monrudee; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2011-06-01

    The effects of surface stress on the lattice thermal conductivity are investigated for a silicon nanowire. A phonon dispersion relation is derived based on a continuum approach for a nanowire under surface stress. The phonon Boltzmann equation and the relaxation time are employed to calculate the lattice thermal conductivity. Surface stress, which has a significant influence on the phonon dispersion and thus the Debye temperature, decreases the lattice thermal conductivity. The conductivity varies with changing surface stress, e.g., due to adsorption layers and material coatings. This suggests a phonon engineering approach to tune the conductivity of nanomaterials.

  12. Electrical shielding for silicon nanowire biosensor in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Songyue; Xie, Yanbo; De, Arpita; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin T.

    2013-10-01

    When integrating silicon nanowire biosensors with a microfluidic sample delivery system, additional challenges are introduced. Noise and erroneous signal generation induced by sample fluidic handling such as flow rate fluctuations during sample switching reduce the quality and reliability of the measurement system. In this paper, we propose an effective electrical shielding method to improve the stability and reliability of the setup by placing double electrodes instead of a single electrode that is traditionally used for nanowire sensors. Experimental results show that with proper shielding electrical measurements are not influenced by flow speed variations or during sample switching.

  13. High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Gao; McIlwrath, Kevin; Zhang, Xiao Feng; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2008-01-01

    There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.

  14. Top-down silicon microcantilever with coupled bottom-up silicon nanowire for enhanced mass resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal-Álvarez, Gabriel; Agustí, Jordi; Torres, Francesc; Abadal, Gabriel; Barniol, Núria; Llobet, Jordi; Sansa, Marc; Fernández-Regúlez, Marta; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; San Paulo, Álvaro; Gottlieb, Oded

    2015-04-01

    A stepped cantilever composed of a bottom-up silicon nanowire coupled to a top-down silicon microcantilever electrostatically actuated and with capacitive or optical readout is fabricated and analyzed, both theoretically and experimentally, for mass sensing applications. The mass sensitivity at the nanowire free end and the frequency resolution considering thermomechanical noise are computed for different nanowire dimensions. The results obtained show that the coupled structure presents a very good mass sensitivity thanks to the nanowire, where the mass depositions take place, while also presenting a very good frequency resolution due to the microcantilever, where the transduction is carried out. A two-fold improvement in mass sensitivity with respect to that of the microcantilever standalone is experimentally demonstrated, and at least an order-of-magnitude improvement is theoretically predicted, only changing the nanowire length. Very close frequency resolutions are experimentally measured and theoretically predicted for a standalone microcantilever and for a microcantilever-nanowire coupled system. Thus, an improvement in mass sensing resolution of the microcantilever-nanowire stepped cantilever is demonstrated with respect to that of the microcantilever standalone.

  15. Atomistic modeling of metallic nanowires in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Hoon; Lee, Sunhee; Weber, Bent; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2013-08-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) lithography has recently demonstrated the ultimate in device scaling with buried, conducting nanowires just a few atoms wide and the realization of single atom transistors, where a single P atom has been placed inside a transistor architecture with atomic precision accuracy. Despite the dimensions of the critical parts of these devices being defined by a small number of P atoms, the device electronic properties are influenced by the surrounding 104 to 106 Si atoms. Such effects are hard to capture with most modeling approaches, and prior to this work no theory existed that could explore the realistic size of the complete device in which both dopant disorder and placement are important. This work presents a comprehensive study of the electronic and transport properties of ultra-thin (<10 nm wide) monolayer highly P δ-doped Si (Si:P) nanowires in a fully atomistic self-consistent tight-binding approach. This atomistic approach covering large device volumes allows for a systematic study of disorder on the physical properties of the nanowires. Excellent quantitative agreement is observed with recent resistance measurements of STM-patterned nanowires [Weber et al., Science, 2012, 335, 64], confirming the presence of metallic behavior at the scaling limit. At high doping densities the channel resistance is shown to be insensitive to the exact channel dopant placement highlighting their future use as metallic interconnects. This work presents the first theoretical study of Si:P nanowires that are realistically extended and disordered, providing a strong theoretical foundation for the design and understanding of atomic-scale electronics.Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) lithography has recently demonstrated the ultimate in device scaling with buried, conducting nanowires just a few atoms wide and the realization of single atom transistors, where a single P atom has been placed inside a transistor architecture with atomic precision

  16. Flow-enabled self-assembly of large-scale aligned nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Chuchu; Jiang, Beibei; Han, Wei; Lin, Zhiqun

    2015-03-27

    One-dimensional nanowires enable the realization of optical and electronic nanodevices that may find applications in energy conversion and storage systems. Herein, large-scale aligned DNA nanowires were crafted by flow-enabled self-assembly (FESA). The highly oriented and continuous DNA nanowires were then capitalized on either as a template to form metallic nanowires by exposing DNA nanowires that had been preloaded with metal salts to an oxygen plasma or as a scaffold to direct the positioning and alignment of metal nanoparticles and nanorods. The FESA strategy is simple and easy to implement and thus a promising new method for the low-cost synthesis of large-scale one-dimensional nanostructures for nanodevices.

  17. Aligned epitaxial SnO2 nanowires on sapphire: growth and device applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Zhang, Yuzheng; Mecklenburg, Matthew; Fang, Xin; Chen, Haitian; Goo, Edward; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-11

    Semiconducting SnO2 nanowires have been used to demonstrate high-quality field-effect transistors, optically transparent devices, photodetectors, and gas sensors. However, controllable assembly of rutile SnO2 nanowires is necessary for scalable and practical device applications. Here, we demonstrate aligned, planar SnO2 nanowires grown on A-plane, M-plane, and R-plane sapphire substrates. These parallel nanowires can reach 100 μm in length with sufficient density to be patterned photolithographically for field-effect transistors and sensor devices. As proof-of-concept, we show that transistors made this way can achieve on/off current ratios on the order of 10(6), mobilities around 71.68 cm(2)/V·s, and sufficiently high currents to drive external organic light-emitting diode displays. Furthermore, the aligned SnO2 nanowire devices are shown to be photosensitive to UV light with the capability to distinguish between 254 and 365 nm wavelengths. Their alignment is advantageous for polarized UV light detection; we have measured a polarization ratio of photoconductance (σ) of 0.3. Lastly, we show that the nanowires can detect NO2 at a concentration of 0.2 ppb, making them a scalable, ultrasensitive gas sensing technology. Aligned SnO2 nanowires offer a straightforward method to fabricate scalable SnO2 nanodevices for a variety of future electronic applications.

  18. Electric field effect thermoelectric transport in individual silicon and germanium/silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovman, Yuri M.; Small, Joshua P.; Hu, Yongjie; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.; Kim, Philip

    2016-06-01

    We have simultaneously measured conductance and thermoelectric power (TEP) of individual silicon and germanium/silicon core/shell nanowires in the field effect transistor device configuration. As the applied gate voltage changes, the TEP shows distinctly different behaviors while the electrical conductance exhibits the turn-off, subthreshold, and saturation regimes, respectively. At room temperature, peak TEP value of ˜300 μ V/K is observed in the subthreshold regime of the Si devices. The temperature dependence of the saturated TEP values is used to estimate the carrier doping of Si nanowires.

  19. Approaching the ideal elastic strain limit in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongti; Tersoff, Jerry; Xu, Shang; Chen, Huixin; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhang, Kaili; Yang, Yong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tu, King-Ning; Li, Ju; Lu, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Achieving high elasticity for silicon (Si) nanowires, one of the most important and versatile building blocks in nanoelectronics, would enable their application in flexible electronics and bio-nano interfaces. We show that vapor-liquid-solid-grown single-crystalline Si nanowires with diameters of ~100 nm can be repeatedly stretched above 10% elastic strain at room temperature, approaching the theoretical elastic limit of silicon (17 to 20%). A few samples even reached ~16% tensile strain, with estimated fracture stress up to ~20 GPa. The deformations were fully reversible and hysteresis-free under loading-unloading tests with varied strain rates, and the failures still occurred in brittle fracture, with no visible sign of plasticity. The ability to achieve this "deep ultra-strength" for Si nanowires can be attributed mainly to their pristine, defect-scarce, nanosized single-crystalline structure and atomically smooth surfaces. This result indicates that semiconductor nanowires could have ultra-large elasticity with tunable band structures for promising "elastic strain engineering" applications. PMID:27540586

  20. Approaching the ideal elastic strain limit in silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongti; Tersoff, Jerry; Xu, Shang; Chen, Huixin; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhang, Kaili; Yang, Yong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tu, King-Ning; Li, Ju; Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Achieving high elasticity for silicon (Si) nanowires, one of the most important and versatile building blocks in nanoelectronics, would enable their application in flexible electronics and bio-nano interfaces. We show that vapor-liquid-solid–grown single-crystalline Si nanowires with diameters of ~100 nm can be repeatedly stretched above 10% elastic strain at room temperature, approaching the theoretical elastic limit of silicon (17 to 20%). A few samples even reached ~16% tensile strain, with estimated fracture stress up to ~20 GPa. The deformations were fully reversible and hysteresis-free under loading-unloading tests with varied strain rates, and the failures still occurred in brittle fracture, with no visible sign of plasticity. The ability to achieve this “deep ultra-strength” for Si nanowires can be attributed mainly to their pristine, defect-scarce, nanosized single-crystalline structure and atomically smooth surfaces. This result indicates that semiconductor nanowires could have ultra-large elasticity with tunable band structures for promising “elastic strain engineering” applications. PMID:27540586

  1. Approaching the ideal elastic strain limit in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongti; Tersoff, Jerry; Xu, Shang; Chen, Huixin; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhang, Kaili; Yang, Yong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tu, King-Ning; Li, Ju; Lu, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Achieving high elasticity for silicon (Si) nanowires, one of the most important and versatile building blocks in nanoelectronics, would enable their application in flexible electronics and bio-nano interfaces. We show that vapor-liquid-solid-grown single-crystalline Si nanowires with diameters of ~100 nm can be repeatedly stretched above 10% elastic strain at room temperature, approaching the theoretical elastic limit of silicon (17 to 20%). A few samples even reached ~16% tensile strain, with estimated fracture stress up to ~20 GPa. The deformations were fully reversible and hysteresis-free under loading-unloading tests with varied strain rates, and the failures still occurred in brittle fracture, with no visible sign of plasticity. The ability to achieve this "deep ultra-strength" for Si nanowires can be attributed mainly to their pristine, defect-scarce, nanosized single-crystalline structure and atomically smooth surfaces. This result indicates that semiconductor nanowires could have ultra-large elasticity with tunable band structures for promising "elastic strain engineering" applications.

  2. MOCVD growth of vertically aligned InGaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, H. C.; Su Oh, Tae; Ku, P.-C.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we report the growth of vertically aligned bulk InGaN nanowires (NWs) on r-plane sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Through the optimization process of growth conditions, such as growth temperature and pressure, we obtained high density InGaN NWs consisting of one (0001) polar- and two equivalent {1101} semi-polar planes. We have shown the highest InGaN NWs wire density of 8×108 cm-2,with an average diameter of 300 nm and a length of 2 μm. From results of photoluminescence (PL) at 30 K and 300 K, we observed the intense and broad emission peak from InGaN NWs at around 595 nm, and confirmed that the luminescence could be tuned from 580 nm to 660 nm by controlling the indium flow (TMIn) rate. Our results indicate that MOCVD-grown InGaN NWs can be effective absorbers of the blue-green range of solar spectrum and may be one of the good candidates for high efficiency photovoltaic devices targeting at blue-green photons.

  3. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries. PMID:26284489

  4. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries.

  5. Silicon nanowires: where mechanics and optics meet at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Daniel; Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Malvar, Oscar; Llorens, Jose M.; Pini, Valerio; Paulo, Alvaro San; Calleja, Montserrat; Tamayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical transducers based on nanowires promise revolutionary advances in biological sensing and force microscopy/spectroscopy. A crucial step is the development of simple and non-invasive techniques able to detect displacements with subpicometer sensitivity per unit bandwidth. Here, we design suspended tapered silicon nanowires supporting a range of optical resonances that confine and efficiently scatter light in the visible range. Then, we develop an optical method for efficiently coupling the evanescent field to the regular interference pattern generated by an incoming laser beam and the reflected beam from the substrate underneath the nanowire. This optomechanical coupling is here applied to measure the displacement of 50 nm wide nanowires with sensitivity on the verge of 1 fm/Hz1/2 at room temperature with a simple laser interferometry set-up. This method opens the door to the measurement of the Brownian motion of ultrashort nanowires for the detection of single biomolecular recognition events in liquids, and single molecule spectroscopy in vacuum. PMID:24309472

  6. Silicon nanowires: where mechanics and optics meet at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Daniel; Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Malvar, Oscar; Llorens, Jose M; Pini, Valerio; San Paulo, Alvaro; Calleja, Montserrat; Tamayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical transducers based on nanowires promise revolutionary advances in biological sensing and force microscopy/spectroscopy. A crucial step is the development of simple and non-invasive techniques able to detect displacements with subpicometer sensitivity per unit bandwidth. Here, we design suspended tapered silicon nanowires supporting a range of optical resonances that confine and efficiently scatter light in the visible range. Then, we develop an optical method for efficiently coupling the evanescent field to the regular interference pattern generated by an incoming laser beam and the reflected beam from the substrate underneath the nanowire. This optomechanical coupling is here applied to measure the displacement of 50 nm wide nanowires with sensitivity on the verge of 1 fm/Hz(1/2) at room temperature with a simple laser interferometry set-up. This method opens the door to the measurement of the Brownian motion of ultrashort nanowires for the detection of single biomolecular recognition events in liquids, and single molecule spectroscopy in vacuum. PMID:24309472

  7. Silicon nanowires: where mechanics and optics meet at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Daniel; Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Malvar, Oscar; Llorens, Jose M; Pini, Valerio; San Paulo, Alvaro; Calleja, Montserrat; Tamayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical transducers based on nanowires promise revolutionary advances in biological sensing and force microscopy/spectroscopy. A crucial step is the development of simple and non-invasive techniques able to detect displacements with subpicometer sensitivity per unit bandwidth. Here, we design suspended tapered silicon nanowires supporting a range of optical resonances that confine and efficiently scatter light in the visible range. Then, we develop an optical method for efficiently coupling the evanescent field to the regular interference pattern generated by an incoming laser beam and the reflected beam from the substrate underneath the nanowire. This optomechanical coupling is here applied to measure the displacement of 50 nm wide nanowires with sensitivity on the verge of 1 fm/Hz(1/2) at room temperature with a simple laser interferometry set-up. This method opens the door to the measurement of the Brownian motion of ultrashort nanowires for the detection of single biomolecular recognition events in liquids, and single molecule spectroscopy in vacuum.

  8. Epitaxial growth of silicon nanowires using an aluminium catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yewu; Schmidt, Volker; Senz, Stephan; Gösele, Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Silicon nanowires have been identified as important components for future electronic and sensor nanodevices. So far gold has dominated as the catalyst for growing Si nanowires via the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Unfortunately, gold traps electrons and holes in Si and poses a serious contamination problem for Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. Although there are some reports on the use of non-gold catalysts for Si nanowire growth, either the growth requires high temperatures and/or the catalysts are not compatible with CMOS requirements. From a technological standpoint, a much more attractive catalyst material would be aluminium, as it is a standard metal in Si process lines. Here we report for the first time the epitaxial growth of Al-catalysed Si nanowires and suggest that growth proceeds via a vapour-solid-solid (VSS) rather than a VLS mechanism. It is also found that the tapering of the nanowires can be strongly reduced by lowering the growth temperature. PMID:18654184

  9. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz; Liang, Wenjie; Garnett, Erik C; Najarian, Mark; Majumdar, Arun; Yang, Peidong

    2008-01-10

    Approximately 90 per cent of the world's power is generated by heat engines that use fossil fuel combustion as a heat source and typically operate at 30-40 per cent efficiency, such that roughly 15 terawatts of heat is lost to the environment. Thermoelectric modules could potentially convert part of this low-grade waste heat to electricity. Their efficiency depends on the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of their material components, which is a function of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and absolute temperature. Over the past five decades it has been challenging to increase ZT > 1, since the parameters of ZT are generally interdependent. While nanostructured thermoelectric materials can increase ZT > 1 (refs 2-4), the materials (Bi, Te, Pb, Sb, and Ag) and processes used are not often easy to scale to practically useful dimensions. Here we report the electrochemical synthesis of large-area, wafer-scale arrays of rough Si nanowires that are 20-300 nm in diameter. These nanowires have Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity values that are the same as doped bulk Si, but those with diameters of about 50 nm exhibit 100-fold reduction in thermal conductivity, yielding ZT = 0.6 at room temperature. For such nanowires, the lattice contribution to thermal conductivity approaches the amorphous limit for Si, which cannot be explained by current theories. Although bulk Si is a poor thermoelectric material, by greatly reducing thermal conductivity without much affecting the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity, Si nanowire arrays show promise as high-performance, scalable thermoelectric materials.

  10. Temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of thin silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Davide; Galli, Giulia

    2010-03-10

    We compute the lattice thermal conductivity (kappa) of silicon nanowires as a function of temperature by molecular dynamics simulations. In wires with amorphous surfaces kappa may reach values close to that of amorphous silicon and is nearly constant between 200 and 600 K; this behavior is determined by the presence of a majority of nonpropagating vibrational modes. We develop a parameter-free model that accounts for the temperature dependence observed in our simulations and provides a qualitative explanation of recent experiments. PMID:20163124

  11. Design of compact polarization rotator using simple silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Soudi, S; Rahman, B M A

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, an ultracompact design of a polarization rotator (PR) based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is presented. The design contains two simple silicon nanowires but with unequal width, which will be easier to fabricate. It is shown here that a low-loss, wide-bandwidth, and 52.8-μm-long compact PR with polarization cross talk of -20  dB can be achieved. A full-vectorial finite element method and the least-squares boundary residual method are used to study the effects of the fabrication tolerances. This design shows reasonably stable performances.

  12. Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanowires Matrix from Ab Initio Calculations.

    PubMed

    Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Boyko, Yaroslav V; Sokolovskii, Bogdan S; Potashnyk, Vasylyna Ya

    2016-12-01

    An investigation of the model of porous silicon in the form of periodic set of silicon nanowires has been carried out. The electronic energy structure was studied using a first-principle band method-the method of pseudopotentials (ultrasoft potentials in the basis of plane waves) and linearized mode of the method of combined pseudopotentials. Due to the use of hybrid exchange-correlation potentials (B3LYP), the quantitative agreement of the calculated value of band gap in the bulk material with experimental data is achieved. The obtained results show that passivation of dangling bonds with hydrogen atoms leads to substantial transformation of electronic energy structure. At complete passivation of the dangling silicon bonds by hydrogen atoms, the band gap value takes the magnitude which substantially exceeds that for bulk silicon. The incomplete passivation gives rise to opposite effect when the band gap value decreases down the semimetallic range.

  13. In situ tensile and creep testing of lithiated silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, Steven T.; Kraft, Oliver; Thompson, Carl V.; Mönig, Reiner

    2013-12-23

    We present experimental results for uniaxial tensile and creep testing of fully lithiated silicon nanowires. A reduction in the elastic modulus is observed when silicon nanowires are alloyed with lithium and plastic deformation becomes possible when the wires are saturated with lithium. Creep testing was performed at fixed force levels above and below the tensile strength of the material. A linear dependence of the strain-rate on the applied stress was evident below the yield stress of the alloy, indicating viscous deformation behavior. The observed inverse exponential relationship between wire radius and strain rate below the yield stress indicates that material transport was controlled by diffusion. At stress levels approaching the yield strength of fully lithiated silicon, power-law creep appears to govern the strain-rate dependence on stress. These results have direct implications on the cycling conditions, rate-capabilities, and charge capacity of silicon and should prove useful for the design and construction of future silicon-based electrodes.

  14. Oxide mediated liquid-solid growth of high aspect ratio aligned gold silicide nanowires on Si(110) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Umananda M.; Rath, Ashutosh; Dash, Jatis K.; Ghatak, Jay; Yi-Feng, Lai; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Satyam, P. V.

    2009-11-01

    Silicon nanowires grown using the vapor-liquid-solid method are promising candidates for nanoelectronics applications. The nanowires grow from an Au-Si catalyst during silicon chemical vapor deposition. In this paper, the effect of temperature, oxide at the interface and substrate orientation on the nucleation and growth kinetics during formation of nanogold silicide structures is explained using an oxide mediated liquid-solid growth mechanism. Using real time in situ high temperature transmission electron microscopy (with 40 ms time resolution), we show the formation of high aspect ratio (≈15.0) aligned gold silicide nanorods in the presence of native oxide at the interface during in situ annealing of gold thin films on Si(110) substrates. Steps observed in the growth rate and real time electron diffraction show the existence of liquid Au-Si nano-alloy structures on the surface besides the un-reacted gold nanostructures. These results might enable us to engineer the growth of nanowires and similar structures with an Au-Si alloy as a catalyst.

  15. Oxide mediated liquid-solid growth of high aspect ratio aligned gold silicide nanowires on Si(110) substrates.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Umananda M; Rath, Ashutosh; Dash, Jatis K; Ghatak, Jay; Yi-Feng, Lai; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Satyam, P V

    2009-11-18

    Silicon nanowires grown using the vapor-liquid-solid method are promising candidates for nanoelectronics applications. The nanowires grow from an Au-Si catalyst during silicon chemical vapor deposition. In this paper, the effect of temperature, oxide at the interface and substrate orientation on the nucleation and growth kinetics during formation of nanogold silicide structures is explained using an oxide mediated liquid-solid growth mechanism. Using real time in situ high temperature transmission electron microscopy (with 40 ms time resolution), we show the formation of high aspect ratio ( approximately 15.0) aligned gold silicide nanorods in the presence of native oxide at the interface during in situ annealing of gold thin films on Si(110) substrates. Steps observed in the growth rate and real time electron diffraction show the existence of liquid Au-Si nano-alloy structures on the surface besides the un-reacted gold nanostructures. These results might enable us to engineer the growth of nanowires and similar structures with an Au-Si alloy as a catalyst. PMID:19843987

  16. Fabricating vertically aligned sub-20 nm Si nanowire arrays by chemical etching and thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Luping; Fang, Yin; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Zang, Nanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Ziegler, Kirk J.

    2016-04-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are appealing building blocks in various applications, including photovoltaics, photonics, and sensors. Fabricating SiNW arrays with diameters <100 nm remains challenging through conventional top-down approaches. In this work, chemical etching and thermal oxidation are combined to fabricate vertically aligned, sub-20 nm SiNW arrays. Defect-free SiNWs with diameters between 95 and 200 nm are first fabricated by nanosphere (NS) lithography and chemical etching. The key aspects for defect-free SiNW fabrication are identified as: (1) achieving a high etching selectivity during NS size reduction; (2) retaining the circular NS shape with smooth sidewalls; and (3) using a directional metal deposition technique. SiNWs with identical spacing but variable diameters are demonstrated by changing the reactive ion etching power. The diameter of the SiNWs is reduced by thermal oxidation, where self-limiting oxidation is encountered after oxidizing the SiNWs at 950 °C for 1 h. A second oxidation is performed to achieve vertically aligned, sub-20 nm SiNW arrays. Si/SiO2 core/shell NWs are obtained before removing the oxidized shell. HRTEM imaging shows that the SiNWs have excellent crystallinity.

  17. Scalable alignment and transfer of nanowires in a Spinning Langmuir Film.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ren; Lai, Yicong; Nguyen, Vu; Yang, Rusen

    2014-10-21

    Many nanomaterial-based integrated nanosystems require the assembly of nanowires and nanotubes into ordered arrays. A generic alignment method should be simple and fast for the proof-of-concept study by a researcher, and low-cost and scalable for mass production in industries. Here we have developed a novel Spinning-Langmuir-Film technique to fulfill both requirements. We used surfactant-enhanced shear flow to align inorganic and organic nanowires, which could be easily transferred to other substrates and ready for device fabrication in less than 20 minutes. The aligned nanowire areal density can be controlled in a wide range from 16/mm(-2) to 258/mm(-2), through the compression of the film. The surface surfactant layer significantly influences the quality of alignment and has been investigated in detail. PMID:25177924

  18. Expanding the versatility of silicon carbide thin films and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Lunet

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based electronics and sensors hold promise for pushing past the limits of current technology to achieve small, durable devices that can function in high-temperature, high-voltage, corrosive, and biological environments. SiC is an ideal material for such conditions due to its high mechanical strength, excellent chemical stability, and its biocompatibility. Consequently, SiC thin films and nanowires have attracted interest in applications such as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, biological sensors, field emission cathodes, and energy storage devices. However to fully realize SiC in such technologies, the reliability of metal contacts to SiC at high temperatures must be improved and the nanowire growth mechanism must be understood to enable strict control of nanowire crystal structure and orientation. Here, we present a novel metallization scheme, utilizing solid-state graphitization of SiC, to improve the long-term reliability of Pt/Ti contacts to polycrystalline n-type SiC films at high temperature. The metallization scheme includes an alumina protection layer and exhibits low, stable contact resistivity even after long-term (500 hr) testing in air at 450 ºC. We also report the crystal structure and growth mechanism of Ni-assisted silicon carbide nanowires using single-source precursor, methyltrichlorosilane. The effects of growth parameters, such as substrate and temperature, on the structure and morphology of the resulting nanowires will also be presented. Overall, this study provides new insights towards the realization of novel SiC technologies, enabled by advanced electron microscopy techniques located in the user facilities at the Molecular Foundry in Berkeley, California. This work was performed in part at the Molecular Foundry, supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  19. Raman study of phase transformation from diamond structure to wurtzite structure in the silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A. K.; Dixit, Saurabh

    2016-07-01

    Hexagonal silicon has emerged as an exciting material due to its novel vibrational and electronic properties. Synthesis of the wurtzite silicon nanowires (w-SiNWs) is studied here using metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) technique. Stress induced in the SiNWs during wet chemical etching is attributed to formation of the w-SiNWs. Presence of the w-SiNWs is revealed by first-order and second-order Raman spectra. The effect of variation of deposition time of silver (catalyst) is explicitly studied for growth of w-SiNWs. The deposition time enhances the density of SiNWs in an island of vertically aligned SiNWs. Absorption coefficient studies of the w-SiNWs are also conducted using UV-vis spectroscopy as a function of deposition time. Increase in the absorption coefficient in SiNWs is noticed with increasing deposition time. The prominent quantum confinement along with stress and porosity is shown to be mainly responsible for the transformation from diamond structure to wurtzite structure in the silicon nanowires.

  20. Insights into gold-catalyzed plasma-assisted CVD growth of silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanghua; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2016-07-01

    Understanding and controlling effectively the behavior of metal catalyst droplets during the Vapor-Liquid-Solid growth of nanowires are crucial for their applications. In this work, silicon nanowires are produced by plasma-assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition using gold as a catalyst. The influence of hydrogen plasma on nanowire growth is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Interestingly, in contrast to conventional chemical vapor deposition, the growth rate of silicon nanowires shows a decrease as a function of their diameters, which is consistent with the incorporation of silicon via sidewall diffusion. We show that Ostwald ripening of catalyst droplets during nanowire growth is inhibited in the presence of a hydrogen plasma. However, when the plasma is off, the diffusion of Au atoms on the nanowire sidewall can take place. Based on this observation, we have developed a convenient method to grow silicon nanotrees.

  1. Fabrication of sub-12 nm thick silicon nanowires by processing scanning probe lithography masks

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoung Ryu, Yu; Garcia, Ricardo; Aitor Postigo, Pablo; Garcia, Fernando

    2014-06-02

    Silicon nanowires are key elements to fabricate very sensitive mechanical and electronic devices. We provide a method to fabricate sub-12 nm silicon nanowires in thickness by combining oxidation scanning probe lithography and anisotropic dry etching. Extremely thin oxide masks (0.3–1.1 nm) are transferred into nanowires of 2–12 nm in thickness. The width ratio between the mask and the silicon nanowire is close to one which implies that the nanowire width is controlled by the feature size of the nanolithography. This method enables the fabrication of very small single silicon nanowires with cross-sections below 100 nm{sup 2}. Those values are the smallest obtained with a top-down lithography method.

  2. Monolayer contact doping of silicon surfaces and nanowires using organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Hazut, Ori; Agarwala, Arunava; Subramani, Thangavel; Waichman, Sharon; Yerushalmi, Roie

    2013-12-02

    Monolayer Contact Doping (MLCD) is a simple method for doping of surfaces and nanostructures(1). MLCD results in the formation of highly controlled, ultra shallow and sharp doping profiles at the nanometer scale. In MLCD process the dopant source is a monolayer containing dopant atoms. In this article a detailed procedure for surface doping of silicon substrate as well as silicon nanowires is demonstrated. Phosphorus dopant source was formed using tetraethyl methylenediphosphonate monolayer on a silicon substrate. This monolayer containing substrate was brought to contact with a pristine intrinsic silicon target substrate and annealed while in contact. Sheet resistance of the target substrate was measured using 4 point probe. Intrinsic silicon nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process using a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism; gold nanoparticles were used as catalyst for nanowire growth. The nanowires were suspended in ethanol by mild sonication. This suspension was used to dropcast the nanowires on silicon substrate with a silicon nitride dielectric top layer. These nanowires were doped with phosphorus in similar manner as used for the intrinsic silicon wafer. Standard photolithography process was used to fabricate metal electrodes for the formation of nanowire based field effect transistor (NW-FET). The electrical properties of a representative nanowire device were measured by a semiconductor device analyzer and a probe station.

  3. Growth and Properties of Self-Aligned MgO Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoiasu, Elena; Klie, Robert F.; Munden, Ryan A.; Reed, Mark A.

    2008-03-01

    A simple VLS route was used to produce self-aligned MgO nanowires on both polished crystalline (c-axis sapphire) and ceramic (alumina) surfaces. Growth on alumina produces vertically-aligned, very thin nanowires, indicating enhanced growth at the liquid-solid interface. Growth on polished sapphire results in faceted MgO nanowires which are perpendicular to the r-plane of sapphire and show evidence of competing vapor-solid growth mechanism. The difference in the morphology and structure of the nanowires grown using the two different substrates clearly illustrates the affect of substrate on the growth process. This work was partially supported by DARPA, by the Department of Homeland Security, and by the National Science Foundation.

  4. Elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xiong, Qiulin; Li, Xiaopeng; Ma, Junxian

    2015-08-10

    We researched an elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide and evaluated its mode characteristics using the finite element method software COMSOL. The waveguide consists of three parts: an elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire, a silver film layer, and a silica covering layer between them. All of the components are surrounded by air. After optimizing the geometrical parameters of the waveguide, we can achieve the waveguide's strong field confinement (ranging from λ2/270 to λ2/27) and long propagation distances (119-485 μm). In order to further understand the impact of the waveguide's architecture on its performance, we also studied the ridge hybrid waveguide. The results show that the ridge waveguide has moderate local field confinement ranging from λ2/190 to λ2/20 and its maximum propagation distance is about 340 μm. We compared the elliptic cylindrical and ridge nanowire hybrid waveguides with the cylindrical hybrid waveguide that we studied before. The elliptic cylindrical waveguide achieves a better trade-off between reasonable mode confinement and maximum propagation length in the three waveguides. The researched hybrid surface plasmon polaritons waveguides are useful to construct devices such as a directional coupler and may find potential applications in photonic integrated circuits or other novel SPP devices.

  5. Investigation of functionalized silicon nanowires by self-assembled monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemed, Nofar Mintz; Convertino, Annalisa; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

    2016-03-01

    The functionalization using self assembled monolayer (SAM) of silicon nanowires (SiNW) fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is reported here. The SAM is being utilized as the first building block in the functionalization process. The morphology of the SiNW comprises a polycrystalline core wrapped by an hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) shell. Since most of the available methods for SAM verification and characterization are suitable only for flat substrates; therefore, in addition to the SiNW α-Si:H on flat samples were produced in the same system as the SiNWs. First we confirmed the SAM's presence on the flat α-Si:H samples using the following methods: contact angle measurement to determine the change in surface energy; atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine uniformity and molecular coverage. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) were performed to measure SAM layer thickness and density. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to study the chemical states of the surface. Next, SiNW/SAM were tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the results were compared to α-Si:H/SAM. The SAM electrical coverage on SiNW and α-Si:H was found to be ∼37% and ∼65 ± 3%, respectively. A model, based on transmission line theory for the nanowires is presented to explain the disparity in results between the nanowires and flat surface of the same materials.

  6. Elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xiong, Qiulin; Li, Xiaopeng; Ma, Junxian

    2015-08-10

    We researched an elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire hybrid surface plasmon polariton waveguide and evaluated its mode characteristics using the finite element method software COMSOL. The waveguide consists of three parts: an elliptic cylindrical silicon nanowire, a silver film layer, and a silica covering layer between them. All of the components are surrounded by air. After optimizing the geometrical parameters of the waveguide, we can achieve the waveguide's strong field confinement (ranging from λ2/270 to λ2/27) and long propagation distances (119-485 μm). In order to further understand the impact of the waveguide's architecture on its performance, we also studied the ridge hybrid waveguide. The results show that the ridge waveguide has moderate local field confinement ranging from λ2/190 to λ2/20 and its maximum propagation distance is about 340 μm. We compared the elliptic cylindrical and ridge nanowire hybrid waveguides with the cylindrical hybrid waveguide that we studied before. The elliptic cylindrical waveguide achieves a better trade-off between reasonable mode confinement and maximum propagation length in the three waveguides. The researched hybrid surface plasmon polaritons waveguides are useful to construct devices such as a directional coupler and may find potential applications in photonic integrated circuits or other novel SPP devices. PMID:26368373

  7. [The study on energy band structure of silicon nanowires with XPS].

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhong; Fu, Yan; Hu, Hui; Shao, Ming-Wang; Pan, Shi-Yan

    2007-09-01

    Silicon nanowires were obtained via oxide-assisted method, which was operated in a high temperature furnace at 1250 degrees C under 1000 Pa for 5 h using Ar as carrier gas. The silicon nanowires were etched with 5% HF aqueous solution for 5 min, and reacted with 1 X 10(-3) mol X L(-1) AuCL3 solution, and Au-modified silicon nanowires were obtained. The crystal structure of the products was characterized with XRD, and both of the patterns of Si and Au were observed. The morphology checked with SEM and TEM indicated large scale uniform silicon nanowires and Au particles on the surface of silicon nanowires. The average diameter of Au nanoparticls was 8 nm. The energy band structures obtained with XPS showed that gold nanoparticles are in negative charge and exist both at donor and acceptor levels. The Fermi level moved towards the top of valence band due to oxygen.

  8. Self-heated silicon nanowires for high performance hydrogen gas detection.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Yun, Jeonghoon; Moon, Dong-Il; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Park, Inkyu

    2015-03-01

    Self-heated silicon nanowire sensors for high-performance, ultralow-power hydrogen detection have been developed. A top-down nanofabrication method based on well-established semiconductor manufacturing technology was utilized to fabricate silicon nanowires in wafer scale with high reproducibility and excellent compatibility with electronic readout circuits. Decoration of palladium nanoparticles onto the silicon nanowires enables sensitive and selective detection of hydrogen gas at room temperature. Self-heating of silicon nanowire sensors allows us to enhance response and recovery performances to hydrogen gas, and to reduce the influence of interfering gases such as water vapor and carbon monoxide. A short-pulsed heating during recovery was found to be effective for additional reduction of operation power as well as recovery characteristics. This self-heated silicon nanowire gas sensor will be suitable for ultralow-power applications such as mobile telecommunication devices and wireless sensing nodes.

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of vertically aligned zinc nanowires using track-etched polycarbonate membranes as templates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Zein El Abedin, S; Ghazvini, M S; Endres, F

    2013-07-21

    In the present paper, vertically aligned arrays of zinc nanowires were synthesized by electrochemical deposition into ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes in the ionic liquid electrolyte 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([EMIm]TfO)/Zn(TfO)2. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were performed to investigate the electrochemical growth of zinc nanowires inside of the membranes. The transport processes and mechanisms of the nanowire growth in the membranes are also discussed. A supporting zinc or copper layer was deposited on the sputtered side in order to make the back layer thick enough to stabilize the wires. Zinc nanowires with a diameter of 90 nm and a length of up to 18 μm were obtained after removing the template. Furthermore, short nanowires with lengths less than 5 μm and a sandwich-like structure with nanowires in the middle were also synthesized. Vertically aligned zinc nanowire structures on such a substrate might be a potential anode candidate for future generation lithium ion batteries.

  10. Geometry dependent I-V characteristics of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man-Fai; Shen, Lei; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Shuo-Wang; Tan, Vincent B C

    2008-11-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of small-diameter hydrogenated and pristine silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are calculated by nonequilibrium Green's function combined with density functional theory. We show that the I-V characteristics depend strongly on length, growth orientation, and surface modification of the SiNWs. In particular, a length of 3 nm is suggested for the nanowires to retrieve its intrinsic conducting properties from the influences of both the electrodes and metal/semiconductor mismatched surface contact; surface reconstruction would enhance the conductance in hydrogenated SiNW, which is explained by the extra conducting eigenchannel found in the transmission spectrum, suggesting possible surface conducting channel. Discussions with available experimental data are given.

  11. Type II band alignment in InAs zinc-blende/wurtzite heterostructured nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Jaya Kumar; Chakraborty, Arup; Ercolani, Daniele; Gemmi, Mauro; Sorba, Lucia; Roy, Anushree

    2016-10-01

    In this article we demonstrate type-II band alignment at the wurtzite/zinc-blende hetero-interface in InAs polytype nanowires using resonance Raman measurements. Nanowires were grown with an optimum ratio of the above mentioned phases, so that in the electronic band alignment of such NWs the effect of the difference in the crystal structure dominates over other perturbing effects (e.g. interfacial strain, confinement of charge carriers and band bending due to space charge). Experimental results are compared with the band alignment obtained from density functional theory calculations. In resonance Raman measurements, the excitation energies in the visible range probe the band alignment formed by the E 1 gap of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases. However, we expect our claim to be valid also for band alignment near the fundamental gap at the heterointerface.

  12. Type II band alignment in InAs zinc-blende/wurtzite heterostructured nanowires.

    PubMed

    Panda, Jaya Kumar; Chakraborty, Arup; Ercolani, Daniele; Gemmi, Mauro; Sorba, Lucia; Roy, Anushree

    2016-10-14

    In this article we demonstrate type-II band alignment at the wurtzite/zinc-blende hetero-interface in InAs polytype nanowires using resonance Raman measurements. Nanowires were grown with an optimum ratio of the above mentioned phases, so that in the electronic band alignment of such NWs the effect of the difference in the crystal structure dominates over other perturbing effects (e.g. interfacial strain, confinement of charge carriers and band bending due to space charge). Experimental results are compared with the band alignment obtained from density functional theory calculations. In resonance Raman measurements, the excitation energies in the visible range probe the band alignment formed by the E 1 gap of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases. However, we expect our claim to be valid also for band alignment near the fundamental gap at the heterointerface. PMID:27586817

  13. Type II band alignment in InAs zinc-blende/wurtzite heterostructured nanowires.

    PubMed

    Panda, Jaya Kumar; Chakraborty, Arup; Ercolani, Daniele; Gemmi, Mauro; Sorba, Lucia; Roy, Anushree

    2016-10-14

    In this article we demonstrate type-II band alignment at the wurtzite/zinc-blende hetero-interface in InAs polytype nanowires using resonance Raman measurements. Nanowires were grown with an optimum ratio of the above mentioned phases, so that in the electronic band alignment of such NWs the effect of the difference in the crystal structure dominates over other perturbing effects (e.g. interfacial strain, confinement of charge carriers and band bending due to space charge). Experimental results are compared with the band alignment obtained from density functional theory calculations. In resonance Raman measurements, the excitation energies in the visible range probe the band alignment formed by the E 1 gap of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases. However, we expect our claim to be valid also for band alignment near the fundamental gap at the heterointerface.

  14. Monolithically Integrated High-β Nanowire Lasers on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B; Janker, L; Loitsch, B; Treu, J; Kostenbader, T; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Morkötter, S; Kaniber, M; Abstreiter, G; Gies, C; Koblmüller, G; Finley, J J

    2016-01-13

    Reliable technologies for the monolithic integration of lasers onto silicon represent the holy grail for chip-level optical interconnects. In this context, nanowires (NWs) fabricated using III-V semiconductors are of strong interest since they can be grown site-selectively on silicon using conventional epitaxial approaches. Their unique one-dimensional structure and high refractive index naturally facilitate low loss optical waveguiding and optical recirculation in the active NW-core region. However, lasing from NWs on silicon has not been achieved to date, due to the poor modal reflectivity at the NW-silicon interface. We demonstrate how, by inserting a tailored dielectric interlayer at the NW-Si interface, low-threshold single mode lasing can be achieved in vertical-cavity GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NW lasers on silicon as measured at low temperature. By exploring the output characteristics along a detection direction parallel to the NW-axis, we measure very high spontaneous emission factors comparable to nanocavity lasers (β = 0.2) and achieve ultralow threshold pump energies ≤11 pJ/pulse. Analysis of the input-output characteristics of the NW lasers and the power dependence of the lasing emission line width demonstrate the potential for high pulsation rates ≥250 GHz. Such highly efficient nanolasers grown monolithically on silicon are highly promising for the realization of chip-level optical interconnects. PMID:26618638

  15. Significant thermal conductivity reduction of silicon nanowire forests through discrete surface doping of germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Ying; Hong, Guo; Raja, Shyamprasad N.; Zimmermann, Severin; Poulikakos, Dimos; Tiwari, Manish K.

    2015-03-02

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are promising materials for the realization of highly-efficient and cost effective thermoelectric devices. Reduction of the thermal conductivity of such materials is a necessary and viable pathway to achieve sufficiently high thermoelectric efficiencies, which are inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. In this article, vertically aligned forests of SiNW and germanium (Ge)-doped SiNW with diameters around 100 nm have been fabricated, and their thermal conductivity has been measured. The results show that discrete surface doping of Ge on SiNW arrays can lead to 23% reduction in thermal conductivity at room temperature compared to uncoated SiNWs. Such reduction can be further enhanced to 44% following a thermal annealing step. By analyzing the binding energy changes of Ge-3d and Si-2p using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that surface doped Ge interacts strongly with Si, enhancing phonon scattering at the Si-Ge interface as has also been shown in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics studies of single nanowires. Overall, our results suggest a viable pathway to improve the energy conversion efficiency of nanowire-forest thermoelectric nanomaterials.

  16. Silicon nanowire sensor by mix and match lithography process: Fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, U.

    2012-11-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted significant interest in the study because of their potential to impact applications from nanoscale electronics to biomedical engineering. E-Beam Lithography couple with standard CMOS process is employed to fabricate the device. The exposure doses for the resist layer are varied in the range of 50 μC/cm2 to 180 μC/cm2 at 20 kV accelerating voltage with a beam current of 0.075 nA. The nanowires resist masks are well developed with dimension of less than 100 nm in width for the dose exposure parameters of 80 μC/cm2, 100 μC/cm2 and 120 μC/cm2. It is found that, the smallest SiNW with diameter of 65 nm is well aligned with electrode pads. In terms of sensitivity, the device with smaller nanowire is found to be more sensitive as a result of the high surface-to-volume ratio. These results demonstrate that the in-house fabricated SiNWs biosensor is capable as a platform for label-free biosensing.

  17. Optical biosensor based on silicon nanowire ridge waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamal, Rania; Ismail, Yehia; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2015-02-01

    Optical biosensors present themselves as an attractive solution for integration with the ever-trending lab-on-a-chip devices. This is due to their small size, CMOS compatibility, and invariance to electromagnetic interference. Despite their many benefits, typical optical biosensors rely on evanescent field detection, where only a small portion of the light interacts with the analyte. We propose to use a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide (SNRW) for optical biosensing. This structure is comprised of an array of silicon nanowires, with the envelope of a ridge, on an insulator substrate. The SNRW maximizes the overlap between the analyte and the incident light wave by introducing voids to the otherwise bulk structure, and strengthens the contribution of the material under test to the overall modal effective index will greatly augment the sensitivity. Additionally, the SNRW provides a fabrication convenience as it covers the entire substrate, ensuring that the etching process would not damage the substrate. FDTD simulations were conducted and showed that the percentage change in the effective index due to a 1% change in the surrounding environment was more than 170 times the amount of change perceived in an evanescent detection based bulk silicon ridge waveguide.

  18. Incorporation and redistribution of impurities into silicon nanowires during metal-particle-assisted growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanghua; Yu, Linwei; Misra, Soumyadeep; Fan, Zheng; Pareige, Philippe; Patriarche, Gilles; Bouchoule, Sophie; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2014-06-12

    The incorporation of metal atoms into silicon nanowires during metal-particle-assisted growth is a critical issue for various nanowire-based applications. Here we have been able to access directly the incorporation and redistribution of metal atoms into silicon nanowires produced by two different processes at growth rates ranging from 3 to 40 nm s(-1), by using laser-assisted atom probe tomography and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We find that the concentration of metal impurities in crystalline silicon nanowires increases with the growth rate and can reach a level of two orders of magnitude higher than that in their equilibrium solubility. Moreover, we demonstrate that the impurities are first incorporated into nanowire volume and then segregate at defects such as the twin planes. A dimer-atom-insertion kinetic model is proposed to account for the impurity incorporation into nanowires.

  19. Synthesis of silicon nanowires using tin catalyst by hot wire chemical vapor processing

    SciTech Connect

    Meshram, Nagsen; Kumbhar, Alka; Dusane, R.O.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Silicon nanowires are grown by hot wire chemical vapor processing at 400 °C using Sn as catalyst material via VLS. ► For nanowire synthesis Sn nanotemplates are formed with hot wire generated atomic hydrogen. ► The TEM image reveals the crystalline nature of nanowire. - Abstract: Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been synthesized at temperatures in the range 300–400 °C by the hot wire chemical vapor processing (HWCVP) using tin nanotemplate. The tin nano-template is formed by hot wire atomic hydrogen treatment of thermally evaporated Sn films (∼300 nm thick) on glass substrates. Silicon nanowires are then grown using hot wire induced dissociation of SiH{sub 4} gas over the nanotemplate. Growth conditions like growth time and temperature were varied to study their effect on the tin nanoparticle size and on the silicon nanowire dimensions thereafter. From the observations, it is clear that the nanowire diameters and lengths depend on the size of nanoparticles and the growth time respectively. Though SiNWs were observed to grow at temperatures as low as 300 °C, nanowires with a narrow diameter distribution were achieved at 400 °C. Raman spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveal the crystalline nature of the silicon nanowires.

  20. Silicon nanowires prepared by electron beam evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were prepared by electron beam evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The SiNWs can be grown through either vapor–liquid-solid (VLS) or oxide-assisted growth (OAG) mechanism. In VLS growth, SiNWs can be formed on Si surface, not on SiO2 surfaces. Moreover, low deposition rate is helpful for producing lateral SiNWs by VLS. But in OAG process, SiNWs can be grown on SiO2 surfaces, not on Si surfaces. This work reveals the methods of producing large-scale SiNWs in UHV. PMID:22559207

  1. Silicon nanowires integrated with CMOS circuits for biosensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, G.; Asadollahi, A.; Hellström, P.-E.; Garidis, K.; Östling, M.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a silicon nanowire (SiNW) biosensor fabricated in a fully depleted SOI CMOS process. The sensor array consists of N by N pixel matrix (N2 pixels or test sites) and 8 input-output (I/O) pins. In each pixel a single crystalline SiNW with 75 by 20 nm cross-section area is defined using sidewall transfer lithography in the SOI layer. The key advantage of the design is that each individual SiNWs can be read-out sequentially and used for real-time charge based detection of molecules in liquids or gases.

  2. Polymer chain alignment and transistor properties of nanochannel-templated poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungjun; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Pan, Chengjun; Sugiyasu, Kazunori; Wakayama, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Nanowires of semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were produced by a nanochannel-template technique. Polymer chain alignment in P3HT nanowires was investigated as a function of nanochannel widths (W) and polymer chain lengths (L). We found that the ratio between chain length and channel width (L/W) was a key parameter as regards promoting polymer chain alignment. Clear dichroism was observed in polarized ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra only at a ratio of approximately L/W = 2, indicating that the L/W ratio must be optimized to achieve uniaxial chain alignment in the nanochannel direction. We speculate that an appropriate L/W ratio is effective in confining the geometries and conformations of polymer chains. This discussion was supported by theoretical simulations based on molecular dynamics. That is, the geometry of the polymer chains, including the distance and tilting angles of the chains in relation to the nanochannel surface, was dominant in determining the longitudinal alignment along the nanochannels. Thus prepared highly aligned polymer nanowire is advantageous for electrical carrier transport and has great potential for improving the device performance of field-effect transistors. In fact, a one-order improvement in carrier mobility was observed in a P3HT nanowire transistor.

  3. Smart integration of silicon nanowire arrays in all-silicon thermoelectric micro-nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Luis; Santos, Jose-Domingo; Roncaglia, Alberto; Narducci, Dario; Calaza, Carlos; Salleras, Marc; Donmez, Inci; Tarancon, Albert; Morata, Alex; Gadea, Gerard; Belsito, Luca; Zulian, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Micro and nanotechnologies are called to play a key role in the fabrication of small and low cost sensors with excellent performance enabling new continuous monitoring scenarios and distributed intelligence paradigms (Internet of Things, Trillion Sensors). Harvesting devices providing energy autonomy to those large numbers of microsensors will be essential. In those scenarios where waste heat sources are present, thermoelectricity will be the obvious choice. However, miniaturization of state of the art thermoelectric modules is not easy with the current technologies used for their fabrication. Micro and nanotechnologies offer an interesting alternative considering that silicon in nanowire form is a material with a promising thermoelectric figure of merit. This paper presents two approaches for the integration of large numbers of silicon nanowires in a cost-effective and practical way using only micromachining and thin-film processes compatible with silicon technologies. Both approaches lead to automated physical and electrical integration of medium-high density stacked arrays of crystalline or polycrystalline silicon nanowires with arbitrary length (tens to hundreds microns) and diameters below 100 nm.

  4. Silicon nanowire transistors with a channel width of 4 nm fabricated by atomic force microscope nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Martinez, J; Martínez, R V; Garcia, R

    2008-11-01

    The emergence of an ultrasensitive sensor technology based on silicon nanowires requires both the fabrication of nanoscale diameter wires and the integration with microelectronic processes. Here we demonstrate an atomic force microscopy lithography that enables the reproducible fabrication of complex single-crystalline silicon nanowire field-effect transistors with a high electrical performance. The nanowires have been carved from a silicon-on-insulator wafer by a combination of local oxidation processes with a force microscope and etching steps. We have fabricated and measured the electrical properties of a silicon nanowire transistor with a channel width of 4 nm. The flexibility of the nanofabrication process is illustrated by showing the electrical performance of two nanowire circuits with different geometries. The fabrication method is compatible with standard Si CMOS processing technologies and, therefore, can be used to develop a wide range of architectures and new microelectronic devices.

  5. Photocurrent transient variation in aligned Si nanowire field-effect transistors embedded with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Tao; Wang, Miao; Xiao, Miao; Zhang, Zhaochun; Cheng, Guosheng

    2016-09-01

    Photocurrent transient variation caused by hot-electron transfer was detected in gold nanoparticles embedded in silicon nanowire field-effect transistors via their electrical response under illumination. The devices showed dramatic photocurrent transient variation at various illumination wavelengths (300, 500, 700, and 900 nm). The maximum transient variation of the source-drain current was about five-fold stronger with the gold nanoparticles than without. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to determine the response wavelength range of the photocurrent transient variation. The distribution of the local electromagnetic field at the interface of the gold nanoparticles and the silicon nanowire was calculated. The weak hot-electron transfer for incident wavelengths below 500 nm was concentrated on the three-phase boundary of air, gold, and silicon, while there was a relatively strong hot-electron transfer present at the boundary of gold and silicon in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm.

  6. Reliable fabrication of sub-10 nm silicon nanowires by optical lithography.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Sami; Kwa, Kelvin; King, Peter; O'Neill, Anthony

    2016-10-21

    The reliable and controllable fabrication of silicon nanowires is achieved, using mature CMOS technology processes. This will enable a low-cost route to integrating novel nanostructures with CMOS logic. The challenge of process repeatability has been overcome by careful study of material properties for processes such as etching and oxidation. By controlling anisotropic wet etching conditions, selection of nitride mask layer properties and sidewall oxidation, a robust process was achieved to realize silicon nanowires with sub 10 nm features. Surface roughness of nanowires was improved by a suitable oxidation step. The influence of process conditions on the shape of the nanowire was studied using TCAD simulation. PMID:27608370

  7. Reliable fabrication of sub-10 nm silicon nanowires by optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Sami; Kwa, Kelvin; King, Peter; O'Neill, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    The reliable and controllable fabrication of silicon nanowires is achieved, using mature CMOS technology processes. This will enable a low-cost route to integrating novel nanostructures with CMOS logic. The challenge of process repeatability has been overcome by careful study of material properties for processes such as etching and oxidation. By controlling anisotropic wet etching conditions, selection of nitride mask layer properties and sidewall oxidation, a robust process was achieved to realize silicon nanowires with sub 10 nm features. Surface roughness of nanowires was improved by a suitable oxidation step. The influence of process conditions on the shape of the nanowire was studied using TCAD simulation.

  8. Reliable fabrication of sub-10 nm silicon nanowires by optical lithography.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Sami; Kwa, Kelvin; King, Peter; O'Neill, Anthony

    2016-10-21

    The reliable and controllable fabrication of silicon nanowires is achieved, using mature CMOS technology processes. This will enable a low-cost route to integrating novel nanostructures with CMOS logic. The challenge of process repeatability has been overcome by careful study of material properties for processes such as etching and oxidation. By controlling anisotropic wet etching conditions, selection of nitride mask layer properties and sidewall oxidation, a robust process was achieved to realize silicon nanowires with sub 10 nm features. Surface roughness of nanowires was improved by a suitable oxidation step. The influence of process conditions on the shape of the nanowire was studied using TCAD simulation.

  9. Interactive effect of hysteresis and surface chemistry on gated silicon nanowire gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Paska, Yair; Haick, Hossam

    2012-05-01

    Gated silicon nanowire gas sensors have emerged as promising devices for chemical and biological sensing applications. Nevertheless, the performance of these devices is usually accompanied by a "hysteresis" phenomenon that limits their performance under real-world conditions. In this paper, we use a series of systematically changed trichlorosilane-based organic monolayers to study the interactive effect of hysteresis and surface chemistry on gated silicon nanowire gas sensors. The results show that the density of the exposed or unpassivated Si-OH groups (trap states) on the silicon nanowire surface play by far a crucial effect on the hysteresis characteristics of the gated silicon nanowire sensors, relative to the effect of hydrophobicity or molecular density of the organic monolayer. Based on these findings, we provide a tentative model-based understanding of (i) the relation between the adsorbed organic molecules, the hysteresis, and the related fundamental parameters of gated silicon nanowire characteristics and of (ii) the relation between the hysteresis drift and possible screening effect on gated silicon nanowire gas sensors upon exposure to different analytes at real-world conditions. The findings reported in this paper could be considered as a launching pad for extending the use of the gated silicon nanowire gas sensors for discriminations between polar and nonpolar analytes in complex, real-world gas mixtures.

  10. Thermal Transport in Silicon Nanowires at High Temperature up to 700 K.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Woochul; Lim, Jongwoo; Yu, Yi; Kong, Qiao; Urban, Jeffrey J; Yang, Peidong

    2016-07-13

    Thermal transport in silicon nanowires has captured the attention of scientists for understanding phonon transport at the nanoscale, and the thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) reported in rough nanowires has inspired engineers to develop cost-effective waste heat recovery systems. Thermoelectric generators composed of silicon target high-temperature applications due to improved efficiency beyond 550 K. However, there have been no studies of thermal transport in silicon nanowires beyond room temperature. High-temperature measurements also enable studies of unanswered questions regarding the impact of surface boundaries and varying mode contributions as the highest vibrational modes are activated (Debye temperature of silicon is 645 K). Here, we develop a technique to investigate thermal transport in nanowires up to 700 K. Our thermal conductivity measurements on smooth silicon nanowires show the classical diameter dependence from 40 to 120 nm. In conjunction with Boltzmann transport equation, we also probe an increasing contribution of high-frequency phonons (optical phonons) in smooth silicon nanowires as the diameter decreases and the temperature increases. Thermal conductivity of rough silicon nanowires is significantly reduced throughout the temperature range, demonstrating a potential for efficient thermoelectric generation (e.g., ZT = 1 at 700 K).

  11. Thermal Transport in Silicon Nanowires at High Temperature up to 700 K.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Woochul; Lim, Jongwoo; Yu, Yi; Kong, Qiao; Urban, Jeffrey J; Yang, Peidong

    2016-07-13

    Thermal transport in silicon nanowires has captured the attention of scientists for understanding phonon transport at the nanoscale, and the thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) reported in rough nanowires has inspired engineers to develop cost-effective waste heat recovery systems. Thermoelectric generators composed of silicon target high-temperature applications due to improved efficiency beyond 550 K. However, there have been no studies of thermal transport in silicon nanowires beyond room temperature. High-temperature measurements also enable studies of unanswered questions regarding the impact of surface boundaries and varying mode contributions as the highest vibrational modes are activated (Debye temperature of silicon is 645 K). Here, we develop a technique to investigate thermal transport in nanowires up to 700 K. Our thermal conductivity measurements on smooth silicon nanowires show the classical diameter dependence from 40 to 120 nm. In conjunction with Boltzmann transport equation, we also probe an increasing contribution of high-frequency phonons (optical phonons) in smooth silicon nanowires as the diameter decreases and the temperature increases. Thermal conductivity of rough silicon nanowires is significantly reduced throughout the temperature range, demonstrating a potential for efficient thermoelectric generation (e.g., ZT = 1 at 700 K). PMID:27243378

  12. Photonic Torque Microscopy of the Nonconservative Force Field for Optically Trapped Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Irrera, Alessia; Magazzù, Alessandro; Artoni, Pietro; Simpson, Stephen H; Hanna, Simon; Jones, Philip H; Priolo, Francesco; Gucciardi, Pietro Giuseppe; Maragò, Onofrio M

    2016-07-13

    We measure, by photonic torque microscopy, the nonconservative rotational motion arising from the transverse components of the radiation pressure on optically trapped, ultrathin silicon nanowires. Unlike spherical particles, we find that nonconservative effects have a significant influence on the nanowire dynamics in the trap. We show that the extreme shape of the trapped nanowires yields a transverse component of the radiation pressure that results in an orbital rotation of the nanowire about the trap axis. We study the resulting motion as a function of optical power and nanowire length, discussing its size-scaling behavior. These shape-dependent nonconservative effects have implications for optical force calibration and optomechanics with levitated nonspherical particles.

  13. First-principles study of structural & electronic properties of pyramidal silicon nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariwala, Pinank; Singh, Deobrat; Sonvane, Y. A.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Thakor, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the stable structural and electronic properties of Silicon (Si) nanowires having different cross-sections with 5-7 Si atoms per unit cell. These properties of the studied Si nanowires were significantly changed from those of diamond bulk Si structure. The binding energy increases as increasing atoms number per unit cell in different SiNWs structures. All the nanowires structures are behave like metallic rather than semiconductor in bulk systems. In general, the number of conduction channels increases when the nanowire becomes thicker. The density of charge revealed delocalized metallic bonding for all studied Si nanowires.

  14. SERS detection and antibacterial activity from uniform incorporation of Ag nanoparticles with aligned Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Hsu, Li-Jen; Hsiao, Po-Hsuan; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky

    2015-11-01

    We present a facile, reliable and controllable two-steps electroless deposition for uniformly decorating the silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on the highly aspect ratio of silicon (Si) nanowire arrays. Different from the direct Ag-loading process, which is normally challenged by the non-uniform coating of Ag, the formation of Ag NPs using such innovative electroless process is no longer to be limited at top nanowire surfaces solely; instead, each Ag+/Si interface can initiate the galvanic reduction of Ag+ ions, thus resulting in the uniform formation of Ag NPs on the entire Si nanowire arrays. In addition, systematic explorations of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) capability as well as antibacterial activity of the Ag/Si-incorporated nanostructures were performed, and the optimized Ag loadings on Si nanowire-based substrates along with the kinetic investigations were further revealed, which may benefit their practical applications in sensing, medical and biological needs.

  15. Horizontal transfer of aligned Si nanowire arrays and their photoconductive performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An easy and low-cost method to transfer large-scale horizontally aligned Si nanowires onto a substrate is reported. Si nanowires prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching were assembled and anchored to fabricate multiwire photoconductive devices with standard Si technology. Scanning electron microscopy images showed highly aligned and successfully anchored Si nanowires. Current-voltage tests showed an approximately twofold change in conductivity between the devices in dark and under laser irradiation. Fully reversible light switching ON/OFF response was also achieved with an ION/IOFF ratio of 230. Dynamic response measurement showed a fast switching feature with response and recovery times of 10.96 and 19.26 ms, respectively. PMID:25520603

  16. High efficiency silicon solar cell based on asymmetric nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Myung-Dong; Rim, Taiuk; Kim, Kihyun; Meyyappan, M.; Baek, Chang-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of solar cells through novel materials and devices is critical to realize the full potential of solar energy to meet the growing worldwide energy demands. We present here a highly efficient radial p-n junction silicon solar cell using an asymmetric nanowire structure with a shorter bottom core diameter than at the top. A maximum short circuit current density of 27.5 mA/cm2 and an efficiency of 7.53% were realized without anti-reflection coating. Changing the silicon nanowire (SiNW) structure from conventional symmetric to asymmetric nature improves the efficiency due to increased short circuit current density. From numerical simulation and measurement of the optical characteristics, the total reflection on the sidewalls is seen to increase the light trapping path and charge carrier generation in the radial junction of the asymmetric SiNW, yielding high external quantum efficiency and short circuit current density. The proposed asymmetric structure has great potential to effectively improve the efficiency of the SiNW solar cells. PMID:26152914

  17. Incubation behavior of silicon nanowire growth investigated by laser-assisted rapid heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Sang-gil; Kim, Eunpa; Allen, Frances I.; Hwang, David J.; Minor, Andrew M.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the early stage of silicon nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using laser-localized heating combined with ex-situ chemical mapping analysis by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. By achieving fast heating and cooling times, we can precisely determine the nucleation times for nanowire growth. We find that the silicon nanowire nucleation process occurs on a time scale of ˜10 ms, i.e., orders of magnitude faster than the times reported in investigations using furnace processes. The rate-limiting step for silicon nanowire growth at temperatures in the vicinity of the eutectic temperature is found to be the gas reaction and/or the silicon crystal growth process, whereas at higher temperatures it is the rate of silicon diffusion through the molten catalyst that dictates the nucleation kinetics.

  18. Assessing charge carrier trapping in silicon nanowires using picosecond conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Ronald; Kurstjens, Rufi; Bonn, Mischa

    2012-07-11

    Free-standing semiconductor nanowires on bulk substrates are increasingly being explored as building blocks for novel optoelectronic devices such as tandem solar cells. Although carrier transport properties, such as mobility and trap densities, are essential for such applications, it has remained challenging to quantify these properties. Here, we report on a method that permits the direct, contact-free quantification of nanowire carrier diffusivity and trap densities in thin (∼25 nm wide) silicon nanowires-without any additional processing steps such as transfer of wires onto a substrate. The approach relies on the very different terahertz (THz) conductivity response of photoinjected carriers within the silicon nanowires from those in the silicon substrate. This allows quantifying both the picosecond dynamics and the efficiency of charge carrier transport from the silicon nanowires into the silicon substrate. Varying the excitation density allows for quantification of nanowire trap densities: for sufficiently low excitation fluences the diffusion process stalls because the majority of charge carriers become trapped at nanowire surface defects. Using a model that includes these effects, we determine both the diffusion constant and the nanowire trap density. The trap density is found to be orders of magnitude larger than the charge carrier density that would be generated by AM1.5 sunlight.

  19. A silicon-nanowire memory driven by optical gradient force induced bistability

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, B.; Cai, H. Gu, Y. D.; Kwong, D. L.; Chin, L. K.; Ng, G. I.; Ser, W.; Huang, J. G.; Yang, Z. C.; Liu, A. Q.

    2015-12-28

    In this paper, a bistable optical-driven silicon-nanowire memory is demonstrated, which employs ring resonator to generate optical gradient force over a doubly clamped silicon-nanowire. Two stable deformation positions of a doubly clamped silicon-nanowire represent two memory states (“0” and “1”) and can be set/reset by modulating the light intensity (<3 mW) based on the optical force induced bistability. The time response of the optical-driven memory is less than 250 ns. It has applications in the fields of all optical communication, quantum computing, and optomechanical circuits.

  20. A semi-continuum model on vibration frequency of silicon nanowires in <111> orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Chen, Hong-Bo

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a new semi-continuum model is built to describe the fundamental vibration frequency of the silicon nanowires in <111> orientation. The Keating potential model and the discrete nature in the width and the thickness direction of the silicon nanowires in <111> orientation are applied in the new semi-continuum model. Based on the Keating model and the principle of conservation of energy, the vibration frequency of the silicon nanowires with the triangle, the rhombus, and the hexagon cross sections are derived. It is indicated that the calculation results based on this new model are accordant with the simulation results of the software based on molecular dynamics (MD).

  1. Odd electron diffraction patterns in silicon nanowires and silicon thin films explained by microtwins and nanotwins

    PubMed Central

    Cayron, Cyril; Den Hertog, Martien; Latu-Romain, Laurence; Mouchet, Céline; Secouard, Christopher; Rouviere, Jean-Luc; Rouviere, Emmanuelle; Simonato, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Odd electron diffraction patterns (EDPs) have been obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on silicon nanowires grown via the vapour–liquid–solid method and on silicon thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation. Many explanations have been given in the past, without consensus among the scientific community: size artifacts, twinning artifacts or, more widely accepted, the existence of new hexagonal Si phases. In order to resolve this issue, the microstructures of Si nanowires and Si thin films have been characterized by TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Despite the differences in the geometries and elaboration processes, the EDPs of the materials show great similarities. The different hypotheses reported in the literature have been investigated. It was found that the positions of the diffraction spots in the EDPs could be reproduced by simulating a hexagonal structure with c/a = 12(2/3)1/2, but the intensities in many EDPs remained unexplained. Finally, it was established that all the experimental data, i.e. EDPs and HRTEM images, agree with a classical cubic silicon structure containing two microstructural defects: (i) overlapping Σ3 microtwins which induce extra spots by double diffraction, and (ii) nanotwins which induce extra spots as a result of streaking effects. It is concluded that there is no hexagonal phase in the Si nanowires and the Si thin films presented in this work. PMID:22477767

  2. Tailoring the crystal structure of individual silicon nanowires by polarized laser annealing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Haitian; Chen, Chun-Chung; Hung, Wei-Hsuan; Hsu, I-Kai; Theiss, Jesse; Zhou, Chongwu; Cronin, Stephen B

    2011-07-29

    We study the effect of polarized laser annealing on the crystalline structure of individual crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires (NWs) using Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline fraction of the annealed spot increases dramatically from 0 to 0.93 with increasing incident laser power. We observe Raman lineshape narrowing and frequency hardening upon laser annealing due to the growth of the crystalline core, which is confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The anti-Stokes:Stokes Raman intensity ratio is used to determine the local heating temperature caused by the intense focused laser, which exhibits a strong polarization dependence in Si NWs. The most efficient annealing occurs when the laser polarization is aligned along the axis of the NWs, which results in an amorphous-crystalline interface less than 0.5 µm in length. This paper demonstrates a new approach to control the crystal structure of NWs on the sub-micron length scale.

  3. Nanoscale contact engineering for Silicon/Silicide nanowire devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Chen

    Metal silicides have been used in silicon technology as contacts to achieve high device performance and desired device functions. The growth and applications of silicide materials have recently attracted increasing interest for nanoscale device applications. Nanoscale silicide materials have been demonstrated with various synthetic approaches. Solid state reaction wherein high quality silicides form through diffusion of metal atoms into silicon nano-templates and the subsequent phase transformation caught significant attention for the fabrication of nanoscale Si devices. Very interestingly, studies on the diffusion and phase transformation processes at nanoscale have indicated possible deviations from the bulk and the thin film system. Here we studied growth kinetics, electronic properties and device applications of nanoscale silicides formed through solid state reaction. We have grown single crystal PtSi nanowires and PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures through solid state reaction. TEM studies show that the heterostructures have atomically sharp interfaces free of defects. Electrical measurement of PtSi nanowires shows a low resistivity of ˜28.6 μΩ·cm and a high breakdown current density beyond 108 A/cm2. Furthermore, using single-crystal PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures with atomically clean interfaces, we have fabricated p-channel enhancement mode transistors with the best reported performance for intrinsic silicon nanowires to date. In our results, silicide can provide a clean and no Fermi level pinning interface and then silicide can form Ohmic-contact behavior by replacing the source/drain metal with PtSi. It has been proven by our experiment by contacting PtSi with intrinsic Si nanowires (no extrinsic doping) to achieve high performance p-channel device. By utilizing the same approach, single crystal MnSi nanowires and MnSi/Si/MnSi nanowire heterojunction with atomically sharp interfaces can also been grown. Electrical transport studies on Mn

  4. Orientation, alignment, and polytype control in epitaxial growth of SiC nanowires for electronics application in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshka, Yaroslav; Thirumalai, Rooban Venkatesh K. G.; Krishnan, Bharat K.; Levin, Igor; Merrett, J. Neil; Davydov, Albert V.

    2013-09-01

    SiC nanowires (NWs) are attractive building blocks for the next generation electronic devices since silicon carbide is a wide bandgap semiconductor with high electrical breakdown strength, radiation resistance, mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, chemical stability and biocompatibility. Epitaxial growth using metal-catalyst-based vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was employed for SiC NW growth in this work. 4H-SiC substrates having different crystallographic orientations were used in order to control NW alignment and polytype. A new technique based on vapor-phase delivery of the metal catalyst was developed to facilitate control of the NW density. Both 4H and 3C polytypes with a strong stacking disorder were obtained. The 4H and 3C NWs had different orientations with respect to the substrate. 4H NWs grew perpendicular to the c-plane of the substrate. The stacking faults (SFs) in these nanowires were perpendicular to the [0001] nanowire axes. All 3C NWs grew at 20° with respect to the substrate c-plane, and their projections on the c-plane corresponded to one of the six equivalent ⟨101-0⟩ crystallographic directions. All six orientations were obtained simultaneously when growing NWs on the (0001) substrate surface, while only one or two NW orientations were observed when growing NWs on any particular crystallographic plane parallel to the c-axis of the substrate. Growth on {101-0} surfaces resulted in only one NW orientation, thereby producing well-aligned NW arrays. Preliminary measurements of the NW electrical conductivity are reported utilizing two-terminal device geometry.

  5. The role of substrate surface alteration in the fabrication of vertically aligned CdTe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Neretina, S; Hughes, R A; Devenyi, G A; Sochinskii, N V; Preston, J S; Mascher, P

    2008-05-01

    Previously we have described the deposition of vertically aligned wurtzite CdTe nanowires derived from an unusual catalytically driven growth mode. This growth mode could only proceed when the surface of the substrate was corrupted with an alcohol layer, although the role of the corruption was not fully understood. Here, we present a study detailing the remarkable role that this substrate surface alteration plays in the development of CdTe nanowires; it dramatically improves the size uniformity and largely eliminates lateral growth. These effects are demonstrated to arise from the altered surface's ability to limit Ostwald ripening of the catalytic seed material and by providing a surface unable to promote the epitaxial relationship needed to sustain a lateral growth mode. The axial growth of the CdTe nanowires is found to be exclusively driven through the direct impingement of adatoms onto the catalytic seeds leading to a self-limiting wire height associated with the sublimation of material from the sidewall facets. The work presented furthers the development of the mechanisms needed to promote high quality substrate-based vertically aligned CdTe nanowires. With our present understanding of the growth mechanism being a combination of selective area epitaxy and a catalytically driven vapour-liquid-solid growth mode, these results also raise the intriguing possibility of employing this growth mode in other material systems in an effort to produce superior nanowires.

  6. Beam-deposited platinum as versatile catalyst for bottom-up silicon nanowire synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hibst, N.; Strehle, S.; Knittel, P.; Kranz, C.; Mizaikoff, B.

    2014-10-13

    The controlled localized bottom-up synthesis of silicon nanowires on arbitrarily shaped surfaces is still a persisting challenge for functional device assembly. In order to address this issue, electron beam and focused ion beam-assisted catalyst deposition have been investigated with respect to platinum expected to form a PtSi alloy catalyst for a subsequent bottom-up nanowire synthesis. The effective implementation of pure platinum nanoparticles or thin films for silicon nanowire growth has been demonstrated recently. Beam-deposited platinum contains significant quantities of amorphous carbon due to the organic precursor and gallium ions for a focused ion beam-based deposition process. Nevertheless, silicon nanowires could be grown on various substrates regardless of the platinum purity. Additionally, p-type doping could be realized with diborane whereas n-type doping suppressed a nanowire growth. The rational utilization of this beam-assisted approach enables us to control the localized synthesis of single silicon nanowires at planar surfaces but succeeded also in single nanowire growth at the three-dimensional apex of an atomic force microscopy tip. Therefore, this catalyst deposition method appears to be a unique extension of current technologies to assemble complex nanowire-based devices.

  7. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM⁻¹·cm⁻²) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  8. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  9. Directed deposition of silicon nanowires using neopentasilane as precursor and gold as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kämpken, Britta; Wulf, Verena; Auner, Norbert; Winhold, Marcel; Huth, Michael; Rhinow, Daniel; Terfort, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In this work the applicability of neopentasilane (Si(SiH(3))(4)) as a precursor for the formation of silicon nanowires by using gold nanoparticles as a catalyst has been explored. The growth proceeds via the formation of liquid gold/silicon alloy droplets, which excrete the silicon nanowires upon continued decomposition of the precursor. This mechanism determines the diameter of the Si nanowires. Different sources for the gold nanoparticles have been tested: the spontaneous dewetting of gold films, thermally annealed gold films, deposition of preformed gold nanoparticles, and the use of "liquid bright gold", a material historically used for the gilding of porcelain and glass. The latter does not only form gold nanoparticles when deposited as a thin film and thermally annealed, but can also be patterned by using UV irradiation, providing access to laterally structured layers of silicon nanowires.

  10. Tip-enhanced Raman imaging and nano spectroscopy of etched silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kazemi-Zanjani, Nastaran; Kergrene, Erwan; Liu, Lijia; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Lagugné-Labarthet, François

    2013-09-25

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is used to investigate the influence of strains in isolated and overlapping silicon nanowires prepared by chemical etching of a (100) silicon wafer. An atomic force microscopy tip made of nanocrystalline diamond coated with a thin layer of silver is used in conjunction with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm in order to probe the first order optical phonon mode of the [100] silicon nanowires. The frequency shift and the broadening of the silicon first order phonon are analyzed and compared to the topographical measurements for distinct configuration of nanowires that are disposed in straight, bent or overlapping configuration over a microscope coverslip. The TERS spatial resolution is close to the topography provided by the nanocrystalline diamond tip and subtle spectral changes are observed for different nanowire configurations.

  11. Glucose-Derived Porous Carbon-Coated Silicon Nanowires as Efficient Electrodes for Aqueous Micro-Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Devarapalli, Rami Reddy; Szunerits, Sabine; Coffinier, Yannick; Shelke, Manjusha V; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we report on carbon coating of vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNWs) arrays via a simple hydrothermal process using glucose as carbon precursor. Using this process, a thin carbon layer is uniformly deposited on the SiNWs. Under optimized conditions, the coated SiNWs electrode showed better electrochemical energy storage capacity as well as exceptional stability in aqueous system as compared to uncoated SiNWs. The as-measured capacitance reached 25.64 mF/cm(2) with a good stability up to 25000 charging/discharging cycles in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution.

  12. TiO2 nanowire dispersions in viscous polymer matrix: electrophoretic alignment and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šutka, Andris; Saal, Kristjan; Kisand, Vambola; Lõhmus, Rünno; Joost, Urmas; Timusk, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The changes in optical properties during TiO2 nanowire orientation in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix under the influence of an electric field are strongly influenced by nanowire (NW) diameter. It was demonstrated for the first time that either positive or negative change in transmittance can be induced by NW alignment parallel to the electric field depending on the NW diameter. These effects can be explained by the interplay between scattering and reflectance. Experimental findings reported could be important for smart window applications for the regulation of visible or even infrared transparency, thus reducing the energy consumption by air conditioning systems in buildings and automobiles in the future.

  13. Conductive-probe atomic force microscopy characterization of silicon nanowire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The electrical conduction properties of lateral and vertical silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were investigated using a conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). Horizontal SiNWs, which were synthesized by the in-plane solid-liquid-solid technique, are randomly deployed into an undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer. Local current mapping shows that the wires have internal microstructures. The local current-voltage measurements on these horizontal wires reveal a power law behavior indicating several transport regimes based on space-charge limited conduction which can be assisted by traps in the high-bias regime (> 1 V). Vertical phosphorus-doped SiNWs were grown by chemical vapor deposition using a gold catalyst-driving vapor-liquid-solid process on higly n-type silicon substrates. The effect of phosphorus doping on the local contact resistance between the AFM tip and the SiNW was put in evidence, and the SiNWs resistivity was estimated. PMID:21711623

  14. Silicon oxide nanowire growth mechanisms revealed by real-time electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolíbal, Miroslav; Novák, Libor; Shanley, Toby; Toth, Milos; Šikola, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    Growth of one-dimensional materials is possible through numerous mechanisms that affect the nanowire structure and morphology. Here, we explain why a wide range of morphologies is observed when silicon oxide nanowires are grown on silicon substrates using liquid gallium catalyst droplets. We show that a gallium oxide overlayer is needed for nanowire nucleation at typical growth temperatures, and that it can decompose during growth and, hence, dramatically alter the nanowire morphology. Gallium oxide decomposition is attributed to etching caused by hydrogen that can be supplied by thermal dissociation of H2O (a common impurity). We show that H2O dissociation is catalyzed by silicon substrates at temperatures as low as 320 °C, identify the material supply pathways and processes that rate-limit nanowire growth under dry and wet atmospheres, and present a detailed growth model that explains contradictory results reported in prior studies. We also show that under wet atmospheres the Ga droplets can be mobile and promote nanowire growth as they traverse the silicon substrate.Growth of one-dimensional materials is possible through numerous mechanisms that affect the nanowire structure and morphology. Here, we explain why a wide range of morphologies is observed when silicon oxide nanowires are grown on silicon substrates using liquid gallium catalyst droplets. We show that a gallium oxide overlayer is needed for nanowire nucleation at typical growth temperatures, and that it can decompose during growth and, hence, dramatically alter the nanowire morphology. Gallium oxide decomposition is attributed to etching caused by hydrogen that can be supplied by thermal dissociation of H2O (a common impurity). We show that H2O dissociation is catalyzed by silicon substrates at temperatures as low as 320 °C, identify the material supply pathways and processes that rate-limit nanowire growth under dry and wet atmospheres, and present a detailed growth model that explains

  15. Silicon nanowires for high-sensitivity glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Yao, Hui; Tzang, Chi Hung; Zhu, Junjie; Yang, Mengsu; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2006-05-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were investigated as supporting matrices for enzyme immobilization to construct glucose biosensors. Glucose oxidase was adsorbed onto SiNWs after different treatments, either as grown, HF etched, or carboxylic acid (COOH) functionalized. The amperometric biosensor with COOH-functionalized SiNWs performed the best with a detection limit of 0.01mM glucose (signal-to-noise ratio=3). For real-time detection of glucose, SiNW biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 0.1-15mM. This work demonstrates the utility of SiNWs as a biosensor component and provides a general method to modify the surface of semiconducting nanomaterials for potential biomedical applications.

  16. Silicon nanowires for biosensing, energy storage, and conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Wang, Tianyu; Da, Peimei; Xu, Ming; Wu, Hao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2013-10-01

    Semiconducting silicon nanowires (SiNWs) represent one of the most interesting research directions in nanoscience and nanotechnology, with capabilities of realizing structural and functional complexity through rational design and synthesis. The exquisite control of chemical composition, structure, morphology, doping, and assembly of SiNWs, in both individual and array format, as well as incorporation with other materials, offers a nanoscale building block with unique electronic, optoelectronic, and catalytic properties, thus allowing for a variety of exciting opportunities in the fields of life sciences and renewable energy. This review provides a brief summary of SiNW research in the past decade, from the SiNW synthesis by both the top-down approaches and the bottom-up approaches, to several important biological and energy applications including biomolecule sensing, interfacing with cells and tissues, lithium-ion batteries, solar cells, and photoelectrochemical conversion.

  17. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires embedded on thermoelectric platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, JinYong; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we propose a simple method for obtaining the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded on a thermoelectric platform. The approximation of the heat flux in SiNWs with temperature differences enables the determination of thermal conductivity. Using this method, the thermal conductivities of our n- and p-type SiNWs are found to be 18.06  ±  0.12 and 20.29  ±  0.77 W m-1 · K-1, respectively. The atomic weight of arsenic ions in the n-type SiNWs is responsible for a lower thermal conductivity than that of boron ions in the p-type SiNWs. Our results demonstrate that this simple method is capable of measuring the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric nanomaterials embedded on thermoelectric devices.

  18. Epitaxial insertion of gold silicide nanodisks during the growth of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Um, Han-Don; Jee, Sang-Won; Park, Kwang-Tae; Jung, Jin-Young; Guo, Zhongyi; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2011-07-01

    Nanodisk-shaped, single-crystal gold silicide heterojunctions were inserted into silicon nanowires during vapor-liquid-solid growth using Au as a catalyst within a specific range of chlorine-to-hydrogen atomic ratio. The mechanism of nanodisk formation has been investigated by changing the source gas ratio of SiCl4 to H2. We report that an over-supply of silicon into the Au-Si liquid alloy leads to highly supersaturated solution and enhances the precipitation of Au in the silicon nanowires due to the formation of unstable phases within the liquid alloy. It is shown that the gold precipitates embedded in the silicon nanowires consisted of a metastable gold silicide. Interestingly, faceting of gold silicide was observed at the Au/Si interfaces, and silicon nanowires were epitaxially grown on the top of the nanodisk by vapor-liquid-solid growth. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed that gold silicide nanodisks are epitaxially connected to the silicon nanowires in the direction of growth direction. These gold silicide nanodisks would be useful as nanosized electrical junctions for future applications in nanowire interconnections.

  19. Engineering island-chain silicon nanowires via a droplet mediated Plateau-Rayleigh transformation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zhaoguo; Xu, Mingkun; Zhao, Yaolong; Wang, Jimmy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Yu, Linwei; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2016-01-01

    The ability to program highly modulated morphology upon silicon nanowires (SiNWs) has been fundamental to explore new phononic and electronic functionalities. We here exploit a nanoscale locomotion of metal droplets to demonstrate a large and readily controllable morphology engineering of crystalline SiNWs, from straight ones into continuous or discrete island-chains, at temperature <350 °C. This has been accomplished via a tin (Sn) droplet mediated in-plane growth where amorphous Si thin film is consumed as precursor to produce crystalline SiNWs. Thanks to a significant interface-stretching effect, a periodic Plateau-Rayleigh instability oscillation can be stimulated in the liquid Sn droplet, and the temporal oscillation of the Sn droplets is translated faithfully, via the deformable liquid/solid deposition interface, into regular spatial modulation upon the SiNWs. Combined with a unique self-alignment and positioning capability, this new strategy could enable a rational design and single-run fabrication of a wide variety of nanowire-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:27682161

  20. Engineering island-chain silicon nanowires via a droplet mediated Plateau-Rayleigh transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhaoguo; Xu, Mingkun; Zhao, Yaolong; Wang, Jimmy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Yu, Linwei; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere

    2016-09-01

    The ability to program highly modulated morphology upon silicon nanowires (SiNWs) has been fundamental to explore new phononic and electronic functionalities. We here exploit a nanoscale locomotion of metal droplets to demonstrate a large and readily controllable morphology engineering of crystalline SiNWs, from straight ones into continuous or discrete island-chains, at temperature <350 °C. This has been accomplished via a tin (Sn) droplet mediated in-plane growth where amorphous Si thin film is consumed as precursor to produce crystalline SiNWs. Thanks to a significant interface-stretching effect, a periodic Plateau-Rayleigh instability oscillation can be stimulated in the liquid Sn droplet, and the temporal oscillation of the Sn droplets is translated faithfully, via the deformable liquid/solid deposition interface, into regular spatial modulation upon the SiNWs. Combined with a unique self-alignment and positioning capability, this new strategy could enable a rational design and single-run fabrication of a wide variety of nanowire-based optoelectronic devices.

  1. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  2. Silicon nanowires nanogenerator based on the piezoelectricity of alpha-quartz.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kui; Lin, Haiyang; Cai, Qian; Zhao, Yi; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Hu, Fei; Shao, Mingwang

    2013-12-21

    Silicon nanowires are important semiconductor with core/shell structure. In this work, the piezoelectric material alpha-quartz was grown in the interface of silicon nanowires by thermal treatment at 600 °C for 0.5 h. These nanowires were employed as starting materials to fabricate piezoelectric nanogenerators, which could convert kinetic energy into electrical one, exhibiting an output voltage of 36.5 V and a response current of 1.4 μA under a free-falling object of 300 g at a height of 30 cm.

  3. Filter-free image sensor pixels comprising silicon nanowires with selective color absorption.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunsung; Dan, Yaping; Seo, Kwanyong; Yu, Young J; Duane, Peter K; Wober, Munib; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2014-01-01

    The organic dye filters of conventional color image sensors achieve the red/green/blue response needed for color imaging, but have disadvantages related to durability, low absorption coefficient, and fabrication complexity. Here, we report a new paradigm for color imaging based on all-silicon nanowire devices and no filters. We fabricate pixels consisting of vertical silicon nanowires with integrated photodetectors, demonstrate that their spectral sensitivities are governed by nanowire radius, and perform color imaging. Our approach is conceptually different from filter-based methods, as absorbed light is converted to photocurrent, ultimately presenting the opportunity for very high photon efficiency.

  4. A new approach for two-terminal electronic memory devices - Storing information on silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Saranti, Konstantina; Alotaibi, Sultan; Paul, Shashi

    2016-06-09

    The work described in this paper focuses on the utilisation of silicon nanowires as the information storage element in flash-type memory devices. Silicon nanostructures have attracted attention due to interesting electrical and optical properties, and their potential integration into electronic devices. A detailed investigation of the suitability of silicon nanowires as the charge storage medium in two-terminal non-volatile memory devices are presented in this report. The deposition of the silicon nanostructures was carried out at low temperatures (less than 400 °C) using a previously developed a novel method within our research group. Two-terminal non-volatile (2TNV) memory devices and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures containing the silicon nanowires were fabricated and an in-depth study of their characteristics was carried out using current-voltage and capacitance techniques.

  5. A new approach for two-terminal electronic memory devices - Storing information on silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranti, Konstantina; Alotaibi, Sultan; Paul, Shashi

    2016-06-01

    The work described in this paper focuses on the utilisation of silicon nanowires as the information storage element in flash-type memory devices. Silicon nanostructures have attracted attention due to interesting electrical and optical properties, and their potential integration into electronic devices. A detailed investigation of the suitability of silicon nanowires as the charge storage medium in two-terminal non-volatile memory devices are presented in this report. The deposition of the silicon nanostructures was carried out at low temperatures (less than 400 °C) using a previously developed a novel method within our research group. Two-terminal non-volatile (2TNV) memory devices and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures containing the silicon nanowires were fabricated and an in-depth study of their characteristics was carried out using current-voltage and capacitance techniques.

  6. A new approach for two-terminal electronic memory devices - Storing information on silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Saranti, Konstantina; Alotaibi, Sultan; Paul, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    The work described in this paper focuses on the utilisation of silicon nanowires as the information storage element in flash-type memory devices. Silicon nanostructures have attracted attention due to interesting electrical and optical properties, and their potential integration into electronic devices. A detailed investigation of the suitability of silicon nanowires as the charge storage medium in two-terminal non-volatile memory devices are presented in this report. The deposition of the silicon nanostructures was carried out at low temperatures (less than 400 °C) using a previously developed a novel method within our research group. Two-terminal non-volatile (2TNV) memory devices and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures containing the silicon nanowires were fabricated and an in-depth study of their characteristics was carried out using current-voltage and capacitance techniques. PMID:27279431

  7. High yield formation of lipid bilayer shells around silicon nanowires in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Römhildt, Lotta; Gang, Andreas; Baraban, Larysa; Opitz, Jörg; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2013-09-01

    The combination of nanoscaled materials and biological self-assembly is a key step for the development of novel approaches for biotechnology and bionanoelectronic devices. Here we propose a route to merge these two subsystems and report on the formation of highly concentrated aqueous solutions of silanized silicon nanowires wrapped in a lipid bilayer shell. We developed protocols and investigated the dynamics of lipid films on both planar surfaces and silicon nanowires using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, demonstrating fully intact and fluid bilayers without the presence of a lipid molecule reservoir. Finally, the experimental setup allowed for in situ observation of spontaneous bilayer formation around the nanowire by lipid diffusion from a vesicle to the nanowire. Such aqueous solutions of lipid coated nanowires are a versatile tool for characterization purposes and are relevant for newly emerging bioinspired electronics and nanosensorics.

  8. Porous doped silicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with long cycle life.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingyuan; Rong, Jiepeng; Fang, Xin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-05-01

    Porous silicon nanowires have been well studied for various applications; however, there are only very limited reports on porous silicon nanowires used for energy storage. Here, we report both experimental and theoretical studies of porous doped silicon nanowires synthesized by direct etching of boron-doped silicon wafers. When using alginate as a binder, porous silicon nanowires exhibited superior electrochemical performance and long cycle life as anode material in a lithium ion battery. Even after 250 cycles, the capacity remains stable above 2000, 1600, and 1100 mAh/g at current rates of 2, 4, and 18 A/g, respectively, demonstrating high structure stability due to the high porosity and electron conductivity of the porous silicon nanowires. A mathematic model coupling the lithium ion diffusion and the strain induced by lithium intercalation was employed to study the effect of porosity and pore size on the structure stability. Simulation shows silicon with high porosity and large pore size help to stabilize the structure during charge/discharge cycles.

  9. Silicon Alignment Pins: An Easy Way to Realize a Wafer-to-Wafer Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Reck, Theodore J.; Lin, Robert H.; Peralta, Alejandro; Gill, John J.; Lee, Choonsup; Siles, Jose; Toda, Risaku; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cooper, Ken B.; Mehdi, Imran; Thomas, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Submillimeter heterodyne instruments play a critical role in addressing fundamental questions regarding the evolution of galaxies as well as being a crucial tool in planetary science. To make these instruments compatible with small platforms, especially for the study of the outer planets, or to enable the development of multi-pixel arrays, it is essential to reduce the mass, power, and volume of the existing single-pixel heterodyne receivers. Silicon micromachining technology is naturally suited for making these submillimeter and terahertz components, where precision and accuracy are essential. Waveguide and channel cavities are etched in a silicon bulk material using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) techniques. Power amplifiers, multiplier and mixer chips are then integrated and the silicon pieces are stacked together to form a supercompact receiver front end. By using silicon micromachined packages for these components, instrument mass can be reduced and higher levels of integration can be achieved. A method is needed to assemble accurately these silicon pieces together, and a technique was developed here using etched pockets and silicon pins to align two wafers together.

  10. Long-persistent luminescence in near-ultraviolet from silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yonglin; Zhou, Jianfeng; Zheng, Liqiu; Zhong, Chonggui; Wrensford, Louise V.; Chan, Kwaichow

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Silicon-rich nanowires with persistent near-ultraviolet luminescence were fabricated with thermal evaporation of silicon monoxide (SiO) powder at 1350 K. They contain quantum-confined elemental silicon structures of the order of nm dimension, and are capped by silicon oxide. The samples exhibit orderly color distribution along the direction of the carrier gas flow. When excited with the 280 nm light, the samples emit broad photoluminescence band from 330 to 470 nm with a long afterglow of more than 10 s, and the color shifts from near-ultraviolet to blue and green gradually. Display Omitted Highlights: ► We synthesized Si-rich nanowire from thermal evaporation of silicon monoxide. ► The Si-rich nanowires exhibit orderly color distribution along the direction of the gas flow. ► The Si-rich nanowires emit broad photoluminescence band from 330 to 470 nm under UV irradiation for >10 s. ► The color shifts from near-ultraviolet to blue and green gradually. -- Abstract: Silicon-rich nanowires with persistent near-ultraviolet luminescence were fabricated with thermal evaporation of silicon monoxide (SiO) powder at 1350 K. They contain quantum-confined elemental silicon structures of the order of nm dimension, and are capped by silicon oxide. The samples exhibit orderly color distribution along the direction of the carrier gas flow. When excited with the 280 nm light, the samples emit broad photoluminescence band from 330 to 470 nm with a long afterglow of more than 10 s, and the color shifts from near-ultraviolet to blue and green gradually. The morphology dependent luminescence might be attributed to the emission from the quantum-confined silicon crystallites of various sizes embedded in the oxide layer, and near surface states in the nanowires.

  11. Enhanced Raman Scattering of Silicon Nanowires by Ag Nanoparticles in-situ Decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zeping; Hu, Hailong; Wang, Shijie; Shen, Zexiang; Xiong, Qihua

    2010-08-01

    Recently, metallic nanoparticles decorated semiconductor nanowires, especially silicon, attract considerable attention, due to their potential applications in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, surface enhanced Raman scattering and biosensing. A common method that has been used to decorate silicon nanowires with metallic nanoparticles, e.g. Au or Pt, is galvanic displacement, in which metallic ions are reduced with electrons supplied by virtue of silicon half-cell reaction. Here we report a method to decorate silicon nanowires with Ag nanoparticles by surface reduction, in which a freshly etched silicon surface reduces Ag ions in-situ in aqueous silver nitrate solution. The as-grown Ag nanoparticles exhibit either highly single crystallinity or twinning boundaries, with most probably diameter ˜25 nm (Figure 1). Raman mapping experiments suggest that 1st order Raman band of silicon nanowires exhibit uniform contrast along wire axis for pristine silicon nanowires, while for Ag nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires a series of "hot-spot," i.e., substantially enhanced Raman scattering were discovered along the wire axis. This was explained by local electric field enhancement due to Ag nanoparticle "nano-antenna," which was supported by the correlation between atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and Raman mapping (Figure 2). The enhancement is more or less delocalized in Raman mapping due to diffraction limit in our far-field mapping experiments. In addition, we also noticed a new side band feature ˜495 cm-1 for nanowires appeared after HF etching, this new feature sustained after sequential Oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment which excluded the possibility due to any possible surface dangling bonds. We now suspect this feature is due to porosity resulted from HF etching and it is now being subjected to further investigations.

  12. Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lianming; Miljković, Vladimir D; Käll, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate optical alignment and rotation of individual plasmonic nanostructures with lengths from tens of nanometers to several micrometers using a single beam of linearly polarized near-infrared laser light. Silver nanorods and dimers of gold nanoparticles align parallel to the laser polarization because of the high long-axis dipole polarizability. Silver nanowires, in contrast, spontaneously turn perpendicular to the incident polarization and predominantly attach at the wire ends, in agreement with electrodynamics simulations. Wires, rods, and dimers all rotate if the incident polarization is turned. In the case of nanowires, we demonstrate spinning at an angular frequency of approximately 1 Hz due to transfer of spin angular momentum from circularly polarized light. PMID:20030391

  13. A Robust Highly Aligned DNA Nanowire Array-Enabled Lithography for Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Wan Sik; Lin, Zhiqun; Kwon, Se Hun; Hong, Suck Won

    2015-12-01

    Because of its excellent charge carrier mobility at the Dirac point, graphene possesses exceptional properties for high-performance devices. Of particular interest is the potential use of graphene nanoribbons or graphene nanomesh for field-effect transistors. Herein, highly aligned DNA nanowire arrays were crafted by flow-assisted self-assembly of a drop of DNA aqueous solution on a flat polymer substrate. Subsequently, they were exploited as "ink" and transfer-printed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD)-grown graphene substrate. The oriented DNA nanowires served as the lithographic resist for selective removal of graphene, forming highly aligned graphene nanoribbons. Intriguingly, these graphene nanoribbons can be readily produced over a large area (i.e., millimeter scale) with a high degree of feature-size controllability and a low level of defects, rendering the fabrication of flexible two terminal devices and field-effect transistors.

  14. Vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires electrodeposited within porous polycarbonate templates for vibrational energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Boughey, Francesca L; Davies, Timothy; Datta, Anuja; Whiter, Richard A; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-07-15

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator has been fabricated using a simple, fast and scalable template-assisted electrodeposition process, by which vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were directly grown within a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) template. The nanowires, having average diameter 184 nm and length 12 μm, are polycrystalline and have a preferred orientation of the [100] axis parallel to the long axis. The output power density of a nanogenerator fabricated from the as-grown ZnO nanowires still embedded within the PC template was found to be 151 ± 25 mW m(-3) at an impedance-matched load, when subjected to a low-level periodic (5 Hz) impacting force akin to gentle finger tapping. An energy conversion efficiency of ∼4.2% was evaluated for the electrodeposited ZnO nanowires, and the ZnO-PC composite nanogenerator was found to maintain good energy harvesting performance through 24 h of continuous fatigue testing. This is particularly significant given that ZnO-based nanostructures typically suffer from mechanical and/or environmental degradation that otherwise limits their applicability in vibrational energy harvesting. Our template-assisted synthesis of ZnO nanowires embedded within a protective polymer matrix through a single growth process is thus attractive for the fabrication of low-cost, robust and stable nanogenerators.

  15. Vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires electrodeposited within porous polycarbonate templates for vibrational energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughey, Francesca L.; Davies, Timothy; Datta, Anuja; Whiter, Richard A.; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-07-01

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator has been fabricated using a simple, fast and scalable template-assisted electrodeposition process, by which vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were directly grown within a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) template. The nanowires, having average diameter 184 nm and length 12 μm, are polycrystalline and have a preferred orientation of the [100] axis parallel to the long axis. The output power density of a nanogenerator fabricated from the as-grown ZnO nanowires still embedded within the PC template was found to be 151 ± 25 mW m-3 at an impedance-matched load, when subjected to a low-level periodic (5 Hz) impacting force akin to gentle finger tapping. An energy conversion efficiency of ˜4.2% was evaluated for the electrodeposited ZnO nanowires, and the ZnO-PC composite nanogenerator was found to maintain good energy harvesting performance through 24 h of continuous fatigue testing. This is particularly significant given that ZnO-based nanostructures typically suffer from mechanical and/or environmental degradation that otherwise limits their applicability in vibrational energy harvesting. Our template-assisted synthesis of ZnO nanowires embedded within a protective polymer matrix through a single growth process is thus attractive for the fabrication of low-cost, robust and stable nanogenerators.

  16. Aligned AlN nanowires by self-organized vapor-solid growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdi, G. R.; Persson, P. O. Å.; Gogova, D.; Fornari, R.; Hultman, L.; Syväjärvi, M.; Yakimova, R.

    2009-12-01

    Highly oriented AlN single crystal nanowires with aspect ratio up to 600, diameter in the range of 40-500 nm, and 100 µm lengths, have been synthesized via a vapor-solid growth mechanism. The results were obtained at 1750 °C and 850 mbar nitrogen pressure on vicinal SiC substrates pretreated by SiC sublimation epitaxy in order to attain distinguishable terraces. It was found that the nanowires change in thickness after they have reached a critical length, and this fact contributes to an understanding of the growth mechanism of AlN nanowires. The nanowires are hexagonally shaped and perfectly aligned along the [0001] direction with a small tilt given by the substrate vicinality. Under nitrogen excess a preferential growth along the c-axis of the wurtzite structure takes place while below some critical value of nitrogen pressure the growth mode switches to lateral. The AlN nanowires are shown to have a dislocation free wurtzite crystal structure. Some possible applications are discussed.

  17. Aligned AlN nanowires by self-organized vapor-solid growth.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, G R; Persson, P O A; Gogova, D; Fornari, R; Hultman, L; Syväjärvi, M; Yakimova, R

    2009-12-01

    Highly oriented AlN single crystal nanowires with aspect ratio up to 600, diameter in the range of 40-500 nm, and 100 microm lengths, have been synthesized via a vapor-solid growth mechanism. The results were obtained at 1750 degrees C and 850 mbar nitrogen pressure on vicinal SiC substrates pretreated by SiC sublimation epitaxy in order to attain distinguishable terraces. It was found that the nanowires change in thickness after they have reached a critical length, and this fact contributes to an understanding of the growth mechanism of AlN nanowires. The nanowires are hexagonally shaped and perfectly aligned along the [0001] direction with a small tilt given by the substrate vicinality. Under nitrogen excess a preferential growth along the c-axis of the wurtzite structure takes place while below some critical value of nitrogen pressure the growth mode switches to lateral. The AlN nanowires are shown to have a dislocation free wurtzite crystal structure. Some possible applications are discussed.

  18. Vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowires electrodeposited within porous polycarbonate templates for vibrational energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Boughey, Francesca L; Davies, Timothy; Datta, Anuja; Whiter, Richard A; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-07-15

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator has been fabricated using a simple, fast and scalable template-assisted electrodeposition process, by which vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were directly grown within a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) template. The nanowires, having average diameter 184 nm and length 12 μm, are polycrystalline and have a preferred orientation of the [100] axis parallel to the long axis. The output power density of a nanogenerator fabricated from the as-grown ZnO nanowires still embedded within the PC template was found to be 151 ± 25 mW m(-3) at an impedance-matched load, when subjected to a low-level periodic (5 Hz) impacting force akin to gentle finger tapping. An energy conversion efficiency of ∼4.2% was evaluated for the electrodeposited ZnO nanowires, and the ZnO-PC composite nanogenerator was found to maintain good energy harvesting performance through 24 h of continuous fatigue testing. This is particularly significant given that ZnO-based nanostructures typically suffer from mechanical and/or environmental degradation that otherwise limits their applicability in vibrational energy harvesting. Our template-assisted synthesis of ZnO nanowires embedded within a protective polymer matrix through a single growth process is thus attractive for the fabrication of low-cost, robust and stable nanogenerators. PMID:27256619

  19. Ab initio design of nanostructures for solar energy conversion: a case study on silicon nitride nanowire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Design of novel materials for efficient solar energy conversion is critical to the development of green energy technology. In this work, we present a first-principles study on the design of nanostructures for solar energy harvesting on the basis of the density functional theory. We show that the indirect band structure of bulk silicon nitride is transferred to direct bandgap in nanowire. We find that intermediate bands can be created by doping, leading to enhancement of sunlight absorption. We further show that codoping not only reduces the bandgap and introduces intermediate bands but also enhances the solubility of dopants in silicon nitride nanowires due to reduced formation energy of substitution. Importantly, the codoped nanowire is ferromagnetic, leading to the improvement of carrier mobility. The silicon nitride nanowires with direct bandgap, intermediate bands, and ferromagnetism may be applicable to solar energy harvesting. PMID:25294975

  20. Modulation of thermal conductivity in kinked silicon nanowires: phonon interchanging and pinching effects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Yang, Nuo; Wang, Bing-Shen; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-04-10

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the reduction of the thermal conductivity by kinks in silicon nanowires. The reduction percentage can be as high as 70% at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the reduction is also calculated. By calculating phonon polarization vectors, two mechanisms are found to be responsible for the reduced thermal conductivity: (1) the interchanging effect between the longitudinal and transverse phonon modes and (2) the pinching effect, that is, a new type of localization, for the twisting and transverse phonon modes in the kinked silicon nanowires. Our work demonstrates that the phonon interchanging and pinching effects, induced by kinking, are brand-new and effective ways in modulating heat transfer in nanowires, which enables the kinked silicon nanowires to be a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  1. Ab initio design of nanostructures for solar energy conversion: a case study on silicon nitride nanowire.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Design of novel materials for efficient solar energy conversion is critical to the development of green energy technology. In this work, we present a first-principles study on the design of nanostructures for solar energy harvesting on the basis of the density functional theory. We show that the indirect band structure of bulk silicon nitride is transferred to direct bandgap in nanowire. We find that intermediate bands can be created by doping, leading to enhancement of sunlight absorption. We further show that codoping not only reduces the bandgap and introduces intermediate bands but also enhances the solubility of dopants in silicon nitride nanowires due to reduced formation energy of substitution. Importantly, the codoped nanowire is ferromagnetic, leading to the improvement of carrier mobility. The silicon nitride nanowires with direct bandgap, intermediate bands, and ferromagnetism may be applicable to solar energy harvesting.

  2. Detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by silicon nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Marco; Cardenas, Paula P; Otón, Francisco; Martinez, Javier; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Garcia, Fernando; Alonso, Juan C; Rovira, Concepció; Garcia, Ricardo

    2012-03-14

    A silicon nanowire-based biosensor has been designed and applied for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of the early stage of recombinational DNA repair by RecA protein. Silicon nanowires transistors were fabricated by atomic force microscopy nanolithography and integrated into a microfluidic environment. The sensor operates by measuring the changes in the resistance of the nanowire as the biomolecular reactions proceed. We show that the nanoelectronic sensor can detect and differentiate several steps in the binding of RecA to a single-stranded DNA filament taking place on the nanowire-aqueous interface. We report relative changes in the resistance of 3.5% which are related to the interaction of 250 RecA·single-stranded DNA complexes. Spectroscopy data confirm the presence of the protein-DNA complexes on the functionalized silicon surfaces.

  3. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species from Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephen S; Cohen, Guy M; Kenyon, Allison J; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Fix, Natalie R; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Roberts, Jenny R

    2014-01-01

    Processing and synthesis of purified nanomaterials of diverse composition, size, and properties is an evolving process. Studies have demonstrated that some nanomaterials have potential toxic effects and have led to toxicity research focusing on nanotoxicology. About two million workers will be employed in the field of nanotechnology over the next 10 years. The unknown effects of nanomaterials create a need for research and development of techniques to identify possible toxicity. Through a cooperative effort between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and IBM to address possible occupational exposures, silicon-based nanowires (SiNWs) were obtained for our study. These SiNWs are anisotropic filamentary crystals of silicon, synthesized by the vapor–liquid–solid method and used in bio-sensors, gas sensors, and field effect transistors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated when organisms are exposed to a material causing cellular responses, such as lipid peroxidation, H2O2 production, and DNA damage. SiNWs were assessed using three different in vitro environments (H2O2, RAW 264.7 cells, and rat alveolar macrophages) for ROS generation and possible toxicity identification. We used electron spin resonance, analysis of lipid peroxidation, measurement of H2O2 production, and the comet assay to assess generation of ROS from SiNW and define possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that SiNWs do not appear to be significant generators of free radicals. PMID:25452695

  4. Beyond spin-magnetism of magnetic nanowires in porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, K.; Granitzer, P.; Krenn, H.

    2008-11-01

    A ferromagnet-semiconductor (Si-Ni-) nanowire composite, electrochemically prepared in an n-doped (001) silicon wafer, is studied using SQUID magnetometry at magnetic fields up to 7 T parallel and perpendicular to the Ni-wires (diameter 50 nm, length 1 µm, 4 × 108 wires mm-2). Apart from the conventional spin-magnetism of Ni which is saturated at low field, an additional giant paramagnetism is observed at fields >1 T, which is nearly temperature independent, shows strict linear field dependence, strong anisotropy and a lack of saturation. Taking the difference of the orthogonal magnetizations this unconventional paramagnetism becomes obvious. It is based on mesoscopic currents driven by the symmetry breaking at the wire-silicon interface due to the Rashba field (spin-galvanic effect). Spin-polarized carriers from the Ni-wires are captured in low angular momentum quantum states (\\ell=1, 2,\\ldots) . An attempt has been made to estimate the observed giant magnetic moment under simplifying assumptions.

  5. Graphitized silicon carbide microbeams: wafer-level, self-aligned graphene on silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunning, Benjamin V.; Ahmed, Mohsin; Mishra, Neeraj; Ranjbar Kermany, Atieh; Wood, Barry; Iacopi, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Currently proven methods that are used to obtain devices with high-quality graphene on silicon wafers involve the transfer of graphene flakes from a growth substrate, resulting in fundamental limitations for large-scale device fabrication. Moreover, the complex three-dimensional structures of interest for microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems are hardly compatible with such transfer processes. Here, we introduce a methodology for obtaining thousands of microbeams, made of graphitized silicon carbide on silicon, through a site-selective and wafer-scale approach. A Ni-Cu alloy catalyst mediates a self-aligned graphitization on prepatterned SiC microstructures at a temperature that is compatible with silicon technologies. The graphene nanocoating leads to a dramatically enhanced electrical conductivity, which elevates this approach to an ideal method for the replacement of conductive metal films in silicon carbide-based MEMS and NEMS devices.

  6. Large-area alignment of tungsten oxide nanowires over flat and patterned substrates for room-temperature gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Ju, Yanrui; Payamyar, Payam; Primc, Darinka; Rao, Jingyi; Willa, Christoph; Koziej, Dorota; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Alignment of nanowires over a large area of flat and patterned substrates is a prerequisite to use their collective properties in devices such as gas sensors. In this work, uniform single-crystalline ultrathin W18 O49 nanowires with diameters less than 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 have been synthesized, and, despite their flexibility, assembled into thin films with high orientational order over a macroscopic area by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Alignment of the tungsten oxide nanowires was also possible on top of sensor substrates equipped with electrodes. Such sensor devices were found to exhibit outstanding sensitivity to H2 at room temperature. PMID:25412600

  7. Fast growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave heating method and their photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangxia; Hong, Kunquan; Wang, Wenda; Liu, Liqing; Xu, Mingxiang

    2016-10-28

    The fast growth of aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with optimized structure is attractive for electrical and optical devices. In this paper, we report a controllable and rapid growth of ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. When using different zinc salts as the precursors, the morphology of the samples changes a lot and the length growth rate is several times different. The growth mechanism is also investigated. It is found that the solution near neutral pH value is ideal for fast nanowire growth, in which the length of the nanowires increases linearly with growth time and the growth rate is over ten times faster than that in the traditional hydrothermal method. Therefore, aligned ZnO nanowire arrays can grow up to tens of microns in a few hours, while the density and sizes of these nanowires can be well controlled. The ZnO nanowire arrays used as photocatalysts present good photocatalytic performance to the degradation of methyl orange (MO) due to the large surface area. So this paper provides an effective method to obtain vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays for practical applications. PMID:27655230

  8. Fast growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave heating method and their photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxia; Hong, Kunquan; Wang, Wenda; Liu, Liqing; Xu, Mingxiang

    2016-10-01

    The fast growth of aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with optimized structure is attractive for electrical and optical devices. In this paper, we report a controllable and rapid growth of ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. When using different zinc salts as the precursors, the morphology of the samples changes a lot and the length growth rate is several times different. The growth mechanism is also investigated. It is found that the solution near neutral pH value is ideal for fast nanowire growth, in which the length of the nanowires increases linearly with growth time and the growth rate is over ten times faster than that in the traditional hydrothermal method. Therefore, aligned ZnO nanowire arrays can grow up to tens of microns in a few hours, while the density and sizes of these nanowires can be well controlled. The ZnO nanowire arrays used as photocatalysts present good photocatalytic performance to the degradation of methyl orange (MO) due to the large surface area. So this paper provides an effective method to obtain vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays for practical applications.

  9. Fast growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave heating method and their photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangxia; Hong, Kunquan; Wang, Wenda; Liu, Liqing; Xu, Mingxiang

    2016-10-28

    The fast growth of aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with optimized structure is attractive for electrical and optical devices. In this paper, we report a controllable and rapid growth of ZnO nanowire arrays by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. When using different zinc salts as the precursors, the morphology of the samples changes a lot and the length growth rate is several times different. The growth mechanism is also investigated. It is found that the solution near neutral pH value is ideal for fast nanowire growth, in which the length of the nanowires increases linearly with growth time and the growth rate is over ten times faster than that in the traditional hydrothermal method. Therefore, aligned ZnO nanowire arrays can grow up to tens of microns in a few hours, while the density and sizes of these nanowires can be well controlled. The ZnO nanowire arrays used as photocatalysts present good photocatalytic performance to the degradation of methyl orange (MO) due to the large surface area. So this paper provides an effective method to obtain vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays for practical applications.

  10. Silicon nanowire growth and transistor fabrication by self-assembling "grow-in-place" approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yinghui

    Nanowires have attracted much attention recently owing to their ability to serve as critical building blocks for emerging nanotechnologies. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are particularly promising because of the central role of silicon in semiconductor industry. SiNWs would allow device fabrication with high density and their high surface to volume ratio offers high sensitivity. In addition, the possible quantum confinement in SiNWs may further enhance device performances and open windows for exploiting fundamental properties. Intense researches have been carried out in SiNW growth and device fabrication. However, there are still challenges in SiNW growth controls, such as size, number, shape, position, orientation, and inter-wire spacings. To make devices from these SiNWs, post-growth processing steps are needed, such as SiNW collecting, picking, positioning, aligning, and assembling. Due to the extremely small size of SiNWs, there are also challenges in SiNW device fabrication. To solve these challenges in both SiNW growth control and device fabrication, we introduced a novel self-assembling "grow-in-place" approach. Our approach combined vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) nanowire growth mechanism and pre-fabricated nanochannel template. The VLS growth mechanism offers the ability of controlling nanowire size and shape by nanochannel templates. The pre-fabricated nanochannel template guides nanowire growth and offers good SiNW growth control. SiNWs and silicon nanoribbons (SiNRs) with different sizes have been successfully grown in our nanochannel templates. Characterizations on their size, shape, composition, and crystallinity of the SiNW/Rs have confirmed that our "grow-in-place" approach offers good controls on crystalline SiNW/Rs size, shape, number, orientation, position, and inter-wire spacing. So our approach solved the challenges in SiNW growth control. Our grow-in-place approach also solved the challenges in SiNW device fabrication. We introduced two versions of

  11. Surface trap mediated electronic transport in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puppo, F.; Traversa, F. L.; Di Ventra, M.; De Micheli, G.; Carrara, S.

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface electronic transport in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I–V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I–V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as electronic applications.

  12. Surface trap mediated electronic transport in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Puppo, F; Traversa, F L; Ventra, M Di; Micheli, G De; Carrara, S

    2016-08-26

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface electronic transport in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I-V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I-V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as electronic applications.

  13. Surface trap mediated electronic transport in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puppo, F.; Traversa, F. L.; Di Ventra, M.; De Micheli, G.; Carrara, S.

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface electronic transport in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I-V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I-V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as electronic applications.

  14. Surface trap mediated electronic transport in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Puppo, F; Traversa, F L; Ventra, M Di; Micheli, G De; Carrara, S

    2016-08-26

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface electronic transport in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I-V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I-V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as electronic applications. PMID:27418560

  15. Low-Cost, Large-Area, Facile, and Rapid Fabrication of Aligned ZnO Nanowire Device Arrays.

    PubMed

    Cadafalch Gazquez, Gerard; Lei, Sidong; George, Antony; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Boukamp, Bernard A; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2016-06-01

    Well aligned nanowires of ZnO have been made with an electrospinning technique using zinc acetate precursor solutions. Employment of two connected parallel collector plates with a separating gap of 4 cm resulted in a very high degree of nanowire alignment. By adjusting the process parameters, the deposition density of the wires could be controlled. Field effect transistors were prepared by depositing wires between two gold electrodes on top of a heavily doped Si substrate covered with a 300 nm oxide layer. These devices showed good FET characteristics and photosensitivity under UV-illumination. The method provides a fast and scalable fabrication route for functional nanowire arrays with a high degree of alignment and control over nanowire spacing. PMID:27173007

  16. Silicon nanowires nanogenerator based on the piezoelectricity of alpha-quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kui; Lin, Haiyang; Cai, Qian; Zhao, Yi; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Hu, Fei; Shao, Mingwang

    2013-11-01

    Silicon nanowires are important semiconductor with core/shell structure. In this work, the piezoelectric material alpha-quartz was grown in the interface of silicon nanowires by thermal treatment at 600 °C for 0.5 h. These nanowires were employed as starting materials to fabricate piezoelectric nanogenerators, which could convert kinetic energy into electrical one, exhibiting an output voltage of 36.5 V and a response current of 1.4 μA under a free-falling object of 300 g at a height of 30 cm.Silicon nanowires are important semiconductor with core/shell structure. In this work, the piezoelectric material alpha-quartz was grown in the interface of silicon nanowires by thermal treatment at 600 °C for 0.5 h. These nanowires were employed as starting materials to fabricate piezoelectric nanogenerators, which could convert kinetic energy into electrical one, exhibiting an output voltage of 36.5 V and a response current of 1.4 μA under a free-falling object of 300 g at a height of 30 cm. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM, schematic diagram and video. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03838f

  17. Room temperature photoluminescence in the visible range from silicon nanowires grown by a solid-state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita, J. V.; Sharma, P.; Henley, S. J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2009-11-01

    The solid-liquid-solid method (also known as the solid-state method) is used to produce silicon nanowires at the core of silica nanowires with a support catalyst layer structure of nickel and titanium layers sputtered on oxide-coated silicon wafers. This silane-free process is low cost and large-area compatible. Using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy we deduce that the wires have crystalline silicon cores. The nanowires show photoluminescence in the visible range (orange), and we investigate the origin of this band. We further show that the nanowires form a random mesh that acts as an efficient optical trap, giving rise to an optically absorbing medium.

  18. Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals covered by periodic array of gold nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakov, S. A.; Zhigunov, D. M.; Marinins, A.; Shcherbakov, M. R.; Fedyanin, A. A.; Vorontsov, A. S.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Popov, S.; Qiu, M.; Zacharias, M.; Tikhodeev, S. G.; Gippius, N. A.

    2016-05-01

    Extinction and photoluminescence spectra are experimentally and theoretically studied for a periodic array of gold nanowires deposited on top of a dielectric substrate containing silicon nanocrystals. Quasiguided modes are observed in the substrate resulting in modification of optical properties of silicon nanocrystals. Our calculations of extinction and photoluminescence spectra are in good agreement with experimental results. The periodicity provides a powerful tool for achieving a high photoluminescence outcoupling efficiency of silicon nanocrystals.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation overcoming the finite size effects of thermal conductivity of bulk silicon and silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chaofeng; Xu, Ji; Ge, Wei; Li, Jinghai

    2016-05-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation has been a powerful tool for studying the thermophysical properties of bulk silicon and silicon nanowires. Nevertheless, usually limited by the capacity and capability of computational resources, the traditional longitudinal and transverse simulation sizes are evidently restricted in a narrow range much less than the experimental scales, which seriously hinders the exploration of the thermal properties. In this research, based on a powerful and efficient molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method, the computation of thermal conductivity beyond the known Casimir size limits is realized. The longitudinal dimensions of the simulations significantly exceed the micrometer scale. More importantly, the lateral characteristic sizes are much larger than 10 nanometers, explicitly comparable with the silicon nanowires fabricated and measured experimentally, whereas the traditional simulation size is several nanometers. The powerful virtual experimental measurement provided in our simulations achieves the direct prediction of the thermal conductivity of bulk silicon and real-scale silicon nanowires, and delineates the complete longitudinal size dependence of their thermal conductivities, especially at the elusive mesoscopic scale. Furthermore, the presented measurement paves an exciting and promising way to explore in depth the thermophysical properties of other bulk covalent solids and their low-dimensional structures, such as nanowires and nanosheets.

  20. Amorphous SiOx Nanowires And Aligned Nano-Cakes: The Growth Mechanism And Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ruqeishi, M. S.; Nor, R. M.; Amin, Y. M.; Al-Azri, K.

    2009-06-01

    The growth of SiOx nanostructures nanowires and nano-cakes on Au-coated n-type-Silicon (100) substrate via thermal evaporation were studied. The diameters of the obtained nanowires varied from 20 nm to about 260 nm and 100 nm to several microns in length. Based on SVLS growth mechanism, the yield obtained decreased as the argon flow rate increased. A broad emission band from 290 to 600 nm is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of these nanowires. There are five PL peaks: two blue emission peaks 465 nm (2.67 eV) and 482 nm (2.57 eV) and two green bands centred at 502 nm (2.47 eV) and 506 nm (2.45 eV) and one ultraviolet emission peak at 350 nm (3.54 eV), which may be related to the various oxygen defects and twofold coordinated silicon lone pair centres. Detailed characterizations on the resulting nanostructures were carried out using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  1. Silicon nanowire arrays coupled with cobalt phosphide spheres as low-cost photocathodes for efficient solar hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao-Qing; Fatima Cerqueira, M; Alpuim, Pedro; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the first example of silicon nanowire array photocathodes coupled with hollow spheres of the emerging earth-abundant cobalt phosphide catalysts. Compared to bare silicon nanowire arrays, the hybrid electrodes exhibit significantly improved photoelectrochemical performance toward the solar-driven H2 evolution reaction.

  2. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  3. Numerical investigations into mechanical properties of hexagonal silicon carbon nanowires and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Lowther, John E

    2010-09-01

    Single-crystalline hexagonal faceted silicon carbon nanowires and nanotubes possess simultaneous high strength and failure strain. As long as SiC nanowires or nanotubes are large or thick enough to sustain a single atomic configuration under loading, their mechanical properties are size independent. Surface atoms are firstly forced to move by stretching and then destroy the equilibrium of subsurface atoms. Then, the force in carbon-silicon bonds along the tensile directions becomes larger than that in other bonds and results in elongation by three-times of the former than that of the latter. However, the latter bonds connecting the surface to the subsurface are broken and the wires or tubes are ruptured. For thinner nanowires and nanotubes, the broken bonds don't propagate instantly, but initiate transformation from a wurtzite to a graphitic structure. This structure transformation can strengthen and plasticize SiC nanowires and nanotubes.

  4. Broadband infrared photoluminescence in silicon nanowires with high density stacking faults.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Zhihong; Lu, Xiaoxiang; Su, Zhihua; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Dunwei; Jian, Jie; Lee, Joon Hwan; Wang, Haiyan; Yu, Qingkai; Bao, Jiming

    2015-02-01

    Making silicon an efficient light-emitting material is an important goal of silicon photonics. Here we report the observation of broadband sub-bandgap photoluminescence in silicon nanowires with a high density of stacking faults. The photoluminescence becomes stronger and exhibits a blue shift under higher laser powers. The super-linear dependence on excitation intensity indicates a strong competition between radiative and defect-related non-radiative channels, and the spectral blue shift is ascribed to the band filling effect in the heterostructures of wurtzite silicon and cubic silicon created by stacking faults.

  5. A Highly Responsive Silicon Nanowire/Amplifier MOSFET Hybrid Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Jang, Jaeman; Choi, Bongsik; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Myong Kim, Dong; Hwan Kim, Dae; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a hybrid biosensor comprised of a silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with an amplifier MOSFET to improve the current response of field-effect-transistor (FET)-based biosensors. The hybrid biosensor is fabricated using conventional CMOS technology, which has the potential advantage of high density and low noise performance. The biosensor shows a current response of 5.74 decades per pH for pH detection, which is 2.5 × 105 times larger than that of a single SiNW sensor. In addition, we demonstrate charged polymer detection using the biosensor, with a high current change of 4.5 × 105 with a 500 nM concentration of poly(allylamine hydrochloride). In addition, we demonstrate a wide dynamic range can be obtained by adjusting the liquid gate voltage. We expect that this biosensor will be advantageous and practical for biosensor applications which requires lower noise, high speed, and high density. PMID:26197105

  6. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-27

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  7. Ultrafast Electrical Measurements of Isolated Silicon Nanowires and Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bergren, Matthew R; Kendrick, Chito E; Neale, Nathan R; Redwing, Joan M; Collins, Reuben T; Furtak, Thomas E; Beard, Matthew C

    2014-06-19

    We simultaneously determined the charge carrier mobility and picosecond to nanosecond carrier dynamics of isolated silicon nanowires (Si NWs) and nanocrystals (Si NCs) using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We then compared these results to data measured on bulk c-Si as a function of excitation fluence. We find >1 ns carrier lifetimes in Si NWs that are dominated by surface recombination with surface recombination velocities (SRV) between ∼1100-1700 cm s(-1) depending on process conditions. The Si NCs have markedly different decay dynamics. Initially, free-carriers are produced, but relax within ∼1.5 ps to form bound excitons. Subsequently, the excitons decay with lifetimes >7 ns, similar to free carriers produced in bulk Si. The isolated Si NWs exhibit bulk-like mobilities that decrease with increasing excitation density, while the hot-carrier mobilities in the Si NCs are lower than bulk mobilities and could only be measured within the initial 1.5 ps decay. We discuss the implications of our measurements on the utilization of Si NWs and NCs in macroscopic optoelectronic applications.

  8. Silicon Nanowire Sensors Enable Diagnosis of Patients via Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Shehada, Nisreen; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Pariente, Enrique S; Brönstrup, Gerald; Christiansen, Silke; Johnson, Douglas W; Leja, Marcis; Davies, Michael P A; Liran, Ori; Peled, Nir; Haick, Hossam

    2016-07-26

    Two of the biggest challenges in medicine today are the need to detect diseases in a noninvasive manner and to differentiate between patients using a single diagnostic tool. The current study targets these two challenges by developing a molecularly modified silicon nanowire field effect transistor (SiNW FET) and showing its use in the detection and classification of many disease breathprints (lung cancer, gastric cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The fabricated SiNW FETs are characterized and optimized based on a training set that correlate their sensitivity and selectivity toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) linked with the various disease breathprints. The best sensors obtained in the training set are then examined under real-world clinical conditions, using breath samples from 374 subjects. Analysis of the clinical samples show that the optimized SiNW FETs can detect and discriminate between almost all binary comparisons of the diseases under examination with >80% accuracy. Overall, this approach has the potential to support detection of many diseases in a direct harmless way, which can reassure patients and prevent numerous unpleasant investigations. PMID:27383408

  9. Frequency Domain Detection of Biomolecules using Silicon Nanowire Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gengfeng; Gao, Xuan P. A.; Lieber, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a new protein detection methodology based upon frequency domain electrical measurement using silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) biosensors. The power spectral density of voltage from a current-biased SiNW FET shows 1/f-dependence in frequency domain for measurements of antibody functionalized SiNW devices in buffer solution or in the presence of protein not specific to the antibody receptor. In the presence of protein (antigen) recognized specifically by the antibody-functionalized SiNW FET, the frequency spectrum exhibits a Lorentzian shape with a characteristic frequency of several kHz. Frequency and conventional time domain measurements carried out with the same device as a function of antigen concentration show more than 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity in the frequency domain data. These concentration dependent results together with studies of antibody receptor density effect further address possible origins of the Lorentzian frequency spectrum. Our results show that frequency domain measurements can be used as a complementary approach to conventional time domain measurements for ultra-sensitive electrical detection of proteins and other biomolecules using nanoscale FETs. PMID:20698634

  10. Photonic Torque Microscopy of the Nonconservative Force Field for Optically Trapped Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Irrera, Alessia; Magazzù, Alessandro; Artoni, Pietro; Simpson, Stephen H; Hanna, Simon; Jones, Philip H; Priolo, Francesco; Gucciardi, Pietro Giuseppe; Maragò, Onofrio M

    2016-07-13

    We measure, by photonic torque microscopy, the nonconservative rotational motion arising from the transverse components of the radiation pressure on optically trapped, ultrathin silicon nanowires. Unlike spherical particles, we find that nonconservative effects have a significant influence on the nanowire dynamics in the trap. We show that the extreme shape of the trapped nanowires yields a transverse component of the radiation pressure that results in an orbital rotation of the nanowire about the trap axis. We study the resulting motion as a function of optical power and nanowire length, discussing its size-scaling behavior. These shape-dependent nonconservative effects have implications for optical force calibration and optomechanics with levitated nonspherical particles. PMID:27280642

  11. Electronic transport mechanisms in scaled gate-all-around silicon nanowire transistor arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Clément, N. E-mail: guilhem.larrieu@laas.fr; Han, X. L.; Larrieu, G. E-mail: guilhem.larrieu@laas.fr

    2013-12-23

    Low-frequency noise is used to study the electronic transport in arrays of 14 nm gate length vertical silicon nanowire devices. We demonstrate that, even at such scaling, the electrostatic control of the gate-all-around is sufficient in the sub-threshold voltage region to confine charges in the heart of the wire, and the extremely low noise level is comparable to that of high quality epitaxial layers. Although contact noise can already be a source of poor transistor operation above threshold voltage for few nanowires, nanowire parallelization drastically reduces its impact.

  12. Theoretical study of atomic structure and elastic properties of branched silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Pavel B; Kvashnin, Alexander G; Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Filicheva, Julia A; Avramov, Pavel V; Fedorov, Alexander S; Chernozatonskii, Leonid A

    2010-05-25

    The atomic structure and elastic properties of Y-shaped silicon nanowires of "fork"- and "bough"-types were theoretically studied, and effective Young moduli were calculated using Tersoff interatomic potential. The oscillation of fork Y-type branched nanowires with various branch lengths and diameters was studied. In the final stages of the bending, the formation of new bonds between different parts of the wires was observed. It was found that the stiffness of the nanowires is comparable with the stiffness of Y-shaped carbon nanotubes.

  13. Nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane for continuous fluid transport in micro cooling device

    SciTech Connect

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Cheng, Jim C.

    2013-10-14

    We report an efficient passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of nanowires and micropores. This nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane was created to feed coolant continuously onto the surface of the wick in a micro cooling device to ensure it remains hydrated and in case of dryout, allow for regeneration of the system. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to form micropores followed by hydrothermal growth of nanowires. This study shows a promising approach to address thermal management challenges for next generation electronic devices with absence of external power.

  14. Highly conductive indium nanowires deposited on silicon by dip-pen nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhukhov, Anton; Volodin, Vladimir; Klimenko, Anatoliy; Shcheglov, Dmitriy; Karnaeva, Natalya; Latyshev, Alexander

    2015-04-14

    In this paper, we developed a new dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) method. Using this method, we fabricated conductive nanowires with diameters of 30–50 nm on silicon substrates. To accomplish this, indium was transferred from an atomic force microscopy tip to the surface by applying a potential difference between the tip and substrate. The fabricated indium nanowires were several micrometers in length. Unlike thermal DPN, our DPN method hardly oxidized the indium, producing nanowires with conductivities from 5.7 × 10{sup −3} to 4 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm.

  15. Structural and optical properties of axial silicon-germanium nanowire heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Tsybeskov, L.; Kamins, T. I.; Wu, X.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2015-12-21

    Detailed studies of the structural and optical properties of axial silicon-germanium nanowire heterojunctions show that despite the 4.2% lattice mismatch between Si and Ge they can be grown without a significant density of structural defects. The lattice mismatch induced strain is partially relieved due to spontaneous SiGe intermixing at the heterointerface during growth and lateral expansion of the Ge segment of the nanowire. The mismatch in Ge and Si coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity of Si/Ge nanowire heterojunctions are proposed to be responsible for the thermally induced stress detected under intense laser radiation in photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements.

  16. Tungsten sulfide enhancing solar-driven hydrogen production from silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhipeng; Wang, Chifang; Chen, Zhibo; Meng, Hua; Lv, Cuncai; Chen, Zhongzhong; Han, Ruqu; Zhang, Chi

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten sulfides, including WS2 (crystalline) and WS3 (amorphous), were introduced to silicon nanowires, and both can promote the photoelectrochemical hydrogen production of silicon nanowires. In addition, more enhancement of energy conversion efficiency can be achieved by the loading of WS3, in comparison with loading of WS2. Polarization curves of WS3 and WS2 suggest that WS3 has higher catalytic activity in the hydrogen evolution reaction than WS2, affording higher energy conversion efficiency in silicon nanowires decorated with WS3. The higher electrocatalytic activity of WS3 correlates with the amorphous structure of WS3 and larger surface area of WS3, which result in more active sites in comparison with crystalline WS2.

  17. Porous silicon nanowire arrays decorated by Ag nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, L.; Xu, H. J.; Chan, Y. F.; Sun, X. M.

    2012-02-01

    A large scale and highly ordered Ag nanoparticle-decorated porous silicon nanowire array was fabricated for a uniform and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. The overall process for the proposed structure is simple and reliable with the use of only chemical etching and metal reduction processes. The SERS sensitivity of the novel substrate as low as 10-16 M for rhodamine 6G (R6G) and the Raman enhancement factor as high as 10^14 were obtained. The excellent SERS performances were mainly attributed to the strong local electromagnetic effect which is associated with the formation of large-quantity Ag nanoparticles on porous silicon nanowire array and the existence of semiconductor silicon nanowires. Significantly, the quadratic relation between the logarithmic concentrations and the logarithmic integrated Raman peak intensities provided quantitative detection of R6G. Our results open new possibilities for applying SERS to trace detection of low-concentration biomolecules.

  18. Horizontal Silicon Nanowires with Radial p-n Junctions: A Platform for Unconventional Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Pinion, Christopher W; Christesen, Joseph D; Flynn, Cory J; Celano, Thomas A; Cahoon, James F

    2013-06-20

    The silicon p-n junction is the most successful solar energy technology to date, yet it accounts for a marginal percentage of worldwide energy production. To change the status quo, a disruptive technological breakthrough is needed. In this Perspective, we discuss the potential for complex silicon nanowires to serve as a platform for next-generation photovoltaic devices. We review the synthesis, electrical characteristics, and optical properties of core/shell silicon nanowires that are subwavelength in diameter and contain radial p-n junctions. We highlight the unique features of these nanowires, such as optical antenna effects that concentrate light and intense built-in electric fields that enable ultrafast charge-carrier separation. We advocate a paradigm in which nanowires are arranged in periodic horizontal arrays to form ultrathin devices. Unlike conventional planar silicon, nanowire structures provide the flexibility to incorporate multiple semiconductor, dielectric, and metallic materials in a single system, providing the foundation for a disruptive, unconventional solar energy technology.

  19. Horizontal Silicon Nanowires with Radial p-n Junctions: A Platform for Unconventional Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Pinion, Christopher W; Christesen, Joseph D; Flynn, Cory J; Celano, Thomas A; Cahoon, James F

    2013-06-20

    The silicon p-n junction is the most successful solar energy technology to date, yet it accounts for a marginal percentage of worldwide energy production. To change the status quo, a disruptive technological breakthrough is needed. In this Perspective, we discuss the potential for complex silicon nanowires to serve as a platform for next-generation photovoltaic devices. We review the synthesis, electrical characteristics, and optical properties of core/shell silicon nanowires that are subwavelength in diameter and contain radial p-n junctions. We highlight the unique features of these nanowires, such as optical antenna effects that concentrate light and intense built-in electric fields that enable ultrafast charge-carrier separation. We advocate a paradigm in which nanowires are arranged in periodic horizontal arrays to form ultrathin devices. Unlike conventional planar silicon, nanowire structures provide the flexibility to incorporate multiple semiconductor, dielectric, and metallic materials in a single system, providing the foundation for a disruptive, unconventional solar energy technology. PMID:26283243

  20. Ultrahigh density array of vertically aligned small-molecular organic nanowires on arbitrary substrates.

    PubMed

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years π-conjugated organic semiconductors have emerged as the active material in a number of diverse applications including large-area, low-cost displays, photovoltaics, printable and flexible electronics and organic spin valves. Organics allow (a) low-cost, low-temperature processing and (b) molecular-level design of electronic, optical and spin transport characteristics. Such features are not readily available for mainstream inorganic semiconductors, which have enabled organics to carve a niche in the silicon-dominated electronics market. The first generation of organic-based devices has focused on thin film geometries, grown by physical vapor deposition or solution processing. However, it has been realized that organic nanostructures can be used to enhance performance of above-mentioned applications and significant effort has been invested in exploring methods for organic nanostructure fabrication. A particularly interesting class of organic nanostructures is the one in which vertically oriented organic nanowires, nanorods or nanotubes are organized in a well-regimented, high-density array. Such structures are highly versatile and are ideal morphological architectures for various applications such as chemical sensors, split-dipole nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices with radially heterostructured "core-shell" nanowires, and memory devices with a cross-point geometry. Such architecture is generally realized by a template-directed approach. In the past this method has been used to grow metal and inorganic semiconductor nanowire arrays. More recently π-conjugated polymer nanowires have been grown within nanoporous templates. However, these approaches have had limited success in growing nanowires of technologically important π-conjugated small molecular weight organics, such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), rubrene and methanofullerenes, which are commonly used in diverse areas including organic displays, photovoltaics, thin film transistors

  1. Ultrahigh Density Array of Vertically Aligned Small-molecular Organic Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years π-conjugated organic semiconductors have emerged as the active material in a number of diverse applications including large-area, low-cost displays, photovoltaics, printable and flexible electronics and organic spin valves. Organics allow (a) low-cost, low-temperature processing and (b) molecular-level design of electronic, optical and spin transport characteristics. Such features are not readily available for mainstream inorganic semiconductors, which have enabled organics to carve a niche in the silicon-dominated electronics market. The first generation of organic-based devices has focused on thin film geometries, grown by physical vapor deposition or solution processing. However, it has been realized that organic nanostructures can be used to enhance performance of above-mentioned applications and significant effort has been invested in exploring methods for organic nanostructure fabrication. A particularly interesting class of organic nanostructures is the one in which vertically oriented organic nanowires, nanorods or nanotubes are organized in a well-regimented, high-density array. Such structures are highly versatile and are ideal morphological architectures for various applications such as chemical sensors, split-dipole nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices with radially heterostructured "core-shell" nanowires, and memory devices with a cross-point geometry. Such architecture is generally realized by a template-directed approach. In the past this method has been used to grow metal and inorganic semiconductor nanowire arrays. More recently π-conjugated polymer nanowires have been grown within nanoporous templates. However, these approaches have had limited success in growing nanowires of technologically important π-conjugated small molecular weight organics, such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), rubrene and methanofullerenes, which are commonly used in diverse areas including organic displays, photovoltaics, thin film transistors

  2. Application of Polyethylenimine-Grafted Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Gene Transfection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Pan, Jingjing; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Polyplexes are one of the most important and promising approaches to deliver exogenous DNA into cells. However, it is severely restricted by the aggregation of polyplexes. Surface-tethered polyplexes can inhibit the aggregation effect and increase the local concentrations of DNA, exhibiting an excellent potential in gene transfection. Since silicon nanowires have the ability to penetrate the cell membrane, branched polyethylenimine (bPEI)-grafted silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWAs) can stimulate gene transfection to a great extent. Herein, the method for the preparation of bPEI-grafted SiNWAs, as an example of surface-tethered polyplexes, is introduced in detail. PMID:27436326

  3. Silicon-Nanowire Based Lithium Ion Batteries for Vehicles With Double the Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Ionel; Cohen, Yehonathan

    2015-03-31

    Amprius researched and developed silicon nanowire anodes. Amprius then built and delivered high-energy lithium-ion cells that met the project’s specific energy goal and exceeded the project’s energy density goal. But Amprius’ cells did not meet the project’s cycle life goal, suggesting additional manufacturing process development is required. With DOE support, Amprius developed a new anode material, silicon, and a new anode structure, nanowire. During the project, Amprius also began to develop a new multi-step manufacturing process that does not involve traditional anode production processes (e.g. mixing, drying and calendaring).

  4. Highly polarized light emission by isotropic quantum dots integrated with magnetically aligned segmented nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Uran, Can; Erdem, Talha; Guzelturk, Burak; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-10-06

    In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept system for generating highly polarized light from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) coupled with magnetically aligned segmented Au/Ni/Au nanowires (NWs). Optical characterizations reveal that the optimized QD-NW coupled structures emit highly polarized light with an s-to p-polarization (s/p) contrast as high as 15:1 corresponding to a degree of polarization of 0.88. These experimental results are supported by the finite-difference time-domain simulations, which demonstrate the interplay between the inter-NW distance and the degree of polarization.

  5. Microstructures of the silicon carbide nanowires obtained by annealing the mechanically-alloyed amorphous powders

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengfei Li, Xinli

    2015-07-15

    Silicon, graphite and boron nitride powders were mechanically alloyed for 40 h in argon. The as-milled powders were annealed at 1700 °C in nitrogen for 30 min. The annealed powders are covered by a thick layer of gray–green SiC nanowires, which are 300 nm to 1000 nm in diameter and several hundred microns in length. Trace iron in the raw powders acts as a catalyst, promoting the V–L–S process. It follows that the actual substances contributing to the growth of the SiC nanowires may be silicon, graphite and the metal impurities in the raw powders. The results from HRTEM and XRD reveal that the products contain both straight α/β-SiC nanowires and nodular α/β-SiC nanochains. It is interestingly found that 6H–SiC coexists with 3C–SiC in one nodular nanowire. This novel structure may introduce periodic potential field along the longitudinal direction of the nanowires, and may find applications in the highly integrated optoelectronic devices. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • SiC nanowires were prepared by annealing the mechanically alloyed amorphous powders. • SiC nanowires are 300 nm to 1000 nm in diameter and several hundred microns in length. • The products contain both straight α/β-SiC nanowires and nodular α/β-SiC nanochains. • Trace Fe in the raw powders acts as a catalyst, promoting the V–L–S process. • 6H–SiC coexists with 3C–SiC in one nodular SiC nanowire.

  6. Top-Down Nanofabrication and Characterization of 20 nm Silicon Nanowires for Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    M Nuzaihan, M N; Hashim, U; Md Arshad, M K; Rahim Ruslinda, A; Rahman, S F A; Fathil, M F M; Ismail, Mohd H

    2016-01-01

    A top-down nanofabrication approach is used to develop silicon nanowires from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers and involves direct-write electron beam lithography (EBL), inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) and a size reduction process. To achieve nanometer scale size, the crucial factors contributing to the EBL and size reduction processes are highlighted. The resulting silicon nanowires, which are 20 nm in width and 30 nm in height (with a triangular shape) and have a straight structure over the length of 400 μm, are fabricated precisely at the designed location on the device. The device is applied in biomolecule detection based on the changes in drain current (Ids), electrical resistance and conductance of the silicon nanowires upon hybridization to complementary target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In this context, the scaled-down device exhibited superior performances in terms of good specificity and high sensitivity, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 fM, enables for efficient label-free, direct and higher-accuracy DNA molecules detection. Thus, this silicon nanowire can be used as an improved transducer and serves as novel biosensor for future biomedical diagnostic applications. PMID:27022732

  7. Top-Down Nanofabrication and Characterization of 20 nm Silicon Nanowires for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    M. N, M. Nuzaihan; Hashim, U.; Md Arshad, M. K.; Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Rahman, S. F. A.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Ismail, Mohd. H.

    2016-01-01

    A top-down nanofabrication approach is used to develop silicon nanowires from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers and involves direct-write electron beam lithography (EBL), inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) and a size reduction process. To achieve nanometer scale size, the crucial factors contributing to the EBL and size reduction processes are highlighted. The resulting silicon nanowires, which are 20 nm in width and 30 nm in height (with a triangular shape) and have a straight structure over the length of 400 μm, are fabricated precisely at the designed location on the device. The device is applied in biomolecule detection based on the changes in drain current (Ids), electrical resistance and conductance of the silicon nanowires upon hybridization to complementary target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In this context, the scaled-down device exhibited superior performances in terms of good specificity and high sensitivity, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 fM, enables for efficient label-free, direct and higher-accuracy DNA molecules detection. Thus, this silicon nanowire can be used as an improved transducer and serves as novel biosensor for future biomedical diagnostic applications. PMID:27022732

  8. Top-Down Nanofabrication and Characterization of 20 nm Silicon Nanowires for Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    M Nuzaihan, M N; Hashim, U; Md Arshad, M K; Rahim Ruslinda, A; Rahman, S F A; Fathil, M F M; Ismail, Mohd H

    2016-01-01

    A top-down nanofabrication approach is used to develop silicon nanowires from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers and involves direct-write electron beam lithography (EBL), inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) and a size reduction process. To achieve nanometer scale size, the crucial factors contributing to the EBL and size reduction processes are highlighted. The resulting silicon nanowires, which are 20 nm in width and 30 nm in height (with a triangular shape) and have a straight structure over the length of 400 μm, are fabricated precisely at the designed location on the device. The device is applied in biomolecule detection based on the changes in drain current (Ids), electrical resistance and conductance of the silicon nanowires upon hybridization to complementary target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In this context, the scaled-down device exhibited superior performances in terms of good specificity and high sensitivity, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 fM, enables for efficient label-free, direct and higher-accuracy DNA molecules detection. Thus, this silicon nanowire can be used as an improved transducer and serves as novel biosensor for future biomedical diagnostic applications.

  9. A Pathway to Type-I Band Alignment in Ge/Si Core-Shell Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongseob; Lee, Jung Hoon; Hong, Ki-Ha

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic band structures of Ge/Si core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) and devise a way to realize the electron quantum well at Ge core atoms with first-principles calculations. We reveal that the electronic band engineering by the quantum confinement and the lattice strain can induce the type-I/II band alignment transition, and the resulting type-I band alignment generates the electron quantum well in Ge/Si CSNWs. We also find that the type-I/II transition in Ge/Si CSNWs is highly related to the direct to indirect band gap transition through the analysis of charge density and band structures. In terms of the quantum confinement, for [100] and [111] directional Ge/Si CSNWs, the type-I/II transition can be obtained by decreasing the diameters, whereas a [110] directional CSNW preserves the type-II band alignment even at diameters as small as 1 nm. By applying a compressive strain on [110] CSNWs, the type-I band alignment can be formed. Our results suggest that Ge/Si CSNWs can have the type-I band alignment characteristics by the band structure engineering, which enables both n-type and p-type quantum-well transistors to be fabricated using Ge/Si CSNWs for high-speed logic applications. PMID:26291223

  10. A silicon carbide nanowire field effect transistor for DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Fradetal, L; Bano, E; Attolini, G; Rossi, F; Stambouli, V

    2016-06-10

    This work reports on the label-free electrical detection of DNA molecules for the first time, using silicon carbide (SiC) as a novel material for the realization of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs). SiC is a promising semiconductor for this application due to its specific characteristics such as chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Non-intentionally n-doped SiC NWs are first grown using a bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, leading to the NWs exhibiting needle-shaped morphology, with a length of approximately 2 μm and a diameter ranging from 25 to 60 nm. Then, the SiC NWFETs are fabricated and functionalized with DNA molecule probes via covalent coupling using an amino-terminated organosilane. The drain current versus drain voltage (I d-V d) characteristics obtained after the DNA grafting and hybridization are reported from the comparative and simultaneous measurements carried out on the SiC NWFETs, used either as sensors or references. As a representative result, the current of the sensor is lowered by 22% after probe DNA grafting and by 7% after target DNA hybridization, while the current of the reference does not vary by more than ±0.6%. The current decrease confirms the field effect induced by the negative charges of the DNA molecules. Moreover, the selectivity, reproducibility, reversibility and stability of the studied devices are emphasized by de-hybridization, non-complementary hybridization and re-hybridization experiments. This first proof of concept opens the way for future developments using SiC-NW-based sensors.

  11. A silicon carbide nanowire field effect transistor for DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Fradetal, L; Bano, E; Attolini, G; Rossi, F; Stambouli, V

    2016-06-10

    This work reports on the label-free electrical detection of DNA molecules for the first time, using silicon carbide (SiC) as a novel material for the realization of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs). SiC is a promising semiconductor for this application due to its specific characteristics such as chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Non-intentionally n-doped SiC NWs are first grown using a bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, leading to the NWs exhibiting needle-shaped morphology, with a length of approximately 2 μm and a diameter ranging from 25 to 60 nm. Then, the SiC NWFETs are fabricated and functionalized with DNA molecule probes via covalent coupling using an amino-terminated organosilane. The drain current versus drain voltage (I d-V d) characteristics obtained after the DNA grafting and hybridization are reported from the comparative and simultaneous measurements carried out on the SiC NWFETs, used either as sensors or references. As a representative result, the current of the sensor is lowered by 22% after probe DNA grafting and by 7% after target DNA hybridization, while the current of the reference does not vary by more than ±0.6%. The current decrease confirms the field effect induced by the negative charges of the DNA molecules. Moreover, the selectivity, reproducibility, reversibility and stability of the studied devices are emphasized by de-hybridization, non-complementary hybridization and re-hybridization experiments. This first proof of concept opens the way for future developments using SiC-NW-based sensors. PMID:27120971

  12. A silicon carbide nanowire field effect transistor for DNA detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradetal, L.; Bano, E.; Attolini, G.; Rossi, F.; Stambouli, V.

    2016-06-01

    This work reports on the label-free electrical detection of DNA molecules for the first time, using silicon carbide (SiC) as a novel material for the realization of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs). SiC is a promising semiconductor for this application due to its specific characteristics such as chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Non-intentionally n-doped SiC NWs are first grown using a bottom-up vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism, leading to the NWs exhibiting needle-shaped morphology, with a length of approximately 2 μm and a diameter ranging from 25 to 60 nm. Then, the SiC NWFETs are fabricated and functionalized with DNA molecule probes via covalent coupling using an amino-terminated organosilane. The drain current versus drain voltage (I d–V d) characteristics obtained after the DNA grafting and hybridization are reported from the comparative and simultaneous measurements carried out on the SiC NWFETs, used either as sensors or references. As a representative result, the current of the sensor is lowered by 22% after probe DNA grafting and by 7% after target DNA hybridization, while the current of the reference does not vary by more than ±0.6%. The current decrease confirms the field effect induced by the negative charges of the DNA molecules. Moreover, the selectivity, reproducibility, reversibility and stability of the studied devices are emphasized by de-hybridization, non-complementary hybridization and re-hybridization experiments. This first proof of concept opens the way for future developments using SiC-NW-based sensors.

  13. Polymer-free Vertical Transfer of Silicon Nanowires and their Application to Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Jung; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Sang Eon; Kim, Wanjung; Kim, Hwan Jin; Choi, Dae-Geun; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-11-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) for use as lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode materials have been studied for their one-dimensional (1D) properties and ability to accommodate large volume changes and avoid rapid capacity fading during cycling. Although the vertical transfer of SiNWs from their original substrate onto a conducting electrode is very important, to date, there has been no report of a direct integration method without polymer binders. Here, we propose for the first time a vertical transfer method for SiNWs grown on a Si substrate directly to the current-collecting electrode without using a polymer adhesive for the use as a binder-free LIB anode. The vertical SiNWs produced using a low-cost wafer-scale metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) process have been successfully transferred directly to a copper electrode coated with a thin Ag layer by using a simple hot pressing method. When evaluated as an LIB anode without using conventional polymeric binder and a conducting additive, the transferred vertically aligned SiNWs showed a high specific capacity (≈2150 mAh g(-1) ) and excellent rate performance. It is believed that the anode-manufacturing process is simple and fast, thus enabling a large-scale production that is of low-cost, broadly applicable, and provides new avenues for the rational engineering of Si-based electrode materials with enhanced power density and conductivity.

  14. Polymer-free Vertical Transfer of Silicon Nanowires and their Application to Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Jung; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Sang Eon; Kim, Wanjung; Kim, Hwan Jin; Choi, Dae-Geun; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-11-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) for use as lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode materials have been studied for their one-dimensional (1D) properties and ability to accommodate large volume changes and avoid rapid capacity fading during cycling. Although the vertical transfer of SiNWs from their original substrate onto a conducting electrode is very important, to date, there has been no report of a direct integration method without polymer binders. Here, we propose for the first time a vertical transfer method for SiNWs grown on a Si substrate directly to the current-collecting electrode without using a polymer adhesive for the use as a binder-free LIB anode. The vertical SiNWs produced using a low-cost wafer-scale metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) process have been successfully transferred directly to a copper electrode coated with a thin Ag layer by using a simple hot pressing method. When evaluated as an LIB anode without using conventional polymeric binder and a conducting additive, the transferred vertically aligned SiNWs showed a high specific capacity (≈2150 mAh g(-1) ) and excellent rate performance. It is believed that the anode-manufacturing process is simple and fast, thus enabling a large-scale production that is of low-cost, broadly applicable, and provides new avenues for the rational engineering of Si-based electrode materials with enhanced power density and conductivity. PMID:24039099

  15. In-plane epitaxial growth of silicon nanowires and junction formation on Si(100) substrates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linwei; Xu, Mingkun; Xu, Jie; Xue, Zhaoguo; Fan, Zheng; Picardi, Gennaro; Fortuna, Franck; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2014-11-12

    Growing self-assembled silicon nanowires (SiNWs) into precise locations represents a critical capability to scale up SiNW-based functionalities. We here report a novel epitaxy growth phenomenon and strategy to fabricate orderly arrays of self-aligned in-plane SiNWs on Si(100) substrates following exactly the underlying crystallographic orientations. We observe also a rich set of distinctive growth dynamics/modes that lead to remarkably different morphologies of epitaxially grown SiNWs/or grains under variant growth balance conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy cross-section analysis confirms a coherent epitaxy (or partial epitaxy) interface between the in-plane SiNWs and the Si(100) substrate, while conductive atomic force microscopy characterization reveals that electrically rectifying p-n junctions are formed between the p-type doped in-plane SiNWs and the n-type c-Si(100) substrate. This in-plane epitaxy growth could provide an effective means to define nanoscale junction and doping profiles, providing a basis for exploring novel nanoelectronics.

  16. Large current difference in Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array with functionalization of peptides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA) was fabricated using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches by chemical vapor deposition and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process for biomolecule sensing. To verify the feasibility for the detection of biomolecules, Au-coated VSNEA was functionalized using peptides having a fluorescent probe. Cyclic voltammograms of the peptide-functionalized Au-coated VSNEA show a steady-state electrochemical current behavior. Because of the critically small dimension and vertically aligned nature of VSNEA, the current density of Au-coated VSNEA was dramatically higher than that of Au film electrodes. Au-coated VSNEA further showed a large current difference with and without peptides that was nine times more than that of Au film electrodes. These results indicate that Au-coated VSENA is highly effective device to detect peptides compared to conventional thin-film electrodes. Au-coated VSNEA can also be used as a divergent biosensor platform in many applications. PMID:24279451

  17. Defect level characterization of silicon nanowire arrays: Towards novel experimental paradigms

    SciTech Connect

    Carapezzi, Stefania; Castaldini, Antonio; Cavallini, Anna

    2014-02-21

    The huge amount of knowledge, and infrastructures, brought by silicon (Si) technology, make Si Nanowires (NWs) an ideal choice for nano-electronic Si-based devices. This, in turn, challenges the scientific research to adapt the technical and theoretical paradigms, at the base of established experimental techniques, in order to probe the properties of these systems. Metal-assisted wet-Chemical Etching (MaCE) [1, 2] is a promising fast, easy and cheap method to grow high aspect-ratio aligned Si NWs. Further, contrary to other fabrication methods, this method avoids the possible detrimental effects related to Au diffusion into NWs. We investigated the bandgap level diagram of MaCE Si NW arrays, phosphorous-doped, by means of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy. The presence of both shallow and deep levels has been detected. The results have been examined in the light of the specificity of the MaCE growth. The study of the electronic levels in Si NWs is, of course, of capital importance in view of the integration of Si NW arrays as active layers in actual devices.

  18. Large current difference in Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array with functionalization of peptides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ilsoo; Kim, So-Eun; Han, Sanghun; Kim, Hyungsuk; Lee, Jaehyung; Jeong, Du-Won; Kim, Ju-Jin; Lim, Yong-Beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-11-26

    Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA) was fabricated using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches by chemical vapor deposition and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process for biomolecule sensing. To verify the feasibility for the detection of biomolecules, Au-coated VSNEA was functionalized using peptides having a fluorescent probe. Cyclic voltammograms of the peptide-functionalized Au-coated VSNEA show a steady-state electrochemical current behavior. Because of the critically small dimension and vertically aligned nature of VSNEA, the current density of Au-coated VSNEA was dramatically higher than that of Au film electrodes. Au-coated VSNEA further showed a large current difference with and without peptides that was nine times more than that of Au film electrodes. These results indicate that Au-coated VSENA is highly effective device to detect peptides compared to conventional thin-film electrodes. Au-coated VSNEA can also be used as a divergent biosensor platform in many applications.

  19. Room temperature-synthesized vertically aligned InSb nanowires: electrical transport and field emission characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned single-crystal InSb nanowires were synthesized via the electrochemical method at room temperature. The characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectrum revealed that in the syntheses of InSb nanowires, energy bandgap shifts towards the short wavelength with the occurrence of an electron accumulation layer. The current–voltage curve, based on the metal–semiconductor–metal model, showed a high electron carrier concentration of 2.0 × 1017 cm−3 and a high electron mobility of 446.42 cm2 V−1 s−1. Additionally, the high carrier concentration of the InSb semiconductor with the surface accumulation layer induced a downward band bending effect that reduces the electron tunneling barrier. Consequently, the InSb nanowires exhibit significant field emission properties with an extremely low turn-on field of 1.84 V μm−1 and an estimative threshold field of 3.36 V μm−1. PMID:23399075

  20. Vertically aligned GaAs nanowires on graphite and few-layer graphene: generic model and epitaxial growth.

    PubMed

    Munshi, A Mazid; Dheeraj, Dasa L; Fauske, Vidar T; Kim, Dong-Chul; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Weman, Helge

    2012-09-12

    By utilizing the reduced contact area of nanowires, we show that epitaxial growth of a broad range of semiconductors on graphene can in principle be achieved. A generic atomic model is presented which describes the epitaxial growth configurations applicable to all conventional semiconductor materials. The model is experimentally verified by demonstrating the growth of vertically aligned GaAs nanowires on graphite and few-layer graphene by the self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid technique using molecular beam epitaxy. A two-temperature growth strategy was used to increase the nanowire density. Due to the self-catalyzed growth technique used, the nanowires were found to have a regular hexagonal cross-sectional shape, and are uniform in length and diameter. Electron microscopy studies reveal an epitaxial relationship of the grown nanowires with the underlying graphitic substrates. Two relative orientations of the nanowire side-facets were observed, which is well explained by the proposed atomic model. A prototype of a single GaAs nanowire photodetector demonstrates a high-quality material. With GaAs being a model system, as well as a very useful material for various optoelectronic applications, we anticipate this particular GaAs nanowire/graphene hybrid to be promising for flexible and low-cost solar cells.

  1. Wafer-scale high-throughput ordered growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo; Guo, Rui; Yuan, Dajun; Das, Suman; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-09-01

    This article presents an effective approach for patterned growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with high throughput and low cost at wafer scale without using cleanroom technology. Periodic hole patterns are generated using laser interference lithography on substrates coated with the photoresist SU-8. ZnO NWs are selectively grown through the holes via a low-temperature hydrothermal method without using a catalyst and with a superior control over orientation, location/density, and as-synthesized morphology. The development of textured ZnO seed layers for replacing single crystalline GaN and ZnO substrates extends the large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays on substrates of other materials, such as polymers, Si, and glass. This combined approach demonstrates a novel method of manufacturing large-scale patterned one-dimensional nanostructures on various substrates for applications in energy harvesting, sensing, optoelectronics, and electronic devices.

  2. Carbon-assisted growth and high visible-light optical reflectivity of amorphous silicon oxynitride nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Large amounts of amorphous silicon oxynitride nanowires have been synthesized on silicon wafer through carbon-assisted vapor-solid growth avoiding the contamination from metallic catalysts. These nanowires have the length of up to 100 μm, with a diameter ranging from 50 to 150 nm. Around 3-nm-sized nanostructures are observed to be homogeneously distributed within a nanowire cross-section matrix. The unique configuration might determine the growth of ternary amorphous structure and its special splitting behavior. Optical properties of the nanowires have also been investigated. The obtained nanowires were attractive for their exceptional whiteness, perceived brightness, and optical brilliance. These nanowires display greatly enhanced reflection over the whole visible wavelength, with more than 80% of light reflected on most of the wavelength ranging from 400 to 700 nm and the lowest reflectivity exceeding 70%, exhibiting performance superior to that of the reported white beetle. Intense visible photoluminescence is also observed over a broad spectrum ranging from 320 to 500 nm with two shoulders centered at around 444 and 468 nm, respectively. PMID:21787429

  3. Random telegraph signal and spin characteristics of the gate-all-around poly-silicon nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tsung-Han; Li, Yan-Ting; Hu, Shu-Fen E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com

    2014-11-07

    An arsenic (As)-doped poly-silicon nanowire gate-all-around transistor fabricated using standard semiconductor methods was used to measure the Coulomb blockade effect by applying a tunable gate voltage. Two-level trapping states due to the random telegraph signal of fluctuating drain current were observed in the silicon transport channel. Under high magnetic fields, the superposition points of differential conductance revealed weak 2-electron singlet-triplet splitting states of the arsenic magnetic impurity. The weak spin-orbital coupling suggests that the electron-spin-polarization in the As-doped silicon nanowire and the two-level trapping state coexisted in the Coulomb blockade oscillations. These characteristics indicate that a few arsenic donors strongly affect the quantum behavior of the poly-silicon material.

  4. 15% Power Conversion Efficiency from a Gated Nanotube/Silicon Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petterson, Maureen K.; Lemaitre, Maxime G.; Shen, Yu; Wadhwa, Pooja; Hou, Jie; Vasilyeva, Svetlana V.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Rinzler, Andrew G.

    2015-03-01

    Despite their enhanced light trapping ability the performance of silicon nanowire array solar cells have, been stagnant with power conversion efficiencies barely breaking 10%. The problem is understood to be the consequence of a high photo-carrier recombination at the large surface area of the Si nanowire sidewalls. Here, by exploiting 1) electronic gating via an ionic liquid electrolyte to induce inversion in the n-type Si nanowires and 2) using a layer of single wall carbon nanotubes engineered to contact each nanowire tip and extract the minority carriers, we demonstrate silicon nanowire array solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 15%. Our results allow for discrimination between the two principle means of avoiding front surface recombination: surface passivation and the use of local fields. A deleterious electrochemical reaction of the silicon due to the electrolyte gating is shown to be caused by oxygen/water entrained in the ionic liquid electrolyte. While encapsulation can avoid the issue a non-encapsulation based solution is also described. We gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under ECCS-1232018.

  5. Probing photo-carrier collection efficiencies of individual silicon nanowire diodes on a wafer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, S. W.; Brönstrup, G.; Shalev, G.; Srivastava, S. K.; Bashouti, M. Y.; Döhler, G. H.; Christiansen, S. H.

    2014-06-01

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) diodes are promising candidates for the integration into various opto-electronic device concepts for e.g. sensing or solar energy conversion. Individual SiNW p-n diodes have intensively been studied, but to date an assessment of their device performance once integrated on a silicon substrate has not been made. We show that using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a nano-manipulator and an optical fiber feed-through for tunable (wavelength, power using a tunable laser source) sample illumination, the dark and illuminated current-voltage (I-V) curve of individual SiNW diodes on the substrate wafer can be measured. Surprisingly, the I-V-curve of the serially coupled system composed of SiNW/wafers is accurately described by an equivalent circuit model of a single diode and diode parameters like series and shunting resistivity, diode ideality factor and photocurrent can be retrieved from a fit. We show that the photo-carrier collection efficiency (PCE) of the integrated diode illuminated with variable wavelength and intensity light directly gives insight into the quality of the device design at the nanoscale. We find that the PCE decreases for high light intensities and photocurrent densities, due to the fact that considerable amounts of photo-excited carriers generated within the substrate lead to a decrease in shunting resistivity of the SiNW diode and deteriorate its rectification. The PCE decreases systematically for smaller wavelengths of visible light, showing the possibility of monitoring the effectiveness of the SiNW device surface passivation using the shown measurement technique. The integrated device was pre-characterized using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), TCAD simulations and electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements to validate the properties of the characterized material at the single SiNW diode level.Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) diodes are promising candidates for

  6. Formation of silicon nanowire packed films from metallurgical-grade silicon powder using a two-step metal-assisted chemical etching method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use a two-step metal-assisted chemical etching method to produce films of silicon nanowires shaped in micrograins from metallurgical-grade polycrystalline silicon powder. The first step is an electroless plating process where the powder was dipped for few minutes in an aqueous solution of silver nitrite and hydrofluoric acid to permit Ag plating of the Si micrograins. During the second step, corresponding to silicon dissolution, we add a small quantity of hydrogen peroxide to the plating solution and we leave the samples to be etched for three various duration (30, 60, and 90 min). We try elucidating the mechanisms leading to the formation of silver clusters and silicon nanowires obtained at the end of the silver plating step and the silver-assisted silicon dissolution step, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that the processed Si micrograins were covered with densely packed films of self-organized silicon nanowires. Some of these nanowires stand vertically, and some others tilt to the silicon micrograin facets. The thickness of the nanowire films increases from 0.2 to 10 μm with increasing etching time. Based on SEM characterizations, laser scattering estimations, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Raman spectroscopy, we present a correlative study dealing with the effect of the silver-assisted etching process on the morphological and structural properties of the processed silicon nanowire films. PMID:25349554

  7. Formation of silicon nanowire packed films from metallurgical-grade silicon powder using a two-step metal-assisted chemical etching method.

    PubMed

    Ouertani, Rachid; Hamdi, Abderrahmen; Amri, Chohdi; Khalifa, Marouan; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use a two-step metal-assisted chemical etching method to produce films of silicon nanowires shaped in micrograins from metallurgical-grade polycrystalline silicon powder. The first step is an electroless plating process where the powder was dipped for few minutes in an aqueous solution of silver nitrite and hydrofluoric acid to permit Ag plating of the Si micrograins. During the second step, corresponding to silicon dissolution, we add a small quantity of hydrogen peroxide to the plating solution and we leave the samples to be etched for three various duration (30, 60, and 90 min). We try elucidating the mechanisms leading to the formation of silver clusters and silicon nanowires obtained at the end of the silver plating step and the silver-assisted silicon dissolution step, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that the processed Si micrograins were covered with densely packed films of self-organized silicon nanowires. Some of these nanowires stand vertically, and some others tilt to the silicon micrograin facets. The thickness of the nanowire films increases from 0.2 to 10 μm with increasing etching time. Based on SEM characterizations, laser scattering estimations, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Raman spectroscopy, we present a correlative study dealing with the effect of the silver-assisted etching process on the morphological and structural properties of the processed silicon nanowire films.

  8. Alignment of human cardiomyocytes on laser patterned biphasic core/shell nanowire assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Karin; Lee, Juseok; Haidar, Ayman; Martinez Miró, Marina; Akkan, Cagri Kaan; Veith, Michael; Cenk Aktas, Oral; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim

    2014-12-01

    The management of end stage heart failure patients is only possible by heart transplantation or by the implantation of artificial hearts as a bridge for later transplantation. However, these therapeutic strategies are limited by a lack of donor hearts and by the associated complications, such as coagulation and infection, due to the used artificial mechanical circulatory assist devices. Therefore, new strategies for myocardial regenerative approaches are under extensive research to produce contractile myocardial tissue in the future to replace non-contractile myocardial ischemic and scarred tissue. Different approaches, such as cell transplantation, have been studied intensively. Although successful approaches have been observed, there are still limitations to the application. It is envisaged that myocardial tissue engineering can be used to help replace infarcted non-contractile tissue. The developed tissue should later mimic the aligned fibrillar structure of the extracellular matrix and provide important guidance cues for the survival, function and the needed orientation of cardiomyocytes. Nanostructured surfaces have been tested to provide a guided direction that cells can follow. In the present study, the cellular adhesion/alignment of human cardiomyocytes and the biocompatibility have been investigated after cultivation on different laser-patterned nanowires compared with unmodified nanowires. As a result, the nanostructured surfaces possessed good biocompatibility before and after laser modification. The laser-induced scalability of the pattern enabled the growth and orientation of the adhered myocardial tissue. Such approaches may be used to modify the surface of potential scaffolds to develop myocardial contractile tissue in the future.

  9. A comprehensive study of thermoelectric and transport properties of β-silicon carbide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Valentín, L. A.; Betancourt, J.; Fonseca, L. F.; Pettes, M. T.; Shi, L.; Soszyński, M.; Huczko, A.

    2013-11-14

    The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities of individual β-silicon carbide nanowires produced by combustion in a calorimetric bomb were studied using a suspended micro-resistance thermometry device that allows four-point probe measurements to be conducted on each nanowire. Additionally, crystal structure and growth direction for each measured nanowire was directly obtained by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The Fermi level, the carrier concentration, and mobility of each nanostructure were determined using a combination of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements, energy band structure and transport theory calculations. The temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities of the nanowires was explained in terms of contributions from boundary, impurity, and defect scattering.

  10. A comprehensive study of thermoelectric and transport properties of β-silicon carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentín, L. A.; Betancourt, J.; Fonseca, L. F.; Pettes, M. T.; Shi, L.; Soszyński, M.; Huczko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities of individual β-silicon carbide nanowires produced by combustion in a calorimetric bomb were studied using a suspended micro-resistance thermometry device that allows four-point probe measurements to be conducted on each nanowire. Additionally, crystal structure and growth direction for each measured nanowire was directly obtained by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The Fermi level, the carrier concentration, and mobility of each nanostructure were determined using a combination of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements, energy band structure and transport theory calculations. The temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities of the nanowires was explained in terms of contributions from boundary, impurity, and defect scattering.

  11. Gold-free GaAs/GaAsSb heterostructure nanowires grown on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Plissard, S.; Wallart, X.; Caroff, P.; Dick, K. A.

    2010-03-22

    Growth of GaAs/GaAsSb heterostructure nanowires on silicon without the need for gold seed particles is presented. A high vertical yield of GaAs nanowires is first obtained, and then GaAs{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} segments are successfully grown axially in these nanowires. GaAsSb can also be integrated as a shell around the GaAs core. Finally, two GaAsSb segments are grown inside a GaAs nanowire and passivated using an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As shell. It is found that no stacking faults or twin planes occur in the GaAsSb segments.

  12. Radial junction amorphous silicon solar cells on PECVD-grown silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linwei; O'Donnell, Benedict; Foldyna, Martin; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2012-05-17

    Constructing radial junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells on top of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) represents a promising approach towards high performance and cost-effective thin film photovoltaics. We here develop an all-in situ strategy to grow SiNWs, via a vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism on top of ZnO-coated glass substrate, in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) reactor. Controlling the distribution of indium catalyst drops allows us to tailor the as-grown SiNW arrays into suitable size and density, which in turn results in both a sufficient light trapping effect and a suitable arrangement allowing for conformal coverage of SiNWs by subsequent a-Si:H layers. We then demonstrate the fabrication of radial junction solar cells and carry on a parametric study designed to shed light on the absorption and quantum efficiency response, as functions of the intrinsic a-Si:H layer thickness and the density of SiNWs. These results lay a solid foundation for future structural optimization and performance ramp-up of the radial junction thin film a-Si:H photovoltaics.

  13. Gold coverage and faceting of MBE grown silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Thomas; Roussel, Luc; Neisius, Thomas; Cabie, Martiane; Gailhanou, Marc; Alfonso, Claude

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the faceting of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown nanowires and the post-growth repartition of the gold used as catalyst. Electron microscopy analysis are performed using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - High Angle Annular Dark Field (STEM-HAADF), electron tomography, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to collect complementary information. The nanowires present very little to no faceting at the very top, very close to the catalyst, suggesting the nanowires grow with a quasi-circular section at the early stages of growth. The nanowires are then found to have an hexagonal and/or dodecagonal section and present a finer ‘saw-tooth’ faceting on the main faces. We find gold clusters spread on the surfaces of the nanowires, but we could not observe any gold inside the nanowires. Furthermore, the gold coverage is uneven on the different facets of the nanowire. The creation of these facets and the gold coverage are two linked phenomena balancing each other.

  14. Probing photo-carrier collection efficiencies of individual silicon nanowire diodes on a wafer substrate.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S W; Brönstrup, G; Shalev, G; Srivastava, S K; Bashouti, M Y; Döhler, G H; Christiansen, S H

    2014-07-21

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) diodes are promising candidates for the integration into various opto-electronic device concepts for e.g. sensing or solar energy conversion. Individual SiNW p-n diodes have intensively been studied, but to date an assessment of their device performance once integrated on a silicon substrate has not been made. We show that using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a nano-manipulator and an optical fiber feed-through for tunable (wavelength, power using a tunable laser source) sample illumination, the dark and illuminated current-voltage (I-V) curve of individual SiNW diodes on the substrate wafer can be measured. Surprisingly, the I-V-curve of the serially coupled system composed of SiNW/wafers is accurately described by an equivalent circuit model of a single diode and diode parameters like series and shunting resistivity, diode ideality factor and photocurrent can be retrieved from a fit. We show that the photo-carrier collection efficiency (PCE) of the integrated diode illuminated with variable wavelength and intensity light directly gives insight into the quality of the device design at the nanoscale. We find that the PCE decreases for high light intensities and photocurrent densities, due to the fact that considerable amounts of photo-excited carriers generated within the substrate lead to a decrease in shunting resistivity of the SiNW diode and deteriorate its rectification. The PCE decreases systematically for smaller wavelengths of visible light, showing the possibility of monitoring the effectiveness of the SiNW device surface passivation using the shown measurement technique. The integrated device was pre-characterized using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), TCAD simulations and electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements to validate the properties of the characterized material at the single SiNW diode level.

  15. Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion of Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2014-10-30

    Silicon (Si) has a very high lithium storage capacity and is being explored as a negative electrode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Si nanowires can exhibit relatively stable performance for many cycles of charging; however, conductive carbon must often be added to the electrode layer to improve the rate capability due to the relatively low electrical conductivity of Si. The added carbon lowers the capacity of the electrode. Here, we show that the rate capability of Si in LIBs can be substantially enhanced by incorporating tin (Sn) into Si nanowires. The solubility of Sn in Si is very low (0.015 at%); yet, Sn used as a seed for supercritical fluid–liquid–solid (SFLS) growth can be trapped in Si nanowires with relatively high concentration (10 at%). Such Sn-containing Si nanowires and no added conductive carbon in the electrode layer, could be cycled in LIBs with high capacity (*1000 mA h g*1 over 100 cycles) at a current density of 2.8 A g*1 (1 C). Capacities exceeding that of graphite could still be reached at cycle rates as high as 2 C. Real-time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that lithiation occurs five times faster in Si nanowires with significant amounts of Sn than in the Si nanowires without Sn, and twice as fast as in nanowires that were coated with carbon.

  16. Selectively grown vertical silicon nanowire p-n+ photodiodes via aqueous electroless etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyonik; Hong, Juree; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Young-Woon; Lee, Taeyoon

    2013-06-01

    A facile method to selectively grow vertically-aligned silicon nanowires (SiNWs) which can inherit the doping concentration from its mother wafer, with controllable length, is demonstrated using the combination of photolithography and aqueous electroless etching. The use of SU-8-2002, a chemically and mechanically robust photoresist (PR) material, provided a high selectivity for the etching reaction on the exposed surface of 1-μm-thick n+ doped p-type (1 0 0) Si substrate, resulting in the fabrication of ˜30-μm-long vertically-aligned SiNW photodiode arrays on the desired locations, while the areas covered with SU-8-2002 remained unreacted. Optical and field emission scanning electron microscope analyses confirmed that SiNWs were selectively grown while retaining the shape of the PR patterns. The electrical and optical measurements of the fabricated p-n+ junction SiNW photodiodes were compared to those of reference planar p-n+ junction Si photodiodes: the current density of the p-n+ junction SiNW photodiodes was approximately 3 times greater than that of the planar counterpart at the forward bias of 5 V, which can be attributed to the high density of defect states on the rough surfaces of the synthesized SiNWs, leading to the increased recombination efficiencies for the injected carriers. In addition, the photoresponse of the p-n+ SiNW photodiode arrays was 3.4 times higher than that of the planar device at -3.5 V due to the increase in the light scattering.

  17. An investigation of the optical properties of disordered silicon nanowire mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Hua; Zhang, Weixia; Chen, Liangliang; Huang, Haoxiang; Yang, Chen; Ruan, Xiulin

    2012-12-01

    Optical reflectance spectra of three disordered silicon nanowire mats with average diameters of 40, 60, and 80 nm are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The total hemispherical reflectance spectra from 200 to 1600 nm wavelength are first measured. All three samples exhibit reflectance about 15% to 20% within the ultraviolet band. As the wavelength becomes longer, the reflectance will first increase to around 50% and then decrease to below 20%. Such reflectance spectra are attributed to the combined effect of silicon dielectric function, the nanowire geometry, and the volume fraction of the mats. An analytical method based on Mie scattering theory and two-flux model is proposed to predict the reflectance spectra of the NW mats using only the physical quantities including dielectric function and structural parameters of the nanowire mats. The experimental reflectance spectra can be well reproduced by this method.

  18. Improved photoluminescence and sensing stability of porous silicon nanowires by surface passivation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; He, Haiping; Sun, Luwei; Ye, Zhizhen

    2014-01-21

    Core-shell structured silicon nanowires (Si NWs) were obtained by coating Si NWs with an HfO2 layer. Enhanced photoluminescence (PL) and a slightly decreased PL lifetime are achieved by HfO2 coating. Furthermore, the sensing stability is strongly improved. The improvement of PL properties is interpreted in terms of surface passivation and the Purcell effect.

  19. The effect of the electron-phonon coupling on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wenhui; Xiong, Bangguo; Zhang, Wenxing; Feng, Ji; Wang, Enge

    2012-07-25

    The thermal conductivity of free-standing silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with diameters from 1-3 nm has been studied by using the one-dimensional Boltzmann's transport equation. Our model explicitly accounts for the Umklapp scattering process and electron-phonon coupling effects in the calculation of the phonon scattering rates. The role of the electron-phonon coupling in the heat transport is relatively small for large silicon nanowires. It is found that the effect of the electron-phonon coupling on the thermal conduction is enhanced as the diameter of the silicon nanowires decreases. Electrons in the conduction band scatter low-energy phonons effectively where surface modes dominate, resulting in a smaller thermal conductivity. Neglecting the electron-phonon coupling leads to overestimation of the thermal transport for ultra-thin SiNWs. The detailed study of the phonon density of states from the surface atoms and central atoms shows a better understanding of the nontrivial size dependence of the heat transport in silicon nanowire.

  20. Gamma ray irradiated silicon nanowires: An effective model to investigate defects at the interface of Si/SiOx

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Kui; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Liangbin; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Shao, Mingwang E-mail: xuegi@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoliang E-mail: xuegi@nju.edu.cn Xue, Gi E-mail: xuegi@nju.edu.cn

    2014-01-20

    The effect of gamma ray irradiation on silicon nanowires was investigated. Here, an additional defect emerged in the gamma-ray-irradiated silicon nanowires and was confirmed with electron spin resonance spectra. {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that irradiation doses had influence on the Q{sup 4} unit structure. This phenomenon indicated that the unique core/shell structure of silicon nanowires might contribute to induce metastable defects under gamma ray irradiation, which served as a satisfactory model to investigate defects at the interface of Si/SiOx.

  1. Highly organised and dense vertical silicon nanowire arrays grown in porous alumina template on <100> silicon wafers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, nanoimprint lithography combined with standard anodization etching is used to make perfectly organised triangular arrays of vertical cylindrical alumina nanopores onto standard <100>−oriented silicon wafers. Both the pore diameter and the period of alumina porous array are well controlled and can be tuned: the periods vary from 80 to 460 nm, and the diameters vary from 15 nm to any required diameter. These porous thin layers are then successfully used as templates for the guided epitaxial growth of organised mono-crystalline silicon nanowire arrays in a chemical vapour deposition chamber. We report the densities of silicon nanowires up to 9 × 109 cm−2 organised in highly regular arrays with excellent diameter distribution. All process steps are demonstrated on surfaces up to 2 × 2 cm2. Specific emphasis was made to select techniques compatible with microelectronic fabrication standards, adaptable to large surface samples and with a reasonable cost. Achievements made in the quality of the porous alumina array, therefore on the silicon nanowire array, widen the number of potential applications for this technology, such as optical detectors or biological sensors. PMID:23773702

  2. High throughput nanofabrication of silicon nanowire and carbon nanotube tips on AFM probes by stencil-deposited catalysts.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Daniel S; Savu, Veronica; Zhu, Xueni; Bu, Ian Y Y; Milne, William I; Brugger, Juergen; Boggild, Peter

    2011-04-13

    A new and versatile technique for the wafer scale nanofabrication of silicon nanowire (SiNW) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) tips on atomic force microscope (AFM) probes is presented. Catalyst material for the SiNW and MWNT growth was deposited on prefabricated AFM probes using aligned wafer scale nanostencil lithography. Individual vertical SiNWs were grown epitaxially by a catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process and MWNTs were grown by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) process on the AFM probes. The AFM probes were tested for imaging micrometers-deep trenches, where they demonstrated a significantly better performance than commercial high aspect ratio tips. Our method demonstrates a reliable and cost-efficient route toward wafer scale manufacturing of SiNW and MWNT AFM probes. PMID:21446752

  3. Characteristics of a silicon nanowires/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction and its effect on the solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhimin; Su, Mingze; Wang, Hao; Gong, Yuting; Xie, Fangyan; Gong, Li; Meng, Hui; Liu, Pengyi; Chen, Huanjun; Xie, Weiguang; Chen, Jian

    2015-03-18

    The interfacial energy-level alignment of a silicon nanowires (SiNWs)/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction is investigated using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The potential difference and electrical distribution in the junction are systematically revealed. When the PEDOT:PSS layer is covered at the bottom of the SiNW array, an abrupt junction is formed at the interface whose characteristics are mainly determined by the uniformly doped Si bulk. When the PEDOT:PSS layer is covered on the top, a hyperabrupt junction localized at the top of the SiNWs forms, and this characteristic depends on the surface properties of the SiNWs. Because the calculation shows that the absorption of light from the SiNWs and the Si bulk are equally important, the bottom-coverage structure leads to better position matching between the depletion and absorption area and therefore shows better photovoltaic performance. The dependence of JSC and VOC on the junction characteristic is discussed.

  4. FDTD modeling of solar energy absorption in silicon branched nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Christin; Lopez, Rene; Redwing, Joan; Melde, Kathleen

    2013-05-01

    Thin film nanostructured photovoltaic cells are increasing in efficiency and decreasing the cost of solar energy. FDTD modeling of branched nanowire 'forests' are shown to have improved optical absorption in the visible and near-IR spectra over nanowire arrays alone, with a factor of 5 enhancement available at 1000 nm. Alternate BNW tree configurations are presented, achieving a maximum absorption of over 95% at 500 nm.

  5. Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays by macroscopic galvanic cell-driven metal catalyzed electroless etching in aerated HF solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Peng, Kui-Qing; Hu, Ya; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-03-01

    Macroscopic galvanic cell-driven metal catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) of silicon in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution is devised to fabricate silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with dissolved oxygen acting as the one and only oxidizing agent. The key aspect of this strategy is the use of a graphite or other noble metal electrode that is electrically coupled with silicon substrate.

  6. Electrocatalytic activity of NiO on silicon nanowires with a carbon shell and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhee; Jung, Cho-Long; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Soomin; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Park, Jeounghee; Jun, Yongseok; Kim, Donghwan

    2016-03-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of a material, it is critical to maximize the effective surface area by directly contacting the electrolyte. Nanowires are a promising building block for catalysts in electrochemical applications because of their large surface area. Nickel oxide (NiO) decoration was achieved by drop-casting a nickel-dissolved solution onto vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell (SiNW/C). Based on the hybridization of the NiO and silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell this study aimed to achieve a synergic effect for the catalytic activity performance. This study demonstrated that the resulting nanomaterial exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and performs well as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The compositions of the materials were examined using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Their micro- and nano-structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical activity toward I-/I3- was examined using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained peak power conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on the NiO@SiNW/C counter electrode was 9.49%, which was greater than that of the DSSC based on the Pt counter electrode.To improve the catalytic activity of a material, it is critical to maximize the effective surface area by directly contacting the electrolyte. Nanowires are a promising building block for catalysts in electrochemical applications because of their large surface area. Nickel oxide (NiO) decoration was achieved by drop-casting a nickel-dissolved solution onto vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell (SiNW/C). Based on the hybridization of the NiO and silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell this study aimed to achieve a synergic effect for the catalytic activity performance. This study demonstrated that the

  7. Fabrication of a Silicon Nanowire on a Bulk Substrate by Use of a Plasma Etching and Total Ionizing Dose Effects on a Gate-All-Around Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, Dong-Il; Han, Jin-Woo; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2016-01-01

    The gate all around transistor is investigated through experiment. The suspended silicon nanowire for the next generation is fabricated on bulk substrate by plasma etching method. The scallop pattern generated by Bosch process is utilized to form a floating silicon nanowire. By combining anisotropic and istropic silicon etch process, the shape of nanowire is accurately controlled. From the suspended nanowire, the gate all around transistor is demonstrated. As the silicon nanowire is fully surrounded by the gate, the device shows excellent electrostatic characteristics.

  8. Hydrophobic recovery in ultrathin PDMS-coated long and short silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganta, D.; Marry, C.; Ma, J.; Sinha, S.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to modify the contact angle (CA) of water on silicon has applications ranging from thermal management of electronics to miniaturized biomedical devices. Here, we report ∼30 ± 1° variation in superhydrophobic CA on silicon nanowires (NWs) coated with few nm of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), using a simple and stable plasma treatment. The variation in CA arises from choosing NWs of different lengths. We characterize the surfaces using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and other techniques. Together with CA available from similar treatment on bulk silicon, it is possible to non-lithographically create regions of diverse CA, from ∼5 to 149 ± 1°.

  9. Exotic reaction front migration and stage structure in lithiated silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifen; Liu, Donghua; Yang, Shize; Tian, Xuezeng; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Wenlong; Wang, Enge; Xu, Zhi; Bai, Xuedong

    2014-08-26

    Nanostructured silicon anodes, which possess extremely high energy density and accommodate large strain without pulverization, have been developed rapidly for high-power lithium ion batteries. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy, the lithiation behavior of silicon nanowires with diameters smaller than 60 nm was investigated. The study demonstrated a direct dependence of the self-limiting lithiation on the pristine diameter. A "punch-through" lithiation process at the core of nanowires with pristine diameters slightly larger than the self-limiting threshold is suggested to occur with the consequent formation of a stage structure. Our work demonstrates the crucial role of mechanical stress and local defects in determining the migration and geometry of the reaction front at the mesoscopic scale. This intriguing finding holds critical significance for the application of silicon nanostructures in high-power lithium ion batteries.

  10. Enhanced lithium ion battery cycling of silicon nanowire anodes by template growth to eliminate silicon underlayer islands.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Picraux, S Tom

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that one-dimensional nanostructures reduce pulverization of silicon (Si)-based anode materials during Li ion cycling because they allow lateral relaxation. However, even with improved designs, Si nanowire-based structures still exhibit limited cycling stability for extended numbers of cycles, with the specific capacity retention with cycling not showing significant improvements over commercial carbon-based anode materials. We have found that one important reason for the lack of long cycling stability can be the presence of milli- and microscale Si islands which typically form under nanowire arrays during their growth. Stress buildup in these Si island underlayers with cycling results in cracking, and the loss of specific capacity for Si nanowire anodes, due to progressive loss of contact with current collectors. We show that the formation of these parasitic Si islands for Si nanowires grown directly on metal current collectors can be avoided by growth through anodized aluminum oxide templates containing a high density of sub-100 nm nanopores. Using this template approach we demonstrate significantly enhanced cycling stability for Si nanowire-based lithium-ion battery anodes, with retentions of more than ~1000 mA·h/g discharge capacity over 1100 cycles.

  11. Effect of biointerfacing linker chemistries on the sensitivity of silicon nanowires for protein detection.

    PubMed

    Dorvel, Brian; Reddy, Bobby; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-10-15

    Point-of-care diagnostics show promise in removing reliance on centralized lab testing facilities and may help increase both the survival rate for infectious diseases as well as monitoring of chronic illnesses. CMOS compatible diagnostic platforms are currently being considered as possible solutions as they can be easily miniaturized and can be cost-effective. Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires are a CMOS-compatible technology which have demonstrated high sensitivities in detecting biological analytes, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA. However, the reported response of nanowires to these analytes has varied widely since several different functionalization protocols have been attempted with little characterization and comparison. Here we report protocols for fabrication and functionalization of silicon nanowires which yield highly stable nanowires in aqueous solutions and limits of detection to ∼1 pg/mL of the model protein used in the study. A thorough characterization was done into optimizing the release of the silicon nanowires using combined dry and wet etch techniques, which yielded nanowires that could be directly compared to increase output statistics. Moreover, a range of different linker chemistries were tried for reacting the primary antibody, and its response to target and nonspecific antigens, with polyethylene glycol based linker BS(PEG)5 providing the best response. Consequently, this chemistry was used to characterize different oxide thicknesses and their responses to the mouse IgG antigen, which with the smallest oxide thickness yielded 0.1-1 pg/mL limits of detection and a dynamic range over 3 orders of magnitude. PMID:24040958

  12. Effect of biointerfacing linker chemistries on the sensitivity of silicon nanowires for protein detection.

    PubMed

    Dorvel, Brian; Reddy, Bobby; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-10-15

    Point-of-care diagnostics show promise in removing reliance on centralized lab testing facilities and may help increase both the survival rate for infectious diseases as well as monitoring of chronic illnesses. CMOS compatible diagnostic platforms are currently being considered as possible solutions as they can be easily miniaturized and can be cost-effective. Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires are a CMOS-compatible technology which have demonstrated high sensitivities in detecting biological analytes, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA. However, the reported response of nanowires to these analytes has varied widely since several different functionalization protocols have been attempted with little characterization and comparison. Here we report protocols for fabrication and functionalization of silicon nanowires which yield highly stable nanowires in aqueous solutions and limits of detection to ∼1 pg/mL of the model protein used in the study. A thorough characterization was done into optimizing the release of the silicon nanowires using combined dry and wet etch techniques, which yielded nanowires that could be directly compared to increase output statistics. Moreover, a range of different linker chemistries were tried for reacting the primary antibody, and its response to target and nonspecific antigens, with polyethylene glycol based linker BS(PEG)5 providing the best response. Consequently, this chemistry was used to characterize different oxide thicknesses and their responses to the mouse IgG antigen, which with the smallest oxide thickness yielded 0.1-1 pg/mL limits of detection and a dynamic range over 3 orders of magnitude.

  13. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use of a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.

  14. Orientation-dependent interfacial mobility governs the anisotropic swelling in lithiated silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Shan; Huang, Xu; Fan, Feifei; Liang, Wentao; Liu, Xiao Hua; Chen, Long-Qing; Huang, Jian Yu; Li, Ju; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Sulin

    2012-04-11

    Recent independent experiments demonstrated that the lithiation-induced volume expansion in silicon nanowires, nanopillars, and microslabs is highly anisotropic, with predominant expansion along the <110> direction but negligibly small expansion along the <111> direction. The origin of such anisotropic behavior remains elusive. Here, we develop a chemomechanical model to study the phase evolution and morphological changes in lithiated silicon nanowires. The model couples the diffusive reaction of lithium with the lithiation-induced elasto-plastic deformation. We show that the apparent anisotropic swelling is critically controlled by the orientation-dependent mobility of the core-shell interface, i.e., the lithiation reaction rate at the atomically sharp phase boundary between the crystalline core and the amorphous shell. Our results also underscore the importance of structural relaxation by plastic flow behind the moving phase boundary, which is essential to quantitative prediction of the experimentally observed morphologies of lithiated silicon nanowires. The study sheds light on the lithiation-mediated failure in nanowire-based electrodes, and the modeling framework provides a basis for simulating the morphological evolution, stress generation, and fracture in high-capacity electrodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  15. CMOS-Compatible Silicon-Nanowire-Based Coulter Counter for Cell Enumeration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Jinhong; Muhammad, Hamidullah; Kang, Yuejun; Ary, Sunil K

    2016-02-01

    A silicon-nanowire-based Coulter counter has been designed and fabricated for particle/cell enumeration. The silicon nanowire was fabricated in a fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible process and used as a field effect transistor (FET) device. The Coulter counter device worked on the principle of potential change detection introduced by the passing of microparticles/cells through a sensing channel. Device uniformity was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Current-voltage measurement showed the high sensitivity of the nanowire FET device to the surface potential change. The results revealed that the silicon-nanowire-based Coulter counter can differentiate polystyrene beads with diameters of 8 and 15 μm. Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells have been successfully counted to validate the device. A fully CMOS-compatible fabrication process can help the device integration and facilitate the development of sensor arrays for high throughput application. With appropriate sample preparation steps, it is also possible to expand the work to applications such as rare-cells detection.

  16. CMOS-Compatible Silicon-Nanowire-Based Coulter Counter for Cell Enumeration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Jinhong; Muhammad, Hamidullah; Kang, Yuejun; Ary, Sunil K

    2016-02-01

    A silicon-nanowire-based Coulter counter has been designed and fabricated for particle/cell enumeration. The silicon nanowire was fabricated in a fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible process and used as a field effect transistor (FET) device. The Coulter counter device worked on the principle of potential change detection introduced by the passing of microparticles/cells through a sensing channel. Device uniformity was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Current-voltage measurement showed the high sensitivity of the nanowire FET device to the surface potential change. The results revealed that the silicon-nanowire-based Coulter counter can differentiate polystyrene beads with diameters of 8 and 15 μm. Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells have been successfully counted to validate the device. A fully CMOS-compatible fabrication process can help the device integration and facilitate the development of sensor arrays for high throughput application. With appropriate sample preparation steps, it is also possible to expand the work to applications such as rare-cells detection. PMID:26799578

  17. Simulation Analysis on Photoelectric Conversion Characteristics of Silicon Nanowire Array Photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Yu, Jin; Fang, Li-Guang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Hui-Qin; Yuan, Ji-Ren; Wu, Shaolong; Cheng, Guo-An

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor nanowire photoelectrochemical cells have attracted extensive attention in the light-conversion field owing to the low-cost preparation, excellent optical absorption, and short distance of carrier collection. Although there are numbers of experimental investigations to improve the device performance, the understanding of the detailed process of photoelectric conversion needs to be further improved. In this work, a thorough optoelectronic simulation is employed to figure out how the nanowire diameter, doping concentration, and illumination wavelength affect the photoelectric conversion characteristics of the silicon nanowire array photoelectrodes. We find that two balances should be carefully weighted between optical absorption and photogenerated-carrier collection, along with between short-circuit photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. For the small-diameter nanowire array photoelectrodes, the overall absorption is higher than that of the larger-diameter ones with the most contribution from the nanowires. However, the substrate shows increasing absorption with increasing illumination wavelength. Higher doping density leads to a larger open-circuit voltage; while lower doping density can guarantee a relatively higher short-circuit photocurrent. To obtain high-light-conversion-efficiency photoelectrodes, the doping density should be carefully chosen with considerations of illumination wavelength and surface recombination. Suppressing the surface recombination velocity can effectively enhance the short-circuit photocurrent (open-circuit voltage) for the lightly (heavily) doped nanowire array photoelectrodes. Our systematical results provide a theoretical guidance for the photoelectrochemical devices based on semiconductor nanostructures.

  18. Simulation Analysis on Photoelectric Conversion Characteristics of Silicon Nanowire Array Photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Yu, Jin; Fang, Li-Guang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Hui-Qin; Yuan, Ji-Ren; Wu, Shaolong; Cheng, Guo-An

    2015-06-01

    Semiconductor nanowire photoelectrochemical cells have attracted extensive attention in the light-conversion field owing to the low-cost preparation, excellent optical absorption, and short distance of carrier collection. Although there are numbers of experimental investigations to improve the device performance, the understanding of the detailed process of photoelectric conversion needs to be further improved. In this work, a thorough optoelectronic simulation is employed to figure out how the nanowire diameter, doping concentration, and illumination wavelength affect the photoelectric conversion characteristics of the silicon nanowire array photoelectrodes. We find that two balances should be carefully weighted between optical absorption and photogenerated-carrier collection, along with between short-circuit photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. For the small-diameter nanowire array photoelectrodes, the overall absorption is higher than that of the larger-diameter ones with the most contribution from the nanowires. However, the substrate shows increasing absorption with increasing illumination wavelength. Higher doping density leads to a larger open-circuit voltage; while lower doping density can guarantee a relatively higher short-circuit photocurrent. To obtain high-light-conversion-efficiency photoelectrodes, the doping density should be carefully chosen with considerations of illumination wavelength and surface recombination. Suppressing the surface recombination velocity can effectively enhance the short-circuit photocurrent (open-circuit voltage) for the lightly (heavily) doped nanowire array photoelectrodes. Our systematical results provide a theoretical guidance for the photoelectrochemical devices based on semiconductor nanostructures.

  19. Atomically smooth p-doped silicon nanowires catalyzed by aluminum at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Moutanabbir, Oussama; Senz, Stephan; Scholz, Roland; Alexe, Marin; Kim, Yunseok; Pippel, Eckhard; Wang, Yewu; Wiethoff, Christian; Nabbefeld, Tobias; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

    2011-02-22

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are powerful nanotechnological building blocks. To date, a variety of metals have been used to synthesize high-density epitaxial SiNWs through metal-catalyzed vapor phase epitaxy. Understanding the impact of the catalyst on the intrinsic properties of SiNWs is critical for precise manipulation of the emerging SiNW-based devices. Here we demonstrate that SiNWs synthesized at low-temperature by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition using Al as a catalyst present distinct morphological properties. In particular, these nanowires are atomically smooth in contrast to rough {112}-type sidewalls characteristic of the intensively investigated Au-catalyzed SiNWs. We show that the stabilizing effect of Al plays the key role in the observed nanowire surface morphology. In fact, unlike Au which induces (111) and (113) facets on the nanowire sidewall surface, Al revokes the reconstruction along the [112] direction leading to equivalent adjacent step edges and flat surfaces. Our finding sets the lower limit of the Al surface density on the nanowire sidewalls at ∼2 atom/nm(2). Additionally, despite using temperatures of ca. 110-170 K below the eutectic point, we found that the incorporation of Al into the growing nanowires is sufficient to induce an effective p-type doping of SiNWs. These results demonstrate that the catalyst plays a crucial role is shaping the structural and electrical properties of SiNWs.

  20. Simulation Analysis on Photoelectric Conversion Characteristics of Silicon Nanowire Array Photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Yu, Jin; Fang, Li-Guang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Hui-Qin; Yuan, Ji-Ren; Wu, Shaolong; Cheng, Guo-An

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor nanowire photoelectrochemical cells have attracted extensive attention in the light-conversion field owing to the low-cost preparation, excellent optical absorption, and short distance of carrier collection. Although there are numbers of experimental investigations to improve the device performance, the understanding of the detailed process of photoelectric conversion needs to be further improved. In this work, a thorough optoelectronic simulation is employed to figure out how the nanowire diameter, doping concentration, and illumination wavelength affect the photoelectric conversion characteristics of the silicon nanowire array photoelectrodes. We find that two balances should be carefully weighted between optical absorption and photogenerated-carrier collection, along with between short-circuit photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. For the small-diameter nanowire array photoelectrodes, the overall absorption is higher than that of the larger-diameter ones with the most contribution from the nanowires. However, the substrate shows increasing absorption with increasing illumination wavelength. Higher doping density leads to a larger open-circuit voltage; while lower doping density can guarantee a relatively higher short-circuit photocurrent. To obtain high-light-conversion-efficiency photoelectrodes, the doping density should be carefully chosen with considerations of illumination wavelength and surface recombination. Suppressing the surface recombination velocity can effectively enhance the short-circuit photocurrent (open-circuit voltage) for the lightly (heavily) doped nanowire array photoelectrodes. Our systematical results provide a theoretical guidance for the photoelectrochemical devices based on semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:26123274

  1. Exploring Direct to Indirect Bandgap Transition in Silicon Nanowires: Size Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lihong; Zhang, Gang

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the electronic band structure of [110] silicon nanowires (SiNWs) using first-principles calculations. We find that, in the ultrathin diameter regime, SiNWs have a direct bandgap, but the energy difference between the indirect and direct fundamental bandgaps decreases as the nanowire diameter increases. This indicates that larger [110] SiNWs could have an indirect bandgap. Fundamentally, a series of quantitative direct-indirect bandgap transitional diameters are obtained for different cross-sectional geometries, with the largest values for SiNWs with triangular cross section.

  2. Tunable thermal conductivity in silicon twinning superlattice nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shiyun; Kosevich, Yuriy A.; Sääskilahti, K.; Ni, Yuxiang; Volz, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamic simulations, the thermal conductivity of a set of Si phononic metamaterial nanowires with a twinning superlattice structure has been investigated. We first show that this latter structural modulation can yield 65% thermal-conductivity reduction compared to the straight wire case at room temperature. Second, a purely geometry-induced minimal thermal conductivity of the phononic metamaterial is observed at a specific period depending on the nanowire diameter. Mode analysis reveals that the the minimal thermal conductivity arises due to the disappearance of favored atom polarization directions. The current thermal-conductivity reduction mechanism can collaborate with the other known reduction mechanisms, such as the one related to coating, to further reduce thermal conductivity of the metamaterial. Current studies reveal that twinning superlattice nanowires could serve as a promising candidate for efficient thermoelectric conversion benefitting from the large suppression in thermal transport and without deterioration of electron-transport properties when the surface atoms are passivated.

  3. PLD-assisted VLS growth of aligned ferrite nanorods, nanowires, and nanobelts-synthesis, and properties.

    PubMed

    Morber, Jenny Ruth; Ding, Yong; Haluska, Michael Stephan; Li, Yang; Liu, J Ping; Wang, Zhong Lin; Snyder, Robert L

    2006-11-01

    We report here a systematic synthesis and characterization of aligned alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite), epsilon-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 (magnetite) nanorods, nanobelts, and nanowires on alumina substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The presence of spherical gold catalyst particles at the tips of the nanostructures indicates selective growth via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Through a series of experiments, we have produced a primitive "phase diagram" for growing these structures based on several designed pressure and temperature parameters. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis has shown that the rods, wires, and belts are single-crystalline and grow along <111>m or <110>h directions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements confirm phase and structural analysis. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements show that the iron oxide structures exhibit interesting magnetic behavior, particularly at room temperature. This work is the first known report of magnetite 1D nanostructure growth via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism without using a template, as well as the first known synthesis of long epsilon-Fe2O3 nanobelts and nanowires. PMID:17064124

  4. Tailoring thermal conductivity of silicon/germanium nanowires utilizing core-shell architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarikurt, S.; Ozden, A.; Kandemir, A.; Sevik, C.; Kinaci, A.; Haskins, J. B.; Cagin, T.

    2016-04-01

    Low-dimensional nanostructured materials show large variations in their thermal transport properties. In this work, we investigate the influence of the core-shell architecture on nanowire (1D) thermal conductivity and evaluate its validity as a strategy to achieve a better thermoelectric performance. To obtain the thermal conductivity values, equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are conducted for core-shell nanowires of silicon and germanium. To explore the parameter space, we have calculated thermal conductivity values of the Si-core/Ge-shell and Ge-core/Si-shell nanowires having different cross-sectional sizes and core contents at several temperatures. Our results indicate that (1) increasing the cross-sectional area of pristine Si and pristine Ge nanowires increases the thermal conductivity, (2) increasing the Ge core size in the Ge-core/Si-shell structure results in a decrease in the thermal conductivity at 300 K, (3) the thermal conductivity of the Si-core/Ge-shell nanowires demonstrates a minima at a specific core size, (4) no significant variation in the thermal conductivity is observed in nanowires for temperatures larger than 300 K, and (5) the predicted thermal conductivity within the frame of applied geometrical constraints is found to be around 10 W/(mK) for the Si and Ge core-shell architecture with a smooth interface. The value is still higher than the amorphous limit (1 W/(mK)). This represents a significant reduction in thermal conductivity with respect to their bulk crystalline and pristine nanowire forms. Furthermore, we observed additional suppression of thermal conductivity through the introduction of interface roughness to Si/Ge core-shell nanowires.

  5. Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Applications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A flexible and robust piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite structure has been successfully fabricated via a cost-effective and scalable template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method. Vertically aligned arrays of dense and uniform zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with high aspect ratio (diameter ∼250 nm, length ∼12 μm) were grown within nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be ∼4.2%, which is comparable to previously reported values for ZnO NWs. The resulting NG is found to have excellent fatigue performance, being relatively immune to detrimental environmental factors and mechanical failure, as the constituent ZnO NWs remain embedded and protected inside the polymer matrix. PMID:27172933

  6. Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Applications.

    PubMed

    Ou, Canlin; Sanchez-Jimenez, Pedro E; Datta, Anuja; Boughey, Francesca L; Whiter, Richard A; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-06-01

    A flexible and robust piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite structure has been successfully fabricated via a cost-effective and scalable template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method. Vertically aligned arrays of dense and uniform zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with high aspect ratio (diameter ∼250 nm, length ∼12 μm) were grown within nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be ∼4.2%, which is comparable to previously reported values for ZnO NWs. The resulting NG is found to have excellent fatigue performance, being relatively immune to detrimental environmental factors and mechanical failure, as the constituent ZnO NWs remain embedded and protected inside the polymer matrix.

  7. Density Detection of Aligned Nanowire Arrays Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, JiaQi; Zhao, Kun

    2016-07-01

    A rapid technique is necessary to quantitatively detect the density of nanowire (NW) and nanotube arrays in one-dimensional devices which have been identified as useful building blocks for nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, biomedical devices, etc. Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy was employed in this research to detect the density of aligned Ni NW arrays. The transmitted amplitude of THz peaks and optical thickness of NW arrays was found to be the effective parameters to analyze the density change of NW arrays. Owing to the low multiple scattering and high order of Ni NW arrays, a linear relationship was observed for the transmitted amplitude and optical thickness regarding NW density, respectively. Therefore, THz technique may be used as a promising tool to characterize the density of one-dimensional structures in the large-scale integrated nanodevice fabrication.

  8. Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Applications.

    PubMed

    Ou, Canlin; Sanchez-Jimenez, Pedro E; Datta, Anuja; Boughey, Francesca L; Whiter, Richard A; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-06-01

    A flexible and robust piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite structure has been successfully fabricated via a cost-effective and scalable template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method. Vertically aligned arrays of dense and uniform zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with high aspect ratio (diameter ∼250 nm, length ∼12 μm) were grown within nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be ∼4.2%, which is comparable to previously reported values for ZnO NWs. The resulting NG is found to have excellent fatigue performance, being relatively immune to detrimental environmental factors and mechanical failure, as the constituent ZnO NWs remain embedded and protected inside the polymer matrix. PMID:27172933

  9. Density Detection of Aligned Nanowire Arrays Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, JiaQi; Zhao, Kun

    2016-12-01

    A rapid technique is necessary to quantitatively detect the density of nanowire (NW) and nanotube arrays in one-dimensional devices which have been identified as useful building blocks for nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, biomedical devices, etc. Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy was employed in this research to detect the density of aligned Ni NW arrays. The transmitted amplitude of THz peaks and optical thickness of NW arrays was found to be the effective parameters to analyze the density change of NW arrays. Owing to the low multiple scattering and high order of Ni NW arrays, a linear relationship was observed for the transmitted amplitude and optical thickness regarding NW density, respectively. Therefore, THz technique may be used as a promising tool to characterize the density of one-dimensional structures in the large-scale integrated nanodevice fabrication.

  10. Density Detection of Aligned Nanowire Arrays Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, JiaQi; Zhao, Kun

    2016-12-01

    A rapid technique is necessary to quantitatively detect the density of nanowire (NW) and nanotube arrays in one-dimensional devices which have been identified as useful building blocks for nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, biomedical devices, etc. Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy was employed in this research to detect the density of aligned Ni NW arrays. The transmitted amplitude of THz peaks and optical thickness of NW arrays was found to be the effective parameters to analyze the density change of NW arrays. Owing to the low multiple scattering and high order of Ni NW arrays, a linear relationship was observed for the transmitted amplitude and optical thickness regarding NW density, respectively. Therefore, THz technique may be used as a promising tool to characterize the density of one-dimensional structures in the large-scale integrated nanodevice fabrication. PMID:27431495

  11. Poly-silicon nanowire sensor for sodium chloride concentration measurement.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yao-Chiang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Ho, Wen-Kai; Wu, Tsai-Chen; Ho, Yao-Yaun; Yang, Chia Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the poly-Si nanowire sensor was fabricated by top-down technique for sodium chloride concentration measurement. The results showed that the smallest threshold voltage and the best resolution were 1.65 V and 0.41 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the sensor can be reused more than 50 times which maintained acceptable performance and showed good linearity of the calibration within wide range of the concentration. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the proposed sensor has great potential to be used for measuring complicated sample with suitable modification on the surface of nanowires.

  12. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by metal-modified silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Brahiti, N.; Hadjersi, T.; Menari, H.; Amirouche, S.; El Kechai, O.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • SiNWs modified with Pd, Au and Pt were used as photocatalysts to degrade MB. • Yield of photodegardation increases with UV irradiation time. • SiNWs modified with Pd nanoparticles show the best photocatalytic activity. • A degradation of 97% was obtained after 200 min of UV irradiation. - Abstract: Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) modified with Au, Pt and Pd nanoparticles were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methylene blue in water under UV light irradiation. The modification of SiNWs was carried out by deposition of metal nanoparticles using the electroless metal deposition (EMD) technique. The effect of metal nanoparticles deposition time on the photocatalytic activity was studied. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of modified SiNWs was enhanced when the deposition time of metal nanoparticles was increased. In addition of modified SiNWs with Pt, Au and Pd nanoparticles, oxidized silicon substrate (Ox-Si), oxidized silicon nanowires (Ox-SiNWs) and hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were also evaluated for the photodegradation of methylene blue.

  13. Absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire-optical nanoantenna system for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robak, Elżbieta; Grześkiewicz, Bartłomiej; Kotkowiak, Michał

    2014-11-01

    The rapidly growing green energy sector has prompted the search for new solutions to increase the performance of solar cells. In this area there is still room for the silicon-based photovoltaic, although the main problem is to find a way to increase the efficiency of the silicon solar cells, at the lowest possible cost. In this work we investigate the influence of a gold bowtie nanoantenna on the absorption profile of silicon nanowire. Because of the energy band gap and low effective absorption cross section, bulk silicon absorbs rather poorly in longer wavelengths of visible light and near-infrared range. Our calculations with frequency domain solver show the absorption boost in nanowire at long-wavelengths due to the coupling of the large local near-field of metallic bowtie nanoantenna to the semiconductor layer. The enhancement was observed at various levels although it was correlated with the shift of localized surface plasmon resonance thus making it dependent on the bowtie geometry. The results suggest that by incorporating metallic nanostructures as well as nanoparticles to the nanowire system, the performance of photovoltaic device can be improved thanks to greater generation of a electron-hole pairs.

  14. Crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires for high capacity and high current battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Feng; Ruffo, Riccardo; Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon's large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline-amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li(+) ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity ( approximately 1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with approximately 90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, approximately 20 times of carbon at 1 h rate).

  15. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk; Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K. E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk; Arbiol, Jordi

    2015-11-30

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.

  16. Subband engineering in n-type silicon nanowires using strain and confinement.

    PubMed

    Stanojević, Zlatan; Sverdlov, Viktor; Baumgartner, Oskar; Kosina, Hans

    2012-04-01

    We present a model based on k · p theory which is able to capture the subband structure effects present in ultra-thin strained silicon nanowires. For electrons, the effective mass and valley minima are calculated for different crystal orientations, thicknesses, and strains. The actual enhancement of the transport properties depends highly on the crystal orientation of the nanowire axis; for certain orientations strain and confinement can play together to give a significant increase of the electron mobility. We also show that the effects of both strain and confinement on mobility are generally more pronounced in nanowires than in thin films. We show that optimal transport properties can be expected to be achieved through a mix of confinement and strain. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental findings.

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of series-triple quantum dots by thermal oxidation of silicon nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Takafumi Jo, Mingyu; Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Akira

    2015-11-15

    Series-connected triple quantum dots were fabricated by a simple two-step oxidation technique using the pattern-dependent oxidation of a silicon nanowire and an additional oxidation of the nanowire through the gap of the fine gates attached to the nanowire. The characteristics of multi-dot single-electron devices are obtained. The formation of each quantum dot beneath an attached gate is confirmed by analyzing the electrical characteristics and by evaluating the gate capacitances between all pairings of gates and quantum dots. Because the gate electrode is automatically attached to each dot, the device structure benefits from scalability. This technique promises integrability of multiple quantum dots with individual control gates.

  18. Nanostructured Indium Oxide Coated Silicon Nanowire Arrays: A Hybrid Photothermal/Photochemical Approach to Solar Fuels.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Laura B; O'Brien, Paul G; Jelle, Abdinoor; Sandhel, Amit; Perovic, Douglas D; Mims, Charles A; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2016-09-27

    The field of solar fuels seeks to harness abundant solar energy by driving useful molecular transformations. Of particular interest is the photodriven conversion of greenhouse gas CO2 into carbon-based fuels and chemical feedstocks, with the ultimate goal of providing a sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Nonstoichiometric, hydroxylated indium oxide nanoparticles, denoted In2O3-x(OH)y, have been shown to function as active photocatalysts for CO2 reduction to CO via the reverse water gas shift reaction under simulated solar irradiation. However, the relatively wide band gap (2.9 eV) of indium oxide restricts the portion of the solar irradiance that can be utilized to ∼9%, and the elevated reaction temperatures required (150-190 °C) reduce the overall energy efficiency of the process. Herein we report a hybrid catalyst consisting of a vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) support evenly coated by In2O3-x(OH)y nanoparticles that utilizes the vast majority of the solar irradiance to simultaneously produce both the photogenerated charge carriers and heat required to reduce CO2 to CO at a rate of 22.0 μmol·gcat(-1)·h(-1). Further, improved light harvesting efficiency of the In2O3-x(OH)y/SiNW films due to minimized reflection losses and enhanced light trapping within the SiNW support results in a ∼6-fold increase in photocatalytic conversion rates over identical In2O3-x(OH)y films prepared on roughened glass substrates. The ability of this In2O3-x(OH)y/SiNW hybrid catalyst to perform the dual function of utilizing both light and heat energy provided by the broad-band solar irradiance to drive CO2 reduction reactions represents a general advance that is applicable to a wide range of catalysts in the field of solar fuels. PMID:27598429

  19. Nanostructured Indium Oxide Coated Silicon Nanowire Arrays: A Hybrid Photothermal/Photochemical Approach to Solar Fuels.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Laura B; O'Brien, Paul G; Jelle, Abdinoor; Sandhel, Amit; Perovic, Douglas D; Mims, Charles A; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2016-09-27

    The field of solar fuels seeks to harness abundant solar energy by driving useful molecular transformations. Of particular interest is the photodriven conversion of greenhouse gas CO2 into carbon-based fuels and chemical feedstocks, with the ultimate goal of providing a sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Nonstoichiometric, hydroxylated indium oxide nanoparticles, denoted In2O3-x(OH)y, have been shown to function as active photocatalysts for CO2 reduction to CO via the reverse water gas shift reaction under simulated solar irradiation. However, the relatively wide band gap (2.9 eV) of indium oxide restricts the portion of the solar irradiance that can be utilized to ∼9%, and the elevated reaction temperatures required (150-190 °C) reduce the overall energy efficiency of the process. Herein we report a hybrid catalyst consisting of a vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) support evenly coated by In2O3-x(OH)y nanoparticles that utilizes the vast majority of the solar irradiance to simultaneously produce both the photogenerated charge carriers and heat required to reduce CO2 to CO at a rate of 22.0 μmol·gcat(-1)·h(-1). Further, improved light harvesting efficiency of the In2O3-x(OH)y/SiNW films due to minimized reflection losses and enhanced light trapping within the SiNW support results in a ∼6-fold increase in photocatalytic conversion rates over identical In2O3-x(OH)y films prepared on roughened glass substrates. The ability of this In2O3-x(OH)y/SiNW hybrid catalyst to perform the dual function of utilizing both light and heat energy provided by the broad-band solar irradiance to drive CO2 reduction reactions represents a general advance that is applicable to a wide range of catalysts in the field of solar fuels.

  20. Hybrid core-shell nanowire electrodes utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays for high-performance energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klankowski, Steven Arnold

    Nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems have been shown to improve both rate performance and capacity retention, while allowing considerably longer cycling lifetime. The nano-architectures provide enhanced kinetics by means of larger surface area, higher porosity, better material interconnectivity, shorter diffusion lengths, and overall mechanical stability. Meanwhile, active materials that once were excluded from use due to bulk property issues are now being examined in new nanoarchitecture. Silicon was such a material, desired for its large lithium-ion storage capacity of 4,200 mAh g-1 and low redox potential of 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+; however, a ˜300% volume expansion and increased resistivity upon lithiation limited its broader applications. In the first study, the silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) array presents a unique core-shell nanowire (NW) architecture that demonstrates both good capacity and high rate performance. In follow-up, the Si-VACNFs NW electrode demonstrates enhanced power rate capabilities as it shows excellent storage capacity at high rates, attributed to the unique nanoneedle structure that high vacuum sputtering produces on the three-dimensional array. Following silicon's success, titanium dioxide has been explored as an alternative high-rate electrode material by utilizing the dual storage mechanisms of Li+ insertion and pseudocapacitance. The TiO 2-coated VACNFs shows improved electrochemical activity that delivers near theoretical capacity at larger currents due to shorter Li+ diffusion lengths and highly effective electron transport. A unique cell is formed with the Si-coated and TiO2-coated electrodes place counter to one another, creating the hybrid of lithium ion battery-pseudocapacitor that demonstrated both high power and high energy densities. The hybrid cell operates like a battery at lower current rates, achieving larger discharge capacity, while retaining one-third of

  1. Electrocatalytic activity of NiO on silicon nanowires with a carbon shell and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhee; Jung, Cho-long; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Soomin; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-seok; Park, Jeounghee; Jun, Yongseok; Kim, Donghwan

    2016-04-14

    To improve the catalytic activity of a material, it is critical to maximize the effective surface area by directly contacting the electrolyte. Nanowires are a promising building block for catalysts in electrochemical applications because of their large surface area. Nickel oxide (NiO) decoration was achieved by drop-casting a nickel-dissolved solution onto vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell (SiNW/C). Based on the hybridization of the NiO and silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell this study aimed to achieve a synergic effect for the catalytic activity performance. This study demonstrated that the resulting nanomaterial exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and performs well as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The compositions of the materials were examined using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Their micro- and nano-structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical activity toward I(-)/I3(-) was examined using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained peak power conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on the NiO@SiNW/C counter electrode was 9.49%, which was greater than that of the DSSC based on the Pt counter electrode. PMID:27001286

  2. Fluorinated alkyne-derived monolayers on oxide-free silicon nanowires via one-step hydrosilylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Minh, Quyen; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Wang, Bin; Wang, Zhanhua; Haick, Hossam; Zuilhof, Han; van Rijn, Cees J. M.

    2016-11-01

    Passivation of oxide-free silicon nanowires (Si NWs) by the formation of high-quality fluorinated 1-hexadecyne-derived monolayers with varying fluorine content has been investigated. Alkyl chain monolayers (C16H30-xFx) with a varying number of fluorine substituents (x = 0, 1, 3, 9, 17) were attached onto hydrogen-terminated silicon (Sisbnd H) surfaces with an effective one-step hydrosilylation. This surface chemistry gives well-defined monolayers on nanowires that have a cylindrical core-shell structure, as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and static contact angle (SCA) analysis. The monolayers were stable under acidic and basic conditions, as well as under extreme conditions (such as UV exposure), and provide excellent surface passivation, which opens up applications in the fields of field effect transistors, optoelectronics and especially for disease diagnosis.

  3. Quantification of the affinities and kinetics of protein interactions using silicon nanowire biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xuexin; Li, Yue; Rajan, Nitin K.; Routenberg, David A.; Modis, Yorgo; Reed, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the binding affinities and kinetics of protein interactions is important in clinical diagnostics and drug development because such information is used to identify new therapeutic candidates. Surface plasmon resonance is at present the standard method used for such analysis, but this is limited by low sensitivity and low-throughput analysis. Here, we show that silicon nanowire field-effect transistors can be used as biosensors to measure protein–ligand binding affinities and kinetics with sensitivities down to femtomolar concentrations. Based on this sensing mechanism, we develop an analytical model to calibrate the sensor response and quantify the molecular binding affinities of two representative protein–ligand binding pairs. The rate constant of the association and dissociation of the protein–ligand pair is determined by monitoring the reaction kinetics, demonstrating that silicon nanowire field-effect transistors can be readily used as high-throughput biosensors to quantify protein interactions. PMID:22635097

  4. Quenched phonon drag in silicon nanowires reveals significant effect in the bulk at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Jyothi; Tian, Hongxiang; Ma, Jun; Azeredo, Bruno; Kim, Junhwan; Balasundaram, Karthik; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiuling; Ferreira, P M; Sinha, S

    2015-05-13

    Existing theory and data cannot quantify the contribution of phonon drag to the Seebeck coefficient (S) in semiconductors at room temperature. We show that this is possible through comparative measurements between nanowires and the bulk. Phonon boundary scattering completely quenches phonon drag in silicon nanowires enabling quantification of its contribution to S in bulk silicon in the range 25-500 K. The contribution is surprisingly large (∼34%) at 300 K even at doping of ∼3 × 10(19) cm(-3). Our results contradict the notion that phonon drag is negligible in degenerate semiconductors at temperatures relevant for thermoelectric energy conversion. A revised theory of electron-phonon momentum exchange that accounts for a phonon mean free path spectrum agrees well with the data.

  5. Subsurface imaging of silicon nanowire circuits and iron oxide nanoparticles with sub-10 nm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Perrino, A P; Ryu, Y K; Amo, C A; Morales, M P; Garcia, R

    2016-07-01

    Non-destructive subsurface characterization of nanoscale structures and devices is of significant interest in nanolithography and nanomanufacturing. In those areas, the accurate location of the buried structures and their nanomechanical properties are relevant for optimization of the nanofabrication process and the functionality of the system. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of bimodal and trimodal force microscopy for imaging silicon nanowire devices buried under an ultrathin polymer film. We resolve the morphology and periodicities of silicon nanowire pairs. We report a spatial resolution in the sub-10 nm range for nanostructures buried under a 70 nm thick polymer film. By using numerical simulations we explain the role of the excited modes in the subsurface imaging process. Independent of the bimodal or trimodal atomic force microscopy approach, the fundamental mode is the most suitable for tracking the topography while the higher modes modulate the interaction of the tip with the buried nanostructures and provide subsurface contrast.

  6. The Analysis of Characteristics in Dry and Wet Environments of Silicon Nanowire-Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoun Mo; Shin, Dong Jae; Lee, Jung Han; Mo, Hyun-Sun; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Jisun

    2016-05-01

    Our study investigates differences in sensitivity of dry and wet environment in the field of biosensing experiment in detail and depth. The sensitivity of biosensing varies by means of surrounding conditions of silicon nanowire field effect transistor (SiNW FET). By examining charged polymer reaction in the silicon nanowire transistor (SiNW), we have discovered that the threshold voltage (V(T)) shift and change of subthreshold slope (SS) in wet environment are smaller than that of the air. Furthermore, we analyzed the sensitivity through modifying electrolyte concentration in the wet condition, and confirmed that V(T) shift increases in low concentration condition of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) due to the Debye length. We believe that the results we have found in this study would be the cornerstone in contributing to advanced biosensing experiment in the future.

  7. Subsurface imaging of silicon nanowire circuits and iron oxide nanoparticles with sub-10 nm spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrino, A. P.; Ryu, Y. K.; Amo, C. A.; Morales, M. P.; Garcia, R.

    2016-07-01

    Non-destructive subsurface characterization of nanoscale structures and devices is of significant interest in nanolithography and nanomanufacturing. In those areas, the accurate location of the buried structures and their nanomechanical properties are relevant for optimization of the nanofabrication process and the functionality of the system. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of bimodal and trimodal force microscopy for imaging silicon nanowire devices buried under an ultrathin polymer film. We resolve the morphology and periodicities of silicon nanowire pairs. We report a spatial resolution in the sub-10 nm range for nanostructures buried under a 70 nm thick polymer film. By using numerical simulations we explain the role of the excited modes in the subsurface imaging process. Independent of the bimodal or trimodal atomic force microscopy approach, the fundamental mode is the most suitable for tracking the topography while the higher modes modulate the interaction of the tip with the buried nanostructures and provide subsurface contrast.

  8. The Analysis of Characteristics in Dry and Wet Environments of Silicon Nanowire-Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoun Mo; Shin, Dong Jae; Lee, Jung Han; Mo, Hyun-Sun; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Jisun

    2016-05-01

    Our study investigates differences in sensitivity of dry and wet environment in the field of biosensing experiment in detail and depth. The sensitivity of biosensing varies by means of surrounding conditions of silicon nanowire field effect transistor (SiNW FET). By examining charged polymer reaction in the silicon nanowire transistor (SiNW), we have discovered that the threshold voltage (V(T)) shift and change of subthreshold slope (SS) in wet environment are smaller than that of the air. Furthermore, we analyzed the sensitivity through modifying electrolyte concentration in the wet condition, and confirmed that V(T) shift increases in low concentration condition of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) due to the Debye length. We believe that the results we have found in this study would be the cornerstone in contributing to advanced biosensing experiment in the future. PMID:27483843

  9. Critical Role of Diels–Adler Adducts to Realise Stretchable Transparent Electrodes Based on Silver Nanowires and Silicone Elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Gaeun; Pyo, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Da Hee; Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the successful fabrication of a transparent electrode comprising a sandwich structure of silicone/Ag nanowires (AgNWs)/silicone equipped with Diels–Alder (DA) adducts as crosslinkers to realise highly stable stretchability. Because of the reversible DA reaction, the crosslinked silicone successfully bonds with the silicone overcoat, which should completely seal the electrode. Thus, any surrounding liquid cannot leak through the interfaces among the constituents. Furthermore, the nanowires are protected by the silicone cover when they are stressed by mechanical loads such as bending, folding, and stretching. After delicate optimisation of the layered silicone/AgNW/silicone sandwich structure, a stretchable transparent electrode which can withstand 1000 cycles of 50% stretching–releasing with an exceptionally high stability and reversibility was fabricated. This structure can be used as a transparent strain sensor; it possesses a strong piezoresistivity with a gauge factor greater than 11.

  10. Critical Role of Diels–Adler Adducts to Realise Stretchable Transparent Electrodes Based on Silver Nanowires and Silicone Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Gaeun; Pyo, Kyoung-hee; Lee, Da Hee; Kim, Youngmin; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the successful fabrication of a transparent electrode comprising a sandwich structure of silicone/Ag nanowires (AgNWs)/silicone equipped with Diels–Alder (DA) adducts as crosslinkers to realise highly stable stretchability. Because of the reversible DA reaction, the crosslinked silicone successfully bonds with the silicone overcoat, which should completely seal the electrode. Thus, any surrounding liquid cannot leak through the interfaces among the constituents. Furthermore, the nanowires are protected by the silicone cover when they are stressed by mechanical loads such as bending, folding, and stretching. After delicate optimisation of the layered silicone/AgNW/silicone sandwich structure, a stretchable transparent electrode which can withstand 1000 cycles of 50% stretching–releasing with an exceptionally high stability and reversibility was fabricated. This structure can be used as a transparent strain sensor; it possesses a strong piezoresistivity with a gauge factor greater than 11. PMID:27140436

  11. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction.

  12. Tunable electronic properties of silicon nanowires under strain and electric bias

    SciTech Connect

    Nduwimana, Alexis; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2014-07-15

    The electronic structure characteristics of silicon nanowires under strain and electric bias are studied using first-principles density functional theory. The unique wire-like structure leads to distinct spatial distribution of carriers, which can be tailored by applying tensile and compressive strains, as well as by an electric bias. Our results indicate that the combined effect of strain and electric bias leads to tunable electronic structures that can be used for piezo-electric devices.

  13. Self-Aligned Cu-Si Core-Shell Nanowire Array as a High-Performance Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Li, Huaqing; Henry Jr, John James; Martha, Surendra K; Dudney, Nancy J; Lance, Michael J; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Besmann, Theodore M; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (NWs) have been reported as a promising anode that demonstrated high capacity without pulverization during cycling, however, they present some technical issues that remain to be solved. The high aspect ratio of the NWs and their small contact areas with the current collector cause high electrical resistance, which results in inefficient electron transport. The nano-size interface between a NW and the substrate experiences high shear stress during lithiation, causing the wire to separate from the current collector. In addition, most reported methods for producing silicon NWs involve high-temperature processing and require catalysts that later become contaminants. This study developed a new self-aligned Cu-Si core-shell NW array using a low-temperature, catalyst-free process to address the issues described. The silicon shell is amorphous as synthesized and accommodates Li-ions without phase transformation. The copper core functions as a built-in current collector to provide very short (nm) electron transport pathways as well as backbone to improve mechanical strength. Initial electrochemical evaluation has demonstrated good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency for this new anode material in a half-cell configuration. No wire fracture or core-shell separation was observed after cycling. However, electrolyte decomposition products largely covered the top surface of the NW array, restricting electrolyte access and causing capacity reduction at high charging rates.

  14. Color generation and refractive index sensing using diffraction from 2D silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Walia, Jaspreet; Dhindsa, Navneet; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Saini, Simarjeet Singh

    2014-01-15

    Tunable structural color generation from vertical silicon nanowires arranged in different square lattices is demonstrated. The generated colors are adjustable using well-defined Bragg diffraction theory, and only depend on the lattice spacing and angles of incidence. Vivid colors spanning from bright red to blue are easily achieved. In keeping with this, a single square lattice of silicon nanowires is also able to produce different colors spanning the entire visible range. It is also shown that the 2D gratings also have a third grating direction when rotated 45 degrees. These simple and elegant solutions to color generation from silicon are used to demonstrate a cost-effective refractive index sensor. The sensor works by measuring color changes resulting from changes in the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanowires using a trichromatic RGB decomposition. Moreover, the sensor produces linear responses in the trichromatic decomposition values versus the surrounding medium index. An index resolution of 10(-4) is achieved by performing basic image processing on the collected images, without the need for a laser or a spectrometer. Spectral analysis enables an increase in the index resolution of the sensor to a value of 10(-6) , with a sensitivity of 400 nm/RIU. PMID:23784866

  15. Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowire photocatalysis: Benzene oxidation and methyl red decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Suoyuan; Tsang, Chi Him A.; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Wong, Ningbew; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: H-SiNWs can catalyze hydroxylation of benzene and degradation of methyl red under visible light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were active photocatalyst in the hydroxylation of benzene under light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were also effective in the decomposition of methyl red dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Si/SiO{sub x} core-shell structure is the main reason of the obtained high selectivity during the hydroxylation. -- Abstract: Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the hydroxylation of benzene and for the decomposition of methyl red under visible light irradiation. The above reactions were monitored by GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively, which shows 100% selectivity for the transformation of benzene to phenol. A complete decomposition of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M methyl red solution was achieved within 30 min. The high selectivity for the hydroxylation of benzene and the photodecomposition demonstrate the catalytic activity of ultrafine H-SiNWs during nanocatalysis.

  16. Nanoparticles prepared from porous silicon nanowires for bio-imaging and sonodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Osminkina, Liubov A; Sivakov, Vladimir A; Mysov, Grigory A; Georgobiani, Veronika A; Natashina, Ulyana А; Talkenberg, Florian; Solovyev, Valery V; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of cytotoxicity, photoluminescence, bio-imaging, and sonosensitizing properties of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by ultrasound grinding of porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been investigated. SiNWs were formed by metal (silver)-assisted wet chemical etching of heavily boron-doped (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon wafers. The prepared SiNWs and aqueous suspensions of SiNPs exhibit efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of 600 to 1,000 nm that is explained by the radiative recombination of excitons confined in small silicon nanocrystals, from which SiNWs and SiNPs consist of. On the one hand, in vitro studies have demonstrated low cytotoxicity of SiNPs and possibilities of their bio-imaging applications. On the other hand, it has been found that SiNPs can act as efficient sensitizers of ultrasound-induced suppression of the viability of Hep-2 cancer cells.

  17. Electrical detection of dengue virus (DENV) DNA oligomer using silicon nanowire biosensor with novel molecular gate control.

    PubMed

    Nuzaihan M N, M; Hashim, U; Md Arshad, M K; Kasjoo, S R; Rahman, S F A; Ruslinda, A R; Fathil, M F M; Adzhri, R; Shahimin, M M

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, a silicon nanowire biosensor with novel molecular gate control has been demonstrated for Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection related to dengue virus (DENV). The silicon nanowire was fabricated using the top-down nanolithography approach, through nanostructuring of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layers achieved by combination of the electron-beam lithography (EBL), plasma dry etching and size reduction processes. The surface of the fabricated silicon nanowire was functionalized by means of a three-step procedure involving surface modification, DNA immobilization and hybridization. This procedure acts as a molecular gate control to establish the electrical detection for 27-mers base targets DENV DNA oligomer. The electrical detection is based on the changes in current, resistance and conductance of the sensor due to accumulation of negative charges added by the immobilized probe DNA and hybridized target DNA. The sensitivity of the silicon nanowire biosensors attained was 45.0µAM(-1), which shows a wide-range detection capability of the sensor with respect to DNA. The limit of detection (LOD) achieved was approximately 2.0fM. The demonstrated results show that the silicon nanowire has excellent properties for detection of DENV with outstanding repeatability and reproducibility performances.

  18. Low-temperature study of array of dopant atoms on transport behaviors in silicon junctionless nanowire transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Han, Weihua Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanbo; Yang, Fuhua

    2014-09-28

    We demonstrate temperature-dependent quantum transport characteristics in silicon junctionless nanowire transistor fabricated on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate by the femtosecond laser lithography. Clear drain-current oscillations originated from dopant-induced quantum dots are observed in the initial stage of the conduction for the silicon nanowire channel at low temperatures. Arrhenius plot of the conductance indicates the transition temperature of 30 K from variable-range hopping to nearest-neighbor hopping, which can be well explained under Mott formalism. The transition of electron hopping behavior is the interplay result between the thermal activation and the Coulomb interaction.

  19. Study of Ac Dielectrophoretic Process of SiC Nanowires: A Universal Method for Alignment of Semiconductor Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yao, Limei; Cui, Yan; Cong, Haining; Zheng, Jinju; Shang, Minghui; Yang, Zuobao; Yang, Weiyou; Wei, Guodong; Gao, Fengmei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the dielectrophoretic processes of SiC nanowires suspended in three typical solvents, (highly purified water, ethanol and isopropanol) were systematically investigated. Optical microscope and SEM characterizations were used to observe the order of SiC nanowires on the surface of gold microchannels. The gold microchannels were induced by Ac dielectrophoresis of the corresponding dispersion solutions of SiC nanowires, with a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. The study shows that the dielectrophoresis process is an effective way of synthesizing highly oriented SiC nanoarrays using isopropanol solution. The results also show that the arrangement of SiC nanowires on the interdigital electrode configuration not only depend on the kind of solvent used, but also on the applied frequency (1000 Hz~1 MHz) and voltage (1 V~20 V). PMID:27451739

  20. Study of Ac Dielectrophoretic Process of SiC Nanowires: A Universal Method for Alignment of Semiconductor Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yao, Limei; Cui, Yan; Cong, Haining; Zheng, Jinju; Shang, Minghui; Yang, Zuobao; Yang, Weiyou; Wei, Guodong; Gao, Fengmei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the dielectrophoretic processes of SiC nanowires suspended in three typical solvents, (highly purified water, ethanol and isopropanol) were systematically investigated. Optical microscope and SEM characterizations were used to observe the order of SiC nanowires on the surface of gold microchannels. The gold microchannels were induced by Ac dielectrophoresis of the corresponding dispersion solutions of SiC nanowires, with a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. The study shows that the dielectrophoresis process is an effective way of synthesizing highly oriented SiC nanoarrays using isopropanol solution. The results also show that the arrangement of SiC nanowires on the interdigital electrode configuration not only depend on the kind of solvent used, but also on the applied frequency (1000 Hz~1 MHz) and voltage (1 V~20 V).

  1. Thermal Test of an Improved Platform for Silicon Nanowire-Based Thermoelectric Micro-generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaza, C.; Fonseca, L.; Salleras, M.; Donmez, I.; Tarancón, A.; Morata, A.; Santos, J. D.; Gadea, G.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on an improved design intended to enhance the thermal isolation between the hot and cold parts of a silicon-based thermoelectric microgenerator. Micromachining techniques and silicon on insulator substrates are used to obtain a suspended silicon platform surrounded by a bulk silicon rim, in which arrays of bottom-up silicon nanowires are integrated later on to join both parts with a thermoelectric active material. In previous designs the platform was linked to the rim by means of bulk silicon bridges, used as mechanical support and holder for the electrical connections. Such supports severely reduce platform thermal isolation and penalise the functional area due to the need of longer supports. A new technological route is planned to obtain low thermal conductance supports, making use of a particular geometrical design and a wet bulk micromachining process to selectively remove silicon shaping a thin dielectric membrane. Thermal conductance measurements have been performed to analyse the influence of the different design parameters of the suspended platform (support type, bridge/membrane length, separation between platform and silicon rim,) on overall thermal isolation. A thermal conductance reduction from 1.82 mW/K to 1.03 mW/K, has been obtained on tested devices by changing the support type, even though its length has been halved.

  2. Characteristics of Al substituted nanowires fabricated by self-aligned growth for future large scale integration interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Kurahashi, Teruo

    2011-06-01

    Substituted Al nanowires for use in future large scale integration interconnects were fabricated by self-aligned growth. The resistivity of an Al substituted nanowire 80 nm in width, 100 nm in height, and 20 μm in length was 4.7 μΩ cm, which is 48% lower than that of an Al nanowire with the same dimensions fabricated using a bottom-up approach. The variation in the resistivity was in a narrow range (14%) over a Si wafer. The TEM imaging revealed that the Al substituted nanowire had a bamboo-like structure with grains larger than 1.6 μm. The electromigration activation energy was 0.72 eV, which is comparable to that of a pure Al wire with a bamboo-like structure. The product of the critical current density and wire length was 1.3 × 103 A/cm at 250 °C; 2.1 times higher than that of a pure Al wire with a polycrystalline structure. The acceleration of electromigration due to current density was 2.0, indicating that incubation time dominates electromigration lifetime. The prolonged incubation time observed in the electromigration test is attributed to the reduction in electromigration-induced mass transport due to the microstructure of the Al substituted nanowire. Even the formation of a small void immediately after incubation may be a fatal defect for nanoscale Al wires.

  3. Electrowetting properties of atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} decorated silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Rajkumar, K.; Rajavel, K.; Cameron, D. C.; Mangalaraj, D.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-24

    This paper reports the electrowetting properties of liquid droplet on superhydrophobic silicon nanowires with Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dielectric layer. Silicon wafer were etched by metal assisted wet chemical etching with silver as catalyst. ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films of 10nm thickness were conformally deposited over silicon nanowires. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric film coated silicon nanowires was chemically modified with Trichloro (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl) silane to make it superhydrophobic(SHP). The contact angle was measured and all the samples exhibited superhydrophobic nature with maximum contact angles of 163° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 6°. Electrowetting induced a maximum reversible decrease of the contact angle of 20°at 150V in air.

  4. PEGylated silicon nanowire coated silica microparticles for drug delivery across intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Uskoković, Vuk; Lee, Phin Peng; Walsh, Laura A; Fischer, Kathleen E; Desai, Tejal A

    2012-02-01

    Composite particles made by growing nanoscopic silicon wires from the surface of monodispersed, microsized silica beads were tested in this study for their ability to affect the integrity and permeability of an epithelial cell layer. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is known to sterically stabilize particles and prevent protein binding; as such, it is a routine way to impart in vivo longevity to drug carriers. The effect of the silica beads, both with and without silicon nanowires and PEG, on the disruption of the tight junctions in Caco-2 cells was evaluated by means of: (a) analysis of the localization of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1 and f-actin; (b) measurements of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER); (c) real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of PKC-α and PKC-z, which regulate the fluidity of cell membranes, and RhoA and Rac1, which are mainly involved in mechanotransduction processes; and (d) drug permeability experiments with fluorescein-sodium. The results have shown that Si-nanowire-coated silica microparticles added to Caco-2 cells in culture lead to alterations in tight junction permeability and the localization of ZO-1 and f-actin, as well as to decreased width of ZO-1 and claudin-1 at the tight junction and increased expression of PKC transcripts. Si-nanowire-coated silica microparticles increased the permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers to fluorescein-sodium in proportion to their amount. Effects indicative of loosening the Caco-2 cell monolayers and increasing their permeability were less pronounced for PEGylated particles, owing to their greater supposed inertness in comparison with the non-functionalized beads and nanowires. The analyzed Si-nanowire-coated silica microparticles have thus been shown to affect membrane barrier integrity in vitro, suggesting the possibility of using nanostructured microparticles to enhance drug permeability through the intestinal epithelium in vivo.

  5. Growth, patterning and alignment of organolead iodide perovskite nanowires for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui; Dong, Dongdong; Qiao, Keke; Bu, Lingling; Li, Bing; Yang, Dun; Wang, Hong-En; Cheng, Yibing; Zhao, Zhixin; Tang, Jiang; Song, Haisheng

    2015-02-01

    Organolead halide perovskites are becoming intriguing materials applied in optoelectronics. In the present work, organolead iodide perovskite (OIP) nanowires (NWs) have been fabricated by a one step self-assembly method. The controllable NW distributions were implemented by a series of facile techniques: monolayer and small diameter NWs were prepared by precursor concentration tuning; NW patterning was achieved via selected area treatment assisted by a mask; NW alignment was implemented by modified evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). The synthesized multifunctional NWs were further applied in photodetectors (PDs) and solar cells as application demos. The PD performances have reached 1.32 AW-1 for responsivity, 2.5 × 1012 Jones for detectivity and 0.3 ms for response speed, superior to OIP films and other typical inorganic NW based PD performances. An energy conversion efficiency of ~2.5% has been obtained for NW film based solar cells. The facile fabrication process, controllable distribution and optoelectronic applications make the OIP NWs promising building blocks for future optoelectronics, especially for low dimensional devices.Organolead halide perovskites are becoming intriguing materials applied in optoelectronics. In the present work, organolead iodide perovskite (OIP) nanowires (NWs) have been fabricated by a one step self-assembly method. The controllable NW distributions were implemented by a series of facile techniques: monolayer and small diameter NWs were prepared by precursor concentration tuning; NW patterning was achieved via selected area treatment assisted by a mask; NW alignment was implemented by modified evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). The synthesized multifunctional NWs were further applied in photodetectors (PDs) and solar cells as application demos. The PD performances have reached 1.32 AW-1 for responsivity, 2.5 × 1012 Jones for detectivity and 0.3 ms for response speed, superior to OIP films and other typical inorganic

  6. Alignment-enhancing feed-through conductors for stackable silicon-on-sapphire wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Alignment-enhancing electrically conductive feed-through paths are provided for the high-speed low-loss transfer of electrical signals between integrated circuits of a plurality of silicon-on-sapphire bodies arrayed in a stack. The alignment-enhancing feed-throughs are made by a process involving the drilling of holes through the body, double-sided sputtering, electroplating, and the filling of the holes with solder by capillary action. The alignment-enhancing feed-throughs are activated by forming a stack of wafers and remelting the solder whereupon the wafers, and the feed-through paths, are pulled into alignment by surface tension forces.

  7. Improved thermal isolation of silicon suspended platforms for an all-silicon thermoelectric microgenerator based on large scale integration of Si nanowires as thermoelectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, L.; Donmez, I.; Salleras, M.; Calaza, C.; Gadea, G.; Santos, J. D.; Morata, A.; Tarancon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Special suspended micro-platforms have been designed as a part of silicon compatible planar thermoelectric microgenerators. Bottom-up grown silicon nanowires are going to bridge in the future such platforms to the surrounding silicon bulk rim. They will act as thermoelectric material thus configuring an all-silicon thermoelectric device. In the new platform design other additional bridging elements (usually auxiliary support silicon beams) are substituted by low conductance thin film dielectric membranes in order to maximize the temperature difference developed between both areas. These membranes follow a sieve-like design that allows fabricating them with a short additional wet anisotropic etch step.

  8. Silicon oxides as alignment surfaces for vertically-aligned nematics in photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oton, E.; López-Andrés, S.; Bennis, N.; Otón, J. M.; Geday, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative study on alignment performance and microstructure of inorganic layers used for liquid crystal cell conditioning has been carried out. The study has focused on two specific materials, SiOx and SiO2, deposited under different conditions. The purpose was to establish a relationship between layer microstructure and liquid crystal alignment. The surface morphology has been studied by FESEM and AFM. An analysis on liquid crystal alignment, pretilt angle, response time, contrast ratio and the conditions to develop backflow effect (significant rise time increase due to pure homeotropic alignment) on vertically-aligned nematic cells has been carried out. A technique to overcome the presence of backflow has been identified. The full comparative study of SiOx and SiO2 layer properties and their influence over liquid crystal alignment and electrooptic response is presented.

  9. Effects of silver and gold catalytic activities on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajvardi, M.; Eshghi, H.; Izadifard, M.; Ghazi, M. E.; Goodarzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide is established for the fabrication of large area, uniform silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays. In this study, silver (Ag) and gold (Au) are considered as catalysts and the effect of different catalysts with various thicknesses on the structural and optical properties of the fabricated SiNWs is investigated. The morphology of deposited catalysts on the silicon wafer is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It is shown that the morphology of the fabricated silicon nanostructures remarkably depends upon the catalyst layer thickness, and the catalyst etching time directly affects the structural and optical properties of the synthesized SiNWs. FESEM images show a linear increment of the nanowire length versus time, whereas the etching rate for the Au-etched SiNWs was lower than the Ag-etched ones. Strong light scattering in SiNWs caused the total reflection to decrease in the range of visible light, and this decrement was higher for the Ag-etched SiNW sample, with a longer length than the Au-etched one. A broadband visible photoluminescence (PL) with different peak positions is observed for the Au- and Ag-etched samples. The synthesized optically active SiNWs can be considered as a promising candidate for a new generation of nano-scale opto-electronic devices.

  10. Strain- and defect-mediated thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathryn F; Piccione, Brian; Zanjani, Mehdi B; Lukes, Jennifer R; Gianola, Daniel S

    2014-07-01

    The unique thermal transport of insulating nanostructures is attributed to the convergence of material length scales with the mean free paths of quantized lattice vibrations known as phonons, enabling promising next-generation thermal transistors, thermal barriers, and thermoelectrics. Apart from size, strain and defects are also known to drastically affect heat transport when introduced in an otherwise undisturbed crystalline lattice. Here we report the first experimental measurements of the effect of both spatially uniform strain and point defects on thermal conductivity of an individual suspended nanowire using in situ Raman piezothermography. Our results show that whereas phononic transport in undoped Si nanowires with diameters in the range of 170-180 nm is largely unaffected by uniform elastic tensile strain, another means of disturbing a pristine lattice, namely, point defects introduced via ion bombardment, can reduce the thermal conductivity by over 70%. In addition to discerning surface- and core-governed pathways for controlling thermal transport in phonon-dominated insulators and semiconductors, we expect our novel approach to have broad applicability to a wide class of functional one- and two-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:24885097

  11. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Das, Suman; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2013-02-05

    In a method for growing a nanowire array, a photoresist layer is placed onto a nanowire growth layer configured for growing nanowires therefrom. The photoresist layer is exposed to a coherent light interference pattern that includes periodically alternately spaced dark bands and light bands along a first orientation. The photoresist layer exposed to the coherent light interference pattern along a second orientation, transverse to the first orientation. The photoresist layer developed so as to remove photoresist from areas corresponding to areas of intersection of the dark bands of the interference pattern along the first orientation and the dark bands of the interference pattern along the second orientation, thereby leaving an ordered array of holes passing through the photoresist layer. The photoresist layer and the nanowire growth layer are placed into a nanowire growth environment, thereby growing nanowires from the nanowire growth layer through the array of holes.

  12. Gold-Free Ternary III–V Antimonide Nanowire Arrays on Silicon: Twin-Free down to the First Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the continued maturation of III–V nanowire research, expectations of material quality should be concomitantly raised. Ideally, III–V nanowires integrated on silicon should be entirely free of extended planar defects such as twins, stacking faults, or polytypism, position-controlled for convenient device processing, and gold-free for compatibility with standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) processing tools. Here we demonstrate large area vertical GaAsxSb1–x nanowire arrays grown on silicon (111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires’ complex faceting, pure zinc blende crystal structure, and composition are mapped using characterization techniques both at the nanoscale and in large-area ensembles. We prove unambiguously that these gold-free nanowires are entirely twin-free down to the first bilayer and reveal their three-dimensional composition evolution, paving the way for novel infrared devices integrated directly on the cost-effective Si platform. PMID:24329502

  13. Wet etch methods for InAs nanowire patterning and self-aligned electrical contacts.

    PubMed

    Fülöp, G; d'Hollosy, S; Hofstetter, L; Baumgartner, A; Nygård, J; Schönenberger, C; Csonka, S

    2016-05-13

    Advanced synthesis of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) enables their application in diverse fields, notably in chemical and electrical sensing, photovoltaics, or quantum electronic devices. In particular, indium arsenide (InAs) NWs are an ideal platform for quantum devices, e.g. they may host topological Majorana states. While the synthesis has been continously perfected, only a few techniques have been developed to tailor individual NWs after growth. Here we present three wet chemical etch methods for the post-growth morphological engineering of InAs NWs on the sub-100 nm scale. The first two methods allow the formation of self-aligned electrical contacts to etched NWs, while the third method results in conical shaped NW profiles ideal for creating smooth electrical potential gradients and shallow barriers. Low temperature experiments show that NWs with etched segments have stable transport characteristics and can serve as building blocks of quantum electronic devices. As an example we report the formation of a single electrically stable quantum dot between two etched NW segments.

  14. Wet etch methods for InAs nanowire patterning and self-aligned electrical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fülöp, G.; d'Hollosy, S.; Hofstetter, L.; Baumgartner, A.; Nygård, J.; Schönenberger, C.; Csonka, S.

    2016-05-01

    Advanced synthesis of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) enables their application in diverse fields, notably in chemical and electrical sensing, photovoltaics, or quantum electronic devices. In particular, indium arsenide (InAs) NWs are an ideal platform for quantum devices, e.g. they may host topological Majorana states. While the synthesis has been continously perfected, only a few techniques have been developed to tailor individual NWs after growth. Here we present three wet chemical etch methods for the post-growth morphological engineering of InAs NWs on the sub-100 nm scale. The first two methods allow the formation of self-aligned electrical contacts to etched NWs, while the third method results in conical shaped NW profiles ideal for creating smooth electrical potential gradients and shallow barriers. Low temperature experiments show that NWs with etched segments have stable transport characteristics and can serve as building blocks of quantum electronic devices. As an example we report the formation of a single electrically stable quantum dot between two etched NW segments.

  15. Atomic scale alignment of copper-germanide contacts for ge nanowire metal oxide field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Burchhart, T; Lugstein, A; Hyun, Y J; Hochleitner, G; Bertagnolli, E

    2009-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the formation, of copper-germanide/germanium nanowire (NW) heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces. The copper-germanide (Cu3Ge) formation process is enabled by a chemical reaction between metallic Cu pads and vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Ge-NWs. The atomic scale aligned formation of the Cu3Ge segments is controlled by in situ SEM monitoring at 310 degrees C thereby enabling length control of the intrinsic Ge-NW down to a few nanometers. The single crystal Cu3Ge/Ge/Cu3Ge heterostructures were used to fabricate p-type Ge-NW field effect transistors with Schottky Cu3Ge source/drain contacts. Temperature dependent I /V measurements revealed the metallic properties of the Cu3Ge contacts with a maximum current density of 5 x 10(7) A/cm2. According to the thermoionic emission theory, we determined an effective Schottky barrier height of 218 meV.

  16. Massive transfer of vertically aligned Si nanowire array onto alien substrates and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Shu-Chia; Hung, Shih-Che; Chao, Jiun-Jie; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2009-07-01

    Si nanowires (NWs) are promising materials for future electronic, photovoltaic, and sensor applications. So far the Si NWs are mainly formed on particular substrates or at high temperatures, greatly limiting their application flexibility. Here we report a low temperature process for forming and massively transferring vertically aligned Si NWs on alien substrates with a large density of about (3-5) × 10 7 NWs/mm 2. The X-ray diffraction spectrum reveals that the transferred NWs exhibit almost the same crystal property as the bulk Si. Our investigation further shows that the transferred NWs have exceptional optical characteristics. The transferred Si NWs of 12.14 μm exhibit the transmittance as low as 0.3% in the near infrared region and 0.07% in the visible region. The extracted absorption coefficient of Si NWs in the near infrared region is about 3 × 10 3 cm -1, over 30 times larger than that of the bulk Si. Because of the low temperature process, it enables a large variety of alien substrates such as glass and plastics to be used. In addition, the exceptional properties of the transferred NWs offer potential applications for photovoltaic, photo-detectors, sensors, and flexible electronics.

  17. Insertion of Vertically Aligned Nanowires into Living Cells by Inkjet Printing of Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggyu; Lee, Daehee; Won, Yulim; Hong, Hyeonaug; Kim, Yongjae; Song, Hyunwoo; Pyun, Jae-Chul; Cho, Yong Soo; Ryu, Wonhyoung; Moon, Jooho

    2016-03-01

    Effective insertion of vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) into cells is critical for bioelectrical and biochemical devices, biological delivery systems, and photosynthetic bioenergy harvesting. However, accurate insertion of NWs into living cells using scalable processes has not yet been achieved. Here, NWs are inserted into living Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells (Chlamy cells) via inkjet printing of the Chlamy cells, representing a low-cost and large-scale method for inserting NWs into living cells. Jetting conditions and printable bioink composed of living Chlamy cells are optimized to achieve stable jetting and precise ink deposition of bioink for indentation of NWs into Chlamy cells. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is used to verify the viability of Chlamy cells after inkjet printing. Simple mechanical considerations of the cell membrane and droplet kinetics are developed to control the jetting force to allow penetration of the NWs into cells. The results suggest that inkjet printing is an effective, controllable tool for stable insertion of NWs into cells with economic and scale-related advantages. PMID:26800021

  18. Aligned silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes for engineering polarisation-selective optoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoungchoo; Bae, In-Gon; Huh, Yoon Ho

    2016-01-01

    We herein report on a remarkably simple, fast, and economic way of fabricating homogeneous and well oriented silver nanowires (AgNWs) that exhibit strong in-plane electrical and optical anisotropies. Using a small quantity of AgNW suspension, the horizontal-dip (H-dip) coating method was applied, in which highly oriented AgNWs were deposited unidirectionally along the direction of coating over centimetre-scale lengths very rapidly. In applying the H-dip-coating method, we adjusted the shear strain rate of the capillary flow in the Landau-Levich meniscus of the AgNW suspension, which induced a high degree of uniaxial orientational ordering (0.37–0.43) of the AgNWs, comparable with the ordering seen in archetypal nematic liquid crystal (LC) materials. These AgNWs could be used to fabricate not only transparent electrodes, but also LC-alignment electrodes for LC devices and/or polarising electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices, having the potential to revolutionise the architectures of a number of polarisation-selective opto-electronic devices for use in printed/organic electronics. PMID:26778621

  19. Aligned silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes for engineering polarisation-selective optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoungchoo; Bae, In-Gon; Huh, Yoon Ho

    2016-01-01

    We herein report on a remarkably simple, fast, and economic way of fabricating homogeneous and well oriented silver nanowires (AgNWs) that exhibit strong in-plane electrical and optical anisotropies. Using a small quantity of AgNW suspension, the horizontal-dip (H-dip) coating method was applied, in which highly oriented AgNWs were deposited unidirectionally along the direction of coating over centimetre-scale lengths very rapidly. In applying the H-dip-coating method, we adjusted the shear strain rate of the capillary flow in the Landau-Levich meniscus of the AgNW suspension, which induced a high degree of uniaxial orientational ordering (0.37–0.43) of the AgNWs, comparable with the ordering seen in archetypal nematic liquid crystal (LC) materials. These AgNWs could be used to fabricate not only transparent electrodes, but also LC-alignment electrodes for LC devices and/or polarising electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices, having the potential to revolutionise the architectures of a number of polarisation-selective opto-electronic devices for use in printed/organic electronics.

  20. Fabrication of a sub-10 nm silicon nanowire based ethanol sensor using block copolymer lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Borah, Dipu; Faulkner, Colm C.; Lutz, Tarek; Shaw, Matthew T.; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    This paper details the fabrication of ultrathin silicon nanowires (SiNWs) on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate as an electrode for the electro-oxidation and sensing of ethanol. The nanowire surfaces were prepared by a block copolymer (BCP) nanolithographic technique using low molecular weight symmetric poly(styrene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) to create a nanopattern which was transferred to the substrate using plasma etching. The BCP orientation was controlled using a hydroxyl-terminated random polymer brush of poly(styrene)-random-poly(methyl methacrylate) (HO-PS-r-PMMA). TEM cross-sections of the resultant SiNWs indicate an anisotropic etch process with nanowires of sub-10 nm feature size. The SiNWs obtained by etching show high crystallinity and there is no evidence of defect inclusion or amorphous region production as a result of the pattern transfer process. The high density of SiNWs at the substrate surface allowed the fabrication of a sensor for cyclic voltammetric detection of ethanol. The sensor shows better sensitivity to ethanol and a faster response time compared to widely used polymer nanocomposite based sensors.

  1. A novel dynamically configurable electrostatically doped silicon nanowire impact ionization MOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Kondekar, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a novel dynamically configurable, electrostatically doped silicon nanowire impact ionization MOS (E-SiNW-IMOS) based on dopant-free technology is investigated. The key attribute of the proposed device is its polarity controlled dynamic reconfigurability of charge gating mechanism from impact ionization to band-to-band tunneling. This ensures that same device can act as E-SiNW-IMOS or electrostatically doped silicon nanowire Tunnel FET (E-SiNW-TFET) depending on bias conditions. It consists of an undoped SiNW and three independent all-around-gates two polarity gates to realize n+ and p+ regions in undoped nanowire by electrostatic doping and a control gate to initiate impact ionization/tunneling. Combination of biases applied at polarity gates and control gate configures both the operating mechanism and device polarity. This enables the potential co-integration of IMOS (offering high gain and ultra steep switching behavior) and TFET (with extremely low leakage current and power-efficiency) on a single chip. A calibrated 3-D TCAD study reveals consistent static device behavior for both the devices considered. It offers a simplified fabrication process as it avoids the need of ion implantation and thermal annealing, thereby reducing thermal budget. Further, it is highly resilient towards process variations, doping control issues, voltage variations and random dopant fluctuations (RDF).

  2. On the possibility of population inversion in strained silicon nanowires: an atomistic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiri, Daryoush; Verma, Amit; Anantram, Anant

    2013-03-01

    Density functional theory and Ensemble Monte Carlo studies show the possibility of population inversion in strained silicon nanowires. At room temperature and electric field of 15 KV/cm, a strain induced indirect subband can hold 10 times more electron population compared to the direct subband. The most dominant mechanism which depletes the indirect subband is scattering by longitudinal optical (LO) phonons. At T =300K the inter-sub band scattering is almost symmetric with the rate of 1011 s-1. On the other hand the processes of thermalization to the bottom of the indirect subband (via acoustic phonon emission) and the 2nd order radiative recombination are very slow (10-9 sec and 10 sec, respectively). At T =77K the LO-phonon absorption rate (indirect to direct subband scattering) drops to 108 s-1. This induced asymmetry in scattering leads to the enhanced population difference between indirect and direct subbands even at higher electric fields. The spontaneous emission time is 10-7sec and a few seconds for direct and indirect bandgap nanowires, respectively. This study suggests the usability of strained silicon nanowires in nano-lasers.

  3. Synthesis and field emission of β-SiC nanowires on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Li, Zijiong; Kang, Liping; Li, Xinjian

    2012-10-01

    Nonaligned β-SiC nanowires (nw-SiC) were grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method with nickel as the catalyst. The curly hair like SiC nanowires and the silicon pillar array formed a nanometer-micron hierarchy structure. The field-emission measurements to nw-SiC/Si-NPA showed that a lower turn-on field of 2.9 V μm-1 was obtained, and the enhancement factor of nw-SiC/Si-NPA according to the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) theory reached 5200. The excellent field-emission performance was attributed to the nanometer-micron hierarchy structure of nw-SiC/Si-NPA, including the high aspect ratio of the SiC nanowires and the regular surface undulation of Si-NPA which increased the emission sites density and might have reduced the electrostatic shielding among the emitters.

  4. Electronic transport properties of silicon junctionless nanowire transistors fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu-Hong, Ma; Wei-Hua, Han; Hao, Wang; Qi-feng, Lyu; Wang, Zhang; Xiang, Yang; Fu-Hua, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Silicon junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT) is fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing on a heavily n-doped SOI substrate. The performances of the transistor, i.e., current drive, threshold voltage, subthreshold swing (SS), and electron mobility are evaluated. The device shows good gate control ability and low-temperature instability in a temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. The drain currents increasing by steps with the gate voltage are clearly observed from 10 K to 50 K, which is attributed to the electron transport through one-dimensional (1D) subbands formed in the nanowire. Besides, the device exhibits a better low-field electron mobility of 290 cm2·V-1·s-1, implying that the silicon nanowires fabricated by femtosecond laser have good electrical properties. This approach provides a potential application for nanoscale device patterning. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376096, 61327813, and 61404126) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB934104).

  5. Electronic transport properties of silicon junctionless nanowire transistors fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu-Hong, Ma; Wei-Hua, Han; Hao, Wang; Qi-feng, Lyu; Wang, Zhang; Xiang, Yang; Fu-Hua, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Silicon junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT) is fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing on a heavily n-doped SOI substrate. The performances of the transistor, i.e., current drive, threshold voltage, subthreshold swing (SS), and electron mobility are evaluated. The device shows good gate control ability and low-temperature instability in a temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. The drain currents increasing by steps with the gate voltage are clearly observed from 10 K to 50 K, which is attributed to the electron transport through one-dimensional (1D) subbands formed in the nanowire. Besides, the device exhibits a better low-field electron mobility of 290 cm2·V‑1·s‑1, implying that the silicon nanowires fabricated by femtosecond laser have good electrical properties. This approach provides a potential application for nanoscale device patterning. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376096, 61327813, and 61404126) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB934104).

  6. Visible and Infra-red Light Emission in Boron-Doped Wurtzite Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura; Fukata, Naoki; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronic circuitry, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications owing to its indirect electronic band gap, which limits its efficiency as a light emitter. Here we show the light emission properties of boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires measured by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. A visible emission, peaked above 1.5 eV, and a near infra-red emission at 0.8 eV correlate respectively to the direct transition at the Γ point and to the indirect band-gap of wurtzite silicon. We find additional intense emissions due to boron intra-gap states in the short wavelength infra-red range. We present the evolution of the light emission properties as function of the boron doping concentration and the growth temperature. PMID:24398782

  7. Recombination dynamics of spatially confined electron-hole system in luminescent gold catalyzed silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Demichel, O; Calvo, V; Pauc, N; Besson, A; Noé, P; Oehler, F; Gentile, P; Magnea, N

    2009-07-01

    We study by time-resolved low temperature photoluminescence (PL) experiments of the electronic states of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown by gold catalyzed chemical vapor deposition and passivated by thermal SiO(2). The typical recombination line of free carriers in gold-catalyzed SiNWs (Au-SiNWs) is identified and studied by time-resolved experiments. We demonstrate that intrinsic Auger recombination governs the recombination dynamic of the dense e-h plasma generated inside the NW. In a few tens of nanoseconds after the pulsed excitation, the density of the initial electronic system rapidly decreases down to reach that of a stable electron-hole liquid phase. The comparison of the PL intensity decay time of Au-SiNWs with high crystalline quality and purity silicon layer allows us to conclude that the Au-SiNW electronic properties are highly comparable to those of bulk silicon crystal.

  8. APPLIED OPTICS. Voltage-tunable circular photogalvanic effect in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dhara, Sajal; Mele, Eugene J; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-08-14

    Electronic bands in crystals can support nontrivial topological textures arising from spin-orbit interactions, but purely orbital mechanisms can realize closely related dynamics without breaking spin degeneracies, opening up applications in materials containing only light elements. One such application is the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), which is the generation of photocurrents whose magnitude and polarity depend on the chirality of optical excitation. We show that the CPGE can arise from interband transitions at the metal contacts to silicon nanowires, where inversion symmetry is locally broken by an electric field. Bias voltage that modulates this field further controls the sign and magnitude of the CPGE. The generation of chirality-dependent photocurrents in silicon with a purely orbital-based mechanism will enable new functionalities in silicon that can be integrated with conventional electronics.

  9. Visible and infra-red light emission in boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura; Fukata, Naoki; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-08

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronic circuitry, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications owing to its indirect electronic band gap, which limits its efficiency as a light emitter. Here we show the light emission properties of boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires measured by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. A visible emission, peaked above 1.5 eV, and a near infra-red emission at 0.8 eV correlate respectively to the direct transition at the Γ point and to the indirect band-gap of wurtzite silicon. We find additional intense emissions due to boron intra-gap states in the short wavelength infra-red range. We present the evolution of the light emission properties as function of the boron doping concentration and the growth temperature.

  10. Electrical Control of g-Factor in a Few-Hole Silicon Nanowire MOSFET.

    PubMed

    Voisin, B; Maurand, R; Barraud, S; Vinet, M; Jehl, X; Sanquer, M; Renard, J; De Franceschi, S

    2016-01-13

    Hole spins in silicon represent a promising yet barely explored direction for solid-state quantum computation, possibly combining long spin coherence, resulting from a reduced hyperfine interaction, and fast electrically driven qubit manipulation. Here we show that a silicon-nanowire field-effect transistor based on state-of-the-art silicon-on-insulator technology can be operated as a few-hole quantum dot. A detailed magnetotransport study of the first accessible hole reveals a g-factor with unexpectedly strong anisotropy and gate dependence. We infer that these two characteristics could enable an electrically driven g-tensor-modulation spin resonance with Rabi frequencies exceeding several hundred mega-Hertz. PMID:26599868

  11. Crystallinity, Surface Morphology, and Photoelectrochemical Effects in Conical InP and InN Nanowires Grown on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-24

    The growth conditions of two types of indium-based III-V nanowires, InP and InN, are tailored such that instead of yielding conventional wire-type morphologies, single-crystal conical structures are formed with an enlarged diameter either near the base or near the tip. By using indium droplets as a growth catalyst, combined with an excess indium supply during growth, "ice cream cone" type structures are formed with a nanowire "cone" and an indium-based "ice cream" droplet on top for both InP and InN. Surface polycrystallinity and annihilation of the catalyst tip of the conical InP nanowires are observed when the indium supply is turned off during the growth process. This growth design technique is extended to create single-crystal InN nanowires with the same morphology. Conical InN nanowires with an enlarged base are obtained through the use of an excess combined Au-In growth catalyst. Electrochemical studies of the InP nanowires on silicon demonstrate a reduction photocurrent as a proof of photovolatic behavior and provide insight as to how the observed surface polycrystallinity and the resulting interface affect these device-level properties. Additionally, a photovoltage is induced in both types of conical InN nanowires on silicon, which is not replicated in epitaxial InN thin films. PMID:27455379

  12. Thermal phonon transport in silicon nanowires and two-dimensional phononic crystal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Junki; Kage, Yuta; Maire, Jeremie; Moser, Dominik; Paul, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Thermal phonon transport in silicon nanowires (Si NWs) and two-dimensional phononic crystal (2D PnC) nanostructures was investigated by measuring thermal conductivity using a micrometer-scale time-domain thermoreflectance. The impact of nanopatterning on thermal conductivity strongly depends on the geometry, specularity parameter, and thermal phonon mean free path (MFP) distribution. Thermal conductivities for 2D PnC nanostructures were found to be much lower than that for NWs with similar characteristic length and surface-to-volume ratio due to stronger phonon back scattering. In single-crystalline Si, PnC patterning has a stronger impact at 4 K than at room temperature due to a higher specularity parameter and a longer thermal phonon MFP. Nanowire patterning has a stronger impact in polycrystalline Si, where thermal phonon MFP distribution is biased longer by grain boundary scattering.

  13. Enhanced field emission from ZnO nanowires grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hai Jun; Chan, Yu Fei; Su, Lei; Li, De Yao; Sun, Xiao Ming

    2010-12-01

    A large scale heterostructure array of ZnO nanowires/silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) was prepared by a self-catalytic thermal evaporation and vapor-phase transport method, and an ultrahigh field emission current density of 1.55 mA cm-2 was obtained under an operating electric field of 4.0 V μm-1, with a low turn-on field of 1.65 V μm-1. The enhancement factor calculated according to the Fowler-Nordheim theory was ˜3141. The excellent field emission performance was attributed to the unique structure of ZnO/Si-NPA, especially the formation of ZnO nanowires on regular Si pillar array. Our work indicated that ZnO/Si-NPA might be an ideal candidate cathode of potential applications in flat panel displays and high brightness electron sources.

  14. Controllable electrical and physical breakdown of poly-crystalline silicon nanowires by thermally assisted electromigration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Young; Moon, Dong-Il; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Sang-Jae; Lee, Hee Chul; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The importance of poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) in semiconductor manufacturing is rapidly increasing due to its highly controllable conductivity and excellent, uniform deposition quality. With the continuing miniaturization of electronic components, low dimensional structures such as 1-dimensional nanowires (NWs) have attracted a great deal of attention. But such components have a much higher current density than 2- or 3- dimensional films, and high current can degrade device lifetime and lead to breakdown problems. Here, we report on the electrical and thermal characteristics of poly-Si NWs, which can also be used to control electrical and physical breakdown under high current density. This work reports a controllable catastrophic change of poly-Si NWs by thermally-assisted electromigration and underlying mechanisms. It also reports the direct and real time observation of these catastrophic changes of poly-Si nanowires for the first time, using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26782708

  15. Epitaxial growth of vertically free-standing ultra-thin silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingwei; Liu, Liwei; Gao, Xingsen; Chen, Lijun; Senz, Stephan; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2015-02-20

    We report epitaxial growth of ultra-thin vertically free-standing silicon nanowires (Si NWs) on Si(111) and Si(110) substrate, by an ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition method. The epitaxial growth direction of Si NWs with sub-10 nm diameters was found to be dependent upon the orientation type of the Si substrate. The 〈112〉 and 〈110〉 epitaxial growth directions are crystallographically preferred on Si(111) and Si(110) substrates, respectively. Especially, for the epitaxy on Si(110), most of the Si NWs are grown vertically in the [110] direction with sub-5 nm diameters. Based on transmission electron microscope investigations, a growth model for ultra-thin Si NWs was deduced from the morphology of interface between catalyst and nanowire, and the growth direction at a very early stage of epitaxy was determined.

  16. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  17. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-Beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  18. Silicon nanowires used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Rondino, Flaminia; Santoni, Antonino

    2015-06-23

    In this paper the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires to be used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery cell are reported. The nanowires were synthesized by CVD and characterized by SEM. The nanostructured material was used as an electrode in a lithium cell and its electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at C/10 rate as a function of the cycle number and at various rates as a function of the charge current. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO{sub 4} cathode to fabricate a lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles.

  19. Controllable electrical and physical breakdown of poly-crystalline silicon nanowires by thermally assisted electromigration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Young; Moon, Dong-Il; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Sang-Jae; Lee, Hee Chul; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The importance of poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) in semiconductor manufacturing is rapidly increasing due to its highly controllable conductivity and excellent, uniform deposition quality. With the continuing miniaturization of electronic components, low dimensional structures such as 1-dimensional nanowires (NWs) have attracted a great deal of attention. But such components have a much higher current density than 2- or 3-dimensional films, and high current can degrade device lifetime and lead to breakdown problems. Here, we report on the electrical and thermal characteristics of poly-Si NWs, which can also be used to control electrical and physical breakdown under high current density. This work reports a controllable catastrophic change of poly-Si NWs by thermally-assisted electromigration and underlying mechanisms. It also reports the direct and real time observation of these catastrophic changes of poly-Si nanowires for the first time, using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26782708

  20. Single nanowire electrode electrochemistry of silicon anode by in situ atomic force microscopy: solid electrolyte interphase growth and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Rui; Deng, Xin; Liu, Ran-Ran; Yan, Hui-Juan; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-11-26

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted great attention as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) on account of their high capacity and improved cyclability compared with bulk silicon. The interface behavior, especially the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), plays a significant role in the performance and stability of the electrodes. We report herein an in situ single nanowire atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to investigate the interface electrochemistry of silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrode. The morphology and Young's modulus of the individual SiNW anode surface during the SEI growth were quantitatively tracked. Three distinct stages of the SEI formation on the SiNW anode were observed. On the basis of the potential-dependent morphology and Young's modulus evolution of SEI, a mixture-packing structural model was proposed for the SEI film on SiNW anode.

  1. Fundamental understanding of the growth, doping and characterization of aligned ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gang

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a II-VI semiconductor whose wide direct bandgap (3.37 eV) and large exciton binding energy (60 meV) make it compelling for optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, solar cells, and mechanical energy harvesting devices. One dimensional structures of ZnO (nanowires) have become significant due to their unique physical properties arising from quantum confinement, and they are ideal for studying transport mechanisms in one-dimensional systems. In this doctoral research work, ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays were synthesized on sapphire substrates through carbo-thermal reduction of ZnO powders, and the effects of growth parameters on the properties of ZnO NW arrays were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the phonon mode selection rules in wurtzite ZnO, confocal Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the alignment of ZnO NWs in an array, thereby complementing X-ray diffraction. Al doped ZnO NW arrays were achieved by mixing Al powder into the ZnO and graphite source mixture, and the presence of Al was confirmed by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The incorporation of Al had the effects of lowering the electrical resistivity, slightly deteriorating crystal quality and suppressing defect related green emission. Two models of ZnO NW growth were developed by establishing the relationship between NW length and diameter for undoped and Al doped ZnO NWs separately. The growth of undoped ZnO NWs followed the diffusion-induced model which was characterized by thin wires being longer than thick wires, while the growth of Al doped ZnO was controlled by Gibbs-Thomson effect which was characterized by thin wires being shorter than thin wires. Local electrode atom probe analysis of ZnO NWs was carried out to study the crystal stoichiometry and Al incorporation. Undoped ZnO NWs were found to be high purity with no detectable impurities

  2. Volumetric Heating of Ultra-High Energy Density Relativistic Plasmas by Ultrafast Laser Irradiation of Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Pukhov, Alexander; Keiss, David; Townsend, Amanda; Wang, Yong; Wang, Shoujun; Prieto, Amy; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    We have demonstrated the volumetric heating of near-solid density plasmas to keV temperatures by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser irradiation of arrays of vertically aligned nanowires with an average density up to 30% solid density. X-ray spectra show that irradiation of Ni and Au nanowire arrays with laser pulses of relativistic intensities ionizes plasma volumes several micrometers in depth to the He-like and Co-like (Au 52 +) stages respectively. The penetration depth of the heat into the nanowire array was measured monitoring He-like Co lines from irradiated arrays in which the nanowires are composed of a Co segment buried under a selected length of Ni. The measurement shows the ionization reaches He-like Co for depth of up to 5 μm within the target. This volumetric plasma heating approach creates a new laboratory plasma regime in which extreme plasma parameters can be accessed with table-top lasers. Scaling to higher laser intensities promises to create plasmas with temperatures and pressures approaching those in the center of the sun. Work supported by the U.S Department of Energy, Fusion Energy Sciences and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency grant HDTRA-1-10-1-0079. A.P was supported by of DFG-funded project TR18.

  3. High efficiency silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells with two-step surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxiong; Wang, Hao; Prakoso, Ari Bimo; Togonal, Alienor Svietlana; Hong, Lei; Jiang, Changyun; Rusli

    2015-03-14

    A simple two-step surface treatment process is proposed to boost the efficiency of silicon nanowire/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The Si nanowires (SiNWs) are first subjected to a low temperature ozone treatment to form a surface sacrificial oxide, followed by a HF etching process to partially remove the oxide. TEM investigation demonstrates that a clean SiNW surface is achieved after the treatment, in contrast to untreated SiNWs that have Ag nanoparticles left on the surface from the metal-catalyzed etching process that is used to form the SiNWs. The cleaner SiNW surface achieved and the thin layer of residual SiO2 on the SiNWs have been found to improve the performance of the hybrid solar cells. Overall, the surface recombination of the hybrid SiNW solar cells is greatly suppressed, resulting in a remarkably improved open circuit voltage of 0.58 V. The power conversion efficiency has also increased from about 10% to 12.4%. The two-step surface treatment method is promising in enhancing the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid silicon solar cells, and can also be applied to other silicon nanostructure based solar cells. PMID:25686737

  4. High efficiency silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells with two-step surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxiong; Wang, Hao; Prakoso, Ari Bimo; Togonal, Alienor Svietlana; Hong, Lei; Jiang, Changyun; Rusli

    2015-03-14

    A simple two-step surface treatment process is proposed to boost the efficiency of silicon nanowire/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The Si nanowires (SiNWs) are first subjected to a low temperature ozone treatment to form a surface sacrificial oxide, followed by a HF etching process to partially remove the oxide. TEM investigation demonstrates that a clean SiNW surface is achieved after the treatment, in contrast to untreated SiNWs that have Ag nanoparticles left on the surface from the metal-catalyzed etching process that is used to form the SiNWs. The cleaner SiNW surface achieved and the thin layer of residual SiO2 on the SiNWs have been found to improve the performance of the hybrid solar cells. Overall, the surface recombination of the hybrid SiNW solar cells is greatly suppressed, resulting in a remarkably improved open circuit voltage of 0.58 V. The power conversion efficiency has also increased from about 10% to 12.4%. The two-step surface treatment method is promising in enhancing the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid silicon solar cells, and can also be applied to other silicon nanostructure based solar cells.

  5. Silicon Nanowires for Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting: an Experimental Evaluation on the Trade-off Effects of the Spectral Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Sekone, Abdoul Karim; Chen, Yu-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chen, Wen-Kai; Liu, Chia-An; Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2016-12-01

    Silicon nanowire possesses great potential as the material for renewable energy harvesting and conversion. The significantly reduced spectral reflectivity of silicon nanowire to visible light makes it even more attractive in solar energy applications. However, the benefit of its use for solar thermal energy harvesting remains to be investigated and has so far not been clearly reported. The purpose of this study is to provide practical information and insight into the performance of silicon nanowires in solar thermal energy conversion systems. Spectral hemispherical reflectivity and transmissivity of the black silicon nanowire array on silicon wafer substrate were measured. It was observed that the reflectivity is lower in the visible range but higher in the infrared range compared to the plain silicon wafer. A drying experiment and a theoretical calculation were carried out to directly evaluate the effects of the trade-off between scattering properties at different wavelengths. It is clearly seen that silicon nanowires can improve the solar thermal energy harnessing. The results showed that a 17.8 % increase in the harvest and utilization of solar thermal energy could be achieved using a silicon nanowire array on silicon substrate as compared to that obtained with a plain silicon wafer.

  6. Silicon Nanowires for Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting: an Experimental Evaluation on the Trade-off Effects of the Spectral Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekone, Abdoul Karim; Chen, Yu-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chen, Wen-Kai; Liu, Chia-An; Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanowire possesses great potential as the material for renewable energy harvesting and conversion. The significantly reduced spectral reflectivity of silicon nanowire to visible light makes it even more attractive in solar energy applications. However, the benefit of its use for solar thermal energy harvesting remains to be investigated and has so far not been clearly reported. The purpose of this study is to provide practical information and insight into the performance of silicon nanowires in solar thermal energy conversion systems. Spectral hemispherical reflectivity and transmissivity of the black silicon nanowire array on silicon wafer substrate were measured. It was observed that the reflectivity is lower in the visible range but higher in the infrared range compared to the plain silicon wafer. A drying experiment and a theoretical calculation were carried out to directly evaluate the effects of the trade-off between scattering properties at different wavelengths. It is clearly seen that silicon nanowires can improve the solar thermal energy harnessing. The results showed that a 17.8 % increase in the harvest and utilization of solar thermal energy could be achieved using a silicon nanowire array on silicon substrate as compared to that obtained with a plain silicon wafer.

  7. Theory of Corner States in Silicon Nanowire Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, Andre; Koiller, Belita; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. Fernando

    Nanowire-based transistors, such as FinFETs and Tri-gate FETs, form one and zero dimensional states at the corners. These corner states may be manipulated for quantum electronic applications, such as tunable quantum dot-based spin qubits. We discuss the electronic structure of the electrons bound at the corner, considering the effects due to the anisotropy of the effective mass, the splitting of valleys due to the confinement and the scattering at the interface, generalizing our results to corners of arbitrary angle. Our results indicate the optimal conditions for lifting the valley degeneracy, known to impact quantum coherence and control. We finally mention the expected impacts of this geometry on the tunnel and exchange coupling between dots at opposite corners of a wire. As and BK performed this work as part of the Brazilian National Institute for Science and Technology on Quantum Information and acknowledge support from the Brazilian agencies FAPERJ, CNPq, CAPES. MFG-Z is funded by the FP7/318397-TOLOP project.

  8. Nitrogen-plasma treatment of parallel-aligned SnO2-nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong-Hee; Na, Junhong; Kim, Jae-Sung; Joo, Min-Kyu; Kim, Gyu Tae; Kang, Pil Soo

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen (N2)-plasma treatment and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) passivation were carried out to stabilize the electrical properties of parallel-aligned tin-dioxide (SnO2)-nanowire field-effect transistors. Treatment led to a positive shift in the threshold voltage, V th , with a reduction in the hysteresis in the transfer curves of more than 30% compared to the case without treatment. Passivation was carried using a PMMA coating to prevent changes in the electrical properties over time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the chemical mechanisms that resulted in the changes in the electrical properties over time, those changes being attributed to the recombination of oxygen vacancies and carbon contaminants on the surface of the SnO2 nanowires with oxygen in the ambient air.

  9. Recrystallization and reactivation of dopant atoms in ion-implanted silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fukata, Naoki; Takiguchi, Ryo; Ishida, Shinya; Yokono, Shigeki; Hishita, Shunichi; Murakami, Kouichi

    2012-04-24

    Recrystallization of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) after ion implantation strongly depends on the ion doses and species. Full amorphization by high-dose implantation induces polycrystal structures in SiNWs even after high-temperature annealing, with this tendency more pronounced for heavy ions. Hot-implantation techniques dramatically suppress polycrystallization in SiNWs, resulting in reversion to the original single-crystal structures and consequently high reactivation rate of dopant atoms. In this study, the chemical bonding states and electrical activities of implanted boron and phosphorus atoms were evaluated by Raman scattering and electron spin resonance, demonstrating the formation of p- and n-type SiNWs.

  10. A pH sensor with a double-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Baek, David J.; Guo, Zheng; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    A pH sensor composed of a double-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (DG Si-NW FET) is demonstrated. The proposed DG Si-NW FET allows the independent addressing of the gate voltage and hence improves the sensing capability through an application of asymmetric gate voltage between the two gates. One gate is a driving gate which controls the current flow, and the other is a supporting gate which amplifies the shift of the threshold voltage, which is a sensing metric, and which arises from changes in the pH. The pH signal is also amplified through modulation of the gate oxide thickness.

  11. A palladium-nanoparticle and silicon-nanowire-array hybrid: a platform for catalytic heterogeneous reactions.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi M A; Yuyama, Yoshinari; Sato, Takuma; Fujikawa, Shigenori; Uozumi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a silicon nanowire array-stabilized palladium nanoparticle catalyst, SiNA-Pd. Its use in the palladium-catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction, the hydrogenation of an alkene, the hydrogenolysis of nitrobenzene, the hydrosilylation of an α,β-unsaturated ketone, and the C-H bond functionalization reactions of thiophenes and indoles achieved a quantitative production with high reusability. The catalytic activity reached several hundred-mol ppb of palladium, reaching a TON of 2 000 000.

  12. Action potentials of HL-1 cells recorded with silicon nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschermann, Jan Felix; Stockmann, Regina; Hueske, Martin; Vu, Xuan Thang; Ingebrandt, Sven; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2009-08-01

    Silicon nanowire (NW) transistors were fabricated in a top-down process. These devices were used to record the extracellular potential of the spontaneous activity of cardiac muscle HL-1 cells. Their signals were measured by direct dc sampling of the drain current. An improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to planar field-effect devices was observed. Furthermore the signal shape was evaluated and could be associated to different membrane currents. With these experiments, a qualitative description of the properties of the cell-NW contact was obtained and the suitability of these sensors for electrophysiological measurements in vitro was demonstrated.

  13. Improved photovoltaic performance of silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells by incorporating silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kong; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Xinhui; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-02-18

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays show an excellent light-trapping characteristic and high mobility for carriers. Surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be used to increase light scattering and absorption in solar cells. We fabricated a new kind of SiNW/organic hybrid solar cell by introducing AgNPs. Reflection spectra confirm the improved light scattering of AgNP-decorated SiNW arrays. A double-junction tandem structure was designed to manufacture our hybrid cells. Both short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency measurements show an enhancement in optical absorption of organic layer, especially at lower wavelengths.

  14. Silicon nanowire-based fluorescent nanosensor for complexed Cu2+ and its bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Miao, Rong; Mu, Lixuan; Zhang, Hongyan; She, Guangwei; Zhou, Bingjiang; Xu, Haitao; Wang, Pengfei; Shi, Wensheng

    2014-06-11

    A silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based fluorescent sensor for complexed Cu(2+) was realized. High sensitivity and selectivity of the present sensor facilitate its bioapplications. The sensor was successfully used to detect the Cu(2+) in liver extract. Meanwhile, real-time and in situ monitoring of Cu(2+) released from apoptotic HeLa cell was performed using the as-prepared SiNW arrays-based sensor. These results indicate that the present SiNWs-based sensor would be of potential applications in revealing the physiological and pathological roles of Cu(2+).

  15. Improved photovoltaic performance of silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells by incorporating silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays show an excellent light-trapping characteristic and high mobility for carriers. Surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be used to increase light scattering and absorption in solar cells. We fabricated a new kind of SiNW/organic hybrid solar cell by introducing AgNPs. Reflection spectra confirm the improved light scattering of AgNP-decorated SiNW arrays. A double-junction tandem structure was designed to manufacture our hybrid cells. Both short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency measurements show an enhancement in optical absorption of organic layer, especially at lower wavelengths. PMID:23418988

  16. Alignment of the CMS silicon strip tracker during stand-alone commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-07-01

    The results of the CMS tracker alignment analysis are presented using the data from cosmic tracks, optical survey information, and the laser alignment system at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During several months of operation in the spring and summer of 2007, about five million cosmic track events were collected with a partially active CMS Tracker. This allowed us to perform first alignment of the active silicon modules with the cosmic tracks using three different statistical approaches; validate the survey and laser alignment system performance; and test the stability of Tracker structures under various stresses and temperatures ranging from +15C to -15C. Comparison with simulation shows that the achieved alignment precision in the barrel part of the tracker leads to residual distributions similar to those obtained with a random misalignment of 50 (80) microns in the outer (inner) part of the barrel.

  17. Multipoint alignment monitoring with amorphous silicon position detectors in a complex light path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Calderón, A.; Gómez, G.; González-Sánchez, F. J.; Martínez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Árbol, P.; Sobrón, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    This document presents an application of the new generation of amorphous silicon position detecting (ASPD) sensors to multipoint alignment. Twelve units are monitored along a 20 m long laser beam, where the light path is deflected by 90° using a pentaprism.

  18. Lithium insertion in silicon nanowires: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Wenxing; Wan, Wenhui; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2010-09-01

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a challenge, and as a result, understanding of the fundamental interaction and microscopic dynamics during lithium insertion is still lacking. This paper focuses on the study of single Li atom insertion into SiNWs with different sizes and axis orientations by using full ab initio calculations. We show that the binding energy of interstitial Li increases as the SiNW diameter grows. The binding energies at different insertion sites, which can be classified as surface, intermediate, and core sites, are quite different. We find that surface sites are energetically the most favorable insertion positions and that intermediate sites are the most unfavorable insertion positions. Compared with the other growth directions, the [110] SiNWs with different diameters always present the highest binding energies on various insertion locations, which indicates that [110] SiNWs are more favorable by Li doping. Furthermore, we study Li diffusion inside SiNWs. The results show that the Li surface diffusion has a much higher chance to occur than the surface to core diffusion, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the Li insertion in SiNWs is layer by layer from surface to inner region. After overcoming a large barrier crossing surface-to-intermediate region, the diffusion toward center has a higher possibility to occur than the inverse process.

  19. EFFECT OF PRE-ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF ALIGNED α-Fe2O3 NANOWIRES VIA A TWO-STEP THERMAL OXIDATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Norhana Mohamed; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-03-01

    Pre-annealing as part of a two-step thermal oxidation process has a significant effect on the growth of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanowires on Fe foil. High-density aligned nanowires were obtained on iron foils pre-annealed at 300∘C under a dry air flow for 30min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the nanowires are transformed from the small α-Fe2O3 grains and uniquely grow in the (110) direction. The formation of a high-density of small grains by pre-annealing improved the alignment and density of the α-Fe2O3 nanowires.

  20. Effects of Ordered Stacking Faults on Electrical Transport Properties in Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Marc; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Champagne, Alexandre

    Lattice defects in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) allow the exploration of the fundamental physics governing transport mechanisms. We study charge transport in SiNW transistors with stacking faults in the 3C sequence, producing local hexagonal ordering. This structure leads to polytype SiNWs with distinct properties for novel applications in thermoelectronics. Since charge carrier and phonon behavior depend on crystal structure, these planar defects affect the transport properties of the nanowire. We grow our SiNWs using a VLS method, with stacking faults induced during growth. Structural characterization of each SiNW is done with Raman spectroscopy to quantify hexagonality. Individual nanowires are located and contacted using different metals to understand the Schottky barrier of the contacts at the SiNWs. We suspend 2 μm-long SiNW devices using a wet oxide etch to uncouple the SiNW from the substrate. We study the electrical properties by I-V measurements across the FET device while modulating the applied back gate voltage. Our initial data show that the presence of stacking faults causes an increase in resistivity by two orders of magnitude, thus greatly hindering charge transport through the SiNW.

  1. Spin transport and Hanle effect in silicon nanowires using graphene tunnel barriers.

    PubMed

    van 't Erve, O M J; Friedman, A L; Li, C H; Robinson, J T; Connell, J; Lauhon, L J; Jonker, B T

    2015-06-19

    Spin-based devices offer non-volatile, scalable, low power and reprogrammable functionality for emerging device technologies. Here we fabricate nanoscale spintronic devices with ferromagnetic metal/single-layer graphene tunnel barriers used to generate spin accumulation and spin currents in a silicon nanowire transport channel. We report the first observation of spin precession via the Hanle effect in both local three-terminal and non-local spin-valve geometries, providing a direct measure of spin lifetimes and confirmation of spin accumulation and pure spin transport. The use of graphene as the tunnel barrier provides a low-resistance area product contact and clean magnetic switching characteristics, because it smoothly bridges the nanowire and minimizes complicated magnetic domains that otherwise compromise the magnetic behaviour. Utilizing intrinsic two-dimensional layers such as graphene or hexagonal boron nitride as tunnel contacts on nanowires offers many advantages over conventional materials deposited by vapour deposition, enabling a path to highly scaled electronic and spintronic devices.

  2. Young's Modulus, Residual Stress, and Crystal Orientation of Doubly Clamped Silicon Nanowire Beams.

    PubMed

    Calahorra, Y; Shtempluck, O; Kotchetkov, V; Yaish, Y E

    2015-05-13

    Initial or residual stress plays an important role in nanoelectronics. Valley degeneracy in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is partially lifted due to built-in stresses, and consequently, electron-phonon scattering rate is reduced and device mobility and performance are improved. In this study we use a nonlinear model describing the force-deflection relationship to extract the Young's modulus, the residual stress, and the crystallographic growth orientation of SiNW beams. Measurements were performed on suspended doubly clamped SiNWs subjected to atomic force microscopy (AFM) three-point bending constraints. The nanowires comprised different growth directions and two SiO2 sheath thicknesses, and underwent different rapid thermal annealing processes. Analysis showed that rapid thermal annealing introduces compressive strains into the SiNWs and may result in buckling of the SiNWs. Furthermore, the core-shell model together with the residual stress analysis accurately describe the Young's modulus of oxide covered SiNWs and the crystal orientation of the measured nanowires. PMID:25826449

  3. Tuning the electronic band-gap of fluorinated 3C-silicon carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda Durán, Álvaro; Trejo Baños, Alejandro; Pérez, Luis Antonio; Cruz Irisson, Miguel

    The possibility of control and modulation of the electronic properties of silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNWs) by varying the wire diameter is well known. SiCNWs are particularly interesting and technologically important, due to its electrical and mechanical properties, allowing the development of materials with specific electronic features for the design of stable and robust electronic devices. Tuning the band gap by chemical surface passivation constitutes a way for the modification of the electronic band gap of these nanowires. We present, the structural and electronic properties of fluorinated SiCNWs, grown along the [111] crystallographic direction, which are investigated by first principles. We consider nanowires with six diameters, varying from 0.35 nm to 2.13 nm, and eight random covering schemes including fully hydrogen- and fluorine terminated ones. Gibbs free energy of formation and electronic properties were calculated for the different surface functionalization schemes and diameters considered. The results indicate that the stability and band gap of SiCNWs can be tuned by surface passivation with fluorine atoms This work was supported by CONACYT infrastructure project 252749 and UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT IN106714. A.M. would like to thank for financial support from CONACyT-Retención. Computing resources from proyect SC15-1-IR-27 of DGTIC-UNAM are acknowledged.

  4. Modeling and theoretical efficiency of a silicon nanowire based thermoelectric junction with area enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, M.; Sadhu, J. S.; Ma, J.; Ghossoub, M. G.; Sinha, S.

    2012-06-01

    Recent experimental work suggests that individual silicon nanowires with rough surfaces possess a thermoelectric figure of merit as high as 0.6 near room temperature. This paper addresses the possibility of using an array of such nanowires in a thermoelectric junction for generation. Employing a model of frequency dependent phonon boundary scattering, we estimate the effective thermal conductivity of the array and investigate heat flow through the junction. We show that charge transport is largely unaffected by the roughness scales considered. Enhancing the area for heat exchange at an individual 200 μm × 200 μm p-n junction yields significant temperature differences across the junction leading to power >0.6 mW and efficiency >1.5% for a junction with effective thermal conductivity <5 W/mK, when the source and sink are at 450 K and 300 K, respectively. We show that relatively short nanowires of ˜50 μm length are sufficient for obtaining peak power and reasonable efficiency. This substantially reduces the challenge of engineering low resistivity electrical contacts that critically affect power and efficiency. This paper provides insight into how fundamental transport in relation to bulk heat transfer and charge transport, affects the performance of thermoelectric junctions based on nanostructured materials.

  5. Modeling and theoretical efficiency of a silicon nanowire based thermoelectric junction with area enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, M; Sadhu, JS; Ma, J; Ghossoub, MG; Sinha, S

    2012-06-15

    Recent experimental work suggests that individual silicon nanowires with rough surfaces possess a thermoelectric figure of merit as high as 0.6 near room temperature. This paper addresses the possibility of using an array of such nanowires in a thermoelectric junction for generation. Employing a model of frequency dependent phonon boundary scattering, we estimate the effective thermal conductivity of the array and investigate heat flow through the junction. We show that charge transport is largely unaffected by the roughness scales considered. Enhancing the area for heat exchange at an individual 200 mu m x 200 mu m p-n junction yields significant temperature differences across the junction leading to power >0.6 mW and efficiency >1.5% for a junction with effective thermal conductivity <5 W/mK, when the source and sink are at 450 K and 300 K, respectively. We show that relatively short nanowires of similar to 50 mu m length are sufficient for obtaining peak power and reasonable efficiency. This substantially reduces the challenge of engineering low resistivity electrical contacts that critically affect power and efficiency. This paper provides insight into how fundamental transport in relation to bulk heat transfer and charge transport, affects the performance of thermoelectric junctions based on nanostructured materials. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4728189

  6. Thermoelectric properties of silicon carbide nanowires with nitride dopants and vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhuo; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang

    2011-12-01

    The thermoelectric properties of cubic zinc-blend silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNWs) with nitrogen impurities and vacancies along [111] direction are theoretically studied by means of atomistic simulations. It is found that the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of SiCNWs can be significantly enhanced by doping N impurities together with making Si vacancies. Aiming at obtaining a large ZT, we study possible energetically stable configurations, and disclose that, when N dopants are located at the center, a small number of Si vacancies at corners are most favored for n-type nanowires, while a large number of Si vacancies spreading into the flat edge sites are most favored for p-type nanowires. For the SiCNW with a diameter of 1.1 nm and a length of 4.6 nm, the ZT value for the n-type is shown capable of reaching 1.78 at 900 K. The conditions to get higher ZT values for longer SiCNWs are also addressed.

  7. Selective growth of vertical silicon nanowire array guided by anodic aluminum oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Nguyen, Van; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka; Konagai, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    We report on the selective growth of vertical silicon nanowire arrays guided by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template without the introduction of any metallic catalyst. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using disilane as a source gas was carried out. The growth conditions such as flow rate and growth temperature were changed to optimize the Si nanowire growth. It was found that the selective growth was promoted at a flow rate of 0.5 sccm, whereas the selective growth was poor at high flow rates of 1 and 2 sccm. One-micrometer-long Si nanowire arrays were obtained at a low flow rate of 0.5 sccm only at the growth temperature of 700 °C. The obtained Si grown at a temperature of 650 °C exhibited conglomerated structures with Si grains piled up inside the nanopores of the AAO template. We found that increasing the growth temperature and decreasing the flow rate are useful for improving the growth selectivity.

  8. Vertical Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors with Nanoscale Gate-All-Around.

    PubMed

    Guerfi, Youssouf; Larrieu, Guilhem

    2016-12-01

    Nanowires are considered building blocks for the ultimate scaling of MOS transistors, capable of pushing devices until the most extreme boundaries of miniaturization thanks to their physical and geometrical properties. In particular, nanowires' suitability for forming a gate-all-around (GAA) configuration confers to the device an optimum electrostatic control of the gate over the conduction channel and then a better immunity against the short channel effects (SCE). In this letter, a large-scale process of GAA vertical silicon nanowire (VNW) MOSFETs is presented. A top-down approach is adopted for the realization of VNWs with an optimum reproducibility followed by thin layer engineering at nanoscale. Good overall electrical performances were obtained, with excellent electrostatic behavior (a subthreshold slope (SS) of 95 mV/dec and a drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 25 mV/V) for a 15-nm gate length. Finally, a first demonstration of dual integration of n-type and p-type VNW transistors for the realization of CMOS inverter is proposed. PMID:27094824

  9. Spin transport and Hanle effect in silicon nanowires using graphene tunnel barriers.

    PubMed

    van 't Erve, O M J; Friedman, A L; Li, C H; Robinson, J T; Connell, J; Lauhon, L J; Jonker, B T

    2015-01-01

    Spin-based devices offer non-volatile, scalable, low power and reprogrammable functionality for emerging device technologies. Here we fabricate nanoscale spintronic devices with ferromagnetic metal/single-layer graphene tunnel barriers used to generate spin accumulation and spin currents in a silicon nanowire transport channel. We report the first observation of spin precession via the Hanle effect in both local three-terminal and non-local spin-valve geometries, providing a direct measure of spin lifetimes and confirmation of spin accumulation and pure spin transport. The use of graphene as the tunnel barrier provides a low-resistance area product contact and clean magnetic switching characteristics, because it smoothly bridges the nanowire and minimizes complicated magnetic domains that otherwise compromise the magnetic behaviour. Utilizing intrinsic two-dimensional layers such as graphene or hexagonal boron nitride as tunnel contacts on nanowires offers many advantages over conventional materials deposited by vapour deposition, enabling a path to highly scaled electronic and spintronic devices. PMID:26089110

  10. Young's Modulus, Residual Stress, and Crystal Orientation of Doubly Clamped Silicon Nanowire Beams.

    PubMed

    Calahorra, Y; Shtempluck, O; Kotchetkov, V; Yaish, Y E

    2015-05-13

    Initial or residual stress plays an important role in nanoelectronics. Valley degeneracy in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is partially lifted due to built-in stresses, and consequently, electron-phonon scattering rate is reduced and device mobility and performance are improved. In this study we use a nonlinear model describing the force-deflection relationship to extract the Young's modulus, the residual stress, and the crystallographic growth orientation of SiNW beams. Measurements were performed on suspended doubly clamped SiNWs subjected to atomic force microscopy (AFM) three-point bending constraints. The nanowires comprised different growth directions and two SiO2 sheath thicknesses, and underwent different rapid thermal annealing processes. Analysis showed that rapid thermal annealing introduces compressive strains into the SiNWs and may result in buckling of the SiNWs. Furthermore, the core-shell model together with the residual stress analysis accurately describe the Young's modulus of oxide covered SiNWs and the crystal orientation of the measured nanowires.

  11. Self-bridging of vertical silicon nanowires and a universal capacitive force model for spontaneous attraction in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhelin; Wang, Deli; Xiang, Jie

    2014-11-25

    Spontaneous attractions between free-standing nanostructures have often caused adhesion or stiction that affects a wide range of nanoscale devices, particularly nano/microelectromechanical systems. Previous understandings of the attraction mechanisms have included capillary force, van der Waals/Casimir forces, and surface polar charges. However, none of these mechanisms universally applies to simple semiconductor structures such as silicon nanowire arrays that often exhibit bunching or adhesions. Here we propose a simple capacitive force model to quantitatively study the universal spontaneous attraction that often causes stiction among semiconductor or metallic nanostructures such as vertical nanowire arrays with inevitably nonuniform size variations due to fabrication. When nanostructures are uniform in size, they share the same substrate potential. The presence of slight size differences will break the symmetry in the capacitive network formed between the nanowires, substrate, and their environment, giving rise to electrostatic attraction forces due to the relative potential difference between neighboring wires. Our model is experimentally verified using arrays of vertical silicon nanowire pairs with varied spacing, diameter, and size differences. Threshold nanowire spacing, diameter, or size difference between the nearest neighbors has been identified beyond which the nanowires start to exhibit spontaneous attraction that leads to bridging when electrostatic forces overcome elastic restoration forces. This work illustrates a universal understanding of spontaneous attraction that will impact the design, fabrication, and reliable operation of nanoscale devices and systems.

  12. Disorder-free localization around the conduction band edge of crossing and kinked silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Keleş, Ümit; Çakan, Aslı; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2015-02-14

    We explore ballistic regime quantum transport characteristics of oxide-embedded crossing and kinked silicon nanowires (NWs) within a large-scale empirical pseudopotential electronic structure framework, coupled to the Kubo-Greenwood transport analysis. A real-space wave function study is undertaken and the outcomes are interpreted together with the findings of ballistic transport calculations. This reveals that ballistic transport edge lies tens to hundreds of millielectron volts above the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, with a substantial number of localized states appearing in between, as well as above the former. We show that these localized states are not due to the oxide interface, but rather core silicon-derived. They manifest the wave nature of electrons brought to foreground by the reflections originating from NW junctions and bends. Hence, we show that the crossings and kinks of even ultraclean Si NWs possess a conduction band tail without a recourse to atomistic disorder.

  13. Wafer-scale synthesis of single-crystal zigzag silicon nanowire arrays with controlled turning angles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2010-03-10

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) having curved structures may have unique advantages in device fabrication. However, no methods are available to prepare curved SiNWs controllably. In this work, we report the preparation of three types of single-crystal SiNWs with various turning angles via metal-assisted chemical etching using (111)-oriented silicon wafers near room temperature. The zigzag SiNWs are single crystals and can be p- or n-doped using corresponding Si wafer as substrate. The controlled growth direction is attributed to the preferred movement of Ag nanoparticles along 001 and other directions in Si wafer. Our results demonstrate that metal-assisted chemical etching may be a viable approach to fabricate SiNWs with desired turning angles by utilizing the various crystalline directions in a Si wafer.

  14. Mapping active dopants in single silicon nanowires using off-axis electron holography.

    PubMed

    den Hertog, Martien I; Schmid, Heinz; Cooper, David; Rouviere, Jean-Luc; Björk, Mikael T; Riel, Heike; Rivallin, Pierrette; Karg, Siegfried; Riess, Walter

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate that state-of-the-art off-axis electron holography can be used to map active dopants in silicon nanowires as thin as 60 nm with 10 nm spatial resolution. Experiment and simulation demonstrate that doping concentrations of 10(19) and 10(20) cm(-3) can be measured with a detection threshold of 10(18) cm(-3) with respect to intrinsic silicon. Comparison of experimental data and simulations allows an estimation of the charge density at the wire-oxide interface of -1 x 10(12) electron charges cm(-2). Off-axis electron holography thus offers unique capabilities for a detailed analysis of active dopant concentrations in nanostructures.

  15. Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Fan, Xing; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films prepared by metal catalytic etching of silicon wafers and pyrolyzing of carbon aerogel were used for lithium-ion battery anodes. The films exhibited an excellent first discharge capacity of 3344 mAh g-1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 84% at a rate of 150 mA g-1 between 2 and 0.02 V and a significantly enhanced cycling performance, i.e., a reversible capacity of 1326 mAh g-1 was retained after 40 cycles. These improvements were attributed to the uniform and continuous carbon coatings, which increased electronic contact and conduction and buffered large volume changes during lithium ion insertion/extraction.

  16. Thermally activated tunneling in porous silicon nanowires with embedded Si quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani, S. J.; Pinto, N.; Enrico, E.; D'Ortenzi, L.; Chiodoni, A.; Boarino, L.

    2016-03-01

    Electronic transport properties of porous Si nanowires either with embedded Si quantum dots or with a percolative crystalline path are studied as a function of the temperature for the first time. We show that unlike bulk porous Si, the predesigned structure of the wires results in a single distinct conduction mechanism such as tunneling in the former case and variable range hopping in the latter case. We demonstrate that the geometry of the systems with a large internal surface area and high density of the Si quantum dots have a significant conduction enhancement compared to bulk porous silicon. These results can also improve the understanding of the basis of the different electronic transport mechanisms reported in bulk porous silicon.

  17. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide on silicon nanowire arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Meng, Huan; Fan, Ke; Low, Jingxiang; Yu, Jiaguo

    2016-09-21

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by sunlight is a promising approach to solve energy and environmental problems. In this work, silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) photocathodes decorated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for PEC water splitting were successfully prepared by a flexible and scalable electrochemical reduction method. The SiNWs photocathode with the optimized rGO decoration (SiNWs/rGO20) shows an enhanced activity with a much higher photocurrent density and significantly positive shift of onset potential compared to the bare SiNWs arrays for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The enhanced PEC activity is ascribed to the high electrical conductivity of rGO and improved separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. This work not only demonstrates a facile, rapid and tunable electrochemical reduction method to produce rGO, but also exhibits an efficient protocol to enhance the PEC water splitting of silicon-based materials. PMID:27461187

  18. A junctionless SONOS nonvolatile memory device constructed with in situ-doped polycrystalline silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a silicon-oxide-nitride-silicon nonvolatile memory constructed on an n+-poly-Si nanowire [NW] structure featuring a junctionless [JL] configuration is presented. The JL structure is fulfilled by employing only one in situ heavily phosphorous-doped poly-Si layer to simultaneously serve as source/drain regions and NW channels, thus greatly simplifying the manufacturing process and alleviating the requirement of precise control of the doping profile. Owing to the higher carrier concentration in the channel, the developed JL NW device exhibits significantly enhanced programming speed and larger memory window than its counterpart with conventional undoped-NW-channel. Moreover, it also displays acceptable erase and data retention properties. Hence, the desirable memory characteristics along with the much simplified fabrication process make the JL NW memory structure a promising candidate for future system-on-panel and three-dimensional ultrahigh density memory applications. PMID:22373446

  19. Electrical properties of high density arrays of silicon nanowire field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Kangho; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2013-10-01

    Proximity effect corrected e-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane on silicon on insulator was used to fabricate multi-channel silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW FETs). Arrays of 15-channels with a line width of 18 nm and pitch as small as 50 nm, the smallest reported for electrically functional devices, were fabricated. These high density arrays were back-gated by the substrate and allowed for investigation of the effects of scaling on the electrical performance of this multi-channel SiNW FET. It was revealed that the drain current and the transconductance (gm) are both reduced with decreasing pitch size. The drain induced barrier lowering and the threshold voltage (Vth) are also decreased, whereas the subthreshold swing (S) is increased. The results are in agreement with our simulations of the electric potential profile of the devices. The study contains valuable information on SiNW FET integration and scaling for future devices.

  20. Effect of etching time on morphological, optical, and electronic properties of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Nafie, Nesma; Lachiheb, Manel Abouda; Bouaicha, Mongi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their interesting electronic, mechanical, optical, and transport properties, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted much attention, giving opportunities to several potential applications in nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic devices, and silicon solar cells. For photovoltaic application, a superficial film of SiNWs could be used as an efficient antireflection coating. In this work we investigate the morphological, optical, and electronic properties of SiNWs fabricated at different etching times. Characterizations of the formed SiNWs films were performed using a scanning electron microscope, ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy, and light-beam-induced-current technique. The latter technique was used to determine the effective diffusion length in SiNWs films. From these investigations, we deduce that the homogeneity of the SiNWs film plays a key role on the electronic properties.

  1. Effect of etching time on morphological, optical, and electronic properties of silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their interesting electronic, mechanical, optical, and transport properties, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted much attention, giving opportunities to several potential applications in nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic devices, and silicon solar cells. For photovoltaic application, a superficial film of SiNWs could be used as an efficient antireflection coating. In this work we investigate the morphological, optical, and electronic properties of SiNWs fabricated at different etching times. Characterizations of the formed SiNWs films were performed using a scanning electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible-near-infrared spectroscopy, and light-beam-induced-current technique. The latter technique was used to determine the effective diffusion length in SiNWs films. From these investigations, we deduce that the homogeneity of the SiNWs film plays a key role on the electronic properties. PMID:22799265

  2. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide on silicon nanowire arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Meng, Huan; Fan, Ke; Low, Jingxiang; Yu, Jiaguo

    2016-09-21

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by sunlight is a promising approach to solve energy and environmental problems. In this work, silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) photocathodes decorated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for PEC water splitting were successfully prepared by a flexible and scalable electrochemical reduction method. The SiNWs photocathode with the optimized rGO decoration (SiNWs/rGO20) shows an enhanced activity with a much higher photocurrent density and significantly positive shift of onset potential compared to the bare SiNWs arrays for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The enhanced PEC activity is ascribed to the high electrical conductivity of rGO and improved separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. This work not only demonstrates a facile, rapid and tunable electrochemical reduction method to produce rGO, but also exhibits an efficient protocol to enhance the PEC water splitting of silicon-based materials.

  3. Few-electron edge-state quantum dots in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Benoit; Nguyen, Viet-Hung; Renard, Julien; Jehl, Xavier; Barraud, Sylvain; Triozon, François; Vinet, Maud; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel; de Franceschi, Silvano; Sanquer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the gate-induced onset of few-electron regime through the undoped channel of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. By combining low-temperature transport measurements and self-consistent calculations, we reveal the formation of one-dimensional conduction modes localized at the two upper edges of the channel. Charge traps in the gate dielectric cause electron localization along these edge modes, creating elongated quantum dots with characteristic lengths of ∼10 nm. We observe single-electron tunneling across two such dots in parallel, specifically one in each channel edge. We identify the filling of these quantum dots with the first few electrons, measuring addition energies of a few tens of millielectron volts and level spacings of the order of 1 meV, which we ascribe to the valley orbit splitting. The total removal of valley degeneracy leaves only a 2-fold spin degeneracy, making edge quantum dots potentially promising candidates for silicon spin qubits.

  4. High Efficiency Organic/Silicon-Nanowire Hybrid Solar Cells: Significance of Strong Inversion Layer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuegong; Shen, Xinlei; Mu, Xinhui; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Baoquan; Zeng, Lingsheng; Yang, Lifei; Wu, Yichao; He, Hang; Yang, Deren

    2015-01-01

    Organic/silicon nanowires (SiNWs) hybrid solar cells have recently been recognized as one of potentially low-cost candidates for photovoltaic application. Here, we have controllably prepared a series of uniform silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with various diameters on silicon substrate by metal-assisted chemical etching followed by thermal oxidization, and then fabricated the organic/SiNWs hybrid solar cells with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). It is found that the reflective index of SiNWs layer for sunlight depends on the filling ratio of SiNWs. Compared to the SiNWs with the lowest reflectivity (LR-SiNWs), the solar cell based on the SiNWs with low filling ratio (LF-SiNWs) has a higher open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The capacitance-voltage measurements have clarified that the built-in potential barrier at the LF-SiNWs/PEDOT:PSS interface is much larger than that at the LR-SiNWs/PEDOT one, which yields a strong inversion layer generating near the silicon surface. The formation of inversion layer can effectively suppress the carrier recombination, reducing the leakage current of solar cell, and meanwhile transfer the LF-SiNWs/PEDOT:PSS device into a p-n junction. As a result, a highest efficiency of 13.11% is achieved for the LF-SiNWs/PEDOT:PSS solar cell. These results pave a way to the fabrication of high efficiency organic/SiNWs hybrid solar cells. PMID:26610848

  5. Polycrystalline nanowires of gadolinium-doped ceria via random alignment mediated by supercritical carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Woo; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a seed/template-free method that affords high-purity semiconducting nanowires from nanoclusters, which act as basic building blocks for nanomaterials, under supercritical CO2 fluid. Polycrystalline nanowires of Gd-doped ceria (Gd-CeO2) were formed by CO2-mediated non-oriented attachment of the nanoclusters resulting from the dissociation of single-crystalline aggregates. The unique formation mechanism underlying this morphological transition may be exploited for the facile growth of high-purity polycrystalline nanowires. PMID:23572061

  6. Specific features of formation of GaAs nanowire crystals during molecular beam epitaxy on different silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Samsonenko, Yu. B. Cirlin, G. E.; Egorov, V. A.; Polyakov, N. K.; Ulin, V. P.; Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2008-12-15

    The results of experimental studies on the growth and the morphological and structural properties of GaAs nanowire crystals on different silicon surfaces are reported. It is shown that the nonplanar geometrical layout of growth allows the production of epitaxial nanowire crystals in a system with a large lattice mismatch. The growth on porous substrates, the role of the surface orientation, high-temperature annealing, and presence of an oxide layer at the surface, and some other effects typical of growth of III-V nanowire crystals on the Si surface are studied and analyzed. Intense emission from the array of GaAs nanowire crystals grown on the Si (111) surface is observed.

  7. Laser-induced Greenish-Blue Photoluminescence of Mesoporous Silicon Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yan-Ru; Zheng, Minrui; Bai, Fan; Liu, Junjun; Tok, Eng-Soon; Huang, Zhifeng; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2014-05-01

    Solid silicon nanowires and their luminescent properties have been widely studied, but lesser is known about the optical properties of mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). In this work, we present a facile method to generate greenish-blue photoluminescence (GB-PL) by fast scanning a focused green laser beam (wavelength of 532 nm) on a close-packed array of mp-SiNWs to carry out photo-induced chemical modification. The threshold of laser power is 5 mW to excite the GB-PL, whose intensity increases with laser power in the range of 5-105 mW. The quenching of GB-PL comes to occur beyond 105 mW. The in-vacuum annealing effectively excites the GB-PL in the pristine mp-SiNWs and enhances the GB-PL of the laser-modified mp-SiNWs. A complex model of the laser-induced surface modification is proposed to account for the laser-power and post-annealing effect. Moreover, the fast scanning of focused laser beam enables us to locally tailor mp-SiNWs en route to a wide variety of micropatterns with different optical functionality, and we demonstrate the feasibility in the application of creating hidden images.

  8. Preparation of Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Transistor for Chemical and Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jennifer Yun-Shin; Lin, Chih-Heng; Feng, Mei-Huei; Chen, Chien-Hung; Su, Ping-Chia; Yang, Po-Wen; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chang-Wei; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance using biomarkers is critical for the early detection, rapid intervention, and reduction in the incidence of diseases. In this study, we describe the preparation of polycrystalline silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (pSNWFETs) that serve as biosensing devices for biomarker detection. A protocol for chemical and biomolecular sensing by using pSNWFETs is presented. The pSNWFET device was demonstrated to be a promising transducer for real-time, label-free, and ultra-high-sensitivity biosensing applications. The source/drain channel conductivity of a pSNWFET is sensitive to changes in the environment around its silicon nanowire (SNW) surface. Thus, by immobilizing probes on the SNW surface, the pSNWFET can be used to detect various biotargets ranging from small molecules (dopamine) to macromolecules (DNA and proteins). Immobilizing a bioprobe on the SNW surface, which is a multistep procedure, is vital for determining the specificity of the biosensor. It is essential that every step of the immobilization procedure is correctly performed. We verified surface modifications by directly observing the shift in the electric properties of the pSNWFET following each modification step. Additionally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to examine the surface composition following each modification. Finally, we demonstrated DNA sensing on the pSNWFET. This protocol provides step-by-step procedures for verifying bioprobe immobilization and subsequent DNA biosensing application. PMID:27167162

  9. Dispersively Detected Pauli Spin-Blockade in a Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Betz, A C; Wacquez, R; Vinet, M; Jehl, X; Saraiva, A L; Sanquer, M; Ferguson, A J; Gonzalez-Zalba, M F

    2015-07-01

    We report the dispersive readout of the spin state of a double quantum dot formed at the corner states of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Two face-to-face top-gate electrodes allow us to independently tune the charge occupation of the quantum dot system down to the few-electron limit. We measure the charge stability of the double quantum dot in DC transport as well as dispersively via in situ gate-based radio frequency reflectometry, where one top-gate electrode is connected to a resonator. The latter removes the need for external charge sensors in quantum computing architectures and provides a compact way to readout the dispersive shift caused by changes in the quantum capacitance during inter-dot charge transitions. Here, we observe Pauli spin-blockade in the high-frequency response of the circuit at finite magnetic fields between singlet and triplet states. The blockade is lifted at higher magnetic fields when intra-dot triplet states become the ground state configuration. A line shape analysis of the dispersive phase shift reveals furthermore an intra-dot valley-orbit splitting Δvo of 145 μeV. Our results open up the possibility to operate compact complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a singlet-triplet qubit and make split-gate silicon nanowire architectures an ideal candidate for the study of spin dynamics. PMID:26047255

  10. Reducing the porosity and reflection loss of silicon nanowires by a sticky tape.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjun; Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-05-01

    Engineering the porosity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is of fundamental importance, and this work introduces a new method for doing so. Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of heavily doped Si(100) creates mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). mp-SiNWs are transferred from the MACE-treated wafer to a sticky tape, leaving residues composed of broken mp-SiNWs and a mesoporous Si layer on the wafer. Then the taped wafer is re-treated by MACE, without changing the etching conditions. The second MACE treatment generates mp-SiNWs that are less porous and longer than those generated by the first MACE treatment, which can be attributed to the difference in the surface topography at the beginning of the etching process. Less porous mp-SiNWs reduce optical scattering from the porous Si skeletons, and vertically protrude on the wafer without aggregation to facilitate optical trapping. Consequently, less porous mp-SiNWs effectively reduce ultraviolet-visible reflection loss.

  11. Laser-induced greenish-blue photoluminescence of mesoporous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yan-Ru; Zheng, Minrui; Bai, Fan; Liu, Junjun; Tok, Eng-Soon; Huang, Zhifeng; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2014-05-13

    Solid silicon nanowires and their luminescent properties have been widely studied, but lesser is known about the optical properties of mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). In this work, we present a facile method to generate greenish-blue photoluminescence (GB-PL) by fast scanning a focused green laser beam (wavelength of 532 nm) on a close-packed array of mp-SiNWs to carry out photo-induced chemical modification. The threshold of laser power is 5 mW to excite the GB-PL, whose intensity increases with laser power in the range of 5-105 mW. The quenching of GB-PL comes to occur beyond 105 mW. The in-vacuum annealing effectively excites the GB-PL in the pristine mp-SiNWs and enhances the GB-PL of the laser-modified mp-SiNWs. A complex model of the laser-induced surface modification is proposed to account for the laser-power and post-annealing effect. Moreover, the fast scanning of focused laser beam enables us to locally tailor mp-SiNWs en route to a wide variety of micropatterns with different optical functionality, and we demonstrate the feasibility in the application of creating hidden images.

  12. Optical Properties of Silicon Nanowires Fabricated by Environment-Friendly Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchar, Kirill A.; Zubairova, Alsu A.; Schleusener, Alexander; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Sivakov, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) where hydrofluoric acid (HF), which is typically used in this method, was changed into ammonium fluoride (NH4F). The structure and optical properties of the obtained SiNWs were investigated in details. The length of the SiNW arrays is about 2 μm for 5 min of etching, and the mean diameter of the SiNWs is between 50 and 200 nm. The formed SiNWs demonstrate a strong decrease of the total reflectance near 5-15 % in the spectral region λ < 1 μm in comparison to crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrate. The interband photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering intensities increase strongly for SiNWs in comparison with the corresponding values of the c-Si substrate. These effects can be interpreted as an increase of the excitation intensity of SiNWs due to the strong light scattering and the partial light localization in an inhomogeneous optical medium. Along with the interband PL was also detected the PL of SiNWs in the spectral region of 500-1100 nm with a maximum at 750 nm, which can be explained by the radiative recombination of excitons in small Si nanocrystals at nanowire sidewalls in terms of a quantum confinement model. So SiNWs, which are fabricated by environment-friendly chemistry, have a great potential for use in photovoltaic and photonics applications.

  13. Probing protein complexes inside living cells using a silicon nanowire-based pull-down assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sojoong; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, So Yeon; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2016-06-01

    Most proteins perform their functions as interacting complexes. Here we propose a novel method for capturing an intracellular protein and its interacting partner out of living cells by utilizing intracellular access of antibody modified vertical silicon nanowire arrays whose surface is covered with a polyethylene glycol layer to prevent strong cell adhesion. Such a feature facilitates the removal of cells by simple washing, enabling subsequent detection of a pulled-down protein and its interacting partner, and further assessment of a drug-induced change in the interacting complex. Our new SiNW-based tool is thus suitable for authentication of protein networks inside living cells.Most proteins perform their functions as interacting complexes. Here we propose a novel method for capturing an intracellular protein and its interacting partner out of living cells by utilizing intracellular access of antibody modified vertical silicon nanowire arrays whose surface is covered with a polyethylene glycol layer to prevent strong cell adhesion. Such a feature facilitates the removal of cells by simple washing, enabling subsequent detection of a pulled-down protein and its interacting partner, and further assessment of a drug-induced change in the interacting complex. Our new SiNW-based tool is thus suitable for authentication of protein networks inside living cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials, experimental methods and Fig. S1-S8. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00171h

  14. High frequency top-down junction-less silicon nanowire resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumela, Alexandra; Hentz, Sébastien; Mercier, Denis; Dupré, Cécilia; Ollier, Eric; X-L Feng, Philip; Purcell, Stephen T.; Duraffourg, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    We report here the first realization of top-down silicon nanowires (SiNW) transduced by both junction-less field-effect transistor (FET) and the piezoresistive (PZR) effect. The suspended SiNWs are among the smallest top-down SiNWs reported to date, featuring widths down to ˜20 nm. This has been achieved thanks to a 200 mm-wafer-scale, VLSI process fully amenable to monolithic CMOS co-integration. Thanks to the very small dimensions, the conductance of the silicon nanowire can be controlled by a nearby electrostatic gate. Both the junction-less FET and the previously demonstrated PZR transduction have been performed with the same SiNW. These self-transducing schemes have shown similar signal-to-background ratios, and the PZR transduction has exhibited a relatively higher output signal. Allan deviation (σA) of the same SiNW has been measured with both schemes, and we obtain σA ˜ 20 ppm for the FET detection and σA ˜ 3 ppm for the PZR detection at room temperature and low pressure. Orders of magnitude improvements are expected from tighter electrostatic control via changes in geometry and doping level, as well as from CMOS integration. The compact, simple topology of these elementary SiNW resonators opens up new paths towards ultra-dense arrays for gas and mass sensing, time keeping or logic switching systems on the SiNW-CMOS platform.

  15. Reducing the porosity and reflection loss of silicon nanowires by a sticky tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjun; Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-05-01

    Engineering the porosity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is of fundamental importance, and this work introduces a new method for doing so. Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of heavily doped Si(100) creates mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). mp-SiNWs are transferred from the MACE-treated wafer to a sticky tape, leaving residues composed of broken mp-SiNWs and a mesoporous Si layer on the wafer. Then the taped wafer is re-treated by MACE, without changing the etching conditions. The second MACE treatment generates mp-SiNWs that are less porous and longer than those generated by the first MACE treatment, which can be attributed to the difference in the surface topography at the beginning of the etching process. Less porous mp-SiNWs reduce optical scattering from the porous Si skeletons, and vertically protrude on the wafer without aggregation to facilitate optical trapping. Consequently, less porous mp-SiNWs effectively reduce ultraviolet-visible reflection loss.

  16. Dispersively Detected Pauli Spin-Blockade in a Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Betz, A C; Wacquez, R; Vinet, M; Jehl, X; Saraiva, A L; Sanquer, M; Ferguson, A J; Gonzalez-Zalba, M F

    2015-07-01

    We report the dispersive readout of the spin state of a double quantum dot formed at the corner states of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Two face-to-face top-gate electrodes allow us to independently tune the charge occupation of the quantum dot system down to the few-electron limit. We measure the charge stability of the double quantum dot in DC transport as well as dispersively via in situ gate-based radio frequency reflectometry, where one top-gate electrode is connected to a resonator. The latter removes the need for external charge sensors in quantum computing architectures and provides a compact way to readout the dispersive shift caused by changes in the quantum capacitance during inter-dot charge transitions. Here, we observe Pauli spin-blockade in the high-frequency response of the circuit at finite magnetic fields between singlet and triplet states. The blockade is lifted at higher magnetic fields when intra-dot triplet states become the ground state configuration. A line shape analysis of the dispersive phase shift reveals furthermore an intra-dot valley-orbit splitting Δvo of 145 μeV. Our results open up the possibility to operate compact complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a singlet-triplet qubit and make split-gate silicon nanowire architectures an ideal candidate for the study of spin dynamics.

  17. Dispersively Detected Pauli Spin-Blockade in a Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Andreas; Wacquez, R.; Vinet, M.; Jehl, X.; Saraiva, A. L.; Sanquer, M.; Ferguson, A. J.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.

    We report the dispersive readout of the spin state of a double quantum dot (DQD) formed at the corner states of a silicon nanowire FET. Two face-to-face topgate electrodes allow us to independently tune the charge occupation of the quantum dot system down to the few-electron limit. We measure the charge stability of the DQD in DC transport as well as dispersively via in situ gate-based radio frequency (rf) reflectometry, where one top-gate electrode is connected to a resonator. The latter removes the need for external charge sensors in quantum computing architectures and provides a compact way to readout the dispersive shift caused by changes in the quantum capacitance during inter-dot charge transitions. Here, we observe Pauli spin-blockade in the rf response of the circuit at finite magnetic fields between singlet and triplet states. The blockade is lifted at higher magnetic fields when intra-dot triplet states become the ground state configuration. A line shape analysis of the dispersive signal reveals furthermore an intra-dot valley-orbit splitting Δvo ~= 145 μ eV. Our results open up the possibility to operate compact CMOS technology as a singlet-triplet qubit and make split-gate silicon nanowire architectures an ideal candidate for the study of spin dynamics.

  18. Controlled Synthesis of Millimeter-Long Silicon Nanowires with Uniform Electronic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Park, Won Il; Zheng, Gengfeng; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Tian, Bozhi; Lieber, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the nanocluster-catalyzed growth of ultra-long and highly-uniform single-crystalline silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with millimeter-scale lengths and aspect ratios up to ca. 100,000. The average SiNW growth rate using disilane (Si2H6) at 400 °C was 31 µm/min, while the growth rate determined for silane (SiH4) reactant under similar growth conditions was 130 times lower. Transmission electron microscopy studies of millimeter-long SiNWs with diameters of 20–80 nm show that the nanowires grow preferentially along the <110> direction independent of diameter. In addition, ultra-long SiNWs were used as building blocks to fabricate one-dimensional arrays of field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of ca. 100 independent devices per nanowire. Significantly, electrical transport measurements demonstrated that the millimeter-long SiNWs had uniform electrical properties along the entire length of wires, and each device can behave as a reliable FET with an on-state current, threshold voltage, and transconductance values (average ± 1 standard deviation) of 1.8 ± 0.3 µA, 6.0 ± 1.1 V, 210 ± 60 nS, respectively. Electronically-uniform millimeter-long SiNWs were also functionalized with monoclonal antibody receptors, and used to demonstrate multiplexed detection of cancer marker proteins with a single nanowire. The synthesis of structurally- and electronically-uniform ultra-long SiNWs may open up new opportunities for integrated nanoelectronics, and could serve as unique building blocks linking integrated structures from the nanometer through millimeter length scales. PMID:18710294

  19. Effective light absorption and its enhancement factor for silicon nanowire-based solar cell.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Meicheng; Mwenya, Trevor; Fu, Pengfei; Li, Yingfeng; Song, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Although nanowire (NW) antireflection coating can enhance light trapping capability, which is generally used in crystal silicon (CS) based solar cells, whether it can improve light absorption in the CS body depends on the NW geometrical shape and their geometrical parameters. In order to conveniently compare with the bare silicon, two enhancement factors E(T) and E(A) are defined and introduced to quantitatively evaluate the efficient light trapping capability of NW antireflective layer and the effective light absorption capability of CS body. Five different shapes (cylindrical, truncated conical, convex conical, conical, and concave conical) of silicon NW arrays arranged in a square are studied, and the theoretical results indicate that excellent light trapping does not mean more light can be absorbed in the CS body. The convex conical NW has the best light trapping, but the concave conical NW has the best effective light absorption. Furthermore, if the cross section of silicon NW is changed into a square, both light trapping and effective light absorption are enhanced, and the Eiffel Tower shaped NW arrays have optimal effective light absorption.

  20. Recent progress on the self-aligned, selective-emitter silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.; Roy, M.

    1997-10-01

    We developed a self-aligned emitter etchback technique that requires only a single emitter diffusion and no alignments to form self-aligned, patterned-emitter profiles. Standard commercial, screen-printed gridlines mask a plasma-etchback of the emitter. A subsequent PECVD-nitride deposition provides good surface and bulk passivation and an antireflection coating. We succeeded in finding a set of parameters which resulted in good emitter uniformity and improved cell performance. We used full-size multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells processed in a commercial production line and performed a statistically designed, multiparameter experiment to optimize the use of a hydrogenation treatment to increase performance. Our initial results found a statistically significant improvement of half an absolute percentage point in cell efficiency when the self-aligned emitter etchback was combined with a 3-step PECVD-nitride surface passivation and hydrogenation treatment. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Method for making alignment-enhancing feed-through conductors for stackable silicon-on-sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Alignment-enhancing electrically conductive feed-through paths are provided for the high-speed low-loss transfer of electrical signals between integrated circuits of a plurality of silicon-on-sapphire bodies arrayed in a stack. The alignment-enhancing feed-throughs are made by a process of this invention involving the drilling of holes through the body, double-sided sputtering, electroplating, and the filling of the holes with solder by capillary action. The alignment-enhancing feed-throughs are activated by forming a stack of wafers and remelting the solder whereupon the wafers, and the feed-through paths, are pulled into alignment by surface tension forces.

  2. Highly robust silicon nanowire/graphene core-shell electrodes without polymeric binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Eon; Kim, Han-Jung; Kim, Hwanjin; Park, Jong Hyeok; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2013-09-01

    A large theoretical charge storage capacity along with a low discharge working potential renders silicon a promising anode material for high energy density lithium ion batteries. However, up to 400% volume expansion during charge-discharge cycling coupled with a low intrinsic electronic conductivity causes pulverization and fracture, thus inhibiting silicon's widespread use in practical applications. We report herein on a low cost approach to fabricate hybrid silicon nanowire (SiNW)/graphene nanostructures that exhibit enhanced cycle performance with the capability of retaining more than 90% of their initial capacity after 50 cycles. We also demonstrate the use of hot-pressing in the absence of any common polymer binder such as PVDF to bind the hybrid structure to the current collector. The applied heat and pressure ensure strong adhesion between the SiNW/graphene nano-composite and current collector. This facile yet strong binding method is expected to find use in the further development of polymer-binder free anodes for lithium ion batteries.A large theoretical charge storage capacity along with a low discharge working potential renders silicon a promising anode material for high energy density lithium ion batteries. However, up to 400% volume expansion during charge-discharge cycling coupled with a low intrinsic electronic conductivity causes pulverization and fracture, thus inhibiting silicon's widespread use in practical applications. We report herein on a low cost approach to fabricate hybrid silicon nanowire (SiNW)/graphene nanostructures that exhibit enhanced cycle performance with the capability of retaining more than 90% of their initial capacity after 50 cycles. We also demonstrate the use of hot-pressing in the absence of any common polymer binder such as PVDF to bind the hybrid structure to the current collector. The applied heat and pressure ensure strong adhesion between the SiNW/graphene nano-composite and current collector. This facile yet strong

  3. Broadband High Efficiency Fractal-Like and Diverse Geometry Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Zoubi, Omar H.

    Solar energy has many advantages over conventional sources of energy. It is abundant, clean and sustainable. One way to convert solar energy directly into electrical energy is by using the photovoltaic solar cells (PVSC). Despite PVSC are becoming economically competitive, they still have high cost and low light to electricity conversion efficiency. Therefore, increasing the efficiency and reducing the cost are key elements for producing economically more competitive PVSC that would have significant impact on energy market and saving environment. A significant percentage of the PVSC cost is due to the materials cost. For that, thin films PVSC have been proposed which offer the benefits of the low amount of material and fabrication costs. Regrettably, thin film PVSC show poor light to electricity conversion efficiency because of many factors especially the high optical losses. To enhance conversion efficiency, numerous techniques have been proposed to reduce the optical losses and to enhance the absorption of light in thin film PVSC. One promising technique is the nanowire (NW) arrays in general and the silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays in particular. The purpose of this research is to introduce vertically aligned SiNW arrays with enhanced and broadband absorption covering the entire solar spectrum while simultaneously reducing the amount of material used. To this end, we apply new concept for designing SiNW arrays based on employing diversity of physical dimensions, especially radial diversity within certain lattice configurations. In order to study the interaction of light with SiNW arrays and compute their optical properties, electromagnetic numerical modeling is used. A commercial numerical electromagnetic solver software package, high frequency structure simulation (HFSS), is utilized to model the SiNW arrays and to study their optical properties. We studied different geometries factors that affect the optical properties of SiNW arrays. Based on this study, we

  4. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed. PMID:24059343

  5. Fabrication and photocatalytic properties of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching: effect of H2O2 concentration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, monocrystalline silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) were prepared through a metal-assisted chemical etching method of silicon wafers in an etching solution composed of HF and H2O2. Photoelectric properties of the monocrystalline SiNWs are improved greatly with the formation of the nanostructure on the silicon wafers. By controlling the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the etching solution, SiNWs with different morphologies and surface characteristics are obtained. A reasonable mechanism of the etching process was proposed. Photocatalytic experiment shows that SiNWs prepared by 20% H2O2 etching solution exhibit the best activity in the decomposition of the target organic pollutant, Rhodamine B (RhB), under Xe arc lamp irradiation for its appropriate Si nanowire density with the effect of Si content and contact area of photocatalyst and RhB optimized. PMID:23217211

  6. In Situ TEM Observations of Sn-Containing Silicon Nanowires Undergoing Reversible Pore Formation Due to Fast Lithiation/Delithiation Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaotang; Bogart, Timothy D.; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian

    2015-09-03

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out to observe directly in real time the lithiation and delithiation of silicon (Si) nanowires with significant amounts of tin (Sn). The incorporation of Sn significantly enhances the lithiation rate compared to typical Si nanowires. For instance, surface diffusion is enhanced by two orders of magnitude and the bulk lithiation rate by one order of magnitude, resulting in a sequential surface-then-core lithiation mechanism. Pore formation was observed in the nanowires during delithiation, most likely as a result of the fast delithiation kinetics of the nanowires. Pore formation was reversible and the pores disappeared during subsequent lithiation. When an amorphous Si shell was applied to the nanowires, pore formation was not observed during the in situ TEM experimences. Ex situ TEM analysis of Sn-containing Si nanowires cycled in coin cell batteries also showed that the application of an a-Si shell significantly retards pore formation in these nanowires.

  7. Field emission of vertically aligned V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires on an ITO surface prepared with gaseous transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Mingcheng; Lee, C.-S.

    2009-08-15

    Growing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires (NWs) on a conducting glass substrate combines gaseous transport and pyrolytic deposition of vanadium polyoxometalate anions, and yields vertically aligned vanadium-oxide nanowires. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, Raman spectra and powder X-ray analyses indicate that V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires as synthesized were single-crystalline and grew anisotropically among direction [010]. NH{sub 2}OH.HCl served not only as a reducing agent to produce vanadium polyoxometalate clusters but also as a source of NH{sub 3} gas to facilitate the vapor pyrolysis and deposition. The optical properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires exhibit a character dependent on structure. Field emission (FE) measurements show a small turn-on field voltage approx8.3 V/{mu}m, maximum current density 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and a linear Fowler-Nordheim behavior. - Graphical abstract: Growing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires on a conducting glass substrate combines gaseous transport and pyrolytic deposition of vanadium polyoxometalate anions, and yields vertically aligned vanadium-oxide nanowires.

  8. Highly robust silicon nanowire/graphene core-shell electrodes without polymeric binders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Eon; Kim, Han-Jung; Kim, Hwanjin; Park, Jong Hyeok; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2013-10-01

    A large theoretical charge storage capacity along with a low discharge working potential renders silicon a promising anode material for high energy density lithium ion batteries. However, up to 400% volume expansion during charge-discharge cycling coupled with a low intrinsic electronic conductivity causes pulverization and fracture, thus inhibiting silicon's widespread use in practical applications. We report herein on a low cost approach to fabricate hybrid silicon nanowire (SiNW)/graphene nanostructures that exhibit enhanced cycle performance with the capability of retaining more than 90% of their initial capacity after 50 cycles. We also demonstrate the use of hot-pressing in the absence of any common polymer binder such as PVDF to bind the hybrid structure to the current collector. The applied heat and pressure ensure strong adhesion between the SiNW/graphene nano-composite and current collector. This facile yet strong binding method is expected to find use in the further development of polymer-binder free anodes for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Improvement of carrier diffusion length in silicon nanowire arrays using atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Yuya; Yamada, Akira; Ohta, Yoshimi; Niwa, Yusuke; Hirota, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    To achieve a high-efficiency silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cell, surface passivation technique is very important because a SiNW array has a large surface area. We successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-quality aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film for passivation on the whole surface of the SiNW arrays. The minority carrier lifetime of the Al2O3-depositedSiNW arrays with bulk silicon substrate was improved to 27 μs at the optimum annealing condition. To remove the effect of bulk silicon, the effective diffusion length of minority carriers in the SiNW array was estimated by simple equations and a device simulator. As a result, it was revealed that the effective diffusion length in the SiNW arrays increased from 3.25 to 13.5 μm by depositing Al2O3 and post-annealing at 400°C. This improvement of the diffusion length is very important for application to solar cells, and Al2O3 deposited by ALD is a promising passivation material for a structure with high aspect ratio such as SiNW arrays. PMID:23968156

  10. A Monolithically Integrated Gallium Nitride Nanowire/Silicon Solar Cell Photocathode for Selective Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Methane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yichen; Fan, Shizhao; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Wang, Yongjie; Li, Lu; Mi, Zetian

    2016-06-20

    A gallium nitride nanowire/silicon solar cell photocathode for the photoreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is demonstrated. Such a monolithically integrated nanowire/solar cell photocathode offers several unique advantages, including the absorption of a large part of the solar spectrum and highly efficient carrier extraction. With the incorporation of copper as the co-catalyst, the devices exhibit a Faradaic efficiency of about 19 % for the 8e(-) photoreduction to CH4 at -1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl, a value that is more than thirty times higher than that for the 2e(-) reduced CO (ca. 0.6 %). PMID:27128407

  11. A Monolithically Integrated Gallium Nitride Nanowire/Silicon Solar Cell Photocathode for Selective Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Methane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yichen; Fan, Shizhao; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Wang, Yongjie; Li, Lu; Mi, Zetian

    2016-06-20

    A gallium nitride nanowire/silicon solar cell photocathode for the photoreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is demonstrated. Such a monolithically integrated nanowire/solar cell photocathode offers several unique advantages, including the absorption of a large part of the solar spectrum and highly efficient carrier extraction. With the incorporation of copper as the co-catalyst, the devices exhibit a Faradaic efficiency of about 19 % for the 8e(-) photoreduction to CH4 at -1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl, a value that is more than thirty times higher than that for the 2e(-) reduced CO (ca. 0.6 %).

  12. Two-fluid wetting behavior of a hydrophobic silicon nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongkwan; Chung, Yunsie; Tian, Ye; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2014-11-11

    The two-fluid wetting behavior of surfaces textured by an array of silicon nanowires is investigated systematically. The Si nanowire array is produced by a combination of colloidal patterning and metal-catalyzed etching, with control over its roughness depending upon the wire length. The nanowires are made hydrophobic and oleophobic by treatment with hydrocarbon and fluorinated self-assembled monolayers, respectively. Static, advancing, and receding contact angles are measured with water, hexadecane, and perfluorotripentylamine in both single-fluid (droplet on solid in an air environment) and two-fluid (droplet on solid in a liquid environment) configurations. The single-fluid measurements show wetting behavior similar to that expected by the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models, where the wetting or non-wetting behaviors are amplified with increasing roughness. The two-fluid systems on the rough surface exhibit more complex configurations because either the droplet or the environment fluid can penetrate the asperities depending upon the wettability of each fluid. It is observed that, when the Young contact angles are significantly increased or reduced from single-liquid to two-liquid systems, the effect of roughness is relatively minimal. However, when the Young contact angles are similar, roughness has almost identical influence on apparent contact angles in single- and two-liquid systems. The Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models are modified to describe various two-fluid wetting states. In cases where metastable behavior is observed for the droplet, advancing and receding measurements are performed to suggest the equilibrium state of the droplet. PMID:25356959

  13. Two-fluid wetting behavior of a hydrophobic silicon nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongkwan; Chung, Yunsie; Tian, Ye; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2014-11-11

    The two-fluid wetting behavior of surfaces textured by an array of silicon nanowires is investigated systematically. The Si nanowire array is produced by a combination of colloidal patterning and metal-catalyzed etching, with control over its roughness depending upon the wire length. The nanowires are made hydrophobic and oleophobic by treatment with hydrocarbon and fluorinated self-assembled monolayers, respectively. Static, advancing, and receding contact angles are measured with water, hexadecane, and perfluorotripentylamine in both single-fluid (droplet on solid in an air environment) and two-fluid (droplet on solid in a liquid environment) configurations. The single-fluid measurements show wetting behavior similar to that expected by the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models, where the wetting or non-wetting behaviors are amplified with increasing roughness. The two-fluid systems on the rough surface exhibit more complex configurations because either the droplet or the environment fluid can penetrate the asperities depending upon the wettability of each fluid. It is observed that, when the Young contact angles are significantly increased or reduced from single-liquid to two-liquid systems, the effect of roughness is relatively minimal. However, when the Young contact angles are similar, roughness has almost identical influence on apparent contact angles in single- and two-liquid systems. The Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models are modified to describe various two-fluid wetting states. In cases where metastable behavior is observed for the droplet, advancing and receding measurements are performed to suggest the equilibrium state of the droplet.

  14. Surface-Coating Regulated Lithiation Kinetics and Degradation in Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Langli; Yang, Hui; Yan, Pengfei; Travis, Jonathan J.; Lee, Younghee; Liu, Nian; Piper, Daniela M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Zhao, Peng; George, Steven M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Zhang, Sulin; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-05-26

    Silicon (Si)-based materials hold promise as the next-generation anodes for high-energy lithium (Li)-ion batteries. Enormous research efforts have been undertaken to mitigate the chemo-mechanical failure due to the large volume changes of Si during lithiation and delithiation cycles. It has been found nanostructured Si coated with carbon or other functional materials can lead to significantly improved cyclability. However, the underlying mechanism and comparative performance of different coatings remain poorly understood. Herein, using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through a nanoscale half-cell battery, in combination with chemo-mechanical simulation, we explored the effect of thin (~5 nm) alucone and Al2O3 coatings on the lithiation kinetics of Si nanowires (SiNWs). We observed that the alucone coating leads to a “V-shaped” lithiation front of the SiNWs , while the Al2O3 coating yields an “H-shaped” lithiation front. These observations indicate that the difference between the Li surface diffusivity and bulk diffusivity of the coatings dictates lithiation induced morphological evolution in the nanowires. Our experiments also indicate that the reaction rate in the coating layer can be the limiting step for lithiation and therefore critically influences the rate performance of the battery. Further, the failure mechanism of the Al2O3 coated SiNWs was also explored. Our studies shed light on the design of high capacity, high rate and long cycle life Li-ion batteries.

  15. Exact comprehensive equations for the photon management properties of silicon nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfeng; Li, Meicheng; Li, Ruike; Fu, Pengfei; Wang, Tai; Luo, Younan; Mbengue, Joseph Michel; Trevor, Mwenya

    2016-04-01

    Unique photon management (PM) properties of silicon nanowire (SiNW) make it an attractive building block for a host of nanowire photonic devices including photodetectors, chemical and gas sensors, waveguides, optical switches, solar cells, and lasers. However, the lack of efficient equations for the quantitative estimation of the SiNW’s PM properties limits the rational design of such devices. Herein, we establish comprehensive equations to evaluate several important performance features for the PM properties of SiNW, based on theoretical simulations. Firstly, the relationships between the resonant wavelengths (RW), where SiNW can harvest light most effectively, and the size of SiNW are formulized. Then, equations for the light-harvesting efficiency at RW, which determines the single-frequency performance limit of SiNW-based photonic devices, are established. Finally, equations for the light-harvesting efficiency of SiNW in full-spectrum, which are of great significance in photovoltaics, are established. Furthermore, using these equations, we have derived four extra formulas to estimate the optimal size of SiNW in light-harvesting. These equations can reproduce majority of the reported experimental and theoretical results with only ~5% error deviations. Our study fills up a gap in quantitatively predicting the SiNW’s PM properties, which will contribute significantly to its practical applications.

  16. Exact comprehensive equations for the photon management properties of silicon nanowire.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingfeng; Li, Meicheng; Li, Ruike; Fu, Pengfei; Wang, Tai; Luo, Younan; Mbengue, Joseph Michel; Trevor, Mwenya

    2016-01-01

    Unique photon management (PM) properties of silicon nanowire (SiNW) make it an attractive building block for a host of nanowire photonic devices including photodetectors, chemical and gas sensors, waveguides, optical switches, solar cells, and lasers. However, the lack of efficient equations for the quantitative estimation of the SiNW's PM properties limits the rational design of such devices. Herein, we establish comprehensive equations to evaluate several important performance features for the PM properties of SiNW, based on theoretical simulations. Firstly, the relationships between the resonant wavelengths (RW), where SiNW can harvest light most effectively, and the size of SiNW are formulized. Then, equations for the light-harvesting efficiency at RW, which determines the single-frequency performance limit of SiNW-based photonic devices, are established. Finally, equations for the light-harvesting efficiency of SiNW in full-spectrum, which are of great significance in photovoltaics, are established. Furthermore, using these equations, we have derived four extra formulas to estimate the optimal size of SiNW in light-harvesting. These equations can reproduce majority of the reported experimental and theoretical results with only ~5% error deviations. Our study fills up a gap in quantitatively predicting the SiNW's PM properties, which will contribute significantly to its practical applications. PMID:27103087

  17. Operating principles of in-plane silicon nanowires at simple step-edges.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingkun; Xue, Zhaoguo; Yu, Linwei; Qian, Shengyi; Fan, Zheng; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2015-03-12

    Growing silicon nanowires (SiNWs) into precise locations is a key enabling technology for SiNW-based device applications. This can be achieved via in-plane growth of SiNWs along a simple step-edge, where metal catalyst droplets absorb an amorphous Si matrix to produce c-SiNWs. However, a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon is still lacking. We here establish an analytical model to address the driving force that dictates the growth dynamics under various droplet-step contact configurations, and to identify the key control parameters for effective guided growth. These new principles were verified against a series of experimental observations and proved to be powerful in designing a stable guided growth configuration. Furthermore, we propose and demonstrate a unique ability to achieve in situ capturing, guiding and release of the in-plane SiNWs along curved step-edges. We suggest that such a new understanding and results provide a fundamental basis and a practical guide for positioning and integrating self-assembled nanowires in a wide variety of material systems.

  18. Geometric and chemical components of the giant piezoresistance in silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClarty, M. M.; Jegenyes, N.; Gaudet, M.; Toccafondi, C.; Ossikovski, R.; Vaurette, F.; Arscott, S.; Rowe, A. C. H.

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of apparently contradictory piezoresistance (PZR) behaviors have been reported in p-type silicon nanowires (SiNW), from the usual positive bulk effect to anomalous (negative) PZR and giant PZR. The origin of such a range of diverse phenomena is unclear, and consequently so too is the importance of a number of parameters including SiNW type (top down or bottom up), stress concentration, electrostatic field effects, or surface chemistry. Here, we observe all these PZR behaviors in a single set of nominally p-type, <110 > oriented, top-down SiNWs at uniaxial tensile stresses up to 0.5 MPa. Longitudinal π-coefficients varying from -800 × 10-11 Pa-1 to 3000 × 10-11 Pa-1 are measured. Micro-Raman spectroscopy on chemically treated nanowires reveals that stress concentration is the principal source of giant PZR. The sign and an excess PZR similar in magnitude to the bulk effect are related to the chemical treatment of the SiNW.

  19. Lateral heat flow distribution and defect-dependent thermal resistance in an individual silicon nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Lee, Won-Yong; Thong, John T. L.; Kim, Gil-Sung; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Studies aiming to significantly improve thermal properties, such as figure-of-merit, of silicon nanowires (SiNW) have focused on diameter reduction and surface or interface roughness control. However, the mechanism underlying thermal conductivity enhancement of roughness controlled NWs remains unclear. Here, we report a significant influence of stacking faults (SFs) on the lateral thermal conductivity of a single SiNW, using a combination of newly developed in situ spatially-resolved thermal resistance experiments and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. We used as-grown SiNWs tapered along the growth direction with progressively lower roughness and SFs density. The results clearly confirmed that both surface roughness and twins or SFs densities suppress the thermal conductivity of an individual SiNW. The results and measurement techniques presented here hold great potential for inspecting minute changes in thermal resistance along an individual SiNW, caused by induced SFs on the nanostructure, and for improving one-dimensional nanowire-based thermoelectric device performance.

  20. Exact comprehensive equations for the photon management properties of silicon nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingfeng; Li, Meicheng; Li, Ruike; Fu, Pengfei; Wang, Tai; Luo, Younan; Mbengue, Joseph Michel; Trevor, Mwenya

    2016-01-01

    Unique photon management (PM) properties of silicon nanowire (SiNW) make it an attractive building block for a host of nanowire photonic devices including photodetectors, chemical and gas sensors, waveguides, optical switches, solar cells, and lasers. However, the lack of efficient equations for the quantitative estimation of the SiNW’s PM properties limits the rational design of such devices. Herein, we establish comprehensive equations to evaluate several important performance features for the PM properties of SiNW, based on theoretical simulations. Firstly, the relationships between the resonant wavelengths (RW), where SiNW can harvest light most effectively, and the size of SiNW are formulized. Then, equations for the light-harvesting efficiency at RW, which determines the single-frequency performance limit of SiNW-based photonic devices, are established. Finally, equations for the light-harvesting efficiency of SiNW in full-spectrum, which are of great significance in photovoltaics, are established. Furthermore, using these equations, we have derived four extra formulas to estimate the optimal size of SiNW in light-harvesting. These equations can reproduce majority of the reported experimental and theoretical results with only ~5% error deviations. Our study fills up a gap in quantitatively predicting the SiNW’s PM properties, which will contribute significantly to its practical applications. PMID:27103087